Science.gov

Sample records for 20-year time span

  1. Insights into the dynamics of Etna volcano from 20-year time span microgravity and GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonforte, Alessandro; Fanizza, Giovanni; Greco, Filippo; Matera, Alfredo; Sulpizio, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    A common ground deformation and microgravity array of benchmarks lies on the southern slope of Mt. Etna volcano and is routinely measured by GPS and relative gravimetry methods. The array was installed for monitoring the ground motion and underground mass changes along the southern rift of the volcano and data are usually processed and interpreted independently. The benchmarks have been installed mainly along a main road crossing the southern side of the volcano with an E-W direction and reaching 2000 m of altitude. The gravity array covers the entire path of the road, while the ground deformation one only the upper one, due to the woods at lower altitude preventing good GPS measurements. Furthermore, microgravity surveys are usually carried out more frequently with respect to the GPS ones. In this work, an integrated analysis of microgravity and ground deformation is performed over a 20-year time span (1994-2014). Gravity variations have been first corrected for the free-air effect using the GPS observed vertical deformation and the theoretical vertical gravity gradient (-308.6 μGal/m). The free-air corrected gravity changes were then reduced from the high frequency variations (noise) and the seasonal fluctuations, mainly due to water-table fluctuations. This long-term dataset constitutes a unique opportunity to examine the behavior of Etna in a period in which the volcano exhibited different styles of activity characterized by recharging phases, flank eruptions and fountaining episodes. The gravity and deformation data allow investigating the response of the volcano in a wider perspective providing insights into the definition of its dynamic behavior and posing the basis to track the unrest evolution and to forecast the style of the eruption. The joint analysis highlights common periods, in which the signals underwent contemporaneous changes occurring mainly in the central and eastern stations. On the other hand, no significant changes in the behavior of

  2. Sustained observations in the Weddell Sea spanning more than 20 years show gradual increase of the deep water heat content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strass, Volker; Rohardt, Gerd; Hoppema, Mario

    2014-05-01

    Beginning in 1989, Eberhard Fahrbach established and maintained until his premature death an observational programme in the Weddell Sea, which outstandingly contributed to alleviate the grave problem of undersampling of the Southern Ocean. Continuation of his legacy by the Alfred-Wegener-Institut has yielded a time series that now extends into 2013, hence covers almost 24 years. Here we analyse this data set for long-term changes of the heat content in the deep Weddell Sea. We exclusively evaluate the calibrated temperature records obtained with ship-lowered CTD (conductivity-temperature-depth sonde) casts at repeated hydrographic stations and along repeated sections. Using this approach we avoid introducing potential temperature offsets that can result from combination of different measurement technologies and potential biases resultant from differences in geographic positions. Our results show that the deep water masses below 700 m gradually warmed over the past two decades by 0.001 - 0.004 K a-1. Superimposed inter-annual to multi-annual variations appear as largely uncorrelated horizontally across the Weddell Gyre. The long-term (21 - 24 years) trends of increasing temperatures in different depth layers below 700 m at all stations and sections can be approximated by linear regression that explains between 27 and 91 % of the variance, where the coefficients of correlation tend to increase with depth. No significant trends are found in the top 700 m. The heating rate of the water masses below 700 m is estimated to 0.79 ± 0.14 W m-2, which is more than twice as high as determined for the global deep ocean in general. Our results hence corroborate the view that Southern Ocean processes make an above-average contribution to the deep ocean warming, and so add to bring global estimates of the deep ocean heating rate and of the net energy flux into the Earth's climate system at the top of the atmosphere of 0.5 - 1 W m-2 closer in line with each other. Thus they help

  3. Acute myocardial infarction incidence in immigrants to Sweden. Country of birth, time since immigration, and time trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Ebba; Lange, Anders; Hammar, Niklas

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates incidence of first acute myocardial infarction (MI) among foreign born persons in Sweden using case control methods, taking into consideration country of birth, gender, socio-economic group and time since immigration and evaluates if the decreasing incidence of MI in Sweden during the study period was also present in immigrants. The study base consisted of persons 30-74 years of age in Stockholm County 1977-96. All incident cases of first acute MI in the study population were identified using registers of hospital discharges and deaths. Controls were selected randomly from the study base and the sampling fractions were known, enabling estimates of person time at risk. Foreign born subjects had a higher incidence of MI than subjects born in Sweden (men RR[Relative risk]=1,17; 95% CI 1,13-1,21; women RR = 1,15; 95% CI 1,09-1,21) after adjustment for calendar year, age and socio-economic group. An increased incidence was present primarily in subjects born in Finland, other Nordic countries, Poland, Turkey, Syria and South Asia in both genders, from the Netherlands among men and from Iraq among women and was still present after more than 20 years in Sweden. The incidence rate of MI 1977-96 among foreign born persons followed the general decline in the Swedish population. We conclude that foreign born persons in Sweden have an increased incidence of first MI which persists several years after immigration and is not explained by socio-economic differences. It is likely that this to an important extent has a background in factors in the country of origin.

  4. Ice-core data evidence for a prominent near 20 year time-scale of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chylek, Petr; Folland, Chris K.; Dijkstra, Henk A.; Lesins, Glen; Dubey, Manvendra K.

    2011-07-01

    Using five ice core data sets combined into a single time series, we provide for the first time strong observational evidence for two distinct time scales of Arctic temperature fluctuation that are interpreted as variability associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO). The dominant and the only statistically significant multidecadal signal has a time scale of about 20 years. The longer multidecadal variability of 45-85 years is not well defined and none of the time scales in this band is statistically significant. We compare these observed temperature fluctuations with results of coupled climate model simulations (HadCM3 and GFDL CM2.1). Both the 20-25 year and a variable longer AMO time scale are prominent in the models' long control runs. This periodicity supports our conjecture that the observed ice core fluctuations are a signature of the AMO. The robustness of this short time scale period in both observations and model simulations has implications for understanding the dominant AMO mechanisms in climate.

  5. Trend analysis of the 20 years time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-06-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeterwave Ozone Spectrometer) performs continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland. GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a Fast-Fourier-Transform spectrometer (FFTS) has been added as backend to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over two years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from more than 20 years of stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis has been performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa, covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa.

  6. Detecting land cover change over a 20 year time period in the Niagara Escarpment Plan using satellite remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waite, Holly

    The Niagara Escarpment is one of Southern Ontario's most important landscapes. Due to the nature of the landform and its location, the Escarpment is subject to various development pressures including urban expansion, mineral resource extraction, agricultural practices and recreation. In 1985, Canada's first large scale environmentally based land use plan was put in place to ensure that only development that is compatible with the Escarpment occurred within the Niagara Escarpment Plan (NEP). The southern extent of the NEP is of particular interest in this study, since a portion of the Plan is located within the rapidly expanding Greater Toronto Area (GTA). The Plan area located in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton represent both urban and rural geographical areas respectively, and are both experiencing development pressures and subsequent changes in land cover. Monitoring initiatives on the NEP have been established, but have done little to identify consistent techniques for monitoring land cover on the Niagara Escarpment. Land cover information is an important part of planning and environmental monitoring initiatives. Remote sensing has the potential to provide frequent and accurate land cover information over various spatial scales. The goal of this research was to examine land cover change in the Regional Municipalities of Hamilton and Halton portions of the NEP. This was achieved through the creation of land cover maps for each region using Landsat 5 Thematic Mapper (TM) remotely sensed data. These maps aided in determining the qualitative and quantitative changes that had occurred in the Plan area over a 20 year time period from 1986 to 2006. Change was also examined based on the NEP's land use designations, to determine if the Plan policy has been effective in protecting the Escarpment. To obtain land cover maps, five different supervised classification methods were explored: Minimum Distance, Mahalanobis Distance, Maximum Likelihood, Object

  7. Characterizing Methane Emissions at Local Scales with a 20 Year Total Hydrocarbon Time Series, Imaging Spectrometry, and Web Facilitated Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Eliza Swan

    Methane is an important greenhouse gas for which uncertainty in local emission strengths necessitates improved source characterizations. Although CH4 plume mapping did not motivate the NASA Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) design and municipal air quality monitoring stations were not intended for studying marine geological seepage, these assets have capabilities that can make them viable for studying concentrated (high flux, highly heterogeneous) CH4 sources, such as the Coal Oil Point (COP) seep field (˜0.015 Tg CH4 yr-1) offshore Santa Barbara, California. Hourly total hydrocarbon (THC) data, spanning 1990 to 2008 from an air pollution station located near COP, were analyzed and showed geologic CH4 emissions as the dominant local source. A band ratio approach was developed and applied to high glint AVIRIS data over COP, resulting in local-scale mapping of natural atmospheric CH4 plumes. A Cluster-Tuned Matched Filter (CTMF) technique was applied to Gulf of Mexico AVIRIS data to detect CH4 venting from offshore platforms. Review of 744 platform-centered CTMF subsets was facilitated through a flexible PHP-based web portal. This dissertation demonstrates the value of investigating municipal air quality data and imaging spectrometry for gathering insight into concentrated methane source emissions and highlights how flexible web-based solutions can help facilitate remote sensing research.

  8. Yearbook 1988. IWGIA: 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Andrew

    The theme of this yearbook is the work of the International Work Group for Indigenous Affairs (IWGIA) during the 20 years of its existence and the enormous growth of the indigenous movement in that time. Section 1 traces IWGIA's history and includes the annual report for 1988. Section 2 is a global view of the main events in the indigenous world…

  9. Trend analysis of the 20-year time series of stratospheric ozone profiles observed by the GROMOS microwave radiometer at Bern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreira, L.; Hocke, K.; Eckert, E.; von Clarmann, T.; Kämpfer, N.

    2015-10-01

    The ozone radiometer GROMOS (GROund-based Millimeter-wave Ozone Spectrometer) has been performing continuous observations of stratospheric ozone profiles since 1994 above Bern, Switzerland (46.95° N, 7.44° E, 577 m). GROMOS is part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). From November 1994 to October 2011, the ozone line spectra were measured by a filter bench (FB). In July 2009, a fast Fourier transform spectrometer (FFTS) was added as a back end to GROMOS. The new FFTS and the original FB measured in parallel for over 2 years. The ozone profiles retrieved separately from the ozone line spectra of FB and FFTS agree within 5 % at pressure levels from 30 to 0.5 hPa, from October 2009 to August 2011. A careful harmonisation of both time series has been carried out by taking the FFTS as the reference instrument for the FB. This enables us to assess the long-term trend derived from stratospheric ozone observations at Bern. The trend analysis was performed by using a robust multilinear parametric trend model which includes a linear term, the solar variability, the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index, the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO), the annual and semi-annual oscillation and several harmonics with period lengths between 3 and 24 months. Over the last years, some experimental and modelling trend studies have shown that the stratospheric ozone trend is levelling off or even turning positive. With our observed ozone profiles, we are able to support this statement by reporting a statistically significant trend of +3.14 % decade-1 at 4.36 hPa (37.76 km), covering the period from January 1997 to January 2015, above Bern. Additionally, we have estimated a negative trend over this period of -3.94 % decade-1 at 0.2 hPa (59 km).

  10. The Time of Our Lives: Life Span Development of Timing and Event Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAuley, J. Devin; Jones, Mari Riess; Holub, Shayla; Johnston, Heather M.; Miller, Nathaniel S.

    2006-01-01

    Life span developmental profiles were constructed for 305 participants (ages 4-95) for a battery of paced and unpaced perceptual-motor timing tasks that included synchronize-continue tapping at a wide range of target event rates. Two life span hypotheses, derived from an entrainment theory of timing and event tracking, were tested. A preferred…

  11. Anagrelide: 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Emadi, Ashkan; Spivak, Jerry L

    2009-01-01

    Thrombocytosis is a common feature of chronic myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) and may be asymptomatic or associated with transient microvascular vaso-occlusive symptoms or large vessel arterial or venous thrombosis. Failure of either the hematocrit or the platelet count to correlate with thrombotic events is a peculiar conundrum of the MPDs. Asymptomatic thrombocytosis in young MPD patients with no cardiovascular risk factors does not require treatment. It is also undisputed that lowering the platelet count reduces the incidence of microvascular events in MPD patients. At the same time, no study to date has demonstrated that platelet count reduction prolongs survival in MPD patients. Agents such as hydroxyurea, busulfan, IFN-alpha and anagrelide, have been used to reduce an elevated platelet count and decrease thrombohemorrhagic events in at-risk patients with thrombocytosis associated with an MPD. When treatment is required, it makes sense to use drugs that are not myelotoxic or mutagenic. Based on the Primary Thrombocythaemia 1 study, hydroxyurea is the treatment of choice for thrombocytosis-associated transient ischemic attacks. However, hydroxyurea does not prevent venous thrombosis, is not more effective in preventing arterial thrombosis than anagrelide and its long-term safety is not established. Therefore, unless curative therapy is planned, one should use the least myelotoxic agent when platelet count reduction is required. In this regard, anagrelide can be considered a first-line drug. With regard to long-term safety of anagrelide, the EMEA has required close monitoring of the safety points identified in future Periodic Safety Update Reports and in a Post Authorisation Safety Study in the EU, which will focus especially on cardiovascular events and acute leukemia. In this article, we review anagrelide pharmacology, the physiology of thrombopoiesis, the differential diagnosis of thrombocytosis and the management of patients with an elevated platelet

  12. Celebrating 20 Years of Hubble

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Hubble Space Telescope began a remarkable journey of discovery on April 24, 1990. After 20 years in space, the observatory has shown humanity more of the universe than ever before. With the ...

  13. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 17: Ocean color in the 21st century. A strategy for a 20-year time series

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abbott, Mark R.; Brown, Otis B.; Evans, Robert H.; Gordon, Howard R.; Carder, Kendall L.; Mueller-Karger, Frank E.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    Beginning with the upcoming launch of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), there should be almost continuous measurements of ocean color for nearly 20 years if all of the presently planned national and international missions are implemented. This data set will present a unique opportunity to understand the coupling of physical and biological processes in the world ocean. The presence of multiple ocean color sensors will allow the eventual development of an ocean color observing system that is both cost effective and scientifically based. This report discusses the issues involved and makes recommendations intended to ensure the maximum scientific return from this unique set of planned ocean color missions. An executive summary is included with this document which briefly discusses the primary issues and suggested actions to be considered.

  14. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators

    PubMed Central

    Wittmann, Marc; Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Sarikaya, Anna; Lehnen, Hanna; Jo, Han-Gue; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practice as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e., by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience) showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex, and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction, and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments. PMID:25642205

  15. Subjective expansion of extended time-spans in experienced meditators.

    PubMed

    Wittmann, Marc; Otten, Simone; Schötz, Eva; Sarikaya, Anna; Lehnen, Hanna; Jo, Han-Gue; Kohls, Niko; Schmidt, Stefan; Meissner, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Experienced meditators typically report that they experience time slowing down in meditation practice as well as in everyday life. Conceptually this phenomenon may be understood through functional states of mindfulness, i.e., by attention regulation, body awareness, emotion regulation, and enhanced memory. However, hardly any systematic empirical work exists regarding the experience of time in meditators. In the current cross-sectional study, we investigated whether 42 experienced mindfulness meditation practitioners (with on average 10 years of experience) showed differences in the experience of time as compared to 42 controls without any meditation experience matched for age, sex, and education. The perception of time was assessed with a battery of psychophysical tasks assessing the accuracy of prospective time judgments in duration discrimination, duration reproduction, and time estimation in the milliseconds to minutes range as well with several psychometric instruments related to subjective time such as the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, the Barratt Impulsivity Scale and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory. In addition, subjective time judgments on the current passage of time and retrospective time ranges were assessed. While subjective judgements of time were found to be significantly different between the two groups on several scales, no differences in duration estimates in the psychophysical tasks were detected. Regarding subjective time, mindfulness meditators experienced less time pressure, more time dilation, and a general slower passage of time. Moreover, they felt that the last week and the last month passed more slowly. Overall, although no intergroup differences in psychophysical tasks were detected, the reported findings demonstrate a close association between mindfulness meditation and the subjective feeling of the passage of time captured by psychometric instruments.

  16. Time spans between price maxima and price minima in stock markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Yongjie; Li, Honggang

    2014-02-01

    We empirically investigate the distribution of time spans between price maxima and price minima in international stock markets, where a time span is defined as the time interval between a local price minimum and a local price maximum, and local price extrema are identified by a method introduced by Preis and Stanley (Preis et al. (2011), Preis (2011), Preis and Stanley (2011, 2010), Preis (2010), Preis and Stanley (2010), Stanley et al. (2010), Preis and Stanley (2009)). The empirical results show that both the tail distributions of time spans from local price maxima to local price minima and the tail distributions of time spans from local price minima to local price maxima yield an exponential distribution. In addition, price rise/fall asymmetry is observed by comparing the values of the exponents of the distribution curves. These results are robust across eight representative stock markets.

  17. TimeSpan: Using Visualization to Explore Temporal Multi-dimensional Data of Stroke Patients.

    PubMed

    Loorak, Mona Hosseinkhani; Perin, Charles; Kamal, Noreen; Hill, Michael; Carpendale, Sheelagh

    2016-01-01

    We present TimeSpan, an exploratory visualization tool designed to gain a better understanding of the temporal aspects of the stroke treatment process. Working with stroke experts, we seek to provide a tool to help improve outcomes for stroke victims. Time is of critical importance in the treatment of acute ischemic stroke patients. Every minute that the artery stays blocked, an estimated 1.9 million neurons and 12 km of myelinated axons are destroyed. Consequently, there is a critical need for efficiency of stroke treatment processes. Optimizing time to treatment requires a deep understanding of interval times. Stroke health care professionals must analyze the impact of procedures, events, and patient attributes on time-ultimately, to save lives and improve quality of life after stroke. First, we interviewed eight domain experts, and closely collaborated with two of them to inform the design of TimeSpan. We classify the analytical tasks which a visualization tool should support and extract design goals from the interviews and field observations. Based on these tasks and the understanding gained from the collaboration, we designed TimeSpan, a web-based tool for exploring multi-dimensional and temporal stroke data. We describe how TimeSpan incorporates factors from stacked bar graphs, line charts, histograms, and a matrix visualization to create an interactive hybrid view of temporal data. From feedback collected from domain experts in a focus group session, we reflect on the lessons we learned from abstracting the tasks and iteratively designing TimeSpan.

  18. A Linear Time Algorithm for the Minimum Spanning Caterpillar Problem for Bounded Treewidth Graphs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinneen, Michael J.; Khosravani, Masoud

    We consider the Minimum Spanning Caterpillar Problem (MSCP) in a graph where each edge has two costs, spine (path) cost and leaf cost, depending on whether it is used as a spine or a leaf edge. The goal is to find a spanning caterpillar in which the sum of its edge costs is the minimum. We show that the problem has a linear time algorithm when a tree decomposition of the graph is given as part of the input. Despite the fast growing constant factor of the time complexity of our algorithm, it is still practical and efficient for some classes of graphs, such as outerplanar, series-parallel (K 4 minor-free), and Halin graphs. We also briefly explain how one can modify our algorithm to solve the Minimum Spanning Ring Star and the Dual Cost Minimum Spanning Tree Problems.

  19. Oral biopsy turnaround time: 20-year experience of the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya.

    PubMed

    Siar, C H; Tan, B H

    2000-12-01

    The turnaround time (TAT) for oral biopsies received for histological examination by the Department of Oral Pathology, Oral Medicine and Periodontology, Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya, for the years 1978, 1988 and 1998 was evaluated. For the three years studied, TATs for 61, 233 and 463 specimens were retrospectively analysed. Testing intervals, that is, from the dates the surgeons procured the specimens, the laboratories accessioned them and until the pathologists signed off the diagnoses, were used to calculate TAT. The performance level of the respective pathologists, the growth of tissue diagnostic services and the possible variables that influence TAT were also evaluated. As prompt diagnosis means prompt treatment, which in turn has a bearing on prognosis, the TAT pertinent to oral malignant tumors was emphasized. The mean TAT, its mode and median fell significantly in 1998 compared with the previous 2 years; it was lower for soft tissue than for hard tissue specimens, and lower for malignant, than for non-malignant specimens. The progression of tissue diagnostic services is up to a satisfactory level, as 88.89 % of biopsies could render diagnoses within a fair period of time in 1998.

  20. [Vaccination against hepatitis B. Impact of vaccination programmes after 20 years of use in Spain. Is it time for a change?].

    PubMed

    Arístegui Fernández, Javier; Díez-Domingo, Javier; Marés Bermúdez, Josep; Martinón Torres, Federico

    2015-02-01

    The highest incidence rate of hepatitis B (HB) in Spain is detected in adults between 20 and 54 years old, whereas the incidence in children under 1 year old is almost nil. The low prevalence of HB in children under 1 year is mainly due to the success of gestational screening strategies for the detection of HBsAg(+) in pregnant women, and vaccination campaigns during childhood. Currently, in Spain, the last dose of the HB included in the national childhood immunization program is administered at 6 months of age, although some studies show that delaying the age of the administration of the last dose of HB vaccine and increasing the time between doses, may improve immune memory by offering greater protection against this virus in the adulthood. In this article, the impact of HB vaccination in Spain is reviewed, and other potential vaccination strategies in our environment are discussed, such as extending the interval between doses, and administering the last dose in the second year of life, adapting the valid strategy in Spain to the current epidemiological context in order to reduce the prevalence of HB in adulthood.

  1. Hubble: 20 Years of Discovery

    NASA Video Gallery

    Hubble's discoveries have revolutionized nearly all areas of current astronomical research from planetary science to cosmology. Actor and writer Brent Spiner narrates a visual journey back in time ...

  2. Time-varying span efficiency through the wingbeat of desert locusts

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2012-01-01

    The flight performance of animals depends greatly on the efficacy with which they generate aerodynamic forces. Accordingly, maximum range, load-lifting capacity and peak accelerations during manoeuvres are all constrained by the efficiency of momentum transfer to the wake. Here, we use high-speed particle image velocimetry (1 kHz) to record flow velocities in the near wake of desert locusts (Schistocerca gregaria, Forskål). We use the measured flow fields to calculate time-varying span efficiency throughout the wing stroke cycle. The locusts are found to operate at a maximum span efficiency of 79 per cent, typically at a plateau of about 60 per cent for the majority of the downstroke, but at lower values during the upstroke. Moreover, the calculated span efficiencies are highest when the largest lift forces are being generated (90% of the total lift is generated during the plateau of span efficiency) suggesting that the combination of wing kinematics and morphology in locust flight perform most efficiently when doing the most work. PMID:22112649

  3. Phase synchronization based minimum spanning trees for analysis of financial time series with nonlinear correlations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishnan, Srinivasan; Duvvuru, Arjun; Sultornsanee, Sivarit; Kamarthi, Sagar

    2016-02-01

    The cross correlation coefficient has been widely applied in financial time series analysis, in specific, for understanding chaotic behaviour in terms of stock price and index movements during crisis periods. To better understand time series correlation dynamics, the cross correlation matrices are represented as networks, in which a node stands for an individual time series and a link indicates cross correlation between a pair of nodes. These networks are converted into simpler trees using different schemes. In this context, Minimum Spanning Trees (MST) are the most favoured tree structures because of their ability to preserve all the nodes and thereby retain essential information imbued in the network. Although cross correlations underlying MSTs capture essential information, they do not faithfully capture dynamic behaviour embedded in the time series data of financial systems because cross correlation is a reliable measure only if the relationship between the time series is linear. To address the issue, this work investigates a new measure called phase synchronization (PS) for establishing correlations among different time series which relate to one another, linearly or nonlinearly. In this approach the strength of a link between a pair of time series (nodes) is determined by the level of phase synchronization between them. We compare the performance of phase synchronization based MST with cross correlation based MST along selected network measures across temporal frame that includes economically good and crisis periods. We observe agreement in the directionality of the results across these two methods. They show similar trends, upward or downward, when comparing selected network measures. Though both the methods give similar trends, the phase synchronization based MST is a more reliable representation of the dynamic behaviour of financial systems than the cross correlation based MST because of the former's ability to quantify nonlinear relationships among time

  4. Studying the Motivated Agent Through Time: Personal Goal Development During the Adult Life Span.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, William L; Bannon, Brittany L; McAdams, Dan P

    2017-04-01

    This research examined the rank-order and mean-level consistency of personal goals at two periods in the adult life span. Personal goal continuity was considered among a group of young adults (N = 145) who reported their goals three times over a 3-year period and among a group of midlife adults (N = 163) who specified their goals annually over a 4-year period. Goals were coded for a series of motive-based (viz., achievement, affiliation, intimacy, power) and domain-based (viz., finance, generativity, health, travel) categories. In both samples, we noted a moderate degree of rank-order consistency across assessment periods. In addition, the majority of goal categories exhibited a high degree of mean-level consistency. The results of this research suggest that (a) the content of goals exhibits a modest degree of rank-order consistency and a substantial degree of mean-level consistency over time, and (b) considering personality continuity and development as manifest via goals represents a viable strategy for personality psychologists.

  5. NCCN: 20 Years of Improving Patients' Lives.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Robert W

    2015-05-01

    In his Keynote Address at the NCCN 20th Annual Conference, Robert W. Carlson, MD, reflected on the achievements of NCCN and described how the organization will continue to grow under his leadership. Recognizing that the founding of NCCN was by a group of visionary leaders who came together 20 years ago to assure access of patients to high-quality cancer care, Dr. Carlson said "All our efforts within NCCN are focused on improving the quality, effectiveness, and efficiency of patient care, so that our patients can live better lives."

  6. Human psychoneuroimmunology: 20 years of discovery.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Michael R

    2008-02-01

    An important component of psychoneuroimmunology research is to reveal the myriad ways that behaviors and health are inter-related, with a focus on the immunological mechanisms that underlie these interactions. Research in human psychoneuroimmunology has shown that immunoregulatory processes are an integral part of a complex network of adaptive responses. As such, this review provides a perspective from our laboratory over the last 20 years to define the inter-relationships between behavior and immunity; to identify the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) and autonomic mechanisms that link the central nervous system and immune responses; to examine the clinical implications of immune alterations during depression or life stress on inflammatory and infectious disease risk; and to explore the reciprocal role of immune mediators on behavior in humans.

  7. The ocular albinism type 1 gene product, OA1, spans intracellular membranes 7 times.

    PubMed

    Sone, Michio; Orlow, Seth J

    2007-12-01

    OA1 (GPR143) is a pigment cell-specific intracellular glycoprotein consisting of 404 amino acid residues that is mutated in patients with ocular albinism type 1, the most common form of ocular albinism. While its cellular localization is suggested to be endolysosomal and melanosomal, the physiological function of OA1 is currently unclear. Recent reports predicted that OA1 functions as a G protein coupled receptor (GPCR) based on its weak amino acid sequence similarity to known GPCRs, and on demonstration of GPCR activity in OA1 mislocalized to the plasma membrane. Because mislocalization of proteins is often caused by or induces defects in their proper folding/assembly, the significance of these studies remains unclear. A characteristic feature of GPCRs is a seven transmembrane domain structure. We analyzed the membrane topology of OA1 properly localized to intracellular lysosomal organelles in COS-1 cells. To accomplish this analysis, we established experimental conditions that allowed selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane while leaving endolysosomal membranes intact. Domains were mapped by the insertion of a hemagglutinin (HA) tag into the predicted cytosolic/luminal regions of OA1 molecule and the accessibility of tag to HA antibody was determined by immunofluorescence. HA-tagged lysosome associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), a type I membrane protein, was employed as a reporter for selective permeabilization of the plasma membrane. Our results show experimentally that the C-terminus of OA1 is directed to the cytoplasm and that the protein spans the intracellular membrane 7 times. Thus, OA1, properly localized intracellularly, is a 7 transmembrane domain integral membrane protein consistent with its putative role as an intracellular GPCR.

  8. Time-domain ptychography of over-octave-spanning laser pulses in the single-cycle regime.

    PubMed

    Witting, T; Greening, D; Walke, D; Matia-Hernando, P; Barillot, T; Marangos, J P; Tisch, J W G

    2016-09-15

    We report, to the best of our knowledge, the first application of time-domain ptychography for the characterization of few-cycle laser pulses. Our method enables zero-additional phase measurements of over-octave-spanning laser pulses in the single cycle regime. The spectral phase is recovered using a robust ptychography algorithm that requires no input apart from the measured data trace. In addition to numerical tests, we validate our new device experimentally by reconstructing the complex electric field of a 1.5 cycle laser pulse with a bandwidth spanning 490 to 1060 nm. We further check the accuracy of our device by comparing the measured phases of octave-spanning chirped pulses to the known dispersion of fused silica glass.

  9. Improvement of attention span and reaction time with hyperbaric oxygen treatment in patients with toxic injury due to mold exposure.

    PubMed

    Ezra, N; Dang, K; Heuser, G

    2011-01-01

    It is, by now, well established that mold toxins (mycotoxins) can cause significant adverse health effects. In this study, 15 subjects who developed an attention deficit disorder (ADD) and slowing of reaction time at the time of exposure to mold toxins were identified. Deficits in attention span and reaction time were documented not only by taking a careful history, but also by performing a Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA). The TOVA test provides an objective measure of these two variables. It was found that mold-exposed subjects show statistically significant decreases in attention span and significant increases in reaction time to stimuli compared to controls. After ten sessions of hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT), a statistically significant improvement was seen in both measures. This preliminary study suggests promising outcomes in treating mold-exposed patients with hyperbaric oxygen.

  10. Real time noise and wavelength correlations in octave-spanning supercontinuum generation.

    PubMed

    Godin, T; Wetzel, B; Sylvestre, T; Larger, L; Kudlinski, A; Mussot, A; Ben Salem, A; Zghal, M; Genty, G; Dias, F; Dudley, J M

    2013-07-29

    We use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure shot-to-shot spectral instabilities in femtosecond supercontinuum generation. We study both the onset phase of supercontinuum generation with distinct dispersive wave generation, as well as a highly-unstable supercontinuum regime spanning an octave in bandwidth. Wavelength correlation maps allow interactions between separated spectral components to be identified, even when such interactions are not apparent in shot-to-shot or average measurements. Experimental results are interpreted using numerical simulations. Our results show the clear advantages of dispersive Fourier transformation for studying spectral noise during supercontinuum generation.

  11. Grade Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    2000-01-01

    This issue reviews grade span, or grade configuration. Catherine Paglin and Jennifer Fager's "Grade Configuration: Who Goes Where?" provides an overview of issues and concerns related to grade spans and supplies profiles of eight Northwest schools with varying grade spans. David F. Wihry, Theodore Coladarci, and Curtis Meadow's…

  12. RT Remembrance: The First 20 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stahl, Norman A.; Fisher, Peter J. L.

    1992-01-01

    Provides a detailed analysis of the first 20 volumes of "The Reading Teacher," asking whether the journal mirrored trends in the field or provided a window on its future. Concludes that the journal mirrored the times. (MG)

  13. Market-based control strategy for long-span structures considering the multi-time delay issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongnan; Song, Jianzhu; Li, Gang

    2017-01-01

    To solve the different time delays that exist in the control device installed on spatial structures, in this study, discrete analysis using a 2 N precise algorithm was selected to solve the multi-time-delay issue for long-span structures based on the market-based control (MBC) method. The concept of interval mixed energy was introduced from computational structural mechanics and optimal control research areas, and it translates the design of the MBC multi-time-delay controller into a solution for the segment matrix. This approach transforms the serial algorithm in time to parallel computing in space, greatly improving the solving efficiency and numerical stability. The designed controller is able to consider the issue of time delay with a linear controlling force combination and is especially effective for large time-delay conditions. A numerical example of a long-span structure was selected to demonstrate the effectiveness of the presented controller, and the time delay was found to have a significant impact on the results.

  14. Simultaneous transmission of accurate time and stable frequency through bidirectional channel over telecommunication infrastructure with excessive spans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojtech, Josef; Smotlacha, Vladimir; Skoda, Pavel

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we present simultaneous transmission of accurate time and stable frequency over 306 km long fiber link. The fiber link belongs to the Time and Frequency infrastructure that is being gradually developed and which shares fiber footprint with data network. The link had been originally deployed with wavelength division multiplexing systems for C and L band systems. But it has been recently upgraded to support 800 GHz wide super-channel with single signal path for both directions. This bidirectional super-channel spans over two extensive segments with attenuation of 28 and 25 dB.

  15. SPAN: Ocean science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Koblinsky, Chester J.; Webster, Ferris; Zlotnicki, Victor; Green, James L.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a multi-mission, correlative data comparison network which links space and Earth science research and data analysis computers. It provides a common working environment for sharing computer resources, sharing computer peripherals, solving proprietary problems, and providing the potential for significant time and cost savings for correlative data analysis. This is one of a series of discipline-specific SPAN documents which are intended to complement the SPAN primer and SPAN Management documents. Their purpose is to provide the discipline scientists with a comprehensive set of documents to assist in the use of SPAN for discipline specific scientific research.

  16. Global satellite composites - 20 years of evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohrs, Richard A.; Lazzara, Matthew A.; Robaidek, Jerrold O.; Santek, David A.; Knuth, Shelley L.

    2014-01-01

    For two decades, the University of Wisconsin Space Science and Engineering Center (SSEC) and the Antarctic Meteorological Research Center (AMRC) have been creating global, regional and hemispheric satellite composites. These composites have proven useful in research, operational forecasting, commercial applications and educational outreach. Using the Man computer Interactive Data System (McIDAS) software developed at SSEC, infrared window composites were created by combining Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), and polar orbiting data from the SSEC Data Center and polar data acquired at McMurdo and Palmer stations, Antarctica. Increased computer processing speed has allowed for more advanced algorithms to address the decision making process for co-located pixels. The algorithms have evolved from a simplistic maximum brightness temperature to those that account for distance from the sub-satellite point, parallax displacement, pixel time and resolution. The composites are the state-of-the-art means for merging/mosaicking satellite imagery.

  17. Radium in man - 20 years later

    SciTech Connect

    Maletskos, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    In 1940, there was a need to set a standard for internal exposure to radium for the instrument industry that required luminous characters painted with radium paint. A committee was convened to review the existing information on the health effects of internal radium. Twenty-seven persons had been studied, seven with burdens of 0.5 {mu}g or less with no health effects and twenty with burdens of 1.2 {mu}g or more with health effects. The radium burden dividing the two groups was assumed at 1 {mu}g (an implied threshold), a safety factor of 10 was applied, and the internal radium standard was set at 0.1 {mu}g, a value that still stands today. Over the next five or six decades, about 2000 subjects were investigated, including many measurements on almost all the subjects. In the intervening years, several analyses of the data, available at each particular time, have been made with radical differences in interpretation.

  18. My first 20 years in neuroscience.

    PubMed

    Maisky, V A

    2011-01-01

    Intriguing facts were obtained in the first electrophysiological investigations (1964) that the action potentials (AP) produced by direct depolarization of the cell membrane in different species of mollusks showed specific relations to changes in external ionic composition. In Helix neurons, the generation of AP was well maintained in sodium-free solutions with high calcium or barium content. The amplitude of the spike overshoot in the case was linearly related to the logarithm of calcium concentration. It is interesting that increase in external calcium ions decreased the ionic conductance of the resting membrane (R0) also in linear relation to the logarithm of Ca2+ or Ba2+ concentration. It was found for the first time (1965) that addition of Ba2+ to the external solution produced in the neurons well-developed prolonged (protracted) APs in all cases. However, the excitability of Planorbis and Limnea neurons was rapidly (during 3 min) reversibly depressed in sodium-free solutions. We found that, after injections of horse radish peroxidase (HRP) in the spinal cord of cats, the enzyme was transported retrogradely to brain stem neurons in the bulbar medial reticular formation, the vestibular complex, and the red nucleus. We obtained (1975) intriguing facts in our investigations: we recorded the labeled neurons in the locus coeruleus and subcoeruleus, as well as in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus. The existence of straight pathways from hypothalamus to the spinal cord has not been demonstrated earlier. The next step of our study was to determine the corresponding spinal funiculi where descending fibers (from various brain stem cell groups) are located. Indeed, in our pioneer studies (1977), we found that the fibers from the hypothalamus, which descend throughout the spinal cord, are located mainly in the lateral funiculus, ipsilaterally.

  19. Probe microphone measurements: 20 years of progress.

    PubMed

    Mueller, H G

    2001-06-01

    Probe-microphone testing was conducted in the laboratory as early as the 1940s (e.g., the classic work of Wiener and Ross, reported in 1946), however, it was not until the late 1970s that a "dispenser friendly" system was available for testing hearing aids in the real ear. In this case, the term "dispenser friendly," is used somewhat loosely. The 1970s equipment that I'm referring to was first described in a paper that was presented by Earl Harford, Ph.D. in September of 1979 at the International Ear Clinics' Symposium in Minneapolis. At this meeting, Earl reported on his clinical experiences of testing hearing aids in the real ear using a miniature (by 1979 standards) Knowles microphone. The microphone was coupled to an interfacing impedance matching system (developed by David Preves, Ph.D., who at the time worked at Starkey Laboratories) which could be used with existing hearing aid analyzer systems (see Harford, 1980 for review of this early work). Unlike today's probe tube microphone systems, this early method of clinical real-ear measurement involved putting the entire microphone (about 4mm by 5mm by 2mm) in the ear canal down by the eardrum of the patient. If you think cerumen is a problem with probe-mic measurements today, you should have seen the condition of this microphone after a day's work! While this early instrumentation was a bit cumbersome, we quickly learned the advantages that probe-microphone measures provided in the fitting of hearing aids. We frequently ran into calibration and equalization problems, not to mention a yelp or two from the patient, but the resulting information was worth the trouble. Help soon arrived. In the early 1980s, the first computerized probe-tube microphone system, the Rastronics CCI-10 (developed in Denmark by Steen Rasmussen), entered the U.S. market (Nielsen and Rasmussen, 1984). This system had a silicone tube attached to the microphone (the transmission of sound through this tube was part of the calibration process

  20. Infrared detector Dewars - Increased LN2 hold time and vacuum jacket life spans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, D. E.; Boyd, W. J.; Blass, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    IR detector Dewars commonly suffer from shorter than desired LN2 hold times and insulation jacket vacuum corruption over relatively short time periods. In an attempt to solve this problem for a 9144 detector Dewar, small 1 liter/s appendage ion pumps were selected for continuous pumping of the vacuum jackets. This procedure extended LN2 hold times from 20 to 60 h and virtually eliminated vacuum jacket corruption. Thus the detector systems are usable continuously over periods of 6 months or more.

  1. Lung biopsies and patient care at university-affiliated hospitals: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, J. D.

    1990-01-01

    Lung biopsies have been performed since 1967 at the University of California at Los Angeles and its affiliated institutions. In the span of 20 years, the author performed 4285 cases and developed several procedures. This article discusses the importance of risk management and patient care and presents statistics on malignancies, complications, and contraindications. Images Figure 1A Figure 1B Figure 2A Figure 2B PMID:2398507

  2. a Decade-Spanning High-Resolution Asynchronous Optical Sampling Based Terahertz Time-Domain Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, Brandon; Allodi, Marco A.; Blake, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    High-resolution ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS) is a technique that substantially improves the combined frequency resolution and bandwidth of ASOPS based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) systems. We employ two mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition frequencies of 80 MHz operating at a fixed repetition frequency offset of 100 Hz. This offset lock is maintained by a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the repetition rate of the Ti:Sapphire oscillators. Their respective time delay is scanned across 12.5 ns requiring a scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution of up to 15.6 fs. ASOPS-THz-TDS enables high-resolution spectroscopy that is impossible for a THz-TDS system employing a mechanical delay stage. We measure a timing jitter of 1.36 fs for the system using an air-gap etalon and an optical cross-correlator. We report a Root-Mean-Square deviation of 20.7 MHz and a mean deviation of 14.4 MHz for water absorption lines from 0.5 to 2.7. High-resolution ASOPS-THz-TDS enables high resolution spectroscopy of both gas-phase and condensed-phase samples across a decade of THz bandwidth.

  3. Timing Dysfunctions in Schizophrenia Span from Millisecond to Several-Second Durations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Christine A.; O'Donnell, Brian F.; Shekhar, Anantha; Hetrick, William P.

    2009-01-01

    Schizophrenia may be associated with a fundamental disturbance in the temporal coordination of information processing in the brain, leading to classic symptoms of schizophrenia such as thought disorder and disorganized and contextually inappropriate behavior. However, the majority of studies that have examined timing behavior in schizophrenia have…

  4. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1985-01-01

    Two sets of experiments were run to examine how the mental workload of a pilot might be measured. The effects of continuous manual control activity versus discrete assigned mental tasks (including the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it) were examined. The first experiment evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of measuring mental workload with an objective perforamance (altitude deviations) and five subjective ratings (activity level, complexity, difficulty, stress, and workload). The second set of experiments built upon the first set by increasing workload intensities and adding another performance measure: airspeed deviation. The results are discussed for both low and high experience pilots.

  5. Observation of Markarian 421 in TeV Gamma Rays Over a 14-Year Time Span

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acciari, V. A.; Arlen, T.; Aune, T.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Bouvier, A.; Bradbury, S. M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; McEnery, Julie E.

    2013-01-01

    The variability of the blazar Markarian 421 in TeV gamma rays over a 14-year time period has been explored with theWhipple 10 m telescope. It is shown that the dynamic range of its flux variations is large and similar to that in X-rays. A correlation between the X-ray and TeV energy bands is observed during some bright flares and when the complete data sets are binned on long timescales. The main database consists of 878.4 hours of observation with theWhipple telescope, spread over 783 nights. The peak energy response of the telescope was 400 GeV with 20% uncertainty. This is the largest database of any TeV-emitting active galactic nucleus (AGN) and hence was used to explore the variability profile of Markarian 421. The time-averaged flux from Markarian 421 over this period was 0.446+/-0.008 Crab flux units. The flux exceeded 10 Crab flux units on three separate occasions. For the 2000-2001 season the average flux reached 1.86 Crab units, while in the 1996-1997 season the average flux was only 0.23 Crab units.

  6. Multicultural Counseling Competencies Research: A 20-Year Content Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worthington, Roger L.; Soth-McNett, Angela M.; Moreno, Matthew V.

    2007-01-01

    The authors conducted a 20-year content analysis of the entire field of empirical research on the multicultural counseling competencies (D. W. Sue et al., 1982). They conducted an exhaustive search for empirical research articles using PsycINFO, as well as complete reviews of the past 20 years of several journals (e.g., Journal of Counseling…

  7. Effect of time span and task load on pilot mental workload

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berg, S. L.; Sheridan, T. B.

    1986-01-01

    Two sets of simulations designed to examine how a pilot's mental workload is affected by continuous manual-control activity versus discrete mental tasks that included the length of time between receiving an assignment and executing it are described. The first experiment evaluated two types of measures: objective performance indicators and subjective ratings. Subjective ratings for the two missions were different, but the objective performance measures were similar. In the second experiments, workload levels were increased and a second performance measure was taken. Mental workload had no influence on either performance-based workload measure. Subjective ratings discriminated among the scenarios and correlated with performance measures for high-workload flights. The number of mental tasks performed did not influence error rates, although high manual workloads did increase errors.

  8. Night work and mortality: prospective study among Finnish employees over the time span 1984 to 2008.

    PubMed

    Nätti, Jouko; Anttila, Timo; Oinas, Tomi; Mustosmäki, Armi

    2012-06-01

    There is considerable evidence showing that night work is associated with increased morbidity, but only a few studies have focused on its relation to mortality. This study investigates the relationship between the type of working-time arrangement (weekly night work/daytime work) and total and cause-specific mortality among men and women. The data consist of a representative working conditions survey of Finnish employees conducted in 1984 (2286 men/2216 women), which has been combined with register-based follow-up data from Statistics Finland covering the years 1985-2008. In the 1984 survey, the employees were asked if they worked during the night (23:00-06:00 h) and if so, how often. In this study, the authors compare employees who worked at night (121 men/89 women) to daytime employees who did not do night work (1325 men/1560 women). The relative risk of death was examined by Cox proportional hazards analyses adjusted for background (age, level of education, family situation, and county), health (longstanding illness, pain symptoms, smoking status, and psychological symptoms), and work-related factors (weekly working hours, physical and psychological demands, demands of learning at work, and perceived job insecurity). Female employees working at night had a 2.25-fold higher risk of mortality than female dayworkers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.20-4.20) after adjustment for background and health- and work-related factors. In addition to total mortality, night work was also associated with tumor mortality. Female night workers had a 2.82-fold higher risk of tumor mortality than female dayworkers (95% CI 1.20-6.65) in the adjusted model. Among men, no such significant association was observed. The present study indicated that female night workers had a higher risk of both total and tumor mortality compared to female daytime employees. Additional research on the potential factors and mechanisms behind the association between night work and mortality is required.

  9. The IRIS Data Management Center: Enabling Access to Observational Time Series Spanning Decades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahern, T.; Benson, R.; Trabant, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) is funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) to operate the facilities to generate, archive, and distribute seismological data to research communities in the United States and internationally. The IRIS Data Management System (DMS) is responsible for the ingestion, archiving, curation and distribution of these data. The IRIS Data Management Center (DMC) manages data from more than 100 permanent seismic networks, hundreds of temporary seismic deployments as well as data from other geophysical observing networks such as magnetotelluric sensors, ocean bottom sensors, superconducting gravimeters, strainmeters, surface meteorological measurements, and in-situ atmospheric pressure measurements. The IRIS DMC has data from more than 20 different types of sensors. The IRIS DMC manages approximately 100 terabytes of primary observational data. These data are archived in multiple distributed storage systems that insure data availability independent of any single catastrophic failure. Storage systems include both RAID systems of greater than 100 terabytes as well as robotic tape robots of petabyte capacity. IRIS performs routine transcription of the data to new media and storage systems to insure the long-term viability of the scientific data. IRIS adheres to the OAIS Data Preservation Model in most cases. The IRIS data model requires the availability of metadata describing the characteristics and geographic location of sensors before data can be fully archived. IRIS works with the International Federation of Digital Seismographic Networks (FDSN) in the definition and evolution of the metadata. The metadata insures that the data remain useful to both current and future generations of earth scientists. Curation of the metadata and time series is one of the most important activities at the IRIS DMC. Data analysts and an automated quality assurance system monitor the quality of the incoming data. This insures data

  10. The meteorological data of William Hutchinson and a Liverpool air pressure time series spanning 1768-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodworth, Philip L.

    2006-10-01

    This paper discusses some of the meteorological measurements made at Liverpool by Captain William Hutchinson in the second half of the eighteenth century. It gives an overview of the various data sets, most of which are now in computer-accessible form, and provides assessments of their quality, the aim being to gain an overall impression of how good an observer Hutchinson was. His air pressure data have been studied in detail, through comparisons with information from other UK stations, and via investigation of the sea-level response to air pressure changes as observed in his tidal measurements. A first attempt has been made to construct a Liverpool air pressure time series spanning 1768-1999, by means of the combination of Hutchinson's data with later information from the Liverpool docks and Bidston Observatory.

  11. Turkey Revisited: Reflections on Turkish Society and Culture after 20 Years of Absence

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    0 o TURKEY REVISITED: REFLECTIONS ON TURKISH SOCIETY AND CULTURE AFTER 20 YEARS OF ABSENCE Graham E, Fuller December 1988 14 LECTEIff P-7513 mens... culture . He read dozens of Turkish novels of the time and became acquainted with many of their authors. As a result, he wrote a book- length analysis of the...SOCIETY AND CULTURE AFTER 20 YEARS OF ABSENCE Graham E. Fuller There is much merit in abandoning an intellectual discipline for lengthy periods of

  12. A decade-spanning high-resolution asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain and frequency comb spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Good, Jacob T; Holland, Daniel B; Finneran, Ian A; Carroll, P Brandon; Kelley, Matthew J; Blake, Geoffrey A

    2015-10-01

    We present the design and capabilities of a high-resolution, decade-spanning ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS)-based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) instrument. Our system employs dual mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition rates offset locked at 100 Hz via a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the ∼80 MHz oscillator repetition rates. The respective time delays of the individual laser pulses are scanned across a 12.5 ns window in a laboratory scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution as fine as 15.6 fs. The repetition rate of the pump oscillator is synchronized to a Rb frequency standard via a PLL operating at the 12th harmonic of the oscillator repetition rate, achieving milliHertz (mHz) stability. We characterize the timing jitter of the system using an air-spaced etalon, an optical cross correlator, and the phase noise spectrum of the PLL. Spectroscopic applications of ASOPS-THz-TDS are demonstrated by measuring water vapor absorption lines from 0.55 to 3.35 THz and acetonitrile absorption lines from 0.13 to 1.39 THz in a short pathlength gas cell. With 70 min of data acquisition, a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The achieved root-mean-square deviation is 14.6 MHz, with a mean deviation of 11.6 MHz, for the measured water line center frequencies as compared to the JPL molecular spectroscopy database. Further, with the same instrument and data acquisition hardware, we use the ability to control the repetition rate of the pump oscillator to enable THz frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-FCS). Here, a frequency comb with a tooth width of 5 MHz is generated and used to fully resolve the pure rotational spectrum of acetonitrile with Doppler-limited precision. The oscillator repetition rate stability achieved by our PLL lock circuits enables sub-MHz tooth width generation, if desired. This instrument provides unprecedented decade-spanning, tunable resolution, from 80 MHz down to sub

  13. A decade-spanning high-resolution asynchronous optical sampling terahertz time-domain and frequency comb spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Good, Jacob T.; Holland, Daniel B.; Finneran, Ian A.; Carroll, P. Brandon; Kelley, Matthew J.; Blake, Geoffrey A.

    2015-10-01

    We present the design and capabilities of a high-resolution, decade-spanning ASynchronous OPtical Sampling (ASOPS)-based TeraHertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) instrument. Our system employs dual mode-locked femtosecond Ti:Sapphire oscillators with repetition rates offset locked at 100 Hz via a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) operating at the 60th harmonic of the ˜80 MHz oscillator repetition rates. The respective time delays of the individual laser pulses are scanned across a 12.5 ns window in a laboratory scan time of 10 ms, supporting a time delay resolution as fine as 15.6 fs. The repetition rate of the pump oscillator is synchronized to a Rb frequency standard via a PLL operating at the 12th harmonic of the oscillator repetition rate, achieving milliHertz (mHz) stability. We characterize the timing jitter of the system using an air-spaced etalon, an optical cross correlator, and the phase noise spectrum of the PLL. Spectroscopic applications of ASOPS-THz-TDS are demonstrated by measuring water vapor absorption lines from 0.55 to 3.35 THz and acetonitrile absorption lines from 0.13 to 1.39 THz in a short pathlength gas cell. With 70 min of data acquisition, a 50 dB signal-to-noise ratio is achieved. The achieved root-mean-square deviation is 14.6 MHz, with a mean deviation of 11.6 MHz, for the measured water line center frequencies as compared to the JPL molecular spectroscopy database. Further, with the same instrument and data acquisition hardware, we use the ability to control the repetition rate of the pump oscillator to enable THz frequency comb spectroscopy (THz-FCS). Here, a frequency comb with a tooth width of 5 MHz is generated and used to fully resolve the pure rotational spectrum of acetonitrile with Doppler-limited precision. The oscillator repetition rate stability achieved by our PLL lock circuits enables sub-MHz tooth width generation, if desired. This instrument provides unprecedented decade-spanning, tunable resolution, from 80 MHz down to sub

  14. Back to the Future: Help! It Was 20 Years Ago, and We've Only Just Arrived!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coffield, Kate

    This paper traces an educator's experiences with computers over a span of 20 years, and describes the computerization of and concomitant obstacles faced by the Humanities department at the American University in Cairo, Egypt (AUC). The computerization of AUC began in the 1980s, with workstations mainly in the science, math, engineering, and…

  15. Time scale matters: genetic analysis does not support adaptation-by-time as the mechanism for adaptive seasonal declines in kokanee reproductive life span

    PubMed Central

    Morbey, Yolanda E; Jensen, Evelyn L; Russello, Michael A

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal declines of fitness-related traits are often attributed to environmental effects or individual-level decisions about reproductive timing and effort, but genetic variation may also play a role. In populations of Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), seasonal declines in reproductive life span have been attributed to adaptation-by-time, in which divergent selection for different traits occurs among reproductively isolated temporal components of a population. We evaluated this hypothesis in kokanee (freshwater obligate Oncorhynchus nerka) by testing for temporal genetic structure in neutral and circadian-linked loci. We detected no genetic differences in presumably neutral loci among kokanee with different arrival and maturation dates within a spawning season. Similarly, we detected no temporal genetic structure in OtsClock1b, Omy1009uw, or OmyFbxw11, candidate loci associated with circadian function. The genetic evidence from this study and others indicates a lack of support for adaptation-by-time as an important evolutionary mechanism underlying seasonal declines in reproductive life span and a need for greater consideration of other mechanisms such as time-dependent, adaptive adjustment of reproductive effort. PMID:25478160

  16. Similarity measure and topology evolution of foreign exchange markets using dynamic time warping method: Evidence from minimal spanning tree

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gang-Jin; Xie, Chi; Han, Feng; Sun, Bo

    2012-08-01

    In this study, we employ a dynamic time warping method to study the topology of similarity networks among 35 major currencies in international foreign exchange (FX) markets, measured by the minimal spanning tree (MST) approach, which is expected to overcome the synchronous restriction of the Pearson correlation coefficient. In the empirical process, firstly, we subdivide the analysis period from June 2005 to May 2011 into three sub-periods: before, during, and after the US sub-prime crisis. Secondly, we choose NZD (New Zealand dollar) as the numeraire and then, analyze the topology evolution of FX markets in terms of the structure changes of MSTs during the above periods. We also present the hierarchical tree associated with the MST to study the currency clusters in each sub-period. Our results confirm that USD and EUR are the predominant world currencies. But USD gradually loses the most central position while EUR acts as a stable center in the MST passing through the crisis. Furthermore, an interesting finding is that, after the crisis, SGD (Singapore dollar) becomes a new center currency for the network.

  17. Deferiprone‐induced agranulocytosis: 20 years of clinical observations

    PubMed Central

    Uetrecht, Jack; Galanello, Renzo; Connelly, John; Rozova, Anna; Spino, Michael; Palmblad, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Use of the iron chelator deferiprone for treatment of iron overload in thalassemia patients is associated with concerns over agranulocytosis, which requires weekly absolute neutrophil counts (ANC). Here, we analyze all episodes of agranulocytosis (n = 161) and neutropenia (n = 250) during deferiprone use in clinical trials (CT) and postmarketing surveillance programs (PMSP). Rates of agranulocytosis and neutropenia in CT were 1.5% and 5.5%, respectively. Of the agranulocytosis cases, 61% occurred during the first 6 months of therapy and 78% during the first year. These events appeared to be independent of dose, and occurred three times more often in females than males. Their duration was not significantly shortened by use of G‐CSF. No patient with baseline neutropenia (n = 12) developed agranulocytosis during treatment, which raises questions about the validity of prior neutropenia as a contraindication to use. Only 1/7 novel neutropenia cases in CT progressed to agranulocytosis with continued treatment, indicating that neutropenia does not necessarily lead to agranulocytosis. The agranulocytosis fatality rate was 0% in CT and 15/143 (11%) in PMSP. Rechallenge with deferiprone produced agranulocytosis in 75% of patients in whom the event had already occurred, and in 10% with previous neutropenia. Weekly ANC monitoring allows early detection and interruption of therapy, but does not prevent agranulocytosis from occurring. Its relevance appears to decrease after the first year of therapy, when agranulocytosis occurs less often. Based upon analysis of data collected over the past 20 years, it appears that patient education may be the key to minimizing agranulocytosis‐associated risks during deferiprone therapy. Am. J. Hematol. 91:1026–1031, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Hematology Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27415835

  18. 20 Years Later: How One Flagship Has Changed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blumenstyk, Goldie

    2008-01-01

    This article examines how the University of Kansas has changed in 20 years. Twenty years ago, annual operating expenses for the University of Kansas campus here were $204-million. Today the institution spends more than triple that, even though its enrollment, 26,000, is almost exactly the same. During the same period, tuition and fees for in-state…

  19. Support-Staff Jobs Double in 20 Years, Outpacing Enrollment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brainard, Jeffrey; Fain, Paul; Masterson, Kathryn

    2009-01-01

    Colleges have added managers and support personnel at a steady, vigorous clip over the past 20 years, new research shows, far outpacing the growth in student enrollment and instructors. Support staff--like budget analysts, computer specialists, and loan counselors--nearly doubled from 1987 to 2007. Meanwhile, jobs for instructors increased by only…

  20. The Systems Librarian: Reflecting on 20 Years of Library Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breeding, Marshall

    2005-01-01

    In this column, the author relates his experiences in the use of library technology over his 20-year career at Vanderbilt University. He describes how computers in libraries have transformed almost every aspect of how the library provides its services and performs its work behind the scenes. In addition, the author shares a few successful…

  1. The Rainbow Reading Programme: A Review 20 Years on

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobson, Emma

    2013-01-01

    It has been 20 years since the Rainbow Reading programme was developed and trialled by its New Zealand creator, Meryl-Lynn Pluck. Rainbow Reading is an audio-facilitated reading programme, and is based on the method of assisted repeated reading. The programme is designed to provide older students reading below their chronological age with the…

  2. Are History Textbooks More "Considerate" after 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkeley, Sheri; King-Sears, Margaret E.; Hott, Brittany L.; Bradley-Black, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Features of eighth-grade history textbooks were examined through replication of a 20-year-old study that investigated "considerateness" of textbooks. Considerate texts provide clear, coherent information and include features that promote students' comprehension, such as explicit use of organizational structures, a range of question types…

  3. Environmental Volunteering and Health Outcomes over a 20-Year Period

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pillemer, Karl; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Reid, M. C.; Wells, Nancy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: This study tested the hypothesis that volunteering in environmental organizations in midlife is associated with greater physical activity and improved mental and physical health over a 20-year period. Design and Methods: The study used data from two waves (1974 and 1994) of the Alameda County Study, a longitudinal study of health and…

  4. 20 Years of Investing in a Clear, Healthy Lake Tahoe

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Community Information Fact Sheet with information about Lake Tahoe's history, the roles of EPA, state, and local government in protecting the Lake Tahoe Basin, priorities for the next 20 years, as well as actions that you can take to protect Lake Tahoe.

  5. Teacher Education 1992 and 2012: Reflecting on 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKeown, Rosalyn

    2012-01-01

    Over the past 20 years education for sustainable development (ESD) has become part of the discourse in teacher education and the teaching community has a better grasp of ESD's action-oriented and participatory pedagogies. The International Network of Teacher Education Institutions (TEIs) associated with the UNESCO Chair on Reorienting Teacher…

  6. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability (ID) over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of…

  7. Reflections on 20 Years of Research on Violence and Trauma

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forde, David R.

    2005-01-01

    This article is part of a special issue reflecting on what people have learned about violence and trauma over the past 20 years and where we need to go in the next 10 years. The author emphasizes the importance of learning to communicate in order to form effective community partnerships. Evidence-based research is noted as a methodological…

  8. Evolution Of USDOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years

    SciTech Connect

    Seitz, Roger R.; Suttora, Linda C.

    2013-02-26

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (USDOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the USDOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of USDOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept represents the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  9. Evolution of US DOE Performance Assessments Over 20 Years - 13597

    SciTech Connect

    Suttora, Linda C.; Seitz, Roger R.

    2013-07-01

    Performance assessments (PAs) have been used for many years for the analysis of post-closure hazards associated with a radioactive waste disposal facility and to provide a reasonable expectation of the ability of the site and facility design to meet objectives for the protection of members of the public and the environment. The use of PA to support decision-making for LLW disposal facilities has been mandated in United States Department of Energy (US DOE) directives governing radioactive waste management since 1988 (currently DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management). Prior to that time, PAs were also used in a less formal role. Over the past 20+ years, the US DOE approach to conduct, review and apply PAs has evolved into an efficient, rigorous and mature process that includes specific requirements for continuous improvement and independent reviews. The PA process has evolved through refinement of a graded and iterative approach designed to help focus efforts on those aspects of the problem expected to have the greatest influence on the decision being made. Many of the evolutionary changes to the PA process are linked to the refinement of the PA maintenance concept that has proven to be an important element of US DOE PA requirements in the context of supporting decision-making for safe disposal of LLW. The PA maintenance concept is central to the evolution of the graded and iterative philosophy and has helped to drive the evolution of PAs from a deterministic compliance calculation into a systematic approach that helps to focus on critical aspects of the disposal system in a manner designed to provide a more informed basis for decision-making throughout the life of a disposal facility (e.g., monitoring, research and testing, waste acceptance criteria, design improvements, data collection, model refinements). A significant evolution in PA modeling has been associated with improved use of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis techniques to support efficient

  10. [False aneurysm on dacron prosthesis, 20 years after aortofemoral bypass].

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Bertagni, A; Nasti, A G; Montesano, G

    2001-10-01

    A 85-year-old male developed a false, non septic, non anastomotic aneurysm, 20 years after right aorto-femoral Dacron grafting for claudication. On account of the proximity to the femoral anastomosis, and the association with a profunda femoris stenosis, a conventional surgical repair was preferred to an endovascular treatment. The patient underwent a successful aneurysm resection followed by PTFE interposition between the primary graft and the profunda femoris artery, with uneventful recovery.

  11. Neoplasia in immunosuppressed renal transplant patients: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Krueger, T.C.; Tallent, M.B. Jr.; Richie, R.E.; Johnson, H.K.; MacDonell, R.C.; Turner, B.

