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Sample records for 20-year-old swiss men

  1. 28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 CD ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Graffiti in north cells: '20 years old 4315 C-D Mamoru Yoshimoto 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '18 ' ' years old 1406-A Haruo Yokoi 6/17/45 270 days Nagoya'; '31 ' ' years old 5604-B Masaki Nishii 5/24/45 180 days Kumamoto'; '19 ' ' years old 1806-B Masaharu Yoshida 5/24/45 180 days Hiroshima'; 135mm lens with electronic flash illumination. - Tule Lake Project Jail, Post Mile 44.85, State Route 139, Newell, Modoc County, CA

  2. Reactive mesothelial hyperplasia associated with chronic peritonitis in a 20-year-old Quarter horse

    PubMed Central

    Hoon-Hanks, Laura L.; Rout, Emily D.; Vap, Linda M.; Aboellail, Tawfik A.; Hassel, Diana M.; Nout-Lomas, Yvette S.

    2016-01-01

    A 20-year-old gelding was diagnosed with peritonitis and severe reactive mesothelial hyperplasia. Exploratory laparotomy findings were suggestive of a neoplastic etiology; however, additional diagnostics ruled this out and the horse made a full recovery. This report demonstrates the difficulty and value of differentiating between reactive and neoplastic mesothelial processes. PMID:27152035

  3. Primary Hyperparathyroidism with Extensive Brown Tumors and Multiple Fractures in a 20-Year-Old Woman

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Ju Hee; Kim, Kyoung Jin; Lee, Ye Jin; Kim, Sun Hwa; Kim, Sin Gon; Jung, Kwang Yoon; Choi, Dong Seop

    2015-01-01

    A brown tumor is a benign fibrotic, erosive bony lesion caused by localized, rapid osteoclastic turnover, resulting from hyperparathyroidism. Although brown tumors are one of the most pathognomonic signs of primary hyperparathyroidism, they are rarely seen in clinical practice. In this report, we present a case of 20-year-old woman with recurrent fractures and bone pain. Plain digital radiographs of the affected bones revealed multiple erosive bone tumors, which were finally diagnosed as brown tumors associated with primary hyperparathyroidism due to a parathyroid adenoma. This case shows that multiple, and clinically severe form of brown tumors can even occur in young patients. PMID:26354493

  4. Factitious aortic dissection leading to thoracotomy in a 20-year-old man.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Elise; Yager, Joel; Apfeldorf, William; Camps-Romero, Eduardo

    2007-01-01

    A 20-year-old man presented to an emergency department with dramatic, sudden-onset, tearing chest pain. He also claimed to have been previously diagnosed with Ehler-Danlos syndrome and a previous Type I aortic dissection (intimal tear of ascending aorta), rapidly increasing his treating physician's suspicion of an emergent aortic dissection. The patient was quickly transferred to a large university hospital, where he underwent a median sternotomy and thoracotomy, with no aortic pathology found on operation and biopsy. After the patient's postoperative recovery, he was treated at a mental health facility, where he remained ambivalent about his psychiatric condition and did not respond well to treatment. This case report describes a unique case of factitious disorder that led to a serious operative intervention and subsequent psychiatric care and assesses factors that might have contributed to his hospital course.

  5. Rhabdomyolysis and Cardiomyopathy in a 20-Year-Old Patient with CPT II Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Vavlukis, M.; Eftimov, A.; Zafirovska, P.; Caparovska, E.; Pocesta, B.; Kedev, S.; Dimovski, A. J.

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To raise the awareness of adult-onset carnitite palmitoyltransferase II deficiency (CPT II) by describing clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of the disease occurring in early adulthood. Method. Review of the case characteristics and literature review. Results. We report on a 20-year-old man presenting with dyspnea, fatigue, fever, and myoglobinuria. This was the second episode with such symptoms (the previous one being three years earlier). The symptoms occurred after intense physical work, followed by a viral infection resulting in fever treated with NSAIDs. Massive rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed, resulting in acute renal failure necessitating plasmapheresis and hemodialysis, acute hepatic lesion, and respiratory insufficiency. Additionally, our patient had cardiomyopathy with volume overload. After a detailed workup, CPT II deficiency was suspected. We did a sequencing analysis for exons 1, 3, and 4 of the CPT II gene and found that the patient was homozygote for Ser 113 Leu mutation in exon 3 of the CPT II gene. The patient recovery was complete except for the cardiomiopathy with mildly impaired systolic function. Conclusion. Whenever a patient suffers recurrent episodes of myalgia, followed by myoglobinuria due to rhabdomyolysis, we should always consider the possibility of this rare condition. The definitive diagnose of this condition is achieved by genetic testing. PMID:24563797

  6. Cruciate Paralysis in a 20- year -old Male with an Undisplaced Type III Odontoid Fracture

    PubMed Central

    A, Mansukhani Sameer; V, Tuteja Sanesh; B, Dhar Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Cruciate Paralysis is a rare incomplete spinal cord syndrome presenting as brachial diplegia with minimal or no involvement of the lower extremities. It occurs as a result of trauma to the cervical spine and is associated with fractures of the axis and/or atlas. Diagnosis is confirmed on MRI and is managed by treatment of the underlying pathology. Prognosis depends on the extent of spinal cord injury and the exact cause. Case Presentation: A 20-year-old male presented to the casualty with a history of an injury to the back of the head as a result of a fall. He had severe pain in the neck and shoulder region and experienced difficulty in raising both arms and gripping objects. On examination, he had weakness of both arms, more on the right, involving the C5 to T1 distribution and brisk reflexes. There was no sensory deficit. Radiograph and a computed tomography (CT) scan of the cervical spine showed a type III undisplaced odontoid fracture. MRI showed a signal abnormality in the spinal cord at the level of the cervicomedullary junction extending up to the body of C2 vertebra. The patient was treated with traction in Gardner Wells tongs for six weeks and a sterno-occipital-mandibular immobilizer immobilizer (SOMI) brace thereafter. At three-month follow-up, he had attained complete neurological recovery. Conclusion: Cruciate Paralysis is an important cause of brachial diplegia and must be differentiated from Acute Central Cord syndrome which can have similar clinical features. PMID:28111622

  7. [Tattooing and its significance in Switzerland. A representative study of 2177 20-year-old Swiss subjects].

    PubMed

    Haefeli, W E

    1990-03-03

    To investigate the incidence, significance and symbolism of tattooing in Switzerland, a representative group of 2177 young males (all liable for military service, age 19-21 years) were examined in 1988. All tattoos were sketched, the location was recorded and the individual meaning was discussed with the bearer. 135 subjects (6.2%) had 1-9 tattoos per person, showing 155 different marks. Only 13% of all tattoos were professional, moderate to large in size and most often located in the area of the upper arm and the shoulder. 87% of tattoos were self-inflicted or placed by a friend and the left side was therefore preferred (66%). In general, these were small to moderate in size, simple in design, and usually located on the forearm and the hand. The dominant significance of all tattoos was related to mental attitude (29%) and love affairs (14%). 13% were pictorial. Some were related to drug abuse, criminality of gangs, or contained magic symbolism or personal data such as zodiac signs and initials (about 4% each). Only 20% had no conventional or private meaning or involved concealed symbolism. For further understanding of the individuals' social history, it should be noted that some tattoos were characterized by minor differences of meaning, such as the "man-in-4-walls" mark (= prison), the "fuck-the-police" mark, the leaf of cannabis sativa or different cross motifs. Even greater consistency related to tattoos located in the web space between the thumb and the forefinger or on the back of the fingers. The location in itself may therefore provide additional personal information on individual circumstances at the time of tattooing.

  8. Nitrous Oxide Abuse and Vitamin B12 Action in a 20-Year-Old Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Duque, Miriam Andrea; Kresak, Jesse L; Falchook, Adam; Harris, Neil S

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of a 20-year-old (ethnicity not reported) woman with a history of nitrous oxide abuse and clinical symptoms consistent with spinal cord subacute combined degeneration with associated low serum concentrations of vitamin B12, elevated methylmalonic acid levels, and radiologic evidence of demyelination of the dorsal region of the spinal column. The health of the patient improved dramatically with B12 supplementation. In this case, we discuss the interaction of nitrous oxide with the enzymatic pathways involved in the biochemistry of vitamin B12.

  9. Recurrent low grade serous ovarian cancer in a 20 year old woman: A case from the Ohio State University College of Medicine.

    PubMed

    Cohn, David E; Backes, Floor J; Wallbillich, John J; Bixel, Kristin; Crafton, Sarah M; Neff, Robert; ElNaggar, Adam C; Smith, Blair; Suarez, Adrian A

    2017-03-01

    A 20 year old with recurrent low-grade serous carcinoma (LGSC) is discussed. The differential diagnosis, pathology, epidemiology, treatment options are discussed. Focus on the molecular pathways of LGSC and the implications of the diagnosis on fertility are highlighted.

  10. A primary intravascular synovial sarcoma causing deep-vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism in a 20-year-old woman

    PubMed Central

    Schreiner, M.; Sanad, W.; Pfitzner, B.M.; Baumann, G.; Knebel, F.

    2015-01-01

    Primary intravascular synovial sarcoma is a rare malignancy with only a few cases documented in the literature. On presentation, this tumour usually resembles a deep venous thrombosis (dvt) or pulmonary embolism (pe). Here, we report the case of a 20-year-old woman complaining of shortness of breath who had a history of dvt 6 weeks before presentation at our institution. Vascular ultrasound detected a suspicious mass in the right groin, which was identified as a monophasic synovial sarcoma by surgical biopsy. The tumour extended from the right superficial femoral vein into the common iliac vein, profound femoral vein, and great saphenous vein. It caused pe with near-total occlusion of the right pulmonary artery. After initial treatment on the cardiac intensive care unit, the patient was referred to the oncology department for neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with doxorubicin–ifosfamide according to the Interdisziplinäre Arbeitsgemeinschaft Weichteilsarkome [Interdisciplinary AG Sarcomas] protocol and surgical resection of the tumour. No signs of tumour recurrence were found during the subsequent course of the disease, but the patient died from treatment complications approximately 15 months after initial presentation. This case underlines the importance of screening for malignancies even in young patients presenting with dvt or pe. We also recommend whole-leg compression ultrasonography in patients with suspected dvt or pe (as opposed to venography or simple four-point ultrasound examination in the groin and popliteal fossa) to detect possible underlying causes for thrombosis. PMID:26628882

  11. What is the best management strategy for a 20-year-old woman with premature ovarian failure?

    PubMed

    Davies, Melanie C; Cartwright, Beth

    2012-08-01

    The diagnosis of premature ovarian failure (POF) for a 20-year-old woman is devastating and will impact on many areas of her life. She deserves prompt confirmation of the diagnosis and accurate, honest information about the condition including the chances of conception and long-term health issues. She should be offered investigation of aetiology, although this may be hard to establish, and assessment of associated medical conditions. Oestrogen replacement should be advised for long-term use until the normal age of menopause, and she should be fully counselled on the benefits and risks of hormone replacement and her options of which preparation to take. Long-term follow-up is needed, and this is likely to require multidisciplinary input, including that from a gynaecologist, clinical psychologist and fertility team. POF may not be the appropriate terminology for this condition. Ovarian function often fluctuates in young women with POF, who may continue to menstruate occasionally and even conceive spontaneously. In view of this unpredictability, 'premature ovarian insufficiency' is a better description of the condition and carries a less negative connotation than 'ovarian failure' which can cause great distress. We recommend that the condition is termed 'premature ovarian insufficiency' (Clinical Endocrinology 2008;68:499).

  12. Normal values of the maximal respiratory pressures in healthy people older than 20 years old in the City of Manizales - Colombia

    PubMed Central

    López López, Alexandra; Ávila, Carmen Liliana

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The Maximal Inspiratory Pressure (MIP) and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP) are global measures of the maximal strength of the respiratory muscles. Objectives: To determine the values of MIP and MEP in healthy subjects aged 20 years old from the urban area of Manizales, Colombia and to correlate them with sociodemographic and anthropometric variables. Methods: This is an observational descriptive study. The population of the study was 203,965 healthy people from Manizales, a Colombian city located at 2,150 meters above sea level. The sample size was 308 subjects, selected using simple random sampling. The maximal respiratory pressures were determined in the sample chosen and were then considered according to the variables of age, gender, size, weight, Body Mass Index (BMI), and BMI classification. Finally a predictive model was created. Results: The average MIP value among the subjects of the study was 75±27 cmH20 and the MEP value was 96.4±36 cmH20. Both averages were higher in men than in women. Predictive equations were established for the normal values of MIP and MEP in healthy subjects; the best model for MIP was the resultant one among age, gender and BMI classification and for the MEP among gender, weight and height. Conclusion: Maximal respiratory pressure values were lower among the population of Manizales than those found in international studies. Gender and anthropometric characteristics (weight, height and BMI classification) are the explanatory variables that better support the average values of MIP and MEP in the predictive models proposed. PMID:24893052

  13. Synchronous HIV/AIDS-related Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female.

    PubMed

    Adam, Etai; Wang, Larry; Herrington, Cynthia; Bliss, David; Church, Joseph A

    2014-10-01

    We present a case of simultaneous endobronchial and adrenal Epstein-Barr Virus-associated smooth muscle tumors in a 20-year-old female with AIDS. Blood Epstein-Barr Virus polymerase chain reaction was negative at the time of diagnosis.