    1985-05-01

    This review examines a 20-year experience in renal transplantation at our center to determine the effects of immunosuppression on the subsequent development of malignancies. Twenty patients had 21 malignancies from primary sites other than skin, yielding an incidence of 2.5%. There were 0.65 malignancies for each 100 cumulative patient years of immunosuppression. Suppression of the host immune response is associated with an increased incidence of malignancies.

  12. LaRC 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mangum, Cathy H.; Harris, Charles E.; Allen, Cheryl L.; Craft, Stephen J.; Hope, Drew J.; Kegelman, Jerome T.; Mastaler, Michael D; Weiser, Erik S.

    2012-01-01

    LaRC has developed a 20-Year Center Revitalization Plan. The objective of this plan is to assure that the center infrastructure is sustainable for the long-term and that the center will have the essential facilities and laboratories to execute the future NASA mission. The plan was developed by a centerwide team, VITAL, and was approved by the Center Leadership Council (CLC) in March 2012. The revitalization plan will be implemented through the Center Master Planning process.

  13. Posttraumatic Intrusion, Avoidance, and Social Functioning: A 20-Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Zahava; Mikulincer, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The study assesses posttraumatic intrusion, avoidance, and social functioning among 214 Israeli combat veterans from the first Lebanon War with and without combat stress reaction (CSR) 1, 2, 3, and 20 years after the war. CSR veterans reported higher intrusion and avoidance than did non-CSR veterans. With time, there was a decline in these…

  14. Out with the old, in with the new: more valid measures of switch cost and retrieval time in the task span procedure.

    PubMed

    Logan, Gordon D

    2006-02-01

    Two experiments provided new measures of switch cost and retrieval time in the task span procedure. In Experiment 1, subjects were given lists of six task names to remember, followed by six targets on which to perform the tasks named in the list. The lists contained alternations and repetitions, and switch costs were estimated by comparing reaction time (RT) on alternation and repetition trials. The experiment also included memory span and single task conditions, so switch costs could be estimated by subtracting the sum of the RT in those conditions from the task span RT, as in the original report (Logan, 2004). The data suggested that the original measure of switch cost was invalid and that the new measure was preferable. In Experiment 2, subjects performed each task on the list twice. Retrieval was required on the first but not on the second trial in each pair. Retrieval time was estimated by comparing the RT on trials that required retrieval with trials that did not require retrieval. This measure was more valid than the RT in the memory span condition of Experiment 1, which was used in the original report.

  15. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  16. Intranasal and transantral ethmoidectomy: a 20-year experience.

    PubMed

    Friedman, W H; Katsantonis, G P

    1990-04-01

    Ethmoidectomy is an operation that has engendered controversy concerning the best route of surgical access. The purpose of this study was to present the results of the authors' experience in more than 1300 intranasal sphenoethmoidectomies and transantral sphenoethmoidectomies performed over a 20-year period. The authors contend that the most effective ethmoidectomy is the most complete ethmoidectomy and have previously presented a case for ethmoid marsupialization. Polyp recurrence rates of less than 20% and a major complication rate of less than 1% were reported in this study.

  17. [Surgical treatment of esophageal achalasia--20 years experience].

    PubMed

    Yaramov, N; Sokolov, M; Angelov, K; Toshev, S; Petrov, B

    2009-01-01

    Achalasia comes from a Greek word that means "failure to relax." Cardiospasm and achalasia refer to the same condition. This report addresses esophageal achalasia--its history, diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment options. We report our experience in treating this disorder surgically using modified Heller myotomy combined or not with partial gastric fundoplication. 47 patients with achalasia surgically operated in 20-years period are reported by authors. These features make it reasonable to reasses the relative indications for surgery and nonsurgical therapy in achalasia of the esophagus.

  18. A 20-Year Retrospective of the Career Development Quarterly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duboltz, Walter C., Jr.; Savickas, Mark L.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews volumes 23-42 of "Career Development Quarterly," classifying 791 articles into 14 substantive areas of career research and practice devised by Fitzgerald and Rounds. Life-span perspectives on career development and career development interventions were noted as principle areas of research activity and publication. (Author/CRR)

  19. 20 years of SAR measurements along the NAFS: interseismic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stramondo, S.; Walter, T. R.; Ergintav, S.; Diao, F.; Wang, R.; Polcari, M.; Serpelloni, E.; Devoti, R.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive analysis of the earthquake cycle is a key issue for the definition of the hazard in seismic areas. Advanced SAR Interferometry (A-InSAR) techniques have today a key role in Earth Sciences thanks to the capability to detect and measure slow surface movements along wide areas, and to follow the evolution of signal along a certain time periods. A-InSAR techniques have been applied to large datasets of SAR images spanning long time intervals and, together with in-situ surveys and ground measurements, can provide suitable information about the causes of post seismic (deformation rebound or residual strain release) and interseismic (seismic, creep) movements. In the framework of FP7 MARSITE (Marmara Supersite) project we have investigated the Western sector of North Anatolian Fault System (NAFS) from Istanbul toward Duzce area. From West toward the Marmara Sea region (Mudurnu/Akyaz) the NAFS begins to lose its single fault line character and splays into a complex fault system. The main Marmara Fault is argued to be a very young structure and exhibits typical characteristics of a major strike slip fault. In 1999 the August 17th Izmit earthquake was followed few months later by the Duzce mainshock. We compare the A-InSAR results to permanent GPS stations installed in the region after the Izmit/Duzce earthquakes. These observations allow studying the post-seismic deformation of the 1999 Izmit/Düzce earthquake. We investigate the response of the eastern Marmara Fault to the quasi-static loading caused by Izmit/Düzce earthquakes. Overlapped post-seismic processes of fault creep (or afterslip) and viscoelastic relaxation of the lower crust and the upper mantle were investigated. We firstly estimated the viscoelastic relaxation effect using well covered long-term GPS data. This relaxation effect was subtracted from the InSAR data and the remaining InSAR data was inverted to identify localized slip variation along the MMF. Our inversion results imply that part

  20. Earth observation photography: Looking back 20 years after Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, James H.

    1992-01-01

    A committee of trained classroom teachers, backed by a volunteer team of technical experts and academic advisors has developed a program for earth science based on photographs obtained from low earth orbit. In selecting targeting objectives, immediate note was made of the fact nearly one generation (20 years) has passed since the United States' ambitious SKYLAB program was conducted. A critical part of those missions was the acquisition of earth photography using a six camera, multi-spectral camera system. This objective was systematically furthered through the term of three separate crew visits to the Space Station. Not merely an exercise in randomly photographing the Earth below, the purpose of the Earth Resource Experiment Package (EREP) was to determine what kind, and how much, photographic data could be acquired of the broad variety of Earth features witnessed on the mission's ground track. The collection of 35,000 photos produced by EREP represents the most complete coverage of Earth. However, it remains under used. GAS 324 intends to revisit, and to add a tier of relevancy to this inventory. The photography of GAS 324 should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes in the globe in the last 20 years. format in both coverage and quality. The photogra phy acquired by CAN DO should allow a direct examination and comparison of the changes that have occured to the Globe in the last twenty years.

  1. Stability of the interstellar hydrogen inflow longitude from 20 years of SOHO/SWAN observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutroumpa, D.; Quémerais, E.; Katushkina, O.; Lallement, R.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Schmidt, W.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: A recent debate on the decade-long stability of the interstellar He flow vector, and in particular the flow longitude, has prompted us to check for any variability in the interstellar H flow vector as observed by the SWAN instrument on board SOHO. Methods: We used a simple model-independent method to determine the interstellar H flow longitude, based on the parallax effects induced on the Lyman-α intensity measured by SWAN following the satellite motion around the Sun. Results: Our results show that the interstellar H flow vector longitude does not vary significantly from an average value of 252.9°± 1.4° throughout the 20-year span of the SWAN dataset, further strengthening the arguments for the stability of the interstellar gas flow.

  2. Postmating Female Control: 20 Years of Cryptic Female Choice.

    PubMed

    Firman, Renée C; Gasparini, Clelia; Manier, Mollie K; Pizzari, Tommaso

    2017-03-16

    Cryptic female choice (CFC) represents postmating intersexual selection arising from female-driven mechanisms at or after mating that bias sperm use and impact male paternity share. Although biologists began to study CFC relatively late, largely spurred by Eberhard's book published 20 years ago, the field has grown rapidly since then. Here, we review empirical progress to show that numerous female processes offer potential for CFC, from mating through to fertilization, although seldom has CFC been clearly demonstrated. We then evaluate functional implications, and argue that, under some conditions, CFC might have repercussions for female fitness, sexual conflict, and intersexual coevolution, with ramifications for related evolutionary phenomena, such as speciation. We conclude by identifying directions for future research in this rapidly growing field.

  3. [Evaluation of 20 years' experience of enuresis in children].

    PubMed

    Averous, M; Lopez, C

    1997-06-01

    The clinical and urodynamic approach to enuretic children over a period of more than 20 years has allowed the authors to develop a multifactorial pathophysiological concept of this disorder. The main factors involved are psychological, familial, genetic, vesical, due to bladder immaturity, hormonal, due to a defect of nocturnal ADH secretion, hygiene and dietary habits, etc. The sleep factor is predominant in the majority of cases. Although nocturnal enuresis is apparently isolated in many cases, it is often associated with a state of bladder immaturity, sometimes latent during the day, but occurring at night with episodes of detrusor hyperactivity, occurring during various phases of sleep. In practice, the recognition, in children, of these factors, some of which require specific treatments, implies a management combining several of these therapeutic modalities.

  4. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    The authors reviewed their 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  5. Carcinoma of the hand: a 20-year experience

    SciTech Connect

    Bean, D.J.; Rees, R.S.; O'Leary, J.P.; Lynch, J.B.

    1984-08-01

    We reviewed our 20-year experience with cutaneous carcinoma of the hand and identified 70 cases (basal cell 23%, squamous cell 77%). The documented risk factors included solar radiation, trauma, and irradiation. Lesions were treated surgically with amputation, excision, skin graft, or flap closure, and nonsurgically with cryosurgery, curettage, 5-fluorouracil, or irradiation. The recurrence was lower with surgical treatment (3%) than with nonsurgical (33%). Regional lymphadenectomy was required in four patients for metastatic squamous cell carcinoma. Recurrence was greater (9%) and metastasis more common (38%) in patients with Marjolin's type of secondary squamous cell carcinoma than with solar-induced lesions. Cause is an important factor in outcome and should be considered in initial treatment and long-term management.

  6. Imaging the elastic properties of tissue: the 20 year perspective.

    PubMed

    Parker, K J; Doyley, M M; Rubens, D J

    2011-01-07

    After 20 years of innovation in techniques that specifically image the biomechanical properties of tissue, the evolution of elastographic imaging can be viewed from its infancy, through a proliferation of approaches to the problem to incorporation on research and then clinical imaging platforms. Ultimately this activity has culminated in clinical trials and improved care for patients. This remarkable progression represents a leading example of translational research that begins with fundamentals of science and engineering and progresses to needed improvements in diagnostic and monitoring capabilities applied to major categories of disease, surgery and interventional procedures. This review summarizes the fundamental principles, the timeline of developments in major categories of elastographic imaging, and concludes with recent results from clinical trials and forward-looking issues.

  7. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  8. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study.

    PubMed

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J T; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L; Lewis, Simon L

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types.

  9. African Savanna-Forest Boundary Dynamics: A 20-Year Study

    PubMed Central

    Cuni-Sanchez, Aida; White, Lee J. T.; Calders, Kim; Jeffery, Kathryn J.; Abernethy, Katharine; Burt, Andrew; Disney, Mathias; Gilpin, Martin; Gomez-Dans, Jose L.; Lewis, Simon L.

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies show widespread encroachment of forest into savannas with important consequences for the global carbon cycle and land-atmosphere interactions. However, little research has focused on in situ measurements of the successional sequence of savanna to forest in Africa. Using long-term inventory plots we quantify changes in vegetation structure, above-ground biomass (AGB) and biodiversity of trees ≥10 cm diameter over 20 years for five vegetation types: savanna; colonising forest (F1), monodominant Okoume forest (F2); young Marantaceae forest (F3); and mixed Marantaceae forest (F4) in Lopé National Park, central Gabon, plus novel 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) measurements to assess forest structure differences. Over 20 years no plot changed to a new stage in the putative succession, but F1 forests strongly moved towards the structure, AGB and diversity of F2 forests. Overall, savanna plots showed no detectable change in structure, AGB or diversity using this method, with zero trees ≥10 cm diameter in 1993 and 2013. F1 and F2 forests increased in AGB, mainly as a result of adding recruited stems (F1) and increased Basal Area (F2), whereas F3 and F4 forests did not change substantially in structure, AGB or diversity. Critically, the stability of the F3 stage implies that this stage may be maintained for long periods. Soil carbon was low, and did not show a successional gradient as for AGB and diversity. TLS vertical plant profiles showed distinctive differences amongst the vegetation types, indicating that this technique can improve ecological understanding. We highlight two points: (i) as forest colonises, changes in biodiversity are much slower than changes in forest structure or AGB; and (ii) all forest types store substantial quantities of carbon. Multi-decadal monitoring is likely to be required to assess the speed of transition between vegetation types. PMID:27336632

  10. What is SPAN?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    SPAN is the Space Physics Analysis Network. This important research tool of the NASA scientific community links space researchers from over 50 institutions throughout the United States. The SPAN system is growing within the United States, and it also is expanding to connect NASA scientists with European and Japanese space research institutions.The SPAN system serves many functions. Its paramount purpose is to provide scientists with a tool that improves their productivity. SPAN has traditionally been used to exchange mail messages, to send data back and forth for scientific papers and analysis workshops, and to share scientific software. SPAN has played a crucial role by disseminating spacecraft data in near-real time during several recent NASA and ESA program successes, such as the International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft encounter with Comet Giacobini-Zinner (see “Behind the Scenes During a Comet Encounter” by J.L. Green and J.H. King, Eos, March 4, 1986, p. 105), the Voyager 2 encounter with Uranus, and the Giotto spacecraft encounter with Comet Halley (see “Networking Ground-Based Images of Comet Halley during the Giotto Encounter” by D. Rees et al., Eos, December 16, 1986, p. 1385). Of course, SPAN has served a variety of broader purposes. It has provided (and will continue to provide) an excellent testing ground for trying new technologies and for evaluating ideas about processing, storing, and transferring various kinds of information. Until the recent availability of computers sponsored by the National Science Foundation, the SPAN network provided one of the few opportunities for NASA researchers to have ready access to the supercomputers needed for large-scale numerical simulation of magnetospheric and ionospheric plasma systems. SPAN has also increased its usefulness substantially by the addition of the National Space Science Data Center (NSSDC) as a data node on the system. The network, which was originally based on a starshaped

  11. Effects of rate-of-change pattern on the discrimination of unidirectional gliding tones with fixed frequency and time transition spans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Pei-Chun; Tang, Shih-Tsang; Young, Shuenn-Tsong

    2005-09-01

    Listening experiments were designed to test the three hypotheses for detection and discrimination of glides in frequency: (1) end point sampling; (2) a weighted average method; and (3) decision based on changes in the low-frequency side of the excitation pattern. Forty-eight frequency and time transition spans were chosen. The center frequencies of testing signals were 500 Hz, 2 KHz, and 6 KHz, with frequency spans of 0, 0.5, 1, and 2 ERBs and durations of 20, 50, 200, and 400 ms. For a given transition span, the frequency difference limens for five different gliding patterns were measured, including linear chirp, quadratic and inverse quadratic sweep chirps, and FM modulated sweeps. All test patterns had the following features: (1) they are unidirectional gliding tones with increasing instantaneous frequency throughout the whole duration; (2) the phase functions are at least first-order differentiable, thus the interference of click sounds caused by fast frequency transitions are alleviated. The results showed that none of these hypotheses was able to explain the mechanism for detection and discrimination of glides in frequency well. It is speculated that, at least, both sides of the excitation patterns should be compared, and that the time-related cues could have an effect as well.

  12. Relative sea level trend and variability in the central Mediterranean in the time span 1872-2014 from tide gauge data: implications for future projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anzidei, Marco; Vecchio, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    We used tidal data collected in the time span 1872-2014 from a set of historical and modern stations located in the central Mediterranean, along the coasts of Italy, France, Slovenia and Croatia. The longest records span across the last two or three centuries for the tidal stations of Genova, Marseille, Trieste and Venice. While data from Bakar, Dubrovink, Rovinji and Split, all located along the coast of the Adriatic sea, provide valid records for a time span about 50 years long. In addition to these stations, since 1998 become available for the Italian region new sea level data from the dense national tidal network (www.mareografico.it). These digital stations are collecting data continuously at 10 minute sampling interval with a nominal accuracy at 1 mm. Therefore, in addition to the historical stations, we have the opportunity to analyze a sea level data set that cover about the last 16 years. In this study we show and discuss the results of our analysis of sea level data for the central Mediterranean, providing new insights on sea level trend and variability for about the past 140 years. Finally, based on sea level data and IPCC reports, we provide future sea level projections for this region for the year 2100 with implications for coastal flooding of lowland areas.

  13. A 20-year simulated climatology of global dust aerosol deposition.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Zhao, Tianliang; Che, Huizheng; Liu, Yu; Han, Yongxiang; Liu, Chong; Xiong, Jie; Liu, Jianhui; Zhou, Yike

    2016-07-01

    Based on a 20-year (1991-2010) simulation of dust aerosol deposition with the global climate model CAM5.1 (Community Atmosphere Model, version 5.1), the spatial and temporal variations of dust aerosol deposition were analyzed using climate statistical methods. The results indicated that the annual amount of global dust aerosol deposition was approximately 1161±31Mt, with a decreasing trend, and its interannual variation range of 2.70% over 1991-2010. The 20-year average ratio of global dust dry to wet depositions was 1.12, with interannual variation of 2.24%, showing the quantity of dry deposition of dust aerosol was greater than dust wet deposition. High dry deposition was centered over continental deserts and surrounding regions, while wet deposition was a dominant deposition process over the North Atlantic, North Pacific and northern Indian Ocean. Furthermore, both dry and wet deposition presented a zonal distribution. To examine the regional changes of dust aerosol deposition on land and sea areas, we chose the North Atlantic, Eurasia, northern Indian Ocean, North Pacific and Australia to analyze the interannual and seasonal variations of dust deposition and dry-to-wet deposition ratio. The deposition amounts of each region showed interannual fluctuations with the largest variation range at around 26.96% in the northern Indian Ocean area, followed by the North Pacific (16.47%), Australia (9.76%), North Atlantic (9.43%) and Eurasia (6.03%). The northern Indian Ocean also had the greatest amplitude of interannual variation in dry-to-wet deposition ratio, at 22.41%, followed by the North Atlantic (9.69%), Australia (6.82%), North Pacific (6.31%) and Eurasia (4.36%). Dust aerosol presented a seasonal cycle, with typically strong deposition in spring and summer and weak deposition in autumn and winter. The dust deposition over the northern Indian Ocean exhibited the greatest seasonal change range at about 118.00%, while the North Atlantic showed the lowest seasonal

  14. Span efficiency in hawkmoths

    PubMed Central

    Henningsson, Per; Bomphrey, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Flight in animals is the result of aerodynamic forces generated as flight muscles drive the wings through air. Aerial performance is therefore limited by the efficiency with which momentum is imparted to the air, a property that can be measured using modern techniques. We measured the induced flow fields around six hawkmoth species flying tethered in a wind tunnel to assess span efficiency, ei, and from these measurements, determined the morphological and kinematic characters that predict efficient flight. The species were selected to represent a range in wingspan from 40 to 110 mm (2.75 times) and in mass from 0.2 to 1.5 g (7.5 times) but they were similar in their overall shape and their ecology. From high spatio-temporal resolution quantitative wake images, we extracted time-resolved downwash distributions behind the hawkmoths, calculating instantaneous values of ei throughout the wingbeat cycle as well as multi-wingbeat averages. Span efficiency correlated positively with normalized lift and negatively with advance ratio. Average span efficiencies for the moths ranged from 0.31 to 0.60 showing that the standard generic value of 0.83 used in previous studies of animal flight is not a suitable approximation of aerodynamic performance in insects. PMID:23658113

  15. 20 years of leptin: connecting leptin signaling to biological function.

    PubMed

    Allison, Margaret B; Myers, Martin G

    2014-10-01

    Hypothalamic leptin action promotes negative energy balance and modulates glucose homeostasis, as well as serving as a permissive signal to the neuroendocrine axes that control growth and reproduction. Since the initial discovery of leptin 20 years ago, we have learned a great deal about the molecular mechanisms of leptin action. An important aspect of this has been the dissection of the cellular mechanisms of leptin signaling, and how specific leptin signals influence physiology. Leptin acts via the long form of the leptin receptor LepRb. LepRb activation and subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation recruits and activates multiple signaling pathways, including STAT transcription factors, SHP2 and ERK signaling, the IRS-protein/PI3Kinase pathway, and SH2B1. Each of these pathways controls specific aspects of leptin action and physiology. Important inhibitory pathways mediated by suppressor of cytokine signaling proteins and protein tyrosine phosphatases also limit physiologic leptin action. This review summarizes the signaling pathways engaged by LepRb and their effects on energy balance, glucose homeostasis, and reproduction. Particular emphasis is given to the multiple mouse models that have been used to elucidate these functions in vivo.

  16. Sources of happiness and stress for college students: a replication and comparison over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Staats, Sara; Cosmar, David; Kaffenberger, Joshua

    2007-12-01

    The advancement of positive psychology is dependent upon measures of happiness, both globally and in specific contexts. Data are presented on two measures of sources of college students' happiness from two samples. Testing of the two cohorts (Ns=258, 68) was separated by 20 years. Measures for both samples had acceptable psychometric properties. There was an increase in college students' self-reported happiness across the 20-year period in the rankings of different sources of college happiness and general happiness. In a second study, a different group of students (N= 176) were given a list and asked to select the most important uplifts and hassles in their lives. In general, mean scores on affect measures were relatively stable across time, but transportation hassles were reported as a new source of negative affect in the present study.

  17. Altered speech following adenoidectomy: a 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Stewart, K J; Ahmad, T; Razzell, R E; Watson, A C H

    2002-09-01

    Altered speech related to velopharyngeal insufficiency is a rare but well-recognised complication of adenoidectomy. Over a 20 year period, 42 patients were referred to the Edinburgh cleft team for investigation of altered speech persisting for more than 12 months after adenoidectomy. We studied the cases to ascertain the incidence, clinical features and causes of altered speech in these patients and to assess the efficacy of a selective treatment policy. All data were prospectively collected when the patients were assessed in a multidisciplinary clinic and investigated by videofluoroscopy. Nasopharyngoscopy was also possible in half of the patients. Overall, 27 patients were male and 15 were female, and their mean age was 6.5 years. The incidence was one in 1200 adenoidectomies. Diagnoses included five submucous cleft palates, six occult submucous cleft palates, 22 cases of velopharyngeal disproportion, seven developmental or neurological causes, one iatrogenic palatal injury and one case that defied diagnosis. In six patients treatment was not required, 13 responded to speech therapy and 23 required surgical intervention. The choice of operation was based on the findings at investigation. Ten patients were treated by a superiorly based pharyngeal flap, 10 underwent a sphincteric pharyngoplasty and three had an intravelar veloplasty. Speech outcome was assessed in 36 cases. Treatment resulted in significantly improved speech in all but one patient and normal speech in 16 patients. Persistently altered speech is a rare complication of adenoidectomy. Preoperative screening by clinical examination will prevent some but not all of such problems. When patients present they should undergo multidisciplinary assessment and multi-modality investigation. A good outcome can be anticipated in most patients.

  18. Genetics of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy after 20 years: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Maron, Barry J; Maron, Martin S; Semsarian, Christopher

    2012-08-21

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common familial heart disease with vast genetic heterogeneity, demonstrated over the past 20 years. Mutations in 11 or more genes encoding proteins of the cardiac sarcomere (>1,400 variants) are responsible for (or associated with) HCM. Explosive progress achieved in understanding the rapidly evolving science underlying HCM genomics has resulted in fee-for-service testing, making genetic information widely available. The power of HCM mutational analysis, albeit a more limited role than initially envisioned, lies most prominently in screening family members at risk for developing disease and excluding unaffected relatives, which is information not achievable otherwise. Genetic testing also allows expansion of the broad HCM disease spectrum and diagnosis of HCM phenocopies with different natural history and treatment options, but is not a reliable strategy for predicting prognosis. Interfacing a heterogeneous disease such as HCM with the vast genetic variability of the human genome, and high frequency of novel mutations, has created unforeseen difficulties in translating complex science (and language) into the clinical arena. Indeed, proband diagnostic testing is often expressed on a probabilistic scale, which is frequently incompatible with clinical decision making. Major challenges rest with making reliable distinctions between pathogenic mutations and benign variants, and those judged to be of uncertain significance. Genotyping in HCM can be a powerful tool for family screening and diagnosis. However, wider adoption and future success of genetic testing in the practicing cardiovascular community depends on a standardized approach to mutation interpretation, and bridging the communication gap between basic scientists and clinicians.

  19. 2. View northeast. South elevation Westminster span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View northeast. South elevation - Westminster span, link span, Walpole span. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  20. 1. View south. North elevation Walpole span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View south. North elevation - Walpole span, link span, and Westminster span. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  1. Phase-field-crystal modeling of glass-forming liquids: spanning time scales during vitrification, aging, and deformation.

    PubMed

    Berry, Joel; Grant, Martin

    2014-06-01

    Two essential elements required to generate a glass transition within phase-field-crystal (PFC) models are outlined based on observed freezing behaviors in various models of this class. The central dynamic features of glass formation in simple binary liquids are qualitatively reproduced across 12 orders of magnitude in time by applying a physically motivated time scaling to previous PFC simulation results. New aspects of the equilibrium phase behavior of the same binary model system are also outlined, aging behavior is explored in the moderate and deeply supercooled regimes, and aging exponents are extracted. General features of the elastic and plastic responses of amorphous and crystalline PFC solids under deformation are also compared and contrasted.

  2. Hot spots, hot moments and time-span of changes in drivers and their responses on carbon cycling in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomelleri, E.; Forkel, M.; Fuchs, R.; Jung, M.; Mahecha, M. D.; Reichstein, M.; Weber, U.

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study is to provide a complete quantitative assessment of the annual to decadal variability, hotspots of changes and the temporal magnitude of regional trends and variability for the main drivers of carbon cycle like climate and land use and their responses for Europe. For this purpose we used an harmonized climatic data set (ERA Interim and WATCH) and an historical land-use change reconstruction (HILDAv1, Fuchs in prep.). Both the data sets cover the period 1900-2010 and have a 0.25 deg spatial resolution. As driver response we used two different empirically up-scaled GPP fields: the first (MTE) obtained by the application of model trees (Jung et al. 2009) and a second (LUE) based on a light use efficiency model (Tomelleri in prep.). Both the approaches are based on the up-scaling of Fluxnet observations. The response fields have monthly temporal resolution and are limited to the period 1982-2011. We estimated break-points in time series of driver and response variables based on the method of Bai and Perron (2003) to identify changes in trends. This method was implemented in Verbesselt et al. 2010 and applied by deJong et al. 2011 to detect phenological and abrupt changes and trends in vegetation activity based on satellite-derived vegetation index time series. The analysis of drivers and responses allowed to identify the dominant factors driving the biosphere-atmosphere carbon exchange. The synchronous analysis of climatic drivers and land use change allowed us to explain most of the temporal and spatial variability showing that in the regions and time period where the most land use change occurred the climatic drivers are not sufficient to explain trends and oscillation in carbon cycling. The comparison of our analysis for the up-scaling methods shows some agreement: we found inconsistency in the spatial and temporal patterns in regions where the Fluxnet network is less dense. This can be explained by the conceptual difference in the up

  3. Trend analysis of performance parameters of pre-packed columns for protein chromatography over a time span of ten years.

    PubMed

    Scharl, Theresa; Jungreuthmayer, Christian; Dürauer, Astrid; Schweiger, Susanne; Schröder, Tim; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-09-23

    Pre-packed small scale chromatography columns are increasingly used for process development, for determination of design space in bioprocess development, and for post-licence process verifications. The packing quality of 30,000 pre-packed columns delivered to customers over a period 10 years has been analyzed by advanced statistical tools. First, the data were extracted and checked for inconsistencies, and then were tabulated and made ready for statistical processing using the programming language Perl (https://www.perl.org/) and the statistical computing environment R (https://www.r-project.org/). Reduced HETP and asymmetry were plotted over time to obtain a trend of packing quality over 10 years. The obtained data were used as a visualized coefficient of variation analysis (VCVA), a process that has often been applied in other industries such as semiconductor manufacturing. A typical fluctuation of reduced HETP was seen. A Tsunami effect in manufacturing, the effect of propagation of manufacturing deviations leading to out-of-specification products, was not observed with these pre-packed columns. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that all packing materials cluster. Our data analysis showed that the current commercially available chromatography media used for biopharmaceutical manufacturing can be reproducibly and uniformly packed in polymer-based chromatography columns, which are designed for ready-to-use purposes. Although the number of packed columns has quadrupled over one decade the packing quality has remained stable.

  4. Europe Unveils 20-Year Plan for Brilliant Future in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-11-01

    Astronomy is enjoying a golden age of fundamental, exciting discoveries. Europe is at the forefront, thanks to 50 years of progress in cooperation. To remain ahead over the next two to three decades, Europe must prioritise and coordinate the investment of its financial and human resources even more closely. The ASTRONET network, backed by the entire European scientific community, supported by the European Commission, and coordinated by the CNRS, today presents its Roadmap for a brilliant future for European astronomy. ESO's European Extremely Large Telescope is ranked as one of two top-priority large ground-based projects. Astronet and the E-ELT ESO PR Photo 43a/08 The E-ELT Europe is a leader in astronomy today, with the world's most successful optical observatory, ESO's Very Large Telescope, and cutting-edge facilities in radio astronomy and in space. In an unprecedented effort demonstrating the potential of European scientific cooperation, all of European astronomy is now joining forces to define the scientific challenges for the future and construct a common plan to address them in a cost-effective manner. In 2007, a top-level Science Vision was prepared to assess the most burning scientific questions over the next quarter century, ranging from dark energy to life on other planets. European astronomy now presents its Infrastructure Roadmap, a comprehensive 20-year plan to coordinate national and community investments to meet these challenges in a cost-effective manner. The Roadmap not only prioritises the necessary new frontline research facilities from radio telescopes to planetary probes, in space and on the ground, but also considers such key issues as existing facilities, human resources, ICT infrastructure, education and outreach, and cost -- of operations as well as construction. This bold new initiative -- ASTRONET -- was created by the major European funding agencies with support from the European Commission and is coordinated by the National Institute

  5. Children's Rights and Youth Justice: 20 Years of No Progress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Roger

    2010-01-01

    The adoption of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC) in 1989 and its ratification by the UK government two years later came at a time of considerable progress in youth justice. The Convention itself set clear standards of treatment, in terms of both processes and disposals, which appeared at the time to provide positive…

  6. 20 Years Later: Dynamics of the School-College Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimann, Revital

    2015-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the dynamics of partnership over time between a training school and a college of education. Its purpose was to provide a deeper understanding of the dynamics of collaboration within the context of the partnership between the school and the college. The dynamics of the changes occurring in this collaboration over a…

  7. [Occupational medicine in Desio: 20 years of activities].

    PubMed

    Toffoletto, F

    1998-01-01

    We describe the main factors determining the evolution of the Occupational Medicine Department of Desio Hospital (UOOML) during last twenty years. We report the more meaningful experiences achieved during this period of time. We also describe the present organization of the department in relation to the main activities.

  8. Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control.

    PubMed

    Van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees' paranoid cognitions-representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability-link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees' self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees' organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e., those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization.

  9. Paranoia as an Antecedent and Consequence of Getting Ahead in Organizations: Time-Lagged Effects Between Paranoid Cognitions, Self-Monitoring, and Changes in Span of Control

    PubMed Central

    Van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2016-01-01

    A 6-month, time-lagged online survey among 441 employees in diverse industries was conducted to investigate the role paranoia plays as an antecedent and as a consequence of advancement in organizations. The background of the study is the argument that it requires active social sense-making and behavioral adaptability to advance in organizations. The present paper thus explores the extent to which employees’ paranoid cognitions—representative of a heightened albeit suspicious sense-making and behavioral adaptability—link with their advancement in organizations (operationalized as changes in afforded span of control), both as an antecedent and an outcome. Following the strategy to illuminate the process by interaction analysis, both conditions (antecedent and outcome) are examined in interaction with employees’ self-monitoring, which is considered representative of a heightened but healthy sense-making and behavioral adaptability. Results support the expected interference interaction between paranoid cognitions and self-monitoring in that each can to some degree compensate for the other in explaining employees’ organizational advancement. Reversely, changes in span of control also affected paranoid cognitions. In particular, low self-monitors, i.e., those low in adaptive sense-making, reacted with heightened paranoid cognitions when demoted. In effect, the present study is thus the first to empirically support that paranoid cognitions can be a consequence but also a prerequisite for getting ahead in organizations. Practical advice should, however, be suspended until it is better understood whether and under what circumstances paranoia may relate not only to personally getting ahead but also to an increased effectiveness for the benefit of the organization. PMID:27713724

  10. Pulmonary gas transfer 20 years after pneumonectomy for pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed Central

    Gimeno, F; Kraan, J K; Orie, N G; Peset, R

    1977-01-01

    The changes in pulmonary function after pneumonectomy in 13 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis have been studied. The data at the time of two follow-up studies are compared with those obtained before the pneumonectomy. The first follow-up was carried out between 5 and 30 months postoperatively and the second between 20 and 24 years later. The results of this second follow-up show a relatively normal arterial oxygen saturation and gas transfer factor but an increased residual volume which cannot be explained by increasing age alone. PMID:841538

  11. My 20 years of experience in the human factors field

    SciTech Connect

    Carnino, A. )

    1992-01-01

    My first encounter with human factors happened in early 1973: I was performing a reliability assessment of the safety injection system of the Fessenheim reactor, and I found that the operators had to switch to the recirculation phase manually and had only 6 min between the low and low-low level alarm indicating that the water tank was empty. It of course led us to replace this manual action by an automatic positioning for the recirculation phase. In July of the same year, I attended a North Atlantic Treaty Organization workshop in Liverpool on reliability assessment, and I met Alan Swain from the United States and Jens Rasmussen from Denmark. During the long rainy evenings of the seminar, we had time to discuss human errors and human factors, and that was the beginning of a very fruitful collaboration between us. I realized then the complexity of the problem. Quantification needs were obvious for reliability and risk assessment studies, but, at the same time, there were needs for better understanding of human behavior and the mechanisms that could lead to human errors. Knowledge of the man-machine interface also seemed very poor, although some basic ergonomic rules were available and could be applied. But a major problem was the lack of data.

  12. Themes, Orientations, Synergies and a Shared Agenda: The First 20?Years of the SEDA Series of Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pickford, Ruth; Brown, Sally

    2013-01-01

    Over 20?years, 25 books have been published to date in the SEDA series, and this review article aims to analyse the ways in which books within the series have contributed to thinking in higher education pedagogy over this time. We have approached the texts through three lenses, analysing them chronologically, thematically and by the orientation of…

  13. Early excision and grafting of face and neck burns in patients over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Cole, Jana K; Engrav, Loren H; Heimbach, David M; Gibran, Nicole S; Costa, Beth A; Nakamura, Dana Y; Moore, Merilyn L; Blayney, Carolyn B; Hoover, Carolyn L

    2002-04-01

    Although excision and grafting of burns has become common and standard, many surgeons have been reluctant to excise and graft face burns. In fact, we could find photographic results at 1 year after grafting of only eight patients in the English literature. We began excision and grafting of face burns in 1979 and presented our first 16 patients in 1986 in this journal. With encouragement from Janzekovic and Jackson, we continued and have now used essentially the same procedure for more than 20 years in approximately 100 patients and, from this large series, are able to present outcomes. From January of 1979 to May of 1999, we performed excision and grafting on 91 patients with deep face burns. Data were recorded and 35-mm photographs were obtained throughout the 20-year period. We reviewed that database and the slide files of these patients. We found 45 patients with complete photographic sets including 1-year follow-up. Since, in our opinion, there is no useful, objective measure of appearance, we decided to simply publish all 45 sets of complete photographs, permitting the reader to subjectively form an opinion of the outcome of this procedure. The results are all shown as "full" face burns and two "partial" face burns. We continue to believe that early excision and grafting is indicated for face burns that will not heal within 3 weeks and that the procedure yields results that permit the burn victims to return to society and minimizes the time off work or out of school.

  14. Episodic Heavy Drinking and 20-Year Total Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Brennan, Penny L.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Analyses of moderate drinking have focused overwhelmingly on average consumption, which masks diverse underlying drinking patterns. This study examined the association between episodic heavy drinking and total mortality among moderate-drinking older adults. Methods At baseline, the sample was comprised of 446 adults aged 55 to 65: 74 moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking and 372 regular moderate drinkers. The database at baseline also included a broad set of sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status covariates. Death across a 20-year follow-up period was confirmed primarily by death certificate. Results In multiple logistic regression analyses, after adjusting for all covariates, as well as overall alcohol consumption, moderate drinkers who engaged in episodic heavy drinking had more than two times higher odds of 20-year mortality in comparison to regular moderate drinkers. Conclusions Among older moderate drinkers, those who engage in episodic heavy drinking show significantly increased total mortality risk compared to regular moderate drinkers. Episodic heavy drinking—even when average consumption remains moderate—is a significant public health concern. PMID:24588326

  15. 20 years of Black Carbon measurements in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutzner, Rebecca; Quedenau, Jörn; Kuik, Friderike; von Schneidemesser, Erika; Schmale, Julia

    2016-04-01

    Black Carbon (BC) is an important short-lived climate-forcing pollutant contributing to global warming through absorption of sunlight. At the same time, BC, as a component of particulate matter (PM) exerts adverse health effects, like decreased lung function and exacerbated asthma. Globally, anthropogenic emission sources of BC include residential heating, transport, and agricultural fires, while the dominant natural emission sources are wildfires. Despite the various adverse effects of BC, legislation that requires mandatory monitoring of BC concentrations does not currently exist in the European Union. Instead, BC is only indirectly monitored as component of PM10 and PM2.5 (particulate matter with a diameter smaller 10 μm and 2.5 μm). Before the introduction of mandatory PM10 and PM2.5 monitoring in the European Union in 2005 and 2015, respectively, 'black smoke', a surrogate for BC, was a required measurement in Germany from the early 1990s. The annual mean limit value was 14 μg m-3 from 1995 and 8 μg m-3 from 1998 onwards. Many 'black smoke' measurements were stopped in 2004, with the repeal of the regulations obtaining at the time. However, in most German federal states a limited number BC monitoring stations continued to operate. Here we present a synthesis of BC data from 213 stations across Germany covering the period between 1994 and 2014. Due to the lack of a standardized method and respective legislation, the data set is very heterogeneous relying on twelve different measurement methods including chemical, optical, and thermal-optical methods. Stations include locations classified as background, urban-background, industrial and traffic among other types. Raw data in many different formats has been modelled and integrated in a relational database, allowing various options for further data analysis. We highlight results from the year 2009, as it is the year with the largest measurement coverage based on the same measurement method, with 30 stations. In

  16. Insights from 20 years of bacterial genome sequencing.

    PubMed

    Land, Miriam; Hauser, Loren; Jun, Se-Ran; Nookaew, Intawat; Leuze, Michael R; Ahn, Tae-Hyuk; Karpinets, Tatiana; Lund, Ole; Kora, Guruprased; Wassenaar, Trudy; Poudel, Suresh; Ussery, David W

    2015-03-01

    Since the first two complete bacterial genome sequences were published in 1995, the science of bacteria has dramatically changed. Using third-generation DNA sequencing, it is possible to completely sequence a bacterial genome in a few hours and identify some types of methylation sites along the genome as well. Sequencing of bacterial genome sequences is now a standard procedure, and the information from tens of thousands of bacterial genomes has had a major impact on our views of the bacterial world. In this review, we explore a series of questions to highlight some insights that comparative genomics has produced. To date, there are genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. However, the distribution is quite skewed towards a few phyla that contain model organisms. But the breadth is continuing to improve, with projects dedicated to filling in less characterized taxonomic groups. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas system provides bacteria with immunity against viruses, which outnumber bacteria by tenfold. How fast can we go? Second-generation sequencing has produced a large number of draft genomes (close to 90 % of bacterial genomes in GenBank are currently not complete); third-generation sequencing can potentially produce a finished genome in a few hours, and at the same time provide methlylation sites along the entire chromosome. The diversity of bacterial communities is extensive as is evident from the genome sequences available from 50 different bacterial phyla and 11 different archaeal phyla. Genome sequencing can help in classifying an organism, and in the case where multiple genomes of the same species are available, it is possible to calculate the pan- and core genomes; comparison of more than 2000 Escherichia coli genomes finds an E. coli core genome of about 3100 gene families and a total of about 89,000 different gene families. Why do we care about bacterial genome

  17. SPAN: Astronomy and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Valerie L.; Green, James L.; Warren, Wayne H., Jr.; Lopez-Swafford, Brian

    1987-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a multi-mission, correlative data comparison network which links science research and data analysis computers in the U.S., Canada, and Europe. The purpose of this document is to provide Astronomy and Astrophysics scientists, currently reachable on SPAN, with basic information and contacts for access to correlative data bases, star catalogs, and other astrophysic facilities accessible over SPAN.

  18. Assessment of benthic changes during 20 years of monitoring the Mexican Salina Cruz Bay.

    PubMed

    González-Macías, C; Schifter, I; Lluch-Cota, D B; Méndez-Rodríguez, L; Hernández-Vázquez, S

    2009-02-01

    In this work a non-parametric multivariate analysis was used to assess the impact of metals and organic compounds in the macro infaunal component of the mollusks benthic community using surface sediment data from several monitoring programs collected over 20 years in Salina Cruz Bay, Mexico. The data for benthic mollusks community characteristics (richness, abundance and diversity) were linked to multivariate environmental patterns, using the Alternating Conditional Expectations method to correlate the biological measurements of the mollusk community with the physicochemical properties of water and sediments. Mollusks community variation is related to environmental characteristics as well as lead content. Surface deposit feeders are increasing their relative density, while subsurface deposit feeders are decreasing with respect to time, these last are expected to be more related with sediment and more affected then by its quality. However gastropods with predatory carnivore as well as chemosymbiotic deposit feeder bivalves have maintained their relative densities along time.

  19. [A glaucoma follow-up of 1500 persons over 20 years].

    PubMed

    Fitoussi, Y; Corbe, C; Hamard, H; Perdriel, G

    1988-01-01

    The parameters of glaucoma risk have been compiled and computer processed on 1,571 patients during 20 years at the C.P.E.M.P.N. (Medical Evaluation Center for the Aeronautic Staff) of Paris. The goal of this study is to follow in real time the évolution of these parameters and to determine their physiological variations across time in terms of age and professional categories. An average intra-ocular pressure of 15.1 mmHg as well as hypertonia and glaucoma percentages respectively of 3.88% and 0.6% have been recorded in this study. These results were below the results of other previous surveys due to the greater age range of our study the youngest being 15 years old. There was no significant difference among pilots and non pilots. The optic disc examination was not decisive for diagnostic screening.

  20. 4. View northwest. South elevation Walpole span, link span, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View northwest. South elevation - Walpole span, link span, and Westminster span. Structure on east pier is stream level gauge station. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  1. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period

    PubMed Central

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989–90 and in 2010–12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species (‘focal species’) in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the ‘preferences’ of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats. PMID:25750408

  2. Changes in plant species composition of coastal dune habitats over a 20-year period.

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Silvia; Prisco, Irene; Acosta, Alicia T R; Stanisci, Angela

    2015-03-05

    Coastal sandy ecosystems are increasingly being threatened by human pressure, causing loss of biodiversity, habitat degradation and landscape modifications. However, there are still very few detailed studies focussing on compositional changes in coastal dune plant communities over time. In this work, we investigated how coastal dune European Union (EU) habitats (from pioneer annual beach communities to Mediterranean scrubs on the landward fixed dunes) have changed during the last 20 years. Using phytosociological relevés conducted in 1989-90 and in 2010-12, we investigated changes in floristic composition over time. We then compared plant cover and the proportion of ruderal, alien and habitat diagnostic species ('focal species') in the two periods. Finally, we used Ellenberg indicator values to define the 'preferences' of the plant species for temperature and moisture. We found that only fore dune habitats showed significant differences in species cover between the two time periods, with higher plant cover in the more recent relevés and a significant increase in thermophilic species. Although previous studies have demonstrated consistent habitat loss in this area, we observed that all coastal dune plant communities remain well represented, after a 20-year period. However, fore dunes have been experiencing significant compositional changes. Although we cannot confirm whether the observed changes are strictly related to climatic changes, to human pressure or to both, we hypothesize that a moderate increment in average yearly temperature may have promoted the increase in plant cover and the spread of thermophilic species. Thus, even though human activities are major driving forces of change in coastal dune vegetation, at the community scale climatic factors may also play important roles. Our study draws on re-visitation studies which appear to constitute a powerful tool for the assessment of the conservation status of EU habitats.

  3. Investigations of natural and artificial disturbances in the Earth-ionosphere cavity via VLF radio links for the time span 2009-2015 (sunspot cycle 24)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichelberger, Hans; Schwingenschuh, Konrad; Besser, B. P.; Prattes, Gustav; Aydogar; Wolbang, Daniel; Rozhnoi, Alexander; Solovieva, Maria; Biagi, Pier Francesco; Boudjada, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    We focus on natural disturbances of the sub-ionospheric VLF waveguide in the time span 2009 to 2015 (sunspot cycle 24), i.e. variations in amplitude and phase measurements of the radio paths are considered. In particular we're investigating numerous solar flares (up to X-class), geomagnetic storms and substorms, therefore discuss how to discriminate natural from artificial variations between different transmitters and receivers. Meteorological effects could be important [1] and we estimate the possibility to detect the influence of lithospheric sources in the VLF radio links. As part of the VLF multistation network we're using the single receiver mid-latitude station in Graz, Austria. This facility receives up to 12 transmitter simultaneously (frequency range 10-50 kHz), has 20 sec temporal resolution, and is running continuously since 2009 [2]. We obtain the statistics relating VLF amplitude and phase fluctuations with C/M/X-class solar flares, and characterise night time fluctuations in connection with enhanced particle precipitation in the northern latitude path (Iceland transmitter). The statistics is important to improve the quality of seismo-electromagnetic studies. We conclude that for ionospheric perturbations (D-layer), e.g. solar flares, a reliable real time monitoring service can be established. Atmospheric and lithospheric variations are generally difficult to characterise, it's harder to distinguish between natural and man made signals, therefore - as a future outlook - complementary ground and satellite based measurements can deliver valuable additional information for environmental monitoring. References: [1] A. Rozhnoi et al.: Meteorological effects in the lower ionosphere as based on VLF/LF signal observations, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 14, 2671-2679, 2014. [2] K. Schwingenschuh et al.: The Graz seismo-electromagnetic VLF facility, Nat. Hazards Earth Syst. Sci., 11, 1121-1127, 2011.

  4. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    PubMed

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  5. Unintended compositional changes in genetically modified (GM) crops: 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Herman, Rod A; Price, William D

    2013-12-04

    The compositional equivalency between genetically modified (GM) crops and nontransgenic comparators has been a fundamental component of human health safety assessment for 20 years. During this time, a large amount of information has been amassed on the compositional changes that accompany both the transgenesis process and traditional breeding methods; additionally, the genetic mechanisms behind these changes have been elucidated. After two decades, scientists are encouraged to objectively assess this body of literature and determine if sufficient scientific uncertainty still exists to continue the general requirement for these studies to support the safety assessment of transgenic crops. It is concluded that suspect unintended compositional effects that could be caused by genetic modification have not materialized on the basis of this substantial literature. Hence, compositional equivalence studies uniquely required for GM crops may no longer be justified on the basis of scientific uncertainty.

  6. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-08-07

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review.

  7. Pharmacogenetics research on chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Panczyk, Mariusz

    2014-01-01

    During the past two decades the first sequencing of the human genome was performed showing its high degree of inter-individual differentiation, as a result of large international research projects (Human Genome Project, the 1000 Genomes Project International HapMap Project, and Programs for Genomic Applications NHLBI-PGA). This period was also a time of intensive development of molecular biology techniques and enormous knowledge growth in the biology of cancer. For clinical use in the treatment of patients with colorectal cancer (CRC), in addition to fluoropyrimidines, another two new cytostatic drugs were allowed: irinotecan and oxaliplatin. Intensive research into new treatment regimens and a new generation of drugs used in targeted therapy has also been conducted. The last 20 years was a time of numerous in vitro and in vivo studies on the molecular basis of drug resistance. One of the most important factors limiting the effectiveness of chemotherapy is the primary and secondary resistance of cancer cells. Understanding the genetic factors and mechanisms that contribute to the lack of or low sensitivity of tumour tissue to cytostatics is a key element in the currently developing trend of personalized medicine. Scientists hope to increase the percentage of positive treatment response in CRC patients due to practical applications of pharmacogenetics/pharmacogenomics. Over the past 20 years the clinical usability of different predictive markers has been tested among which only a few have been confirmed to have high application potential. This review is a synthetic presentation of drug resistance in the context of CRC patient chemotherapy. The multifactorial nature and volume of the issues involved do not allow the author to present a comprehensive study on this subject in one review. PMID:25110414

  8. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  9. Survival Trends After Surgery for Acute Subdural Hematoma in Adults Over a 20-year Period

    PubMed Central

    Fountain, Daniel M.; Kolias, Angelos G.; Lecky, Fiona E.; Bouamra, Omar; Lawrence, Thomas; Adams, Hadie; Bond, Simon J.; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine 30-day survival trends and prognostic factors following surgery for acute subdural hematomas (ASDHs) in England and Wales over a 20-year period. Summary of Background Data: ASDHs are still considered the most lethal type of traumatic brain injury. It remains unclear whether the adjusted odds of survival have improved significantly over time. Methods: Using the Trauma Audit and Research Network (TARN) database, we analyzed ASDH cases in the adult population (>16 yrs) treated surgically between 1994 and 2013. Two thousand four hundred ninety-eight eligible cases were identified. Univariable and multiple logistic regression analyses were performed, using multiple imputation for missing data. Results: The cohort was 74% male with a median age of 48.9 years. Over half of patients were comatose at presentation (53%). Mechanism of injury was due to a fall (<2 m 34%, >2 m 24%), road traffic collision (25%), and other (17%). Thirty-six per cent of patients presented with polytrauma. Gross survival increased from 59% in 1994 to 1998 to 73% in 2009 to 2013. Under multivariable analysis, variables independently associated with survival were year of injury, Glasgow Coma Scale, Injury Severity Score, age, and pupil reactivity. The time interval from injury to craniotomy and direct admission to a neurosurgical unit were not found to be significant prognostic factors. Conclusions: A significant improvement in survival over the last 20 years was observed after controlling for multiple prognostic factors. Prospective trials and cohort studies are expected to elucidate the distribution of functional outcome in survivors. PMID:27172128

  10. Prediction of the 20-year incidence of diabetes in older Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiangtong; Fine, Jason Peter; Chen, Zhenghong; Liu, Long; Li, Xia; Wang, Anxin; Guo, Jin; Tao, Lixin; Mahara, Gehendra; Tang, Zhe; Guo, Xiuhua

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The competing risk method has become more acceptable for time-to-event data analysis because of its advantage over the standard Cox model in accounting for competing events in the risk set. This study aimed to construct a prediction model for diabetes using a subdistribution hazards model. We prospectively followed 1857 community residents who were aged ≥ 55 years, free of diabetes at baseline examination from August 1992 to December 2012. Diabetes was defined as a self-reported history of diabetes diagnosis, taking antidiabetic medicine, or having fasting plasma glucose (FPG) ≥ 7.0 mmol/L. A questionnaire was used to measure diabetes risk factors, including dietary habits, lifestyle, psychological factors, cognitive function, and physical condition. Gray test and a subdistribution hazards model were used to construct a prediction algorithm for 20-year risk of diabetes. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, bootstrap cross-validated Wolber concordance index (C-index) statistics, and calibration plots were used to assess model performance. During the 20-year follow-up period, 144 cases were documented for diabetes incidence with a median follow-up of 10.9 years (interquartile range: 8.0–15.3 years). The cumulative incidence function of 20-year diabetes incidence was 11.60% after adjusting for the competing risk of nondiabetes death. Gray test showed that body mass index, FPG, self-rated heath status, and physical activity were associated with the cumulative incidence function of diabetes after adjusting for age. Finally, 5 standard risk factors (poor self-rated health status [subdistribution hazard ratio (SHR) = 1.73, P = 0.005], less physical activity [SHR = 1.39, P = 0.047], 55–65 years old [SHR = 4.37, P < 0.001], overweight [SHR = 2.15, P < 0.001] or obesity [SHR = 1.96, P = 0.003], and impaired fasting glucose [IFG] [SHR = 1.99, P < 0.001]) were significantly associated with incident

  11. Publication Trends in Acupuncture Research: A 20-Year Bibliometric Analysis Based on PubMed

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Kehua; Mita, Carol; Liu, Jianping; Wayne, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Acupuncture has become popular and widely practiced in many countries around the world. Despite the large amount of acupuncture-related literature that has been published, broader trends in the prevalence and scope of acupuncture research remain underexplored. The current study quantitatively analyzes trends in acupuncture research publications in the past 20 years. Methods A bibliometric approach was used to search PubMed for all acupuncture-related research articles including clinical and animal studies. Inclusion criteria were articles published between 1995 and 2014 with sufficient information for bibliometric analyses. Rates and patterns of acupuncture publication within the 20 year observational period were estimated, and compared with broader publication rates in biomedicine. Identified eligible publications were further analyzed with respect to study type/design, clinical condition addressed, country of origin, and journal impact factor. Results A total of 13,320 acupuncture-related publications were identified using our search strategy and eligibility criteria. Regression analyses indicated an exponential growth in publications over the past two decades, with a mean annual growth rate of 10.7%. This compares to a mean annual growth rate of 4.5% in biomedicine. A striking trend was an observed increase in the proportion of randomized clinical trials (RCTs), from 7.4% in 1995 to 20.3% in 2014, exceeding the 4.5% proportional growth of RCTs in biomedicine. Over the 20 year period, pain was consistently the most common focus of acupuncture research (37.9% of publications). Other top rankings with respect to medical focus were arthritis, neoplasms/cancer, pregnancy or labor, mood disorders, stroke, nausea/vomiting, sleep, and paralysis/palsy. Acupuncture research was conducted in 60 countries, with the top 3 contributors being China (47.4%), United States (17.5%), and United Kingdom (8.2%). Retrieved articles were published mostly in complementary and

  12. January | 201span>6 | Space Station - NASA

    NASA Website

    August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January 201span>6; December 2015; November 2015; October 2015; ...

  13. The New 20-Year Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) Merged Satellite and Rainguage Monthly Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Huffman, George; Xie, Ping Ping; Rudolf, Bruno; Gruber, Arnold; Janowiak, John

    1999-01-01

    A new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis has been completed as part of the World Climate Research Program's (WCRP/GEWEX) Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP). This Version 2 of the community generated data set is a result of combining the procedures and data sets as described. The global, monthly, 2.5x 2.5 degree latitude-longitude product utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/1) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. The low-orbit microwave estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. In the 1986-present period TOVS-based precipitation estimates are adjusted to GPCP fields and used in polar regions to produce globally-complete results. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the procedures of Xie and Arkin and their OLR Precipitation Index (OPI). The 20-year climatology of the Version 2 GPCP analysis indicates the expected features of a very strong Pacific Ocean ITCZ and SPCZ with maximum 20-year means approaching 10 mm/day. A similar strength maximum over land is evident over Borneo. Weaker maxima in the tropics occur in the Atlantic ITCZ and over South America and Africa. In mid-latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere the Western Pacific and Western Atlantic maxima have values of approximately 7 mm/day, while in the Southern Hemisphere the mid-latitude maxima are located southeast of Africa, in mid-Pacific as an extension of the SPCZ and southeast of South America. In terms of global totals the GPCP analysis shows 2.7 mm/day (3.0 mm/day over ocean; 2.1 mm/day over land), similar to the Jaeger climatology, but not other climatologies. Zonal averages peak at 6 mm/day at 7*N with mid-latitude peaks of about 3 mm/day at 40-45* latitude

  14. An Analysis of 20 Years of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Phillip; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent; Lederer, Susan

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980, with the last launch occurring in 2003. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth-facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20-year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band, near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  15. Time spans of soil formation and late Pleistocene-Holocene climate changes in the Somma-Vesuvius volcano area, southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scarciglia, Fabio; Zumpano, Veronica; Sulpizio, Roberto; Terribile, Fabio; Pulice, Iolanda; La Russa, Mauro F.

    2013-04-01

    Time spans of soil formation and climate changes occurred during the late Pleistocene to the middle Holocene are investigated in a pedostratigraphic succession located in the piedmont of the Somma-Vesuvius volcano (Campania region, southern Italy) using a multidisciplinary approach. We focused on five well-known and well-dated primary tephra and four interlayered volcanic soils developed on and/or buried by them. The pyroclastic layers give detailed chronological constraints to the stratigraphy. From bottom to top the following tephra were identified in the field: Pomici di Base (22 ka BP), Pomici Verdoline (19 ka BP), Agnano Pomici Principali (12.26 ka BP), Mercato (8.9 ka BP) and Avellino (3.9 ka BP), all of them representing volcanic products of explosive eruptions of the Somma-Vesuvius, except the third one, sourced from the westerly Phlegrean Fields. The four pedons were characterized in terms of morphological, physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological features. Special attention was given to reconstruct the main soil-forming processes, paleoenvironmental and paleoclimatic conditions, degree of soil development and associated time ranges. Moreover, further tephra were identified in the field within some of above pedons. One of them was easily recognized and referred to the Agnano Monte Spina eruption (4.2-4.3 ka BP, Phlegrean Fields provenance), whereas the others were not previously known in the Somma-Vesuvius stratigraphy. On the basis of SEM-EDS analyses (chemical composition and morphoscopic observations), coupled with their stratigraphic position and literature compositional databases, they were related to the Soccavo 4-5 and the Tufi Biancastri eruptions from the Phlegrean Fields. This interpretation permitted to fix further age constrains for more detailed assessment of rates of soil formation and climatic interpretation. Major late Quaternary climatic phases are suggested by changes in the extent of development of andic properties, iron

  16. EAST END FROM MID SPAN OF EASTERN SPAN (THREE DIFFERENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST END FROM MID SPAN OF EASTERN SPAN (THREE DIFFERENT TRUSSES, EAST SOUTHEAST 110 DEGREES) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  17. 4. From Skew Span to portal on span 1 looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. From Skew Span to portal on span 1 looking up grade toward the south end. - Monongahela Connecting Railroad Company, Hot Metal Bridge, Spanning Monongahela River at mile post 3.1, Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, PA

  18. View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Rough & Ready Island, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  19. Portion Distortion! Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years?

    MedlinePlus

    ... eNewsletters Calendar Portion Distortion Do You Know How Food Portions Have Changed in 20 Years? Anyone eating ... run or at restaurants has probably noticed that food portions have gotten larger. Some portions are called " ...

  20. [1986-2006: 20 years of failed international policy to control AIDS in Africa].

    PubMed

    Kerouedan, D

    2007-10-01

    Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations involved in fighting AIDS in Africa have been wrong for 20 years. Despite this failure that was publicly avowed for the first time by a high UNAIDS official in Brazzaville in March 2006, the international community continues to propose a strategy based exclusively on organizational and financial solutions for a highly complex human tragedy that requires a much more comprehensive, coordinated public health approach. Organization of the fight against AIDS has taken many forms over the period between 1986 and 2006. The WHO Global Programme against AIDS program initiated only five years after the beginning of the epidemic in the United States was followed ten years later by the joint United Nations program named UNAIDS. The period between 2000 and 2006 saw a growing number of worldwide initiatives outside the framework of the United Nations. With programs based on cooperation of bilateral agencies, the European Commission, and the World Bank with expert technical agencies and civilian representatives, the whole international community felt that they were "in the driver's seat ". However analysis of the strategy deployed against AIDS during this period shows a shift from "total emphasis on prevention" (1986-1996) to "total emphasis on ARV treatment" (1996-2006). This shift occurred with no assessment of the benefits of the previous strategy for the main users, i.e., the populations of Africa and health care officials. Financial pledges have considerably increased in the context of global public partnerships such as the Global Fund against HIV/AIDS, TB and Malaria, with no change in the overall strategic vision to control the pandemic. There has been a total lack of planning and leadership in controlling the pandemic. Even though we failed to treat 3 million people before the end of 2005 within the framework of the "3x5" initiative despite the availability of ARV in Africa since 1998, WHO called for

  1. Multilevel learning in the adaptive management of waterfowl harvests: 20 years and counting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Fred A.; Boomer, G. Scott; Williams, Byron K.; Nichols, James D.; Case, David J.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service implemented an adaptive harvest management program (AHM) for the sport harvest of midcontinent mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). The program has been successful in reducing long-standing contentiousness in the regulatory process, while integrating science and policy in a coherent, rigorous, and transparent fashion. After 20 years, much has been learned about the relationship among waterfowl populations, their environment, and hunting regulations, with each increment of learning contributing to better management decisions. At the same time, however, much has been changing in the social, institutional, and environmental arenas that provide context for the AHM process. Declines in hunter numbers, competition from more pressing conservation issues, and global-change processes are increasingly challenging waterfowl managers to faithfully reflect the needs and desires of stakeholders, to account for an increasing number of institutional constraints, and to (probabilistically) predict the consequences of regulatory policy in a changing environment. We review the lessons learned from the AHM process so far, and describe emerging challenges and ways in which they may be addressed. We conclude that the practice of AHM has greatly increased an awareness of the roles of social values, trade-offs, and attitudes toward risk in regulatory decision-making. Nevertheless, going forward the waterfowl management community will need to focus not only on the relationships among habitat, harvest, and waterfowl populations, but on the ways in which society values waterfowl and how those values can change over time

  2. A 20-year study on 190 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism in a developing country: Turkey experience.

    PubMed

    Usta, Arif; Alhan, Etem; Cinel, Akif; Türkyılmaz, Serdar; Erem, Cihangir

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to present our 20-year experience regarding primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT). PHPT patients who underwent parathyroidectomy in our clinic were reviewed retrospectively. There were 190 PHPT patients, of whom 137 were asymptomatic (72%). The mean serum calcium at the time of diagnosis was 11.9 ± 2.2 mg/dL. The mean parathyroid hormone (PTH) level was 467 ± 78 pg/mL. Ultrasonography (USG) identified all abnormal glands accurately (82.6%) and Technetium-99m sestamibi scintigraphy (MIBI) was used in 89.4% of the patients and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 61%. The common use of USG and MIBI detected 92% of the lesions. Bilateral neck exploration (BNE) was performed in 12.2% of the patients and focused unilateral neck exploration (FUNE) in the remaining 87.8%. Surgical intervention was unsuccessful in 1 patient (0.5%). The conversion ratio from FUNE to BNE was 5.2%. The mean operation time and mean hospital stay decreased significantly in patients with FUNE. Pathologic examination revealed single adenoma in 93% of the patients. New imaging techniques result in the conversion of surgical treatments of PHPT. FUNE in parathyroidectomy performed by an experienced surgeon may provide successful treatment rates.

  3. Global Patterns of Precipitation Anomalies Related to ENSO as Determined by the 20-Year GPCP Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, Robert; Curtis, Scott; Huffman, George; Bolvin, Dave; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The new 20-year, monthly, globally complete precipitation analysis of the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) is used to analyze ENSO-related precipitation anomalies over the globe. This Version 2 of the community generated data set is global, monthly, at 2.5 deg x 2.5 deg latitude-longitude resolution and utilizes precipitation estimates from low-orbit microwave sensors (SSM/I) and geosynchronous IR sensors and raingauge information over land. In the 1987-present period the low-orbit microwave (SSM/I) estimates are used to adjust or correct the geosynchronous IR estimates, thereby maximizing the utility of the more physically-based microwave estimates and the finer time sampling of the geosynchronous observations. Information from raingauges is blended into the analyses over land. The extension back to 1979 utilizes the OLR Precipitation Index (OPI) for the satellite component. An ENSO Precipitation Index (ESPI) using gradients of precipitation anomalies in the Maritime-Continent/Pacific Ocean region is used to define El Nino/La Nina months during the 20-year record. Mean anomalies for El Nino and La Nina are examined along with variations with respect to season and for individual events. The El Nino and La Nina mean anomalies are near mirror images of each other and when combined produce an ENSO signal with significant spatial continuity over large distances. This El Nino minus La Nina standardized precipitation anomaly map shows the usual positive anomaly over the central and eastern Pacific Ocean with the negative anomaly over the maritime continent along with an additional negative anomaly over Brazil and the Atlantic Ocean extending into Africa and a positive anomaly over the Horn of Africa and the western Indian Ocean. From these features along the Equator narrow positive and negative anomalies extend into middle latitudes in a V-shaped pattern open to the East as described by previous investigators. A number of the features are shown to continue

  4. Comparison of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Different Areas of Health Care Over a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general

  5. Wet atmospheric deposition of nitrogen: 20 years measurement in Shenzhen City, China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yilong; Lu, XiXi; Chen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    We presented measurements of wet deposition of NH(4)(+)-N and NO(3)(-)-N from 1986 to 2006 in Shenzhen City, China. Over the past 20 years, NO(3)(-)-N concentration had significantly increased, but a reverse trend was found for NH(4)(+)-N. The main form of total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) was NH(4)(+)-N and the average NH(4)(+)-N/NO(3)(-)-N ratio was 1.57 in this area. The contribution of NO(3)(-)-N to TIN increased from 28-42% in the period of 1986-2000 to 50-63% during 2001-2006. The increased deposition flux of NO(3)(-)-N resulted in the increasing trend of TIN, although NH(4)(+)-N showed a decreasing trend over time. Average deposition flux of TIN during 1986-2006 was 13.24 kg/ha/year, with a minimum value of 6.03kg/ha/year in 1988 and a maximum value of 20.52 kg/ha/year in 1997. Wet deposition fluxes of N appeared to vary with season, 81% occurred in the warm season (from April to September). The wet deposition of TIN to the Shenzhen Reservoir reached 8,902 kg in 2006, which contributed 9.95% of the total nonpoint pollution to the reservoir and will be increased in the future.

  6. Implant survival and radiographic outcome of total hip replacement in patients less than 20 years old

    PubMed Central

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Halvorsen, Vera; Nordsletten, Lars; EngesæTer, Ingvild Ø; EngesæTer, Lars B; Marie Fenstad, Anne; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is not recommended for children and very young teenagers because early and repetitive revisions are likely. We investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of THR performed in children and teenage patients. Patients and methods We included 111 patients (132 hips) who underwent THR before 20 years of age. They were identified in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, together with information on the primary diagnosis, types of implants, and any revisions that required implant change. Radiographs and Harris hip score (HHS) were also evaluated. Results The mean age at primary THR was 17 (11–19) years and the mean follow-up time was 14 (3–26) years. The 10-year survival rate after primary THR (with the endpoint being any revision) was 70%. 39 patients had at least 1 revision and 16 patients had 2 or more revisions. In the latest radiographs, osteolysis and atrophy were observed in 19% and 27% of the acetabulae and 21% and 62% of the femurs, respectively. The mean HHS at the final follow-up was 83 (15–100). Interpretation The clinical score after THR in these young patients was acceptable, but many revisions had been performed. However, young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip had lower implant survival. Moreover, the bone stock in these patients was poor, which could complicate future revisions. PMID:27435903

  7. 20 Years On: Is It Time to Redefine the Systemic Inflammatory Response to Cardiothoracic Surgery?

    PubMed

    Landis, R Clive

    2015-03-01

    The "systemic inflammatory response" has never been defined from a cardiothoracic surgery perspective, but borrowed its definition from the critical care field at a landmark 1992 definition conference on sepsis. It is unclear why the diagnostic criteria for the Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS) were adopted in isolation, ignoring other potentially more useful definitions for Severe Septic Shock or Secondary Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome. The 1992 SIRS definition for sepsis has since been updated at a conference in 2001 advocating PIRO (Predisposition, Infection, host Response, Organ dysfunction) as a hypothetical model to better link sepsis with clinical outcome. PIRO is readily adaptable to cardiothoracic surgery and provides the precedent and road map for how to update a definition. The need is obvious since the current definition of SIRS is widely disregarded in heart surgery: a dwindling proportion (14%) of articles on the systemic inflammatory response even mention SIRS and 0% monitored SIRS criteria in the past decade in an evidence-based review of anti-inflammatory interventions. The name "inflammatory response" is also problematic; it is too narrow and might be replaced with host response (the R in PIRO) to better convey the wide spectrum of host defensive pathways activated during heart surgery (i.e., complement, coagulation, fibrinolysis, kinins, cytokines, proteases, hemolysis, oxidative stiess). A variant on PIRO could allow these elements of the host Response (R) to be anchored within the context of Premorbid conditions (P) and the inevitable Insult (I) from surgery, to better link risk exposures to Organ dysfunction (O) in heart surgery. The precedent of PIRO suggests the following steps will be required to redefine the systemic inflammatory response: 1) buy-in from the leading societies for cardiothoracic surgery, anesthesia, and perfusion on the need for a re-definition conference, 2) assigning relative risk scores to different premorbid exposures, operative insults, and host response factors on clinical outcome, 3) validation of the risk model in a prospective cohort, and 4) development of algorithms or "apps" to facilitate rapid diagnosis and staging of care at bedside.

  8. High Overweight and Obesity in Fontan Patients: A 20-Year History.

    PubMed

    Chung, Stephanie T; Hong, Borah; Patterson, Lance; Petit, Christopher J; Ham, J Nina

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity in long-term survivors with complex congenital heart disease may be increasing, and little is known about the timing and onset of weight gain and growth patterns in these high-risk patients. Prevalence rates of overweight/obesity and longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) with age were determined in 606 patients with Fontan circulation seen at a tertiary care cardiology center from 1992 to 2012. The number of clinic encounters (n) was stratified by age group (n = 401, 2-5 years; n = 333, 6-11 years; n = 217, 12-19 years; and n = 129, >20 years). Among adults, 39% were overweight/obese at last clinic visit; 22% overweight, and 17% obese. Childhood anthropometric data were available for 82 adults, of which 15% (n = 12/82) were overweight/obese in childhood. The likelihood of being overweight/obese as an adult was three times higher if there was a BMI ≥ 85th percentile in childhood (CI 2.1-4.5, P < 0.01). Overweight/obesity in adulthood was associated with lower heart failure rates (4 vs. 19%, P = 0.03). Pediatric rates of overweight/obesity were comparable to national data (NHANES 2011-2012) in every age group: at 2-5 years, (25 vs. 23%), 6-11 years (26 vs. 34%), and 12-19 years (15 vs. 35%). Systolic blood pressure was higher in overweight/obese children as young as 2-5 years of age. Childhood and adult survivors with Fontan circulation have high rates of overweight/obesity. Childhood obesity is a strong predictor of future adiposity and is linked to changes in systolic blood pressure at a very young age.

  9. Food price and diet and health outcomes: 20 years of The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Duffey, Kiyah J.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Shikany, James M.; Guilkey, David; Jacobs, David R; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Despite surging interest in taxation as a policy to address poor food choice, US research directly examining the association of food prices with individual intake is scarce. Methods This 20-year longitudinal study included 12,123 respondent days from 5,115 participants in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. Associations between food price, dietary intake, overall energy intake, weight, and HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) scores were assessed using conditional log-log and linear regression models. Results The real price (inflated to 2006 dollars) of soda and pizza decreased over time; the price of whole milk increased. A 10% increase in the price of soda or pizza was associated with a -7.12% (95% confidence interval [CI]: -63.5, -10.71) or -11.5% (95%CI: -17.50, -5.50) change in energy from these foods respectively. A $1.00 increase in soda price was also associated with lower daily energy intake (-124 [95%CI: -198, -50] kcal), lower weight (-2.34 [95%CI: -4.00, -0.68] lbs), and lower HOMA-IR score (0.42 [95%CI: -0.60, -0.23]); similar trends were observed for pizza. A $1.00 increase in the price of both soda and pizza was associated with greater changes in total energy intake (-181.49 [95%CI: -247.79, -115.18] kcal), body weight (-3.66 [95%CI: -5.19, -2.14] lbs), and HOMA-IR (-0.45 [95%CI: -0.59, -0.31]). Conclusions Policies aimed at altering the price of soda or away-from-home pizza may be effective mechanisms to steer US adults toward a more healthful diet and help reduce long-term weight gain or insulin levels over time. PMID:20212177

  10. A levels and intelligence as predictors of medical careers in UK doctors: 20 year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    McManus, I C; Smithers, Eleni; Partridge, Philippa; Keeling, A; Fleming, Peter R

    2003-01-01

    Objective To assess whether A level grades (achievement) and intelligence (ability) predict doctors' careers. Design Prospective cohort study with follow up after 20 years by postal questionnaire. Setting A UK medical school in London. Participants 511 doctors who had entered Westminster Medical School as clinical students between 1975 and 1982 were followed up in January 2002. Main outcome measures Time taken to reach different career grades in hospital or general practice, postgraduate qualifications obtained (membership/fellowships, diplomas, higher academic degrees), number of research publications, and measures of stress and burnout related to A level grades and intelligence (result of AH5 intelligence test) at entry to clinical school. General health questionnaire, Maslach burnout inventory, and questionnaire on satisfaction with career at follow up. Results 47 (9%) doctors were no longer on the Medical Register. They had lower A level grades than those who were still on the register (P < 0.001). A levels also predicted performance in undergraduate training, performance in postregistration house officer posts, and time to achieve membership qualifications (Cox regression, P < 0.001; b=0.376, SE=0.098, exp(b)=1.457). Intelligence did not independently predict dropping off the register, career outcome, or other measures. A levels did not predict diploma or higher academic qualifications, research publications, or stress or burnout. Diplomas, higher academic degrees, and research publications did, however, significantly correlate with personality measures. Conclusions Results of achievement tests, in this case A level grades, which are particularly used for selection of students in the United Kingdom, have long term predictive validity for undergraduate and postgraduate careers. In contrast, a test of ability or aptitude (AH5) was of little predictive validity for subsequent medical careers. PMID:12869457

  11. The national marrow donor program 20 years of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ballen, Karen K; King, Roberta J; Chitphakdithai, Pintip; Bolan, Charles D; Agura, Edward; Hartzman, Robert J; Kernan, Nancy A

    2008-09-01

    In the 20 years since the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) facilitated the first unrelated donor transplant, the organization has grown to include almost 7 million donors, and has facilitated over 30,000 transplants on 6 continents. This remarkable accomplishment has been facilitated by the efforts of over 600 employees, and an extensive international network including 171 transplant centers, 73 donor centers, 24 cord blood banks, 97 bone marrow collection centers, 91 apheresis centers, 26 HLA typing laboratories, and 26 Cooperative Registries. In this article, we review the history of the NMDP, and cite the major trends in patient demographics, graft sources, and conditioning regimens over the last 20 years.

  12. 20 Years of persistent identifiers - Which systems are here to stay?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klump, Jens; Huber, Robert; Lehnert, Kerstin

    2016-04-01

    Web-based persistent identifiers have been around for more than 20 years, a period long enough to start observing patterns of success and failure. Persistent identifiers were invented to address challenges arising from the distributed and disorganised nature of the internet, which not only allowed new technologies to emerge, it also made it difficult to maintain a persistent record of science. Persistent identifiers now allow unambiguous identification of resources on the net. The expectations were that persistent identifiers would lead to greater accessibility, transparency and reproducibility of research results. Over the past two decades a number of persistent identifier systems have been built, one of them being Digital Object Identifiers (DOI). While DOI were originally invented by the publishing industry, they quickly became an established way for the identification of research resources. At first, these resources referred to scholarly literature and related resources. Other identifier systems, some of them using DOI as an example, were developed as grass-roots efforts by the scientific community. The concept of using persistent identifiers has since been expanded to other, non-textual resources, like datasets (DOI, EPIC) and geological specimens (IGSN), and more recently to authors and contributors of scholarly works (ORCID), and to software and instruments. A common witticism states that "a great thing about standards is that there are so many to choose from." Setting up identifier systems is technically trivial. The real challenge lies in creating a governance system for the respective identifiers. Which systems will stand the test of time? Drawing on data from the Registry of Research Data Repositories (re3data.org) and our own experience in the field, this presentation looks at the history and adoption of existing identifier systems and how this gives us some indications towards factors influencing sustainability of these systems.

  13. Tracking 20 years of compound-to-target output from literature and patents.

    PubMed

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A R P; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates.

  14. Tracking 20 Years of Compound-to-Target Output from Literature and Patents

    PubMed Central

    Southan, Christopher; Varkonyi, Peter; Boppana, Kiran; Jagarlapudi, Sarma A.R.P.; Muresan, Sorel

    2013-01-01

    The statistics of drug development output and declining yield of approved medicines has been the subject of many recent reviews. However, assessing research productivity that feeds development is more difficult. Here we utilise an extensive database of structure-activity relationships extracted from papers and patents. We have used this database to analyse published compounds cumulatively linked to nearly 4000 protein target identifiers from multiple species over the last 20 years. The compound output increases up to 2005 followed by a decline that parallels a fall in pharmaceutical patenting. Counts of protein targets have plateaued but not fallen. We extended these results by exploring compounds and targets for one large pharmaceutical company. In addition, we examined collective time course data for six individual protease targets, including average molecular weight of the compounds. We also tracked the PubMed profile of these targets to detect signals related to changes in compound output. Our results show that research compound output had decreased 35% by 2012. The major causative factor is likely to be a contraction in the global research base due to mergers and acquisitions across the pharmaceutical industry. However, this does not rule out an increasing stringency of compound quality filtration and/or patenting cost control. The number of proteins mapped to compounds on a yearly basis shows less decline, indicating the cumulative published target capacity of global research is being sustained in the region of 300 proteins for large companies. The tracking of six individual targets shows uniquely detailed patterns not discernible from cumulative snapshots. These are interpretable in terms of events related to validation and de-risking of targets that produce detectable follow-on surges in patenting. Further analysis of the type we present here can provide unique insights into the process of drug discovery based on the data it actually generates. PMID

  15. Accelerated 20-year sunlight exposure simulation of a photochromic foldable intraocular lens in a rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Liliana; Abdel-Aziz, Salwa; Peck, Carolee Cutler; Monson, Bryan; Espandar, Ladan; Zaugg, Brian; Stringham, Jack; Wilcox, Chris; Mamalis, Nick

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE To assess the long-term biocompatibility and photochromic stability of a new photochromic hydrophobic acrylic intraocular lens (IOL) under extended ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. SETTING John A. Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA. DESIGN Experimental study. METHODS A Matrix Aurium photochromic IOL was implanted in right eyes and a Matrix Acrylic IOL without photochromic properties (n = 6) or a single-piece AcrySof Natural SN60AT (N = 5) IOL in left eyes of 11 New Zealand rabbits. The rabbits were exposed to a UV light source of 5 mW/cm2 for 3 hours during every 8-hour period, equivalent to 9 hours a day, and followed for up to 12 months. The photochromic changes were evaluated during slitlamp examination by shining a penlight UV source in the right eye. After the rabbits were humanely killed and the eyes enucleated, study and control IOLs were explanted and evaluated in vitro on UV exposure and studied histopathologically. RESULTS The photochromic IOL was as biocompatible as the control IOLs after 12 months under conditions simulating at least 20 years of UV exposure. In vitro evaluation confirmed the retained optical properties, with photochromic changes observed within 7 seconds of UV exposure. The rabbit eyes had clinical and histopathological changes expected in this model with a 12-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS The new photochromic IOL turned yellow only on exposure to UV light. The photochromic changes were reversible, reproducible, and stable over time. The IOL was biocompatible with up to 12 months of accelerated UV exposure simulation. PMID:21241924

  16. Rationale, scope, and 20-year experience of vascular surgical training with lifelike pulsatile flow models.

    PubMed

    Eckstein, Hans-Henning; Schmidli, Jürg; Schumacher, Hardy; Gürke, Lorenz; Klemm, Klaus; Duschek, Nikolaus; Meile, Toni; Assadian, Afshin

    2013-05-01

    technical skills of vascular surgical residents at national or international board examinations. This article gives an overview of our experiences of >20 years of practical training of beginners and advanced vascular surgeons using lifelike pulsatile vascular surgical training models.

  17. The next 20 years: how customer and workforce attitudes will evolve.

    PubMed

    Howe, Neil; Strauss, William

    2007-01-01

    Business projects with very long time horizons--such as those involving product R&D, workplace design, and total compensation planning--have to contend with a crucial question: What will be the needs, demands, and desires of consumers and employees decades from now? If you think the answer is "Just more of the same," you're in for a surprise. Howe and Strauss, the authors of Generations, The Fourth Turning, Millennials Rising, and other books, have studied the differences among generations for some 30 years. Their extensive research has revealed a fascinating pattern--one so strong that it supports a measure of predictability. On the basis of historical precedent, they say, we can foresee how the generations that are alive today will think and act in decades to come. Three of those generations will still be vital forces in American society 20 years from now: Boomers, Generation X, and Millennials. Their attitudes and behaviors will have profound effects on the economy, the workplace, and social institutions in general. For example, as aging Boomers eschew high-tech medicine in favor of holistic self-care, natural foods, and mind-body healing techniques, some hospitals are opening new wings featuring alternative medicine and spiritual counseling. Gen Xers, having grown up in an era of failing schools and marriages, will remain alienated, disaffected, and pragmatic as they enter midlife. Already the greatest entrepreneurial generation in U.S. history, they will be highly effective at pushing innovation, efficiency, and mass customization. In contrast, young adult Millennials will favor teamwork, close family relationships, job security, and a bland popular culture. Their unprecedented digital empowerment and talent for organizing will create a political powerhouse and may even revitalize the union movement.

  18. Modelling 20 years of synchrotron flaring in the jet of 3C 273

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Türler, M.; Courvoisier, T. J.-L.; Paltani, S.

    2000-09-01

    We present a phenomenological jet model which is able to reproduce well the observed variations of the submillimetre-to-radio emission of the bright quasar 3C 273 during the last 20 years. It is a generalization of the original shock model of Marscher & Gear (1985), which is now able to describe an accelerating or decelerating shock wave, in a curved, non-conical and non-adiabatic jet. The model defines the properties of a synchrotron outburst which is expected to be emitted by the jet material in a small region just behind the shock front. By a proper parameterization of the average outburst's evolution and of the peculiarities of individual outbursts, we are able to decompose simultaneously thirteen long-term light-curves of 3C 273 in a series of seventeen distinct outbursts. It is the first time that a model is so closely confronted to the long-term multi-wavelength variability properties of a quasar. The ability of the model to reproduce the very different shapes of the submillimetre-to-radio light curves of 3C 273 gives strong support to the shock model of Marscher & Gear (1985). Indirectly, it also reinforces the idea that the outbursts seen in the light-curves are physically linked to the distinct features observed to move along the jet with apparently superluminal velocities. The more than 5000 submillimetre-to-radio observations in the different light-curves are able to constrain the physical properties of the jet. The results suggest, for instance, that the magnetic field behind the shock front is rather turbulent. There is also some evidence that the jet radius does not increase linearly with distance down the jet or, alternatively, that the synchrotron emitting material decelerates with distance and/or bends away from the line-of-sight.

  19. Ecosystem development after mangrove wetland creation: plant-soil change across a 20-year chronosequence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osland, Michael J.; Spivak, Amanda C.; Nestlerode, Janet A.; Lessmann, Jeannine M.; Almario, Alejandro E.; Heitmuller, Paul T.; Russell, Marc J.; Krauss, Ken W.; Alvarez, Federico; Dantin, Darrin D.; Harvey, James E.; From, Andrew S.; Cormier, Nicole; Stagg, Camille L.

    2012-01-01

    Mangrove wetland restoration and creation efforts are increasingly proposed as mechanisms to compensate for mangrove wetland losses. However, ecosystem development and functional equivalence in restored and created mangrove wetlands are poorly understood. We compared a 20-year chronosequence of created tidal wetland sites in Tampa Bay, Florida (USA) to natural reference mangrove wetlands. Across the chronosequence, our sites represent the succession from salt marsh to mangrove forest communities. Our results identify important soil and plant structural differences between the created and natural reference wetland sites; however, they also depict a positive developmental trajectory for the created wetland sites that reflects tightly coupled plant-soil development. Because upland soils and/or dredge spoils were used to create the new mangrove habitats, the soils at younger created sites and at lower depths (10-30 cm) had higher bulk densities, higher sand content, lower soil organic matter (SOM), lower total carbon (TC), and lower total nitrogen (TN) than did natural reference wetland soils. However, in the upper soil layer (0-10 cm), SOM, TC, and TN increased with created wetland site age simultaneously with mangrove forest growth. The rate of created wetland soil C accumulation was comparable to literature values for natural mangrove wetlands. Notably, the time to equivalence for the upper soil layer of created mangrove wetlands appears to be faster than for many other wetland ecosystem types. Collectively, our findings characterize the rate and trajectory of above- and below-ground changes associated with ecosystem development in created mangrove wetlands; this is valuable information for environmental managers planning to sustain existing mangrove wetlands or mitigate for mangrove wetland losses.

  20. The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group - it was 20 years ago today.

    PubMed

    Isenberg, D A; Ramsey-Goldman, R; Gladman, D; Hanly, J G

    2011-11-01

    The Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics (SLICC) group is 20 years old this year (2011). This brief review traces the origins of the group focussing on its more recent history and reviewing some of its major contributions to lupus research during the past two decades.

  1. Intellectual Capital: For 20 Years, American Indian College Fund Has Been Investing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horwedel, Dina M.

    2009-01-01

    For 20 years, the American Indian College Fund (the Fund) has been helping students to afford a higher education. In addition to providing more than 4,000 scholarships for American Indian students last year, it also provides tribal colleges with funding and programmatic support. The Fund was created in 1989 by the tribal colleges and universities…

  2. Looking Back and Ahead: 20 Years of Technologies for Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godwin-Jones, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years Robert Godwin-Jones has written 48 columns on "Emerging Technologies"; an additional six columns have been written by guest columnists. Several topics have been re-examined in regular intervals of approximately five years, namely digital literacy (Vol. 4, Num. 2; Vol. 10, Num. 2; Vol. 14, Num. 3; Vol. 19, Num. 3)…

  3. 20 Years of Autonomy and Technology: How Far Have We Come and Where to Next?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinders, Hayo; White, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Learner autonomy has become an assumed goal of language education in many parts of the world. In the 20 years since the launch of "Language Learning & Technology," the relationship among computer-assisted language learning research and practice and autonomy has become both more complex and more promising. This article traces how the…

  4. Stature-for-Age and Weight-for-Age Percentiles: Boys, 2 to 20 Years

    MedlinePlus

    2 to 20 years: Boys NAME Stature-for-age and Weight-for-age percentiles RECORD # Mother’s Stature Date Age in cm 160 62 S 155 60 T 150 ... 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 BMI* AGE (YEARS) cm 95 190 90 185 75 180 ...

  5. Assessing Side Effects of Pharmacotherapy Treatment of Bipolar Disorder: A 20-Year Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matson, Johnny L.; Gonzalez, Melissa L.; Smith, Kimberly R.; Terlonge, Cindy; Thorson, Ryan T.; Dixon, Dennis R.

    2006-01-01

    A substantial literature on the effective treatment of bipolar disorder has begun to appear, particularly in the last 20 years.The majority of treatments studied have employed medications, particularly mood stabilizers, a typical antipsychotics and antidepressants. Most treatments produce side effects and medications are no exception. A review of…

  6. Q-Method 20 Years Later: Its Uses and Abuses in Communications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Leonard

    William Stephenson's Q methodology has been linked to the future of communications research by some and condemned as treacherous by others. This study reviews the uses of Q in published mass communications research over the past 20 years. The survey found 30 mass communications studies published in English in the scholarly journals related to mass…

  7. Social Representations of Educability in Finland: 20 Years of Continuity and Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raty, Hannu; Komulainen, Katri; Hirva, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This study set out to replicate a survey conducted 20 years ago on Finnish parents' social representations of educability. A nationwide sample of parents (N = 642) were asked to indicate their opinions on a set of statements pertaining to topical educational issues. The results indicated that educational discussion is still structured by two major…

  8. What Works: 20 Years of Curriculum Development and Research for Advanced Learners, 1988-2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanTassel-Baska, Joyce, Ed.; Stambaugh, Tamra, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to highlight "what works" based on the curriculum development and research work of the Center for Gifted Education during the past 20 years. Areas of study include curriculum development, instruction, assessment, and professional development. Through the use of the Integrated Curriculum Model as a template for …

  9. Changes and Challenges in 20 Years of Research into the Development of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Claire

    2011-01-01

    This review of 20 years of developmental research on Executive Functions (EF) offers a broad-brushstroke picture that touches on multiple issues including: (i) findings from typical and atypical groups, from infancy to adolescence; (ii) advances in assessment tools and in statistical analysis; (iii) the interplay between EF and other cognitive…

  10. 20 Years after "The Ontogeny of Human Memory: A Cognitive Neuroscience Perspective," Where Are We?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jabès, Adeline; Nelson, Charles A.

    2015-01-01

    In 1995, Nelson published a paper describing a model of memory development during the first years of life. The current article seeks to provide an update on the original work published 20 years ago. Specifically, we review our current knowledge on the relation between the emergence of explicit memory functions throughout development and the…

  11. Four Themes from 20 Years of Research on Infant Perception and Cognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bremner, J. Gavin

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews progress over the past 20 years in four areas of research on infant perception and cognition. Work on perception of dynamic events has identified perceptual constraints on perception of object unity and object trajectory continuity that have led to a perceptual account of early development that supplements Nativist accounts.…

  12. Understanding Rape and Sexual Assault: 20 Years of Progress and Future Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rebecca; Wasco, Sharon M.

    2005-01-01

    During the past 20 years, researchers have documented the widespread problem of rape in American society. Approximately one in four women are raped in their adult lifetime, which causes severe psychological distress and long-term physical health problems. The impact of sexual assault extends far beyond rape survivors as their family, friends, and…

  13. Self-Rated Activity Levels and Longevity: Evidence from a 20 Year Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullee, Mark A.; Coleman, Peter G.; Briggs, Roger S. J.; Stevenson, James E.; Turnbull, Joanne C.

    2008-01-01

    The study reports on factors predicting the longevity of 328 people over the age of 65 drawn from an English city and followed over 20 years. Both the reported activities score and the individual's comparative evaluation of their own level of activity independently reduced the risk of death, even when health and cognitive status were taken into…

  14. 3D Heart Model and 4D Flow MRI 20 Years after Spiral Arterial Switch Operation

    PubMed Central

    Sievers, Hans-Hinrich; Kheradvar, Arash; Kramer, Hans-Heiner; Rickers, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Case of a patient is presented here 20 years after spiral direct anastomosis of the great arteries in an arterial switch operation. Three-dimensional model of the heart combined with four-dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging presents a novel comprehensive way to assess surgical results. PMID:28018823

  15. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse

    PubMed Central

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Rout, Emily D.; Vap, Linda M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Hassel, Diana M.; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  16. Long-Term Instructional Development: A 20-Year ID and Implementation Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Howard; Ice, Kay; Niedermeyer, Fred

    2000-01-01

    Discussion of long-term instructional development focuses on the development and implementation of a K-12 energy education curriculum over a 20-year period. Highlights include field testing; fund raising; learner performance on posttests; revisions and updates; and guidelines for long-term instructional development projects. (LRW)

  17. Family Discord, Parental Depression, and Psychopathology in Offspring: 20-Year Follow-up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pilowsky, Daniel J.; Wickramaratne, Priya; Nomura, Yoko; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To determine the independent effects of parental depression and family discord on offspring psychopathology among children at high and low risk of depression. Method: Family discord factors were assessed when subjects were approximately 17 years old, and offspring diagnoses were assessed about 20 years later. Parental and offspring…

  18. In Patience and Hope: A 20-Year Narrative Study of a Family, School, and Community Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Ann; Deegan, James G.

    2009-01-01

    This case study describes a 20-year journey of educational transformation from 1985 to 2005 in a bellwether, or highly developed, instance of one school, family, and community partnership--the Kileely Community Project--situated in a large social housing project in Limerick City in the Midwestern region of the Republic of Ireland. The study is a…

  19. College Student's Health, Drinking and Smoking Patterns: What Has Changed in 20 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensel, Desiree; Todd, Katherine Leigh; Engs, Ruth C.

    2014-01-01

    Problem: Institutes of higher learning are increasingly trying to address the issue of problem drinking. The purpose of this study was to determine how patterns in alcohol use and smoking by college students, as well as their illness patterns, have changed over 20 years. Methods: A cross-sectional serial survey design was used for this descriptive…

  20. Participation in Intellectual Disability Research: A Review of 20 Years of Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleaver, S.; Ouellette-Kuntz, H.; Sakar, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Researchers have noted difficulties in attracting adequate numbers of participants with intellectual disabilities (ID) to their studies. Methods: This study was a review of participation by adults with ID in research conducted in South Eastern Ontario over a 20-year period (1987-2006). Original research studies were identified by local…

  1. The Politics of Educational Reform: The Alberta Charter School Experiment 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosetti, Lynn; Butterfield, Phil

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we examine the public charter school movement in the Province of Alberta, Canada over the past 20 years to determine how charter school policy and regulations have limited and controlled the impact of charter schools on public education. Specifically we focus on the extent to which charter schools in Alberta fulfilled the aims and…

  2. Digital Distribution of Academic Journals and Its Impact on Scholarly Communication: Looking Back after 20 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, David J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been approximately 20 years since distributing scholarly journals digitally became feasible. This article discusses the broad implications of the transition to digital distributed scholarship from a historical perspective and focuses on the development of open access (OA) and the various models for funding OA in the context of the roles…

  3. The impact of lean production on musculoskeletal and psychosocial risks: an examination of sociotechnical trends over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Koukoulaki, Theoni

    2014-03-01

    This paper provides an extensive review of studies carried out in lean production environments in the last 20 years. It aims to identify the effects of lean production (negative or positive) on occupational health and related risk factors. Thirty-six studies of lean effects were accepted from the literature search and sorted by sector and type of outcome. Lean production was found to have a negative effect on health and risk factors; the most negative outcomes being found in the earliest studies in the automotive industry. However, examples of mixed and positive effects were also found in the literature. The strongest correlations of lean production with stress were found for characteristics found in Just-In-Time production that related to reduced cycle time and reduction of resources. Increased musculoskeletal risk symptoms were related to increases of work pace and lack of recovery time also found in Just-In-Time systems. An interaction model is developed to propose a pathway from lean production characteristics to musculoskeletal and psychosocial risk factors and also positive outcomes. An examination is also made of the changing focus of studies investigating the consequences of lean production over a 20-year period. Theories about the effects of lean production have evolved from a conceptualization that it is an inherently harmful management system, to a view that it can have mixed effects depending on the management style of the organization and the specific way it is implemented.

  4. 16. Overall view of the swing span (Span G) turning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Overall view of the swing span (Span G) turning drum, showing rollers and drive chains; looking W. (Ceronie) - Rock Island Arsenal, Rock Island Bridge, Fort Armstrong Avenue, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  5. Impact of Tai Chi Chu'an practice on balance and mobility in older adults: an integrative review of 20 years of research.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Wolf, Steven L

    2014-01-01

    Falls in older adults, which often result from decreased balance and mobility, are an important public health issue. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends multidimensional balance and mobility training to prevent falls. In the past 20 years, Tai Chi Chu'an (tai chi) has been found to be effective in improving balance, reducing falls and fear of falling for older adults. Efficient use of time devoted to exercise is critical; therefore, more research is needed into the underlying mechanisms of balance and mobility improvements in older adults as a result of tai chi practice, so that these interventions can be most targeted and efficient. The purpose of this integrative review is twofold. First, evidence is presented to show that balance and mobility have been improved by tai chi in older adults. Second, potential mechanisms of balance improvement from research conducted in longtime tai chi practitioners, and from clinical research conducted in older adults, are offered. A PubMed search with the terms "tai chi" and "balance" entered simultaneously was conducted. Articles were included if they were systematic reviews, pilot or clinical trials, related to both balance and tai chi, and/or specifically related to determining the mechanisms potentially underlying tai chi's effects. The systematic reviews and meta-analyses show that aspects of tai chi research findings remain equivocal. In spite of the inconclusiveness of these review findings, many researchers have considered tai chi worthy of further investigation. Furthermore, practitioners in the clinic and those who deliver exercise in the community have evidently embraced tai chi as an appropriate exercise for older adults. This review, spanning 2 decades, suggests that tai chi has impacted the health and health behaviors of many older adults. Going forward, informing novel balance and mobility rehabilitation by uncovering mechanisms of tai chi's effects definitively may be the most important area of

  6. View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of approach span and movable span, looking southeast from navy land. Note that navigational channel exists only on north side of movable span. - Naval Supply Annex Stockton, Daggett Road Bridge, Daggett Road traversing Burns Cut Off, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  7. Aging alterations in whole-brain networks during adulthood mapped with the minimum spanning tree indices: the interplay of density, connectivity cost and life-time trajectory.

    PubMed

    Otte, Willem M; van Diessen, Eric; Paul, Subhadip; Ramaswamy, Rajiv; Subramanyam Rallabandi, V P; Stam, Cornelis J; Roy, Prasun K

    2015-04-01

    The organizational network changes in the human brain across the lifespan have been mapped using functional and structural connectivity data. Brain network changes provide valuable insights into the processes underlying senescence. Nonetheless, the altered network density in the elderly severely compromises the usefulness of network analysis to study the aging brain. We successfully circumvented this problem by focusing on the critical structural network backbone, using a robust tree representation. Whole-brain networks' minimum spanning trees were determined in a dataset of diffusion-weighted images from 382 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 20.2 to 86.2 years. Tree-based metrics were compared with classical network metrics. In contrast to the tree-based metrics, classical metrics were highly influenced by age-related changes in network density. Tree-based metrics showed linear and non-linear correlation across adulthood and are in close accordance with results from previous histopathological characterizations of the changes in white matter integrity in the aging brain.

  8. Neurotoxicity in young adults 20 years after childhood exposure to lead: the Bunker Hill experience

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, L.; Letz, R.; Gerr, F.; Kolczak, M.; McNeill, F. E.; Chettle, D. R.; Kaye, W. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: An epidemiological study of young adults was conducted to determine whether environmental exposure to lead during childhood was associated with current adverse neurobehavioural effects. METHODS: The exposed group consisted of 281 young adults who had been exposed environmentally to lead as children and the unexposed referent group consisted of 287 age and sex frequency matched subjects. Information on demographics, past and current health, and past exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Swedish Q16 questionnaire were collected by interview. Standard neurobehavioural and neurophysiological tests were administered by computer or trained technicians. K x ray fluorescence was used to estimate tibial bone lead concentrations among the exposed and unexposed groups. Associations were examined between the exposed group and referents and tibial bone lead concentration and the neurobehavioural and neurophysiological outcomes of interest. RESULTS: Among the measures of peripheral nerve function, after controlling for confounders, sural sensory nerve evoked response amplitude, peroneal motor nerve compound motor action potential amplitude, vibrotactile thresholds of fingers and toes, and standing steadiness were significantly associated with exposure group. Among the neurobehavioural tests, hand-eye coordination, simple reaction time latency, trails B latency, symbol digit latency, serial digit, and learning error score were also significantly associated with exposure group after controlling for confounders. Exposed subjects had significantly more neuropsychiatric symptoms than the referents. Associations between tibial bone lead concentration and scores for vocabulary, vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers, and vibrotactile thresholds of the toes approached significance. CONCLUSIONS: Significant adverse central and peripheral neurological effects were found in a group of young adults 20 years after childhood environmental exposure to lead when compared

  9. Spinal cord stimulation: a 20-year retrospective analysis in 260 patients.

    PubMed

    Reig, Enrique; Abejón, David

    2009-07-01

    Introduction. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is used clinically by many pain physicians and neurosurgeons alike without regard to their own outcome data. Methods. We reviewed our 20-year experience retrospectively of patients receiving SCS implants and analyzed our data by pain type and group. Results. We present 260 patients, 140 men and 120 women. The most frequent type of pain in our series was neuropathic pain in 44.25% and the most frequent diagnosis was peripheral vascular disease (PVD) with 98 cases. The second was failed back surgery syndrome (FBSS) with 65 cases and the third was complex regional pain syndrome type I (CRPS I), with 40 cases. In CRPS group, the mean visual analog scale (VAS) of this group was 77.89 ± 13.38. In total, 5% had no pain relief, 40% had poor pain relief, 47.5% had good pain relief, and 7.5% had excellent pain relief. In FBSS group, the mean VAS was 79.62 ± 11.69 mm. A total of 13.80% had no pain relief at all, 35.39% had poor pain relief, 50.76% had good pain relief, and there were no patients in this group who had complete pain relief. A total of 98 patients, 78 men and 20 women, were diagnosed with PVD. The mean VAS of this group was 69.75 ± 14.36 mm. A total of 11.22% had poor pain relief, 87.75% had good pain relief. One patient had complete pain relief and all patients in this group perceived at least some improvement in their symptoms. The rate of complications was close to 28% in our overall sample. Conclusions. In conclusion, we demonstrated the utility over time of this type of treatment is comparable with other series of efficacy of SCS. The analgesic efficacy was close to 65% in the overall group. The therapy was not free of complications. The preponderance of our patients was patients with the diagnosis of PVD and our results in this group of patients were excellent. These excellent results of more than 90% improvement suggest to us that SCS be considered as a first-line approach to the

  10. Antimicrobial-Resistant Escherichia coli Survived in Dust Samples for More than 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Jochen; Ruddat, Inga; Hartung, Jörg; Hamscher, Gerd; Kemper, Nicole; Ewers, Christa

    2016-01-01

    that under particular conditions, dust from farm animal houses can be reservoirs for antimicrobial-resistant E. coli for at least 20 years. The survival strategies that allow E. coli to survive such long periods in environmental samples are not fully understood and could be an interesting research topic for future studies. PMID:27375587

  11. Chinese medicines reported to have effects on contact dermatitis in the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Jung, Youngchul; Kim, Byungju; Ryu, Mi Heon; Kim, Hyungwoo

    2017-03-02

    Contact dermatitis (CD) is one of the most common skin diseases in industrialized countries. Chinese medicines (CMs) have been investigated worldwide as complementary and alternative medicines for corticosteroids, which are the first choice for treatment of inflammatory skin diseases owing to their favorable efficacy. This article describes the CMs that have been reported to have anti-dermatitis effects against CD in the last 20 years.

  12. [The Health Surveillance database of a large hospital enterprise: a 20-year analysis].

    PubMed

    Talini, Donatella; Baldasseronil, Alberto; Cristaudo, Alfonso; Magnani, Aldo

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the aging of the working population and its effects, a 20 years observational study was conducted on health surveillance data of a large healthcare company. The data showed a gradual increase in the mean age of workers, especially among subjects with restrictions/requirements regarding their job title. If no preventive/corrective measures are taken, the socio-economnic situation will get worse with economic and social damages.

  13. Publication trends in the medical informatics literature: 20 years of "Medical Informatics" in MeSH

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study is to identify publication output, and research areas, as well as descriptively and quantitatively characterize the field of medical informatics through publication trend analysis over a twenty year period (1987–2006). Methods A bibliometric analysis of medical informatics citations indexed in Medline was performed using publication trends, journal frequency, impact factors, MeSH term frequencies and characteristics of citations. Results There were 77,023 medical informatics articles published during this 20 year period in 4,644 unique journals. The average annual article publication growth rate was 12%. The 50 identified medical informatics MeSH terms are rarely assigned together to the same document and are almost exclusively paired with a non-medical informatics MeSH term, suggesting a strong interdisciplinary trend. Trends in citations, journals, and MeSH categories of medical informatics output for the 20-year period are summarized. Average impact factor scores and weighted average impact factor scores increased over the 20-year period with two notable growth periods. Conclusion There is a steadily growing presence and increasing visibility of medical informatics literature over the years. Patterns in research output that seem to characterize the historic trends and current components of the field of medical informatics suggest it may be a maturing discipline, and highlight specific journals in which the medical informatics literature appears most frequently, including general medical journals as well as informatics-specific journals. PMID:19159472

  14. Social network sampling using spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalali, Zeinab S.; Rezvanian, Alireza; Meybodi, Mohammad Reza

    2016-12-01

    Due to the large scales and limitations in accessing most online social networks, it is hard or infeasible to directly access them in a reasonable amount of time for studying and analysis. Hence, network sampling has emerged as a suitable technique to study and analyze real networks. The main goal of sampling online social networks is constructing a small scale sampled network which preserves the most important properties of the original network. In this paper, we propose two sampling algorithms for sampling online social networks using spanning trees. The first proposed sampling algorithm finds several spanning trees from randomly chosen starting nodes; then the edges in these spanning trees are ranked according to the number of times that each edge has appeared in the set of found spanning trees in the given network. The sampled network is then constructed as a sub-graph of the original network which contains a fraction of nodes that are incident on highly ranked edges. In order to avoid traversing the entire network, the second sampling algorithm is proposed using partial spanning trees. The second sampling algorithm is similar to the first algorithm except that it uses partial spanning trees. Several experiments are conducted to examine the performance of the proposed sampling algorithms on well-known real networks. The obtained results in comparison with other popular sampling methods demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed sampling algorithms in terms of Kolmogorov-Smirnov distance (KSD), skew divergence distance (SDD) and normalized distance (ND).

  15. Synchronous HIV/AIDS-related Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Adam, Etai; Wang, Larry; Herrington, Cynthia; Bliss, David; Church, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of simultaneous endobronchial and adrenal Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female with AIDS. Blood Epstein-Barr Virus polymerase chain reaction was negative at the time of diagnosis.

  16. A Longitudinal Examination of Career Expectations and Outcomes of Academically Talented Students 10 and 20 Years Post-High School Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perrone, Kristin M.; Tschopp, Molly K.; Snyder, Erin R.; Boo, Jenelle N.; Hyatt, Claudine

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine career expectations and outcomes for individuals who were identified as academically talented high school students. Data for this study were collected at two different time periods: 10 years and 20 years after participants' high school graduation. A decade after graduation from high school, participants…

  17. Depleted uranium contamination by inhalation exposure and its detection after approximately 20 years: implications for human health assessment.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Randall R; Horstwood, Matthew; Arnason, John G; Chenery, Simon; Brewer, Tim; Lloyd, Nicholas S; Carpenter, David O

    2008-02-01

    Inhaled depleted uranium (DU) aerosols are recognised as a distinct human health hazard and DU has been suggested to be responsible in part for illness in both military and civilian populations that may have been exposed. This study aimed to develop and use a testing procedure capable of detecting an individual's historic milligram-quantity aerosol exposure to DU up to 20 years after the event. This method was applied to individuals associated with or living proximal to a DU munitions plant in Colonie New York that were likely to have had a significant DU aerosol inhalation exposure, in order to improve DU-exposure screening reliability and gain insight into the residence time of DU in humans. We show using sensitive mass spectrometric techniques that when exposure to aerosol has been unambiguous and in sufficient quantity, urinary excretion of DU can be detected more than 20 years after primary DU inhalation contamination ceased, even when DU constitutes only approximately 1% of the total excreted uranium. It seems reasonable to conclude that a chronically DU-exposed population exists within the contamination 'footprint' of the munitions plant in Colonie, New York. The method allows even a modest DU exposure to be identified where other less sensitive methods would have failed entirely. This should allow better assessment of historical exposure incidence than currently exists.

  18. Exclusive Alternating Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Nonmetastatic Inflammatory Breast Cancer: 20 Years of Follow-Up

    SciTech Connect

    Bourgier, Celine; Pessoa, Eduardo Lima; Dunant, Ariane; Heymann, Steve; Spielmann, Marc; Uzan, Catherine; Mathieu, Marie-Christine; Arriagada, Rodrigo; Marsiglia, Hugo

    2012-02-01

    Background: Locoregional treatment of inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is crucial because local relapses may be highly symptomatic and are commonly associated with distant metastasis. With a median follow-up of 20 years, we report here the long-term results of a monocentric clinical trial combining primary chemotherapy (CT) with a schedule of anthracycline-based CT and an alternating split-course of radiotherapy (RT Asterisk-Operator CT) without mastectomy. Methods and Materials: From September 1983 to December 1989, 124 women with nonmetastatic IBC (T4d M0) were treated with three cycles of primary AVCMF chemotherapy (anthracycline, vincristine, cyclophosphamide, methotrexate, and 5-fluorouracil) and then an alternating RT Asterisk-Operator CT schedule followed by three cycles of FAC. Hormonal therapy was systematically administered: ovarian irradiation (12 Gy in four fractions) or tamoxifen 20 mg daily. Results: Local control was achieved in 82% of patients. The 10- and 20-year local relapse rates were 26% and 33%, respectively, but only 10% of locally controlled cases were not associated with concurrent distant metastasis. The 10- and 20-year overall survival rates were 39% and 19%, respectively. Severe fibrosis occurred in 54% of patients, grade 3 brachial plexus neuropathy in 4%, grade 2 pneumonitis in 9%. Grade 1, 2 and 3 cardiac toxicity was observed in 3.8%, 3.8% and 1.2% of cases respectively. Conclusions: This combined regimen allowed good long-term local control without surgery. Survival rates were similar to those obtained with conventional regimens (primary chemotherapy, total mastectomy, and adjuvant radiotherapy). Since IBC continues to be an entity with a dismal prognosis, this approach, safely combining preoperative or postoperative radiation therapy and systemic treatments, should be reassessed when suitable targeted agents are available.

  19. Petermann Glacier, North Greenland: Large Ice-Discharge Episodes from 20 Years of Satellite Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babiker, M.; Johannessen, O. M.; Miles, M. W.; Miles, V. V.

    2009-12-01

    The major marine-terminating outlet glaciers of Greenland can undergo large mass losses through calving of icebergs and bottom melting from floating ice tongues. Recent observations of outlet glaiers around Greenland have shown that large and rapid changes in solid-ice fluxes are possible. The Petermann glacier in remote northern Greenland is the region’s largest floating-tongue glacier (~70 km by 10 km). In summer 2008 a large calving event was observed, as well as large cracks upstream of the remaining calving front, portending a more massive near-term loss. These observations may herald extraordinary and unprecedented change. However, the long-term variability of calving events and ice velocities are poorly known. Our research goal here is to identify the temporal variability and possible trends in solid-ice flux indicators - variability of the calving front and ice velocity - for Petermann glacier. The methodological approach is observational, based primarily on analysis of 20 years of repetitive satellite data over a period starting from 1990, together with sporadic earlier observations. The multisensor data range from high-resolution optical images from Landsat, SPOT and Terra ASTER and high-resolution synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images from ERS and ENVISAT. These disparate data have been imported, geo-registered and analysed within a Geographic Information System. The following measurements are made: (1) delineating changes in the calving front, (2) estimating the area of glacial ice loss during calving events, and (3) estimating the ice-surface velocity using sequential satellite images. We find evidence of a number of previous calving episodes of similar magnitude to the summer 2008. The ice-velocity estimates compare well with other estimates for particular years, and moreover are relatively consistent during the 20-year period. These findings suggest business-as-usual for Petermann glacier; however, a near-term calving event exceeding those observed

  20. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy in Chernobyl disaster clean-up workers (a 20-year study).

    PubMed

    Podsonnaya, I V; Shumakher, G I; Golovin, V A

    2010-05-01

    Results obtained over 20-years of following 536 Chernobyl clean-up workers and 436 control subjects are presented. Dyscirculatory encephalopathy developed more frequently in persons exposed to radiation at age 30 years. As compared with the control group, workers were characterized by early onset of disease, faster progression, stable symptomatology for 5-6 years, and further progression of disease in the form of autonomic dysfunction, psycho-organic syndrome, and epilepsy. Major strokes were also more common in clean-up workers.

  1. A 20-Year Study of Undergraduate Astronomy Students' Beliefs and Knowledge in Science and Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxner, S. R.; Antonellis, J.; Impey, C. D.

    2011-09-01

    This poster presents data from a 20-year study into the science literacy of undergraduates enrolled in introductory astronomy courses. Responses from almost 10,000 undergraduate students from 1989 to 2009 have been analyzed. We present students' responses to both science literacy and belief questions by year and demographic variables, as well as trends in open-ended responses. Analysis revealed that demographic variables accounted for only 7% of the variance in students' science literacy scores. The strongest predictor of a student's overall science literacy score was how many science courses they had completed, yet this only accounted for 4% of the variance, as did students' beliefs regarding science and technology issues.

  2. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  3. Kawasaki Disease in India, Lessons Learnt Over the Last 20 Years.

    PubMed

    Singh, Surjit; Kawasaki, Tomisaku

    2016-02-01

    Over the last 20 years, Kawasaki disease is being increasingly recognized in India and it may soon replace acute rheumatic fever to become the commonest cause of acquired heart disease amongst children. However, the vast majority of children with Kawasaki disease in India are still not being diagnosed. Diagnosis of Kawasaki disease is based on a constellation of clinical findings which have a typical temporal sequence. All pediatricians must we familiar with the nuances involved in arriving at a diagnosis of Kawasaki disease. With early diagnosis and prompt treatment, the risk of coronary artery abnormalities can be significantly reduced.

  4. History of Division 29, 1993-2013: another 20 years of psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Williams, Elizabeth Nutt; Barnett, Jeffrey E; Canter, Mathilda B

    2013-03-01

    The history of Division 29 (Psychotherapy) of the American Psychological Association (APA) from 1993 to 2013 is reviewed. The 20 years of history can be traced via the Division's primary publications (the journal Psychotherapy and its newsletter Psychotherapy Bulletin) as well as the history of those who have served leadership roles in the Division and have won Divisional awards. Several recurring themes emerge related to the Division's articulations of its own identity, the Division's advocacy efforts vis-à-vis the profession and the APA, and the work of the Division on behalf of major social issues (such as disaster relief and the nation's health care).

  5. Landsat: Planning the Next 20 Years of Earth Observation and Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryker, S. J.; Larsen, M. C.; Newman, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    The Landsat series of Earth-observing satellites began 41 years ago as a partnership between the U.S. Department of the Interior (DOI) and NASA. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), as DOI's Earth science agency, provides Landsat's ground systems and data and develops value-added science products and applications. In 2013 the Administration committed to continue the Landsat program for the long term, and directed NASA and USGS to develop a series of spaceborne systems to provide global, continuous Landsat-quality multispectral and thermal infrared measurements for at least 20 years beyond Landsat 9. The Administration also directed the USGS to develop the program's long-term science directions, with special emphasis on making Landsat data more easily used in a wide variety of disciplines and fields of practice. With Landsats 7 and 8 on orbit, the USGS provides data every eight days for any location on the Earth's land masses. Given eight-day data collection and Landsat's 41-year historical archive, researchers and decision-makers can assess phenomena occurring at weekly to decadal time scales. With this in mind, the USGS has identified a set of Landsat-based science products that will improve applications used by natural resource managers and will contribute to the international and interagency climate monitoring community's initiative to develop consistent climate data records (CDRs) and essential climate variables (ECVs). Key Landsat-derived CDRs include surface reflectance and surface temperature, and ECV products will include measures of fire disturbance, snow covered area, surface water extent, land cover, and above-ground green biomass. These interpretive products will provide an authoritative basis for regional to continental scale identification of historical change, monitoring of current conditions, and predicting future conditions. The Administration has also assigned USGS the responsibility to analyze Landsat users' needs to inform future operational

  6. Measuring Cognitive Engagement with Self-Report Scales: Reflections from over 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Research spanning 20 years is reviewed as it relates to the measurement of cognitive engagement using self-report scales. The author's research program is at the forefront of the review, although the review is couched within the broader context of the research on motivation and cognitive engagement that began in the early 1990s. The…

  7. Enrichment of natural (15)N abundance during soil N losses under 20years of continuous cereal cropping.

    PubMed

    Jones, Andrew R; Dalal, Ram C

    2017-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the enrichment of natural (15)N abundance in soil over time is reflective of historic N cycling and loss, but this process in cropping soils is not yet clear. In this study, we identified an enrichment gradient of natural (15)N abundance during 20-year chronosequence of cereal cropping on Alfisols in southwest Queensland, Australia, that have no history of fertilisation. We demonstrate that the increase in soil (15)N abundance is explained by isotopic fractionation of (15)N during organic N mineralisation and nitrification, which lead to isotopically heavier ammonium retained in the soil and isotopically lighter soil nitrate taken up and removed by seasonal crops during harvest. Here we present a framework for natural (15)N isotopic fractionation co-occurring with N losses during long-term cultivation.

  8. [Interdisciplinary orthodontic surgical treatment of children with cleft lip and palate from 9 to 20 years of age].

    PubMed

    Kuijpers-Jagtman, A M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Bierenbroodspot, F; Borstlap, W A

    2015-11-01

    Cleft lip and palate is a common congenital malformation with a prevalence of 1:600 newborns. Children with orofacial clefts are treated by an interdisciplinary team of specialists while parents and child play a key role in their own care process. The orthodontic and facial orthopedic treatment of a child with a cleft takes many years. Children often get bored of the long treatment and this can cause problems with compliance and oral hygiene. Therefore it is advisable to distinguish 5 well-defined stages in the orthodontic treatment and to attempt to have some 'orthodontics free' time in between. The 3 orthodontic treatment phases between the age of 9 and 20 years consist of orthodontic treatment concerning the closing of the cleft with a bone transplant, the treatment of the permanent dentition and, finally, a possible combined orthodontic surgical treatment at the end of the period of growth. Good interdisciplinary collaboration among the different dental disciplines is essential in this regard.

  9. Changes in orthodontic treatment modalities in the past 20 years: exploring the link between technology and scientific evidence.

    PubMed

    Bradley, T Gerard

    2013-01-01

    STATEMENT OF THE ISSUE: Is there a link between the many perceived advances in orthodontic techniques/therapy and science in the past 20 years? The purpose of this paper is to take five topics and match the perceptions with the scientific evidence. The variety of appliances and the swings in treatment philosophy have been dramatic, including the swing from extraction to non-extraction therapy, the introduction of space-age wires, appliances that grow mandibles, the introduction and extraordinary growth of Invisalign, and reduced friction brackets to reduce treatment time, all with claims by manufacturers of better results than ever before. The focus is on faster treatment, reduced visits/appointments and superior results. Most of these 'advancements' represent what has been the 'juggernaut of technology'. Five questions are posed, and an evidence-based approach is used to critically examine the literature in these selected topics.

  10. A 20-year data set of surface longwave fluxes in the Arctic

    SciTech Connect

    Jennifer Francis

    2004-06-15

    Creation of 20-year data set of surface infrared fluxes from satellite measurements. A reliable estimate of the surface downwelling longwave radiation flux (DLF) is a glaring void in available forcing data sets for models of Arctic sea ice and ocean circulation. We have developed a new method to estimate the DLF from a combination of satellite sounder retrievals and brightness temperatures from the TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder (TOVS), which has flown on NOAA polar-orbiting satellites continuously since late 1979. The overarching goal of this project was to generate a 20-year data set of surface downwelling longwave flux measurements from TOVS data over the Arctic Ocean. Daily gridded fields of DLF were produced with a spatial resolution of (100 km){sup 2} north of 60{sup o}N for 22.5 years rather than only 20. Surface measurements from the field station at Barrow, AK--part of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program --and from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) were used to validate the satellite-derived fluxes and develop algorithm improvements for conditions that had resulted in systematic errors in early versions of the algorithm. The resulting data set has already been sent to two other investigators for incorporation into their research, and we will soon complete preparations to send the products to the National Snow and Ice Data Center and ARM data archive, where it can be disseminated to the scientific community.

  11. Bibliometric analysis of global environmental assessment research in a 20-year period

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wei Zhao, Yang

    2015-01-15

    Based on the samples of 113,468 publications on environmental assessment (EA) from the past 20 years, we used a bibliometric analysis to study the literature in terms of trends of growth, subject categories and journals, international collaboration, geographic distribution of publications, and scientific research issues. By applying thresholds to network centralities, a core group of countries can be distinguished as part of the international collaboration network. A frequently used keywords analysis found that the priority in assessment would gradually change from project environmental impact assessment (EIA) to strategic environmental assessment (SEA). Decision-theoretic approaches (i.e., environmental indicator selection, life cycle assessment, etc.), along with new technologies and methods (i.e., the geographic information system and modeling) have been widely applied in the EA research field over the past 20 years. Hot spots such as “biodiversity” and “climate change” have been emphasized in current EA research, a trend that will likely continue in the future. The h-index has been used to evaluate the research quality among countries all over the world, while the improvement of developing countries' EA systems is becoming a popular research topic. Our study reveals patterns in scientific outputs and academic collaborations and serves as an alternative and innovative way of revealing global research trends in the EA research field.

  12. Reports of child sexual abuse of boys and girls: Longitudinal trends over a 20-year period in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Ben; Bromfield, Leah; Walsh, Kerryann; Cheng, Qinglu; Norman, Rosana E

    2017-02-17

    Although prevalence studies show girls are more frequently sexually abused than boys, a significant proportion of boys also experience child sexual abuse (CSA). The challenges for public policy are amplified for boys due to less developed public and professional sensitisation to boys' experiences, conceptions of masculinity, and less research on boys including into reporting trends and outcomes. We conducted a 20-year longitudinal time-trend analysis of government data to identify reporting trends and report outcomes for CSA in Victoria, Australia from 1993 to 2012. We stratified by child gender and reporter status. Results indicate a new sensitisation to CSA, especially for boys, although this trend was not stable. Marked change occurred in the last five years, likely influenced by major social and political events. Comparison over time revealed that from 1993 to 2012, the rate of reporting of boys increased 2.6-fold whereas there was a 1.5-fold increase for girls. Comparing genders, with regards to rate of reporting, in 1993, the sex ratio of girls to boys was 2:1, while by 2012 this ratio changed to 1.14:1. Reports by police and other mandated reporters accounted for the majority of the increase in reports over the 20-year period, suggesting unequal sensitisation. Positive report outcomes (i.e. substantiations, findings of harm, and referral to services) increased twelve-fold for boys, and nearly five-fold for girls, indicating the increased levels of reports were based in actual clinical need. Most of this increase occurred from 2009 to 2012, influenced by a compound of social, political and agency-related factors.