  14. Prevalence of and Associated Factors for Adult Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Young Swiss Men

    PubMed Central

    Estévez, Natalia; Eich-Höchli, Dominique; Dey, Michelle; Gmel, Gerhard; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun

    2014-01-01

    Objective The present study aimed to measure the prevalence of adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in a large, representative sample of young Swiss men and to assess factors associated with this disorder. Methods Our sample consisted of 5656 Swiss men (mean age 20 years) who participated in the Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). ADHD was assessed with the World Health Organization (WHO) adult ADHD Self Report Screener (ASRS). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the association between ADHD and several socio-demographic, clinical and familial factors. Results The prevalence of ADHD was 4.0%, being higher in older and French-speaking conscripts. A higher prevalence also was identified among men whose mothers had completed primary or high school/university and those with a family history of alcohol or psychiatric problems. Additionally, adults with ADHD demonstrated impairment in their professional life, as well as considerable mental health impairment. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that ADHD is common among young Swiss men. The impairments in function and mental health we observed highlight the need for further support and interventions to reduce burden in affected individuals. Interventions that incorporate the whole family also seem crucial. PMID:24586672

  15. A 20-year-old female with Hirayama disease complicated with dysplasia of the cervical vertebrae and degeneration of intervertebral discs

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Masaya; Yoshioka, Masayuki; Sakimoto, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Masahiko

    2012-01-01

    A 20-year-old female patient was presented with a 1-year history of progressive weakness of the left hand. Examination on admission showed atrophy of the muscles of the left forearm, cold paralysis and minipolymyoclonus. MR images of the cervical cord showed anterior transfer of the cervical cord on anterior flexion and cervical cord compression at the site of cervical kyphosis, confirming the diagnosis of Hirayama disease. Many features of the present case are unusual: the patient is a female (who are rarely afflicted by this disease), with cervical kyphosis and a history of exercise involving cervical vertebral loading, suggesting a potential involvement of the latter two factors in the disease onset. The findings suggest that cervical vertebral dysplasia and intervertebral disc degeneration may influence cervical kyphosis, and be involved in the onset of Hirayama disease. PMID:23144342

  16. Dysphagia caused by focal guttural pouch mycosis: mononeuropathy of the pharyngeal ramus of the vagal nerve in a 20-year-old pony mare

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A 20-year-old pony mare was presented to the equine hospital with a ten-day history of dysphagia, regurgitation and coughing. An obstruction of the oesophagus was excluded via endoscopy, but the proximal oesophagus appeared to be distended and circular contractions were missing. A guttural pouch endoscopy revealed a single, black-mottled plaque on the pharyngeal ramus of the vagus nerve in the left guttural pouch, causing a local swelling of this nerve. The pharyngeal ramus seemed to be atrophic distal to the lesion. A biopsy was taken from the lesion and histopathological findings proved the reasonable suspicion of a guttural pouch mycosis with a high degree of purulent-necrotic inflammation and invasion of fungal hyphae. There were no signs of neoplasia, such as melanoma. Daily guttural pouch irrigations with a clotrimazole emulsion (20 g Canesten® Gyn4 solved in 500 ml water), led to a good recovery of the mucosa above the nerve. Periodic endoscopic examination of the left guttural pouch showed that local thickening and distal atrophy of this pharyngeal ramus did not improve, neither did the clinical symptoms. Due to progressive weight loss, acute respiratory distress and aspiration pneumonia, the 20-year-old pony mare unfortunately had to be euthanized three weeks after discharge. This case report emphasizes the enormous importance of a single nerve for the realization of the swallowing process. The one-sided loss of function of the pharyngeal branch of the vagal nerve cannot be compensated neither by the remaining ipsilateral nerves nor by the contralateral normal functioning glossopharyngeal and vagal nerves and thus inevitably leads to severe dysphagia. PMID:23845027

  17. Pelvic Floor Support Defect in Apical Anterior Vaginal Prolapse with Cervical Hypertrophy. Review with Case Report in a 20-year-old Cadaver

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Apical anterior vaginal wall prolapse (AVWP) with central defect is uncommon in young non hysterectomized patients causing considerable mortality after the fourth decade of life. Its high propensity to recurrence poses the greatest challenge to pelvic reconstructive surgeons. Approximately 40% of women with prolapse have hypertrophic cervical elongation and the extent of elongation increases with greater degrees of prolapse. Women with prolapse either have inherent hypertrophic elongation of the cervix which predisposes them to prolapse or the downward traction in prolapse leads to cervical elongation. The Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification (POP-Q) examination includes measurement of the location of the posterior fornix (point D) with the assumption that this measurement is associated with cervical elongation. Multifocal site involvement with apical and perineal descent primarily afflicts elderly, postmenopausal women after the fourth decade while cervical hypertrophic elongation with prolapse is observed in younger women less than 40 years of age. A review of the anatomical implication of the association of cervical hypertrophy in prolapse is carried out in this article. We observed a combination of distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with apical descent and cervical hypertrophy in a 20-year-old cadaver during routine dissection for undergraduate medical students at Sikkim Manipal Institute of Medical Sciences in 2013. Distension type anterior vaginal prolapse with central defect is rarer as most reported cases are of the displacement type, paravaginal defect. Hypertrophic cervical elongation is either the cause or consequence of prolapse and its identification before reconstructive surgery is paramount as uterine suspension in the face of cervical elongation is contraindicated. Inappropriate identification of all support defects and breaking of tissues is the primary cause of failure of laparoscopic pelvic reconstructive surgery. PMID:26557506

  18. Cigarette smoking and random serum cholesterol levels in a Northern Ireland general practice population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J S; Steele, K

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease is the commonest cause of death in Northern Ireland, but few data exist on the incidence of risk factors in young adult students and non-students. AIM: To gather data on the prevalence of cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol in a population of 18- to 20-year-old students and non-students. METHOD: Subjects were patients are Mountsandel Surgery, Coleraine on 1 January 1989 and were 18-20 years of age inclusive on that date. Subjects were interviewed by a research nurse who recorded socio-demographic data, tobacco consumption and random serum total cholesterol. Smoking status validation was by serum thiocyanate and expired air carbonmonoxide estimations. RESULTS: Out of the 832 subjects surveyed, 570 were students and 262 were non-students. Cigarettes were smoked by 239 (28.7%) subjects, and a significantly greater proportion of non-students compared with students were smokers (36.6% and 25.1%, respectively; P < 0.001). The proportion of males compared with females who smoked cigarettes was not significantly different, but males smoked significantly more cigarettes per day than females (14 and 11 cigarettes, respectively; P = 0.005). The average age for commencing regular cigarette smoking was 15.3 years, and 49.9% of smokers had started regular smoking by the age of 16 years. A greater proportion of non-students (65.7%) compared with students (39.2%) had started smoking before the age of 16 years. Out of those sampled, 156 (19.2%) had random serum cholesterol levels above 5.2 mmol l-1. Mean total cholesterol for non-students was significantly higher than for students (4.61 and 4.45 mmol l-1, respectively; P = 0.01) and increased significantly with increasing age (P = 0.03). Three subjects recorded cholesterol levels above 7.8 mmol l-1. CONCLUSION: Cigarette smoking and raised serum total cholesterol were prevalent among an apparently healthy population of students and non-students. These young adults may be

  19. [Cribra orbitalia, dentin hypoplasia and life expectancy of 20-year-old persons as social and sex specific stress indicators in correlation with the health status of an early medieval population].

    PubMed

    Hotz, Gerhard

    2004-09-01

    The aim of this study is based on the analysis of diachronically social and sexual specific considerations on the life situation of the early medieval population of Schleitheim, Kanton Schaffhausen, Switzerland. Cribra orbitalia and the linear enamel hypoplasia of the teeth are considered as stressors. This study is based on the life expectancy of the 20 years old, as the life expectancy gives information on the health condition of a social group or an entire population. The considered indicators show the same tendencies in three of the four social groups (women social group A and group B/C, men of the social group A). The female and male population of the social group A show a steady decrease in the indicator from the 5th century to come to its lowest level in the 7th century. The same parameters indicate a continuous increase in stress for the female population of the group B/C. Only one of the three indicators, the Cribra orbitalia, shows a positive tendency in the male population of the social group B/C from the 6th century to the following period, while hypoplasia and the life expectancy on the other hand indicate a negative tendency. The results show equal tendencies in the three independent indicators concerning three of the four social groups. This proves the high reliability of the indicators. These results are astonishing in two ways. First of all, the tendencies show that the originally better life situation of women of the higher ranking social group decreases in the following periods, whereas the women of the lower social group show an inverse development. This female population of low life situation in the 5th century shows an increase in life qualities in the following periods. Remarkable, too, is the fact, that the female population of both social groups shows a lower level of stress than the corresponding male population. This fact is astonishing, as we would expect inverse results in a patriarchal society. This may point to a well known fact

  20. Non-medical prescription drug and illicit street drug use among young Swiss men and associated mental health issues.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Studer, Joseph; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-01-01

    Non-medical use of prescription drugs (NMUPD) is increasing among the general population, particularly among teenagers and young adults. Although prescription drugs are considered safer than illicit street drugs, NMUPD can lead to detrimental consequences. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between drug use (NMUPD on the one side, illicit street drugs on the other side) with mental health issues and then compare these associations. A representative sample of 5719 young Swiss men aged around 20 years filled in a questionnaire as part of the ongoing baseline Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors (C-SURF). Drug use (16 illicit street drugs and 5 NMUPDs, including sleeping pills, sedatives, pain killers, antidepressants, stimulants) and mental health issues (depression, SF12) were assessed. Simple and multiple linear regressions were employed. In simple regressions, all illicit and prescription drugs were associated with poorer mental health. In multiple regressions, most of the NMUPDs, except for stimulants, were significantly associated with poorer mental health and with depression. On the contrary, the only associations that remained significant between illicit street drugs and mental health involved cannabis. NMUPD is of growing concern not only because of its increasing occurrence, but also because of its association with depression and mental health problems, which is stronger than the association observed between these problems and illicit street drug use, excepted for cannabis. Therefore, NMUPD must be considered in screening for substance use prevention purposes.

  1. An 8-Item Short Form of the Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood (IDEA) Among Young Swiss Men.

    PubMed

    Baggio, Stéphanie; Iglesias, Katia; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard

    2015-06-01

    Emerging adulthood is a period of life transition, in which youths are no longer adolescents but have not yet reached full adulthood. Measuring emerging adulthood is crucial because of its association with psychopathology and risky behaviors such as substance use. Unfortunately, the only validated scale for such measurement has a long format (Inventory of Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood [IDEA]-31 items). This study aimed to test whether a shorter form yields satisfactory results without substantial loss of information among a sample of young Swiss men. Data from the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors were used (N = 5,049). IDEA, adulthood markers (e.g., parenthood or financial independence), and risk factors (i.e., substance use and mental health issues) were assessed. The results showed that an 8-item, short-form scale (IDEA-8) with four factors (experimentation, negativity, identity exploration, and feeling in between) returned satisfactory results, including good psychometric properties, high convergence with the initial scale, and strong empirical validity. This study was a step toward downsizing a measure of emerging adulthood. Indeed, this 8-item short form is a good alternative to the 31-item long form and could be more convenient for surveys with constraints on questionnaire length. Moreover, it should help health care practitioners in identifying at-risk populations to prevent and treat risky behaviors.

  2. Fertility-sparing management and obstetric outcomes in a 20-year-old patient with a Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor of the ovary: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Stavrakis, Thomas; Kalogiannidis, Ioannis; Petousis, Stamatios; Tsompanidou, Chrisoula; Delkos, Dimitris; Prapas, Nikolaos; Rousso, David

    2016-01-01

    Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors (SLCTs) are an uncommon subtype of sex-cord stromal tumors of the ovary, which most commonly arise in women of reproductive age, creating an issue with regard to the preservation of fertility. The clinical manifestation of SLCTs varies widely, ranging from an asymptomatic clinical profile to extreme virilization. Correct diagnosis of SLCT is crucial and is primarily based on histopathological results. The current study presents the case of a 20-year-old woman who underwent unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and adjuvant chemotherapy due to the diagnosis of an SLCT of the left ovary. Almost 2 years after the initial surgery, during the follow-up period, the patient conceived normally. Pregnancy was uneventful and the patient vaginally delivered a healthy infant at 38 weeks of gestation. A total of 1 year after delivery (3 years after the initial diagnosis), follow-up of the patient did not reveal any disease recurrence. In conclusion, SLCTs may be adequately treated by fertility-sparing surgery and chemotherapy in young women who wish to preserve their fertility. Natural conception, an uncomplicated pregnancy and a vaginal delivery are possible. PMID:27446397

  3. Is attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder among men associated with initiation or escalation of substance use at 15‐month follow‐up? A longitudinal study involving young Swiss men

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Tanja; Dom, Geert; van de Glind, Geurt; Studer, Joseph; Gmel, Gerhard; Strik, Werner

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background and Aims Young adults with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) show higher substance use disorder (SUD) prevalence relative to non‐ADHD controls; few longitudinal studies have examined the course of substance use with reference to conduct disorder (CD). We compared initiation and escalation of substance use at 15‐month follow‐up in men screened positive or negative for ADHD (ADHD+ versus ADHD–), controlling for CD presence in early adolescence. Design Participants were recruited during August 2010 and November 2011 from the census of all young men who have to pass mandatory army conscription from three of six Swiss Army recruitment centres. A two‐wave data collection was performed via questionnaires at baseline and 15‐month follow‐up as a part of the longitudinal Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors. Setting Recruitment centres in Lausanne, Windisch and Mels, responsible for 21 cantons in German‐ and French‐speaking areas of Switzerland. Participants Consecutive sample of 5103 male Swiss Army conscripts who provided informed consent and responded to questionnaires at baseline and 15‐month follow‐up. Their mean age was 20.0 (standard deviation = 1.21) years at baseline. Measurements ADHD and CD were assessed using the adult ADHD Self‐Report Scale and the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview Plus, respectively, at baseline, and substance use was measured via self‐administered substance use questionnaires at baseline and follow‐up. Findings Compared with the ADHD– group, the ADHD+ group (n = 215, 4.2%) showed heavier baseline substance use and increased likelihood of alcohol (χ2 = 53.96; P < 0.001), tobacco (χ2 = 21.73; P < 0.001) and cannabis use disorders (χ2 = 48.43; P < 0.001). The extent of alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use in the two groups remained stable from baseline to follow‐up (no escalation). The ADHD+ group was more likely to initiate