  13. Validation of Reference Genes for Gene Expression by Quantitative Real-Time RT-PCR in Stem Segments Spanning Primary to Secondary Growth in Populus tomentosa

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Yajuan; Ding, Liping; Zhang, Jiewei; Wei, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    The vertical segments of Populus stems are an ideal experimental system for analyzing the gene expression patterns involved in primary and secondary growth during wood formation. Suitable internal control genes are indispensable to quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) assays of gene expression. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes was evaluated in a series of vertical stem segments of Populus tomentosa. Analysis through software packages geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper showed that genes ribosomal protein (RP) and tubulin beta (TUBB) were the most unstable across the developmental stages of P. tomentosa stems, and the combination of the three reference genes, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), Actin (ACT6) and elongation factor 1-beta (EF1-beta) can provide accurate and reliable normalization of qRT–PCR analysis for target gene expression in stem segments undergoing primary and secondary growth in P. tomentosa. These results provide crucial information for transcriptional analysis in the P. tomentosa stem, which may help to improve the quality of gene expression data in these vertical stem segments, which constitute an excellent plant system for the study of wood formation. PMID:27300480

  14. The de novo formation of a vascular network, in warm-blooded embryos, occurs via a self-assembly process that spans multiple length and time scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Little, Charles D.

    2007-03-01

    Taking advantage of wide-field, time-lapse microscopy we examined the assembly of vascular polygonal networks in whole bird embryos and in explanted embryonic mouse tissue (allantois). Primary vasculogenesis assembly steps range from cellular (1-10 μm) to tissue (100μm-1mm) level events: Individual vascular endothelial cells extend protrusions and move with respect to the extracellular matrix/surrounding tissue. Consequently, long-range, tissue-level, deformations directly influence the vascular pattern. Experimental perturbation of endothelial-specific cell-cell adhesions (VE-cadherin), during mouse vasculogenesis, permitted dissection of the cellular motion required for sprout formation. In particular, cells are shown to move actively onto vascular cords that are subject to strain via tissue deformations. Based on the empirical data we propose a simple model of preferential migration along stretched cells. Numerical simulations reveal that the model evolves into a quasi-stationary pattern containing linear segments, which interconnect above a critical volume fraction. In the quasi-stationary state the generation of new branches offsets the coarsening driven by surface tension. In agreement with empirical data, the characteristic size of the resulting polygonal pattern is density-independent within a wide range of volume fractions. These data underscore the potential of combining physical studies with experimental embryology as a means of studying complex morphogenetic systems. In collaboration with Brenda J. Rongish^1, Andr'as Czir'ok^1,2, Erica D. Perryn^1, Cheng Cui^1, and Evan A. Zamir^1 ^1Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology, the University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City, KS ^2Department of Biological Physics, E"otv"os Lor'and University, Budapest, Hungary.

  15. Trends of tropical tropospheric ozone from 20 years of European satellite measurements and perspectives for the Sentinel-5 Precursor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heue, Klaus-Peter; Coldewey-Egbers, Melanie; Delcloo, Andy; Lerot, Christophe; Loyola, Diego; Valks, Pieter; van Roozendael, Michel

    2016-10-01

    In preparation of the TROPOMI/S5P launch in early 2017, a tropospheric ozone retrieval based on the convective cloud differential method was developed. For intensive tests we applied the algorithm to the total ozone columns and cloud data of the satellite instruments GOME, SCIAMACHY, OMI, GOME-2A and GOME-2B. Thereby a time series of 20 years (1995-2015) of tropospheric column ozone was generated. To have a consistent total ozone data set for all sensors, one common retrieval algorithm, namely GODFITv3, was applied and the L1 reflectances were also soft calibrated. The total ozone columns and the cloud data were input into the tropospheric ozone retrieval. However, the tropical tropospheric column ozone (TCO) for the individual instruments still showed small differences and, therefore, we harmonised the data set. For this purpose, a multilinear function was fitted to the averaged difference between SCIAMACHY's TCO and those from the other sensors. The original TCO was corrected by the fitted offset. GOME-2B data were corrected relative to the harmonised data from OMI and GOME-2A. The harmonisation leads to a better agreement between the different instruments. Also, a direct comparison of the TCO in the overlapping periods proves that GOME-2A agrees much better with SCIAMACHY after the harmonisation. The improvements for OMI were small. Based on the harmonised observations, we created a merged data product, containing the TCO from July 1995 to December 2015. A first application of this 20-year record is a trend analysis. The tropical trend is 0.7 ± 0.12 DU decade-1. Regionally the trends reach up to 1.8 DU decade-1 like on the African Atlantic coast, while over the western Pacific the tropospheric ozone declined over the last 20 years with up to 0.8 DU decade-1. The tropical tropospheric data record will be extended in the future with the TROPOMI/S5P data, where the TCO is part of the operational products.

  16. A Report to the People. 20 Years of Your National Commitment to Public Broadcasting, 1967-1987. 1986 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corporation for Public Broadcasting, Washington, DC.

    This annual report for the Corporation for Public Broadcasting (CPB) for fiscal year 1986 also summarizes the CPB's activities over the last 20 years. The front inside cover folds out to three pages and provides a chronology of the important events in CPB history from its inception in 1967 to 1987. A narrative report on the CPB's 20 years of…

  17. The changes of subtypes in pediatric diabetes and their clinical and laboratory characteristics over the last 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Eun Byul; Lee, Hae Sang; Shim, Young Seok; Jeong, Hwal Rim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We studied the changes in subtypes of diabetes mellitus (DM) in children and evaluated the characteristics of each group over the past 20 years. In addition, we also examined the correlation between the glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values at the time of diagnosis and lipid profiles. Methods The patients were divided into 2 groups: there were a total of 190 patients under 20 years of age firstly diagnosed with DM in Ajou University Hospital. The patients in groups I and II were diagnosed from September 1995 to December 2004 and from January 2005 to April 2014, respectively. Results The characteristics were compared between the 2 groups of patients. The result showed an increase in percentage of type 2 diabetes and maturity onset diabetes of the young (MODY) patients between the 2 groups. HbA1c and total cholesterol level had statistical significances to explain increasing the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol level among age, HbA1c, total cholesterol level, and z-scores of weight and body mass index (BMI) in type 2 diabetes. R-square was 0.074. However, z-score of BMI and total cholesterol level, not HbA1c, had statistical significances in type 1 diabetic patients. R-square was 0.323. Conclusion The increase in the proportions of both type 2 diabetes and MODY in the last 10 years needed to be reminded when diagnosing the subtypes of DM, and the dyslipidemia should be attended more as a common problem of pediatric diabetic patients. PMID:27462584

  18. A 20-year experience in unilateral cleft lip repair: From Millard to the triple unilimb Z-plasty technique

    PubMed Central

    Rossell-Perry, Percy

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study describes a 20-year experience of treating patients with unilateral cleft lip. During this time, various techniques were used including Millard's technique and its modification and two types of geometrically designed procedures. The study objective was to compare surgical outcomes of different surgical techniques for unilateral cleft lip repair. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective audit of outcomes after unilateral cleft lip repair performed by a single surgeon since 1995. Of the 827 patients who underwent surgery, 277 met the criterion of having anthropometric measurements performed ≥1 year postoperatively. The patients were stratified into three groups according to cleft severity: incomplete, complete with less deficiency (3–6 mm difference between cleft and non-cleft lip height) and complete with more deficiency (>6 mm difference between cleft and non-cleft lip height). Anthropometric measurements, scar assessment and complications were recorded. Results: There were no differences in outcomes between Millard and Reichert-Millard techniques for incomplete unilateral cleft lip. For complete unilateral cleft lip and less tissue deficiency, lip symmetry was better using upper rotation advancement plus double unilimb Z-plasty than the Reichert-Millard technique. For complete unilateral cleft lip and more tissue deficiency, lip symmetry was better after triple unilimb Z-plasty than after upper rotation advancement plus double unilimb Z-plasty. Conclusions: We presented a 20-year experience performing unilateral cleft lip repair. An individualised classification system with corresponding surgical techniques was successfully used during this period. The individualised surgical protocol used in this study allowed us to achieve improved surgical outcomes. PMID:28216814

  19. The microbiologic profile of diabetic foot infections in Turkey: a 20-year systematic review: diabetic foot infections in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, M; Mutluoglu, M; Uzun, G; Karabacak, E; Turhan, V; Lipsky, B A

    2014-06-01

    The causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections differ in studies of European compared with Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the causative microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in diabetic patients with a foot infection in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of these two continents. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies pertaining to DFIs in patients cared for in Turkey. To assess changes in causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns over time, we compared the results of just the most recent 5 years (2007-2011) with those of the past 20-years (1989-2011). We identified 31 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, these studies reported 2,097 patients, from whom 1,974 microorganisms were isolated. The total percentage of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria were similar in each of the assessed periods. The rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus during the entire period, compared with just the past 5 years, was 23.8% and 19.1%, respectively, while the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 7.8% and 5.7%, respectively. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 13.7% for the entire period and 14.9% for the past 5 years. While linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most active agents against gram-positive microorganisms, imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most active against gram-negative microorganisms. This systematic review demonstrated few substantial changes in diabetic foot microbiology over the past 20 years. The data may help develop and update local clinical guidelines regarding antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections in Turkey. Further studies, especially with optimal culture methods, would be useful to validate these findings.

  20. A Developmental Perspective on Alcohol and Youths 16 to 20 Years of Age

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Sandra A.; McGue, Matthew; Maggs, Jennifer; Schulenberg, John; Hingson, Ralph; Swartzwelder, Scott; Martin, Christopher; Chung, Tammy; Tapert, Susan F.; Sher, Kenneth; Winters, Ken C.; Lowman, Cherry; Murphy, Stacia

    2009-01-01

    Late adolescence (ie, 16-20 years of age) is a period characterized by escalation of drinking and alcohol use problems for many and by the onset of an alcohol use disorder for some. This heightened period of vulnerability is a joint consequence of the continuity of risk from earlier developmental stages and the unique neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that occur in late adolescence. We review the normative neurologic, cognitive, and social changes that typically occur in late adolescence, and we discuss the evidence for the impact of these transitions on individual drinking trajectories. We also describe evidence linking alcohol abuse in late adolescence with neurologic damage and social impairments, and we discuss whether these are the bases for the association of adolescent drinking with increased risks of mental health, substance abuse, and social problems in adulthood. Finally, we discuss both the challenges and successes in the treatment and prevention of adolescent drinking problems. PMID:18381495

  1. Sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability at age 13: their status 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Benbow, C P; Lubinski, D; Shea, D L; Eftekhari-Sanjani, H

    2000-11-01

    Reported is the 20-year follow-up of 1,975 mathematically gifted adolescents (top 1%) whose assessments at age 12 to 14 revealed robust gender differences in mathematical reasoning ability. Both sexes became exceptional achievers and perceived themselves as such; they reported uniformly high levels of degree attainment and satisfaction with both their career direction and their overall success. The earlier sex differences in mathematical reasoning ability did predict differential educational and occupational outcomes. The observed differences also appeared to be a function of sex differences in preferences for (a) inorganic versus organic disciplines and (b) a career-focused versus more-balanced life. Because profile differences in abilities and preferences are longitudinally stable, males probably will remain more represented in some disciplines, whereas females are likely to remain more represented in others. These data have policy implications for higher education and the world of work.

  2. Age-associated losses of brain volume predict longitudinal cognitive declines over 8 to 20 years.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Patrick; Ibrahim, Said; Lunn, Mary; Scott, Marietta; Thacker, Neil; Hutchinson, Charles; Horan, Michael; Pendleton, Neil; Jackson, Alan

    2008-01-01

    Absolute differences in global brain volume predict differences in cognitive ability among healthy older adults. However, absolute differences confound lifelong differences in brain size with amounts of age-related shrinkage. Measurements of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volume were made to estimate age-related shrinkage in 93 healthy volunteers aged 63 to 86 years. Their current levels of brain shrinkage predicted their amounts of decline over the previous 8 to 20 years on repeated assessments during a longitudinal study on the Cattell "Culture Fair" Intelligence Test, on two tests of information processing speed, and marginally on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (D. Wechsler, 1981), but not on three memory tests. Loss of brain volume is an effective marker both for current cognitive status and for amounts and rates of previous age-related cognitive losses.

  3. Lingual access for third molar surgery: a 20-year retrospective audit.

    PubMed

    Moss, C E; Wake, M J

    1999-08-01

    We describe a technique for obtaining lingual access for the insertion of a wide metal retractor to protect the lingual nerve from accidental damage during third molar surgery. We also report an audit of a single practice over a 20-year period using the technique described. The approach involves raising soft tissues on the lingual side of the lower third molar tooth to allow insertion of a broad Hovell's lingual retractor. We conclude that raising lingual tissues to form a wide tension-free flap and inserting a specifically designed retractor does not increase the incidence of lingual nerve morbidity. Indeed, the overall incidence of lingual nerve damage was particularly low compared with those in other published series.

  4. How do animal territories form and change? Lessons from 20 years of mechanistic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Potts, Jonathan R.; Lewis, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Territory formation is ubiquitous throughout the animal kingdom. At the individual level, various behaviours attempt to exclude conspecifics from regions of space. At the population level, animals often segregate into distinct territorial areas. Consequently, it should be possible to derive territorial patterns from the underlying behavioural processes of animal movements and interactions. Such derivations are an important element in the development of an ecological theory that can predict the effects of changing conditions on territorial populations. Here, we review the approaches developed over the past 20 years or so, which go under the umbrella of ‘mechanistic territorial models’. We detail the two main strands to this research: partial differential equations and individual-based approaches, showing what each has offered to our understanding of territoriality and how they can be unified. We explain how they are related to other approaches to studying territories and home ranges, and point towards possible future directions. PMID:24741017

  5. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2008-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  6. Cuban Meningococcal BC Vaccine: Experiences & Contributions from 20 Years of Application.

    PubMed

    Sotolongo, Franklin; Campa, Concepción; Casanueva, Victoria; Fajardo, Esther María; Cuevas, Iván Edelberto; González, Noel

    2007-10-01

    This paper reviews 20 years of experience and scientific contributions of the Cuban meningococcal BC vaccine (VA-MENGOC-BC®) obtained by the Finlay Institute in Havana, Cuba. The vaccine is the first of its type in the world that is safe, effective, and commercially available for preventing meningococcal disease caused by serogroup B meningococcus; it is also effective against serogroup C. VA-MENGOC-BC® has shown satisfactory results, with no serious adverse events, after application of approximately 55 million doses in some 15 countries. Also included is background information on meningococcal disease, as well as the main characteristics of VA-MENGOC-BC®, the strategy used for controlling meningococcal disease and its prevention in Cuba, and a summary of the main scientific results obtained in basic research, development, clinical evaluation, and post-marketing results (safety, efficacy-effectiveness, post-vaccination adverse events, etc.) in Cuba and elsewhere.

  7. [20 years of a sex education clinic. Are family planning centers still needed?].

    PubMed

    Alfsen, G C; Hokstad, S

    1992-02-28

    The Sexual Information Clinic in Oslo was founded more than 20 years ago. The clinic is the largest family planning centre in Norway, treating 4,000-6,000 patients per year. In recent years the treatment of venereal diseases has become the major component of the daily work. The authors describe the different groups of patients who visit the clinic. The meanage of the patients is 21 years. The high number of legal abortions among younger women and the rising incidence of sexually transmitted diseases prove the continued existence of a need for family planning centres. The authors discuss the situation of family planning centres in Norway in general and stress the importance of their work. They argue that all venereal diseases should be treated free of charge.

  8. Factitious aortic dissection leading to thoracotomy in a 20-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Elise; Yager, Joel; Apfeldorf, William; Camps-Romero, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to an emergency department with dramatic, sudden-onset, tearing chest pain. He also claimed to have been previously diagnosed with Ehler-Danlos syndrome and a previous Type I aortic dissection (intimal tear of ascending aorta), rapidly increasing his treating physician's suspicion of an emergent aortic dissection. The patient was quickly transferred to a large university hospital, where he underwent a median sternotomy and thoracotomy, with no aortic pathology found on operation and biopsy. After the patient's postoperative recovery, he was treated at a mental health facility, where he remained ambivalent about his psychiatric condition and did not respond well to treatment. This case report describes a unique case of factitious disorder that led to a serious operative intervention and subsequent psychiatric care and assesses factors that might have contributed to his hospital course.

  9. [Meeting Report: 20 years after the First International Symposium on hepatitis C virus and related viruses].

    PubMed

    Carnero, Elena; Díez, Juana; Fortes, Purificación; Gastaminza, Pablo; Majano, Pedro; Martínez, Miguel Angel; Pérez-del-Pulgar, Sofía; Quer, Josep; López-Labrador, F Xavier

    2013-12-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) was discovered by the team of Michael Houghton at Chiron Corporation in 1989 and the first symposium on HCV and related viruses was held in Venice, Italy, shortly after, in 1992. This conference was organized to advance knowledge on what then was a mysterious virus responsible for most cases of «non-A, non-B» hepatitis. During the 20 years since the first conference, the scientific quality of presentations has steadily increased, together with the tremendous advances in basic and clinical research and epidemiology. What started as a small conference on a new virus, about which there were very few data, has today become a first-in-class congress: a meeting place for basic researchers, clinicians, epidemiologists, public health experts, and industry members to present the most important advances and their application to HCV treatment and control. The nineteenth HCV symposium was held in September 2012, once again in Venice.

  10. [Improvements in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies: what have we learnt in these last 20 years?].

    PubMed

    López-Hernández, Luz B; Ayala-Madrigal, M Luz; van Heusden, Dave; Estrada-Mena, Francisco J; Canto, Patricia; Sandoval-Ramírez, Lucila; Gómez-Díaz, Benjamín; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón M

    2011-02-16

    INTRODUCTION. Dystrophinopathies are X-linked genetic disorders caused by mutations in the DMD gene. Genetic tests are of utmost importance for management and genetic counseling of these diseases. However, the complexity of the DMD gene is a challenge for diagnosis. AIM. To describe recent advances in the diagnosis of dystrophinopathies, after 20 years since the firsts molecular assays for genetic screening for these diseases. DEVELOPMENT. Currently, a variety of strategies such as automated mutation detection, cell-based methods and high throughput haplotyping have been developed to facilitate diagnosis of dystrophinopathies, carrier detection, prenatal and preimplantation diagnosis. CONCLUSION. New technologies have improved early detection and optimal management of dystrophinopathies and have established the basis for future molecular medicine. The most significant advances in dystrophinopathy diagnosis are reviewed herein.

  11. [Familial Mediterranean fever in Mexico City. A 20-year follow-up].

    PubMed

    Halabe-Cherem, José; Pérez-Jiménez, Carolina; Nellen-Hummel, Haiko; Mercado-Atri, Moisés; Sigala-Rodríguez, Carolina; Castañón-González, Jorge

    2004-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (MFF) is an autosomic recessive, inherited inflammatory disease principally seen in persons from the Mediterranean area. Clinical findings include fever, abdominal pain, and pleuritis. The most severe complication of MFF is renal amyloidosis, manifested as nephrotic syndrome, which evolves into chronic renal failure. In this study, we described clinical findings, evolution, and response to treatment in 52 patients diagnosed with MFF living in Mexico City in whom the most important clinical features were fever and abdominal pain. Differing from previous reported series of patients from the Mediterranean area, patient developed renal amyloidosis during the 20-year follow-up, which suggests that an environmental factor might have a significant influence in development of renal amyloidosis.

  12. Role of 3-D ultrasound in clinical obstetric practice: evolution over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Tonni, Gabriele; Martins, Wellington P; Guimarães Filho, Hélio; Araujo Júnior, Edward

    2015-05-01

    The use of 3-D ultrasound in obstetrics has undergone dramatic development over the past 20 years. Since the first publications on this application in clinical practice, several 3-D ultrasound techniques and rendering modes have been proposed and applied to the study of fetal brain, face and cardiac anatomy. In addition, 3-D ultrasound has improved calculations of the volume of fetal organs and limbs and estimations of fetal birth weight. And furthermore, angiographic patterns of fetal organs and the placenta have been assessed using 3-D power Doppler ultrasound quantification. In this review, we aim to summarize current evidence on the clinical relevance of these methodologies and their application in obstetric practice.

  13. Span graphics display utilities handbook, first edition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, D. L.; Green, J. L.; Newman, R.

    1985-01-01

    The Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) is a computer network connecting scientific institutions throughout the United States. This network provides an avenue for timely, correlative research between investigators, in a multidisciplinary approach to space physics studies. An objective in the development of SPAN is to make available direct and simplified procedures that scientists can use, without specialized training, to exchange information over the network. Information exchanges include raw and processes data, analysis programs, correspondence, documents, and graphite images. This handbook details procedures that can be used to exchange graphic images over SPAN. The intent is to periodically update this handbook to reflect the constantly changing facilities available on SPAN. The utilities described within reflect an earnest attempt to provide useful descriptions of working utilities that can be used to transfer graphic images across the network. Whether graphic images are representative of satellite servations or theoretical modeling and whether graphics images are of device dependent or independent type, the SPAN graphics display utilities handbook will be the users guide to graphic image exchange.

  14. Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort study: follow-up processes at 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background In 1987, a prospective study of an Australian Aboriginal Birth Cohort was established focusing on the relationships of fetal and childhood growth with the risk of chronic adult disease. However as the study is being conducted in a highly marginalized population it is also an important resource for cross-sectional descriptive and analytical studies. The aim of this paper is to describe the processes of the third follow up which was conducted 20 years after recruitment at birth. Methods Progressive steps in a multiphase protocol were used for tracing, with modifications for the expected rural or urban location of the participants. Results Of the original 686 cohort participants recruited 68 were untraced and 27 were known to have died. Of the 591 available for examination 122 were not examined; 11 of these were refusals and the remainder were not seen for logistical reasons relating to inclement weather, mobility of participants and single participants living in very remote locations. Conclusion The high retention rate of this follow-up 20 years after birth recruitment is a testament to the development of successful multiphase protocols aimed at overcoming the challenges of tracing a cohort over a widespread remote area and also to the perseverance of the study personnel. We also interpret the high retention rate as a reflection of the good will of the wider Aboriginal community towards this study and that researchers interactions with the community were positive. The continued follow-up of this life course study now seems feasible and there are plans to trace and reexamine the cohort at age 25 years. PMID:19775475

  15. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Findings in 20-year Survivors of Mediastinal Radiotherapy for Hodgkin's Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Machann, Wolfram; Beer, Meinrad; Breunig, Margret; Stoerk, Stefan; Angermann, Christiane; Seufert, Ines; Schwab, Franz; Koelbl, Oliver; Flentje, Michael; Vordermark, Dirk

    2011-03-15

    Purpose: The recognition of the true prevalence of cardiac toxicity after mediastinal radiotherapy requires very long follow-up and a precise diagnostic procedure. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) permits excellent quantification of cardiac function and identification of localized myocardial defects and has now been applied to a group of 20-year Hodgkin's disease survivors. Methods and materials: Of 143 patients treated with anterior mediastinal radiotherapy (cobalt-60, median prescribed dose 40 Gy) for Hodgkin's disease between 1978 and 1985, all 53 survivors were invited for cardiac MRI. Of those, 36 patients (68%) presented for MRI, and in 31 patients (58%) MRI could be performed 20-28 years (median, 24) after radiotherapy. The following sequences were acquired on a 1.5-T MRI: transversal T1-weighted TSE and T2-weighted half-fourier acquisition single-shot turbo-spin-echo sequences, a steady-state free precession (SSFP) cine sequence in the short heart axis and in the four-chamber view, SSFP perfusion sequences under rest and adenosine stress, and a SSFP inversion recovery sequence for late enhancement. The MRI findings were correlated with previously reconstructed doses to cardiac structures. Results: Clinical characteristics and reconstructed doses were not significantly different between survivors undergoing and not undergoing MRI. Pathologic findings were reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction <55%) in 7 (23%) patients, hemodynamically relevant valvular dysfunction in 13 (42%), late myocardial enhancement in 9 (29%), and any perfusion deficit in 21 (68%). An association of regional pathologic changes and reconstructed dose to cardiac structures could not be established. Conclusions: In 20-year survivors of Hodgkin's disease, cardiac MRI detects pathologic findings in approximately 70% of patients. Cardiac MRI has a potential role in cardiac imaging of Hodgkin's disease patients after mediastinal radiotherapy.

  16. Characteristics of dissolved organic matter following 20years of peatland restoration.

    PubMed

    Höll, Bettina S; Fiedler, Sabine; Jungkunst, Hermann F; Kalbitz, Karsten; Freibauer, Annette; Drösler, Matthias; Stahr, Karl

    2009-12-15

    The changes in the amounts and composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) following long-term peat restoration are unknown, although this fraction of soil organic matter affects many processes in such ecosystems. We addressed this lack of knowledge by investigating a peatland in south-west Germany that was partly rewetted 20 years ago. A successfully restored site and a moderately drained site were compared, where the mean groundwater levels were close to the soil surface and around 30 cm below surface, respectively. The concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) at 4 depths were measured over one year. The specific absorbance was measured at 280 nm and the fluorescence spectra were used to describe the aromaticity and complexity of DOM. The investigations showed that 20 years of peatland restoration was able to create typical peatland conditions. The rewetted site had significantly lower DOC concentrations at different depths compared to the drained site. The specific UV absorbance showed that the rewetted site had a lower level of aromatic DOM structures. The decreasing specific UV absorbance might indicate an increasing contribution of small organic molecules to DOM. It was hypothesized that the decreasing DOC concentrations and the relative enrichment of small, readily degradable organic molecules, reflect the slower decomposition of organic matter after the re-establishment of the water table. Seasonal trends provided substantial evidence for our hypothesis that reduced DOC concentrations were caused by reduced peat decomposition. During summer, the elevated DOC values were accompanied by an increase in DOM aromaticity and complexity. Our results demonstrated a close link between C mineralization and DOC production. We concluded that long-term peatland restoration in the form of the successful re-establishment of the water table might result in reduced peat decomposition and lower DOC concentrations. The restoration of peatlands seems to have a

  17. Anterior cruciate ligament injury after more than 20 years: I. Physical activity level and knee function.

    PubMed

    Tengman, E; Brax Olofsson, L; Nilsson, K G; Tegner, Y; Lundgren, L; Häger, C K

    2014-12-01

    Little is known about physical activity level and knee function including jump capacity and fear of movement/reinjury more than 20 years after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Seventy persons with unilateral ACL injury participated (23 ± 2 years post-injury): 33 treated with physiotherapy in combination with surgical reconstruction (ACLR ), and 37 treated with physiotherapy alone (ACLPT ). These were compared with 33 age- and gender-matched controls. Assessment included knee-specific and general physical activity level [Tegner activity scale, International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)], knee function [Lysholm score, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS)], jump capacity (one-leg hop, vertical jump, side hops), and fear of movement/reinjury [Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia (TSK)]. Outcomes were related to degree of osteoarthritis (OA). ACL-injured had lower Lysholm, KOOS, and Tegner scores than controls (P < 0.001), while IPAQ score was similar. ACL-injured demonstrated inferior jump capacity in injured compared with noninjured leg (6-25%, P < 0.001-P = 0.010 in the different jumps), while noninjured leg had equal jump capacity as controls. ACL groups scored 33 ± 7 and 32 ± 7 of 68 on TSK. Lower scores on Lysholm and KOOS symptom were seen for persons with moderate-to-high OA than for no-or-low OA, while there were no differences for physical activity and jump capacity. Regardless of treatment, there are still negative knee-related effects of ACL injury more than 20 years later.

  18. Temporal and Spatial Trends of Mercury Speciation in the Mediterranean Sea - 20 years of measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horvat, M.; Kotnik, J.; Fajon, V.; Zivkovic, I.; Begu, E.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2015-12-01

    Despite the geological mercury anomaly in the Mediterranean Basin, the concentrations of Hg Hg and its compounds are generally lower than those found in the Atlantic and Pacific waters. Temporal and spatial trends of total mercury and its species in surface and deep waters (dissolved gaseous mercury - DGM, mono and di-methylmercuy - MMHg, and DMHg) obtained during last 20 years will be presented. Total mercury Hg levels in open waters are generally very low (0.81-2.33 pM, av. 1.46 pM) and remain constant over the years. Hg speciation data showed that DGM accounts for up to 50% while MMHg accounted to up to 15% of total Hg in water. Significant spatial and temporal differences were observed for mercury speciation. The relatively high concentrations and fractions of DGM and MMHg indicate the high reactivity of Hg in open marine waters. DGM was present in surface waters mainly as Hg0 as no DMHg was detected at the surface, while towards the bottom a noticeable, but relatively small fraction of DMHg was present. It was found that DGM species were lower in surface with an increasing trend towards the bottom, especially in the tectonically active areas, indicating its geotectonic origin. In surface waters, DGM exhibited higher values in summer. MMHg profiles are mostly related to Chl-a and oxygen concentrations. This underlines the role of planktonic production and regeneration in methylation/ demethylation processes. The low MMHg concentrations found in shelf edge or coastal sediments and water over sediment indicate that coastal or shelf sediments are not a significant MMHg source for adjacent open sea waters. Anthropogenic and natural point sources show local enrichments, while natural diffusive sources influence Hg speciation over larger areas. The results allowed estimation of temporal mass balances to be evaluated for the Mediterranean Sea. Comparability of the measured results was secured by strict quality control measures over the 20 years.

  19. A History of the Environmental Management Advisory Board: 20 Years of Service and Partnership - 13219

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, Kristen; Schmitt, Elizabeth

    2013-07-01

    The Environmental Management Advisory Board (EMAB or Board) was chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA) in 1992 to provide the Assistant Secretary for Environmental Management (EM) with independent and external advice, information, and recommendations on corporate issues relating to accelerated site clean-up and risk reduction throughout the EM complex. Over the course of the past 20 years, the composition and focus of the Board have varied widely to address the changing needs of the program. EMAB began as the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Advisory Committee, formed to provide advice on an EM Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement. In 1994, the Board was restructured to function more as an executive-level, limited member advisory board whose membership provides insight of leading industry experts and the viewpoints of representatives from critical stakeholder constituencies. Throughout the 20 years of its existence, EMAB has covered a wide variety of topics and produced nearly 200 recommendations. These recommendations have resulted in several policy changes and improvements within EM. Most recently, EMAB has been credited for its contribution to the EM Energy Park Initiative, forerunner of the DOE Asset Revitalization Initiative; creation of the EM Offices of Communications and External Affairs; improvement of acquisition and project management strategies and culture; and several recommendations related to the Waste Treatment Plant and the tank waste programs at Hanford and the Savannah River Site. The wealth of experience and knowledge the Assistant Secretary can leverage through utilization of the Board continues to support fulfillment of EM's mission. In commemoration of EMAB's 20. anniversary, this paper will provide further context for the evolution of the Board, the role FACA plays in its administration, and a look at the members' current objectives and EM's expectations for the future. (authors)

  20. Wine Consumption and 20-Year Mortality Among Late-Life Moderate Drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Holahan, Charles J.; Schutte, Kathleen K.; Brennan, Penny L.; North, Rebecca J.; Holahan, Carole K.; Moos, Bernice S.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study examined level of wine consumption and total mortality among 802 older adults ages 55–65 at baseline, controlling for key sociodemographic, behavioral, and health status factors. Despite a growing consensus that moderate alcohol consumption is associated with reduced total mortality, whether wine consumption provides an additional, unique protective effect is unresolved. Method: Participants were categorized in three subsamples: abstainers, high-wine-consumption moderate drinkers, and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers. Alcohol consumption, sociodemographic factors, health behavior, and health problems were assessed at baseline; total mortality was indexed across an ensuing 20-year period. Results: After adjusting for all covariates, both high-wine-consumption and low-wine-consumption moderate drinkers showed reduced mortality risks compared with abstainers. Further, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine were older, were more likely to be male, reported more health problems, were more likely to be tobacco smokers, scored lower on socioeconomic status, and (statistical trend) reported engaging in less physical activity. Controlling only for overall ethanol consumption, compared with moderate drinkers for whom a high proportion of ethanol came from wine, those for whom a low proportion of ethanol came from wine showed a substantially increased 20-year mortality risk of 85%. However, after controlling for all covariates, the initial mortality difference associated with wine consumption was no longer significant. Conclusions: Among older adults who are moderate drinkers, the apparent unique effects of wine on longevity may be explained by confounding factors correlated with wine consumption. PMID:22152665

  1. SPAN C - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN-C, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on cards.

  2. SPAN - Terminal sterilization process analysis program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    Computer program, SPAN, measures the dry heat thermal sterilization process applied to a planetary capsule and calculates the time required for heat application, steady state conditions, and cooling. The program is based on the logarithmic survival of micro-organisms. Temperature profiles must be input on tape.

  3. 20 Years Experience with using Low Cost Launch Opportunities for 20 Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meerman, Maarten; Sweeting, Martin, , Sir

    these larger 'small satellites' are too big to be carried 'piggy-back'. The entrepreneurial efforts of leading FSU rocket &missile organisations in converting existing vehicles to meet the small satellite launch market at an appropriate cost has resulted in the FSU now holding the prime position for providing launches for the small satellite community - and with an excellent track record of successful launches. However, negotiating and completing a Launch Services Agreement (LSA) for a nano-micro-minisatellite with any launcher organisation is a complex matter and risky territory for the unwary or inexperienced who may easily fall prey to unexpected additional costs and delays. Whilst this warning should be heeded when dealing with European and US organisations, it is particularly relevant when negotiating launches from the FSU where there is a plethora of agencies and organisations offering a bewildering range of launch vehicles and options. Furthermore, the FSU has developed a very different technical and managerial philosophy towards launchers when compared with the west and this can be unnerving to 'first-time buyers'. Organisations experienced in dealing in the FSU will encounter a different but excellent service - once the launch service agreement has been thoroughly and fiercely negotiated in every detail. The inexperienced, however, have encountered frustrating delays, lost opportunities, unexpected taxes and costs for additional services or facilities not originally specified, and bewilderment at the different procedures used in the FSU. Fortunately, all this can be avoided with proper experience and the FSU is the current mainstay for launching small satellites quickly, affordably and reliably. Surrey has unique experience gathered over 20 years in handling launches for 20 small satellites, ranging from a 6kg nanosatellite, 50-100kg microsatellites, and a 325kg minisatellite, using 7 different launchers from the USA, Russia, Ukraine, and Europe. By working

  4. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-Year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frith, James; Anz-Meador, Philip; Lederer, Sue; Cowardin, Heather; Buckalew, Brent

    2015-01-01

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  5. NIR Color vs Launch Date: A 20-year Analysis of Space Weathering Effects on the Boeing 376 Spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frith, J.; Anz-Meador, P.; Lederer, S.; Cowardin, H.; Buckalew, B.

    The Boeing HS-376 spin stabilized spacecraft was a popular design that was launched continuously into geosynchronous orbit starting in 1980 with the last launch occurring in 2002. Over 50 of the HS-376 buses were produced to fulfill a variety of different communication missions for countries all over the world. The design of the bus is easily approximated as a telescoping cylinder that is covered with solar cells and an Earth facing antenna that is despun at the top of the cylinder. The similarity in design and the number of spacecraft launched over a long period of time make the HS-376 a prime target for studying the effects of solar weathering on solar panels as a function of time. A selection of primarily non-operational HS-376 spacecraft launched over a 20 year time period were observed using the United Kingdom Infrared Telescope on Mauna Kea and multi-band near-infrared photometry produced. Each spacecraft was observed for an entire night cycling through ZYJHK filters and time-varying colors produced to compare near-infrared color as a function of launch date. The resulting analysis shown here may help in the future to set launch date constraints on the parent object of unidentified debris objects or other unknown spacecraft.

  6. January | 201span>6 | Ground Systems Development and Operations ...

    NASA Website

    August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January 201span>6; December 2015; November 2015; October 2015; ...

  7. Diabetes in midlife and cognitive change over 20 years: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Neurocognitive Study

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, Andreea M.; Sharrett, A. Richey; Schneider, Andrea L.C.; Coresh, Josef; Albert, Marilyn; Couper, David; Griswold, Michael; Gottesman, Rebecca F.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Windham, B. Gwen; Selvin, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Background Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with dementia risk, however evidence is limited for possible associations of diabetes and pre-diabetes with cognitive decline. Objective To determine if diabetes in mid-life is associated with 20-year cognitive decline, and to characterize long-term cognitive decline across clinical categories of hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c). Design Prospective cohort. Setting The community-based Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study. Participants 13351 black and white adults aged 48-67 years at baseline (1990-1992). Measurements Diabetes was defined by self-report of physician diagnosis or medication use or HbA1c≥6.5%. Undiagnosed diabetes, pre-diabetes, and glucose control in persons with diagnosed diabetes were defined using clinical categories of HbA1c. Delayed Word Recall, Digit Symbol Substitution, and Word Fluency tests were used to assess cognitive performance, and were summarized using a global Z-score. Results Diabetes in midlife was associated with significantly greater cognitive decline over 20 years (adjusted global Z-score difference=-0.15, 95% CI:-0.22,-0.08), representing a 19% greater decline than those without diabetes. Cognitive decline was significantly greater among persons with pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7-6.4%) than those without diabetes and HbA1c<5.7%. Participants with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c≥7.0%) had a larger decline compared to persons whose diabetes was controlled (adjusted global Z-score difference=-0.16,p-value=0.071). Longer duration of diabetes was also associated with greater late-life cognitive decline (p-value-for-trend=<0.001). No significant differences in the rates of declines were seen in whites compared to blacks (p-value-for-interaction=0.4357). Limitations Single measurement of HbA1c at baseline, only one test to per cognitive domain, potential geographic confounding of race comparisons. Conclusions These findings suggest that diabetes prevention and glucose control in

  8. Environmental accounting as a management tool in the Mediterranean context: the Spanish economy during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Lomas, Pedro L; Alvarez, Sergio; Rodríguez, Marta; Montes, Carlos

    2008-07-01

    Although human presence is one of the main characteristics of the Mediterranean identity since ancient times, a false dialectic between conservation and social-economic development has emerged in recent decades. On the one hand, an economic growth policy is taken as the paradigm of social-economic development; on the other hand, there is a multi-scale conservation policy, in which natural protected areas, as patches of preserved nature, are used as one of the main tools to deal with the challenge of sustainability. The Mediterranean Basin is the habitat of many unique species and one of the 25 main biodiversity hotspots in the world, and as a consequence a strong conservation policy has been used to protect environmental values. At the same time, Mediterranean countries are deeply involved in promoting strong economic growth policies, which are not always compatible with environmental ones. In this paper, Spain has been studied as one model of this situation. Due to political reasons, Spanish economic growth and conservationist policies were pursued together during the last 20 years. As a result, Spain owns one of the largest networks of natural protected areas in Western Europe, and at the same time it has experienced one of the strongest periods of economic growths in the European and Mediterranean context during the 1980s and 1990s. An historical series of resource use in five annual periods in the last 20 years of conservation policy, and the effects on the preservation of natural capital have been investigated by means of the eMergy (spelled with an 'm') synthesis approach, which was used to characterize the flow of environmental services supplied by ecosystems, but not in monetary terms. This study shows that Spain is becoming less self-sufficient and more inefficient in resource use, comprehensively measured in eMergy terms. A large part of Spain's economy depends on imported goods and services, and most economic activities are based on tourist services and

  9. Research on laser protection: an overview of 20 years of activities at Fraunhofer IOSB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritt, G.; Walter, D.; Eberle, B.

    2013-10-01

    Since the advent of the laser in 1960, the protection of human eyes and sensors against intended or unintended damage by laser radiation is a hot research topic. As long as the parameters of a laser source such as the wavelength and the output power are known, adequate laser safety can be ensured simply by utilizing conventional laser protection filters which are based on absorption or interference effects. This is typically the case in cooperative environments like a laboratory or industrial facilities. A very different situation prevails in military defense or civil security. There, the parameters of encountering laser threats are usually unknown. Protection measures, helping against all types of laser threats, are the long desired objective of countless research activities. The biggest challenge in finding an effective measure arises from single laser pulses of unknown wavelength. The problem demands for a passive protection concept and may be based for example on intensity dependent effects. Moreover, the requested solutions shall comprise add-on possibilities like thin films to be put on existing optics, windshields or glasses. Unfortunately, such an all-embracing solution is still far out of reach. The Fraunhofer IOSB has been working on the evaluation and development of non-conventional laser protection methods for more than 20 years. An overview of the past and present research activities shall be presented, comprising protection measures against laser damaging and laser dazzling.

  10. Cre-Lox Neurogenetics: 20 Years of Versatile Applications in Brain Research and Counting…

    PubMed Central

    Tsien, Joe Z.

    2016-01-01

    Defining and manipulating specific neurons in the brain has garnered enormous interest in recent years, because such an approach is now widely recognized as crucial for deepening our understanding of how the brain works. When I started exploring the Cre-loxP recombination for brain research in the early 1990s, it was written off as a dead-end project by a young fool. Yet over the past 20 years, Cre-lox recombination-mediated neurogenetics has emerged as one of the most powerful and versatile technology platforms for cell-specific gene knockouts, transgenic overexpression, Brainbow imaging, neural pathway tracing with retrovirus and CLARITY, chemical genetics, and optogenetics. Its popularity and greater utility in neuroscience research is also largely thanks to the NIH’s bold Blueprint for Neuroscience Research Initiative to launch several Cre-driver resource projects, as well as individual laboratories and private research organizations. With newly-discovered, genetically-encoded molecules that are capable of responding to sonar and magnetic stimulation, for sonogenetics or magnetogenetics, respectively, or detecting rapid voltage changes in neurons, Cre-lox neurogenetics will continue to aid brain research for years to come. PMID:26925095

  11. How have researchers studied multiracial populations: A content and methodological review of 20 years of research

    PubMed Central

    Charmaraman, Linda; Woo, Meghan; Quach, Ashley; Erkut, Sumru

    2014-01-01

    The U. S. Census shows that the racial-ethnic make-up of over 9 million people (2.9% of the total population) who self-identified as multiracial is extremely diverse. Each multiracial subgroup has unique social and political histories that may lead to distinct societal perceptions, economic situations, and health outcomes. Despite the increasing academic and media interest in multiracial individuals, there are methodological and definitional challenges in studying the population resulting in conflicting representations in the literature. This content and methods review of articles on multiracial populations provides a comprehensive understanding of which multiracial populations have been included in research and how they have been studied both to recognize the emerging research and to identify gaps for guiding future research on this complex but increasingly visible population. We examine 125 U.S.-based peer-reviewed journal articles published over the past 20 years (1990–2009) containing 133 separate studies focused on multiracial individuals from primarily the fields of psychology, sociology, social work, education, and public health. Findings include (a) descriptive data regarding the sampling strategies, methodologies, and demographic characteristics of studies, including which multiracial subgroups are most studied, gender, age range, region of country, socioeconomic status; (b) major thematic trends in research topics concerning multiracial populations; (c) implications and recommendations for future studies. PMID:25045946

  12. Responses of high-altitude graminoids and soil fungi to 20 years of experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Kivlin, Stephanie N; Whitney, Kenneth D; Price, Mary V; Waser, Nickolas M; Harte, John

    2014-07-01

    High-elevation ecosystems are expected to be particularly sensitive to climate warming because cold temperatures constrain biological processes. Deeper understanding of the consequences of climate change will come from studies that consider not only the direct effects of temperature on individual species, but also the indirect effects of altered species interactions. Here we show that 20 years of experimental warming has changed the species composition of graminoid (grass and sedge) assemblages in a subalpine meadow of the Rocky Mountains, USA, by increasing the frequency of sedges and reducing the frequency of grasses. Because sedges typically have weak interactions with mycorrhizal fungi relative to grasses, lowered abundances of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi or other root-inhabiting fungi could underlie warming-induced shifts in plant species composition. However, warming increased root colonization by AM fungi for two grass species, possibly because AM fungi can enhance plant water uptake when soils are dried by experimental warming. Warming had no effect on AM fungal colonization of three other graminoids. Increased AM fungal colonization of the dominant shrub Artemisia tridentata provided further grounds for rejecting the hypothesis that reduced AM fungi caused the shift from grasses to sedges. Non-AM fungi (including dark septate endophytes) also showed general increases with warming. Our results demonstrate that lumping grasses and sedges when characterizing plant community responses can mask significant shifts in the responses of primary producers, and their symbiotic fungi, to climate change.

  13. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  14. Ability of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Residents in Diagnosing Jaw Cysts: A Retrospective 20 Years Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Hassan; Esmaeelinejad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Diagnosis of odontogenic cysts despite of their benign nature is a critical and challenging problem especially among undergraduate and postgraduate students. Aim This study aimed to evaluate the capability of oral and maxillofacial surgery residents in diagnosing odontogenic cysts. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was executed on 312 patient records over the past 20 years since October 1995 till December 2014 in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran, Iran. All recorded data was based on 2005 World Health Organization (WHO) classifications. The differential diagnosis was made by 65 residents based on clinical and paraclinical evaluations established in the charts. Differential diagnoses made by the residents were compared to the histopathological examination as the gold standard for identifying the nature of the cysts. Weighted kappa test was used to show the degree of agreement. Results Data extracted from 312 records were analyzed. The mean age of examined patients was 27.6 years. The accuracy of diagnosis among the residents was moderate (kw=0.5). The diagnosis made by the residents was significantly related to the radiographic view of the cysts (p<0.05). The residents were able to identify odontogenic keratocysts and dentigerous cysts in most cases. Conclusion There are several factors associated with the occurrence of pathologic odontogenic cysts which could help either the clinician or the pathologist in diagnosing the odontogenic cysts of the jaws. The surgeons should consider these related factors before the final diagnosis and choosing the appropriate treatment plan. PMID:28209002

  15. A 20-Year-Old Retained Surgical Gauze Mimicking a Spinal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Jung Soo

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of lower back and left leg radiating pain that began 1 month prior to his presentation. He underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation 20 years ago at another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed left-sided foraminal stenosis at L4-5. In addition, a paraspinal mass occupying the L4 spinous process and left lamina was observed. We subsequently performed an L4-5 decompression and fusion. During the operation, retained surgical gauze with granulation tissue was found. The term gossypiboma is used to define a mass lesion consisting of retained surgical gauzes and an adjacent foreign body reaction. Gossypibomas are uncommon in the paraspinal area and are mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases. Because there are no specific clinical or radiological signs, they can be confused with other tumorous conditions. Gossypibomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal soft-tissue masses detected in patients with a history of prior spinal surgery. PMID:27799998

  16. Sport and infectious risk: a systematic review of the literature over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Grosset-Janin, A; Nicolas, X; Saraux, A

    2012-11-01

    The development of sports activities promoted as a health factor should not hide the increased risk for diseases, more particularly infections. A review of articles made over the last 20 years was made with a descriptive epidemiological purpose. The most marked risk is skin infection with methicillin-resistant community acquired Staphylococcus aureus (27.4% of the articles), followed by Tinea corporis and capitis (13.7%), and leptospirosis (11.7%). The risk of blood-borne infection seems low, and articles are rare (3.9%). The risk of disease with respiratory transmission (measles, meningococcal meningitis) must be taken into account. The effect of physical activity on the immune system depends on the type and duration of the work out: it seems to be beneficial for a workout of a moderate intensity, and deleterious for a sustained acute work out, or a period of intensive training. These periods of protection or susceptibility to infections are described as "open window" and "J curve". The only recommendations for prevention of sport-related infections arise from the frequency of skin infections and the severity of blood-borne infections. These recommendations are published by American and international sports authorities. The specificity of athletes' management is due to imperatives of competitiveness (maintaining physical performance) and the necessity of temporary eviction from sports, in case of contagiousness. The athletes must make sure their recommended vaccinations are up-to-date.

  17. Optimising treatment strategies in spinal ependymoma based on 20years of experience at a single centre.

    PubMed

    Keil, Vera C; Schmitt, Anne J; Martin, Sean C; Cadoux-Hudson, Tom A D; Pereira, Erlick A C

    2016-07-01

    Spinal ependymomas are rare tumours, with total resection favoured where possible. Several case series assessing the outcome following neurosurgical treatment for spinal ependymoma advocate the usage of adjuvant radiotherapy in cases of subtotal resection, or in unencapsulated tumours. We assessed the outcome of 61 consecutive cases of spinal ependymoma in a single centre over a 20year period using a variety of outcome measures. Sex distribution was equal, with a mean age at surgery of 43.6years (range 5-76years). Overall, most tumours occurred in the lumbosacral region (70.5%), with fewer in the thoracic (27.9%) and cervical regions (18.0%). Myxopapillary features were seen in 41.0% of tumours, and were more common when occurring in the lumbar region (51.2%). Gross total resection was achieved in 52.5%, subtotal resection in 37.7% and biopsy alone in 9.8% of patients and 31.1% received adjuvant radiotherapy. Two-thirds of patients achieved an excellent post-operative neurological outcome (Frankel grade E). Tumour recurrence was rare. Gross total resection and good preoperative neurological condition were most strongly predictive of good outcome. Post-operative radiotherapy did not seem to confer survival benefit in this case series, even in cases of incomplete resection, leading us to question its utility for all cases of spinal cord ependymoma.

  18. Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland: our experience over the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sebastiano, Christopher; Zhao, Xiangrong; Deng, Fang-Ming; Das, Kasturi

    2013-09-01

    Cystic lesions of the adrenal gland are uncommon, often presenting with nonspecific clinical and radiologic findings, and are thus underrecognized. They are occasionally associated with malignant neoplasms, which can greatly mimic benign lesions and carry detrimental clinical consequences if misdiagnosed. Here we present our 20-year experience (1992-2012) with these lesions at an academic medical center. Among more than 4500 adrenal gland specimens, 31 cases of adrenal lesions with a predominant cystic component were identified in 30 patients with an age range of 34 to 86 years (median, 55.5 years) and a male/female ratio of 13:17. Macroscopic descriptions, available histologic and immunostain slides, and available radiologic records were reviewed for all included cases. Radiologic studies and gross examination correlated well, and hemorrhage (26 cases; 84%) and encapsulation (25 cases; 81%) appeared to be nonspecific radiologic/gross features shared across histologic subtypes. Microscopic review identified 12 cases (39%) of pseudocysts, 2 cases (6%) of endothelium-derived cysts, and 17 cases (55%) of epithelium-derived cysts. Among these 31 cystic adrenal lesions, 2 cases (6%) were malignant neoplasms (1 epithelioid angiosarcoma, 1 adrenocortical carcinoma). Radiologic impression and histopathologic diagnosis were concordant in 11 (73%) of the 15 cases for which radiologic records were available. This study represents the second largest case series to date on cystic adrenal lesions and presents a comprehensive review on their demographic, clinical, radiologic, and gross and microscopic pathologic features, as well as their differential diagnoses.

  19. Trends in RCT nursing research over 20 years: mind the gap.

    PubMed

    Baldi, Ileana; Dal Lago, Elisa; De Bardi, Sara; Sartor, Giada; Soriani, Nicola; Zanotti, Renzo; Gregori, Dario

    Randomised controlled trial (RCT) literature plays a fundamental role in informing evidence-based medicine and nursing. This paper aims to track geographical and temporal trends in the publication of RCTs in nursing over the past 20 years by means of a bibliometric analysis. The PubMed database was searched for articles published from 1 January 1991 to 31 October 2011 and satisfying this search strategy: nursing [MeSH Terms] AND (RCT OR trial* OR 'experimental study' OR randomised OR randomisation) AND (English[lang]). Abstracts were reviewed to assess whether they met the criteria for an RCT. A manual search of information on country of origin was carried out and Journal Citation Reports® was used to allocate journals to subject areas. RCT methodology is increasingly drawing the attention of nursing researchers worldwide. However, there is a large disparity in research productivity, at least in terms of number of published RCTs in the English language and listed on PubMed, between the most productive continents, North America and Europe, and the others.

  20. Trends in acoustic neuroma management: a 20-year review of the oxford skull base clinic.

    PubMed

    Mackeith, Samuel A C; Kerr, Richard S; Milford, Chris A

    2013-08-01

    Objective To describe the change in the management of acoustic neuromas at one United Kingdom center over a 20-year period and to compare this with what is known regarding trends in practice on a national and international scale. Design, Setting, and Participants Data was collected prospectively on all patients attending the Oxford Skull Base Clinic between 1990 and 2009. Main Outcome Measures The proportion of patients managed initially by observation versus radiotherapy versus surgery was recorded for each year. Results Significantly more patients received radiation treatment (instead of surgery) between 2000 and 2009 when compared with 1990 to 1999. Compared with national audit data, the Oxford Skull Base Clinic treats a higher proportion of patients with radiotherapy and significantly lower proportion with surgery, though the trend nationally is toward more observation and radiotherapy and less surgery. Conclusion Surgery will remain crucial in the management of some patients with acoustic neuromas (usually those with the larger tumors where radiosurgery is recognized to be less appropriate), but using current trends to predict future practice would suggest that alternative nonmicrosurgical treatment may play an increasingly important role in the future.

  1. Progress on obesity prevention over 20 years in Australia and New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Wood, A

    2013-11-01

    The lessons learned from over 20 years of obesity prevention efforts in Australia and New Zealand are presented. The obesity epidemic started in the 1980s but poor monitoring systems meant the rise in obesity prevalence initially went undetected. In the 1990 s, experts started advocating for government action; however, it was the rapid increase in media reports on obesity in the early 2000s which created the pressure for action. Several, comprehensive reports produced some programme investment but no regulatory policies were implemented. The powerful food industry lobby ensured this lack of policies on front-of-pack food labelling, restrictions on unhealthy food marketing to children, or taxes on unhealthy foods. The New Zealand government even backpedalled by rescinding healthy school food guidelines and withdrawing funding for the comprehensive national obesity strategy. In 2007, Australian Governments started a major long term-investment in preventive health in order to improve economic productivity. Other positive initiatives, especially in Australia, were: the establishment of several advocacy organizations; successful, long-term, whole-of-community projects reducing childhood obesity; a national knowledge exchange system for practitioners; and some innovative programmes and social marketing. However, despite multiple reports and strong advocacy, key recommended regulatory policies remain unimplemented, largely due to the private sector interests dominating public policy development.

  2. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: what have we learned in 20 years?

    PubMed

    Chave, Jérôme

    2013-05-01

    Over the past 20 years, major advances have clarified how ecological patterns inform theory, and how in turn theory informs applied ecology. Also, there has been an increased recognition that the problem of scale at which ecological processes should be considered is critical if we are to produce general predictions. Ecological dynamics is always stochastic at small scales, but variability is conditional on the scale of description. The radical changes in the scope and aims of ecology over the past decades reflect in part the need to address pressing societal issues of environmental change. Technological advances in molecular biology, global positioning, sensing instrumentation and computational power should not be overlooked as an explanation for these radical changes. However, I argue that conceptual unification across ecology, genetics, evolution and physiology has fostered even more fertile questions. We are moving away from the view that evolution is played in a fixed ecological theatre: the theatre is being rapidly and relentlessly redesigned by the players themselves. The maintenance of ecosystem functions depends on shifts in species assemblages and on cellular metabolism, not only on flows of energy and matter. These findings have far reaching implications for our understanding of how ecosystem function and biodiversity will withstand (or not) environmental changes in the 21st century.

  3. Black and White Chains of Risk for Hospitalization Over 20 Years*

    PubMed Central

    FERRARO, KENNETH F.; SHIPPEE, TETYANA PYLYPIV

    2009-01-01

    Drawing from the life course perspective, racial disparities in hospitalization are considered in light of a chain of risk. We ask whether race influences admission to, length of stay in, and mortality following hospitalization. Analyses address these questions with data from a national longitudinal sample of adults to assess racial disparities in the hospitalization experience (n = 6,833). Survey data were merged with hospital records abstracted over 20 years of observation. Multivariate analyses revealed that there were no racial differences in admission, but that black adults generally had longer stays. When isolating each stay prospectively, black adults had longer stays during the first, third, and fourth hospitalizations. Post-hospital mortality after the first stay was also higher for black adults than for their white counterparts, even after controlling for morbidity and status resources. The findings suggest that the racial disparities in hospital length of stay and mortality are explained by the cumulative effects of social and health inequalities over the life course. PMID:18649502

  4. A 20 Year Lifecycle Study for Launch Facilities at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolody, Mark R.; Li. Wenyan; Hintze, Paul E.; Calle, Luz-Marina

    2009-01-01

    The lifecycle cost analysis was based on corrosion costs for the Kennedy Space Center's Launch Complexes and Mobile Launch Platforms. The first step in the study involved identifying the relevant assets that would be included. Secondly, the identification and collection of the corrosion control cost data for the selected assets was completed. Corrosion control costs were separated into four categories. The sources of cost included the NASA labor for civil servant personnel directly involved in overseeing and managing corrosion control of the assets, United Space Alliance (USA) contractual requirements for performing planned corrosion control tasks, USA performance of unplanned corrosion control tasks, and Testing and Development. Corrosion control operations performed under USA contractual requirements were the most significant contributors to the total cost of corrosion. The operations include the inspection of the pad, routine maintenance of the pad, medium and large scale blasting and repainting activities, and the repair and replacement of structural metal elements. Cost data was collected from the years between 2001 and 2007. These costs were then extrapolated to future years to calculate the 20 year lifecycle costs.

  5. CT angiography after 20 years: a transformation in cardiovascular disease characterization continues to advance.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Geoffrey D; Leipsic, Jonathon; Joseph Schoepf, U; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

    2014-06-01

    Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5-15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography.

  6. Suicide and Fire: A 20-Year Study of Self-Immolation Death in Sousse, Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Jedidi, Maher; Cherif El Khal, Mohamed; Mlayeh, Souheil; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Mahjoub, Mohamed; Yassine Brahem, Mohamed; Ben Dhiab, Mohamed; Zemni, Majed; Kamel Souguir, Mohamed

    2016-11-15

    Self-immolation is a self-destructive conduct described since antiquity. Its frequency is variable from one country to another and it is a real public health problem in parts of the world. In Tunisia, after the 2011 revolution the problem of self-immolation protest has been highly publicized giving the impression of an increase in this phenomenon. This is a retrospective analysis of all fatal self-immolation cases, collected over a 20-year period (1996-2015) at the Forensic Medicine Department of the Farhat Hached University Hospital, Sousse, Tunisia. A total of 41 cases were collected, of which 23 were men (56%). The mean age was 36.1 years. Prior to 2011, 78.9% of the victims of self-immolation were women and after 2011, 86.4% were men. The rural origin of the victims was found in 56.25% of the cases. History of psychiatric illness was found in four individuals. The self-immolation took place in the victims' homes in 19 cases (46.3%). It came after a conjugal or family conflict in 14 cases (34.1%) and it is of protest character in 8 cases (19.5%). This study confirmed the increasing frequency of self-immolation in Tunisia after the 2011 revolution and noted a change in the victims' profiles.

  7. Penile curvature: an update for management from 20 years experience in a high volume centre.

    PubMed

    Sasso, Francesco; Vittori, Matteo; D'Addessi, Alessandro; Bassi, Pier Francesco

    2016-09-26

    Our aim was to review the literature and discuss about penile curvature in order to have an update for management after 20 years experience in the field.Penile curvature may be congenital or acquired. Congenital penile curvature is a relatively uncommon condition that may present in late adolescent or early adult life. The incidence is estimated to be 0.6 %. On the other side, acquired penile curvature has an overall prevalence of 0.5-13%. Three main factors seem to increase the risk of developing an acquired penile curvature, often related to Peyronie's disease: penile traumatism, genetic and familiar conditions and a history of diseases of the genital tract. In treating Peyronie's disease, no medical therapy is fully effective, and surgery remains the gold standard in cases of severe deformity and/or erectile disfunction. Peyronie's disease is associated with significant psychological stress for patients and their partners. Appropriate treatment should be individualized and tailored to the patient's goals and expectations. There is not the 'best' surgical technique and outcomes are satisfactory when proper treatment decisions are made.

  8. Successfully breaking a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations with recovery-oriented cognitive therapy for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Grant, Paul M; Reisweber, Jarrod; Luther, Lauren; Brinen, Aaron P; Beck, Aaron T

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with severe and persistent schizophrenia can present challenges (e.g., difficulties sustaining motivation and conducting information processing tasks) to the implementation of recovery-oriented care. We present a successful application of recovery-oriented cognitive therapy (CT-R), a fusion of the spirit and principles of the recovery movement with the evidence base and know-how of cognitive therapy, that helped an individual with schizophrenia move along her recovery path by overcoming specific obstacles, including a 20-year cycle of hospitalizations (five per year), daily phone calls to local authorities, threatening and berating "voices," the belief that she would be killed at any moment, and social isolation. Building on strengths, treatment included collaboratively identifying meaningful personal goals that were broken down into successfully accomplishable tasks (e.g., making coffee) that disconfirmed negative beliefs and replaced the phone calling. At the end of treatment and at a 6-month follow-up, the phone calls had ceased, psychosocial functioning and neurocognitive performance had increased, and avolition and positive symptoms had decreased. She was not hospitalized once in 24 months. Results suggest that individuals with schizophrenia have untapped potential for recovery that can be mobilized through individualized, goal-focused psychosocial interventions.

  9. [The Italian Places of Nicholas Green 20 years after his assassination].

    PubMed

    De Santo, Natale Gaspare; Scarabelli, Andrea; Citterio, Franco; De Santo, Luca S; De Rosa, Giusy

    2014-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Nicholas Green, a 7- year-old American boy was shot, while on vacation, on the Autostrada (motorway) Salerno to Reggio Calabria in Italy. His organs, with the consent of his parents, Reg and Maggie, were removed and 7 persons had their lives changed. In Italy in these last 20 years, organ donation has increased powerfully from 6.2 to 18.2 per million population with a peak at 20 in 2006. Reg and Maggie Green, after Nicholas death, started campaigning for organ donation by making full use of the media. Italian justice was efficient and the criminals were imprisoned quickly. With popular enthusiasm, a total of 103 places were dedicated to Nicholas (schools, halls, squares, streets, parks, gardens, private collections), a proof of great appreciation. Teaching organ donation to children, nurses and medical students is a powerful tool to convey the message of organ donation. To prevent opposition to organ removal when brain death occurs as Professor Francesco Casavola says signing for organ donation should be a family decision and laws for organ donation should be updated frequently in order to meet the progress of modernity.

  10. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal (EMHJ): a 20-year overview (1995-2014).

    PubMed

    Mandil, A; Curlet, F; El-Din, H Nour; Abu-Saleh, N; Soliman, M

    2016-11-02

    The EMHJ was established in 1995 to provide a peer-reviewed platform for health professionals to share their research with the scientific community. The objective of this review was to examine EMR public health research trends, as reflected by EMHJ publications in 20 years (1995-2014), through secondary data analysis. Published articles were categorized according to EMR strategic priority areas (93%), i.e. health systems strengthening (25%); reproductive and child health (22%); communicable diseases (26%); noncommunicable diseases (25%); emergency preparedness (1.5%). Most papers were original research articles (85 %), published in English (94 %), but just over half (52 %) mentioned obtaining a form of ethical clearance in the text. Six countries had each over 100 papers published during the study period, i.e. Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Iraq, Pakistan. Half EMHJ publications during this period came from 4 countries only (Iran, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Jordan), which calls for further study to evaluate why other EMR nations are less well represented and how to encourage greater contribution from them over the coming years.

  11. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:28111622

  12. MEST-Tyche will take its dark comets to impact our solar system in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2012-03-01

    Tyche has many dark comets like Oort cloud. It went near our solar system every 25-27 million years. It could take its dark comets to impact our earth. Tyche and its dark comet absorb light like a dark light which is a negative black-body radiation. (1) Eddν=-c1dνd^3dνe^c2dνd/Td-1. Among it, Ed: the dark energy, νd: the dark frequence, Td: the dark temperature, c1d,c2d: the constant. So when they go near us, their wave has a against Doppler redshift as 0.000165. And they will inbreak solar system at the rate of 99AU/y, from the distance of 1,500AU and in 20 years. It can cause the broken ozonosphere, the lithosphere to crack, many big activity volcanic and the continental drift. And it can darked the light and colded the climate to the Great Ice Age. Not only it will break our environment by a special ``nuclear explosion'' under low temperature, but also the dark life will change the Genetic code of our life. So it will kill many lives and will produce new life. So it could trigger the Mass Extinction. We can bulid up a new pair of nuclear reactor (include dark nuclear energy) to drive a universal craft and can change the orbit of our earth for evading the impaction. We need a new life-information technology to develop our life and consciousness.

  13. Toxoplasma gondii infection in marrow transplant recipients: a 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Slavin, M A; Meyers, J D; Remington, J S; Hackman, R C

    1994-05-01

    Twelve of 3803 consecutive marrow allograft patients treated at this center over the past 20 years have had a post-transplant tissue diagnosis of toxoplasmosis: 10 at autopsy and 2 by brain biopsy. This infection was identified in none of 509 autologous marrow recipients. Occurrence of toxoplasmosis was 0.31 cases per 100 allogeneic transplants and 1.0 per 100 autopsies. An estimated 15% of allogeneic transplant recipients were seropositive for Toxoplasma gondii and 2% of seropositive patients developed toxoplasmosis. Pre-transplant serology was positive by both dye and agglutination tests in 11 infected patients tested. Sequential IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE antibody titers to T. gondii and the differential agglutination ratio were not helpful in diagnosing toxoplasmosis. Median day of clinical presentation was day 59 post-transplant (35-97 days) and of diagnosis, day 62 after transplant (37-143 days). Eleven patients had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) of grades II-IV. All 12 patients died. Infection was diagnosed prior to death in only 16% of patients and contributed to death in at least 40%. Histopathology revealed tachyzoites of T. gondii most prevalent in brain (100%), heart (67%) and lungs (33%), and toxoplasma cysts alone in heart (33%) and lungs (22%). Toxoplasma infection was diagnosed in two patients receiving trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia prophylaxis suggesting this was insufficient prophylaxis for toxoplasmosis. Toxoplasmosis appeared to occur by reactivation within the first 6 months after marrow transplant. Infection developed in patients who were seropositive for T. gondii pre-transplant, had received allogeneic marrow and had severe GVHD.

  14. 20 years of long-term atrazine monitoring in a shallow aquifer in western Germany.

    PubMed

    Vonberg, David; Vanderborght, Jan; Cremer, Nils; Pütz, Thomas; Herbst, Michael; Vereecken, Harry

    2014-03-01

    Atrazine was banned in Germany in 1991 due to findings of atrazine concentrations in ground- and drinking waters exceeding threshold values. Monitoring of atrazine concentrations in the groundwater since then provides information about the resilience of the groundwater quality to changing agricultural practices. In this study, we present results of a monitoring campaign of atrazine concentrations in the Zwischenscholle aquifer. This phreatic aquifer is exposed to intensive agricultural land use and susceptible to contaminants due to a shallow water table. In total 60 observation wells (OWs) have been monitored since 1991, of which 15 are sampled monthly today. Descriptive statistics of monitoring data were derived using the "regression on order statistics" (ROS) data censoring approach, estimating values for nondetects. The monitoring data shows that even 20 years after the ban of atrazine, the groundwater concentrations of sampled OWs remain on a level close to the threshold value of 0.1 μg l(-1) without any considerable decrease. The spatial distribution of atrazine concentrations is highly heterogeneous with OWs exhibiting permanently concentrations above the regulatory threshold on the one hand and OWs were concentrations are mostly below the limit of quantification (LOQ) on the other hand. A deethylatrazine-to-atrazine ratio (DAR) was used to distinguish between diffuse - and point-source contamination, with a global mean value of 0.84 indicating mainly diffuse contamination. Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of the monitoring dataset demonstrated relationships between the metabolite desisopropylatrazine, which was found to be exclusively associated with the parent compound simazine but not with atrazine, and between deethylatrazine, atrazine, nitrate, and the specific electrical conductivity. These parameters indicate agricultural impacts on groundwater quality. The findings presented in this study point at the difficulty to estimate mean concentrations

  15. Assessing the global zoo response to the amphibian crisis through 20-year trends in captive collections.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Jeff; Patel, Freisha; Griffiths, Richard A; Young, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Global amphibian declines are one of the biggest challenges currently facing the conservation community, and captive breeding is one way to address this crisis. Using information from the International Species Information System zoo network, we examined trends in global zoo amphibian holdings across species, zoo region, and species geographical region of origin from 1994 to 2014. These trends were compared before and after the 2004 Global Amphibian Assessment to assess whether any changes occurred and whether zoo amphibian conservation effort had increased. The numbers of globally threatened species (GTS) and their proportional representation in global zoo holdings increased and this rate of increase was significantly greater after 2004. North American, European, and Oceanian GTS were best represented in zoos globally, and proportions of Oceanian GTS held increased the most since 2004. South American and Asian GTS had the lowest proportional representation in zoos. At a regional zoo level, European zoos held the lowest proportions of GTS, and this proportion did not increase after 2004. Since 1994, the number of species held in viable populations has increased, and these species are distributed among more institutions. However, as of 2014, zoos held 6.2% of globally threatened amphibians, a much smaller figure than for other vertebrate groups and one that falls considerably short of the number of species for which ex situ management may be desirable. Although the increased effort zoos have put into amphibian conservation over the past 20 years is encouraging, more focus is needed on ex situ conservation priority species. This includes building expertise and capacity in countries that hold them and tracking existing conservation efforts if the evidence-based approach to amphibian conservation planning at a global level is to be further developed.

  16. When folic acid fails: Insights from 20 years of neural tube defect surveillance in South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Bupp, Caleb P; Sarasua, Sara M; Dean, Jane H; Stevenson, Roger E

    2015-10-01

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common of the severe malformations of the brain and spinal cord. Increased maternal intake of folic acid (FA) during the periconceptional period is known to reduce NTD risk. Data from 1046 NTD cases in South Carolina were gathered over 20 years of surveillance. It was possible to determine maternal periconceptional FA use in 615 NTD-affected pregnancies. In 163 occurrent (26.9%) and two recurrent (22%) NTD cases, the mothers reported periconceptional FA use. These women were older and more likely to be white. Maternal periconceptional FA usage was reported in 40.4% of cases of spina bifida with other anomalies but in only 25.2% of isolated spina bifida cases (P = 0.02). This enrichment for associated anomalies was not noted among cases of anencephaly or of encephalocele. Among the 563 subsequent pregnancies to mothers with previous NTD-affected pregnancies, those taking FA had a 0.4% NTD recurrence rate, but the recurrence without FA was 8.5%. NTDs with other associated findings were less likely to be prevented by FA, suggesting there is a background NTD rate that cannot be further reduced by FA. Nonetheless, the majority (73.9%) of NTDs in pregnancies in which the mothers reported periconceptional FA use were isolated NTDs of usual types. Cases in which FA failed in prevention of NTDs provide potential areas for further study into the causation of NTDs. The measures and techniques implemented in South Carolina can serve as an effective and successful model for prevention of NTD occurrence and recurrence.

  17. Lifestyle and Weight Predictors of a Healthy Overweight Profile over a 20 year Follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Fung, Michael; Canning, Karissa L.; Mirdamadi, Paul; Ardern, Chris I.; Kuk, Jennifer L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether changes in modifiable risk factors (physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body weight and diet composition) are associated with the transition to metabolically healthy overweight/obese (MHO) versus metabolically abnormal overweight/obese. Methods This analysis included 1358 adults (aged 25.0 (3.5) years) from the CARDIA study who were healthy at baseline and overweight/obese at follow-up. Participants with zero or one of the following six risk factors were classified as MHO: elevated triglycerides, LDL, blood pressure, fasting glucose and HOMA-insulin resistance and low HDL. Results Over the 20 year follow-up, the sample gained weight (BMI 24.5 kg/m2 to 31.1 kg/m2) and the prevalence of MHO was 47% of overweight/obese at follow-up. After adjusting for changes in CRF, diet and weight change, physical activity and macronutrient intake were not independently associated with MHO (p>0.05), while changes in CRF (fit-unfit: RR (95%) = 0.58, 0.52–0.66; unfit-unfit: RR = 0.67, 0.58–0.76, versus fit-fit) and weight (gain: RR (95%) = 0.54, 0.43–0.67; cycle: RR = 0.74, 0.57–0.94; versus stable) were independently associated with MHO. Conclusion Focusing on high CRF and strategies to limit weight gain may be important for individuals with overweight and obesity in early to mid-adulthood to maintain a metabolically healthy profile. PMID:26010328

  18. Soil-geographical and ecological tour in West-Russia: 20 years anniversary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2013-04-01

    Soil-geographical and agro-ecological tour in Russia celebrated in this summer its 20 years anniversary! More than 800 students, PhD students and researcher from Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Sweden and France participated at the tour since 1993. The majority of the participants were students studying soil science, geoecology, geography, agriculture and ecology. The tour is based on a classical Russian zonal approach: a cross-section of climatic zones starting from south taiga, through deciduous forest, forest steppe, steppe, dry steppe, to semi dessert and transition to the desert zone. In each zone the specifics of climate, vegetation, nutrient cycling, and of course soil genesis as well as soil use by forestry and agriculture are described. Half of the soil group units of WRB classification (2006) are presented on about 35 soil profile pits and are described with focus on pedogenic processes and soil forming factors. The following soil groups are described in details by horizons according to WRB soil classification (2006): Arenosols, Podzols, Albeluvisols Histosols, Gleysols, Luvisols, Phaeozems, Chernozems, Kastanozems, Calcisols, Vertisols, Leptosols, Fluvisols, Solonetzes, Solonchaks. In addition to natural conditions, large-scale experiments designing agricultural landscapes (stone steppe), biosphere reserves and conservation areas (Tula-Schneisen, Divnogor'je, Baskunchak), as well as collective agricultural farms (previously kolkhoz) are visited to evaluate the anthropogenic effects on ecosystems and especially on soils. The 2.5 weeks bus journey through many villages and small towns, visits of museums and historical monuments, introduction in the settlement development of different regions provide a broad presentation of Russian history, traditions, life style, and contemporary state. So, combination of very diverse educational part focused on soil and environmental conditions with anthropogenic impacts and local history as well as recent socioeconomic

  19. Vegetation responses to the first 20 years of cattle grazing in an Australian desert.

    PubMed

    Fensham, R J; Fairfax, R J; Dwyer, J M

    2010-03-01

    Existing theoretical frameworks suggest three predictions relevant to grazing effects in Australian aridlands: grazing has a negative but moderate effect on plant species richness; a separate "state" resulting from degradation caused by extreme grazing will be evident; some plant species will have a strong association with grazing relief refuges that have only ever been subject to light grazing. These predictions were examined in the dune swales of an Australian desert, with data on herbaceous species collected along transects up to 14 km from artificial water points between four and 33 years old. A cumulative grazing index was constructed utilizing both the spatial occupation patterns of cattle and the length of exposure. Despite restricting sampling to a narrow habitat, silt/clay content and soil pH influence floristic patterns independent of grazing. The analysis of quadrat data in relation to grazing revealed almost no patterns in plant cover, species richness (at two different scales), or abundance across plant life-form groups. Five species had an increasing response, and seven a decreasing response, while the only species restricted to areas of extremely low grazing pressure was sufficiently rare that it could have occurred there by chance. The dominant annual grass, the most common shrub, and a perennial tussock-forming sedge all decrease with high levels of grazing. Most species exhibit an ephemeral life strategy in response to unreliable rainfall, and this boom and bust strategy effectively doubles as an adaptation to grazing. After 20 years of exposure to managed grazing with domestic stock in Australian dune swales, patterns in species richness have not emerged in response to grazing pressure, the ecosystem has not been transformed to another degradation "state," and there is no evidence that grazing relief refuges provide havens for species highly sensitive to grazing.

  20. The evolving role of data scientist during 20 years of the British Atmospheric Data Centre (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoe, S.; Parton, G.; Pascoe, C.; Guillory, A.; da Costa, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    In 2014 The British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC), now part of the Centre of Environmental Data Archival (CEDA), will celebrate its 20th anniversary. During its lifetime, most BADC staff have defined themselves as data scientists by virtue of being scientists by background and "data workers" by practice. However, the definition of data scientist has been ill defined until recently. As the term has become popularised in the world of business and general information technology, we ask ourselves to what extent the popular definition fits our profession. We observe that data science, as practised at CEDA, encompasses several roles which overlap and compliment each other as we strive to be enablers of data exploitation. For us a data scientist's skills include elements of data curation, software engineering, data infrastructure management and data-intensive research. As data science has evolved the balance between these roles has shifted in response to changes in technology, demands of the research community and funding drivers. We have had to balance our role as enablers of data exploitation, by providing services and infrastructure to the geo-science community, with our role as pioneers of data exploitation itself. By telling the story of how these roles have evolved during the 20 year history of the BADC, we aim to explore the maturing role of data scientist as practised within the geo-sciences and contrast that role with its recently popularised usage. Looking forward we will address questions about how centres of expertise, such as CEDA, can best increase the data capabilities of geo-science research as a whole in order to facilitate the transition to data-intensive science.

  1. Fruits of 20 Years of Highway Safety Legislative Advocacy in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Ted R.; Bhattacharya, Soma; Zaloshnja, Eduard

    2011-01-01

    This paper models the effects on crash fatalities and costs of 20 years of legislative actions resulting from Federal and state advocacy efforts. We catalogued road safety laws passed between 1990 and 2009 and motorcycle helmet law repeals that advocacy efforts narrowly defeated. We used NHTSA’s estimates of lives saved by airbags and published estimates of the percentage reduction in related crash fatalities associated with each type of law. State by state and year by year, from the actual fatality count for the year, we modeled how many fatalities each state's laws averted. We assumed, somewhat shakily, that the percentage reduction in nonfatal injury costs would mirror the fatality reduction. We used crash cost estimates for 10 years between 1990 and 2008 to estimate total crash costs from 1990–2009. The costs were built from NHTSA’s estimates of cost per crash. The state laws passed included 113 occupant protection laws, 131 impaired driving laws, and 76 teen driving laws, plus a Federal airbag mandate. These laws saved an estimated 120,000 lives. The life-saving benefits accelerated as the number of laws in force grew. By 2009, they resulted in 25% fewer crash fatalities. The largest life-saving benefits sprang from airbag, belt use, and impaired driving laws. Laws that affect narrow subpopulations had more modest impacts. The laws reduced insurance costs by more than $210 billion and saved government an estimated $42 billion. Including the value of lost quality of life, estimated savings exceeded $1.3 trillion. Legislative advocacy is truly a spark plug in the safety engine. PMID:22105410

  2. 20 Years of sea-levels, accretion, and vegetation on two Long ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The long-term 1939-2013 rate of RSLR (Relative Sea-Level Rise) at the New London, CT tide gauge is ~2.6 mm/yr, near the maximum rate of salt marsh accretion reported in eastern Long Island Sound salt marshes. Consistent with recent literature RSLR at New London has accelerated since the 1980s; inter-annual variability can be high, but over the last three decades rates have averaged ~4.5 mm/yr, more than double the first 40 years of the New London record. Marsh surface elevation has been followed for 10 years with a SET array at the Barn Island system on Little Narragansett Bay and 20 years using an accretion pin array at Mamacoke Marsh on the Thames River. From 2003 – 2013 accretion averaged 2.3 mm/yr on the Barn Island marshes while RSLR increased 5.4 mm/yr. The increased hydroperiod is driving vegetation change at Barn Island, particularly in areas that started with lower “elevation capital”. Over two decades Mamacoke accretion closely matched RSLR: 4.7 vs 4.9 mm/yr, with no significant shifts in vegetation. For the 1st 12 years at Mamacoke, accretion was slower than RSLR: 3.2 vs 8.1 mm/yr. From 2006 to 2014, however elevation increase averaged 7.0 mm/yr while sea level rose just 7 mm. By 2014 accretion rates across the marsh ranged from 1.3 to 16.1 mm /yr. Preliminary core analysis confirms highly organic peat, but reveals sand concentrations at 2–4 cm in some areas, suggesting that Hurricanes Irene (2011) and Sandy (2012) may have contributed to Mama

  3. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years

    PubMed Central

    Sanjay, Venkataraam; Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Managoli, Noopur A; Gugawad, Sachin C; Hitesh, D

    2014-01-01

    Background: This study was planned to assess the dental caries status among disabled children as dental health is an integral part of general body health and this group is deprived of health care needs. Materials & Methods: A sample of 310 disabled children was gathered including 195- Hearing impaired, 115 – blind. Of which 226 were males and 84 were females. A study questionnaire was prepared to include demographic information and WHO oral health assessment form (1997) to record dental caries status.Data was analysed using student’s test and ANOVA test was used at p≤0.05. Results: The overall mean for DMFT scores for males and females was 2.11 (1.753) and 1.75 (1.275) respectively. Similarly overall mean for dft was 0.31 (0.254) for males and 0.27 (0.143) for females. Mean DMFT of blind students was more as compared to hearing impaired ones as 2.16 (2.005) and 1.80 (1.264) respectively. Age factor showed a significant increase in the mean DMFT scores with advancing age at p ≤ 0.001. Conclusion: Overall mean scores of caries was very high and it increased with increasing age. Blind children experienced more caries then hearing impaired children in permanent, whereas it was opposite in primary dentition. So there is urgent need of both comprehensive and incremental dental care for this subgroup of population. How to cite the article: Sanjay V, Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Managoli NA, Gugawad SC, Hitesh D. Dental health status among sensory impaired and blind institutionalized children aged 6 to 20 years. J Int Oral Health 2014;6(1):55-8. PMID:24653604

  4. Water balance along a chain of tundra lakes: A 20-year isotopic perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, J. J.; Reid, R.

    2014-11-01

    Stable isotope measurements and isotope mass balance (IMB) calculations are presented in support of an unprecedented 20-year water balance assessment for a tailings pond and a chain of downstream lakes at the Salmita-Tundra mine site, situated near Courageous Lake, Northwest Territories, Canada (65°03‧N; 111°11‧W). The method is shown to provide a comprehensive annual and interannual perspective of water balance fluxes along a chain of lakes during the period 1991-2010, without the need for continuous streamflow gauging, and reveals important lake-order-dependent patterns of land-surface runoff, discharge accumulation, and several key diagnostic ratios, i.e., evaporation/inflow, evaporation/evapotranspiration, land-surface-runoff/precipitation and discharge/ precipitation. Lake evaporation is found to be a significant component of the water balance, accounting for between 26% and 32% of inflow to natural lakes and between 72% and 100% of inflow to mine-tailings ponds. Evaporation/evapotranspiration averages between 7% and 22% and is found to be higher in low-precipitation years, and in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes. Runoff ratios for land-surface drainages and runoff ratios for watersheds (including lakes) ranged between 14-47% and 20-47%, respectively, and were higher in low precipitation years, in watersheds with a higher proportion of lakes, and in watersheds less affected by mining development. We propose that in general these two runoff ratios will likely converge as lake order increases and as land cover conditions become regionally representative. Notably, the study demonstrates application of IMB, validated with streamflow measurements, to constrain local water balance in a remote low-arctic region. For IMB chain-of-lakes applications, it underlines the importance of accounting for evaporatively-enriched upstream sources to avoid overestimation of evaporation losses.

  5. Observation of asteroid 2013 TV135 supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Dayong

    2014-03-01

    Asteroid 2013 TV135 who will impact in 2023 was newly discovered by Ukrainian astronomers in 2013. It supports my idea that a new impaction will come in 20 years. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/news/asteroid20131017.html, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2011.DFD.LA.24, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.APR.K1.78, http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2013.APR.S2.14. The Sun's companion-dark hole, which is made of dark matter seasonal took its dark comets belt, dark matter, dark lives, and the pressed asteroids belt to impact near our earth. These impactions and dark matter's killers caused seasonal extinctions and produced new species. By many dark comets and asteroids impacting, the dark impaction model is a high probability impaction model; the impaction would not change the orbit of the invisible dark hole, so that it could keep accurate periodicity impactions. With the space-time center, the dark hole system is a negative Einstein's model by ``mass-energy coordinate.'' Sun and Dark hole build up the balance system. Through studying the model, the rule of the impaction can be calculated. Avoid Earth Extinction Association.

  6. Neighborhood availability of convenience stores and diet quality: findings from 20 years of follow-up in CARDIA

    PubMed Central

    Rummo, Pasquale E.; Meyer, Katie A.; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Jacobs, David R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Steffen, Lyn M.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We examined the association between neighborhood convenience stores and diet outcomes over 20 years of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. METHODS We used dietary data from CARDIA exam years 1985–6, 1992–3, and 2005–6 (n=3,299) and geographically and temporally matched neighborhood-level food resource (Dun & Bradstreet) and US Census data. We used random-effects repeated measures regression to estimate associations between availability of neighborhood convenience stores with diet outcomes, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. RESULTS In multivariable-adjusted analyses, greater availability of neighborhood convenience stores was associated with lower diet quality (mean score=66.3, SD=13.0) for participants with lower (versus higher) individual-level income (β, −2.40; 95% CI: −3.30, −1.51); associations at higher individual-level income were weaker. We observed similar associations with whole grain consumption across time, but no statistically significant associations with consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, artificially-sweetened beverages, snacks, processed meats, fruits, or vegetables. CONCLUSIONS Convenience stores may promote lower quality diets. Furthermore, low-income individuals may be most sensitive to convenience store availability, and thus may benefit most from improvements to the food environment. PMID:25790410

  7. ALS Clinical Trials Review: 20 Years of Failure. Are We Any Closer to Registering a New Treatment?

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Dmitry; Mansfield, Colin; Moussy, Alain; Hermine, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating condition with an estimated mortality of 30,000 patients a year worldwide. The median reported survival time since onset ranges from 24 to 48 months. Riluzole is the only currently approved mildly efficacious treatment. Riluzole received marketing authorization in 1995 in the USA and in 1996 in Europe. In the years that followed, over 60 molecules have been investigated as a possible treatment for ALS. Despite significant research efforts, the overwhelming majority of human clinical trials (CTs) have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. In the past year, oral masitinib and intravenous edaravone have emerged as promising new therapeutics with claimed efficacy in CTs in ALS patients. Given their advanced phase of clinical development one may consider these drugs as the most likely near-term additions to the therapeutic arsenal available for patients with ALS. In terms of patient inclusion, CT with masitinib recruited a wider, more representative, less restrictive patient population in comparison to the only successful edaravone CT (edaravone eligibility criteria represents only 18% of masitinib study patients). The present manuscript reviews >50 CTs conducted in the last 20 years since riluzole was first approved. A special emphasis is put on the analysis of existing evidence in support of the clinical efficacy of edaravone and masitinib and the possible implications of an eventual marketing authorisation in the treatment of ALS. PMID:28382000

  8. ALS Clinical Trials Review: 20 Years of Failure. Are We Any Closer to Registering a New Treatment?

    PubMed

    Petrov, Dmitry; Mansfield, Colin; Moussy, Alain; Hermine, Olivier

    2017-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating condition with an estimated mortality of 30,000 patients a year worldwide. The median reported survival time since onset ranges from 24 to 48 months. Riluzole is the only currently approved mildly efficacious treatment. Riluzole received marketing authorization in 1995 in the USA and in 1996 in Europe. In the years that followed, over 60 molecules have been investigated as a possible treatment for ALS. Despite significant research efforts, the overwhelming majority of human clinical trials (CTs) have failed to demonstrate clinical efficacy. In the past year, oral masitinib and intravenous edaravone have emerged as promising new therapeutics with claimed efficacy in CTs in ALS patients. Given their advanced phase of clinical development one may consider these drugs as the most likely near-term additions to the therapeutic arsenal available for patients with ALS. In terms of patient inclusion, CT with masitinib recruited a wider, more representative, less restrictive patient population in comparison to the only successful edaravone CT (edaravone eligibility criteria represents only 18% of masitinib study patients). The present manuscript reviews >50 CTs conducted in the last 20 years since riluzole was first approved. A special emphasis is put on the analysis of existing evidence in support of the clinical efficacy of edaravone and masitinib and the possible implications of an eventual marketing authorisation in the treatment of ALS.

  9. Zonda downslope winds in the central Andes of South America in a 20-year climate simulation with the Eta model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antico, Pablo L.; Chou, Sin Chan; Mourão, Caroline

    2015-12-01

    The Zonda wind is a local version of the alpine foehn in the central Andes Mountains in South America. It blows on the eastern slopes and produces an extremely warm and dry condition in Argentina. In this study, the occurrence of Zonda wind events during a 20-year simulation from the regional Eta model is analyzed and results are compared to previous studies of Zonda wind events based on weather observations. We define a set of parameters to account for the zonal pressure gradient across the mountain, vertical movement, and air humidity typical of Zonda wind events. These parameters are applied to characterize Zonda wind events in model run and to classify them as surface-level or high-level episodes. The resulting annual distribution of Zonda occurrences based on composite analyses shows a preference for winter and spring with rare occurrences during summer. For the surface-level Zonda wind events, the highest frequency occurs during spring. Whereas surface-level Zonda wind episodes more commonly initiate in the afternoon, high-level Zonda wind events show no preference for a given initiation time. Our results are mostly in agreement with previous observational results.

  10. Late-onset chylothorax after blunt chest trauma at an interval of 20 years: report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kamiyoshihara, Mitsuhiro; Ibe, Takashi; Kakegawa, Seiichi; Sato, Koji; Takise, Atsushi; Takeyoshi, Izumi

    2008-01-01

    We herein report an extremely rare case of a patient chylothorax at an interval of 20 years after thoracic vertebrae fractures, who underwent a successful thoracoscopic thoracic duct ligation and pleurodesis. A 51-year-old man was referred to our hospital with shortness of breath on effort about 1 month after participating in archery. Twenty years previously, he was involved in a traffic accident. At that time, the patient sustained trauma to the spine and suffered a spinal injury, thus resulting in paralysis in the lower part of his body. A chest roentgenogram and computed tomogram revealed a large amount of bilateral pleural effusion. After thoracentesis was performed, a diagnosis of chylothorax was made and the patient was hospitalized. Conservative management by a low-fat diet proved to be unsuccessful. The patient did not request pleurodesis, because pleural adhesions might impair pulmonary function. As a result, we decided to perform surgery. On the right side, we performed video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery by clipping the thoracic duct and applying an absorbable sealing material. Thereafter, pleurodesis was performed and OK-432 was instilled. Thereafter, the pleural fluid flow was almost completely stopped. On the left side, pleurodesis was effective. The patient has since remained symptom free and has been followed up on an outpatient basis for 9 months after the 100th postoperative day. We assumed that the chylothorax in this case was related to the earlier traffic accident.

  11. Water maser variability over 20 years in a large sample of star-forming regions: the complete database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felli, M.; Brand, J.; Cesaroni, R.; Codella, C.; Comoretto, G.; Di Franco, S.; Massi, F.; Moscadelli, L.; Nesti, R.; Olmi, L.; Palagi, F.; Panella, D.; Valdettaro, R.

    2007-12-01

    Context: Water vapor emission at 22 GHz from masers associated with star-forming regions is highly variable. Aims: We present a database of up to 20 years of monitoring of a sample of 43 masers within star-forming regions. The sample covers a large range of luminosities of the associated IRAS source and is representative of the entire population of H2O masers of this type. The database forms a good starting point for any further study of H2O maser variability. Methods: The observations were obtained with the Medicina 32-m radiotelescope, at a rate of 4-5 observations per year. Results: To provide a database that can be easily accessed through the web, we give for each source: plots of the calibrated spectra, the velocity-time-flux density plot, the light curve of the integrated flux, the lower and upper envelopes of the maser emission, the mean spectrum, and the rate of the maser occurrence as a function of velocity. Figures for just one source are given in the text for representative purposes. Figures for all the sources are given in electronic form the appendix. A discussion of the main properties of the H2O variability in our sample will be presented in a forthcoming paper. Based on observations with the Medicina radiotelescope operated by INAF - Istituto di Radioastronomia.

  12. Split ileostomy and ileocolostomy for Crohn's disease of the colon and ulcerative colitis: a 20 year survey.

    PubMed Central

    Harper, P H; Truelove, S C; Lee, E C; Kettlewell, M G; Jewell, D P

    1983-01-01

    The clinical course of 140 patients who have had a split ileostomy for ulcerative colitis or colonic Crohn's disease over a 20 year period is reported. In 37 patients with ulcerative colitis there was no sustained improvement. In the 102 patients with Crohn's disease there was an immediate clinical improvement in 95, which was sustained in 65. Thirty patients have subsequently required a proctocolectomy for persistent inflammation, and 28 are still defunctioned. Bowel continuity was restored after 61 split ileostomies and in 44 patients intestinal continuity remains intact at the present time (mean follow up since closure = 62.5 months, range 0-231 months). It is concluded that a split ileostomy is a safe conservative operation producing at least temporary improvement in severely ill and malnourished patients with Crohn's colitis, and that if a subsequent resection becomes necessary it may be less extensive than was thought applicable at the initial operation. In 27 patients a resection has not been required. PMID:6852621

  13. July | 201span>6 | ISS On-Orbit Status Report

    NASA Website

    Monday, 08/01: Airway Monitoring Airlock ops, SPHERES, ... August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January ...

  14. Children's Working Memory: Investigating Performance Limitations in Complex Span Tasks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conlin, J.A.; Gathercole, S.E.; Adams, J.W.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the roles of resource-sharing and intrinsic memory demands in complex working memory span performance in 7- and 9-year-olds. In Experiment 1, the processing complexity of arithmetic operations was varied under conditions in which processing times were equivalent. Memory span did not differ as a function of processing…

  15. A 20-year follow-up of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and malocclusions in subjects with and without orthodontic treatment in childhood.

    PubMed

    Egermark, Inger; Magnusson, Tomas; Carlsson, Gunnar E

    2003-04-01

    This investigation analyzes the influence of orthodontic treatment on signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs) and different malocclusions during a 20-year period. Originally, 402 randomly selected 7-, 11-, and 15-year-old subjects were examined clinically and by means of a questionnaire for signs and symptoms of TMDs. The examination was repeated after five and ten years. After 20 years, 320 subjects (85% of the traced subjects) completed the questionnaire. The oldest age group,now 35 years of age, was invited to a clinical examination, and 100 subjects (81% of the traced subjects) were examined. The correlations between signs and symptoms of TMD and different malocclusions were mainly weak, although sometimes statistically significant. Lateral forced bite and unilateral crossbite were correlated with TMD signs and symptoms at the 10- and 20-year follow-ups (r = 0.38, P < .05 and r = 0.34, P < .01, respectively). Subjects with malocclusion over a long period of time tended to report more symptoms of TMD and to show a higher dysfunction index, compared with subjects with no malocclusion at all. There were no statistically significant differences in the prevalence of TMD signs and symptoms between subjects with or without previous experience of orthodontic treatment. This 20-year follow-up supports the opinion that no single occlusal factor is of major importance for the development of TMD, but a lateral forced bite between retruded contact position (RCP) and intercuspal position (ICP), as well as unilateral crossbite, may be a potential risk factor in this respect. Furthermore, subjects with a history of orthodontic treatment do not run a higher risk of developing TMD later in life, compared with subjects with no such experience.

  16. 20 years of ClO measurements in the Antarctic lower stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-08-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOE1) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column ClO on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cly = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 × Cl2 + 2 × Cl2O2 + ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cly, which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 ± 0.2, -1.4 ± 0.9, and -0.6 ± 0.4 % year-1, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1σ of trends in stratospheric Cly previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  17. [20 years' experience in the treatment of children with terminal renal insufficiency in Yugoslavia].

    PubMed

    Peco-Antić, A; Popović-Rolović, M; Jovanović, O; Marsenić, O; Babić, D; Kostić, M; Kruscić, O; Culić, D; Trajković, D

    2000-01-01

    The first specialized haemodialysis (HD) paediatric centre in former Yugoslavia was established at the University Children's Hospital in Belgrade in January 1980. A total of 194 children (F: 98, M: 96), aged less than 19 years (10.12 +/- 4.23), were treated for renal replacement therapy (RRT) over 20 years. Average annual incidence rate was 1.59 per million of child population (pmcp) aged less than 19 years for the period 1980-1990 (former Yugoslavia) and 2.85 pmcp aged less than 19 years for the period 1990-2000 (present Yugoslavia). Reflux nephropathy was the most frequent underlying disease and accounted for 37.06% of total cases, while other primary renal diseases were: glomerulonephritis (GN) 17.26%, cystic/hereditary familial nephropathy 12.69%, congenital disease 11.68%, interstitial nephritis 5.58%, non-recovered tubular necrosis 3.55%, secondary GN 1.52% and 10.66% remained with doubtful diagnosis. HD was the first RRT in 84.02%, peritoneal dialysis (PD) in 14.43% and pre-emptive transplantation in 1.55% of all patients. A total of 53 patients (27.3% of total terminal renal failure (TRF) patients) received 56 kidney transplants (58.93% live related, 37.50% cadaveric, 3.57% live-non related). Actual survival in RRT was 64.53% 5 in years; 51.68% in 10 and 48.23% in 15 years. Patient survival in HD was significantly better over the last ten-year period than in the first ten-year period (35.88% vs. 75.75%; p < 0.005) as well as the survival of transplanted patients in the same two periods (67.62% vs. 95.45%). Graft survival was 79.85% in 5 and 70.50% in 10 years. Cardiovascular complications were the most common cause of death of patients on RRT (56.10 posto) followed by infection (24.39). On December 31, 1999, 54 patients on RRT were alive less than 19 years: 75.92% in HD; 22.22% with functioning graft and 1.85% on automatic PD. This is the first national-wide long-term study of incidence and aetiology of paediatric TRF and outcome of paediatric RRT in

  18. Trends in cerebrovascular mortality and in its risk factors in Finland during the last 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sarti, C; Vartiainen, E; Torppa, J; Tuomilehto, J; Puska, P

    1994-01-01

    At the beginning of the 1970s, the mortality rates from cerebrovascular disease in Finland were among the highest in the world. In addition, the levels of the main known risk factors for cardiovascular disease, such as high blood pressure, elevated serum cholesterol level and cigarette smoking, were by international comparisons very high. Within Finland, higher mortality from both stroke and ischemic heart disease was observed in the eastern part of the country, where the levels of the risk factors mentioned were higher than in the western regions. Official mortality statistics show that deaths from stroke in Finland declined steeply in the 1970s, and continued to decline, although at a slower pace, during the 1980s. Furthermore, the decline in stroke mortality was greater in eastern Finland than in the western part of the country, such that the gap observed between east and west Finland in stroke mortality has now almost disappeared. These findings are supported by the trends observed from the North Karelia stroke register and from the FINMONICA stroke register. A cohort study has demonstrated that high blood pressure, high blood cholesterol level and cigarette smoking are risk factors for fatal stroke in the male population of eastern Finland. In women, only high blood pressure was found to be a risk factor for fatal stroke, while for cigarette smoking and high blood cholesterol levels the risk, though increased, was not statistically significant. A national strategy has been developed to control and reduce the main cardiovascular risk factors in Finland. The North Karelia project, started in Finland in 1972, was the first program of its type aimed at the reduction of risk factors in a whole population. Arterial blood pressure and total blood cholesterol levels have decreased significantly during the last 20 years in both men and women. The prevalence of cigarette smoking has been reduced only in men. The changes in risk factors that have occurred parallel the

  19. 20 Years of ClO Measurements in the Antarctic Lower Stratosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nedoluha, Gerald E.; Connor, Brian J.; Mooney, Thomas; Barrett, James W.; Parrish, Alan; Gomez, R. Michael; Boyd, Ian; Allen, Douglas R.; Kotkamp, Michael; Kremser, Stefanie; Deshler, Terry; Newman, Paul; Santee, Michelle L.

    2016-01-01

    We present 20 years (1996-2015) of austral springtime measurements of chlorine monoxide (ClO) over Antarctica from the Chlorine Oxide Experiment (ChlOEl) ground-based millimeter wave spectrometer at Scott Base, Antarctica, as well 12 years (2004-2015) of ClO measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS). From August onwards we observe a strong increase in lower stratospheric ClO, with a peak column amount usually occurring in early September. From mid-September onwards we observe a strong decrease in ClO. In order to study interannual differences, we focus on a 3-week period from 28 August to 17 September for each year and compare the average column ClO anomalies. These column ClO anomalies are shown to be highly correlated with the average ozone mass deficit for September and October of each year. We also show that anomalies in column ClO are strongly anti-correlated with 30 hPa temperature anomalies, both on a daily and an interannual timescale. Making use of this anti-correlation we calculate the linear dependence of the interannual variations in column C1O on interannual variations in temperature. By making use of this relationship, we can better estimate the underlying trend in the total chlorine (Cl(sub y) = HCl + ClONO2 + HOCl + 2 x Cl2 + 2 x Cl2+ ClO + Cl). The resultant trends in Cl(sub y), which determine the long-term trend in ClO, are estimated to be -0.5 +/-0.2, -1.40.9, and -0.60.4% per year, for zonal MLS, Scott Base MLS (both 2004-2015), and ChlOE (1996-2015) respectively. These trends are within 1sigma of trends in stratospheric Cl(sub y) previously found at other latitudes. The decrease in ClO is consistent with the trend expected from regulations enacted under the Montreal Protocol.

  20. Vertical patterns of ecoenzyme activities in forest soils after 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forstner, Stefan J.; Kloss, Stefanie; Keiblinger, Katharina M.; Schleppi, Patrick; Hagedorn, Frank; Gundersen, Per; Wanek, Wolfgang; Gerzabek, Martin H.; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    The below-ground part of terrestrial carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycles are controlled by soil microorganisms. In order to meet their energy and nutrient requirements, soil microbes produce enzymes which catalyze the release of smaller molecules from decomposing organic matter. Recent work has shown that the potential activities of commonly measured enzymes for C-, N-, and P-acquisition can be related to microbial demand of these elements and link stoichiometry of soil microbes and their resources. Regulation of enzyme production might therefore be an important mechanism for microbes to adapt to different resource regimes. To investigate links between ecoenzyme activities, soil depth and N availability we make use of two long-term experiments where N has been added to two temperate forest stands for over 20 years. At both sites Norway spruce is the dominating tree whereas other site characteristics like soil type, climate, parent material and morphology differ. Increased N deposition was simulated by regularly applying NH4NO3 in the range of 35 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Klosterhede, Denmark; since 1992) and 25 kg N ha-1 y-1 (Alptal, Switzerland; since 1995), respectively. We hypothesize that ecoenzyme activities will decline exponentially with depth reflecting well-established similar trends in organic matter and microbial biomass. However, when normalized to microbial biomass we further hypothesize that activities will not change or even increase down the soil profile. Concerning microbial nutrient limitation, we expect to see a shift from N- to C-limitation with depth which should be reflected in increasing ratios of C- to N-acquiring enzymes. Preliminary results suggest that activity of hydrolytic enzymes generally decreases with depth, although this drop in activity is not so pronounced when normalized to microbial biomass. Oxidative enzymes, on the other hand, do not follow this pattern, often showing increased activities with depth. We further see site

  1. DUACS DT2014: the new multi-mission altimeter data set reprocessed over 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugère, Yannice; Taburet, Guillaume; Dupuy, Stéphanie; Pelloquin, Camille; Ablain, Michael; Picot, Nicolas

    2016-09-01

    The new DUACS DT2014 reprocessed products have been available since April 2014. Numerous innovative changes have been introduced at each step of an extensively revised data processing protocol. The use of a new 20-year altimeter reference period in place of the previous 7-year reference significantly changes the sea level anomaly (SLA) patterns and thus has a strong user impact. The use of up-to-date altimeter standards and geophysical corrections, reduced smoothing of the along-track data, and refined mapping parameters, including spatial and temporal correlation-scale refinement and measurement errors, all contribute to an improved high-quality DT2014 SLA data set. Although all of the DUACS products have been upgraded, this paper focuses on the enhancements to the gridded SLA products over the global ocean. As part of this exercise, 21 years of data have been homogenized, allowing us to retrieve accurate large-scale climate signals such as global and regional MSL trends, interannual signals, and better refined mesoscale features.An extensive assessment exercise has been carried out on this data set, which allows us to establish a consolidated error budget. The errors at mesoscale are about 1.4 cm2 in low-variability areas, increase to an average of 8.9 cm2 in coastal regions, and reach nearly 32.5 cm2 in high mesoscale activity areas. The DT2014 products, compared to the previous DT2010 version, retain signals for wavelengths lower than ˜ 250 km, inducing SLA variance and mean EKE increases of, respectively, +5.1 and +15 %. Comparisons with independent measurements highlight the improved mesoscale representation within this new data set. The error reduction at the mesoscale reaches nearly 10 % of the error observed with DT2010. DT2014 also presents an improved coastal signal with a nearly 2 to 4 % mean error reduction. High-latitude areas are also more accurately represented in DT2014, with an improved consistency between spatial coverage and sea ice edge

  2. Utility and drawbacks of continuous use of a copper T IUD for 20 years.

    PubMed

    Sivin, Irving

    2007-06-01

    This article examines interrelated questions concerning the extent of need for contraception in women 40 years and older and the degree to which that need can be served when use of collared T IUDs is initiated in women aged 25-35 years. Differentials in the impacts of intrauterine device (IUD) use on health issues in the second decade of contraception are also addressed. Although fertility of all women aged 40-44 years is below 100 per 1000 in all regions of the world today, the risk of pregnancy among married or cohabiting women who do not use contraception is estimated at 270-300 per 1000 or 27-30% per year. At ages 45-49 years, the annual risk of pregnancy to women in union who do not use contraception lies at or above 10% per year. Data from three studies show that users of collared copper IUDs who continued using the same device beyond the completion of 10 years experienced no pregnancies through the end of 15 years. A small number of women continued with the same IUD through 20 years and still experienced no pregnancies. Use of collared copper T IUDs beyond 10 years was not associated with intensification of side effects nor with an increase in the relative frequency of those effects, with the exception of the experience of perimenopausal symptoms and problems. Neither increased bleeding nor increased severity of pelvic disease was manifest in the second decade of continuous use of the same IUD, as compared with the first decade of such use. Under our current understanding of the duration of IUD effectiveness, only a small percentage of women complete 10 years of use. Even with revised understanding of the duration of effectiveness of long-acting copper devices, average annual continuation rates must be quite high in order that 20% of women aged 25-35 years initiate a second decade of continuous IUD use. Those who do so would find considerable protection against pregnancy and reasonable economic benefits in continuing to use the same device.

  3. The SPAN cookbook: A practical guide to accessing SPAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Stephanie; Tencati, Ronald D.; Stern, David M.; Capps, Kimberly D.; Dorman, Gary; Peters, David J.

    1990-01-01

    This is a manual for remote users who wish to send electronic mail messages from the Space Physics Analysis Network (SPAN) to scientific colleagues on other computer networks and vice versa. In several instances more than one gateway has been included for the same network. Users are provided with an introduction to each network listed with helpful details about accessing the system and mail syntax examples. Also included is information on file transfers, remote logins, and help telephone numbers.

  4. Rehabilitation of Patients Following Autogenic Bone-Patellar Tendon-Bone ACL Reconstruction: A 20-Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    De Carlo, Mark S.; McDivitt, Ryan

    2006-01-01

    Rehabilitation of patients following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction has undergone remarkable improvements over the past two decades. During this time, ACL research has been at the forefront of many orthopaedic and sports physical therapy clinics. With over 20 years of ACL rehabilitation experience (senior author) and prior collaboration with accelerated ACL rehabilitation pioneer K. Donald Shelbourne, the authors wish to present a unique perspective on the evolution of ACL rehabilitation. Prior to the classic article by Paulos et al in 1981,1 literature on ACL rehabilitation was quite sparse. The basis for ACL rehabilitation at this time was founded in basic science studies conducted with animal models. In an effort to protect the graft, emphasis was placed on immobilization, extension limitation, restricted weight bearing, and delayed return to activity. Despite achieving good ligamentous stability, patients often experienced a spectrum of complications. In 1990, Shelbourne and Nitz2 proposed an accelerated rehabilitation protocol following ACL reconstruction based on clinical experience. Their program emphasized delayed surgery, earlier range of motion and weight bearing, and full extension. As a result, patients experienced better clinical outcomes while maintaining knee stability. The rehabilitation program presented in this paper is still largely based on the principles of the accelerated protocol. As evidence-based practice and the call for prospective, randomized clinical research continues, the continued progress in treating patients with this injury will be enhanced. Furthermore, clinicians are urged not to lose sight of the clinical reasoning that helped evolve the ACL rehabilitation process where it is today. PMID:21522223

  5. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts.

    PubMed

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that's constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  6. Methane Seepage From the Arctic Shelf; 20 Years of Research on the Beaufort Sea Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenson, T. D.; Paull, C. K.; Collett, T. S.; Dallimore, S. R.

    2008-12-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has lead or played major roles in several efforts over the past 20 years to find geochemical evidence for gas hydrate dissociation on the Beaufort Sea shelf, a region of complex and varied geologic features that include: 1) several river deltas entering the Arctic Ocean, the largest of which is the Mackenzie River, 2) submerged continental shelf underlain by permafrost, 3) known petroleum systems of northern Alaska and the Mackenzie River Delta - Canada, 4), submerged pingo-like features (PLF's ) and, 5) pockmark fields. The results of these studies show that gas hydrate is present and that methane source can be both microbial and thermogenic. In light of our rapidly changing climate, the instability and potential methane release from Arctic gas hydrate deposits are reemerging as pivotal uncertainties. On the Alaskan Beaufort Shelf in water depths or about 10 m or less, methane concentrations in seawater are elevated relative to atmosphere. This methane likely originates from microbial degradation of organic matter deposited by rivers or coastal currents, and may be associated with organics in destabilized from recently thawed submerged shelf permafrost. In deeper water, north and west of the Prudhoe Bay area, some exceptionally high bottom water methane concentrations were measured with carbon isotopic signatures very similar (about -46 to -48‰) to gas hydrate sampled from the Mount Elbert 01 gas hydrate test well drilled in 2007 in the same area. This methane is presumably associated with the Prudhoe Bay gas hydrate and petroleum system, and likely from either gas hydrate dissociation or simple gas migration. Gas venting in and around the Mackenzie River delta is associated with offshore Pingo-like features (PLF's) and pockmarks. These PLF's resemble onshore pingos, but with an unknown origin. The region is underlain by an active petroleum system, submerged shelf permaforst, and gas hydrate. Methane concentrations are elevated in

  7. 20 years of surface ozone measurements at El Tololo, Chile (2200 m asl)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gérard Anet, Julien; Steinbacher, Martin; Emmenegger, Lukas; Buchmann, Brigitte

    2016-04-01

    Globally consistent in situ-observations of high precision and known quality are one key element in understanding global climate change and effects of human activity on the Earth's atmosphere. The spatial coverage of available data strongly depends on the species of interest and varies highly around the globe. In case of surface ozone (O3), the observational network is particularly sparse in Africa, Asia, and South America. The southern hemispheric pristine GAW-regional station "El Tololo", located in the foothills of the Chilean Andes (30.17° S, 70.80° W, 2220 m asl), has been equipped with an ozone photometer in 1995 and has since then been measuring tropospheric ozone permanently. However, these measurements were neither entirely systematically processed nor quality-controlled until recently. This situation was drastically improved in 2015 the framework of the Capacity Building and Twinning for Climate Observing Systems (CATCOS) project (www.meteoswiss.ch/catcos). Empa, in coordination with the local operator, Dirección Meteorológica de Chile (DMC), and the University of Santiago, revised the entire surface ozone measurements. The unique 20-year-long ozone data-set has been made publicly available on the World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases (WDCGG, Japan) in mid-2015 and represents an exceptional piece of information on the southern hemispheric surface ozone distribution. In contrary to northern hemispheric stations, the positive trend in the measurements of tropospheric ozone at "El Tololo" did not level off in the recent past. More specifically, "El Tololo" shows a steady positive trend of 0.7 ppb/decade in agreement with other stations on the Southern hemisphere. However, the seasonal cycle differs strongly in behaviour, as maximum values in ozone do not peak in austral winter, but in austral spring - most probably due to stratospheric influence. We also find that the spring maximum has a retrograding tendency of around 5 days per decade. A combined

  8. Progression of HIV infection and mortality by hepatitis C infection in patients with haemophilia over 20 years.

    PubMed

    Quintana, M; del Amo, J; Barrasa, A; Pérez-Hoyos, S; Ferreros, I; Hernández, F; Villar, A; Jiménez, V; Bolúmar, F

    2003-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important cause of mortality in human immune deficiency virus (HIV)-positive haemophiliacs. This study describes progression to AIDS, death from HCV end-stage liver disease (ESLD) and all-cause mortality over 20 years. All HIV-positive haemophiliacs in La Paz University Hospital were included in this cohort. HIV seroconversion was estimated using mathematical techniques for interval-censored data from 1979 to 1985. Poisson regression was used to estimate rates of AIDS, death from ESLD and all causes in different periods: before 1988, 1988-89, 1990-91, 1992-93, 1994-95, 1996-97 and 1998-2001 using competing risk models. Among 383 cohort members, global AIDS incidence was 9.7 per 100 person-years, peaking in 1992-93 and dropping by 87% in 1998-2001 compared with before 1988 [incidence rate ratio (IRR) 0.13; 95% CI: 0.03-0.53]. Overall mortality was 7.5 per 100 person-years, was highest from 1992 to 1997, and fell by 66% in 1998-2001 compared with before 1988 (IRR 0.34; 95% CI: 0.14-0.81). Eighteen (5%) persons died of ESLD which represented 19% of deaths before 1988, 4% during 1988-89, 1990-91 and 1992-93, 2% in 1994-95, 10% in 1996-97 and 33% in 1998-2001. Overall death rate from ESLD was 0.5 cases per 100 person-years with no statistically significant trend observed over time. Important reductions in HIV disease progression to AIDS and death have been observed from 1998 to 2001, and can be attributed to highly active antiretroviral therapy. Although no increase in the rate of HCV-related deaths can be demonstrated, HCV accounts for an increasing proportion of deaths in the recent years.

  9. The sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction 20 years on: a new synthesis and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Todd, Neil P. M.; Lee, Christopher S.

    2015-01-01

    Some 20 years ago Todd and colleagues proposed that rhythm perception is mediated by the conjunction of a sensory representation of the auditory input and a motor representation of the body (Todd, 1994a, 1995), and that a sense of motion from sound is mediated by the vestibular system (Todd, 1992a, 1993b). These ideas were developed into a sensory-motor theory of rhythm and beat induction (Todd et al., 1999). A neurological substrate was proposed which might form the biological basis of the theory (Todd et al., 2002). The theory was implemented as a computational model and a number of experiments conducted to test it. In the following time there have been several key developments. One is the demonstration that the vestibular system is primal to rhythm perception, and in related work several experiments have provided further evidence that rhythm perception is body dependent. Another is independent advances in imaging, which have revealed the brain areas associated with both vestibular processing and rhythm perception. A third is the finding that vestibular receptors contribute to auditory evoked potentials (Todd et al., 2014a,b). These behavioral and neurobiological developments demand a theoretical overview which could provide a new synthesis over the domain of rhythm perception. In this paper we suggest four propositions as the basis for such a synthesis. (1) Rhythm perception is a form of vestibular perception; (2) Rhythm perception evokes both external and internal guidance of somatotopic representations; (3) A link from the limbic system to the internal guidance pathway mediates the “dance habit”; (4) The vestibular reward mechanism is innate. The new synthesis provides an explanation for a number of phenomena not often considered by rhythm researchers. We discuss these along with possible computational implementations and alternative models and propose a number of new directions for future research. PMID:26379522

  10. 20 Years of Developing Capacity for Action-Oriented Collaborative Regional Research in the Asia-Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tupas, L. M.; Stevenson, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    During its 3rd strategic phase, which ran from 2010 to 2015, the APN provided support for 123 projects through its competitive collaborative regional research and capacity development programmes. With over 250 peer-reviewed papers and the underlying philosophy that the regional research it undertakes engages at least two developing countries, the 3rd strategic phase is not only improving the research capabilities of nations in the region, but is engaging the developing country community in underpinning policy-relevant research. The extent to which science is contributing to policy is further evident in that 69% of the activities conducted had some form of science-policy mechanism built in to the project activities. The period of the 3rd Strategic Phase has been witness to significant changes in the make-up of the "conventional" global change arena, with the transition of some global change programmes into the new "Future Earth" initiative. At the same time, major events such as the Rio+20 Summit, the post-2015 Sustainable Development Goals, the establishment of an IPCC-related platform for biodiversity, i.e. IPBES, and the evolving engagement of science and policy communities has kept the APN busy at what it does best - networking and partnering with the international community. The APN has embraced these changes through its dynamism, allowing the APN to meet not only the needs of the scientists and decision makers its serves in the region but those of the international science communities as well. The challenge for the APN in its next two decades will be to ensure alignment with the transforming global change arena. With key phrases such as "policy-relevant science" and "science-policy interactions" being adopted broadly by the community at large these days, the APN's niche in the global community has received considerable recognition, particularly as other institutions strive to adopt similar practices that the APN has built over the last 20 years.

  11. Patterns of Change in Terrestrial Emittance for Yellowstone National Park Using a 20-year Time Series of Landsat Thermal Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, R. L.; Savage, S.; Custer, S. G.; Jewett, J.; Powell, S. L.; Shaw, J. A.

    2011-12-01

    Yellowstone National Park (YNP) contains the world's largest concentration of geothermal features and is legally mandated to protect and monitor these natural features. Remote sensing is a component of the current geothermal monitoring plan. Landsat satellite data have a substantial historical archive and will continue to be collected into the future, making it the only available thermal imagery for historical analysis and long-term monitoring of geothermal areas in the entirety of YNP. Landsat imagery from Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) sensors was used to examine change trajectories for terrestrial emittance (an estimate of all heat emitted from the ground, based on relatively narrow band observations) among spatial groupings from 1986 to 2007. The trajectories were normalized by the mean terrestrial emittance for each date to account for year-to-year ambient temperature differences. Trajectories of locations with known change events at Narrow Gauge in the Mammoth Area, Minerva Terraces in the Mammoth Area, Porkchop Geyser in Gibbon Canyon, and Jewel Geyser in the Firehole River Drainage were also examined. Relationships between the spatial groupings and several change vectors (distance to geologic faults, distance to large water bodies, and distance to earthquake swarms) were explored. The analysis showed the strongest relationship between absolute difference in terrestrial emittance and earthquake swarms, with 34% of the variation explained. Certain known change events were reflected in the change trajectories, while the Landsat imagery was not able to detect other known events. This suggests that Landsat imagery might be a useful tool for monitoring geothermal responses in YNP, but cannot be expected to suffice as the sole monitoring tool.

  12. Vision in Flies: Measuring the Attention Span

    PubMed Central

    Koenig, Sebastian; Wolf, Reinhard; Heisenberg, Martin

    2016-01-01

    A visual stimulus at a particular location of the visual field may elicit a behavior while at the same time equally salient stimuli in other parts do not. This property of visual systems is known as selective visual attention (SVA). The animal is said to have a focus of attention (FoA) which it has shifted to a particular location. Visual attention normally involves an attention span at the location to which the FoA has been shifted. Here the attention span is measured in Drosophila. The fly is tethered and hence has its eyes fixed in space. It can shift its FoA internally. This shift is revealed using two simultaneous test stimuli with characteristic responses at their particular locations. In tethered flight a wild type fly keeps its FoA at a certain location for up to 4s. Flies with a mutation in the radish gene, that has been suggested to be involved in attention-like mechanisms, display a reduced attention span of only 1s. PMID:26848852

  13. Fuzzy α-minimum spanning tree problem: definition and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jian; Chen, Lu; Wang, Ke; Yang, Fan

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the minimum spanning tree problem is investigated on the graph with fuzzy edge weights. The notion of fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree is presented based on the credibility measure, and then the solutions of the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem are discussed under different assumptions. First, we respectively, assume that all the edge weights are triangular fuzzy numbers and trapezoidal fuzzy numbers and prove that the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem can be transformed to a classical problem on a crisp graph in these two cases, which can be solved by classical algorithms such as the Kruskal algorithm and the Prim algorithm in polynomial time. Subsequently, as for the case that the edge weights are general fuzzy numbers, a fuzzy simulation-based genetic algorithm using Prüfer number representation is designed for solving the fuzzy ? -minimum spanning tree problem. Some numerical examples are also provided for illustrating the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.

  14. What has happened in about the last 20 years in the Canyoles watershed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ángel González Peñaloza, Félix; Cerdà, Artemi; Díaz del Olmo, Fernando

    2013-04-01

    Along history, the Mediterranean arid lands have undergone widespread land use transformation, especially in recent decades (Piqueras, 2012). There are changes driven by socio-economic conditions, such as European Agricultural Policies (MacDonald et al., 2000; Keenleyside and Tucker, 2010; Renwick et al., 2013), which have caused land degradation processes (soil erosion, soil sealing, water pollution, salinization, wildfires, land abandonment, urban sprawl and intensive agricultural practices). Land degradation is the results of a complex Socio Ecological System (SES) which should be addressed using the Geographical Information System (GIS) to identify and assess the spatial variation of land use change. Therefore, the aim of this work has been to describe and assess the land use change by human activities in a typical Mediterranean watershed (Cànyoles Valley) located at South-East of Iberian Peninsula as a part of the Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification Response Assessment (LEDDRA) project, which has undergone a quick land use change in last two decades (1986 - 2005). Results reveal that the surface area devoted to rainfed crops (e.g., olive crops (47 %) and vineyards (28 %) and forestry have decline significantly; while the citrus orchards (irrigated crops) and unproductive areas (e.g., roads and railways, urban areas) have been increasing its surface in just about last 20 years in 45 % and 67 %, respectively. According to the literature review (Cerdà, 1994; Cerdá et al., 1999, 2007; Cerdà, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012; González-Peñaloza, 2012) these recent changes, in the study site, have caused many environmental disturbances mainly due to the lack control strategies plans of land degradation. Acknowledgements This research is being conducted by the EU project "Land Ecosystem and Degradation Desertification: Assessing the Fit of Responses" LEDDRA 243857 CONSORTIUM AGREEMENT. TR07 - VII PROGRAMA MARCO - ENERGÍA FP7-ENERGY-2007-2-TREN. - European

  15. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  16. Has External Quality Assurance Actually Improved Quality in Higher Education over the Course of 20 Years of the "Quality Revolution"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristensen, Bente

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the last 20 years so-called "quality revolution" it was expected from most of the established national quality agencies that internal quality systems and the development of an internal quality culture would emerge automatically in the HEI from the external quality impact. The author argues that a better balance must be found…

  17. A 20 year audit of nose-tip symmetry in patients with unilateral cleft lip and palate.

    PubMed

    Timoney, N; Smith, G; Pigott, R W

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to audit the process and outcome in terms of nasal-tip symmetry of the first 20 patients with unilateral complete cleft lip and palate treated by the Pigott alar leapfrog primary nasal correction in the early 1970s and followed for 20 years. Symmetry was assessed using the Coghlan computer-based analysis of frontal and basal views to determine the stability of the correction. The Abyholm technique of alveolar bone grafting was performed in 12 of the 20 patients. Various other secondary procedures have been performed on the nose tip and septum to improve the airway or appearance. Photographs were taken within one year of ages 5, 10, 15 and 20 years, and the lower border of the nose, the alar domes and the nostrils were assessed. To assess the overall change from 5 years to 20 years, both views were available for 17 patients. No significant change was found in the lower border or nostril symmetry, but significant deterioration at the P< 0.01 level was found on the basal view. We assessed the 10, 15 and 20 year views of all 12 patients who had undergone alveolar bone grafting to determine early and late changes. No significant benefit was found from alveolar bone grafting or minor secondary procedures for appearance. Consequently, our criteria for undertaking minor adjustments to improve appearance have become more stringent. We consider that objective reporting of appearance should become essential in peer-reviewed journals.