  4. Megaloblastic hematopoiesis in a 20 year old pregnant female

    PubMed Central

    Trivette, Evan T.; Hoedebecke, Kyle; Berry-Cabán, Cristóbal S.; Jacobs, Brandy R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Nitrous oxide can cause disordered blood cell proliferation and lead to pancytopenia and altered immune function. Case Report: A young pregnant female patient presented after binge nitrous oxide abuse with altered mental status and abnormal vital signs. From her initial assessment she was noted to have pancytopenia and was found to have megaloblastic, hyper-cellular changes in a subsequent bone marrow biopsy. This presentation was determined to be secondary to toxic effects after heavy use of nitrous oxide. Conclusions: Nitrous oxide exposure, including use as an inhalant, over 12 hours can lead to bone marrow abnormalities such as megaloblastic hematopoiesis. PMID:23569553

  5. Project D.A.R.E.--20 Years Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, Linda

    1992-01-01

    From its beginnings as a bush camp for hard-core juvenile delinquents, Project DARE has expanded to provide programs to a variety of troubled youth in Ontario, Canada. Programs include residential schools, remote wilderness adventure programs, and community-based experiential learning and recreational opportunities. (SV)

  6. Intellectual Ability in Young Men Separated Temporarily from Their Parents in Childhood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesonen, Anu-Katriina; Raikkonen, Katri; Kajantie, Eero; Heinonen, Kati; Henriksson, Markus; Leskinen, Jukka; Osmond, Clive; Forsen, Tom; Barker, David J. P.; Eriksson, Johan G.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the effects of early life stress (ELS) on intellectual ability in 2,725 20-year-old male participants, of whom 321 were separated temporarily (mean 1.7 years) from both their parents during World War II, at an average age of 4.3 years. Intellectual ability was tested when entering compulsory military service. The separated men had…

  7. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  8. Adolescent delinquency and antisocial tendencies as precursors to adult violent offending: a prospective study of a representative sample of swiss men.

    PubMed

    Laubacher, Arja; Rossegger, Astrid; Endrass, Jérôme; Angst, Jules; Urbaniok, Frank; Vetter, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Studies on adult sex and violent offenders have found high rates of adolescent delinquency, while early delinquency has been shown to be significantly associated with adult offending. The examined subsample (n = 123) of a longitudinal prospective study (n = 6,315) includes all men who at the age of 19 had an entry in the criminal records. During the observation period of 34 years, 68.3% of the sample had been reconvicted as adults, 23.6% for violent or sex offenses. The odds of adult sex or violent offending were 2.8 times higher for those who had committed a violent offense in adolescence and 1.05 times higher for any offense committed before the age of 19. The characteristics of criminal history showed the highest discriminative values (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.61-0.65). The most important finding of this study was that characteristics of adolescent delinquency predicted adult violent or sex offending, whereas socioeconomic and psychiatric characteristics did not.

  9. Martian 'Swiss Cheese'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is illuminated by sunlight from the upper left.

    Looking like pieces of sliced and broken swiss cheese, the upper layer of the martian south polar residual cap has been eroded, leaving flat-topped mesas into which are set circular depressions such as those shown here. The circular features are depressions, not hills. The largest mesas here stand about 4 meters (13 feet) high and may be composed of frozen carbon dioxide and/or water. Nothing like this has ever been seen anywhere on Mars except within the south polar cap, leading to some speculation that these landforms may have something to do with the carbon dioxide thought to be frozen in the south polar region. On Earth, we know frozen carbon dioxide as 'dry ice'. On Mars, as this picture might be suggesting, there may be entire landforms larger than a small town and taller than 2 to 3 men and women that consist, in part, of dry ice.

    No one knows for certain whether frozen carbon dioxide has played a role in the creation of the 'swiss cheese' and other bizarre landforms seen in this picture. The picture covers an area 3 x 9 kilometers (1.9 x 5.6 miles) near 85.6oS, 74.4oW at a resolution of 7.3 meters (24 feet) per pixel. This picture was taken by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) during early southern spring on August 3, 1999.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  10. Comparison of 3D laser-based photonic scans and manual anthropometric measurements of body size and shape in a validation study of 123 young Swiss men

    PubMed Central

    Zwahlen, Marcel; Wells, Jonathan C.; Bender, Nicole; Henneberg, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Background Manual anthropometric measurements are time-consuming and challenging to perform within acceptable intra- and inter-individual error margins in large studies. Three-dimensional (3D) laser body scanners provide a fast and precise alternative: within a few seconds the system produces a 3D image of the body topography and calculates some 150 standardised body size measurements. Objective The aim was to enhance the small number of existing validation studies and compare scan and manual techniques based on five selected measurements. We assessed the agreement between two repeated measurements within the two methods, analysed the direct agreement between the two methods, and explored the differences between the techniques when used in regressions assessing the effect of health related determinants on body shape indices. Methods We performed two repeated body scans on 123 volunteering young men using a Vitus Smart XXL body scanner. We manually measured height, waist, hip, buttock, and chest circumferences twice for each participant according to the WHO guidelines. The participants also filled in a basic questionnaire. Results Mean differences between the two scan measurements were smaller than between the two manual measurements, and precision as well as intra-class correlation coefficients were higher. Both techniques were strongly correlated. When comparing means between both techniques we found significant differences: Height was systematically shorter by 2.1 cm, whereas waist, hip and bust circumference measurements were larger in the scans by 1.17–4.37 cm. In consequence, body shape indices also became larger and the prevalence of overweight was greater when calculated from the scans. Between 4.1% and 7.3% of the probands changed risk category from normal to overweight when classified based on the scans. However, when employing regression analyses the two measurement techniques resulted in very similar coefficients, confidence intervals, and p

  11. A 20-Year-Old Retained Surgical Gauze Mimicking a Spinal Tumor: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sungjoon; Kim, Bomi; Kim, Jung Soo

    2016-01-01

    A 79-year-old man visited our clinic complaining of lower back and left leg radiating pain that began 1 month prior to his presentation. He underwent surgery for lumbar disc herniation 20 years ago at another hospital. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed left-sided foraminal stenosis at L4-5. In addition, a paraspinal mass occupying the L4 spinous process and left lamina was observed. We subsequently performed an L4-5 decompression and fusion. During the operation, retained surgical gauze with granulation tissue was found. The term gossypiboma is used to define a mass lesion consisting of retained surgical gauzes and an adjacent foreign body reaction. Gossypibomas are uncommon in the paraspinal area and are mostly asymptomatic in chronic cases. Because there are no specific clinical or radiological signs, they can be confused with other tumorous conditions. Gossypibomas should be included in the differential diagnosis of paraspinal soft-tissue masses detected in patients with a history of prior spinal surgery. PMID:27799998

  12. Implant survival and radiographic outcome of total hip replacement in patients less than 20 years old

    PubMed Central

    Tsukanaka, Masako; Halvorsen, Vera; Nordsletten, Lars; EngesæTer, Ingvild Ø; EngesæTer, Lars B; Marie Fenstad, Anne; Röhrl, Stephan M

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose Total hip replacement (THR) is not recommended for children and very young teenagers because early and repetitive revisions are likely. We investigated the clinical and radiographic outcomes of THR performed in children and teenage patients. Patients and methods We included 111 patients (132 hips) who underwent THR before 20 years of age. They were identified in the Norwegian Arthroplasty Register, together with information on the primary diagnosis, types of implants, and any revisions that required implant change. Radiographs and Harris hip score (HHS) were also evaluated. Results The mean age at primary THR was 17 (11–19) years and the mean follow-up time was 14 (3–26) years. The 10-year survival rate after primary THR (with the endpoint being any revision) was 70%. 39 patients had at least 1 revision and 16 patients had 2 or more revisions. In the latest radiographs, osteolysis and atrophy were observed in 19% and 27% of the acetabulae and 21% and 62% of the femurs, respectively. The mean HHS at the final follow-up was 83 (15–100). Interpretation The clinical score after THR in these young patients was acceptable, but many revisions had been performed. However, young patients with developmental dysplasia of the hip had lower implant survival. Moreover, the bone stock in these patients was poor, which could complicate future revisions. PMID:27435903

  13. Swiss Village Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Robert V.

    1993-01-01

    Describes educational principles and practices of village schools in Baselland Canton, Switzerland. Examines educational philosophy, administrative and school structure, financial support, curricula and grading, and perceptions of teachers and administrators. Suggests that the Swiss are content with their educational system and level of school…

  14. The Swiss Orthopaedic Registry.

    PubMed

    Röder, Christoph; El-Kerdi, A; Frigg, A; Kolling, C; Staub, L P; Bach, B; Müller, U

    2005-01-01

    Following the tradition of the IDES European Hip Registry inaugurated by M. E. Müller in the 1960s, the Institute for Evaluative Research in Orthopaedic Surgery at the University of Bern started a new era of data collection using internet technology (www.memdoc.org). With support of the Swiss Orthopaedic Society, the pilot of the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was conducted, and in cooperation with different academic and non-academic centers the practicability of integrating the various data collection instruments into the daily clinical workflow was evaluated. Three different sizes of hip and knee questionnaires were compiled, covering the individual demands of the participating hospitals whereby the smaller questionnaires always represent a subset of the next larger one. Different types of data collection instruments are available: the online interface, optical mark reader paper questionnaires, and barcode sheets. Precise implant tracking is implemented by scanning the implant barcodes directly in the operating theaters and linking them to the clinical data set via a central server. In addition, radiographic information can be linked with the clinical data set. The pilot clinics suggested enhancements to the user interface and additional features for data management. Also, recommendations were made to simplify content in some instances and diversify in others. With a new software release and adapted questionnaires the Swiss Orthopaedic Registry was officially launched in Summer 2005.

  15. Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... men need to pay more attention to their health. Compared to women, men are more likely to ... regular checkups and medical care There are also health conditions that only affect men, such as prostate ...

  16. Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC).

    PubMed

    Wirz, Beat; Kittelmann, Matthias; Meyer, Hans-Peter; Wohlgemuth, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Taking up the common challenges in biocatalysis, a group of industrialists decided to react with a bottom-up solution, and created the Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium (SIBC). The Swiss Industrial Biocatalysis Consortium is a pre-competitive working group to better implement and utilize existing know-how and resources in biocatalysis, and to influence and shape the economic and educational political environment. Recent examples of activities are outlined.

  17. The Late-Divorce Phenomenon: The Causes and Impact of Ending 20-Year-Old or Longer Marriages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deckert, Pamela; Langelier, Regis

    1978-01-01

    This study examined late divorce occurring after 20 years or more of marriage. Divorce was rated the highest in stress for any major life event. Even though divorce resulted in much social readjustment and stress, it also resulted in positive feelings, personal independence, and relief. Subjects were 427 Quebec residents. (Author)

  18. Increased Neural Activation during Picture Encoding and Retrieval in 60-Year-Olds Compared to 20-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgmans, S.; van Boxtel, M. P. J.; Vuurman, E. F. P. M.; Evers, E. A. T.; Jolles, J.

    2010-01-01

    Brain aging has been associated with both reduced and increased neural activity during task execution. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether increased neural activation during memory encoding and retrieval is already present at the age of 60 as well as to obtain more insight into the mechanism behind increased activity.…

  19. Accounting for the Early Labour Market Destinations of 19/20-Year-Olds in England and Wales and Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furlong, Andy; Inui, Akio; Nishimura, Takayuki; Kojima, Yoshikazu

    2012-01-01

    In most advanced countries, young people are now expected to remain in education until the age of 18 and, in a context of poor opportunities for those who leave at an early stage, there are concerns about those who are being left behind. In this paper we use comparable survey data to focus on the destinations of young people in two contrasting…

  20. The Association of Irritability and Impulsivity with Suicidal Ideation Among 15- to 20-Year-Old Males

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conner, Kenneth R.; Meldrum, Sean; Wieczorek, William F.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Welte, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the association of impulsivity and measures of aggression with suicidal ideation in adolescents and young adults is limited. Data were gathered from a community sample of 625 adolescent and young adult males. Analyses were based on multivariate generalized estimating equations. Impulsivity and irritability were associated strongly…

  1. Concentration of Swiss Elite Orienteers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiler, Roland; Wetzel, Jorg

    1997-01-01

    A visual discrimination task was used to measure concentration among 43 members of Swiss national orienteering teams. Subjects were above average in the number of target objects dealt with and in duration of continuous concentration. For females only, ranking in orienteering performance was related to quality of concentration (ratio of correct to…

  2. Occurrence of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The rates of congenital disorders in Swiss sheep were determined by a questionnaire which was sent to 3,183 members of the Swiss Sheep Breeders’ Association. Findings A total of 993 questionnaires were returned, giving a response rate of 31.2%. Of these, 862 questionnaires originated from farms keeping one of the predominant Swiss sheep breeds: Swiss White Alpine sheep, Brown-Headed Meat sheep, Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep and Valais Blacknose sheep. During a 10-year-period, entropion was reported in 33.6% of the farms, brachygnathia inferior in 29.5%, abdominal/umbilical hernia in 15.9%, cryptorchidism in 10.5% and torticollis in 10.5%. The most significant difference between the four breeds (P < 0.001) occurred for entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep and Brown-Headed Meat sheep, brachygnathia inferior in Swiss Black Brown Mountain sheep, and scrotal/inguinal hernia in Valais Blacknose sheep. The Swiss White Alpine breed showed a significantly higher animal prevalence of entropion (6.2% in 2011 and 5.5% in 2012) than other breeds (P < 0.001). Conclusions These findings indicate a breed-specific necessity for action, particularly regarding Swiss animal welfare legislation, especially entropion in Swiss White Alpine sheep is concerned. In general, careful selection of breeding stock is to be recommended. PMID:23521894

  3. ``Swiss cheese'' models with pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bona, C.; Stela, J.