  18. Take a Bite Out of Crime: Get Ready To Celebrate 20 Years. Crime Prevention Month Action Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Crime Prevention Council, Washington, DC.

    This Crime Prevention Month kit is designed to help plan crime prevention month activities for 1999 and into 2000, the year the Take a Bite Out of Crime character, McGruff the Crime Dog, celebrates 20 years of existence. This 15-month planning calendar provides long-term strategies for preventing crime in the community, which can be carried out…

  19. Average and Bright Adults with Parents with Mild Cognitive Difficulties: The Huck Finn Syndrome 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Audrey Myerson

    2011-01-01

    Background: This longitudinal study of 20 average and bright adults with parents with cognitive difficulties follows a study 20 years earlier of their childhood adaptation to their parents. Method: Semistructured interviews about life situation and changes and perception of family-of-origin. Results: The participants' socioeconomic status changed…

  20. Development of the perceptual span in reading: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Anja; Meixner, Johannes; Laubrock, Jochen

    2016-06-01

    The perceptual span is a standard measure of parafoveal processing, which is considered highly important for efficient reading. Is the perceptual span a stable indicator of reading performance? What drives its development? Do initially slower and faster readers converge or diverge over development? Here we present the first longitudinal data on the development of the perceptual span in elementary school children. Using the moving window technique, eye movements of 127 German children in three age groups (Grades 1, 2, and 3 in Year 1) were recorded at two time points (T1 and T2) 1 year apart. Introducing a new measure of the perceptual span, nonlinear mixed-effects modeling was used to separate window size effects from asymptotic reading performance. Cross-sectional differences were well replicated longitudinally. Asymptotic reading rate increased monotonously with grade, but in a decelerating fashion. A significant change in the perceptual span was observed only between Grades 2 and 3. Together with results from a cross-lagged panel model, this suggests that the perceptual span increases as a consequence of relatively well-established word reading. Stabilities of observed and predicted reading rates were high after Grade 1, whereas the perceptual span was only moderately stable for all grades. Comparing faster and slower readers as assessed at T1, in general, a pattern of stable between-group differences emerged rather than a compensatory pattern; second and third graders even showed a Matthew effect in reading rate and the perceptual span, respectively.

  1. Graduate Student Teacher Training: Still Relevant (And Missing?) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blouin, David D.; Moss, Alison R.

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, Pescosolido and Milkie (1995) reported that 50 percent of U.S. and Canadian sociology graduate programs offered formal teacher training. Despite pronouncements that offerings have increased substantially, no similarly thorough and direct investigation has been published since. In this time of dramatic change and increasing…

  2. Reflections from 20 years of onion breeding and genetics: Where do we go next?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic studies of onion are challenging due to the biennial generation time and relatively high costs of producing segregating families. Before 1990, the genetic bases of numerous morphological traits and disease resistances had been determined, however only one genetic linkage was reported between...

  3. 20+ Years of Environmental Education Centers in Greece: Teachers' Perceptions and Future Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanniris, Constantinos

    2015-01-01

    For the first time after decades of expansion and systematic innovative practice, environmental education in Greece faces an uncertain future as a result of the contemporary political and economic crisis. This research aims to contribute to the international exchange of good practices by focusing on the effects and functions of the Greek network…

  4. Future Economics of Liver Transplantation: A 20-Year Cost Modeling Forecast and the Prospect of Bioengineering Autologous Liver Grafts

    PubMed Central

    Habka, Dany; Mann, David; Landes, Ronald; Soto-Gutierrez, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    During the past 20 years liver transplantation has become the definitive treatment for most severe types of liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma, in both children and adults. In the U.S., roughly 16,000 individuals are on the liver transplant waiting list. Only 38% of them will receive a transplant due to the organ shortage. This paper explores another option: bioengineering an autologous liver graft. We developed a 20-year model projecting future demand for liver transplants, along with costs based on current technology. We compared these cost projections against projected costs to bioengineer autologous liver grafts. The model was divided into: 1) the epidemiology model forecasting the number of wait-listed patients, operated patients and postoperative patients; and 2) the treatment model forecasting costs (pre-transplant-related costs; transplant (admission)-related costs; and 10-year post-transplant-related costs) during the simulation period. The patient population was categorized using the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score. The number of patients on the waiting list was projected to increase 23% over 20 years while the weighted average treatment costs in the pre-liver transplantation phase were forecast to increase 83% in Year 20. Projected demand for livers will increase 10% in 10 years and 23% in 20 years. Total costs of liver transplantation are forecast to increase 33% in 10 years and 81% in 20 years. By comparison, the projected cost to bioengineer autologous liver grafts is $9.7M based on current catalog prices for iPS-derived liver cells. The model projects a persistent increase in need and cost of donor livers over the next 20 years that’s constrained by a limited supply of donor livers. The number of patients who die while on the waiting list will reflect this ever-growing disparity. Currently, bioengineering autologous liver grafts is cost prohibitive. However, costs will decline rapidly with the introduction of new manufacturing

  5. Determinants of Aortic Root Dilatation and Reference Values Among Young Adults Over a 20-Year Period: Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Study.

    PubMed

    Teixido-Tura, Gisela; Almeida, Andre L C; Choi, Eui-Young; Gjesdal, Ola; Jacobs, David R; Dietz, Harry C; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen; Lewis, Cora E; Garcia-Dorado, David; Evangelista, Artur; Gidding, Samuel; Lima, João A C

    2015-07-01

    Aortic size increases with age, but factors related to such dilatation in healthy young adult population have not been studied. We aim to evaluate changes in aortic dimensions and its principal correlates among young adults over a 20-year time period. Reference values for aortic dimensions in young adults by echocardiography are also provided. Healthy Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study participants aged 23 to 35 years in 1990-1991 (n=3051) were included after excluding 18 individuals with significant valvular dysfunction. Aortic root diameter (ARD) by M-mode echocardiography at year-5 (43.7% men; age, 30.2 ± 3.6 years) and year-25 CARDIA exams was obtained. Univariable and multivariable analyses were performed to assess associations of ARD with clinical data at years-5 and -25. ARD from year-5 was used to establish reference values of ARD in healthy young adults. ARD at year-25 was greater in men (33.3 ± 3.7 versus 28.7 ± 3.4 mm; P<0.001) and in whites (30.9 ± 4.3 versus 30.5 ± 4.1 mm; P=0.006). On multivariable analysis, ARD at year-25 was positively correlated with male sex, white ethnicity, age, height, weight, 20-year gain in weight, active smoking at baseline, and 20-year increase in diastolic, systolic, and mean arterial pressure. A figure showing the estimated 95th percentile of ARD by age and body surface area stratified by race and sex is provided. This study demonstrates that smoking, blood pressure, and increase in body weight are the main modifiable correlates of aortic root dilation during young adulthood. Our study also provides reference values for ARD in young adults.

  6. A 20-Year Perspective on Preparation Strategies and Career Planning of Pharmacy Deans

    PubMed Central

    Plaza, Cecilia M.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To provide a longitudinal description of the variety of career paths and preparation strategies of pharmacy deans. Methods A descriptive cross-sectional study design using survey research methodology was used. Chief executive officer (CEO) deans at every full and associate member institution of the American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP) in the United States as of May 1, 2009, were potential subjects. Results The database housed 90.3% (N = 93) of all current (excluding interim/acting) CEO deans. Of the 4 cohorts across time (1991, 1996, 2002, and 2009 snapshots), the 2009 cohort had the highest percentage of deans following either the hierarchical or nontraditional career paths. Conclusions Deans named since 2002 have spent less time collectively in the professoriate than cohorts before them. One reason for this is the increase in the number of deans that followed nontraditional career paths and who spent little or no time in the professoriate prior to their first deanship. This also could be due to the increased demand for individuals to serve as dean due to retirements and the creation of new institutions. PMID:21301596

  7. CAHRD Consultation 2014: the 10-20 year Horizon Introduction and Overview – as circulated to Consultation participants

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The overall aim of the 2014 Consultation is to bring together internal and external partners to help shape the strategic direction for CAHRD over the 10 to 20 year horizon. Our strategic thinking will be guided by our vision of a healthy future for low and middle income populations and our mission to transform health systems to improve the health of these populations. Partnership between northern and southern institutions is integral to this work and critical in the consultation process. The Consultation considers four selected areas of the current work of CAHRD: Lung Health, Maternal & Newborn Health, Neglected Tropical Diseases, and Health Systems. We aim to foster dialogue and learning between these and across contexts and disciplines. The major challenges that will need to be addressed over the next 10 to 20 years will be scoped and pathways to possible solutions proposed. The overall vision is a process of co-production of knowledge

  8. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma: a close associate of pulmonary embolism—20-year observational analysis

    PubMed Central

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S.; Bajaj, Navkaranbir S.; Patil, Pradnya D.; Bunte, Matthew C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma (PPAS) is a rare tumor that mimics pulmonary thromboembolism (PE). Similarities to PE can delay the diagnosis and misguide the treatment of PPAS. This study aimed to evaluate tumor characteristics and outcome predictors among those diagnosed with PPAS and misdiagnosed as PE. Methods From 1991–2010, 10 PPAS cases were available from the Cleveland Clinic (CC) institutional database and another 381 cases were reported in the literature. Patient characteristics, tumor subtypes, diagnostic testing & timing, interventions and clinical outcomes were analyzed. We also noted effects of misdiagnosis as PE and clinical outcome as a result of inappropriate intervention. Results Among 391 confirmed cases of PPAS, the mean age at diagnosis was 52±14 years; 55% were male. The median duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis was 100 [interquartile range (IQR), 30–210] days. Nearly half (47%) of PPAS were originally misdiagnosed as PE including 39% that received thrombolytic and/or anticoagulation therapy. For every doubling of time from symptom onset to diagnosis, the odds of death increased by 46% (OR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.21–1.82; P<0.001). The odds of death (OR: 2.66, 95% CI: 1.58–4.54; P=0.0003) and occurrence of distant metastasis (OR: 2.30, 95% CI: 1.30–4.15; P=0.049) were increased among those who did not receive chemotherapy but chemotherapy did not impact local recurrence. Those with complete resection had a better survival. Conclusions PPAS has a radiological appearance similar to PE, which makes accurate and timely diagnosis challenging. More rapid diagnosis may lead to earlier, appropriate surgical treatment and improved outcomes, when combined with adjuvant treatment. PMID:27747013

  9. Playing Darwin. Part B. 20 years of domestication in Drosophila subobscura.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marta; Fragata, Inês; Santos, Josiane; Simões, Pedro; Marques, Ana; Lima, Margarida; Matos, Margarida

    2010-09-01

    Adaptation to a new environment (as well as its underlying mechanisms) is one of the most important topics in Evolutionary Biology. Understanding the adaptive process of natural populations to captivity is essential not only in general evolutionary studies but also in conservation programmes. Since 1990, the Group of Experimental Evolution (CBA/FCUL) has been performing long-term, real-time evolutionary studies, with the characterization of laboratory adaptation in populations of Drosophila subobscura founded in different times and from different locations. Initially, these experiments involved phenotypic assays and more recently were expanded to studies at the molecular level (microsatellite and chromosomal polymorphisms) and with different population sizes. Throughout these two decades, a clear pattern of evolutionary convergence to long-established laboratory populations has been consistently observed in several life-history traits. However, contingencies across foundations were also found during the adaptive process. In characters with complex evolutionary trajectories, the data suggested that the comparative method lacked predictive capacity relative to real-time evolutionary trajectories (experimental evolution). Microsatellite analysis revealed general similarity in gene diversity and allele number between studied populations, as well as an unclear association between genetic variability and evolutionary potential. Nevertheless, ongoing studies in all foundations are being carried out to further test this hypothesis. A comparison between recently introduced and long-term populations (founded from the same natural location) has shown higher degree of chromosomal polymorphism in recent ones. Finally, our findings suggest higher heterogeneity between small-sized populations, as well as a slower evolutionary rate in characters close to fitness (such as fecundity and mating behaviour). This comprehensive study is aimed at better understanding the processes and

  10. Effect of deleterious mutations on life span in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yi; Thompson, James N; Woodruff, R C

    2006-12-01

    Evolutionary theories of aging assume that the accumulation of deleterious mutations will reduce life span. We tested this assumption in Drosophila melanogaster by a newly designed mating scheme, in which mutations accumulate on the Binscy balancer X chromosome in heterozygous females in the absence of selection and recombination. We found that the life span of Binscy/RY(L) males from this cross decreased faster than the life span of their sibling controls over time in two of three runs, and that there was an age-specific increase in mortality in the Binscy/RY(L) males with time in one of three runs. Therefore, the accumulation of deleterious mutations can decrease life span by increasing fragility and can cause age-specific changes in mortality. These results support the evolutionary theory of aging.

  11. Virtual surveillance of communicable diseases: a 20-year experience in France.

    PubMed

    Flahault, A; Blanchon, T; Dorléans, Y; Toubiana, L; Vibert, J F; Valleron, A J

    2006-10-01

    Inserm has developed, since 1984, an information system based on a computer network of physicians in France. It allows for constitution of large databases on diseases, with individual description of cases, and to explore some aspects of the mathematical theory of communicable diseases. We developed user-friendly interfaces for remote data entry and GIS tools providing real-time atlas of the epidemiologic situation in any location. The continuous and ongoing surveillance network is constituted of about 1200 sentinel voluntary and unpaid investigators. We studied their motivation, reasons for either withdrawal or compliance using survival analyses. We implemented early warning systems for outbreak detection and for time-space forecasting. We conducted epidemiological surveys for investigating outbreaks. Large available time and space series allowed us to calibrate and explore synchronism of influenza epidemics, to test the assumption of panmixing in susceptibles-infectious-removed type models and to study the role of closing school in influenza morbidity and mortality in elderly. More than 250 000 cases of influenza, 150 000 cases of acute diarrheas, 35,000 patients for whom HIV tests have been prescribed by general practitioners and 25,000 cases of chickenpox have been collected. Detection of regional influenza or acute diarrhea outbreaks and forecasting of epidemic trends three weeks ahead are currently broadcasted to the French media and published on Sentiweb on a weekly basis. Age-cohort-period models assessed field effectiveness of mass immunization strategies against measles and influenza in the country. Case-control studies with more than 1200 sets of cases of acute diarrheas and their matched controls showed the role of calicivirus and rotavirus as probable major causes of gastroenteritis during recurrent widespread outbreaks in winter in France. An age-specific model for chickenpox showed the probable role of children in disease transmission to their

  12. Lessons about Virtual-Environment Software Systems from 20 years of VE building

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Russell M.; Jerald, Jason; VanderKnyff, Chris; Wendt, Jeremy; Borland, David; Marshburn, David; Sherman, William R.; Whitton, Mary C.

    2010-01-01

    What are desirable and undesirable features of virtual-environment (VE) software architectures? What should be present (and absent) from such systems if they are to be optimally useful? How should they be structured? To help answer these questions we present experience from application designers, toolkit designers, and VE system architects along with examples of useful features from existing systems. Topics are organized under the major headings of: 3D space management, supporting display hardware, interaction, event management, time management, computation, portability, and the observation that less can be better. Lessons learned are presented as discussion of the issues, field experiences, nuggets of knowledge, and case studies. PMID:20567602

  13. Reanalysis of the Benešov bolide and recovery of polymict breccia meteorites - old mystery solved after 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spurný, Pavel; Haloda, Jakub; Borovička, Jiří; Shrbený, Lukáš; Halodová, Patricie

    2014-10-01

    The main motivation for this work was to explain and solve the old mystery connected with the detailed instrumental observation of the Benešov superbolide on 7 May 1991 over the central part of the Czech Republic. Detailed analyses of this undoubted meteorite fall were published in several papers, and this is one of the best documented bolides (at least of the superbolide category) ever observed. However, despite high-quality data, favorable trajectory, relatively large terminal mass, and especially great efforts and many attempts, no meteorite was found in the weeks and years after the fall. Here we solve and explain this old mystery. In spring 2011, just before the twentieth anniversary of this extraordinary case, we remeasured all available all-sky records and reanalyzed the data. We used slightly different methods and new approaches, which we gradually developed to analyze several recent instrumentally observed meteorite falls (Morávka, Neuschwanstein, Jesenice, Bunburra Rockhole, Mason Gully, and Košice). We assembled a new consistent picture of the Benešov event, which resulted in a slightly revised impact location and suggested a new strategy that might lead to a recovery of Benešov meteorites after 20 years. The reality completely confirmed all our assumptions and surpassed our expectations. We found four small highly weathered fragments irregular in form and completely without fusion crust with a total mass of 11.63 g (1.54 g (H5), 7.72 g (with achondritic clast), 1.99 g, 0.38 g (all LL3.5)). They were recovered exactly in the predicted impact area for corresponding masses, namely within 40 m from the highest probability line. Although all fragments are very small and their weathering grade is high (W3 for all pieces), their interior was preserved enough for reliable analysis (except for the smallest one). The meteorite is classified as a polymict breccia containing three recognized lithologies with different texture, chemical, and mineralogical

  14. Horizontal and vertical deformation field in New Caledonia, South West Pacific, derived from more than 20 years of GNSS measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballu, V.; Calmant, S.; Valty, P.; Gravelle, M.; Sakic, P.; Aucan, J.; Pelletier, B.

    2015-12-01

    New Caledonia is located in the South West Pacific Ocean, on the Australian Plate just before its subduction under the North Fiji Basin. Because it is on the subducting side of the plate interface, New Caledonia is considered to be stable to first order and not to undergo rapid deformation. However, moderate seismicity is recorded close to the plate interface, in the southern part of the main land and along the Loyalty ridge. In addition, the main island and Loyalty ridge are subjected to long-term vertical deformation due to the flexure of the plate entering subduction. A geodetic network was installed since the early days of GPS (~1990) and has been further developed and occasionally measured since. Due to the low number of global GNSS recording stations in the early 1990s, the positioning accuracy that can be achieved with these data is poor compared to present-day standards, and expected movements are slow (possibly less than 1 mm/yr). However, the >20 year length of the time series may allow us to determine the current deformation field in New Caledonia and Loyalty Ridge. We pay special care in using older GNSS data for characterizing ground motions, reprocessing all available data using a range of different processing strategies and products. We calculated daily positions from double-differenced ionosphere-free carrier phase data in a global network using the GAMIT software and combined and aligned the results on the ITRF2008 using the CATREF software, according to the processing strategy developed as part of the current ULR6 (www.sonel.org) reprocessing campaign for IGS. We compare the double difference results with those obtained in PPP mode using JPL GIPSY software as well as CNES GINS software and different products (MIT, JPL and GRG orbits and clocks provided in the framework of the IGS2 reprocessing campaign). We present both the results for New Caledonia and an analysis of the applicability of these different processing strategies to older GNSS

  15. 20 years of production of UO(2) by the integrated route: A BNEFL perspective on dry conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Ion, S.E.; Watson, R.H.

    1993-11-01

    British Nuclear Fuels plc (BNFL) has been involved with the conversion of UF6 to ceramic-grade UO2 since the late 1960s. This paper summarizes key points arising from the 20-year history of the process: the consistency and reliability of the product, its performance from a fuel fabricator`s viewpoint, and developments made to improve the process since its introduction.

  16. Sex differences in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders: a 20-year longitudinal study of psychosis and recovery.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Linda S; Harrow, Martin; Rosen, Cherise; Faull, Robert; Strauss, Gregory P

    2008-01-01

    This longitudinal study was designed to provide data on sex differences in the course of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. Ninety-seven participants (43 women and 54 men) were assessed during index hospitalization when they were in the acute phase of illness and then reassessed prospectively at 6 consecutive follow-ups over a 20-year period. Patients were evaluated by a series of standardized measures on many aspects of illness including the presence of psychosis, global outcome, and rate of recovery. When women were compared to men in this sample, the data demonstrated a lower percentage of psychotic activity for women over the course of illness (significant at the 7.5- and 20-year follow-ups), and a significant improvement in psychotic activity over 20 years for women (P < .05), but not for men. In addition, women showed significantly better global functioning (P < .05) at 3 of the 6 follow-ups (the 2-, 7.5-, and 10-year follow-ups). Significantly higher percentages (P < .05) of women were in recovery at 2 of the 6 follow-up years (the 2- and 10-year follow-ups). Cumulatively, 61% of the women with schizophrenia showed a period of recovery at some point during the 20-year period compared to 41% of the men. The sex difference patterns were similar for patients with schizophrenia and for those with other types of psychotic disorders. Sex differences in this sample were specifically not attributable to differences in age of onset or premorbid developmental achievements.

  17. [Purpura pigmentosa progressiva in type III cryoglobulinemia and tartrazine intolerance. A follow-up over 20 years].

    PubMed

    Kalinke, D U; Wüthrich, B

    1999-01-01

    A 58 year old patient with hepatitis virus C (HCV) infection had a secondary polyclonal IgG-IgM cryoglobulinemia with a benign 20 year course. Clinically the patient suffered from progressive pigmented purpura (PPP). Histologic evaluation revealed a lymphocytic vasculitis. Food containing tartrazine triggered flares of the PPP, as demonstrated with controlled oral provocation testing. In most of the previously described cases of HCV and type III cryoglobulinemia, the typical cutaneous finding was palpable purpura with leukocytoclastic vasculitis.

  18. Dietary pattern and 20 year mortality in elderly men in Finland, Italy, and The Netherlands: longitudinal cohort study.

    PubMed Central

    Huijbregts, P.; Feskens, E.; Räsänen, L.; Fidanza, F.; Nissinen, A.; Menotti, A.; Kromhout, D.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of dietary pattern and mortality in international data. DESIGN: Cohort study with 20 years' follow up of mortality. SETTING: Five cohorts in Finland, the Netherlands, and Italy. SUBJECTS: Population based random sample of 3045 men aged 50-70 years in 1970. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Food intake was estimated using a cross check dietary history. In this dietary survey method, the usual food consumption pattern in the 6-12 months is estimated. A healthy diet indicator was calculated for the dietary pattern, using the World Health Organisation's guidelines for the prevention of chronic diseases. Vital status was verified after 20 years of follow up, and death rates were calculated. RESULTS: Dietary intake varied greatly in 1970 between the three countries. In Finland and the Netherlands the intake of saturated fatty acids and cholesterol was high and the intake of alcohol was low; in Italy the opposite was observed. In total 1796 men (59%) died during 20 years of follow up. The healthy diet indicator was inversely associated with mortality (P for trend < 0.05). After adjustment for age, smoking, and alcohol consumption, the relative risk in the group with the healthiest diet indicator compared with the group with the least healthy was 0.87 (95% confidence interval 0.77 to 0.98). Estimated relative risks were essentially similar within each country. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of men aged 50-70 is associated with a 20 year, all cause mortality in different cultures. The healthy diet indicator is useful in evaluating the relation of mortality to dietary patterns. PMID:9233319

  19. 20-Year Status Report on the Human Systems Integration (HSI)/Manpower and Personnel Integration (MANPRINT) Soldier Survivability Domain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    as a special report on the 20-year status of the MANPRINT Soldier Survivability Domain after being established by Army Regulation 602-2 on its...Board (TAB) Review, 8 July 2014 57 Appendix B. Excerpted Army Regulation 602-2 and Army Regulation 70- 75 Language that Applies to US Army Research...Survivability (SSv) domain after being established by Army Regulation 602-2 on its effective date of 7 October 1994. This report was first initiated

  20. Spectral Analysis of Dynamic PET Studies: A Review of 20 Years of Method Developments and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, Gaia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Turkheimer, Federico E.

    2016-01-01

    In Positron Emission Tomography (PET), spectral analysis (SA) allows the quantification of dynamic data by relating the radioactivity measured by the scanner in time to the underlying physiological processes of the system under investigation. Among the different approaches for the quantification of PET data, SA is based on the linear solution of the Laplace transform inversion whereas the measured arterial and tissue time-activity curves of a radiotracer are used to calculate the input response function of the tissue. In the recent years SA has been used with a large number of PET tracers in brain and nonbrain applications, demonstrating that it is a very flexible and robust method for PET data analysis. Differently from the most common PET quantification approaches that adopt standard nonlinear estimation of compartmental models or some linear simplifications, SA can be applied without defining any specific model configuration and has demonstrated very good sensitivity to the underlying kinetics. This characteristic makes it useful as an investigative tool especially for the analysis of novel PET tracers. The purpose of this work is to offer an overview of SA, to discuss advantages and limitations of the methodology, and to inform about its applications in the PET field. PMID:28050197

  1. Laparoscopic Reversal of Hartmann's Procedure: State of the Art 20 Years after the First Reported Case

    PubMed Central

    Ardiri, Annalisa; Mannino, Maurizio; Politi, Antonio; Di Stefano, Andrea; Aftab, Zia; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman; Arcerito, Maria Concetta; Cavallaro, Andrea; Cavallaro, Marco; Bertino, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of the present work is to review the literature to point out the role of laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure. Material and Methods. Number of patients, age, sex, etiology, Hinchey classification, interval between procedure and reversal, position of the first trocars, mean operative time (min), number and causes of conversion, length of stay, mortality, complications, and quality of life were considered. Results. 238 males (52.4%) and 216 females (47.6%) between 38 and 67 years were analyzed. The etiology was diverticulitis in 292 patients (72.1%), carcinoma in 43 patients (10.6%), and other in 70 patients (17.3%). Only 7 articles (22.6%) reported Hinchey classification. The interval between initial procedure and reversal was between 50 and 330 days. The initial trocar was open positioned in 182 patients (43.2%) through umbilical incision, in 177 patients (41.9%) in right upper quadrant, and in 63 patients (14.9%) in colostomy site. The operative time was between 69 and 285 minutes. A total of 83 patients (12.1%) were converted and the causes were reported in 67.4%. The length of stay was between 3 and 12 days. 5 patients (0.7%) died. The complications concern 112 cases (16.4%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal is safer and achieves faster positive results. PMID:25210510

  2. Laparoscopic Reversal of Hartmann's Procedure: State of the Art 20 Years after the First Reported Case.

    PubMed

    Toro, Adriana; Ardiri, Annalisa; Mannino, Maurizio; Politi, Antonio; Di Stefano, Andrea; Aftab, Zia; Abdelaal, Abdelrahman; Arcerito, Maria Concetta; Cavallaro, Andrea; Cavallaro, Marco; Bertino, Gaetano; Di Carlo, Isidoro

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Aim of the present work is to review the literature to point out the role of laparoscopic reversal of Hartmann procedure. Material and Methods. Number of patients, age, sex, etiology, Hinchey classification, interval between procedure and reversal, position of the first trocars, mean operative time (min), number and causes of conversion, length of stay, mortality, complications, and quality of life were considered. Results. 238 males (52.4%) and 216 females (47.6%) between 38 and 67 years were analyzed. The etiology was diverticulitis in 292 patients (72.1%), carcinoma in 43 patients (10.6%), and other in 70 patients (17.3%). Only 7 articles (22.6%) reported Hinchey classification. The interval between initial procedure and reversal was between 50 and 330 days. The initial trocar was open positioned in 182 patients (43.2%) through umbilical incision, in 177 patients (41.9%) in right upper quadrant, and in 63 patients (14.9%) in colostomy site. The operative time was between 69 and 285 minutes. A total of 83 patients (12.1%) were converted and the causes were reported in 67.4%. The length of stay was between 3 and 12 days. 5 patients (0.7%) died. The complications concern 112 cases (16.4%). Conclusion. The laparoscopic Hartmann's reversal is safer and achieves faster positive results.

  3. A longitudinal follow-up of posttraumatic stress: from 9 months to 20 years after a major road traffic accident

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although road traffic accidents (RTA) are a major cause of injury and a cause of posttraumatic stress (PTS) in the aftermath, little is known about the long-term psychological effects of RTA. Methods This prospective longitudinal study assessed long-term PTS, grief, and general mental health after a bus carrying 23 sixth-grade schoolchildren crashed on a school outing and 12 children died. Directly affected (i.e., children in the crash) and indirectly affected children (i.e., all pupils in the sixth grade who were not in the crash) were surveyed at 9 months (N = 102), 4 years (N = 51), and 20 years (N = 40) after the event. Psychological distress was assessed by single items, including sadness, avoidance, intrusions, and guilt. After 20 years, PTS was assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. Results Stress reactions were prevalent 9 months after the event, with sadness (69%) and avoidance (59%) being highly represented in both directly and indirectly affected groups, whereas, nightmares (60%) and feelings of guilt (50%) were only frequent in those directly affected. The frequency of sadness and avoidance decreased after 4 years in the indirectly exposed (ps < .05). After 20 years, the directly affected had a higher prevalence of PTS (p = .003), but not decreased general mental health (p = .14), than those indirectly affected. Conclusions The limitations preclude assertive conclusions. Nonetheless, the findings corroborate previous studies reporting traumatic events are associated with long-term PTS, but not with decreased general mental health. PMID:21396118

  4. Homological Computation Using Spanning Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molina-Abril, H.; Real, P.

    We introduce here a new mathbb{F}_2 homology computation algorithm based on a generalization of the spanning tree technique on a finite 3-dimensional cell complex K embedded in ℝ3. We demonstrate that the complexity of this algorithm is linear in the number of cells. In fact, this process computes an algebraic map φ over K, called homology gradient vector field (HGVF), from which it is possible to infer in a straightforward manner homological information like Euler characteristic, relative homology groups, representative cycles for homology generators, topological skeletons, Reeb graphs, cohomology algebra, higher (co)homology operations, etc. This process can be generalized to others coefficients, including the integers, and to higher dimension.

  5. Neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence for the involvement of the frontal lobes in depression: 20 years on.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Guy M

    2016-11-01

    In 1997, neuropsychological and neuroimaging evidence supported the involvement of the frontal lobes and indeed the brain in depression. This was a challenge to conventional phenomenology and linked with the imperative to use neuroscience to understand major mental illness. Since that time, we are seeing ever more convincing evidence for the genetic basis of mental illness (including depression), relevant abnormality in grey and white matter and neuropsychological analysis of brain function. It has proved more difficult to pin down structural abnormality in major depression at the cellular level, but a focus on glial cells is increasingly justified by the evidence. Neuroscience continues to be a buttress against anti-scientific impulses in psychiatry and can help attract young people to enter it as a profession.

  6. FORENSIC SCIENCE:: 20 YEARS OF FORENSIC DENTISTRY AT THE UNIVERSITY OF ZAGREB, 1994 - 2014.

    PubMed

    Brkić, Hrvoje

    2014-06-01

    Data from available literature point to an early beginning of Forensic Dentistry in Croatia relating to a post-mortem examination of a female patient after a dental procedure in the 1930s. Later on, there were several mass casualties due to collisions and airplane crashes and a railway accident at the Zagreb Main Railway Station wherein the identity of the victims was established based on dental features. Foreign experts in forensics helped identify those victims, particularly forensic dentists because this specialty was almost unknown in our region at the time. During the twenty-year period of the development of Forensic Dentistry at the University of Zagreb, the School of Dental Medicine, the city of Zagreb and Croatia have become internationally recognised on the forensic map of the world.

  7. The 20-Year Trajectory of Marital Quality in Enduring Marriages: Does Equity Matter?

    PubMed Central

    DeMaris, Alfred

    2011-01-01

    I examine the trajectory of marital quality as a function of relationship equity with data from a six-wave panel study of 704 married respondents between 1980 and 2000. Reporting that one “gives more” to the marriage (subjective underbenefit) is more likely for women than men at any given marital duration. Respondent’s relative contribution to income, paid labor, housework, and health (objective underbenefit) raises this probability for women of average religiosity. For the more religious, objective underbenefit has no effect on women’s sense of underbenefit, but reduces men’s sense of underbenefit. Objective underbenefit lowers women’s, but raises men’s, marital quality, at any marital duration. The relevance of equity was not diluted by the passage of time in marriage. PMID:21966079

  8. Assessment of the Main Natural Disturbances on Norwegian Forest Based on 20 Years of National Inventory

    PubMed Central

    Mola-Yudego, Blas; Eriksen, Rune; González-Olabarria, José Ramón

    2016-01-01

    The re-measurement of permanent forest inventories offers a unique opportunity to assess the occurrence and impact of forest disturbances. The present study aims at exploring the main forest damages in Norway based on the extensive data of several consecutive national forest inventories during the period 1995–2014. Five of the most common disturbance agents in Norway are selected for analysis: wind, snow, browsing, fungus and insect damage. The analyses focuses on the frequency and variation along time, the average damage at stand level and the spatial patterns of damage occurrence, resulting in a characterization of the damage produced by disturbances in Norway. The highest damage occurrences by disturbance agent are due to browsing, snow and wind. Snow presents a decreasing temporally trend in damage frequency in the studied period. By forest type, mature and intermediate birch forest are found to be more affected by snow damage, whereas mature spruce forest is by wind damage. The results from this study provide support to the hypothesis that damages by autumnal moth (Epirrita autumnata) on birch are more common in mature stands. No major attacks from bark beetle (Ips typographus) are found, probably related to the lack of major storm damages in the period. Forest types susceptibility to fungus has no apparent variation over time except in the last years, as increased occurrence is observed on mature spruce stands probably correlated with warmer than average periods. Browsing damage causes the most severe losses, as expected, in young stands, and is allocated mainly on the most productive forests. Although some of the disturbances present locally moderate effects, the results show no major disturbances threatening Norwegian forests in the studied period. Finally, the Norwegian national forest inventory demonstrates its reliability as a basis to understand the occurrence and effects of major natural disturbances. PMID:27570973

  9. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Andrea S; Meyer, Katie A; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Evenson, Kelly R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Lewis, Cora E; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-11-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest that neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the U.S.-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For most classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities.

  10. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-01

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations—including morphological and behavioural traits—as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's—and our very own—evolutionary history. PMID:25487326

  11. Neighborhood socioeconomic status and food environment: a 20-year longitudinal latent class analysis among CARDIA participants

    PubMed Central

    Richardson, Andrea S.; Meyer, Katie A.; Howard, Annie Green; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Kiefe, Catarina I.; Lewis, Cora E.; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2014-01-01

    Cross-sectional studies suggest neighborhood socioeconomic (SES) disadvantage is associated with obesogenic food environments. Yet, it is unknown how exposure to neighborhood SES patterning through adulthood corresponds to food environments that also change over time. We used latent class analysis (LCA) to classify participants in the US-based Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults study [n=5,114 at baseline 1985-1986 to 2005-2006] according to their longitudinal neighborhood SES residency patterns (upward, downward, stable high and stable low). For all classes of residents, the availability of fast food and non-fast food restaurants and supermarkets and convenience stores increased (p<0.001). Yet, socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhood residents had fewer fast food and non-fast food restaurants, more convenience stores, and the same number of supermarkets in their neighborhoods than the advantaged residents. In addition to targeting the pervasive fast food restaurant and convenient store retail growth, improving neighborhood restaurant options for disadvantaged residents may reduce food environment disparities. PMID:25280107

  12. Benchmarking ventricular arrhythmias in the mouse--revisiting the 'Lambeth Conventions' 20 years on.

    PubMed

    Huggins, Catherine E; Bell, James R; Pepe, Salvatore; Delbridge, Lea M D

    2008-12-01

    The isolated Langendorff-mode perfused heart has become a valuable experimental model, used extensively to examine cardiac function, pathophysiology and pharmacology. For the clinical cardiologist an ECG is often a simple practicality, however in experimental circumstances, particularly with ex vivo murine hearts it is not always possible to obtain an ECG due to experimental recording constraints. However, the mechanical record of ventricular contractile function can be highly informative in relation to electrical state. It is difficult though to achieve consistency in these evaluations of arrhythmia as a validated common reference framework is lacking. In 1988, a group of investigators developed the 'Lambeth Conventions'--a standardised reference for the definition and classification of arrhythmias in animal experimental models of ischaemia, infarction and reperfusion in vivo. Now, two decades later it is timely to revisit the Lambeth Conventions, and to update the guidelines in the context of the marked increase in murine heart study in experimental cardiac pathophysiology. Here we describe an adjunct to the Lambeth Conventions for the reporting of ventricular arrhythmias post-ischaemia in ex vivo mouse hearts when ECG recordings are not employed. Of seven discrete and identifiable patterns of mechanical dysrhythmia observed in reperfusion, five could be classified using conventional ECG terminology: ventricular premature beat, bigeminy, trigeminy, ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Two additional rhythm variations detected from the pressure record are described (potentiated contraction and alternans).

  13. 20 years of reprocessed Lyapunov Exponents from altimetry available on AVISO+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pujol, Marie-Isabelle; Faugere, Yannice; D'Ovidio, Francesco; Morrow, Rosemary; Bronner, Emilie; Picot, Nicolas

    2015-04-01

    SARAL/AltiKa is able to sample the small mesoscale signal with a noise measurement error never reached in nadir conventional altimetry. The SARAL/AltiKa 1-Hz measurement is used in the SSALTO/DUACS system since July 2013 and largely contributes to the quality of the Level4 merged products. These products, are now widely used to define the surface geostrophic currents and beyond that they are used to provide proxies of (sub-)mesoscale transport fronts via the Lyapunov Exponents (LEs). The LEs are being increasingly used in physical, biogeochemical, and ecological applications, ranging from real-time support to field studies to co-localisation of animal tracking with Lagrangian Coherent Structures. In order to better serve the users need, and in collaboration with different laboratories (LOCEAN and CTOH), the LEs and vectors are computed over the 21 year altimeter period and over the global ocean within the SSALTO/DUACS project. This product provides the position, and intensity, and orientation of fronts induced by the mesoscale eddies and underlining part of sub-mesoscale activity. We present here the LEs that will be available on AVISO+ early 2015.

  14. Arsenic in atmospheric deposition at the Czech-Polish border: two sampling campaigns 20 years apart.

    PubMed

    Dousová, Barbora; Erbanová, Lucie; Novák, Martin

    2007-11-15

    Arsenic (As) occurs in atmospheric deposition both in soluble and insoluble forms, mainly bound to fine aerosol particles (less than 2.5 microm). Interception deposition (i.e. fog, dew and ice accretion) represents a specific type of atmospheric deposition, which has been much more contaminated with As than bulk deposition. This study compares the As amount and its binding forms in bulk and interception deposition in the winters of 1984-1986 and 2003-2005 in the Orlické hory mountains (Adlergebirge) near the Czech-Polish border; sampled and analysed by the same methodology. The As concentrations in ice accretions decreased 16 times over the twenty year period (from 50 microg L(-1) to 3 microg L(-1)), while the pH values increased by 0.8 units. As concentrations in snow decreased from 15 microg L(-1) in 1984-1986 to <2 microg L(-1) in 2003-2005. This decline mirrored the considerable decrease in industrial emissions in Central Europe. Higher acidity of interception deposition (about 1 pH unit) in comparison with the bulk deposition was observed in both sampling periods. The quantity of bulk deposition (snowfall) also influenced the As concentration in interception deposition. Dry periods resulted in higher As-amounts in interception deposition due to limited washing of atmospheric aerosol particles by wet deposition. The As concentration and stability in atmospheric deposition are important for the study of subsequent As-migration and/or accumulation in soil -- groundwater -- surface water.

  15. Depression Interventions among Racial and Ethnic Minority Older Adults: A Systematic Review across 20 Years

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Dahlia; Aranda, María P.

    2012-01-01

    While there is strong evidence in support of geriatric depression treatments, much less is available with regard to older U.S. racial and ethnic minorities. The objectives of this review are to identify and appraise depression treatment studies tested with samples of U.S. racial and ethnic minority older adults. We include an appraisal of sociocultural adaptations made to the depression treatments in studies meeting our final criteria. Systematic search methods were utilized to identify research published between 1990 and 2010 that describe depression treatment outcomes for older adults by racial/ethnic group, or for samples of older adults that are primarily (i.e., >50%) racial/ethnic minorities. Twenty-three unduplicated articles included older adults and seven met all inclusion criteria. Favorable depression treatment effects were observed for older minorities across five studies based on diverse settings and varying levels of sociocultural adaptations. The effectiveness of depression care remains mixed although collaborative or integrated care shows promise for African Americans and Latinos. The degree to which the findings generalize to non-English-speaking, low acculturated, and low income older persons, and to other older minority groups (i.e., Asian and Pacific Islanders, and American Indian and Alaska Natives) remains unclear. Given the high disease burden among older minorities with depression, it is imperative to provide timely, accessible, and effective depression treatments. Increasing their participation in behavioral health research should be a national priority. PMID:22828202

  16. Almost 20 years of Neanderthal palaeogenetics: adaptation, admixture, diversity, demography and extinction.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quinto, Federico; Lalueza-Fox, Carles

    2015-01-19

    Nearly two decades since the first retrieval of Neanderthal DNA, recent advances in next-generation sequencing technologies have allowed the generation of high-coverage genomes from two archaic hominins, a Neanderthal and a Denisovan, as well as a complete mitochondrial genome from remains which probably represent early members of the Neanderthal lineage. This genomic information, coupled with diversity exome data from several Neanderthal specimens is shedding new light on evolutionary processes such as the genetic basis of Neanderthal and modern human-specific adaptations-including morphological and behavioural traits-as well as the extent and nature of the admixture events between them. An emerging picture is that Neanderthals had a long-term small population size, lived in small and isolated groups and probably practised inbreeding at times. Deleterious genetic effects associated with these demographic factors could have played a role in their extinction. The analysis of DNA from further remains making use of new large-scale hybridization-capture-based methods as well as of new approaches to discriminate contaminant DNA sequences will provide genetic information in spatial and temporal scales that could help clarify the Neanderthal's-and our very own-evolutionary history.

  17. Hearing Aid Satisfaction: What Does Research from the Past 20 Years Say?

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Lena L. N.; Hickson, Louise; McPherson, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    Hearing aid satisfaction is a pleasurable emotional experience as an outcome of an evaluation of performance. Many tools have been designed to measure the degree of satisfaction overall, or along the dimensions of cost, appearance, acoustic benefit, comfort, and service. Various studies have used these tools to examine the relationships between satisfaction and other factors. Findings are not always consistent across studies, but in general, hearing aid satisfaction has been found to be related to experience, expectation, personality and attitude, usage, type of hearing aids, sound quality, listening situations, and problems in hearing aid use. Inconsistent findings across studies and difficulties in evaluating the underlying relationships are probably caused by problems with the tools (eg, lack of validity) and the methods used to evaluate relationships (eg, correlation analyses evaluate association and not causal effect). Whether satisfaction changes over time and how service satisfaction contributes to device satisfaction are unclear. It is hoped that this review will help readers understand current satisfaction measures, how various factors affect satisfaction, and how the way satisfaction is measured may be improved to yield more reliable and valid data. PMID:15004650

  18. Particle Fluxes in the Marginal Seas of Antarctica: A 20-year Synthesis in Honor of Jack Dymond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunbar, R. B.; Langone, L.

    2004-12-01

    One of Jack Dymond's long-standing scientific passions was the study of particles moving through the ocean water column. Jack's pioneering work in this area in the 1970's and generous mentoring of others throughout his career lead directly to the first authors involvement in sediment trap studies. Here we present a synthesis of 20 years of particle flux studies in coastal Antarctic (including the work of Collier and Dymond et al.) and highlight some of the important features and unresolved issues related to integrating particle trap interceptor data with other measures of production, transport, and deposition. The first sediment trap arrays were deployed on the Antarctic shelf in 1981 and 1982 in the Antarctic Peninsula. Simple instruments were also deployed in 1984 and 1986 in the Ross Sea. Since then, several nations (US, Italy, New Zealand) have recovered time series sediment trap data on moorings in both of these areas. This current synthesis makes use of data from approximately 22 sites, the majority of which are in the Ross Sea, and includes about 900 discrete samples of particles in vertical transit through the water column. We now have many complete time series that extend through the winter, allowing several important generalizations to be made. For example, annual particle-mediated organic C fluxes to below 200 meters in the Ross Sea average 4.4±3.3 g C m-2 yr-1. These values are significantly less than export fluxes calculated using short-term surface water mass balance approaches or Th isotope techniques yet are higher than seabed sediment accumulation rates. Intriguingly, seasonal seabed arrival rates of organic C estimated from in-situ summertime benthic respirometry studies yield C flux values similar in magnitude to those from sediment traps deployed at the same time, lending strong support to trap data. The cause of current disagreements between various methods of flux estimation may in fact not be solved until process studies are accomplished

  19. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill.

    PubMed

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A; Ballachey, Brenda E; Iverson, Samuel A; Lewis, Tyler L; Rizzolo, Daniel J; Mulcahy, Daniel M; Miles, A Keith; Woodin, Bruce R; Stegeman, John J; Henderson, John D; Wilson, Barry W

    2010-05-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  20. 20 Years of Air-Water Gas Exchange Observations for Pesticides in the Western Arctic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Wong, Fiona; Gawor, Anya; Kylin, Henrik; Helm, Paul A; Stern, Gary A; Strachan, William M J; Burniston, Deborah A; Bidleman, Terry F

    2015-12-01

    The Arctic has been contaminated by legacy organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and currently used pesticides (CUPs) through atmospheric transport and oceanic currents. Here we report the time trends and air-water exchange of OCPs and CUPs from research expeditions conducted between 1993 and 2013. Compounds determined in both air and water were trans- and cis-chlordanes (TC, CC), trans- and cis-nonachlors (TN, CN), heptachlor exo-epoxide (HEPX), dieldrin (DIEL), chlorobornanes (ΣCHBs and toxaphene), dacthal (DAC), endosulfans and metabolite endosulfan sulfate (ENDO-I, ENDO-II, and ENDO SUL), chlorothalonil (CHT), chlorpyrifos (CPF), and trifluralin (TFN). Pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB and quintozene) and its soil metabolite pentachlorothianisole (PCTA) were also found in air. Concentrations of most OCPs declined in surface water, whereas some CUPs increased (ENDO-I, CHT, and TFN) or showed no significant change (CPF and DAC), and most compounds declined in air. Chlordane compound fractions TC/(TC + CC) and TC/(TC + CC + TN) decreased in water and air, while CC/(TC + CC + TN) increased. TN/(TC + CC + TN) also increased in air and slightly, but not significantly, in water. These changes suggest selective removal of more labile TC and/or a shift in chlordane sources. Water-air fugacity ratios indicated net volatilization (FR > 1.0) or near equilibrium (FR not significantly different from 1.0) for most OCPs but net deposition (FR < 1.0) for ΣCHBs. Net deposition was shown for ENDO-I on all expeditions, while the net exchange direction of other CUPs varied. Understanding the processes and current state of air-surface exchange helps to interpret environmental exposure and evaluate the effectiveness of international protocols and provides insights for the environmental fate of new and emerging chemicals.

  1. Trends in conservation research and management in Hawai‘i over the past 20 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dutra Elliott, Daniela; Fortini, Lucas; Cameron Duffy, David

    2014-01-01

    Hawaiʻi, an archipelago of the most isolated inhabited islands on the planet, faces unique and extreme challenges to its biodiversity. We examined how the conservation community has responded to these challenges and how the responses have changed over time, using twenty years of abstracts from the Hawaiʻi Conservation Conference, a yearly gathering of the majority of scientists, managers and the public in Hawaiʻi. Of the 2145 abstracts considered, 60% percent reported research results; 40.0% reported information on conservation and resource management programmes and institutions (i.e., non-research abstracts). Initially, applied research abstracts predominated, but in recent years the number of basic research abstracts has become similar. Across taxonomic groups, terrestrial plants, mammals and birds were the dominant research subjects, fish, algae and fungi were noticeably less studied relative to their diversity in Hawaiʻi. Bird and fish species studied were mostly native; research on most other taxa was evenly divided between native and non-native species. Topics have oscillated in frequency over the years, but there have been no dramatic trends, with the exception of climate change and Local Ecological Knowledge (LEK). Although there is an increasing trend in LEK and cross-disciplinary studies, the number of related abstracts have remained uncommon through the period, accounting for less than 5.0% of total research abstracts analyzed. Our results offer an oportunity for the conservation community to take a closer look at reported effort to better address key conservation questions for Hawaiʻi.

  2. Psychological and perceived health effects of the Chernobyl disaster: a 20-year review.

    PubMed

    Bromet, Evelyn J; Havenaar, Johan M

    2007-11-01

    The mental health impact of Chernobyl is regarded by many experts as the largest public health problem unleashed by the accident to date. This paper reviews findings reported during the 20-y period after the accident regarding stress-related symptoms, effects on the developing brain, and cognitive and psychological impairments among highly exposed cleanup workers. With respect to stress-related symptoms, the rates of depressive, anxiety (especially post-traumatic stress symptoms), and medically unexplained physical symptoms are two to four times higher in Chernobyl-exposed populations compared to controls, although rates of diagnosable psychiatric disorders do not appear to be elevated. The symptom elevations were found as late as 11 y after the accident. Severity of symptomatology is significantly related to risk perceptions and being diagnosed with a Chernobyl-related health problem. In general, the morbidity patterns are consistent with the psychological impairments documented after other toxic events, such as the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the Three Mile Island accident, and Bhopal. With respect to the developing brain of exposed children who were in utero or very young when the accident occurred, the World Health Organization as well as American and Israeli researchers have found no significant associations of radiation exposure with cognitive impairments. Cognitive impairments in highly exposed cleanup workers have been reported by Ukrainian researchers, but these findings have not been independently confirmed. A seminal study found a significant excess death rate from suicide in cleanup workers, suggesting a sizable emotional toll. Given the magnitude and persistence of the adverse mental health effects on the general population, long-term educational and psychosocial interventions should be initiated that target primary care physicians, local researchers, and high risk populations, including participants in ongoing cohort studies.

  3. Validation of a 20-year forecast of US childhood lead poisoning: Updated prospects for 2010

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobs, David E. . E-mail: dejacobs@starpower.net; Nevin, Rick

    2006-11-15

    We forecast childhood lead poisoning and residential lead paint hazard prevalence for 1990-2010, based on a previously unvalidated model that combines national blood lead data with three different housing data sets. The housing data sets, which describe trends in housing demolition, rehabilitation, window replacement, and lead paint, are the American Housing Survey, the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, and the National Lead Paint Survey. Blood lead data are principally from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. New data now make it possible to validate the midpoint of the forecast time period. For the year 2000, the model predicted 23.3 million pre-1960 housing units with lead paint hazards, compared to an empirical HUD estimate of 20.6 million units. Further, the model predicted 498,000 children with elevated blood lead levels (EBL) in 2000, compared to a CDC empirical estimate of 434,000. The model predictions were well within 95% confidence intervals of empirical estimates for both residential lead paint hazard and blood lead outcome measures. The model shows that window replacement explains a large part of the dramatic reduction in lead poisoning that occurred from 1990 to 2000. Here, the construction of the model is described and updated through 2010 using new data. Further declines in childhood lead poisoning are achievable, but the goal of eliminating children's blood lead levels {>=}10 {mu}g/dL by 2010 is unlikely to be achieved without additional action. A window replacement policy will yield multiple benefits of lead poisoning prevention, increased home energy efficiency, decreased power plant emissions, improved housing affordability, and other previously unrecognized benefits. Finally, combining housing and health data could be applied to forecasting other housing-related diseases and injuries.

  4. 20 Years Beyond the Crossroads: The Path to Interprofessional Education at U.S. Dental Schools.

    PubMed

    Palatta, Anthony; Cook, Bryan J; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W

    2015-08-01

    In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) called for interprofessional education (IPE) to be adopted by the health professions education community as the pedagogical approach to educating future practitioners for practice in multidisciplinary teams. In dentistry, this call built on points made in the key 1995 IOM report Dental Education at the Crossroads. Currently, IPE and collaborative practice are among the most significant changes to health care education and delivery in the 21st century. This report describes the path that dental education has taken regarding IPE since the first national report on the subject was released in 1995. It also reports the results of a 2014 survey of U.S. dental schools to ascertain their progress in adopting and implementing IPE, as well as perceived obstacles that persist. Of the 63 dental schools, 62 participated, for a response rate of 98%. While over 90% of the respondents reported that their schools offer IPE experiences, only 58.1% had formal university-led and -promoted IPE programs. Formal IPE experiences were more prevalent at public institutions (67.6%, compared with 44% of private institutions). In 2012, a previous study reported that 66% of the IPE experiences offered to dental students were voluntary; today, 69.1% of these activities are required. Interprofessional core competencies occupy four of the top five content areas of IPE programming, providing a framework for schools to implement IPE activities. However, finding the bandwidth within the dental curriculum to accommodate IPE competencies, identifying adequate time in the schedule, providing faculty training, and assessing IPE activities were the most frequently reported challenges. The results of this survey lead to recommendations for academic dental institutions moving through this transitional phase in adopting IPE.

  5. Population and genetic outcomes 20 years after reintroducing bobcats (Lynx rufus) to Cumberland Island, Georgia USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diefenbach, Duane R.; Hansen, Leslie; Bohling, Justin; Miller-Butterworth, Cassandra

    2015-01-01

    In 1988–1989, 32 bobcats Lynx rufus were reintroduced to Cumberland Island (CUIS), Georgia, USA, from which they had previously been extirpated. They were monitored intensively for 3 years immediately post-reintroduction, but no estimation of the size or genetic diversity of the population had been conducted in over 20 years since reintroduction. We returned to CUIS in 2012 to estimate abundance and effective population size of the present-day population, as well as to quantify genetic diversity and inbreeding. We amplified 12 nuclear microsatellite loci from DNA isolated from scats to establish genetic profiles to identify individuals. We used spatially explicit capture–recapture population estimation to estimate abundance. From nine unique genetic profiles, we estimate a population size of 14.4 (SE = 3.052) bobcats, with an effective population size (Ne) of 5–8 breeding individuals. This is consistent with predictions of a population viability analysis conducted at the time of reintroduction, which estimated the population would average 12–13 bobcats after 10 years. We identified several pairs of related bobcats (parent-offspring and full siblings), but ~75% of the pairwise comparisons were typical of unrelated individuals, and only one individual appeared inbred. Despite the small population size and other indications that it has likely experienced a genetic bottleneck, levels of genetic diversity in the CUIS bobcat population remain high compared to other mammalian carnivores. The reintroduction of bobcats to CUIS provides an opportunity to study changes in genetic diversity in an insular population without risk to this common species. Opportunities for natural immigration to the island are limited; therefore, continued monitoring and supplemental bobcat reintroductions could be used to evaluate the effect of different management strategies to maintain genetic diversity and population viability. The successful reintroduction and maintenance of a

  6. Impact of health financing policies in Cambodia: A 20 year experience.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Chhun, Chhim; Kimsun, Ton; McPake, Barbara; Edoka, Ijeoma

    2017-03-01

    Improving financial access to services is an essential part of extending universal health coverage in low resource settings. In Cambodia, high out of pocket spending and low levels of utilisation have impeded the expansion of coverage and improvement in health outcomes. For twenty years a series of health financing policies have focused on mitigating costs to increase access particularly by vulnerable groups. Demand side financing policies including health equity funds, vouchers and community health insurance have been complemented by supply side measures to improve service delivery incentives through contracting. Multiple rounds of the Cambodia Socio-Economic Survey are used to investigate the impact of financing policies on health service utilisation and out of pocket payments both over time using commune panel data from 1997 to 2011 and across groups using individual data from 2004 and 2009. Policy combinations including areas with multiple interventions were examined against controls using difference-in-difference and panel estimation. Widespread roll-out of financing policies combined with user charge formalisation has led to a general reduction in health spending by the poor. Equity funds are associated with a reduction in out of pocket payments although the effect of donor schemes is larger than those financed by government. Vouchers, which are aimed only at reproductive health services, has a more modest impact that is enhanced when combined with other schemes. At the aggregate level changes are less pronounced although there is evidence that policies take a number of years to have substantial effect. Health financing policies and the supportive systems that they require provide a foundation for more radical extension of coverage already envisaged by a proposed social insurance system. A policy challenge is how disparate mechanisms can be integrated to ensure that vulnerable groups remain protected.

  7. January | 201span>6 | Space Station | Page 2

    NASA Website

    Posted on January 7, 201span>6 at 12:00 pm by Mark Garcia. 1 Reply. ... August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; ...

  8. Cochlear implantation in chronic otitis media and previous middle ear surgery: 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Vincenti, V; Pasanisi, E; Bacciu, A; Bacciu, S; Zini, C

    2014-08-01

    Cochlear implantation in the setting of chronic otitis media or previous middle ear surgery poses several problems for the surgeon: possible spread of infection to the cochlea and the subarachnoid spaces with consequent meningitis, risk of electrode array extrusion and possible recurrence of the original disease. Several surgical strategies have been proposed to overcome these problems. In the present study, clinical and functional results of cochlear implantation in 26 patients with chronic otitis media (8 cases) or previous middle ear surgery (18 cases) in the ear most suitable for implantation were retrospectively reviewed. Among the 8 patients with chronic otitis media, in 7 cases a subtotal petrosectomy associated with external auditory canal closure and mastoid and Eustachian tube obliteration was performed, while in the remaining patient cochlear implantation was done 6 months after a myringoplasty. The only complication observed was a reperforation of the tympanic membrane in this latter patient. Among the 18 patients with previous middle ear surgery, 2 had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy and were implanted utilising the previous surgical approach. In the remaining 16 patients who had a radical cavity, an open technique was maintained in 3 cases; a cavity revision associated to external auditory canal closure, Eustachian tube and mastoid obliteration was performed in 12 patients, while in one case a middle cranial fossa approach was utilised. Two of the 3 patients in whom an open technique was maintained have experienced electrode array extrusion. The only complication observed in the remaining patients was the breakdown of the external auditory canal closure in one case. No problems were noted in patients who had undergone intact canal wall tympanomastoidectomy as well as in the subject implanted via the middle cranial fossa approach. All patients achieved and maintained good hearing performance over time. Subtotal petrosectomy associated

  9. Incidence of Hepatitis C Infection among Prisoners by Routine Laboratory Values during a 20-Year Period

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Andrés; Gallego, Carlos; Caylà, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Background To estimate the incidence of Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and the predictive factors through repeated routine laboratory analyses. Methods An observational cohort study was carried out in Quatre Camins Prison, Barcelona. The study included subjects with an initial negative HCV result and routine laboratory analyses containing HCV serology from 1992 to 2011. The incidence of infection was calculated for the study population and for sub-groups by 100 person-years of follow-up (100 py). The predictive factors were determined through Kaplan-Meier curves and a Cox regression. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Results A total of 2,377 prisoners were included with a median follow-up time of 1,540.9 days per patient. Among the total population, 117 HCV seroconversions were detected (incidence of 1.17/100 py). The incidence was higher between 1992 and 1995 (2.57/100 py), among cases with HIV co-infection (8.34/100 py) and among intravenous drug users (IDU) without methadone treatment (MT) during follow-up (6.66/100 py). The incidence rate of HCV seroconversion among cases with a history of IDU and current MT was 1.35/100 py, which is close to that of the total study population. The following variables had a positive predictive value for HCV infection: IDU (p<0.001; HR = 7,30; CI: 4.83–11.04), Spanish ethnicity (p = 0.009; HR = 2,03; CI: 1.93–3.44) and HIV infection (p = 0.015; HR = 1.97; CI: 1.14–3.39). Conclusion The incidence of HCV infection among prisoners was higher during the first part of the study and among IDU during the entire study period. Preventative programs should be directed toward this sub-group of the prison population. PMID:24587394

  10. Postabortion Care: 20 Years of Strong Evidence on Emergency Treatment, Family Planning, and Other Programming Components

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Douglas; Curtis, Carolyn; Irani, Laili; Pappa, Sara; Arrington, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Worldwide 75 million women need postabortion care (PAC) services each year following safe or unsafe induced abortions and miscarriages. We reviewed more than 550 studies on PAC published between 1994 and 2013 in the peer-reviewed and gray literature, covering emergency treatment, postabortion family planning, organization of services, and related topics that impact practices and health outcomes, particularly in the Global South. In this article, we present findings from studies with strong evidence that have major implications for programs and practice. For example, vacuum aspiration reduced morbidity, costs, and time in comparison to sharp curettage. Misoprostol 400 mcg sublingually or 600 mcg orally achieved 89% to 99% complete evacuation rates within 2 weeks in multiple studies and was comparable in effectiveness, safety, and acceptability to manual vacuum aspiration. Misoprostol was safely introduced in several PAC programs through mid-level providers, extending services to secondary hospitals and primary health centers. In multiple studies, postabortion family planning uptake before discharge increased by 30–70 percentage points within 1–3 years of strengthening postabortion family planning services; in some cases, increases up to 60 percentage points in 4 months were achieved. Immediate postabortion contraceptive acceptance increased on average from 32% before the interventions to 69% post-intervention. Several studies found that women receiving immediate postabortion intrauterine devices and implants had fewer unintended pregnancies and repeat abortions than those who were offered delayed insertions. Postabortion family planning is endorsed by the professional organizations of obstetricians/gynecologists, midwives, and nurses as a standard of practice; major donors agree, and governments should be encouraged to provide universal access to postabortion family planning. Important program recommendations include offering all postabortion women

  11. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rate, and Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We present total conduction (Wilson) currents for more than 1000 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds acquired over nearly two decades. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV/m to 16. kV/m, with mean (median) of 0.9 kV/m (0.29 kV/m). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS/m to 3.6 pS/m, with mean and median of 2.2 pS/m. Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(exp -2) to 33.0 nA m(exp -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(exp -2) (0.6 nA m(exp -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.7 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.41 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min-1, respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  12. Food and water security scenarios for East Africa over next 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, S.; Funk, C. C.; Verdin, J. P.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.

    2013-12-01

    Broad areas of East Africa face chronic water and agricultural insecurity. Over the last decade, the region has experienced frequent drought events leading to food security emergencies and even famine in Somalia in 2011. The impact of these drought events, associated with recent declines in rainfall during major growing seasons, has been particularly severe due to the high vulnerability of subsistence agricultural and pastoralist livelihoods, rapid population growth, and the limited availability of resources for agricultural development and climate change adaptation. The Famine Early Warning Systems Network (FEWS NET) is a United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funded activity that brings together international, regional and national partners to provide timely and rigorous early warning and food security information in Africa and other regions of the developing world. To assist USAID with planning agricultural development strategies over the next ten years in East Africa, FEWS NET is partnering with climate scientists and adaptation specialists at regional institutions to study and assess future changes in precipitation and temperature in light of global climate change, natural climate variability, and their related impacts on agricultural and water security in the region. The overarching objective of this study is to provide future scenarios of food and water security (as estimated by trends in soil moisture, evapotranspiration, and runoff) for East Africa. We do so by following two approaches: Constructed Analogs and the Composite Delta Method. In the first approach we downscaled climate projections (precipitation and temperature projections) of long-term Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase-5 (CMIP5) experiments over (a) historical (1850-2005) and (b) Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 8.5 (2006-2030) periods. Current climate is characterized by two ENSO modes, the intensity of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, and the strength

  13. 20 years of cosmic muons research performed in IFIN-HH

    SciTech Connect

    Mitrica, Bogdan

    2012-11-20

    During the last two decades a modern direction in particle physics research has been developed in IFIN-HH Bucharest, Romania. The history started with the WILLI detector built in IFIN-HH Bucharest in collaboration with KIT Karlsruhe (formerly Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe). The detector was designed for measurements of the low energy muon charge ratio (< 1GeV) based on a delayed coincidence method, measuring the decay time of the muons stopped in the detector: the positive muons decay freely, but the negative muons are captured in the atom thus creating muonic atoms and decay depending on the nature of the host atom. In a first configuration, the WILLI detector was placed in a fixed position for measuring vertical muons. Further WILLI has been transformed in a rotatable device which allows directional measurements of muon charge ratio and muon flux. The results exhibit a pronounced azimuthal asymmetry (East-West effect) due to the different in fluence of the geomagnetic field on the trajectories of positive and negative muons in air. In parallel, flux measurement, taking into account muon events with nergies > 0.4GeV, show a diurnal modulation of the muon flux. The analysis of the muon events for energies < 0.6GeV reveals an aperiodic variation of the muon flux. A new detection system performing coincidence measurements between the WILLI calorimeter and a small array of 12 scintillators plates has been installed in IFIN-HH starting from the autumn of 2010. The aim of the system is to investigate muon charge ratio from individual EAS by using the mini-array as trigger for the WILLI calorimeter. Such experimental studies could provide detailed information on hadronic interaction models and primary cosmic ray composition at energies around 10{sup 15}eV. Simulation studies and preliminary experimental tests, regarding the performances of the mini-array, have been performed using H and Fe primaries, with energies in a range 10{sup 13}eV - 10{sup 15}eV. The results show

  14. Extended attention span training system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pope, Alan T.; Bogart, Edward H.

    1991-01-01

    Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) is a behavioral disorder characterized by the inability to sustain attention long enough to perform activities such as schoolwork or organized play. Treatments for this disorder include medication and brainwave biofeedback training. Brainwave biofeedback training systems feed back information to the trainee showing him how well he is producing the brainwave pattern that indicates attention. The Extended Attention Span Training (EAST) system takes the concept a step further by making a video game more difficult as the player's brainwaves indicate that attention is waning. The trainee can succeed at the game only by maintaining an adequate level of attention. The EAST system is a modification of a biocybernetic system that is currently being used to assess the extent to which automated flight management systems maintain pilot engagement. This biocybernetic system is a product of a program aimed at developing methods to evaluate automated flight deck designs for compatibility with human capabilities. The EAST technology can make a contribution in the fields of medical neuropsychology and neurology, where the emphasis is on cautious, conservative treatment of youngsters with attention disorders.

  15. Seasonal cycle of volume transport through Kerama Gap revealed by a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhitao; Metzger, E. Joseph; Thoppil, Prasad; Hurlburt, Harley E.; Zamudio, Luis; Smedstad, Ole Martin; Na, Hanna; Nakamura, Hirohiko; Park, Jae-Hun

    2015-12-01

    The temporal variability of volume transport from the North Pacific Ocean to the East China Sea (ECS) through Kerama Gap (between Okinawa Island and Miyakojima Island - a part of Ryukyu Islands Arc) is investigated using a 20-year global HYbrid Coordinate Ocean Model (HYCOM) reanalysis with the Navy Coupled Ocean Data Assimilation from 1993 to 2012. The HYCOM mean transport is 2.1 Sv (positive into the ECS, 1 Sv = 106 m3/s) from June 2009 to June 2011, in good agreement with the observed 2.0 Sv transport during the same period. This is similar to the 20-year mean Kerama Gap transport of 1.95 ± 4.0 Sv. The 20-year monthly mean volume transport (transport seasonal cycle) is maximum in October (3.0 Sv) and minimum in November (0.5 Sv). The annual variation component (345-400 days), mesoscale eddy component (70-345 days), and Kuroshio meander component (< 70 days) are separated to determine their contributions to the transport seasonal cycle. The annual variation component has a close relation with the local wind field and increases (decreases) transport into the ECS through Kerama Gap in summer (winter). Most of the variations in the transport seasonal cycle come from the mesoscale eddy component. The impinging mesoscale eddies increase the transport into the ECS during January, February, May, and October, and decrease it in March, April, November, and December, but have little effect in summer (June-September). The Kuroshio meander components cause smaller transport variations in summer than in winter.

  16. 20 Years and Counting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuzyk, Raya

    2008-01-01

    In commemoration of the Librarian of the Year Award's 20th anniversary, this article presents brief vignettes on all 19 of the title holders. When "Library Journal" named them Librarians of the Year, these inimitable 19 (for the 20th, Norma Blake, see EJ788676) had singled themselves out as risk takers, visionaries, bulldogs, pragmatists,…

  17. COBE: 20 Years Ago

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite rocketed into Earth orbit on Nov. 18, 1989, and quickly revolutionized our understanding of the early cosmos. This archival video was reissued by ...

  18. Nitrous Oxide Abuse and Vitamin B12 Action in a 20-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Duque, Miriam Andrea; Kresak, Jesse L; Falchook, Adam; Harris, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old (ethnicity not reported) woman with a history of nitrous oxide abuse and clinical symptoms consistent with spinal cord subacute combined degeneration with associated low serum concentrations of vitamin B12, elevated methylmalonic acid levels, and radiologic evidence of demyelination of the dorsal region of the spinal column. The health of the patient improved dramatically with B12 supplementation. In this case, we discuss the interaction of nitrous oxide with the enzymatic pathways involved in the biochemistry of vitamin B12.

  19. Celebrating 20 years of evidence from the Cochrane Collaboration: what has been the impact of systematic reviews on nephrology?

    PubMed

    Palmer, Suetonia C; Craig, Jonathan C; Jones, Ann; Higgins, Gail; Willis, Narelle; Strippoli, Giovanni F M

    2015-06-01

    It has been 20 years since the Cochrane Collaboration started the global effort to synthesize evidence to improve healthcare. Since 1997, the Cochrane Renal Group has produced over 100 systematic reviews that have collectively had an important impact on nephrology care, guidelines and policy. In this article, we reflect on the ongoing need for randomized trials and systematic reviews in contemporary nephrology and the achievements of the Cochrane Collaboration so far. We also describe some of the challenges in clinical research still faced by the nephrology community today.

  20. Geostatistical Model-Based Estimates of Schistosomiasis Prevalence among Individuals Aged ≤20 Years in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Schur, Nadine; Hürlimann, Eveline; Garba, Amadou; Traoré, Mamadou S.; Ndir, Omar; Ratard, Raoult C.; Tchuem Tchuenté, Louis-Albert; Kristensen, Thomas K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Vounatsou, Penelope

    2011-01-01

    Background Schistosomiasis is a water-based disease that is believed to affect over 200 million people with an estimated 97% of the infections concentrated in Africa. However, these statistics are largely based on population re-adjusted data originally published by Utroska and colleagues more than 20 years ago. Hence, these estimates are outdated due to large-scale preventive chemotherapy programs, improved sanitation, water resources development and management, among other reasons. For planning, coordination, and evaluation of control activities, it is essential to possess reliable schistosomiasis prevalence maps. Methodology We analyzed survey data compiled on a newly established open-access global neglected tropical diseases database (i) to create smooth empirical prevalence maps for Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium for individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa, including Cameroon, and (ii) to derive country-specific prevalence estimates. We used Bayesian geostatistical models based on environmental predictors to take into account potential clustering due to common spatially structured exposures. Prediction at unobserved locations was facilitated by joint kriging. Principal Findings Our models revealed that 50.8 million individuals aged ≤20 years in West Africa are infected with either S. mansoni, or S. haematobium, or both species concurrently. The country prevalence estimates ranged between 0.5% (The Gambia) and 37.1% (Liberia) for S. mansoni, and between 17.6% (The Gambia) and 51.6% (Sierra Leone) for S. haematobium. We observed that the combined prevalence for both schistosome species is two-fold lower in Gambia than previously reported, while we found an almost two-fold higher estimate for Liberia (58.3%) than reported before (30.0%). Our predictions are likely to overestimate overall country prevalence, since modeling was based on children and adolescents up to the age of 20 years who are at highest risk of infection. Conclusion/Significance We

  1. Subjective Well-Being In Later Life: 20 years after the Butterworths monograph series on individual and population aging.

    PubMed

    Stones, Michael; Kozma, Albert; McNeil, Kevin; Worobetz, Sarah

    2011-09-01

    This article discusses developments in theory and research on happiness two decades after publication of Psychological Well-Being in Later Life (Butterworths, 1991) by Albert Kozma, Michael Stones, and Kevin McNeil. Major empirical advances include new knowledge about contributions to happiness resulting from genetically related effects and personality. Personality traits have stronger relationships with happiness than was apparent 20 years ago and contribute to covariance between happiness and some of its predictors. Evolving emphases in research include the ways in which genetically related effects influence how people shape, and react to, their environment.

  2. SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN vSHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN SHARP OBLIQUE PERSPECTIVE OF DECK AND APPROACH SPANS ALONG WITH PRINCIPLE CANTILEVER SPAN - Snake River Bridge at Lyons' Ferry, State Route 261 spanning Snake River, Starbuck, Columbia County, WA

  3. Water Erosion in Relation with Soil Management System and Crop Sequence during 20 Years on an Inceptisol in South Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertol, I.; Schick, J.; Barbosa, F. T.; Paz-Ferreiro, J.; Flores, M. T.; Paz González, A.

    2012-04-01

    Soil erosion still remains persistent at the world scale, even if big efforts have been done to control and reduce it, mainly using soil crop residues to protect soil surface. Although in South Brazil the main management system for most crops is no tillage and direct drilling, water erosion prevails as the most important soil erosion type, which is due both, to the high erosivity and the evenly distribution of rainfall over the year. Moreover, some crops are still grown under soil tillage systems consisting of ploughing, harrowing and less frequently chiselling. Starting 1992, a field experiment under natural rainfall has been conducted on an Inceptisol located in Lages, Santa Catarina State, Brazil, which objective was to assess rainfall water erosion. Two soil cover conditions and four soil management systems were studied: I) a crop rotation, which included oats (Avena strigosa), soybean (Glycine max), common vetch (Vicia sativa), maize (Zea mays), fodder radish (Raphanus sativus) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) under the following soil management types: 1) ploughing plus two levelling operations (CT), chiselling plus levelling (RT) and direct drilling with no tillage (NT), and II) bare soil (BS) without crop cover tilled by ploughing plus two levelling. In more than 90% of the study cases, soil losses were collected for single rain events with erosive power, whose erosivity was calculated. Total rain recorded during the 20 year experimental period was approximately 66,400 mm, which is equivalent to roughly 105,700, MJ mm ha-1 h-1 (EI30), whereas soil losses in the BS treatment were higher than 1,700 t.ha-1. On average, soil losses under RT treatment showed a 92% reduction in relation with BS, whereas under CT the reduction in relation to BS was about 66%. Soil management by direct drilling (NT) was the most efficient system to minimize water erosion, as soil losses decreased about 98% when compared with BS. Moreover, soil management systems with a crop

  4. Agoraphobia With and Without Panic Disorder: A 20-Year Follow-up of Integrated Exposure and Psychodynamic Therapy.

    PubMed

    Hoffart, Asle; Hedley, Liv M; Svanøe, Karol; Langkaas, Tomas Formo; Sexton, Harold

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the current study was to compare the 20-year outcome in panic disorder with agoraphobia (PD with AG) and agoraphobia without panic disorder (AG without PD) patients after inpatient psychological treatment. Of 53 eligible patients having completed a medication-free integrated exposure and psychodynamic treatment, 38 (71.7%)-25 PD with AG and 13 AG without PD patients-attended 20-year follow-up. AG without PD patients improved less than PD with AG patients did on primary outcome measures. In the PD with AG group, there were large uncontrolled effect sizes (<-2.30). More of the AG without PD patients had avoidant personality disorder at pretreatment, but the presence of this disorder did not predict outcome. The follow-up results support that PD with AG and AG without PD are two different disorders. The results also suggest that the very long-term outcome in PD with AG patients is excellent for this integrated treatment.

  5. The 20-year history of the evolution of air pollution control legislation in the U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Richard H.

    Over the past 20 years, the U.S. Congress has passed four acts relating to clean air. The 1970 act set out a comprehensive plan for federal-state partnership to require all areas in the country to meet National Ambient Air Quality Standards. In 1977, the act was amended and expanded, both to address many of the problems encountered in the 1970 act and to reorient the law to limit significantly emissions of any sort, even if there were no currently identified health-related reasons. In 1986, the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-know Act was passed, as an amendment to a solid waste law, in response to the desire to prevent chemical release tragedies. After 10 years of effort, Congress finally passed the 1990 Clean Air Act amendments which require a number of new programs aimed at curbing urban ozone, rural acid rain, stratospheric ozone, toxic air pollutant emissions and vehicle emissions, and establishing a new, uniform national permit system. This paper discusses some of the consequences of the various acts and suggests ways that others might learn from our 20 years of experience. Certain programs have worked quite well, while some alternatives could have improved other programs.

  6. Persistence of antibodies and immune memory to hepatitis B vaccine 20 years after infant vaccination in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Poovorawan, Yong; Chongsrisawat, Voranush; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Bock, Hans L; Leyssen, Maarten; Jacquet, Jeanne-Marie

    2010-01-08

    Booster vaccination against hepatitis B (HBV) is not currently recommended, although debate continues on the duration of protection after priming. We assessed antibody persistence and immune memory to hepatitis B 20 years after priming with a recombinant HBV-vaccine during infancy. Infants were vaccinated at birth, 1, 2 and 12 months of age. A subset received a booster dose at Year 5. Antibody persistence was measured approximately yearly until Year 20. Immune memory was assessed by administration of HBV booster dose. At Year 20, anti-HBs seroprotection rates and GMCs tended to be higher in Year 5 boosted than unboosted recipients (83.9% versus 60.5%). After the Year 20 booster dose, anti-HBs anamnestic responses were within the same range 95.8% of subjects in both groups. Primary and booster vaccination with HBV-vaccine in infants induces sustained seroprotection and immune memory against hepatitis B for up to 20 years. Higher persisting seroprotection rates in subjects boosted at Year 5 did not translate into apparent differences in immune memory in a high endemic country.

  7. The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha Eruption of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii: The First 20 Years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heliker, Christina C.; Swanson, Donald A.; Takahashi, Taeko Jane

    2003-01-01

    The Pu'u 'O'o-Kupaianaha eruption started on January 3, 1983. The ensuing 20-year period of nearly continuous eruption is the longest at Kilauea Volcano since the famous lava-lake activity of the 19th century. No rift-zone eruption in more than 600 years even comes close to matching the duration and volume of activity of these past two decades. Fortunately, such a landmark event came during a period of remarkable technological advancements in volcano monitoring. When the eruption began, the Global Positioning System (GPS) and the Geographic Information System (GIS) were but glimmers on the horizon, broadband seismology was in its infancy, and the correlation spectrometer (COSPEC), used to measure SO2 flux, was still very young. Now, all of these techniques are employed on a daily basis to track the ongoing eruption and construct models about its behavior. The 12 chapters in this volume, written by present or past Hawaiian Volcano Observatory staff members and close collaborators, celebrate the growth of understanding that has resulted from research during the past 20 years of Kilauea's eruption. The chapters range widely in emphasis, subject matter, and scope, but all present new concepts or important modifications of previous ideas - in some cases, ideas long held and cherished.

  8. 20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future. Proceedings [of the] 2013 EUROCALL Conference (Évora, Portugal, September 11-14, 2013)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Linda, Ed.; Thouësny, Sylvie, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    EUROCALL 2013's theme was "20 Years of EUROCALL: Learning from the Past, Looking to the Future." The conference seeked to establish an overview of EUROCALL's twentieth anniversary. As a professional organization, EUROCALL has been aiming, along its 20 years of existence, to promote innovative research, development and practice in the…

  9. Shifts in malaria vector species composition and transmission dynamics along the Kenyan coast over the past 20 years

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Over the past 20 years, numerous studies have investigated the ecology and behaviour of malaria vectors and Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission on the coast of Kenya. Substantial progress has been made to control vector populations and reduce high malaria prevalence and severe disease. The goal of this paper was to examine trends over the past 20 years in Anopheles species composition, density, blood-feeding behaviour, and P. falciparum sporozoite transmission along the coast of Kenya. Methods Using data collected from 1990 to 2010, vector density, species composition, blood-feeding patterns, and malaria transmission intensity was examined along the Kenyan coast. Mosquitoes were identified to species, based on morphological characteristics and DNA extracted from Anopheles gambiae for amplification. Using negative binomial generalized estimating equations, mosquito abundance over the period were modelled while adjusting for season. A multiple logistic regression model was used to analyse the sporozoite rates. Results Results show that in some areas along the Kenyan coast, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles merus have replaced An. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus as the major mosquito species. Further, there has been a shift from human to animal feeding for both An. gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) (99% to 16%) and An. funestus (100% to 3%), and P. falciparum sporozoite rates have significantly declined over the last 20 years, with the lowest sporozoite rates being observed in 2007 (0.19%) and 2008 (0.34%). There has been, on average, a significant reduction in the abundance of An. gambiae s.l. over the years (IRR = 0.94, 95% CI 0.90–0.98), with the density standing at low levels of an average 0.006 mosquitoes/house in the year 2010. Conclusion Reductions in the densities of the major malaria vectors and a shift from human to animal feeding have contributed to the decreased burden of malaria along the Kenyan coast. Vector species

  10. Life span in online communities.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, A; Kosiński, R A

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users' activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users' lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  11. Life span in online communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grabowski, A.; Kosiński, R. A.

    2010-12-01

    Recently online communities have attracted great interest and have become an important medium of information exchange between users. The aim of this work is to introduce a simple model of the evolution of online communities. This model describes (a) the time evolution of users’ activity in a web service, e.g., the time evolution of the number of online friends or written posts, (b) the time evolution of the degree distribution of a social network, and (c) the time evolution of the number of active users of a web service. In the second part of the paper we investigate the influence of the users’ lifespan (i.e., the total time in which they are active in an online community) on the process of rumor propagation in evolving social networks. Viral marketing is an important application of such method of information propagation.

  12. Cytochrome P4501A biomarker indication of oil exposure in harlequin ducks up to 20 years after the Exxon Valdez oil spill

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Esler, Daniel; Trust, Kimberly A.; Ballachey, Brenda E.; Iverson, Samuel A.; Lewis, Tyler L.; Rizzolo, Daniel; Mulcahy, Daniel M.; Miles, A. Keith; Woodin, Bruce R.; Stegeman, John J.; Henderson, John D.; Wilson, Barry W.

    2010-01-01

    Hydrocarbon-inducible cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) expression was measured, as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in livers of wintering harlequin ducks (Histrionicus histrionicus) captured in areas of Prince William Sound, Alaska, USA, oiled by the 1989 Exxon Valdez spill and in birds from nearby unoiled areas, during 2005 to 2009 (up to 20 years following the spill). The present work repeated studies conducted in 1998 that demonstrated that in harlequin ducks using areas that received Exxon Valdez oil, EROD activity was elevated nearly a decade after the spill. The present findings strongly supported the conclusion that average levels of hepatic EROD activity were higher in ducks from oiled areas than those from unoiled areas during 2005 to 2009. This result was consistent across four sampling periods; furthermore, results generated from two independent laboratories using paired liver samples from one of the sampling periods were similar. The EROD activity did not vary in relation to age, sex, or body mass of individuals, nor did it vary strongly by season in birds collected early and late in the winter of 2006 to 2007, indicating that these factors did not confound inferences about observed differences between oiled and unoiled areas. We interpret these results to indicate that harlequin ducks continued to be exposed to residual Exxon Valdez oil up to 20 years after the original spill. This adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that oil spills have the potential to affect wildlife for much longer time frames than previously assumed.

  13. Surgical Treatment of Primary Intracardiac Myxoma: 20-Year Experience in “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—A Tertiary University Hospital—Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ansari Aval, Zahra; Ghaderi, Hamid; Tatari, Hassan; Foroughi, Mahnoosh; Mirjafari, Seyedeh Adeleh; Forozeshfard, Mohammad; Fani, Kamal; Khaheshi, Isa

    2015-01-01

    Although cardiac tumors are not common they may vary in terms of race and surgical approach in different countries. Method. Patients data of 20 years was collected and evaluated in the “Shahid Modarres Hospital”—a tertiary university hospital—Tehran, Iran. Results. 42 patients with cardiac myxoma (all cases in 20 years) were included in study, 17 males and 25 females, age difference: 13 to 76 years (mean 50.6). Most of patients were in functional classes I, II. 35 patients complained of dyspnea and 3 patients had embolic events. 97.6% of tumors were primary (41 patients) and one tumor was recurrent (2.4%), 85.7% of tumors (36 cases) were located in LA, and 88.1% of tumors (37 cases) were pediculated. 40 patients (95%) had one tumor. In 22 patients (52.3%) after tumor resection septal defects were repaired primarily while in 18 patients (42.8%) the defects were repaired with pericardial patch and In one patient, tumor resected without any septal defect. Mean tumor size was about 5.22 cm (range of 2.2 to 8.2 cm). Postoperatively, 33 patients discharged from hospital without any complication. Discussion. The research reveals that patients' age and gender were similar to that of other studies in other countries while tumor's incidence seems to be higher. 3 patients were diagnosed after remote embolic event and one patient was diagnosed after MI reflecting relatively high tumor complications and late diagnosis. Conclusion. In our study mean time from diagnosis to operation was too long. The patients had more preoperative embolic events and complication. However, size of myxoma and location of that was as same as its rate in the other literature. As recommendation we suggested that in all patients with vague chest pain or remote embolic events cardiac myxomas should be ruled out. PMID:25688375

  14. 20 years of Tm:Ho:YLF and LuLF Laser Development for Global Winds Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Walsh, Brian M.; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Kavaya, Michael J.; Barnes, Norman P.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2 micron lasers. From fundamental spectroscopy research, theoretical prediction of new materials, laser demonstration and engineering of lidar systems, it has been a very successful program spanning around two decades. This article covers the program development from the early research to the present instrumentation. A brief historical perspective of Tm:Ho work by early researchers is also given.

  15. Microbiological monitoring of bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal): a 20 years of sanitary survey.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Catarina; Soares, Florbela

    2012-02-01

    The microbiological pollution of coastal waters is a major problem, especially in shellfish areas. This article shows the faecal contamination in bivalves from the Ria Formosa Lagoon (south coast of Portugal) along 20 years (1990-2009). The highest values of Escherichia coli in bivalves were obtained during the 90s, related with the discharge of untreated wastewaters and agricultural runoff. In the 2000s contamination levels decreased, with 83% of the population already served by new or remodelled sewage treatment plants. The highest levels were found in bivalves close to the largest city, where punctual and diffuse contamination sources still exist. Bivalves from the less impacted site showed the lowest contamination, an area with more water renewal. Seasonally, the highest levels were in autumn and winter, due to the runoff of waters from rainfall. These were opposite to those in spring and summer, when the highest temperatures and salinity showed a bactericidal effect.

  16. A review of dental CAD/CAM: current status and future perspectives from 20 years of experience.

    PubMed

    Miyazaki, Takashi; Hotta, Yasuhiro; Kunii, Jun; Kuriyama, Soichi; Tamaki, Yukimichi

    2009-01-01

    In this article, we review the recent history of the development of dental CAD/CAM systems for the fabrication of crowns and fixed partial dentures (FPDs), based on our 20 years of experience in this field. The current status of commercial dental CAD/CAM systems developed around the world is evaluated, with particular focus on the field of ceramic crowns and FPDs. Finally, we discuss the future perspectives applicable to dental CAD/CAM. The use of dental CAD/CAM systems is promising not only in the field of crowns and FPDs but also in other fields of dentistry, even if the contribution is presently limited. CAD/CAM technology will contribute to patients' health and QOL in the aging society.

  17. Tobacco Research in the Military: Reflections on 20 Years of Research in the United States Air Force.

    PubMed

    Talcott, G Wayne; Ebbert, Jon O; Klesges, Robert C; Linde, Brittany D; Seals, Robert W; Krukowski, Rebecca A; Grieser, Emily A; Oh, John Y; Martin-Zona, Denise M

    2015-08-01

    The U.S. military is one of the world's largest employers. Approximately 30% of active duty military personnel smoke cigarettes and more than 14% use smokeless tobacco. The military has historically supported tobacco use and more recently is attempting to combat its use. Through 20 years of collaborative research with the United States Air Force, we have learned that smoking bans are effective, recruits who have never previously smoked cigarettes initiate tobacco use, smokeless tobacco serves as a gateway for smoking initiation, smoking is associated with discharge, smoking adds significant proximal training costs, tobacco use increases during deployment, and tobacco quitline counseling with a provision of medication is effective. Our findings may provide groundwork for future tobacco control efforts in the U.S. military.

  18. Reclaiming the individual from Hofstede's ecological analysis--a 20-year odyssey: comment on Oyserman et al. (2002).

    PubMed

    Bond, Michael Harris

    2002-01-01

    D. Oyserman, H. M. Coon, and M. Kemmelmeier (2002) challenge the stereotype that European Americans are more individualistic and less collectivistic than persons from most other ethnic groups. The author contends that this stereotype took firm empirical root with G. Hofstede's (1980) monumental publication identifying the United States as the most individualistic of his then 40 nations. This empirical designation arose because of challengeable decisions Hofstede made about the analysis of his data and the labeling of his dimensions. The conflation of concepts under the rubric of cultural individualism plus psychologists' unwarranted psychologizing of the construct then combined with Hofstede's empirical location of America to set a 20-year agenda for data collection. Oyserman et al. disentangle and organize this mass of studies, enabling the discipline of cross-cultural psychology to forge ahead in more productive directions, less reliant on previous assumptions and measures.

  19. Climate-change-related shifts in annual phenology of a temperate snake during the last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rugiero, Lorenzo; Milana, Giuliano; Petrozzi, Fabio; Capula, Massimo; Luiselli, Luca

    2013-08-01

    Global warming is thought to be a far-reaching threat to biodiversity, and is supposed to influence several aspects of the ecology of animals. Global warming should influence especially the ectotherm vertebrates, which depend directly from the external thermal conditions for their activities and performances. Here, we analyze the changes in phenology which have occurred in the last 20 years in a marked population of vipers, Vipera aspis, and we try to relate these changes with the intervening climatic changes. We analyzed three metrics of viper's annual phenology: (i) annual onset of above-ground activity (hereby AOA); (ii) annual onset of feeding period (AOF); (iii) annual onset of the hibernation (AOH). The annual variations of these three phenological metrics were correlated to five variables of climatic data: (1) mean annual air temperature, (2) mean February air temperature, (3) mean July air temperature, (4) yearly number of rainy days, and (5) yearly number of days with rainstorm. We observed a statistically significant reduction of AOA values from >28 days between 1987 and 1997, to approximately 20 days from 1998 to 2011, with a similar statistical trend also found for AOF values. The number of days of delay in entering hibernation increased significantly since 1998. Three sets of relationships between climatic variables and metrics of viper phenology were statistically significant, i.e. the correlation (i) between annual mean temperature and AOA (negative), (ii) between annual mean temperature and AOF (negative), and (iii) between annual mean temperature and AOH (positive). The percent of field days (between 20th February and 20th March) with no viper observed also decreased significantly over the years. Our study showed that three different traits of the annual phenology of a Mediterranean snake are shifting in the 20+ years of monitoring, and that there is correlational evidence that these shifts are linked to intervening climate change.

  20. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Adam, Emma K; Heissel, Jennifer A; Zeiders, Katharine H; Richeson, Jennifer A; Ross, Emily C; Ehrlich, Katherine B; Levy, Dorainne J; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E; Eccles, Jacquelynne S

    2015-12-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N=50 Black, N=62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key findings

  1. Estimating the Burden of Leptospirosis among Febrile Subjects Aged below 20 Years in Kampong Cham Communities, Cambodia, 2007-2009

    PubMed Central

    Hem, Sopheak; Ly, Sowath; Votsi, Irene; Vogt, Florian; Asgari, Nima; Buchy, Philippe; Heng, Seiha; Picardeau, Mathieu; Sok, Touch; Ly, Sovann; Huy, Rekol; Guillard, Bertrand; Cauchemez, Simon; Tarantola, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is an emerging but neglected public health challenge in the Asia/Pacific Region with an annual incidence estimated at 10–100 per 100,000 population. No accurate data, however, are available for at-risk rural Cambodian communities. Method We conducted anonymous, unlinked testing for IgM antibodies to Leptospira spp. on paired sera of Cambodian patients <20 years of age between 2007–2009 collected through active, community-based surveillance for febrile illnesses in a convenience sample of 27 rural and semi-rural villages in four districts of Kampong Cham province, Cambodia. Leptospirosis testing was done on paired serological samples negative for Dengue, Japanese encephalitis and Chikungunya viruses after random selection. Convalescent samples found positive while initial samples were negative were considered as proof of acute infection. We then applied a mathematical model to estimate the risk of fever caused by leptospirosis, dengue or other causes in rural Cambodia. Results A total of 630 samples are coming from a randomly selected subset of 2358 samples. IgM positive were found on the convalescent serum sample, among which 100 (15.8%) samples were IgM negative on an earlier sample. Seventeen of these 100 seroconversions were confirmed using a Microagglutination Test. We estimated the probability of having a fever due to leptospirosis at 1. 03% (95% Credible Interval CI: 0. 95%–1. 22%) per semester. In comparison, this probability was 2. 61% (95% CI: 2. 55%, 2. 83%) for dengue and 17. 65% (95% CI: 17. 49%, 18. 08%) for other causes. Conclusion Our data from febrile cases aged below 20 years suggest that the burden of leptospirosis is high in rural Cambodian communities. This is especially true during the rainy season, even in the absence of identified epidemics. PMID:27043016

  2. Node degree distribution in spanning trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozrikidis, C.

    2016-03-01

    A method is presented for computing the number of spanning trees involving one link or a specified group of links, and excluding another link or a specified group of links, in a network described by a simple graph in terms of derivatives of the spanning-tree generating function defined with respect to the eigenvalues of the Kirchhoff (weighted Laplacian) matrix. The method is applied to deduce the node degree distribution in a complete or randomized set of spanning trees of an arbitrary network. An important feature of the proposed method is that the explicit construction of spanning trees is not required. It is shown that the node degree distribution in the spanning trees of the complete network is described by the binomial distribution. Numerical results are presented for the node degree distribution in square, triangular, and honeycomb lattices.

  3. 3. View west. North elevation Walpole span in foreground, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View west. North elevation - Walpole span in foreground, link span; Westminster span in background. - Walpole-Westminster Bridge, Spanning Connecticut River between Walpole, NH & Westminster, VT, Walpole, Cheshire County, NH

  4. P300 Latency and the Development of Memory Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Lawrence

    The way cognitive, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) can aid in further understanding of memory span change in children is discussed. ERPs are time-dependent changes in electrical activity of the brain (as recorded by scalp electrodes) following the presentation of a physical stimulus through auditory, visual, or somatosensory modalities. The…

  5. Sexual Conflict, Life Span, and Aging

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Margo I.; Bonduriansky, Russell

    2014-01-01

    The potential for sexual conflict to influence the evolution of life span and aging has been recognized for more than a decade, and recent work also suggests that variation in life span and aging can influence sexually antagonistic coevolution. However, empirical exploration of these ideas is only beginning. Here, we provide an overview of the ideas and evidence linking inter- and intralocus sexual conflicts with life span and aging. We aim to clarify the conceptual basis of this research program, examine the current state of knowledge, and suggest key questions for further investigation. PMID:24938876

  6. Compensatory mechanisms in higher-educated subjects with Alzheimer's disease: a study of 20 years of cognitive decline.

    PubMed

    Amieva, Hélène; Mokri, Hind; Le Goff, Mélanie; Meillon, Céline; Jacqmin-Gadda, Hélène; Foubert-Samier, Alexandra; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc; Stern, Yaakov; Dartigues, Jean-François

    2014-04-01

    A better knowledge of long-term trajectories of cognitive decline is a central feature of the study of the process leading to Alzheimer's dementia. Several factors may mitigate such decline, among which is education, a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. The aim of our work was to compare the pattern and duration of clinical trajectories before Alzheimer's dementia in individuals with low and high education within the PAQUID cohort involving 20 years of follow-up. The sample comprises 442 participants with incident Alzheimer's disease (27.2% were male)--171 with low education (mean age=86.2 years; standard deviation=5.3 years) and 271 with higher education (mean age=86.5; standard deviation=5.4)--and 442 control subjects matched according to age, sex and education. At each visit and up to the 20-year follow-up visit, several cognitive and clinical measures were collected and incident cases of Alzheimer's disease clinically diagnosed. The evolution of clinical measures in pre-demented subjects and matched controls was analysed with a semi-parametric extension of the mixed effects linear model. The results show that the first signs of cognitive decline occurred 15 to 16 years before achieving dementia threshold in higher-educated subjects whereas signs occurred at 7 years before dementia in low-educated subjects. There seemed to be two successive periods of decline in higher-educated subjects. Decline started ∼15 to 16 years before dementia with subtle impairment restricted to some cognitive tests and with no impact during the first 7 to 8 years on global cognition, cognitive complaints, or activities of daily living scales. Then, ∼7 years before dementia, global cognitive abilities begin to deteriorate, along with difficulties dealing with complex activities of daily living, the increase in self-perceived difficulties and depressive symptoms. By contrast, lower-educated subjects presented a single period of decline lasting ∼7 years, characterized by

  7. Developmental histories of perceived racial discrimination and diurnal cortisol profiles in adulthood: A 20-year prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Emma K.; Heissel, Jennifer A.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Richeson, Jennifer A.; Ross, Emily C.; Ehrlich, Katherine B.; Levy, Dorainne J.; Kemeny, Margaret; Brodish, Amanda B.; Malanchuk, Oksana; Peck, Stephen C.; Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Eccles, Jacquelynne S.

    2015-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has been associated with altered diurnal cortisol rhythms in past cross-sectional research. We investigate whether developmental histories of PRD, assessed prospectively, are associated with adult diurnal cortisol profiles. One-hundred and twelve (N = 50 Black, N = 62 White) adults from the Maryland Adolescent Development in Context Study provided saliva samples in adulthood (at approximately age 32 years) at waking, 30 min after waking, and at bedtime for 7 days. Diurnal cortisol measures were calculated, including waking cortisol levels, diurnal cortisol slopes, the cortisol awakening response (CAR), and average daily cortisol (AUC). These cortisol outcomes were predicted from measures of PRD obtained over a 20-year period beginning when individuals were in 7th grade (approximately age 12). Greater average PRD measured across the 20-year period predicted flatter adult diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults, and a lower CAR. Greater average PRD also predicted lower waking cortisol for Black, but not White adults. PRD experiences in adolescence accounted for many of these effects. When adolescent and young adult PRD are entered together predicting cortisol outcomes, PRD experiences in adolescence (but not young adulthood) significantly predicted flatter diurnal cortisol slopes for both Black and White adults. Adolescent, but not young adult PRD, also significantly predicted lower waking and lower average cortisol for Black adults. Young adult PRD was, however, a stronger predictor of the CAR, predicting a marginally lower CAR for Whites, and a significantly larger CAR for Blacks. Effects were robust to controlling for covariates including health behaviors, depression, income and parent education levels. PRD experiences interacted with parent education and income to predict aspects of the diurnal cortisol rhythm. Although these results suggest PRD influences on cortisol for both Blacks and Whites, the key

  8. Life span of the biosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovelock, J. E.; Whitfield, M.

    1982-04-01

    Since main sequence stars appear to increase their burning rate as they age, the sun may be thought to have increased its output by 30% since the earth's origin 4.5 billion years ago. Due to the requirement for some means of planetary thermostasis in the maintenance of an equable climate since life began, possible links are considered between the biological, Gaia hypothesis of Lovelock and Margulis (1974) for climate control, and Walker et al's (in press) model of automatic thermostasis, in which the abundance of such atmospheric greenhouse gases as CO2 adjusts to resist the warming tendency of the increased solar flux. It is concluded that, since atmospheric CO2 is now close to its partial pressure lower limit, the biosphere will on a geological time-scale be soon exposed, without protection, to the predicted solar luminosity increases.

  9. NAAMES-II Expedition: June 1, 201span>6 : Notes from the Field ...

    NASA Website

    August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January 201span>6; December 2015; November 2015; October 2015; ...

  10. NAAMES-II Expedition: May 31, 201span>6 : Notes from the Field ...

    NASA Website

    August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January 201span>6; December 2015; November 2015; October 2015; ...

  11. Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation: the 20-year experience in the Rome Cord Blood Bank.

    PubMed

    Screnci, Maria; Murgi, Emilia; Valle, Veronica; Tamburini, Anna; Pellegrini, Maria Grazia; Strano, Sabrina; Corona, Francesca; Ambrogi, Eleonora Barbacci; Girelli, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents a source of hematopoietic stem cells for patients lacking a suitably matched and readily available related or unrelated stem cell donor. As UCB transplantation from compatible sibling provides good results in children therefore directed sibling UCB collection and banking is indicated in family who already have a child with a disease potentially treatable with an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Particularly, related UCB collection is recommended when the patients urgently need a transplantation. To provide access to all patients in need, we developed a "Sibling cord blood donor program for hematopoietic cell transplantation". Here we report results of this project started 20years ago. To date, in this study a total of 194 families were enrolled, a total of 204 UCB samples were successfully collected and 15 pediatric patients have been transplanted. Recently, some authors have suggested novel role for UCB other than in the transplantation setting. Therefore, future studies in the immunotherapy and regenerative medicine areas could expand indication for sibling directed UCB collection.

  12. The clinical picture of late-onset PTSD: a 20-year longitudinal study of Israeli war veterans.

    PubMed

    Horesh, Danny; Solomon, Zahava; Keinan, Giora; Ein-Dor, Tsachi

    2013-08-15

    Delayed-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been under medico-legal debate for years. Previous studies examining the prevalence and clinical characteristics of delayed-onset PTSD have yielded inconclusive findings. This study prospectively examines the prevalence and clinical picture of late-onset PTSD among Israeli war veterans. It also evaluates whether or not late-onset PTSD erupts after a completely non-symptomatic period. 675 Israeli veterans from the 1982 Lebanon War, with and without antecedent combat stress reaction (CSR), have been assessed 1, 2 and 20 years post-war. They were divided into 4 groups, according to the duration of delay in PTSD onset. Participants completed self-report questionnaires tapping psychopathology, combat exposure and socio-demographics. 16.5% of the veterans suffered from late-onset PTSD. A longer delay in PTSD onset was associated with less severe psychopathology. Also, CSR was associated with a shorter delay in PTSD onset. Finally, the vast majority of veterans already suffered from PTSD symptoms prior to late PTSD onset. Our results offer further validation for the existence of delayed-onset PTSD. Delayed-onset PTSD appears to be a unique sub-type of PTSD, with an attenuated clinical picture. In addition, delayed-onset PTSD may be the result of an incubation process, wherein symptoms already exist prior to PTSD onset.

  13. From space to Earth: advances in human physiology from 20 years of bed rest studies (1986-2006).

    PubMed

    Pavy-Le Traon, A; Heer, M; Narici, M V; Rittweger, J; Vernikos, J

    2007-09-01

    Bed rest studies of the past 20 years are reviewed. Head-down bed rest (HDBR) has proved its usefulness as a reliable simulation model for the most physiological effects of spaceflight. As well as continuing to search for better understanding of the physiological changes induced, these studies focused mostly on identifying effective countermeasures with encouraging but limited success. HDBR is characterised by immobilization, inactivity, confinement and elimination of Gz gravitational stimuli, such as posture change and direction, which affect body sensors and responses. These induce upward fluid shift, unloading the body's upright weight, absence of work against gravity, reduced energy requirements and reduction in overall sensory stimulation. The upward fluid shift by acting on central volume receptors induces a 10-15% reduction in plasma volume which leads to a now well-documented set of cardiovascular changes including changes in cardiac performance and baroreflex sensitivity that are identical to those in space. Calcium excretion is increased from the beginning of bed rest leading to a sustained negative calcium balance. Calcium absorption is reduced. Body weight, muscle mass, muscle strength is reduced, as is the resistance of muscle to insulin. Bone density, stiffness of bones of the lower limbs and spinal cord and bone architecture are altered. Circadian rhythms may shift and are dampened. Ways to improve the process of evaluating countermeasures--exercise (aerobic, resistive, vibration), nutritional and pharmacological--are proposed. Artificial gravity requires systematic evaluation. This review points to clinical applications of BR research revealing the crucial role of gravity to health.

  14. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture.

  15. Prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs from Catalonia: a 20-year perspective.

    PubMed

    Espejo, E; Andrés, M; Pérez, J; Prat, J; Guerrero, C; Muñoz, M T; Alegre, M D; Lite, J; Bella, F

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of Mediterranean spotted fever (MSF) in Catalonia (Spain) has decreased in the last two decades. The prevalence of antibodies to Rickettsia conorii in human beings and dogs in the region of Vallès Occidental (Catalonia) was assessed by indirect immunofluorescence, and the results compared with those obtained in a similar study from 1987. Nineteen (5·0%) out of 383 human serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. This seroprevalence was significantly lower (11·5%) (P = 0·003) than that recorded in the 1987 survey. Forty-two out (42·0%) of 100 canine serum samples had antibodies to R. conorii. A high proportion of the studied dogs (91·0%) were receiving anti-tick treatment, mainly with permethrin-imidacloprid spot-on (Advantix, Bayer, Germany). The current canine seroprevalence was not significantly different from that recorded in the 1987 survey (36.9%). In conclusion, this study shows a significant decrease in the prevalence of antibodies to R. conorii in the human population of Catalonia in the last 20 years, which corresponds with a decrease in the number of cases of MSF. We suggest that the widespread use of anti-tick treatment in dogs could limit the introduction of ticks to humans due to a reduction of infestation duration in dogs, thus contributing to the decrease in MSF incidence.

  16. Complete response and long-term survival (>20 years) of a child with tectal glioma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Burzynski, Stanislaw R; Burzynski, Gregory S; Janicki, Tomasz J; Marszalek, Ania

    2015-01-01

    Tectal glioma is a midbrain tumor. The patient generally presents with symptoms related to increased intracranial pressure and requires treatment for hydrocephalus. No effective pharmacological treatments have yet been introduced. This report discusses a case of a 13-year-old male diagnosed with tectal glioma who obtained a complete response and long-term survival after the treatment with antineoplastons (ANP) in phase II trial. Prior treatment consisted of placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. After 6 years of stabilization there had been an increase in tumor size with signs of malignant transformation. The patient received treatment with ANP A10 and AS2-1 infusions for 20 months, obtained a complete response, and was switched to maintenance with ANP capsules. All treatments were discontinued in December 2003. Adverse events according to CTCAE v3.0 included: hypernatremia (two events of grade 3, one event of grade 2, four events of grade 1), one case of fatigue (grade 2), and one allergic reaction (grade 1). Currently, over 20 years from his diagnosis and over 13 years from treatment start he is symptom-free and leads a normal life. This report indicates that it is possible to obtain long-term survival of a child with tectal glioma with currently available investigational treatment.

  17. Long-Term Outcomes of Homografts in the Aortic Valve and Root Position: A 20-Year Experience

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Joo Yeon; Kim, Joon Bum; Jung, Sung-Ho; Choo, Suk Jung; Chung, Cheol Hyun; Lee, Jae Won

    2016-01-01

    Background The advantages of using a homograft in valve replacement surgery are the excellent hemodynamic profile, low risk of thromboembolism, and low risk of prosthetic valve infection. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes of homograft implantation in the aortic valve position. Methods This is a retrospective study of 33 patients (>20 years old) who underwent aortic valve replacement or root replacement with homografts between April 1995 and May 2015. Valves were collected within 24 hours from explanted hearts of heart transplant recipients (<60 years) and organ donors who were not suitable for heart transplantation. The median follow-up duration was 35.6 months (range, 0 to 168 months). Results Aortic homografts were used in all patients. The 30-day mortality rate was 9.1%. The 1- and 5-year survival rates were 80.0%±7.3% and 60.8%±10.1%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from reoperation rates were 92.3%±5.2%, 68.9%±10.2%, and 50.3%±13.6%, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 10-year freedom from significant aortic dysfunction rates were 91.7%±8.0%, 41.7%±14.2%, and 25.0%±12.5%, respectively. Conclusion Homografts had the advantages of a good hemodynamic profile and low risk of thromboembolic events, and with good outcomes in cases of aortitis. PMID:27525234

  18. Epidemiology and sites of involvement of invasive fungal infections in patients with haematological malignancies: a 20-year autopsy study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Russell E; Cahyame-Zuniga, Lizebeth; Leventakos, Konstantinos; Chamilos, Georgios; Ben-Ami, Ronen; Tamboli, Pheroze; Tarrand, Jeffrey; Bodey, Gerald P; Luna, Mario; Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-11-01

    Autopsy studies remain an essential tool for understanding the patterns of fungal disease not detected ante mortem with current diagnostic approaches. We collected data concerning the microbiological trends, patient clinical characteristics and sites of involvement for invasive fungal infections (IFIs) identified at autopsy in a single large cancer treatment centre over a 20-year period (1989-2008). The autopsy rate and IFI prevalence both declined significantly during the study period. The prevalence of Aspergillus spp. decreased significantly from the first 15 years of the study (from 0.12 to 0.14 cases per 100 autopsies to 0.07 in 2004-2008; P = 0.04), with only Mucorales accounting for a greater proportion of IFIs over the duration of the study period (0.06 to 0.2 cases per 100 autopsies, P = 0.04). After 2003, moulds accounted for the majority of infections identified at autopsy in the spleen, kidney, heart and gastrointestinal tract. Despite a trend of decreasing prevalence from 1989 to 2004, invasive candidiasis increased in prevalence during later periods 2004-2008 (0.02-0.05 per 100 autopsies) with decreasing kidney, heart and spleen involvement. Despite a declining autopsy rate, these data suggest a decreasing prevalence overall of IFIs with changing patterns of dissemination in patients with haematological malignancies.

  19. [A 20-year follow-up study of a sample of 50 pairs of twins with neurotic-psychosomatic disorders].

    PubMed

    Muhs, A; Schepank, H; Manz, R

    1990-01-01

    As part of a research project, examination was made of a sample of 50 pairs of twins (21 pairs of identical twins, 16 pairs of non-identical twins of the same sex, and 13 pairs of male-female twins [n = 100 test persons]) between 1963 and 1969 and again recently after a period of 20 years. The index twins were drawn from among the patients who made use of the services of an out-patient psychotherapeutic clinic, and they were determined to be either psychoneurotic, character neurotic, or psychosomatically ill. The question examined was again one of nature vs. nurture. Identical twins showed a significantly higher similarity with regard to the seriousness of their neuroses and the manifestation of neurotic symptoms than did non-identical twins. Noticeable similarities existed in cases of depressive disturbances, disturbances of oral and aggressive behavior, and disturbances of interpersonal contact. With regard to the influence of variables in the environment, we examined the effect of factors in early childhood on neurotic development. Lack of a reference person, a negative attitude on the part of parents toward the child, etc., frustration within and outside the family have an effect on the manifestation of neuroses and on the course of their development. The influence of early childhood factors on the degree of neurotic disorder is still to be noted in the current point prevalence.

  20. Psychotic symptoms in young adults exposed to childhood trauma--a 20 year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Galletly, Cherrie; Van Hooff, Miranda; McFarlane, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Childhood adversity has been shown to increase the risk of psychotic symptoms in adult life. However, there are no previous studies looking at the association between experiencing a natural disaster during childhood and the development of psychotic symptoms in young adulthood. Eight hundred and six bushfire-exposed children and 725 control children were evaluated following the 1983 South Australian bushfires. Five hundred and twenty nine (65.6%) of the bushfire group and 464 (64%) controls participated in a follow up study 20 years later. Childhood data on emotional and behavioural disorders and dysfunctional parenting was available. The adult assessment included the Australian National Health and Well-Being psychosis screen and detailed information about trauma, childhood adversity and alcohol and cannabis abuse. 5.6% of subjects responded positively to the psychosis screen and 2.6% responded positively to a further probe question. Psychotic symptoms were more common in subjects exposed to a greater number of traumas, and were associated with higher rates of childhood adversity, emotional and behavioural disturbance, dysfunctional parenting, and alcohol and cannabis abuse. Subjects exposed to bushfires as children did not have a greater risk of psychosis. Our results indicate that exposure to multiple traumas, rather than a single major trauma, increases the risk of later psychosis.

  1. A primary intravascular synovial sarcoma causing deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a 20-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, M.; Sanad, W.; Pfitzner, B.M.; Baumann, G.; Knebel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Primary intravascular synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy with only a few cases documented in the literature. On presentation, this tumour usually resembles a deep venous thrombosis (dvt) or pulmonary embolism (pe). Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old woman complaining of shortness of breath who had a history of dvt 6 weeks before presentation at our institution. Vascular ultrasound detected a suspicious mass in the right groin, which was identified as a monophasic synovial sarcoma by surgical biopsy. The tumour extended from the right superficial femoral vein into the common iliac vein, profound femoral vein, and great saphenous vein. It caused pe with near-total occlusion of the right pulmonary artery. After initial treatment on the cardiac intensive care unit, the patient was referred to the oncology department for neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with doxorubicin–ifosfamide according to the Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsgemeinschaft Weichteilsarkome [Interdisciplinary AG Sarcomas] protocol and surgical resection of the tumour. No signs of tumour recurrence were found during the subsequent course of the disease, but the patient died from treatment complications approximately 15 months after initial presentation. This case underlines the importance of screening for malignancies even in young patients presenting with dvt or pe. We also recommend whole-leg compression ultrasonography in patients with suspected dvt or pe (as opposed to venography or simple four-point ultrasound examination in the groin and popliteal fossa) to detect possible underlying causes for thrombosis. PMID:26628882

  2. The use of contact lenses during water-polo play: a 20-year study of Japanese college players.

    PubMed

    Komori, Yasuka; Kobayashi, Daisuke; Murase, Yosuke; Enomoto, Itaru; Takagi, Hideki; Kono, Ichiro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the extent of contact-lens use in Japanese college water-polo male players over 20 years (1991-2011, once every five years). Information about the use of contact lenses during play and the types of contact lens was obtained through a self-report questionnaire. The proportion of contact lens use among the players while playing water polo differed from 1991 to 2011 (χ2(4) = 25.28, P < 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.63). Fifty-four per cent of the players used contact lenses while playing in 1991 (P < 0.001); more than 74% in 1996; 89% in 2001; 84% in 2006; and 86% in 2011. While 96% of the contact lenses used by the players in 1991 were the soft type, 74%, 92%, 86%, and 88% of the contact lenses used in 1996, 2001, 2006, and 2011, respectively, were the disposable type. These findings indicated a high percentage of players were using contact lenses while playing water polo between 1996 and 2011. This could be because the majority of players used disposable lenses. The results suggest that increasing use of contact lenses by water-polo players is beneficial.

  3. Reduced work ability in middle-aged men with asthma from youth--a 20-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Irmeli; Pallasaho, Paula; Luukkonen, Ritva; Suojalehto, Hille; Karjalainen, Jouko; Lauerma, Antti; Karjalainen, Antti

    2011-06-01

    We studied, whether asthma diagnosed in childhood or early adulthood affects work ability 20 years later. We used Finnish Defence Force registers, 1986-1990, to select: (1) conscripts with asthma to represent a mild/moderate asthma group (n=485), (2) asthmatics who were exempted from military service to represent a relatively severe asthma group (n=393) and (3) a control group (n 1500) without asthma. A questionnaire consisting of validated questions on asthma and work ability was sent out in 2009. A total of 54% of the men in the first study group, 44% of those in the second study group and 44% of the controls answered. The mean age of the participants was 41 (range 37-51). Self-assessed current work ability compared with lifetime best had decreased in 28.9% of the first asthma group, in 31.1% of the second asthma group, and in 19.7% of the controls (p = 0.0007). Current smoking (OR 2.5), only basic education (OR 2.6), being a manual worker (OR 2.7) and current severe asthma (OR 3.8) associated most strongly with decreased work ability among the asthmatics. Both mild and more severe asthma at the age of around 20 seems to be associated with reduced work ability in 40-year-old males.

  4. What is the best management strategy for a 20-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure?

    PubMed

    Davies, Melanie C; Cartwright, Beth

    2012-08-01

    The diagnosis of premature ovarian failure (POF) for a 20-year-old woman is devastating and will impact on many areas of her life. She deserves prompt confirmation of the diagnosis and accurate, honest information about the condition including the chances of conception and long-term health issues. She should be offered investigation of aetiology, although this may be hard to establish, and assessment of associated medical conditions. Oestrogen replacement should be advised for long-term use until the normal age of menopause, and she should be fully counselled on the benefits and risks of hormone replacement and her options of which preparation to take. Long-term follow-up is needed, and this is likely to require multidisciplinary input, including that from a gynaecologist, clinical psychologist and fertility team. POF may not be the appropriate terminology for this condition. Ovarian function often fluctuates in young women with POF, who may continue to menstruate occasionally and even conceive spontaneously. In view of this unpredictability, 'premature ovarian insufficiency' is a better description of the condition and carries a less negative connotation than 'ovarian failure' which can cause great distress. We recommend that the condition is termed 'premature ovarian insufficiency' (Clinical Endocrinology 2008;68:499).

  5. Intestinal stoma in patients with colorectal cancer from the perspective of 20-year period of clinical observation

    PubMed Central

    Banaszkiewicz, Zbigniew; Woda, Łukasz P.; Tojek, Krzysztof; Jarmocik, Paweł; Jawień, Arkadiusz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Intestinal stoma is a procedure most often performed in patients with colorectal cancer. Aim To identify the percentage of patients with colorectal cancer in which the intestinal stoma was performed. Material and methods We retrospectively analysed 443 patients treated during a 20-year period (1994–2013) due to colorectal cancer, in which the intestinal stoma was made during the first surgical intervention. Results In the second analysed decade, a significant decrease in the percentage of created stomas, definitive stomas in particular, was observed. Stomas were made significantly more often in patients with a tumour located in the rectum, the left half of the colon, and in patients undergoing urgent surgeries. An increased incidence of intestinal stomas was associated with a higher severity of illness and higher proportion of unresectable and non-radical procedures. The definitive stomas were significantly more often made in men and in patients with tumours located in the rectum, whereas temporary stomas were created significantly more often in patients undergoing urgent operations. Conclusions In the last decade (2004–2013) the number of intestinal stomas in patients operated due to colorectal cancer was significantly reduced. PMID:25960811

  6. Testing aggregation hypotheses among Neotropical trees and shrubs: results from a 50-ha plot over 20 years of sampling.

    PubMed

    Myster, Randall W; Malahy, Michael P

    2012-09-01

    Spatial patterns of tropical trees and shrubs are important to understanding their interaction and the resultant structure of tropical rainforests. To assess this issue, we took advantage of previously collected data, on Neotropical tree and shrub stem identified to species and mapped for spatial coordinates in a 50ha plot, with a frequency of every five years and over a 20 year period. These stems data were first placed into four groups, regardless of species, depending on their location in the vertical strata of the rainforest (shrubs, understory trees, mid-sized trees, tall trees) and then used to generate aggregation patterns for each sampling year. We found shrubs and understory trees clumped at small spatial scales of a few meters for several of the years sampled. Alternatively, mid-sized trees and tall trees did not clump, nor did they show uniform (regular) patterns, during any sampling period. In general (1) groups found higher in the canopy did not show aggregation on the ground and (2) the spatial patterns of all four groups showed similarity among different sampling years, thereby supporting a "shifting mosaic" view of plant communities over large areas. Spatial analysis, such as this one, are critical to understanding and predicting tree spaces, tree-tree replacements and the Neotropical forest patterns, such as biodiversity and those needed for sustainability efforts, they produce.

  7. Recurrent low grade serous ovarian cancer in a 20 year old woman: A case from the Ohio State University College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohn, David E; Backes, Floor J; Wallbillich, John J; Bixel, Kristin; Crafton, Sarah M; Neff, Robert; ElNaggar, Adam C; Smith, Blair; Suarez, Adrian A

    2017-03-01

    A 20 year old with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is discussed. The differential diagnosis, pathology, epidemiology, treatment options are discussed. Focus on the molecular pathways of LGSC and the implications of the diagnosis on fertility are highlighted.

  8. PREFACE: Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer Celebrating 20 years of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter—in honour of Richard Palmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferry, David; Dowben, Peter; Inglesfield, John

    2009-11-01

    This year marks the 20th anniversary of the launch of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter in 1989. The journal was formed from the merger of Journal of Physics C: Solid State Physics and Journal of Physics F: Metal Physics which had separated in 1971. In the 20 years since its launch, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has more than doubled in size, while raising standards. Indeed, Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter has become one of the leading scientific journals for our field. This could not have occurred without great leadership at the top. No one has been more responsible for this growth in both size and quality than our Senior Publisher, Richard Palmer. Richard first started work at IOP in March 1971 as an Editorial Assistant with J. Phys. B After a few months, he transferred to J. Phys.C The following year, the Assistant Editor of J. Phys. C, Malcolm Haines, left suddenly in order to work on his family vineyard in France, and Richard stepped into the breach. In those days, external editors had a much more hands-on role in IOP Publishing and he had to travel to Harwell to be interviewed by Alan Lidiard, the Honorary Editor of J. Phys. C, before being given the job of Assistant Editor permanently. Since J. Phys. C and J. Phys. F re-merged to form Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, Richard gradually shed his other journal responsibilities, except for Reports on Progress in Physics, to build up Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. He has worked closely with four Editors-in-Chief of J. Phys. C and five of Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter. When Richard announced his retirement this past winter, we met it with a great deal of both happiness and sadness. Of course, we are happy that he is going to be allowed to enjoy his retirement, but we remain very sad to lose such a valuable member of our team, especially the one who had provided the heart and soul of the journal over its 20 years. We will be able to rely upon the team which Richard ably trained as

  9. Temporal trends and relationships between groundwater and surface water nitrate concentrations in headwater agricultural catchments: what can we learn from a monitoring over 20 years?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fovet, O.; Gascuel, C.; Faucheux, M.; Ruiz, L.; Aquilina, L.; Molenat, J.

    2012-04-01

    The intensification of agriculture during the 20th century led to strong issues on water quality related to nutrients enrichments in groundwater and surface water. In this context, Western France is an extreme case regarding to the high nitrate concentrations observed in rivers (around 7 mg N-NO3/l1 in average). In the early 90ies, an Environmental Research Observatory AgrHys has been created and instrumented to investigate the response time of hydro-chemical fluxes to landuse changes in agrohydrosystems. This observatory is part of a French Catchments Network (Critical Zone Observatory), and composed of two sites. Kervidy-Naizin monitoring has been recently analyzed to identify the effect of climatic factors on water quality, while we focus here on Kerbernez site. This site is composed of 5 first-order and adjacent catchments, less than 1 km^2, where land use agricultural practices have been recorded with precision. Hydrological, hydrochemical and climatic data were recorded over the last 20 years. Since 2001, the monitoring was extended to groundwater using piezometric measurements and chemical analyses. Previous studies [1] suggested that nitrate transport was essentially a transport limited process on this site. The long-term and extensive monitoring programs can help us understanding the effect of agricultural practices on nitrate concentration in streams. We reconsider this hypothesis 10 years later by analyzing if the streams nitrate concentrations reacted to the changes in agricultural practices. Different protocols of monitoring (manual vs. automatic measurements) are compared though the annual water fluxes at the outlet in order to estimate the incertitude on water discharge for such small streams. All the water balances computed were not equilibrated suggesting important subsurface flows. The high contribution of the shallow groundwater is confirmed by the hydrochemical data. Mean annual nitrate concentration in the drainage water is computed using two

  10. [Will climate and demography have a major impact on malaria in sub-Saharan Africa in the next 20 years?].