    1987-11-01

    Local spherically symmetric inhomogeneities are matched to a spatially flat Robertson-Walker background with pressure. In the cases in which the background evolves to an Einstein-de Sitter dust universe, the interior metrics tend with time either to the vacuum Schwarzschild solution or to the spatially flat Tolman dust metrics. The whole construction may be interpreted as the history of the dust-filled ``Swiss cheese'' models.

  4. Swiss Neutrality and Collective Security: The League of Nations and the United Nations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    one of the strangest hallucinations that ever took possession of clear-headed men.” Quoted in Quincy Wright, “The Present Status of Neutrality,” The...international security situation. In 1931, with “Japan’s invasion of Manchuria the illusion of ‘collective security’ broke down in Asia, South...real political decisions, can at best create the illusion of solving a political problem.” Swiss differential neutrality was exactly such a

  5. Numerical analysis of Swiss roll metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-08-12

    A Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant magnetic medium, with a negative magnetic permeability for a range of frequencies, due to its self-inductance and self-capacitance components. In this paper, we discuss the band structure, S-parameters and effective electromagnetic parameters of Swiss roll metamaterials, with both analytical and numerical results, which show an exceptional convergence.

  6. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  7. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  8. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  9. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  10. 21 CFR 133.196 - Swiss cheese for manufacturing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Swiss cheese for manufacturing. 133.196 Section... Standardized Cheese and Related Products § 133.196 Swiss cheese for manufacturing. Swiss cheese for manufacturing conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for swiss cheese by §...

  11. [Swiss research agenda for gerontological nursing].

    PubMed

    Imhof, Lorenz; Naef, Rahel; Mahrer-Imhof, Romy

    2008-12-01

    In Switzerland life expectancy is currently 84 years in women and 79 years in men. By 2030 the number of people over 80 will increase by 83% to 625 000. The need of nursing care in this population is expected to double. In order to ensure high quality care, scientific knowledge generated by nursing research is, therefore, pivotal. Within the framework of a national project, a nursing research agenda has been formulated based on a literature review, expert panels, a national survey, and a consensus conference; seven priorities for clinical nursing research for the years 2007-2017 have been developed. In the field of gerontological nursing twenty-one research priorities have been identified. They include among others interventions to support independent living and autonomy at home or the impact of new technology on nursing care of the elderly. Support for caregivers and the health of caregivers of patients with dementia have to be addressed as well as interventions for specific challenges in the elderly such as fall prevention, delirium, malnutrition, and depression. Pivotal questions in nursing research are concerned with the continuity of nursing care that exceeds institutional and professional boundaries. Moreover, it is recommended that research projects address the impact of political decisions on nursing care and provide knowledge to improve quality in nursing homes and community health care. With this article the first research agenda for gerontological nursing is presented, that is based on the seven priorities of the Swiss Research Agenda for Nursing-SRAN and in turn can be used as a basis for strategic discussion, action plans, and research projects.

  12. Street Men, Family Men: Race and Men's Extended Family Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkisian, Natalia

    2007-01-01

    Disorganization theories postulate that black men have largely abandoned their familial roles. Using the NSFH data, this article refutes the hypothesis of black men's familial disengagement by focusing on extended family integration. Black men are more likely than white men to live with or near extended kin, as well as to frequently see kin in…

  13. Accuracy of genotype imputation in Swiss cattle breeds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of imputation from Illumina Bovine3k Bead Chip (3k) and Illumina BovineLD (6k) to 54k chip information in Swiss dairy cattle breeds. Genotype data comprised of 54k SNP chip data of Original Braunvieh (OB), Brown Swiss (BS), Swiss Fleckvieh (SF...

  14. The Swiss Equal Rights Amendment: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kerckhoff, Richard K.; Leupp, Timothy

    The Swiss legal system has been openly protective of male privilege while the American system has traditionally claimed to support equality for all people. Yet the Swiss have succeeded in passing an equal rights amendment in a short time and with little national discord. Because of the nature of their political process, the Swiss were able to move…

  15. Prevalence of acute mountain sickness in the Swiss Alps.

    PubMed Central

    Maggiorini, M; Bühler, B; Walter, M; Oelz, O

    1990-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To assess the prevalence of symptoms and signs of acute mountain sickness of the Swiss Alps. DESIGN--A study using an interview and clinical examination in a representative population of mountaineers. Positive symptoms and signs were assigned scores to quantify the severity of acute mountain sickness. SETTING--Four huts in the Swiss Alps at 2850 m, 3050 m, 3650 m, and 4559 m. SUBJECTS--466 Climbers, mostly recreational: 47 at 2850 m, 128 at 3050 m, 82 at 3650, and 209 at 4559 m. RESULTS--In all, 117 of the subjects were entirely free of symptoms and clinical signs of acute mountain sickness; 191 had one or two symptoms and signs; and 158 had more than two. Those with more than two symptoms and signs were defined as suffering from acute mountain sickness. At 4559 m 11 climbers presented with high altitude pulmonary oedema or cerebral oedema, or both. Men and women were equally affected. The prevalence of acute mountain sickness correlated with altitude: it was 9% at 2850 m, 13% at 3050 m, 34% at 3650 m, and 53% at 4559 m. The most frequent symptoms and signs were insomnia, headache, peripheral oedema, and scanty pulmonary rales. Severe headache, vomiting, dizziness, tachypnoea, and pronounced pulmonary rales were associated with other symptoms and signs and therefore characteristic of acute mountain sickness. CONCLUSION--Acute mountain sickness is not an uncommon disease at moderately high altitude--that is, above 2800 m. Severe headache, vomiting, dizziness, tachypnoea, and pronounced pulmonary rales indicate severe acute mountain sickness, and subjects who suffer these should immediately descend to lower altitudes. PMID:2282425

  16. Men Learning through Life (and Men's Sheds)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    This "Futures" column shares insights about men's learning beyond work, based on several decades of research in men's learning in international community contexts. The article focuses' particularly on men who want and need to learn to re-create and broaden their identities beyond their working lives. This practice, well established in…

  17. The Swiss Virtual Campus: History and Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peraya, Daniel; Levrat, Bernard

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the development of distance education in Switzerland focuses on a history of the Swiss Virtual Campus and an explanation of the role of the Educational Technologies Unit of the University of Geneva (TECFA). Topics include the integration of information technologies, teacher training, and the management of metadata. Contains 35…

  18. Receptive Multilingualism in the Swiss Army

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthele, Raphael; Wittlin, Gabriele

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a particular context where receptive multilingualism at work can be observed is discussed. The Swiss armed forces underwent a series of quite dramatic downsizing measures, which lead to a situation with increased amount of mixed groups and linguistically mixed situations regarding the first/native language of officers and the…

  19. Effect of ammonia on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Casey, C. J.; Furst, A.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC /50/ values were determined for Swiss albino male mice exposed to different concentrations of ammonia in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC/50/ for a 30 minute exposure was 21,430 ppm.

  20. Perceptions of Learning among Swiss Watch Managers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tajeddini, Kayhan

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore managers' perceptions of learning within a sample of Swiss watch firms. Design/methodology/approach: A purposeful (judgmental) stratified sampling method was employed, where in-depth interviews with 13 marketing managers and owners were carried out over a three-month period. Meaning units (MUs) were abstracted,…

  1. Testing Measurement Invariance of the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief Scores across Spanish and Swiss Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Ortuño-Sierra, Javier; Badoud, Deborah; Knecht, Francesca; Paino, Mercedes; Eliez, Stephan; Fonseca-Pedrero, Eduardo; Debbané, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizotypy is a complex construct intimately related to psychosis. Empirical evidence indicates that participants with high scores on schizotypal self-report are at a heightened risk for the later development of psychotic disorders. Schizotypal experiences represent the behavioural expression of liability for psychotic disorders. Previous factorial studies have shown that schizotypy is a multidimensional construct similar to that found in patients with schizophrenia. Specifically, using the Schizotypal Personality Questionnaire-Brief (SPQ-B), the three-dimensional model has been widely replicated. However, there has been no in-depth investigation of whether the dimensional structure underlying the SPQ-B scores is invariant across countries. Methods The main goal of this study was to examine the measurement invariance of the SPQ-B scores across Spanish and Swiss adolescents. The final sample was made up of 261 Spanish participants (51.7% men; M = 16.04 years) and 241 Swiss participants (52.3% men; M = 15.94 years). Results The results indicated that Raine et al.'s three-factor model presented adequate goodness-of-fit indices. Moreover, the results supported the measurement invariance (configural and partial strong invariance) of the SPQ-B scores across the two samples. Spanish participants scored higher on Interpersonal dimension than Swiss when latent means were compared. Discussion The study of measurement equivalence across countries provides preliminary evidence for the Raine et al.'s three-factor model and of the cross-cultural validity of the SPQ-B scores in adolescent population. Future studies should continue to examine the measurement invariance of the schizotypy and psychosis-risk syndromes across cultures. PMID:24349180

  2. Sexual Behavior and Concerns in a Sample of Elderly, Former Indentured Swiss Child Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Past research suggests a link between post‐traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and an increased risk for sexual problems. However, there is still no clear picture whether these higher rates are related to trauma exposure or to PTSD itself. Aim The aim of the present study was to complement existing knowledge on the relative impact of trauma and PTSD on sexuality in later life, considering different aspects of trauma exposure on both men and women. Methods The study was conducted on a unique population sample of former Swiss indentured child laborers (55 men, M age 78, age range 60–95 years) who have repeatedly experienced a variety of severe childhood traumas. Main Outcome Measures Sexual outcomes were measured using two scales from the Trauma Symptom Inventory—Dysfunctional Sexual Behavior (DSB) and Sexual Concerns (SC). PTSD symptoms and trauma were assessed with the Short Screening Scale for PTSD and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, respectively. Results Twenty‐two individuals showed PTSD symptoms, and 53 reported having experienced childhood trauma. Significant differences between men and women were reported for DSB and SC. Men reported a significantly higher prevalence of both SC and DSB compared with women. Conclusions This is the very first study investigating DSB and SC in a sample of older adults exposed to similar traumatic experiences and settings. However, some study limitations need to be considered such as the small sample size. Additional studies are needed to further explore the relative role of traumatization and PTSD on sexual behavior and well‐being, especially to improve sexual therapy for patients who experience trauma. Rechsteiner K, Burri A, and Maercker A. Sexual behavior and concerns in a sample of elderly, former indentured Swiss child laborers. Sex Med 2015;3:305–314. PMID:26797066

  3. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  4. An Investigation into Associations with Attachment, Companion Pet Attachment, Empathy, and Prosocial Behaviors in 18-20 Year Old College Students: A Mixed Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Christian

    2010-01-01

    This study examines empathy, parental attachment, companion pet attachment and social behaviors in a sample of 120 students between the ages of 18-20 enrolled at Front Range Community College in Westminster CO during the fall semester 2008. The study is based on the research questions posed by Thompson and Gullone (2008) but pays particular…

  5. Therapeutic expectations: Dentistry relies less on dental plaque as a major etiological factor OR On the dental needs of young orthodontic patients (12-20 years old)

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto; Nardoni, Daniele Nóbrega; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Franco, Paulo Henrique X.; Cappellozza, José Antônio Z.

    2016-01-01

    In Brazilian cities and states governed efficiently with wealth ethically administered, carious and periodontal diseases have prevalence rates similar to those found in socially developed European countries. This shift in reality, noticed over the last 15 years, reflects on changes in the etiological factors related to patients' major expectations and needs - especially young and orthodontic patients - which turn out to be a result of dental trauma, malocclusion, facial aspect, dental agenesis and iatrogenesis. Under such conditions, patients begin to appreciate the value of tooth position, color and shape, their smile and function: details become relevant. Carious and periodontal diseases remain an issue, not only from a preventive prospect, but also from a curative one. Nevertheless, it should be noted that changes and development are inevitable, and we should be prepared to contribute to the wellbeing of people, particularly regarding their novel needs and expectations. PMID:27007757

  6. Hot cheese: a processed Swiss cheese model.

    PubMed

    Li, Y; Thimbleby, H

    2014-01-01

    James Reason's classic Swiss cheese model is a vivid and memorable way to visualise how patient harm happens only when all system defences fail. Although Reason's model has been criticised for its simplicity and static portrait of complex systems, its use has been growing, largely because of the direct clarity of its simple and memorable metaphor. A more general, more flexible and equally memorable model of accident causation in complex systems is needed. We present the hot cheese model, which is more realistic, particularly in portraying defence layers as dynamic and active - more defences may cause more hazards. The hot cheese model, being more flexible, encourages deeper discussion of incidents than the simpler Swiss cheese model permits.

  7. Extreme chirality in Swiss roll metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Demetriadou, A; Pendry, J B

    2009-09-16

    The chiral Swiss roll metamaterial is a resonant, magnetic medium that exhibits a negative refractive band for one-wave polarization. Its unique structure facilitates huge chiral effects: a plane polarized wave propagating through this system can change its polarization by 90° in less than a wavelength. Such chirality is at least 100 times greater than previous structures have achieved. In this paper, we discuss this extreme chiral behaviour with both numerical and analytical results.

  8. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies: Mass scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2010-01-01

    We generalize the Swiss-cheese cosmologies so as to include nonzero linear momenta of the associated boundary surfaces. The evolution of mass scales in these generalized cosmologies is studied for a variety of models for the background without having to specify any details within the local inhomogeneities. We find that the final effective gravitational mass and size of the evolving inhomogeneities depends on their linear momenta but these properties are essentially unaffected by the details of the background model.

  9. CMB seen through random Swiss Cheese

    SciTech Connect

    Lavinto, Mikko; Räsänen, Syksy E-mail: syksy.rasanen@iki.fi

    2015-10-01

    We consider a Swiss Cheese model with a random arrangement of Lemaȋtre-Tolman-Bondi holes in ΛCDM cheese. We study two kinds of holes with radius r{sub b}=50 h{sup −1} Mpc, with either an underdense or an overdense centre, called the open and closed case, respectively. We calculate the effect of the holes on the temperature, angular diameter distance and, for the first time in Swiss Cheese models, shear of the CMB . We quantify the systematic shift of the mean and the statistical scatter, and calculate the power spectra. In the open case, the temperature power spectrum is three orders of magnitude below the linear ISW spectrum. It is sensitive to the details of the hole, in the closed case the amplitude is two orders of magnitude smaller. In contrast, the power spectra of the distance and shear are more robust, and agree with perturbation theory and previous Swiss Cheese results. We do not find a statistically significant mean shift in the sky average of the angular diameter distance, and obtain the 95% limit |Δ D{sub A}/ D-bar {sub A}|∼< 10{sup −4}. We consider the argument that areas of spherical surfaces are nearly unaffected by perturbations, which is often invoked in light propagation calculations. The closed case is consistent with this at 1σ, whereas in the open case the probability is only 1.4%.

  10. Gross revenue risk in Swiss dairy farming.

    PubMed

    El Benni, N; Finger, R

    2013-02-01

    This study investigated how agricultural policy reforms, including market liberalization and market deregulation, have influenced gross revenue risk of Swiss dairy producers using farm-level panel data between 1990 and 2009. Based on detrended data, variance decomposition was applied to assess how output prices and yields contributed to revenue risk over 3 different periods: the whole period (1990-2009), the first decade (1990-1999), and the second decade (1999-2009). In addition, the effect of expected changes in animal-based support for roughage-consuming cattle and price volatility on revenue risk was evaluated using a simulation model. Prices were the main contributor to revenue risk, even if the importance of yield risk increased over time. Swiss dairy producers can profit from natural hedge but market deregulation and market liberalization have reduced the natural hedge at the farm level. An increase in price volatility would substantially increase revenue risk and would, together with the abandonment of direct payments, reduce the comparative advantage of dairy production for risk-averse decision makers. Depending on other available risk management strategies, price risk management instruments might be a valuable solution for Swiss dairy producers in the future.

  11. The development of the Swiss Adaptation Strategy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hohmann, R.; Köllner-Heck, P.; Probst, T.

    2010-09-01

    In summer 2009, the Federal Council mandated the Departement of the Environment, Transport, Energy and Communication (DETEC) to develop a Swiss adaptation strategy. This strategy aims to coordinate the efforts of all federal departments involved in adaptation, and to provide them with the necessary basic information. For the development of the Swiss adaptation strategy the following principles are fundamental. (1.) The strategy aims to achieve the overarching objectives of harnessing the opportunities that climate change presents, minimizing the risks of climate change to people and assets, and to increases the adaptive capacity of all resources. (2) The strategy is based on the most recent scientific knowledge about climate change and climate change impacts. (3.) It is based in on a sound and comprehensive analysis of climate change risks. (4.) It includes strategic goals for the sectors that are most vulnerable to climate change, i.e., water management, biodiversity management, agriculture, forestry, natural hazard prevention, health care, energy generation, tourism, land use. (5.) It thoroughly analyzes the interfaces between the sectoral strategies in order solve existing conflicts and profit form existing synergies. The Swiss Adaptation Strategy will be completed and submitted to the Federal Council by the End of 2011.

  12. Men's Reproductive Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Men's Reproductive Health: Overview Skip sharing on social media ... Content Reproductive health is an important component of men's overall health and well-being. Too often, males ...

  13. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... are some symptoms related to sexual trauma in boys and men? Particularly when the assailant is a ... those who do not. Emotional Disorders Men and boys who have been sexually assaulted are more likely ...

  14. Men and Sexual Trauma

    MedlinePlus

    ... Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse by Mike Lew, Foreword by Ellen Bass. (1990). ... Heroic Men: A Man's Guide to Recovering from Child Abuse by Daniel Jay Sonkin and Lenore E. A. ...

  15. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  16. Osteoporosis in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... not supported by your browser. Home Osteoporosis Men Osteoporosis in Men Publication available in: PDF (71 KB) ... as life expectancy continues to rise. What Causes Osteoporosis? Bone is constantly changing—that is, old bone ...

  17. Domestic violence against men.

    PubMed

    Barber, Christopher F

    This article reviews the literature relating to domestic violence against men and examines some of the reasons why men are reluctant to report violent episodes. The article focuses on men as the victims and women as the perpetrators of domestic violence and identifies gaps in service provision. The role of the nurse in supporting male victims is also discussed.

  18. The Concept of English Philologists' Training at Swiss Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zasluzhena, Alla

    2016-01-01

    The issue of plurilingual approach usage to the study of foreign languages has been made actual on case study of Swiss universities. Basic concepts of English philologists' formation at Swiss universities have been determined. These components have been analyzed with relation to their relevance to the prospective philologist in English Linguistics…

  19. Sex-related trends in participation and performance in the 'Swiss Bike Masters' from 1994-2012.

    PubMed

    Gloor, Roman Urs; Knechtle, Beat; Knechtle, Patrizia; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Haupt, Samuel; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2013-04-01

    General participation in contests such as ultra-marathons and ultra-triathlons has increased considerably over the past 30 years, especially among women. This study investigated performance trends in the Swiss Bike Masters, one of the first and most prestigious mountain bike, ultra-endurance races in its class, with comparisons of participation and performance trends to similar races. The development of performance in the Swiss Bike Masters held between 1994 and 2012 was investigated by analysing the number of finishers, their age, sex, and cycling speed. Between 1994 and 2009, the athletes had to cover 120 kilometers with a total difference in altitude of 5,000 meters. Since 2010, the race distance was shortened to 105 kilometers and the total difference in altitude was reduced to 4,400 meters. The total men participating and total finishing decreased significantly, while women's participation has remained low. The age of the annual winners and the annual top three finishers showed no changes over time. Performances of the annual fastest women improved, while performances of the annual fastest men remained unchanged. To summarize, rate of finishing has decreased for men and has been stable, but low, among women. The sex difference in cycling speed for the best cyclists has decreased across the years.

  20. First anal intercourse and condom use among men who have sex with men in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Balthasar, Hugues; Jeannin, André; Dubois-Arber, Françoise

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the circumstances of first anal intercourse (FAI) among men who have sex with men (MSM) and to identify factors associated with condom use at this event. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a convenience sample of MSM living in Switzerland (N = 2,200). Anonymous questionnaires were distributed using Swiss gay communication channels (newspapers, associations, websites) and gay bathhouses. We gathered data on age at FAI, age of the partner, degree of familiarity with him, place of first meeting, and sociodemographic indicators. We did not ask whether FAI was insertive, receptive, or both. Data were stratified by birth year classes (birth cohorts). The median age at FAI fell from 24.5 years among men born before 1965 to 20.0 years among those born between 1975 and 1984 (p < .001). In each birth cohort, between 20 and 30% reported a partner 10 years older or more. Of eight variables examined in multivariate analysis, two were positively associated with condom use: age of participants at FAI and low degree of familiarity between partners. Conversely, large age discrepancy between partners was negatively associated with condom use. In conclusion, our data showed that early initiation of anal intercourse and large age discrepancy were associated with risk taking: a pattern of initiation that may facilitate HIV transmission from older to younger cohorts of MSM. Since age at FAI is on the decrease, there is an urgent need to heighten awareness of prevention actions regarding sexual debut of MSM.

  1. IR beamline at the Swiss Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ph, Lerch; L, Quaroni; J, Wambach; J, Schneider; B, Armstrong D.; D, Rossetti; L, Mueller F.; P, Peier; V, Schlott; L, Carroll; P, Friedli; H, Sigg; S, Stutz; M, Tran

    2012-05-01

    The infrared beamline at the Swiss light source uses dipole radiation and is designed to transport light to four experimental stations, A, B, C, D. Branch A is dedicated to far IR work in vacuum; branch B is a micro-spectrometer; branch C is dedicated to high resolution spectroscopy in the gas phase; branch D is a pump and probe set-up. This contribution describes the optical layout and provides a brief survey of currently available experimental stations. The beamline is in regular user operation since 2009.

  2. Break detection of annual Swiss temperature series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuglitsch, F. G.; Auchmann, R.; Bleisch, R.; BröNnimann, S.; Martius, O.; Stewart, M.

    2012-07-01

    Instrumental temperature series are often affected by artificial breaks ("break points") due to (e.g.,) changes in station location, land-use, or instrumentation. The Swiss climate observation network offers a high number and density of stations, many long and relatively complete daily to sub-daily temperature series, and well-documented station histories (i.e., metadata). However, for many climate observation networks outside of Switzerland, detailed station histories are missing, incomplete, or inaccessible. To correct these records, the use of reliable statistical break detection methods is necessary. Here, we apply three statistical break detection methods to high-quality Swiss temperature series and use the available metadata to assess the methods. Due to the complex terrain in Switzerland, we are able to assess these methods under specific local conditions such as the Foehn or crest situations. We find that the temperature series of all stations are affected by artificial breaks (average = 1 break point / 48 years) with discrepancies in the abilities of the methods to detect breaks. However, by combining the three statistical methods, almost all of the detected break points are confirmed by metadata. In most cases, these break points are ascribed to a combination of factors in the station history.

  3. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    PubMed Central

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  4. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    PubMed

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  5. Age and gender difference in non-drafting ultra-endurance cycling performance - the ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In recent years, there was an increased interest in investigating the gender difference in performance and the age of peak performance in ultra-endurance performances such as ultra-triathlon, ultra-running, and ultra-swimming, but not in ultra-cycling. The aim of the present study was to analyze the gender difference in ultra-cycling performance and the age of peak ultra-cycling performance in the 720-km ‘Swiss Cycling Marathon’, the largest European qualifier for the ‘Race Across America’. Methods Changes in the cycling speed and age of 985 finishers including 38 women and 947 men competing in the Swiss Cycling Marathon from 2001 to 2012 covering a distance of 720 km with a change of altitude of 4,993 m were analyzed using linear regression. Results The gender difference in performance was 13.6% for the fastest cyclists ever, 13.9% ± 0.5% for the three fastest cyclists ever and 19.1% ± 3.7% for the ten fastest cyclists ever. The gender difference in performance for the annual top three women and men decreased from 35.0% ± 9.5% in 2001 to 20.4% ± 7.7% in 2012 (r2 = 0.72, p = 0.01). The annual top three women improved cycling speed from 20.3 ± 3.1 km h−1 in 2003 to 24.8 ± 2.4 km h−1 in 2012 (r2 = 0.79, p < 0.01). The cycling speed of the annual top three men remained unchanged at 30.2 ± 0.6 km h−1 (p > 0.05). The age of peak performance for the ten fastest finishers ever was 35.9 ± 9.6 years for men and 38.7 ± 7.8 years for women, respectively (p = 0.47). Conclusions The gender difference in ultra-cycling performance decreased over the 2001 to 2012 period in the 720-km Swiss Cycling Marathon for the annual top three cyclists and reached approximately 14%. Both women and men achieved peak performance at the age of approximately 36 to 39 years. Women might close the gender gap in ultra-endurance cycling in longer cycling distances. Future studies need to investigate the gender difference in performance in the Race Across America, the

  6. Breast cancer in men

    MedlinePlus

    ... in situ - male; Intraductal carcinoma - male; Inflammatory breast cancer - male; Paget disease of the nipple - male; Breast cancer - male ... The cause of breast cancer in men is not clear. But there are risk factors that make breast cancer more likely in men: Exposure to ...

  7. Genital Problems in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ... Toddlers Kids and Teens Pregnancy and Childbirth Women Men SeniorsIn The NewsYour Health ResourcesHealthcare Management End-of- ...

  8. Swiss regulations for controlling clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Zanini, G M

    1998-04-01

    Switzerland has recently issued regulations designed to control all trials with drugs in human subjects, namely the 'Regolamento dell'Ufficio Intercantonale per il controllo dei medicamenti in fase di studio clinico' (Intercantonal Regulations Controlling Drugs used in Clinical Trials), which have been operating since 1st January 1995. These new regulations are generally consistent with other international regulations and have introduced the concept of good clinical practice (GCP) into Switzerland. There are other regulations in Switzerland, such as Federal regulations on immunobiological products, special rules governing the administration of radiolabelled drugs to humans, drugs of abuse and medical devices. Any gap in the central regulations must be filled by cantonal regulations, where they exist. This is a comprehensive review of the regulations governing clinical trials in Switzerland, with special attention being devoted to trials with therapeutic compounds and to compatibility between Swiss and international procedures.