    PubMed

    Saugeon, C; Baldet, T; Akogbeto, M; Henry, M C

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this review of the literature is to present factors possibly affecting the spread of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa over the next 20 years. Malaria is a vector-borne disease that depends on environmental and human constraints. The main environmental limitations involve susceptibility of the vector (mosquitoes of the Anopheles genus) and parasite (Plasmodium falciparum) to climate. Malaria is a stable, endemic disease over most of the African continent. Climatic change can only affect a few regions on the fringes of stable zones (e.g. altitude areas or Sahel) where malaria is an unstable, epidemic disease. Higher temperatures could induce a decrease of malaria transmission in regions of the Sahel or an increase in the highlands. The extent of these overall trends will depend on the unpredictable occurrence of major meteorological phenomenon as well as on human activities affecting the environment that could lead to dramatic but limited outbreaks in some locations. The most influential human factors could be runaway demographic growth and urban development. Estimations based on modeling studies indicate that urbanization will lead to a 53.5% drop in exposure to malaria by 2030. However this reduction could be less than expected because of adaptation of Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis, the main vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, to the urban environment as well as increasing vector resistance to insecticides. Another unforeseeable factor that could induce unexpected malaria epidemics is mass migration due to war or famine. Finally immunosuppressive illnesses (e.g. HIV and malnutrition) could alter individual susceptibility to malaria. Social constraints also include human activities that modify land use. In this regard land use (e.g. forest clearance and irrigation) is known to influence the burden of malaria that is itself dependent on local determinants of transmission. Overall the most important social constraint for the population will be

  11. Trends in blood pressure control and medication use during 20 years in a hypertension clinic in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kansui, Yasuo; Ibaraki, Ai; Goto, Kenichi; Haga, Yoshie; Seki, Takunori; Takiguchi, Tomohiro; Ohtsubo, Toshio; Kitazono, Takanari; Matsumura, Kiyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Guidelines for the management of hypertension have recommended strict control of blood pressure to help prevent cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the current status of blood pressure control and trends over the past two decades. Four hundred patients treated for hypertension at Kyushu University Hospital were included in the present study. Blood pressure levels and prescribed antihypertensive drugs were examined in 2011. The average blood pressure was 129/74 mmHg, and the number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was 2.2. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, alpha-blockers, and beta-blockers were prescribed in 66%, 5%, 78%, 21%, 12%, and 27% of the cases, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was significantly higher, and diastolic blood pressure was significantly lower in patients aged 80 years or older compared with the younger patients (<80 and ≥80 years, 128/75 mmHg and 133/68 mmHg, respectively). The number of prescribed antihypertensive drugs was similar between the two groups. Sixty-five patients were continuously treated for 20 years. The average blood pressure of these patients significantly decreased from 142/87 mmHg in 1991 to 128/71 mmHg in 2011, accompanied with an increase in the number of antihypertensive drugs from 1.6 in 1991 to 2.7 in 2011. These findings suggest that the revised guidelines for the management of hypertension may have contributed to increased awareness and better management of blood pressure levels.

  12. Understory response to varying fire frequencies after 20 years of prescribed burning in an upland oak forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, J.A.; Hallgren, S.W.; Fuhlendorf, S.D.; Leslie, David M.

    2011-01-01

    Ecosystems in the eastern United States that were shaped by fire over thousands of years of anthropogenic burning recently have been subjected to fire suppression resulting in significant changes in vegetation composition and structure and encroachment by invasive species. Renewed interest in use of fire to manage such ecosystems will require knowledge of effects of fire regime on vegetation. We studied the effects of one aspect of the fire regime, fire frequency, on biomass, cover and diversity of understory vegetation in upland oak forests prescribe-burned for 20 years at different frequencies ranging from zero to five fires per decade. Overstory canopy closure ranged from 88 to 96% and was not affected by fire frequency indicating high tolerance of large trees for even the most frequent burning. Understory species richness and cover was dominated by woody reproduction followed in descending order by forbs, C3 graminoids, C4 grasses, and legumes. Woody plant understory cover did not change with fire frequency and increased 30% from one to three years after a burn. Both forbs and C3 graminoids showed a linear increase in species richness and cover as fire frequency increased. In contrast, C4 grasses and legumes did not show a response to fire frequency. The reduction of litter by fire may have encouraged regeneration of herbaceous plants and helped explain the positive response of forbs and C3 graminoids to increasing fire frequency. Our results showed that herbaceous biomass, cover, and diversity can be managed with long-term prescribed fire under the closed canopy of upland oak forests. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  13. Association of physical activity and IL-10 levels 20 years after sulfur mustard exposure: Sardasht-Iran cohort study.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfari, Zeinab; Ghazanfari, Tooba; Kermani-Jalilvand, Arezou; Yaraee, Roya; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad R; Foroutan, Abbas; Araghizadeh, Hassan; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Moaiedmohseni, Sakine; Soroush, Mohammad R; Naghizadeh, Mohammad M; Hassan, Zuhair M

    2009-12-01

    IL-10 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that is important in the regulation of inflammatory processes in different conditions. Sulfur mustard (SM) intoxicated patients are suffering from different inflammatory diseases in their lung, skin and eyes. Physical activity (PA) is reported to control inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory and inducing anti-inflammatory cytokines. Our previous study revealed lower PA and more sedentary lifestyle among SM exposed population. This study aimed to determine the relationship of PA with IL-10 production in SM exposed subjects. Baseline, mitogen-induced and the serum levels of IL-10 were evaluated. In a historical cohort study, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS), 372 SM exposed participants were studied 20 years after exposure and were compared with 128 unexposed control participants. The Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ; developed by WHO) was used to obtain a self-reported measure of physical activity. Whole blood culture supernatants and serum samples were used for IL-10 measurement by ELISA technique. In both the control and exposed groups mitogen-induced IL-10 production was significantly elevated with severity of PA intensity (p<0.05). In the control subjects with moderate PA intensity, the mitogen-induced IL-10 production was higher than the corresponding in the exposed group (p<0.05). In the exposed group, mitogen-induced IL-10 production had significant positive correlation with total PA, total transport PA, total recreational PA and total moderate intensity work (p<0.05). The positive relationship between high PA and the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 indicates a need to encourage a more active lifestyle among the SM exposed subjects who have various inflammatory complications.

  14. Lessons learnt from 20 years surveillance of malaria drug resistance prior to the policy change in Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Tinto, Halidou; Valea, Innocent; Ouédraogo, Jean-Bosco; Guiguemdé, Tinga Robert

    2016-01-01

    The history of drug resistance to the previous antimalarial drugs, and the potential for resistance to evolve to Artemisinin-based combination therapies, demonstrates the necessity to set-up a good surveillance system in order to provide early warning of the development of resistance. Here we report a review summarizing the history of the surveillance of drug resistance that led to the policy change in Burkina Faso. The first Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance strain identified in Burkina Faso was detected by an in vitro test carried out in Koudougou in 1983. Nevertheless, no further cases were reported until 1987, suggesting that resistant strains had been circulating at a low prevalence before the beginning of the systematic surveillance system from 1984. We observed a marked increase of Chloroquine-Resistance in 2002-2003 probably due to the length of follow-up as the follow-up duration was 7 or 14 days before 2002 and 28 days from 2002 onwards. Therefore, pre-2002 studies have probably under-estimated the real prevalence of Chloroquine-Resistance by not detecting the late recrudescence. With a rate of 8.2% treatment failure reported in 2003, Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine was still efficacious for the treatment of uncomplicated malaria in Burkina Faso but this rate might rapidly increase as the result of its spreading from neighboring countries and due to its current use for both the Intermittent Preventive Treatment in pregnant women and Seasonal Malaria Chemoprophylaxis. The current strategy for the surveillance of the Artemisinin-based combination treatments resistance should build on lessons learnt under the previous period of 20 years surveillance of Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine resistance (1994-2004). The most important aspect being to extend the number of sentinel sites so that data would be less patchy and could help understanding the dynamic of the resistance.

  15. Component Analysis of Simple Span vs. Complex Span Adaptive Working Memory Exercises: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Bradley S.; Kronenberger, William G.; Gondoli, Dawn M.; Johnson, Ann C.; Morrissey, Rebecca A.; Steeger, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    There has been growing interest in using adaptive training interventions such as Cogmed-RM to increase the capacity of working memory (WM), but this intervention may not be optimally designed. For instance, Cogmed-RM can target the primary memory (PM) component of WM capacity, but not the secondary memory (SM) component. The present study hypothesized that Cogmed-RM does not target SM capacity because the simple span exercises it uses may not cause a sufficient amount of information to be lost from PM during training. To investigate, we randomly assigned participants to either a standard (simple span; N = 31) or a modified (complex span; N = 30) training condition. The main findings showed that SM capacity did not improve, even in the modified training condition. Hence, the potency of span-based WM interventions cannot be increased simply by converting simple span exercises into complex span exercises. PMID:23066524

  16. Gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis caused by Rhizopus oryzae: a case report and review of primary cutaneous mucormycosis in China over Past 20 years.

    PubMed

    Li, HouMin; Hwang, Sonia Kay; Zhou, Cheng; Du, Juan; Zhang, JianZhong

    2013-08-01

    Cutaneous mucormycosis is a rare opportunistic infection caused by zygomycetes that can be rapidly fatal if unrecognized. We describe the clinical, histopathological, fungal and molecular features of a case of gangrenous cutaneous mucormycosis. The patient presented with great necrosis on his right forearm at the site of detained intravenous cannula needle. He had type II diabetes and chronic renal insufficiency. KOH mount of black eschar showed many broad, aseptate fungal hyphae with right-angle branching. PAS staining of the tissue sample revealed similar broad hyphae in the dermis and cutis. Fungal culture and ITS sequence analysis identified this fungus as Rhizopus oryzae. As no organ involvement was detected, the patient was diagnosed with primary cutaneous mucormycosis. Considering the poor state of the patient, complete excision of the infectious tissue was performed without skin graft instead of amputation. At the same time, intravenous liposomal amphotericin B was given, starting from a small dosage and increased to a total dosage amount of 5.45 g. The wound recovered well with granulation. We emphasize that early recognition and prompt therapy including the control of the primary diseases were important. In this article, we also reviewed the features of primary cutaneous mucormycosis reported in China over the last 20 years.

  17. Analysis of environmental factors influencing salinity patterns, oyster growth, and mortality in lower Breton Sound Estuary, Louisiana using 20 years of data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPeyre, Megan K.; Geaghan, James; Decossas, Gary A.; La Peyre, Jerome F.

    2016-01-01

    Freshwater inflow characteristics define estuarine functioning by delivering nutrients, sediments, and freshwater, which affect biological resources and ultimately system production. Using 20 years of water quality, weather, and oyster growth and mortality data from Breton Sound Estuary (BSE), Louisiana, we examined the relationship of riverine, weather, and tidal influence on estuarine salinity, and the relationship of salinity to oyster growth and mortality. Mississippi River discharge was found to be the most important factor determining salinity patterns over oyster grounds within lower portions of BSE, with increased river flow associated with lowered salinities, while easterly winds associated with increased salinity were less influential. These patterns were consistent throughout the year. Salinity and temperature (season) were found to critically control oyster growth and mortality, suggesting that seasonal changes to river discharge affecting water quality over the oyster grounds have profound impacts on oyster populations. The management of oyster reefs in estuaries (such as BSE) requires an understanding of how estuarine hydrodynamics and salinity are influenced by forcing factors such as winds, river flow, and by the volume, timing, and location of controlled releases of riverine water.

  18. Fishing for ecosystem servicespan>s.

    PubMed

    Pope, Kevin L; Pegg, Mark A; Cole, Nicholas W; Siddons, Stephen F; Fedele, Alexis D; Harmon, Brian S; Ruskamp, Ryan L; Turner, Dylan R; Uerling, Caleb C

    2016-12-01

    Ecosystems are commonly exploited and manipulated to maximize certain human benefits. Such changes can degrade systems, leading to cascading negative effects that may be initially undetected, yet ultimately result in a reduction, or complete loss, of certain valuable ecosystem servicespan>s. Ecosystem-based management is intended to maintain ecosystem quality and minimize the risk of irreversible change to natural assemblages of species and to ecosystem processes while obtaining and maintaining long-term socioeconomic benefits. We discuss policy decisions in fishery management related to commonly manipulated environments with a focus on influences to ecosystem servicespan>s. By focusing on broader scales, managing for ecosystem servicespan>s, and taking a more proactive approach, we expect sustainable, quality fisheries that are resilient to future disturbances. To that end, we contend that: (1) management always involves tradeoffs; (2) explicit management of fisheries for ecosystem servicespan>s could facilitate a transition from reactive to proactive management; and (3) adaptive co-management is a process that could enhance management for ecosystem servicespan>s. We propose adaptive co-management with an ecosystem service framework where actions are implemented within ecosystem boundaries, rather than political boundaries, through strong interjurisdictional relationships.

  19. Boundary Spanning Leadership Practices for Population Health.

    PubMed

    Shirey, Maria R; White-Williams, Connie

    2015-09-01

    This department highlights change management strategies that may be successful in strategically planning and executing organizational change initiatives. In this article, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices for achieving the Triple Aim of simultaneously improving the health of populations, improving the patient experience, and reducing per-capita cost of health care. Drawing on experience with an existing population-focused heart failure clinic borne of an academic-practice partnership, the authors discuss boundary spanning leadership practices aimed at achieving the Triple Aim concept and its intended design.

  20. WildSpan: mining structured motifs from protein sequences

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Automatic extraction of motifs from biological sequences is an important research problem in study of molecular biology. For proteins, it is desired to discover sequence motifs containing a large number of wildcard symbols, as the residues associated with functional sites are usually largely separated in sequences. Discovering such patterns is time-consuming because abundant combinations exist when long gaps (a gap consists of one or more successive wildcards) are considered. Mining algorithms often employ constraints to narrow down the search space in order to increase efficiency. However, improper constraint models might degrade the sensitivity and specificity of the motifs discovered by computational methods. We previously proposed a new constraint model to handle large wildcard regions for discovering functional motifs of proteins. The patterns that satisfy the proposed constraint model are called W-patterns. A W-pattern is a structured motif that groups motif symbols into pattern blocks interleaved with large irregular gaps. Considering large gaps reflects the fact that functional residues are not always from a single region of protein sequences, and restricting motif symbols into clusters corresponds to the observation that short motifs are frequently present within protein families. To efficiently discover W-patterns for large-scale sequence annotation and function prediction, this paper first formally introduces the problem to solve and proposes an algorithm named WildSpan (sequential pattern mining across large wildcard regions) that incorporates several pruning strategies to largely reduce the mining cost. Results WildSpan is shown to efficiently find W-patterns containing conserved residues that are far separated in sequences. We conducted experiments with two mining strategies, protein-based and family-based mining, to evaluate the usefulness of W-patterns and performance of WildSpan. The protein-based mining mode of WildSpan is developed for

  1. 23 | September | 201span>6 | ISS On-Orbit Status Report

    NASA Website

    Opening of Lab MCA Hand Valve 01; HRF2 Supply Kit Resupply; ... August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; ...

  2. 10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL, SOUTHEAST SPAN THROUGH CANAL, VIEW BLOCKED BY STEEL, CLAD COUNTER WEIGHT, WATER SPAN RAISED OUT OF VIEW - Cape Cod Canal Lift Bridge, Spanning Cape Cod Canal, Buzzards Bay, Barnstable County, MA

  3. 26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Central compression lock, north span facing north. Compression lock locks two spans together at highest point. There are three compression locks. - Henry Ford Bridge, Spanning Cerritos Channel, Los Angeles-Long Beach Harbor, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. DETAIL OF WEST ANCHOR SPAN, CANTILEVER ARMS AND WEST HALF OF SUSPENDED SPAN OF THROUGH TRUSS. VIEW TO NORTHEAST. - MacArthur Bridge, Spanning Mississippi River on Highway 34 between IA & IL, Burlington, Des Moines County, IA

  5. 5. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, VIEW OF CENTER TURN SPAN AND SOUTHWESTERNMOST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. LOOKING SOUTHEAST, VIEW OF CENTER TURN SPAN AND SOUTHWESTERNMOST SPAN FROM ADJACENT INTERSTATE 40 BRIDGE - St. Francis River Bridge, Spanning St. Francis River at U.S. Highway 70, Forrest City, St. Francis County, AR

  6. 41. Detail showing meeting of two fixed land span segments, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Detail showing meeting of two fixed land span segments, bridge land span at left, viaduct at right. VIEW NORTH - Broadway Bridge, Spanning Foundry Street, MBTA Yard, Fort Point Channel, & Lehigh Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Processing Efficiency in Preschoolers' Memory Span: Individual Differences Related to Age and Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visu-Petra, Laura; Miclea, Mircea; Cheie, Lavinia; Benga, Oana

    2009-01-01

    In self-paced auditory memory span tasks, the microanalysis of response timing measures represents a developmentally sensitive measure, providing insights into the development of distinct processing rates during recall performance. The current study first examined the effects of age and trait anxiety on span accuracy (effectiveness) and response…

  8. Working Memory Deficits in Children with Reading Difficulties: Memory Span and Dual Task Coordination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shinmin; Gathercole, Susan E.

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated the cause of the reported problems in working memory in children with reading difficulties. Verbal and visuospatial simple and complex span tasks, and digit span and reaction times tasks performed singly and in combination, were administered to 46 children with single word reading difficulties and 45 typically…

  9. Heat stress-induced life span extension in yeast.

    PubMed

    Shama, S; Lai, C Y; Antoniazzi, J M; Jiang, J C; Jazwinski, S M

    1998-12-15

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae has a limited life span that can be measured by the number of times individual cells divide. Several genetic manipulations have been shown to prolong the yeast life span. However, environmental effects that extend longevity have been largely ignored. We have found that mild, nonlethal heat stress extended yeast life span when it was administered transiently early in life. The increased longevity was due to a reduction in the mortality rate that persisted over many cell divisions (generations) but was not permanent. The genes RAS1 and RAS2 were necessary to observe this effect of heat stress. The RAS2 gene is consistently required for maintenance of life span when heat stress is chronic or in its extension when heat stress is transient or absent altogether. RAS1, on the other hand, appears to have a role in signaling life extension induced by transient, mild heat stress, which is distinct from its life-span-curtailing effect in the absence of stress and its lack of involvement in the response to chronic heat stress. This distinction between the RAS genes may be partially related to their different effects on growth-promoting genes and stress-responsive genes. The ras2 mutation clearly hindered resumption of growth and recovery from stress, while the ras1 mutation did not. The HSP104 gene, which is largely responsible for induced thermotolerance in yeast, was necessary for life extension induced by transient heat stress. An interaction between mitochondrial petite mutations and heat stress was found, suggesting that mitochondria may be necessary for life extension by transient heat stress. The results raise the possibility that the RAS genes and mitochondria may play a role in the epigenetic inheritance of reduced mortality rate afforded by transient, mild heat stress.

  10. General closeup view of the swing span bridge in the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General close-up view of the swing span bridge in the close position, looking upriver. The pivot/center pier is positioned in the center of Tennessee River. Note: Each arm of the continuous swing span acts as simple spans. The total span over four (4) supports is partially continuous-- the middle panel at the center pier is continuous for bending moments, but discontinuous for shears. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  11. A space-for-time substitution reveals the long-term decline in genotypic diversity of a widespread salt marsh plant, Spartina alterniflora, over a span of 1500 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Travis, S.E.; Hester, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    1. Clonal populations face a trade-off between sexual recruitment and vegetative growth and, once established, may undergo continuous declines in genotypic diversity if their sexual recruits make poor competitors. The geological history of delta formation in the Lower Mississippi River Valley was used to age eight 5. alterniflora marshes for use in a space-for-time substitution ranging over 1500 years, in order to determine the long-term effects of clonal growth on genotypic diversity in natural populations. 2. We also predicted that highly heterozygous clones are competitively superior, leading to an increase in the overall level of genetic diversity as a marsh ages and/or to an increasingly positive relationship between clone size and individual heterozygosity, and that the clumping of ramets within clones will occur over increasingly large distances as populations age, while the clumping of genetically related clones will become less pronounced as intraclonal competition begins to obscure the initial effects of localized seedling recruitment. 3. Using molecular markers to differentiate clones, we documented a decline in clonal richness at the rate of approximately 1% 100 years -1 that was accompanied for the first 300-500 years by an increase in the distance over which clumping of ramets within genets occurred. Older populations, in the 500-1500-year range, showed evidence of clone fragmentation. 4. The spatial clustering of kin was observed for only two marshes, and exhibited no clear relationship with marsh age. 5. Whereas the overall level of genetic diversity was consistent among marshes and showed no clear relationship with marsh age, the relationship between heterozygosity and individual clone size became increasingly pronounced within older marshes. 6. Our results suggest that under natural conditions S. alterniflora marshes will rarely reach ages sufficient for the loss of all clonal diversity, or for the effects of inbreeding and drift to pose a

  12. Spatial Abilities across the Adult Life Span

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borella, Erika; Meneghetti, Chiara; Ronconi, Lucia; De Beni, Rossana

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates age-related effects across the adult life span on spatial abilities (testing subabilities based on a distinction between spatial visualization, mental rotation, and perspective taking) and spatial self-assessments. The sample consisted of 454 participants (223 women and 231 men) from 20 to 91 years of age. Results showed…

  13. School Organization: Grade Span. Trends and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renchler, Ron

    This paper examines grade spans (grade configurations) and their importance in community school systems. Research has shown that geographic location often dictates the kind of grade configuration districts use. Furthermore, every grade configuration has strengths and weaknesses, and school officials must focus on developing the positive potential…

  14. 25. DETAIL VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE NAMEPLATE PLAQUE, NORTH END SPAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. DETAIL VIEW OF COMMEMORATIVE NAMEPLATE PLAQUE, NORTH END SPAN - East Bloomsburg Bridge, Spanning Susquehanna River at Pennsylvania Route 487 (Legislative Route 283), Bloomsburg, Columbia County, PA

  15. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  16. What You Should Know about Your Reproductive Time Span

    MedlinePlus

    ... years for later use, a process used in IVF and oncofertility programs, is moving into the mainstream. Most of these options, however, are expensive, and they are not always successful. Success rates decrease with increasing age. Menopause and The North ...

  17. Soil management, fertilization and plant nutrition in organic systems in Spain: A review of the research in last 20 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalvez, Victor; Raigon Jiménez, M.° Dolores

    2016-04-01

    The Spanish Society for Agroecology/Organic Farming (SEAE) is a private charity association, founded in 1992, with the purpose to support organic farming practitioners. The principal aim is to join the efforts farmers, technicians and scientifics and others organizations and persons, related to develop sustainable agriculture systems, based on ecological and socioeconomic principles promoted by the international organic farming movement, with the purpose to obtain foods and first resources with high quality, considering the vulnerability of the environment and preserving the soil fertility, with the optimal and adequate use of the local resources, taking in account the rural culture and the ethical value of the social development and the life quality. One of the most relevant and know activity of SEAE is the celebration of one (scientific) Congress every two years. This is the most important event on this issue in Spain. In the last 20 year, eleven events of this kind have been organised in 11 different places (Toledo, Pamplona, Valencia, Córdoba, Gijón-Asturias, Almeria, Zaragoza, Bullas-Murcia, Lleida, Albacete, Vitoria-Gasteiz). The average participation in the Congress was growing up from 100 to 350 persons), from all over Spain. During this events, researchers, advisors, trainers, politicians and operators (farmers, processors, certifiers, marketers, consumers, etc.) shared and update the scientific results, projects in force, political measures, statistics and proposals to develop the organic farming sector Research in organic farming is still low in Spain and the majority of the results in this matter are being presented as papers in this Congresses. Over 1500 papers from over 100 spanish research groups giving information about the research results have been presented in this events, One of the most relevant topic of this research is done on soil conservation, soil fertility and organic crop fertilization and organic matter management in the soil, after

  18. Using the Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business as a Learning Outcomes Assessment: Evidence from a Review of 20 Years of Institution-Based Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ling, Guangming; Bochenek, Jennifer; Burkander, Kri

    2015-01-01

    By applying multilevel models with random effects, the authors reviewed and synthesized findings from 30 studies that were published in the last 20 years exploring the relationship between the Educational Testing Service Major Field Test for a Bachelor's Degree in Business (MFTB) and related factors. The results suggest that MFTB scores correlated…

  19. In vitro conservation of oil palm somatic embryos for 20 years on a hormone-free culture medium: characteristics of the embryogenic cultures, derived plantlets and adult palms.

    PubMed

    Konan, K Eugene; Durand-Gasselin, Tristan; Kouadio, Y Justin; Flori, Albert; Rival, Alain; Duval, Yves; Pannetier, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted over a period of 20 years, to assess the problems involved in developing subcultures over a very long period, of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) somatic embryos which were maintained in vitro on a Murashige and Skoog mineral-based culture medium, without growth regulators. Analysis of the proliferation rate of the embryogenic cultures, along with the survivability of the regenerated plantlets after their transfer into soil and of the flowering of the derived adult palms has been conducted for cultures maintained in vitro during 1 to 20 years. From the ninth year of maintenance, the tissue quality of the somatic embryos gradually began to decline. However, after more than 20 years, 30% of the 20 clones tested still continued to proliferate satisfactorily on the same maintenance medium, keeping their multiplication potential intact. Even though a depressive effect of the age of the lines has been observed on the survival capacity of plants under natural conditions, it is noteworthy that among the clones originating from 20-year-old cultures only eight of them (40%) have exhibited the "mantled" floral abnormality. Different hypotheses concerning the origin of the disruptions observed on the in vitro cultures, plantlets and adult palms that occur over a very long period of in vitro conservation are discussed.

  20. The Cost of Uncertain Life Span*

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, Ryan D.

    2012-01-01

    A considerable amount of uncertainty surrounds the length of human life. The standard deviation in adult life span is about 15 years in the U.S., and theory and evidence suggest it is costly. I calibrate a utility-theoretic model of preferences over length of life and show that one fewer year in standard deviation is worth about half a mean life year. Differences in the standard deviation exacerbate cross-sectional differences in life expectancy between the U.S. and other industrialized countries, between rich and poor countries, and among poor countries. Accounting for the cost of life-span variance also appears to amplify recently discovered patterns of convergence in world average human well-being. This is partly for methodological reasons and partly because unconditional variance in human length of life, primarily the component due to infant mortality, has exhibited even more convergence than life expectancy. PMID:22368324

  1. Optimal decomposable witnesses without the spanning property

    SciTech Connect

    Augusiak, Remigiusz; Sarbicki, Gniewomir; Lewenstein, Maciej

    2011-11-15

    One of the unsolved problems in the characterization of the optimal entanglement witnesses is the existence of optimal witnesses acting on bipartite Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n}=C{sup m} x C{sup n} such that the product vectors obeying =0 do not span H{sub m,n}. So far, the only known examples of such witnesses were found among indecomposable witnesses, one of them being the witness corresponding to the Choi map. However, it remains an open question whether decomposable witnesses exist without the property of spanning. Here we answer this question affirmatively, providing systematic examples of such witnesses. Then, we generalize some of the recently obtained results on the characterization of 2 x n optimal decomposable witnesses [R. Augusiak et al., J. Phys. A 44, 212001 (2011)] to finite-dimensional Hilbert spaces H{sub m,n} with m,n{>=}3.

  2. Attitudes Toward Death Across the Life Span.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maiden, Robert; Walker, Gail

    To understand the change and development of people's attitudes toward death over the life span, a 62-item attitude questionnaire on death and dying was administered to 90 adults. Participants included five females and five males in each of nine age categories: 18-20, 20-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-64, and 65 or older. Participants…

  3. 9. VIEW SHOWING JUNCTION OF CONCRETE EAST APPROACH SPAN WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW SHOWING JUNCTION OF CONCRETE EAST APPROACH SPAN WITH STEEL SPAN, LOOKING NORTH. NOTE ROCKING CAST STEEL SHOE ATTACHED TO PIER TO ALLOW FOR EXPANSION OF STEEL SPAN - Jensen Bridge, Spanning Green River at Town of Jensen, Jensen, Uintah County, UT

  4. Improving Memory Span in Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, F. A.; Rosenquist, C. J.; Arnett, L.; Moore, M. S.; Hume, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by impaired memory span, particularly auditory verbal memory span. Memory span is linked developmentally to several language capabilities, and may be a basic capacity that enables language learning. If children with DS had better memory span, they might benefit more from language intervention. The…

  5. Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Showing partial side view of swing span in closed position. The two (2) arms act as simple spans, a small amount of negative bending is accommodated by the continous top and bottom truss chords due to a continuous condition. Note the inclined end post of each of the simple spans, the operator's house, center/pivot pier and the pivotal pole-line pole placed atop of bridge. - Bridgeport Swing Span Bridge, Spanning Tennessee River, Bridgeport, Jackson County, AL

  6. Free span development and self-lowering of pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, E.A.; Smed, P.F.; Bryndum, M.B.; Klomp, W.H.G.; Chen, Z.; Bijker, R.

    1995-12-31

    The paper describes the numerical program, PIPESIN, that simulates the behavior of a pipeline placed on an erodible seabed. PIPEline Seabed INteraction from installation until a stable pipeline seabed configuration has occurred is simulated in the time domain including all important physical processes. The program is the result of the joint research project, ``Free Span Development and Self-lowering of Offshore Pipelines`` sponsored by EU and a group of companies and carried out by the Danish Hydraulic Institute and Delft Hydraulics. The basic modules of PIPESIN are described. The description of the scouring processes has been based on and verified through physical model tests carried out as part of the research project. The program simulates a section of the pipeline (typically 500 m) in the time domain, the main input being time series of the waves and current. The main results include predictions of the onset of free spans, their length distribution, their variation in time, and the lowering of the pipeline as function of time.

  7. Follow-up 20 years later of 34 Klinefelter males with karyotype 47,XXY and 16 hypogonadal males with karyotype 46,XY.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, J; Pelsen, B

    1987-10-01

    A 20-year follow-up study of 50 hypogonadal males has been made. Of these 34 had Klinefelter's syndrome with the karyotype 47,XXY and 16 had the karyotype 46,XY. These males have been examined at mean ages of 27 and 37 and in the present study at a mean age of 47. At the first examination the following conditions were found in the Klinefelter males to a significantly higher degree than in the hypogonadal males with 46,XY: immaturity, below average school performance, few or no friends, previous mental illness, little energy and initiative, few or no spare time interests, occupation as an unskilled labourer. Psychological testing showed a full scale IQ of 103 in the Klinefelter males and 115 in the hypogonadal males. The follow-up studies have shown that in spite of these findings the Klinefelter males have managed far better than could have been expected at the time of the first investigation. The improvement in a number of conditions such as mental health, working capacity, social adjustment, relations with other people, and activity level was considerable between the ages of 27 and 37. The present examination shows a further improvement at the age of 47 with the only significant difference between the Klinefelter males and the hypogonadal males with 46,XY being a higher frequency of single Klinefelter males. The present examination also showed that there was no significant difference between the two groups in occupation, working capacity, social adjustment, mental and physical disorders or criminality. The results of the examination at the mean age of 27 would probably have been considerably more favourable for the Klinefelter males if diagnosis had been made in childhood, and information, counselling, support and hormone treatment had been given from an early age. The fact that the great majority of the Klinefelter males have managed quite well in spite of this and that no remarkable differences were found between them and a control group is of great importance

  8. Reading span task performance, linguistic experience, and the processing of unexpected syntactic events.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Thomas A; Fine, Alex B; Misyak, Jennifer B; Christiansen, Morten H

    2017-03-01

    Accounts of individual differences in online language processing ability often focus on the explanatory utility of verbal working memory, as measured by reading span tasks. Although variability in reading span task performance likely reflects individual differences in multiple underlying traits, skills, and processes, accumulating evidence suggests that reading span scores also reflect variability in the linguistic experiences of an individual. Here, through an individual differences approach, we first demonstrate that reading span scores correlate significantly with measures of the amount of experience an individual has had with written language (gauged by measures that provide "proxy estimates" of print exposure). We then explore the relationship between reading span scores and online language processing ability. Individuals with higher reading spans demonstrated greater sensitivity to violations of statistical regularities found in natural language-as evinced by higher reading times (RTs) on the disambiguating region of garden-path sentences-relative to their lower span counterparts. This result held after statistically controlling for individual differences in a non-linguistic operation span task. Taken together, these results suggest that accounts of individual differences in sentence processing can benefit from a stronger focus on experiential factors, especially when considered in relation to variability in perceptual and learning abilities that influence the amount of benefit gleaned from such experience.

  9. Dietary restriction: critical co-factors to separate health span from life span benefits.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, Andrew R; Larrick, James W

    2012-10-01

    Dietary restriction (DR), typically a 20%-40% reduction in ad libitum or "normal" nutritional energy intake, has been reported to extend life span in diverse organisms, including yeast, nematodes, spiders, fruit flies, mice, rats, and rhesus monkeys. The magnitude of the life span enhancement appears to diminish with increasing organismal complexity. However, the extent of life span extension has been notoriously inconsistent, especially in mammals. Recently, Mattison et al. reported that DR does not extend life span in rhesus monkeys in contrast to earlier work of Colman et al. Examination of these papers identifies multiple potential confounding factors. Among these are the varied genetic backgrounds and composition of the "normal" and DR diets. In monkeys, the correlation of DR with increased health span is stronger than that seen with life span and indeed may be separable. Recent mechanistic studies in Drosophila implicate non-genetic co-factors such as level of physical activity and muscular fatty acid metabolism in the benefits of DR. These results should be followed up in mammals. Perhaps levels of physical activity among the cohorts of rhesus monkeys contribute to inconsistent DR effects. To understand the maximum potential benefits from DR requires differentiating fundamental effects on aging at the cellular and molecular levels from suppression of age-associated diseases, such as cancer. To that end, it is important that investigators carefully evaluate the effects of DR on biomarkers of molecular aging, such as mutation rate and epigenomic alterations. Several short-term studies show that humans may benefit from DR in as little as 6 months, by achieving lowered fasting insulin levels and improved cardiovascular health. Optimized health span engineering will require a much deeper understanding of DR.

  10. Mutant models of prolonged life span.

    PubMed

    Mahler, J F

    2001-01-01

    Aging is an important biological process that affects all creatures. For humans, age-related diseases and the question of why we age and die also have tremendous social and philosophical impact. We can therefore expect that models to study mechanisms of the aging process will always attract much interest. Until recently, the mutant model approach to study molecular mechanisms of aging has been limited to lower animals such as yeast, worms, and flies. However, given the current power of genetic technology in mammals, we can expect that phenotypes of prolonged life span will increasingly be seen in mice and subject to evaluation by pathologists. A brief review of current models is presented.

  11. 01 | February | 201span>6 | ISS On-Orbit Status Report

    NASA Website

    February 201span>6; S M T W T F S « Jan : ... August 201span>6; July 201span>6; June 201span>6; May 201span>6; April 201span>6; March 201span>6; February 201span>6; January 201span>6; December ...

  12. A Slowly Growing Orange Patch on the Cheek: Diagnosis of Lupus Vulgaris 20 Years After Onset of First Skin Changes.

    PubMed

    Pföhler, Claudia; Klotz, Michael; Wehler, Thomas; Vogt, Thomas; Müller, Cornelia S L

    2017-03-01

    Tuberculosis is a worldwide occurring disease that affects approximately 20-40% of the world's population and in particular in developing countries. However, in times of migration, industrialised countries are again being more and more affected. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare and lupus vulgaris represents its most common form. Preferentially, young adults in developing or low-income countries are affected from cutaneous tuberculosis, which usually occurs in previously sensitized persons with a high degree of tuberculin sensitivity and a good immunoresponse. In Europe, more elderly people are involved. We present a case of lupus vulgaris that was diagnosed with a delay of about 20 years after onset of first skin changes.

  13. Relationships of tree height and diameter at breast height revisited: analyses of stem growth using 20-year data of an even-aged Chamaecyparis obtusa stand.

    PubMed

    Sumida, Akihiro; Miyaura, Tomiyasu; Torii, Hitoshi

    2013-01-01

    Stem diameter at breast height (DBH) and tree height (H) are commonly used measures of tree growth. We examined patterns of height growth and diameter growth along a stem using a 20-year record of an even-aged hinoki cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa (Siebold & Zucc.) Endl.) stand. In the region of the stem below the crown (except for the butt swell), diameter growth rates (ΔD) at different heights tended to increase slightly from breast height upwards. This increasing trend was pronounced in suppressed trees, but not as much as the variation in ΔD among individual trees. Hence, ΔD below the crown can be regarded as generally being represented by the DBH growth rate (ΔDBH) of a tree. Accordingly, the growth rate of the stem cross-sectional area increased along the stem upwards in suppressed trees, but decreased in dominant trees. The stem diameter just below the crown base (D(CB)), the square of which is an index of the amount of leaves on a tree, was an important factor affecting ΔDBH. D(CB) also had a strong positive relationship with crown length. Hence, long-term changes in the D(CB) of a tree were associated with long-term changes in crown length, determined by the balance between the height growth rate (ΔH) and the rising rate of the crown base (ΔH(CB)). Within the crown, ΔD's were generally greater than the rates below the crown. Even dying trees (ΔD ≈ 0 below the crown) maintained ΔD > 0 within the crown and ΔH > 0 until about 5 years before death. This growth within the crown may be related to the need to produce new leaves to compensate for leaves lost owing to the longevity of the lower crown. These results explain the different time trajectories in DBH-H relationships among individual trees, and also the long-term changes in the DBH-H relationships. The view that a rise in the crown base is strongly related to leaf turnover helps to interpret DBH-H relationships.

  14. Gender differences in drunk driving prevalence rates and trends: a 20-year assessment using multiple sources of evidence.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Jennifer

    2008-09-01

    This research tracked women's and men's drunk driving rates and the DUI sex ratio in the United States from 1982-2004 using three diverse sources of evidence. Sex-specific prevalence estimates and the sex ratio are derived from official arrest statistics from the Federal Bureau of Investigation, self-reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and traffic fatality data from the National Highway and Transportation Safety Administration. Drunk driving trends were analyzed using Augmented Dickey Fuller time series techniques. Female DUI arrest rates increased whereas male rates declined then stabilized, producing a significantly narrower sex ratio. According to self-report and traffic data, women's and men's drunk driving rates declined and the gender gap was unchanged. Women's overrepresentation in arrests relative to their share of offending began in the 1990s and accelerated in 2000. Women's arrest gains, contrasted with no systematic change in DUI behavior, and the timing of this shift suggest an increased vulnerability to arrest. More stringent laws and enforcement directed at less intoxicated offenders may inadvertently target female offending patterns.

  15. Enacting tobacco taxes by direct popular vote in the United States: lessons from 20 years of experience

    PubMed Central

    Lum, KL; Barnes, RL; Glantz, SA

    2013-01-01

    Background Tobacco tax increases reduce tobacco use, can provide funds for tobacco prevention and enjoy broad public support. Because of tobacco industry influence in legislatures, US public health advocates have shifted the venue for tobacco tax policymaking to direct popular vote 22 times since 1988. Methods We combined case studies of individual state campaigns with tobacco industry documents to identify strategies related to outcome. Results The tobacco industry developed a voter segmentation model to determine which tobacco tax increases it could defeat. Two industry arguments arising from this model often were raised in losing campaigns—the tax increase did not dedicate enough to tobacco control and hospitals and health maintenance organisations would profit. The industry effectively influenced early voters. Success was associated with building a strong base of public support before the campaign, dedicating sufficient funds to tobacco control, avoiding proposals largely devoted to financing hospitals and other medical service providers, effectively engaging grassroots and framing the campaign with clear justifications for cigarette tax increases. Conclusions Tobacco tax ballot measures commonly allocated substantial funds to medical services; tobacco companies are becoming more successful in making this use of funds an issue. Proponents’ campaigns should be timed to account for the trend to voting well before election day. Ballot measures to increase tobacco taxes with a substantial fraction of the money devoted to tobacco control activities will probably fare better than ones that give priority to funding medical services. PMID:19556615

  16. Comovements in government bond markets: A minimum spanning tree analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, Claire G.; Lucey, Brian M.; Boscia, Marian W.

    2010-11-01

    The concept of a minimum spanning tree (MST) is used to study patterns of comovements for a set of twenty government bond market indices for developed North American, European, and Asian countries. We show how the MST and its related hierarchical tree evolve over time and describe the dynamic development of market linkages. Over the sample period, 1993-2008, linkages between markets have decreased somewhat. However, a subset of European Union (EU) bond markets does show increasing levels of comovements. The evolution of distinct groups within the Eurozone is also examined. The implications of our findings for portfolio diversification benefits are outlined.

  17. Evaluation of Peri-Implant Bone Response in Implants Retrieved for Fracture After More Than 20 Years of Loading: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; Mortellaro, Carmen; Mangano, Francesco; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-08-01

    Analysis of human retrieved dental implants is a useful tool in the evaluation of implant success and failure. More human histological data are needed from samples of long-term implant service. The aim of the present case series was a histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of the peri-implant bone responses in implants retrieved for fracture after more than 20 years loading. The archives of the Implant Retrieval Center of the Department of Medical, Oral and Biotechnological Sciences of the University of Chieti-Pescara, Italy were searched. A total of 5 implants, retrieved after a loading period of more than 20 years, were found: 2 had been retrieved after 20 years, 1 after 22 years, 1 after 25 years, and 1 after 27 years. All these implants were histologically processed. Compact, mature bone in close contact with the implant surface was observed in all specimens, with no gaps or connective tissue at the interface. Bone in different maturation stages was found around some implants. Primarily newly formed bone was observed in proximity of the implant surface, while mature compact bone with many remodeling areas and cement lines were detected in areas distant from the implant. Many primary and secondary osteons were present. Bone to implant contact percentage varied from 37.2% to 76%. In conclusion, histology and histomorphometry showed that even after many years of function, all implants presented more than adequate bone to implant contact and they appeared to be very well integrated in the peri-implant bone.

  18. Is the war really over? A 20-year longitudinal study on trajectories of suicidal ideation and posttraumatic stress symptoms following combat.

    PubMed

    Snir, Avigal; Levi-Belz, Yossi; Solomon, Zahava

    2017-01-01

    Combat stress reaction (CSR) has widespread long-term consequences, including profound psychopathology in the form of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies have established the link between combat, PTSD, and suicidality. However, little is known about the temporal course of suicidal ideation (SI) in general, specifically among war veterans. We aimed to trace the trajectories of SI in the aftermath of war and to explore the role of CSR and PTSD in SI trajectories. Israeli veterans with CSR (n=164) and a matched control group (NCSR, n=111) were assessed, using self-report measures at three points over the course of 20 years. Veterans with CSR reported significantly higher levels of SI, compared to the NCSR group at all measurement points. Among veterans with CSR, SI increased 2 years after the war and then decreased 20 years following the war. This pattern was particularly characteristic of veterans with chronic PTSD. The results indicate that CSR is a strong predictor of subsequent PTSD and suicidality. These findings highlight the importance of prevention and treatment efforts for these traumatized veterans, who are at risk for suicide even 20 years after the end of the war.

  19. Severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN): a qualitative study of patients with 20+ years of anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Paul H; Kukucska, Roza; Guidetti, Giulia; Leavey, Gerard

    2015-07-01

    Little is known about how patients with long-term eating disorders manage their clinical problems. We carried out a preliminary qualitative study (using Thematic Analysis) of patients with severe and enduring anorexia nervosa (SEED-AN) in which we undertook recorded interviews in eight participants whose conditions had lasted 20-40 years. We found 15 principle features in physical, psychological, social, family, occupational and treatment realms. Psychological and social realms were most affected. Severe physical problems were reported. They described feelings of unworthiness, frugality regarding money and obsessive time-keeping. Persisting with negligible social networks, participants described depression and hopelessness, while somehow achieving a sense of pride at their endurance and survival in spite of the eating disorder. They emphasized the importance of professional help in managing their care. The severe and enduring description, often reserved for people with psychotic illness, is appropriately applied to SEED-AN, which has major impacts in all realms.

  20. Evolution of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a fish rhabdovirus, in Europe over 20 years: implications for control.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Peter-Joachim; Castric, Jeannette; Bovo, Giuseppe; Thiery, Richard; Fichtner, Dieter; Schütze, Heike; Wahli, Thomas

    2010-02-24

    The fish pathogenic rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) causes substantial losses in European aquaculture. IHNV was first detected in Europe in 1987 and has since undergone considerable spread. Phylogenetic analyses of the full G-gene sequences of 73 isolates obtained from 4 countries in Europe (France, n = 18; Italy, 9; Switzerland, 4; Germany, 42) enable determination of the evolution of the virus in Europe since the first detection, and identification of characteristic changes within the G-genes of European strains. Further, the database allows us to analyse the pathways of distribution in Europe over time. The results suggest that in most of the recent cases, spread of IHNV was related to trade of infected fish. The data further demonstrate that knowledge of the sequence is required to determine the source of infections in farms.

  1. Land Deformation at the Thessaloniki - Giannitsa Plain (Greece) Deduced from 20- years Radar Observations using Persistent Scatterers Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svigkas, N.; Papoutsis, I.; Loupasakis, K.; Kiratzi, A. A.; Kontoes, C.

    2015-12-01

    We present the detected deformation and interpret the results in the light of ground-truth hydrological data, for the Thessaloniki-Giannitsa plain, the largest deltaic plain in Greece, encircled by Mounts Vermio, Paiko and Pieria. The contemporary morphology was gradually developed from the tectonic variations of the upper Pleistocene. The area has been subjected to many changes due to both natural causes and to human intervention. ERS-1, 2 and Envisat data provided from the European Space Agency were analysed to produce a time-series analysis based on Persistent Scatterer techniques. The mass processing of the 81 satellite images led to the creation of more than 250 Interferograms. The broader area of interest consists primarily of agricultural lands, leading to limited Interferometric coherence, and therefore careful Interferogram filtering and phase unwrapping of the input stack was crucial for reliable velocity generation. Our results show a strong deformation signal in regions of significant lifelines, as the railway and road network. Moreover, the satellite imagery revealed two significantly deforming sites: Kalochori and Sindos. The broader Kalochori region, the locus of the industrial activity of the city of Thessaloniki, is located below sea level. Both sites are suffering from land subsidence for more than 50 years, with several marine invasions reported in the past. Interestingly enough the two datasets -that represent two decades- show a reversed deformation pattern: The period in-between 1993 to 2000 is characterized by subsidence up to 34 mm/y, whereas from 2002 to 2010 there is an uplifting trend (more than 20 mm/yr). This result is crosschecked with hydrogeological data; the interpretation depicts that at Kalochori and Sindos the human factor (i.e. over pumping) is the dominant driver of these surface displacements. Although this was an assumption of previous studies, here we present for the first time, systematic proof that the detected uplift of

  2. The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium: 20 years of development and integration of USA national land cover data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, James D.; Homer, Collin G.; Vogelmann, James E.; McKerrow, Alexa; Mueller, Rick; Herold, Nate; Coluston, John

    2014-01-01

    The Multi-Resolution Land Characteristics (MRLC) Consortium demonstrates the national benefits of USA Federal collaboration. Starting in the mid-1990s as a small group with the straightforward goal of compiling a comprehensive national Landsat dataset that could be used to meet agencies’ needs, MRLC has grown into a group of 10 USA Federal Agencies that coordinate the production of five different products, including the National Land Cover Database (NLCD), the Coastal Change Analysis Program (C-CAP), the Cropland Data Layer (CDL), the Gap Analysis Program (GAP), and the Landscape Fire and Resource Management Planning Tools (LANDFIRE). As a set, the products include almost every aspect of land cover from impervious surface to detailed crop and vegetation types to fire fuel classes. Some products can be used for land cover change assessments because they cover multiple time periods. The MRLC Consortium has become a collaborative forum, where members share research, methodological approaches, and data to produce products using established protocols, and we believe it is a model for the production of integrated land cover products at national to continental scales. We provide a brief overview of each of the main products produced by MRLC and examples of how each product has been used. We follow that with a discussion of the impact of the MRLC program and a brief overview of future plans.

  3. Bones to Biomaterials and Back Again – 20 years of taking cues from nature to engineer synthetic polymer scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Kretlow, James D.; Mikos, Antonios G.

    2011-01-01

    For biomaterials scientists focusing on tissue engineering applications, the gold standard material is healthy, autologous tissue. Ideal material properties and construct design parameters are thus both obvious and often times unachievable; additional considerations such as construct delivery and the underlying pathology necessitating new tissue yield additional design challenges with solutions that are not evident in nature. For the past nearly two decades, our laboratory and collaborators have aimed to develop both new biomaterials and a better understanding of the complex interplay between material and host tissue to facilitate bone and cartilage regeneration. Various approaches have ranged from mimicking native tissue material properties and architecture to developing systems for bioactive molecule delivery as soluble factors or bound directly to the biomaterial substrate. Such technologies have allowed others and us to design synthetic biomaterials incorporating increasing levels of complexity found in native tissues with promising advances made towards translational success. Recent work focuses on translation of these technologies in specific clinical situations through the use of adjunctive biomaterials designed to address existing pathologies or guide host-material integration. PMID:21714068

  4. Urinary tract re-functionalization after long-term diversion. A 20-year experience with 177 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Hendren, W H

    1990-01-01

    From 1969 to 1990, previously diverted urinary tracts were 'undiverted' in 177 patients whose ages ranged from 1 to 31 years. Fifty-six of the patients (32%) had been diverted for 10 years or longer. There were 67 female and 110 male patients. Forty-four patients had only one kidney and in two of those patients it was a previous renal transplant. One patient was anephric at the time of reconstruction, having had two unsuccessful transplants. Most of the diversions had been considered permanent. Types of diversions that were reversed include ileal loop, colon conduit, loop ureterostomy or pyelostomy, end ureterostomy, cystostomy or vesicostomy, long-term nephrostomy, and ureterosigmoidostomy. Images Fig. 6. Figs. 8A and B. Figs 10A and B. Figs. 12A and B. Figs. 14A and B. Figs. 16A-D. Figs 20A and B. Figs.22A and B. Figs. 24A and B. Figs. 25A and B. Figs. 28A-D. PMID:2222014

  5. Allergy to betalactam antibiotics in children: results of a 20-year study based on clinical history, skin and challenge tests.

    PubMed

    Ponvert, C; Perrin, Y; Bados-Albiero, A; Le Bourgeois, M; Karila, C; Delacourt, C; Scheinmann, P; De Blic, J

    2011-06-01

    Studies based on skin and challenge tests have shown that 12-60% of children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity were allergic to betalactams. Responses in skin and challenge tests were studied in 1865 children with suspected betalactam allergy (i) to confirm or rule out the suspected diagnosis; (ii) to evaluate diagnostic value of immediate and non-immediate responses in skin and challenge tests; (iii) to determine frequency of betalactam allergy in those children, and (iv) to determine potential risk factors for betalactam allergy. The work-up was completed in 1431 children, of whom 227 (15.9%) were diagnosed allergic to betalactams. Betalactam hypersensitivity was diagnosed in 50 of the 162 (30.9%) children reporting immediate reactions and in 177 of the 1087 (16.7%) children reporting non-immediate reactions (p<0.001). The likelihood of betalactam hypersensitivity was also significantly higher in children reporting anaphylaxis, serum sickness-like reactions, and (potentially) severe skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematic pustulosis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, and drug reaction with systemic symptoms than in other children (p<0.001). Skin tests diagnosed 86% of immediate and 31.6% of non-immediate sensitizations. Cross-reactivity and/or cosensitization among betalactams was diagnosed in 76% and 14.7% of the children with immediate and non-immediate hypersensitivity, respectively. The number of children diagnosed allergic to betalactams decreased with time between the reaction and the work-up, probably because the majority of children with severe and worrying reactions were referred for allergological work-up more promptly than the other children. Sex, age, and atopy were not risk factors for betalactam hypersensitivity. In conclusion, we confirm in numerous children that (i) only a few children with suspected betalactam hypersensitivity are allergic to betalactams; (ii) the likelihood of betalactam allergy increases with earliness and

  6. Pattern of Tuber melanosporum extramatrical mycelium expansion over a 20-year chronosequence in Quercus ilex-truffle orchards.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Fischer, C; Bonet, J A; Olivera, A; Inchusta, A; Colinas, C

    2014-04-01

    Successful cultivation of black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) requires a long-term investment and the maintenance of the symbiosis throughout its preproductive and productive years. Monitoring the symbiosis over time is challenging, as it requires methods that can detect the belowground proliferation of the fungus associated with its host tree. In this study, we used a chronosequence design to study the expansion pattern of this fungus as the host tree grows. We hypothesize that this expansion can be estimated by monitoring T. melanosporum DNA from soil beneath host trees of different ages (3, 5, 7, 10, 14, and 20 years old) and at different distances from the trunk of the trees (40, 100, and 200 cm). We also wished to evaluate the presences of Tuber brumale and Tuber indicum, potentially problematic truffle species, in these plantations. To detect the mycelium of T. melanosporum in these soils, we extracted DNA and performed polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with Tuber species-specific primers, and to estimate DNA amount, we measured relative band intensities from the amplicons in agarose gels. Both age and distance were related to T. melanosporum DNA quantity, which was more abundant in the oldest age classes, reaching a plateau in 5-7 years. At 40 cm from the tree, there were no differences in T. melanosporum DNA amounts in orchards of different ages, but at 100 and 200 cm, younger orchards had less T. melanosporum DNA. We did not detect DNA from T. brumale or T. indicum in any of our samples.

  7. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    PubMed

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  8. Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, James H

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether happiness can spread from person to person and whether niches of happiness form within social networks. Design Longitudinal social network analysis. Setting Framingham Heart Study social network. Participants 4739 individuals followed from 1983 to 2003. Main outcome measures Happiness measured with validated four item scale; broad array of attributes of social networks and diverse social ties. Results Clusters of happy and unhappy people are visible in the network, and the relationship between people’s happiness extends up to three degrees of separation (for example, to the friends of one’s friends’ friends). People who are surrounded by many happy people and those who are central in the network are more likely to become happy in the future. Longitudinal statistical models suggest that clusters of happiness result from the spread of happiness and not just a tendency for people to associate with similar individuals. A friend who lives within a mile (about 1.6 km) and who becomes happy increases the probability that a person is happy by 25% (95% confidence interval 1% to 57%). Similar effects are seen in coresident spouses (8%, 0.2% to 16%), siblings who live within a mile (14%, 1% to 28%), and next door neighbours (34%, 7% to 70%). Effects are not seen between coworkers. The effect decays with time and with geographical separation. Conclusions People’s happiness depends on the happiness of others with whom they are connected. This provides further justification for seeing happiness, like health, as a collective phenomenon. PMID:19056788

  9. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy versus open splenectomy for massive splenomegaly: 20-year experience at a Canadian centre

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Todd W.; Meneghetti, Adam T.; Sampath, Sharadh; Connors, Joseph M.; Panton, O. Neely M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Multiple techniques for splenectomy are now employed and include open, laparoscopic and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy (HALS). Concerns regarding a purely laparoscopic splenectomy for massive splenomegaly (> 20 cm) arise from potentially longer operative times, higher conversion rates and increased blood loss. The HALS technique offers the potential advantages of laparoscopy, with the added safety of having the surgeon’s hand in the abdomen during the operation. In this study, we compared the HALS technique to standard open splenectomy for the management of massive splenomegaly. Methods We reviewed all splenectomies performed at 5 hospitals in the greater Vancouver area between 1988 and 2007 for multiple demographic and outcome measures. Open splenectomies were compared with HALS procedures for spleens larger than 20 cm. Splenectomy reports without data on spleen size were excluded from the analysis. We performed Student t tests and Pearson χ2 statistical analyses. Results A total of 217 splenectomies were analyzed. Of these, 39 splenectomies were performed for spleens larger than 20 cm. We compared the open splenectomy group (19 patients) with the HALS group (20 patients). There was a 5% conversion rate in the HALS group. Estimated blood loss (375 mL v. 935 mL, p = 0.08) and the mean (and standard deviation [SD]) transfusion rates (0.0 [SD 0.0] units v. 0.8 [SD 1.7] units, p = 0.06) were lower in the HALS group. Length of stay in hospital was significantly shorter in the HALS group (4.2 v. 8.9 d, p = 0.001). Complication rates were similar in both groups. Conclusion Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy is a safe and effective technique for the management of spleens larger than 20 cm. The technique results in shorter hospital stays, and it is a good alternative to open splenectomy when treating patients with massive splenomegaly. PMID:21443834

  10. Summary of Almost 20 Years of Storm Overflight Electric Field, Conductivity, Flash Rates, and Electric Current Statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.; Bateman, Monte J.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.

    2011-01-01

    We determined total conduction currents and flash rates for around 900 high-altitude aircraft overflights of electrified clouds over 17 years. The overflights include a wide geographical sample of storms over land and ocean, with and without lightning, and with positive (i.e., upward-directed) and negative current. Peak electric field, with lightning transients removed, ranged from -1.0 kV m(sup -1) to 16. kV m(sup -1), with mean (median) of 0.9 kV m(sup -1) (0.29 kV m(sup -1)). Total conductivity at flight altitude ranged from 0.6 pS m(sup -1) to 3.6 pS m(sup -1), with mean and median of 2.2 pS m(sup -1). Peak current densities ranged from -2.0 nA m(sup -2) to 33.0 nA m(sup -2) with mean (median) of 1.9 nA m(sup -2) (0.6 nA m(sup -2)). Total upward current flow from storms in our dataset ranged from -1.3 to 9.4 A. The mean current for storms with lightning is 1.6 A over ocean and 1.0 A over land. The mean current for electrified shower clouds (i.e. electrified storms without lightning) is 0.39 A for ocean and 0.13 A for land. About 78% (43%) of the land (ocean) storms have detectable lightning. Land storms have 2.8 times the mean flash rate as ocean storms (2.2 versus 0.8 flashes min(sup -1), respectively). Approximately 7% of the overflights had negative current. The mean and median currents for positive (negative) polarity storms are 1.0 and 0.35 A (-0.30 and -0.26 A). We found no regional or latitudinal-based patterns in our storm currents, nor support for simple scaling laws between cloud top height and lightning flash rate.

  11. 7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Underside of span, details of deck, stringers, floor beams, bottom-lateral bracing, and north abutment; looking north - Bridge No. 92101, Spanning Pike River at County Highway 373, Embarrass, St. Louis County, MN

  12. General perspective view of the main steel plate girder spans, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    General perspective view of the main steel plate girder spans, view looking southwest - Whiteson Bridge, Spanning South Yamhill River at Milepoint 42 on Pacific Highway West (Oregon Route 99W), Whiteson, Yamhill County, OR

  13. Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of expansion bearing shoe of Span No. 1 on Abutment No. 1, view to south - Gillespie Dam Bridge, Spanning Gila River on Old US 80 Highway, south of Gillespie Dam, Arlington, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 20. Third approach span, comparing pier types and showing guardrail ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Third approach span, comparing pier types and showing guardrail and connection to arch spring point, looking east - U.S. Route 1 Nottoway River Bridge, U.S. Route 1 spanning Nottoway River, McKenney, Dinwiddie County, VA

  15. INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR OF WEST SPAN LOOKING WEST (SHADOW OF VERTICAL LAPS PLACED ON ZONE III; ASPHALT ZONE IX) - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  16. ELEVATION NORTHEAST BY 30 DEGREES, WEST SECTIONS OF SPAN COVERED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELEVATION NORTHEAST BY 30 DEGREES, WEST SECTIONS OF SPAN COVERED BY OVERGROWTH - Honey Run Bridge, Spanning Butte Creek, bypassed section of Honey Run Road (originally Carr Hill Road), Paradise, Butte County, CA

  17. 33. View of swing span floor framing, looking east from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. View of swing span floor framing, looking east from pivot pier - Macombs Dam Bridge, Spanning Harlem River Between 155th Street Viaduct, Jerome Avenue, & East 162nd Street, Bronx, Bronx County, NY

  18. 7. View of first panel point, bottom chord. Span 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View of first panel point, bottom chord. Span 1 is showing pin connection and eye bar construction around pin. - Bridge No. 33.3, Spanning Elk River at Milepost JC-33.3, Fayetteville, Lincoln County, TN

  19. FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FIXED END OF MIDDLE SPAN. WESTERN SIDE SHOWING WELDING OF TOP PLATE ADDED TO STRENGTHEN THE BRIDGE. - Spile Bridge Road Bridge, Spanning Black Lake Outlie at Spile Bridge Road, Oswegatchie, St. Lawrence County, NY

  20. 56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. View below deck of Manhattan side span showing ramps to East Side Expressway. Jet Lowe, photographer, 1982. - Brooklyn Bridge, Spanning East River between Park Row, Manhattan and Sands Street, Brooklyn, New York County, NY