  9. The ``Swiss cheese'' instability of bacterial biofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Hongchul; Rusconi, Roberto; Stocker, Roman

    2012-11-01

    Bacteria often adhere to surfaces, where they develop polymer-encased communities (biofilms) that display dramatic resistance to antibiotic treatment. A better understanding of cell detachment from biofilms may lead to novel strategies for biofilm disruption. Here we describe a new detachment mode, whereby a biofilm develops a nearly regular array of ~50-100 μm holes. Using surface-treated microfluidic devices, we create biofilms of controlled shape and size. After the passage of an air plug, the break-up of the residual thin liquid film scrapes and rearranges bacteria on the surface, such that a ``Swiss cheese'' pattern is left in the residual biofilm. Fluorescent staining of the polymeric matrix (EPS) reveals that resistance to cell dislodgement correlates with local biofilm age, early settlers having had more time to hunker down. Because few survivors suffice to regrow a biofilm, these results point at the importance of considering microscale heterogeneity in assessing the effectiveness of biofilm removal strategies.

  10. Lost Men on Campus. Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stebleton, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Elizabeth Redden, author of the "Inside Higher Ed" article, "Lost Men on Campus," succinctly articulated the growing concerns about many college men at postsecondary institutions. Her review of results and issues presented at the "ND Conference on College Men" highlighted decreased rates of enrollment for men, underrepresentation of men in campus…

  11. Health screening - men age 65 and older

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - over age 65; Physical exam - men - over age 65; Yearly exam - men - over age 65; Checkup - men - over age 65; Men's health - over age 65; Preventive care exam - men - over ...

  12. For men only.

    PubMed

    1993-01-01

    In 1985 the Colombian Family Planning Association PROFAMILIA realized that men did not want to come to its family planning centers simply because they felt intimidated by the feminine atmosphere there. Nor did they dare disclose their problems and sexual questions even to a female professional. The solution was to establish a family planning center, La Clinica del Hombre (Men's Clinic), providing services exclusively for men and staffed with men to provide the necessary privacy. Latin American men's attitudes are changing. In 1985 in Bogota, the majority of men were convinced that a vasectomy was equivalent to castration. In 1993, 300 vasectomies were performed in the clinic each month. The Colombian Family Planning Association is not only providing contraception, but also information on sexual and reproductive education to avoid misunderstanding of the available methods. PROFAMILIA has incorporated a sexuality consultation into its services, so they can deal with husbands and wives separately, without spoiling the couple's relationship. PROFAMILIA now has 7 family planning clinics for men and 48 for women, thanks to the contribution of international donors. The Challenge Grant for Men's Programs, given by an anonymous donor from the United States, helped with the fund-raising to open 3 clinics in the Atlantic Coast Region where needs were vital. The Clinica del Hombre will incorporate a program to treat infertility, in addition to the department of urology, general medicine, ambulatory surgery, and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. In January, 1994, they will begin offering dental and plastic surgery services because, owing to the violence that exists in the country, there are many men whose faces are disfigured and who need to have corrective plastic surgery.

  13. Mental Health for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Sexual health for men Urinary health for ... abuse Anxiety disorders and PTSD Body image and eating disorders Depression Other mental health conditions include bipolar disorder , ...

  14. Healthy Eating for Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... of potassium from fruits, vegetables, fish and milk. Energy Foods Since men have more muscle and are ... 000 to 2,800 calories per day. Your energy needs depend on your height, weight and activity ...

  15. Women, Men, and Machines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Form, William; McMillen, David Byron

    1983-01-01

    Data from the first national study of technological change show that proportionately more women than men operate machines, are more exposed to machines that have alienating effects, and suffer more from the negative effects of technological change. (Author/SSH)

  16. Men and Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... in crisis? For more information Share Men and Depression Download PDF Download ePub Order a free hardcopy ... If so, you may have depression. What is depression? Everyone feels sad or irritable sometimes, or has ...

  17. Why Men Fight

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-01

    A Review Essay WHY MEN FIGHT DR MARK R. SHULMAN FOR TOO LONG, military historians have attempted to adhere to Clausewitz’s description of war as...information is estimated to average 1 hour per response , including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and...valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 1996 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1996 to 00-00-1996 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Why Men Fight

  18. Attracting men to vasectomy.

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1998-01-01

    There is far less information available for men about vasectomy than there is available for women about comparable contraceptive services. Also, men do not have medical check-ups on a regular basis, and therefore have less contact with medical practitioners during which vasectomy could otherwise be discussed. Vasectomy needs to be promoted in order for men to learn about and accept it as their contraceptive method of choice. To that end, Marie Stopes International (MSI) launches a vasectomy promotion campaign annually which includes advertising in local newspapers and upon billboards at football stadiums. The campaigns use light-hearted and bold ideas, with some shock value. This approach helps to relax men who otherwise tend to be wary of both the surgical procedure and subsequent consequences of vasectomy. Prevailing social norms should, however, guide the content of promotional campaigns. The UK is one of only a few countries in the world where about the same proportions of men and women use sterilization; 16% of men and 15% of women have been sterilized. A MSI campaign in the UK which began during fall 1997 prompted an increase in the number of inquiries about vasectomy at the Marie Stopes Vasectomy Clinic. Promotional campaigns in developing countries have also been successful. It is also important that campaigns be put in the larger context of promoting all contraceptive methods.

  19. The ETH Flux Research Network ("Swiss Fluxnet")

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eugster, W.; Zeeman, M. J.; Häsler, R.; Buchmann, N.

    2006-12-01

    Within CarboEurope more than 100 eddy covariance flux towers aim at providing spatially representative CO2 and energy fluxes from the major forest ecosystem types, grasslands, and croplands. Still, at the regional (10's of km) scale the spatial variation in topography and ecosystem types is not adequately represented in mountainous areas such as Switzerland. Therefore we have extended the cluster of three CarboEurope flux sites (Oensingen grassland; Oensingen cropland; Laegeren mixed forest) by additional sites that form an elevational transect from the low elevations of the Swiss Plateau (around 400 m a.s.l.) to the interior of the Central Alps (around 2000 m a.s.l.). As of 2006 there were the following sites operated by this research group: Elevation Ecosystem Location Since Type 2000 m Alpine pasture Crap Alv ETH 2005 seasonal 1640 m Subalpine coniferous forest Davos 1997 continuous 1000 m Montane Grassland Früebüel ETH 2006 continuous 0700 m Montane mixed forest Lägeren 2004 continuous 0400 m Lowland Grassland Chamau ETH 2006 continuous 0400 m Cropland Oensingen 2004 continuous In addition to the CarboEurope network design these sites attempt to cover all agriculturally important ecosystems in Switzerland, which are characterized by a seasonal three-stage management system where cattle are moved from their winter pastures in the lowlands to the montane meadows in spring, followed by the summer pastures above the treeline in the Alps. At the same time the two forest sites cover the two most important types with deciduous trees (beech, maple, ash) dominated mixed forest at lower elevations, and Norway spruce near the Alpine treeline. The long-term flux research to be carried out along this elevational transect will allow us to gain a better understanding of how elevation---and thus a very steep climate gradient over a relatively short horizontal distance---interrelate with land use and land management. This will greatly help to increase our ability to predict

  20. SWISS-MODEL: an automated protein homology-modeling server

    PubMed Central

    Schwede, Torsten; Kopp, Jürgen; Guex, Nicolas; Peitsch, Manuel C.

    2003-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL (http://swissmodel.expasy.org) is a server for automated comparative modeling of three-dimensional (3D) protein structures. It pioneered the field of automated modeling starting in 1993 and is the most widely-used free web-based automated modeling facility today. In 2002 the server computed 120 000 user requests for 3D protein models. SWISS-MODEL provides several levels of user interaction through its World Wide Web interface: in the ‘first approach mode’ only an amino acid sequence of a protein is submitted to build a 3D model. Template selection, alignment and model building are done completely automated by the server. In the ‘alignment mode’, the modeling process is based on a user-defined target-template alignment. Complex modeling tasks can be handled with the ‘project mode’ using DeepView (Swiss-PdbViewer), an integrated sequence-to-structure workbench. All models are sent back via email with a detailed modeling report. WhatCheck analyses and ANOLEA evaluations are provided optionally. The reliability of SWISS-MODEL is continuously evaluated in the EVA-CM project. The SWISS-MODEL server is under constant development to improve the successful implementation of expert knowledge into an easy-to-use server. PMID:12824332

  1. Asymmetric Swiss-cheese brane-worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.; Képíró, Ibolya

    2007-07-01

    We study a brane-world cosmological scenario with local inhomogeneities represented by black holes. The brane is asymmetrically embedded into the bulk. The black strings/cigars penetrating the Friedmann brane generate a Swiss-cheese-type structure. This universe forever expands and decelerates, as its general relativistic analogue. The evolution of the cosmological fluid, however, can proceed along four branches, two allowed to have positive energy density, and one of them having the symmetric embedding limit. On this branch a future pressure singularity can arise for either (a) a difference in the cosmological constants of the cosmological and black hole brane regions or (b) a difference in the left and right bulk cosmological constants. While behaviour (a) can be avoided by a redefinition of the fluid variables, (b) establishes a critical value of the asymmetry over which the pressure singularity occurs. We introduce the pressure singularity censorship which bounds the degree of asymmetry in the bulk cosmological constant. We also show as a model-independent generic feature that the asymmetry source term due to the bulk cosmological constant increases in the early universe. In order to obey the nucleosynthesis constraints, the brane tension should be constrained therefore both from below and from above. With the maximal degree of asymmetry obeying the pressure singularity censorship, the higher limit is ten times the lower limit. The degree of asymmetry allowed by present cosmological observations is, however, much less, pushing the upper limit to infinity.

  2. Dialect Effects in Speech Perception: The Role of Vowel Duration in Parisian French and Swiss French

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Joanne L.; Mondini, Michele; Grosjean, Francois; Dommergues, Jean-Yves

    2011-01-01

    The current experiments examined how native Parisian French and native Swiss French listeners use vowel duration in perceiving the /[openo]/-/o/ contrast. In both Parisian and Swiss French /o/ is longer than /[openo]/, but the difference is relatively large in Swiss French and quite small in Parisian French. In Experiment 1 we found a parallel…

  3. Ligia Grischa: A Successful Swiss Colony on the Dakota Territory Frontier

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Todd; Benedict, Karl; Dickey, Jeff

    2012-01-01

    In 1877 a small group of Swiss immigrants from the Graubunden canton formed a cooperative with another Swiss group in Stillwater, Minnesota, to begin a colony in eastern South Dakota. These settlers founded the Badus Swiss colony on the open prairie in Lake County, Dakota Territory (later South Dakota), based on cooperative rules written in…

  4. Health Information Needs of Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To understand the views of men and service providers concerning the health information needs of men. Design: A men's health programme was implemented aimed at developing new health information resources designed for use by local organizations with men in socially disadvantaged groups. Research was carried out at the scoping stage to…

  5. Health screening - men - ages 40 to 64

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 40 to 64; Physical exam - men - ages 40 to 64; Yearly exam - ... 64; Checkup - men - ages 40 to 64; Men's health - ages 40 to 64; Preventive care - men - ages ...

  6. Health screening - men - ages 18 to 39

    MedlinePlus

    Health maintenance visit - men - ages 18 to 39; Physical exam - men - ages 18 to 39; Yearly exam - ... 39; Checkup - men - ages 18 to 39; Men's health - ages 18 to 39; Preventive care exam - men - ...

  7. Too Many Blood Donors – Response Bias in the Swiss Health Survey 2012

    PubMed Central

    Volken, Thomas; Bänziger, Andreas; Buser, Andreas; Castelli, Damiano; Fontana, Stefano; Frey, Beat M.; Sarraj, Amira; Sigle, Jörg; Thierbach, Jutta; Weingand, Tina; Mansouri-Taleghani, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    Background Data on blood donor status obtained from general surveys and health interview surveys have been widely used. However, the integrity of data on self-reported blood donor status from surveys may be threatened by sampling and non-sampling error. Our study aimed to compare self-reported blood donors (including one-time as well as regular donors) from the Swiss Health Survey 2012 (SHS) with register-based blood donors recorded by blood establishments and evaluate the direction and magnitude of bias in the SHS. Methods We compared population-weighted SHS point estimates of the number of blood donors with their corresponding 95% confidence intervals to the respective figures from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1978-1993) and estimates of donors based on period donor tables derived from blood donor registries (birth cohorts 1920-1993). Results In the birth cohorts 1978-1993, the SHS-predicted number of donors was 1.8 times higher than the respective number of donors based on registry data. Adjusting for foreign and naturalized Swiss nationals that immigrated after their 18th birthday, the SHS overall predicted number of donors was 1.6 times higher. Similarly, SHS estimates for the 1920-1993 birth cohorts were 2.4 and 2.1 times higher as compared to register-based estimates. Generally, the differences between SHS and register-based donors were more pronounced in men than in women. Conclusion Self-reported blood donor status in the SHS is biased. Estimates of blood donors are substantially higher than respective estimates based on blood donor registries. PMID:27994526

  8. A scenario planning approach for disasters on Swiss road network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes, G. A.; Axhausen, K. W.; Andrade, J. S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2014-05-01

    We study a vehicular traffic scenario on Swiss roads in an emergency situation, calculating how sequentially roads block due to excessive traffic load until global collapse (gridlock) occurs and in this way displays the fragilities of the system. We used a database from Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung which contains length and maximum allowed speed of all roads in Switzerland. The present work could be interesting for government agencies in planning and managing for emergency logistics for a country or a big city. The model used to generate the flux on the Swiss road network was proposed by Mendes et al. [Physica A 391, 362 (2012)]. It is based on the conservation of the number of vehicles and allows for an easy and fast way to follow the formation of traffic jams in large systems. We also analyze the difference between a nonlinear and a linear model and the distribution of fluxes on the Swiss road.

  9. Swiss chard: a salad crop for the space program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logendra, Logan S.; Gilrain, Matthew R.; Gianfagna, Thomas J.; Janes, Harry W.

    2002-01-01

    Salad greens will be among the first crops grown on lunar or planetary space stations. Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) is an important candidate salad crop because it is high yielding and rich in vitamins and minerals. Five Swiss chard cultivars were grown in the greenhouse under two light levels for 13 weeks to compare cumulative yields from weekly harvests, mineral composition, and to evaluate sensory attributes as a salad green. The varieties Large White Ribbed (LWR) and Lucullus (LUC) were the highest yielding in both light regimes. LWR was the shortest of the cultivars requiring the least vertical space. LWR also received the highest sensory ratings of the five cultivars. LWR Swiss chard should be considered as an initial test variety in food production modules.

  10. The Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS): A Progress Report

    PubMed Central

    Meschia, James F.; Kissela, Brett M.; Brott, Thomas G.; Brown, Robert D.; Worrall, Bradford B.; Beck, Jeanne; Skarp, Alexa N.

    2006-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that genetic factors are associated with ischemic stroke, including multiple recent reports of association with the gene PDE4D, encoding phosphodiesterase 4D, on chromosome 5q12. Genetic studies of stroke are important but can be logistically difficult to perform. This article reviews the design of the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS) and discusses problems in performing a sibling-based pedigree study where proband-initiated consent is used to enroll pedigree members. Proband-initiated enrollment optimizes privacy protections for family members, but it is associated with a substantial pedigree non-completion rate such that 3 to 4 probands must be identified to obtain one completed sibling pedigree. This report updates the progress of enrollment in the SWISS protocol, discusses barriers to pedigree completion and describes innovative approaches used by the SWISS investigators to enhance enrollment. PMID:16595789

  11. Labor Market Integration of People with Disabilities: Results from the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Post, Marcel W. M.; Fekete, Christine; Trezzini, Bruno; Brinkhof, Martin W. G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to describe labor market participation (LMP) of persons with spinal cord injury (SCI) in Switzerland, to examine potential determinants of LMP, and to compare LMP between SCI and the general population. Methods We analyzed data from 1458 participants of employable age from the cross-sectional community survey of the Swiss Spinal Cord Injury Cohort Study. Data on LMP of the Swiss general population were obtained from the Swiss Federal Statistical Office. Factors associated with employment status as well as the amount of work performed in terms of full-time equivalent (FTE) were examined with regression techniques. Results 53.4% of the participants were employed at the time of the study. Adjusted odds of being employed were increased for males (OR = 1.73, 95% CI 1.33–2.25) and participants with paraplegia (OR = 1.78, 95% CI 1.40–2.27). The likelihood of being employed showed a significant concave relationship with age, peaking at age 40. The relation of LMP with education was s-shaped, while LMP was linearly related to time since injury. On average, employment rates were 30% lower than in the general population. Males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54 showed the greatest difference. From the 771 employed persons, the majority (81.7%) worked part-time with a median of 50% FTE (IRQ: 40%-80%). Men, those with younger age, higher education, incomplete lesions, and non-traumatic etiology showed significantly increased odds of working more hours per week. Significantly more people worked part-time than in the general population with the greatest difference found for males with tetraplegia aged between 40 and 54. Conclusions LMP of persons with SCI is comparatively high in Switzerland. LMP after SCI is, however, considerably lower than in the general population. Future research needs to show whether the reduced LMP in SCI reflects individual capacity adjustment, contextual constraints on higher LMP or both. PMID:27875566

  12. Contraceptive developments for men.

    PubMed

    Amory, John K

    2007-03-01

    Efforts are underway to develop new methods of contraception for men. The most promising approach to male contraceptive development is hormonal and involves the administration of testosterone. When testosterone is administered to a man, it functions as a contraceptive by suppressing the secretion of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone from the pituitary gland, thereby depriving the testes of the signals required for spermatogenesis. After two to three months of treatment, low levels of gonadotropins lead to markedly decreased sperm counts and effective contraception in a majority of men. In many clinical trials, male hormonal contraception has proven to be free from serious adverse effects and is well-tolerated by men. In addition, sperm parameters uniformly normalize when treatment is discontinued. The main drawback to this approach is the observation that spermatogenesis is not suppressed to zero in all men, meaning that some potential for fertility persists. Because of this, recent studies have combined testosterone with progestogens and/or gonadotropin-releasing antagonists to synergistically suppress pituitary gonadotropins and improve suppression of spermatogenesis. Current combinations of testosterone and progestogens severely suppress spermatogenesis without severe side effects in 80-90% of men, with significant suppression in the remainder of individuals. Recent trials with newer, long-acting forms of injectable testosterone, such as testosterone undecanoate, which can be administered every 8-10 weeks, combined with progestogens, administered either orally or by long-acting implant, have yielded promising results and may soon result in the marketing of a safe, reversible and effective hormonal contraceptive for men.

  13. An actual use comparison of condoms meeting Australian and Swiss standards: results of a double-blind crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Benton, K W; Jolley, D; Smith, A M; Gerofi, J; Moodie, R

    1997-07-01

    The performance of condoms in actual use has been poorly researched in the past, especially in comparing condoms that met different quality control standards as indicated by laboratory testing. The present study used a double-blind crossover design to compare the performance of 2 types of condoms in actual use; one that met the Australian and International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standards for condom quality and one that met the more stringent Swiss Quality Seal requirements. Ninety-two men recruited from Metropolitan Melbourne completed a self-report diary sheet after each condom was used which assessed the performance of the condom and the conditions under which it was used. From a total of 1917 condom uses, there was an overall breakage risk of 2.7%. The breakage risk ratio (Australian/ISO:Swiss) for all types of use was 1.16 (95% confidence interval 0.68-1.99). When subanalyses by method of entry were performed, the condoms meeting the Swiss standard appeared to fare better than the Australian/ ISO standards for anal sex (RR = 4.84, 95% CI 1.07-21.8, P = 0.022), while the opposite was the case for vaginal sex (RR = 0.74, 95% CI 0.35-1.53, P = 0.41). The result for anal use was statistically significant at the 5% level, despite being based on fewer condom trials than that for vaginal use, but this result needs to be replicated. Although the participants appeared representative of the general male population in Melbourne in the age bracket 18-46 years, there was a significant history of condom usage reported. This may have influenced the risk of breakage.

  14. Men's Clothing Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  15. College Men and Jealousy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, David; Breed, Rhonda; Zusman, Marty

    2007-01-01

    Cultural meanings (e.g. the green eyed monster) and research interests have traditionally focused on female jealousy. In contrast, this research focused on male jealousy. Two-hundred ninety-one undergraduates at a large southeastern university completed a confidential, anonymous forty-four-item questionnaire on jealousy. Men reacted differently…

  16. Men, Women, and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Rhona; Rapoport, Robert N.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of equity is proposed as having advantages over that of equality. By equity, we mean a fair allocation both of opportunity and of constraints. It is put forward as a concept which goes beyond that of equality; it acknowledges differences between men and women and the need to think in terms of variations of patterns. Paper presented at…

  17. Older Men as Learners: Irish Men's Sheds as an Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carragher, Lucia; Golding, Barry

    2015-01-01

    To date, little attention has been placed on older men (aged 50+ years) as learners, with much of the literature on adult learning concerned with younger age-groups and issues around gender equity directed mainly at women. This article examines the impact of community-based men's sheds on informal and nonformal learning by older men in Ireland. It…

  18. Kinetics of CMV seroconversion in a Swiss pregnant women population.

    PubMed

    Maine, Gregory T; Stricker, René; Stricker, Reto

    2012-07-01

    Retrospective evaluation of the kinetics of cytomegalovirus (CMV) seroconversion with CMV IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity assays, in a Swiss pregnant women population, has shown that the current published CMV serologic diagnostic algorithms were valid and fit for use. In 19% of the cases analyzed, CMV-specific IgM was detected before IgG.

  19. Genomic inbreeding and relationships among Holsteins, Jerseys, and Brown Swiss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genomic measures of relationship and inbreeding within and across breeds were compared with pedigree measures using genotypes for 43,385 loci of 25,219 Holsteins, 3,068 Jerseys, and 872 Brown Swiss. Adjustment factors were estimated for means and regressions of genomic on pedigree relationships, for...

  20. Interdisciplinarity in Swiss Schools: A Difficult Step into the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghisla, Gianni; Bausch, Luca; Bonoli, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Multi- and interdisciplinary education is a major postulate in the Swiss school system and has considerable weight in educational programs and learning objectives, both in compulsory school and at the upper secondary school level. However, materializing this postulate still poses problems at the political and institutional level, where the…

  1. Swiss cheese model with the superstring dark energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuchlík, Zdeněk; Kološ, Martin

    2005-12-01

    The Swiss cheese model of the Universe with the superstring dark energy is constructed. The junction conditions are shown to be fulfilled and time evolution of the matching hypersurface of the internal Schwarzschild spacetime and homogeneous external Friedman Universe is studied.

  2. Swiss Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes toward Forest Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindemann-Matthies, Petra; Knecht, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates benefits and challenges of forest education in view of 257 Swiss elementary school teachers (1st-3rd grade), by means of a written questionnaire and 15 in-depth interviews. Two thirds of the teachers carried out forest education during normal lesson hours (mean visits = eight per year). Forests were clearly considered as…

  3. Effect of nitrogen dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of nitrogen dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 10 minute exposure was about 1000 ppm NO2.

  4. Effect of sulfur dioxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Machado, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of sulfur dioxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was about 3000 ppm SO2.

  5. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  6. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II

    MedlinePlus

    Sipple syndrome; MEN II; Pheochromocytoma - MEN II; Thyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma; Parathyroid cancer - pheochromocytoma ... often not cancerous (benign). Medullary carcinoma of the thyroid is ... fatal cancer, but early diagnosis and surgery can often lead ...

  7. FastStats: Men's Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Sinusitis Whooping Cough or Pertussis Family Life Marriage and Divorce Health Care and Insurance Access to ... Disparities in Men’s Use of Mental Health Treatments Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care ...

  8. Birth order among homosexual men.

    PubMed

    Zucker, Kenneth J; Blanchard, Ray; Siegelman, Marvin

    2003-02-01

    Nicolosi and Byrd in 2002 summarized empirical research on birth order and sexual orientation in men, which research has documented that homosexual men have a later birth order than heterosexual men. They did not, however, note a more refined analysis of an earlier null finding by Siegelman. This 1998 reanalysis by Blanchard, Zucker, Siegelman, Dickey, and Klassen also confirmed the later birth order of homosexual men.

  9. [Variability in nursing workload within Swiss Diagnosis Related Groups].

    PubMed

    Baumberger, Dieter; Bürgin, Reto; Bartholomeyczik, Sabine

    2014-04-01

    Nursing care inputs represent one of the major cost components in the Swiss Diagnosis Related Group (DRG) structure. High and low nursing workloads in individual cases are supposed to balance out via the DRG group. Research results indicating possible problems in this area cannot be reliably extrapolated to SwissDRG. An analysis of nursing workload figures with DRG indicators was carried out in order to decide whether there is a need to develop SwissDRG classification criteria that are specific to nursing care. The case groups were determined with SwissDRG 0.1, and nursing workload with LEP Nursing 2. Robust statistical methods were used. The evaluation of classification accuracy was carried out with R2 as the measurement of variance reduction and the coefficient of homogeneity (CH). To ensure reliable conclusions, statistical tests with bootstrapping methods were performed. The sample included 213 groups with a total of 73930 cases from ten hospitals. The DRG classification was seen to have limited explanatory power for variability in nursing workload inputs, both for all cases (R2 = 0.16) and for inliers (R2 = 0.32). Nursing workload homogeneity was statistically significant unsatisfactory (CH < 0.67) in 123 groups, including 24 groups in which it was significant defective (CH < 0.60). Therefore, there is a high risk of high and low nursing workloads not balancing out in these groups, and, as a result, of financial resources being wrongly allocated. The development of nursing-care-specific SwissDRG classification criteria for improved homogeneity and variance reduction is therefore indicated.

  10. Men's work: men's voices and actions against sexism and violence.

    PubMed

    Funk, Rus Ervin

    2008-01-01

    This short article details the initial findings from a 3-month conversation between 21 male activists who work to prevent violence against women. Using Participatory Action Research methodology, this research project investigates what men who do this work would like to learn from other men who do this work. To date, no research has been done that examines what it is that motivates and sustains men who work, as their primary effort, to prevent men's violence against women. This article examines some of the initial findings from this research, and examines the implications for engaging and mobilizing other men to prevent men's violence against women. This article begins with a description of the research project, followed by an overview of the findings, continues with a discussion of the implications from these initial findings for preventing men's violence against women, and ends with some lessons learned from the process of this research project and a brief overview of the next step of this conversation.

  11. Transgender men and pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno

    2015-01-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity. PMID:27030799

  12. Transgender men and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Obedin-Maliver, Juno; Makadon, Harvey J

    2016-03-01

    Transgender people have experienced significant advances in societal acceptance despite experiencing continued stigma and discrimination. While it can still be difficult to access quality health care, and there is a great deal to be done to create affirming health care organizations, there is growing interest around the United States in advancing transgender health. The focus of this commentary is to provide guidance to clinicians caring for transgender men or other gender nonconforming people who are contemplating, carrying, or have completed a pregnancy. Terms transgender and gender nonconforming specifically refer to those whose gender identity (e.g., being a man) differs from their female sex assigned at birth. Many, if not most transgender men retain their female reproductive organs and retain the capacity to have children. Review of their experience demonstrates the need for preconception counseling that includes discussion of stopping testosterone while trying to conceive and during pregnancy, and anticipating increasing experiences of gender dysphoria during and after pregnancy. The clinical aspects of delivery itself fall within the realm of routine obstetrical care, although further research is needed into how mode and environment of delivery may affect gender dysphoria. Postpartum considerations include discussion of options for chest (breast) feeding, and how and when to reinitiate testosterone. A positive perinatal experience begins from the moment transgender men first present for care and depends on comprehensive affirmation of gender diversity.

  13. Kegel Exercises for Men: Understand the Benefits

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Kegel exercises for men can help improve bladder control and possibly improve sexual performance. ... 13, 2015 Original article: http://www.mayoclinic.org/healthy-lifestyle/mens-health/in-depth/kegel-exercises-for-men/ ...

  14. Aerobic exercise, ball sports, dancing, and weight lifting as moderators of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms: an exploratory cross-sectional study with swiss university students.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe

    2014-12-01

    This exploratory study was designed to compare four types of exercise activities in Swiss university students. A sample of 201 medical students (136 women, 65 men; M age = 23.2 yr., SD = 2.4) and 250 exercise and health sciences students (144 women, 106 men; M age = 22.3 yr., SD = 2.2) participated in the study. They completed the Perceived Stress Scale, the Depression Scale, and the Office in Motion Questionnaire. Interaction effects between stress and exercise activities were analysed using hierarchical regression analyses, after controlling for age, sex, and academic discipline. Frequent participation in ball sports and dancing were associated with decreased depressive symptoms among students with elevated perceived stress, whereas no such relationship existed among their peers with lower perceived stress. No stress-moderating effect was found for aerobic exercise. Weight lifting was only associated with lower depressive symptoms among students with low perceived stress. The present findings suggest that, among Swiss university students, certain exercises may have better potential to moderate the relationship between perceived stress and depressive symptoms than others. Future research could analyze whether personalized exercise programs created to satisfy participants' individual needs are more beneficial for stress management.

  15. Swiss-cheese models and the Dyer-Roeder approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Fleury, Pierre

    2014-06-01

    In view of interpreting the cosmological observations precisely, especially when they involve narrow light beams, it is crucial to understand how light propagates in our statistically homogeneous, clumpy, Universe. Among the various approaches to tackle this issue, Swiss-cheese models propose an inhomogeneous spacetime geometry which is an exact solution of Einstein's equation, while the Dyer-Roeder approximation deals with inhomogeneity in an effective way. In this article, we demonstrate that the distance-redshift relation of a certain class of Swiss-cheese models is the same as the one predicted by the Dyer-Roeder approach, at a well-controlled level of approximation. Both methods are therefore equivalent when applied to the interpretation of, e.g., supernova obervations. The proof relies on completely analytical arguments, and is illustrated by numerical results.

  16. No Swiss-cheese universe on the brane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergely, László Á.

    2005-04-01

    We study the possibility of brane-world generalization of the Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese cosmological model. We find that the modifications induced by the brane-world scenario are excessively restrictive. At a first glance only the motion of the boundary is modified and the fluid in the exterior region is allowed to have pressure. The general relativistic Einstein-Straus model emerges in the low density limit. However by imposing that the central mass in the Schwarzschild voids is constant, a combination of the junction conditions and modified cosmological evolution leads to the conclusion that the brane is flat. Thus no generic Swiss-cheese universe can exist on the brane. The conclusion is not altered by the introduction of a cosmological constant in the FLRW regions. This shows that although allowed in the low density limit, the Einstein-Straus universe cannot emerge from cosmological evolution in the brane-world scenario.

  17. Serial snapshot crystallography for materials science with SwissFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Dejoie, Catherine; Smeets, Stef; Baerlocher, Christian; Tamura, Nobumichi; Pattison, Philip; Abela, Rafael; McCusker, Lynne B.

    2015-04-21

    New opportunities for studying (sub)microcrystalline materials with small unit cells, both organic and inorganic, will open up when the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) presently being constructed in Switzerland (SwissFEL) comes online in 2017. Our synchrotron-based experiments mimicking the 4%-energy-bandpass mode of the SwissFEL beam show that it will be possible to record a diffraction pattern of up to 10 randomly oriented crystals in a single snapshot, to index the resulting reflections, and to extract their intensities reliably. The crystals are destroyed with each XFEL pulse, but by combining snapshots from several sets of crystals, a complete set of data can be assembled, and crystal structures of materials that are difficult to analyze otherwise will become accessible. Even with a single shot, at least a partial analysis of the crystal structure will be possible, and with 10–50 femtosecond pulses, this offers tantalizing possibilities for time-resolved studies.

  18. Men at sport: gay men's experiences in the sport workplace.

    PubMed

    Cavalier, Elizabeth S

    2011-01-01

    Research on sexual identity and sport has revealed a shifting narrative about the experiences of gay men. While some suggest the atmosphere is hostile, others posit that homophobia and sexual prejudice are playing less of a role in gay men's experiences. This research focuses on the experiences of 10 gay men working in professional, collegiate, and club sport, as part of a larger dataset of 37 male and female employees. Five of the men were overtly and publicly out at work, while five were closeted (to varying degrees). This article focuses on three themes for gay men working in sport: 1) the importance of coming out in the workplace; 2) the role of the locker room as a contested terrain, and 3) the disconnect between their experiences at work and their perceptions of the workplace environment as negative or positive. Men in this study were basing their impressions on their total experience in sport (as current and former players, as employees, and as fans). It also suggests that the public "story" of gay men working in sport represents one of two extremes-either the proverbial "horror story," or the extremely positive representation of gay men's experiences. This research suggests that gay men's experiences in sport are more complex and nuanced than the public narrative implies.

  19. The changes in age of peak swim speed for elite male and female Swiss freestyle swimmers between 1994 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Lepers, Romuald

    2014-01-01

    This study determined the age and its changes across years of peak swimming performance from 50 to 1,500 m freestyle. Data of 70,059 Swiss freestyle swimmers (33,725 women and 36,334 men) aged 10-40 years and competing from 50 to 1,500 m were analysed. The association between age and swimming speed of the annual ten fastest swimmers was investigated using single and multi-level hierarchical regression analyses. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m from 18.9 (s = 2.3) to 20.4 (s = 4.2) years but decreased in 1,500 m from 25.0 (s = 13.1) (1996) to 18.1 (s = 3.7) years. For 100-800 m, age remained at 19.1 (s = 1.1), 19.3 (s = 1.1), 18.7 (s = 1.5) and 18.5 (s = 1.3) years, respectively. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m from 23.0 (s = 4.0) to 23.0 (s = 3.5) but remained for 100-1,500 m at 22.5 (s = 1.4), 21.4 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9), 20.3 (s = 0.9) and 20.3 (s = 1.1) years, respectively. Age was positively associated with swimming speed for 50-800 m, but negatively for 1,500 m. In conclusion, the age of peak swimming speed was younger in women compared to men for 50-800 m freestyle. For women, age of peak swimming speed increased in 50 m but decreased in 1,500 m freestyle across years. For men, age of peak swimming speed decreased in 50 m freestyle.

  20. Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino

    2008-01-01

    We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.

  1. Surface chemistry at Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences.

    PubMed

    Brodard, Pierre; Pfeifer, Marc E; Adlhart, Christian D; Pieles, Uwe; Shahgaldian, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    In the Swiss Universities of Applied Sciences, a number of research groups are involved in surface science, with different methodological approaches and a broad range of sophisticated characterization techniques. A snapshot of the current research going on in different groups from the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Western Switzerland (HES-SO), the Zurich University of Applied Sciences (ZHAW) and the University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland (FHNW) is given.

  2. Drug discovery summit: 11(th) Swiss Course on Medicinal Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Frei, Priska; Navarra, Giulio; Sager, Christoph P; Silbermann, Marleen; Varga, Norbert; Wamhoff, Eike-Christian

    2015-03-01

    A summit amongst the summits: The 11(th) Swiss Course on Medicinal Chemistry was held in October 2014, again in the scenic setting of the Alps in Leysin, Switzerland. One hundred participants, mostly from industry, experienced a week of expert talks about numerous aspects of drug discovery and medicinal chemistry. In this conference report, we briefly summarize the essential topics of this event, while the most inspiring lectures are described in greater detail.

  3. Primary care at Swiss universities - current state and perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence that a strong primary care is a cornerstone of an efficient health care system. But Switzerland is facing a shortage of primary care physicians (PCPs). This pushed the Federal Council of Switzerland to introduce a multifaceted political programme to strengthen the position of primary care, including its academic role. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview of the situation of academic primary care at the five Swiss universities by the end of year 2012. Results Although primary care teaching activities have a long tradition at the five Swiss universities with activities starting in the beginning of the 1980ies; the academic institutes of primary care were only established in recent years (2005 – 2009). Only one of them has an established chair. Human and financial resources vary substantially. At all universities a broad variety of courses and lectures are offered, including teaching in private primary care practices with 1331 PCPs involved. Regarding research, differences among the institutes are tremendous, mainly caused by entirely different human resources and skills. Conclusion So far, the activities of the existing institutes at the Swiss Universities are mainly focused on teaching. However, for a complete academic institutionalization as well as an increased acceptance and attractiveness, more research activities are needed. In addition to an adequate basic funding of research positions, competitive research grants have to be created to establish a specialty-specific research culture. PMID:24885148

  4. [Mastitis management in Swiss dairy farms with udder health problems].

    PubMed

    Kretzschmar, L; van den Borne, B H P; Kaufmann, T; Reist, M; Strabel, D; Harisberger, M; Steiner, A; Bodmer, M

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the udder health management in Swiss dairy herds with udder health problems. One hundred dairy herds with a yield-corrected somatic cell count of 200'000 to 300'000 cells/ml during 2010 were selected. Data concerning farm structure, housing system, milking technique, milking procedures, dry-cow and mastitis management were collected during farm visits between September and December 2011. In addition, quarter milk samples were collected for bacteriological culturing from cows with a composite somatic cell count ≥ 150'000 cells/ml. The highest quarter level prevalence was 12.3 % for C. bovis. Eighty-two percent of the pipeline milking machines in tie-stalls and 88 % of the milking parlours fulfilled the criteria for the vacuum drop, and only 74 % of the pipeline milking machines met the criteria of the 10-l-water test. Eighty-five percent of the farms changed their milk liners too late. The correct order of teat preparation before cluster attachment was carried out by 37 % of the farmers only. With these results, Swiss dairy farmers and herd health veterinarians can be directed to common mistakes in mastitis management. The data will be used for future information campaigns to improve udder health in Swiss dairy farms.

  5. The SWISS-MODEL Repository—new features and functionality

    PubMed Central

    Bienert, Stefan; Waterhouse, Andrew; de Beer, Tjaart A. P.; Tauriello, Gerardo; Studer, Gabriel; Bordoli, Lorenza; Schwede, Torsten

    2017-01-01

    SWISS-MODEL Repository (SMR) is a database of annotated 3D protein structure models generated by the automated SWISS-MODEL homology modeling pipeline. It currently holds >400 000 high quality models covering almost 20% of Swiss-Prot/UniProtKB entries. In this manuscript, we provide an update of features and functionalities which have been implemented recently. We address improvements in target coverage, model quality estimates, functional annotations and improved in-page visualization. We also introduce a new update concept which includes regular updates of an expanded set of core organism models and UniProtKB-based targets, complemented by user-driven on-demand update of individual models. With the new release of the modeling pipeline, SMR has implemented a REST-API and adopted an open licencing model for accessing model coordinates, thus enabling bulk download for groups of targets fostering re-use of models in other contexts. SMR can be accessed at https://swissmodel.expasy.org/repository. PMID:27899672

  6. Dieting Habits of Men.

    PubMed

    Vining, Virginia L; Cotugna, Nancy; Fang, Chengshun; Sue Snider, O

    2016-08-01

    There is little research involving the US male population regarding weight control and behavior that may affect weight status. Gender-specific weight-control programs for men aren't the standard. Our study objectives were to survey dieting and health habits of an adult male employee population and to determine if the population would be interested in gender-specific programming. Demographics, weight-control practices and interest in gender-specific weight-control programs were examined cross sectionally. A 50-question web-based survey was posted via email from October 2-30, 2014 to male employees at a Mid-Atlantic university. Statistical analyses included frequencies, means and percentages. Chi square and t tests were conducted. The 254 participants were ages 18-65+ years, predominantly white, college educated with annual incomes above $50,000. Sources of nutrition knowledge ranged from a high of web sites (65 %) to a low of registered dietitians (9 %). Macronutrient restrictions reported for dieting were carbohydrates 77 %, fats 40 % and protein 19 %. The >30 age group was more likely to have: decreased amount of food intake P = .001), reducing overall calories (P = .047), skipping meals (P = .006) or trying commercial programs (P = .011). There was nothing of significance for those <30. Among all respondents, interest in gender-specific programs was compared with these variables: current weight satisfaction (P = .032), education (P = .008), income (P = . 006) and BMI (P = .004). Men who were dissatisfied with their weight were most likely to be interested in a gender-specific weight control program, especially those over age 30 years. Further research should address whether offering male-specific diet programs would offer incentive and motivation for males to lose and maintain weight loss.

  7. Violent Men: Ordinary and Deviant

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edin, Kerstin E.; Lalos, Ann; Hogberg, Ulf; Dahlgren, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article deals with discourses of intimate partner violence and is based on interviews with professionals who meet violent men. The professionals emphasized the importance of men taking unreserved responsibility for their violent behavior. Intimate partner violence was viewed not only as "power and control" but as the result of…

  8. Mantalk: Fraternity Men and Masculinity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Shane Patrick

    2013-01-01

    A majority of college men struggle to successfully navigate the college environment and their newfound independence and freedom upon leaving home for the first time. Although recent research makes it clear that there is a college male crisis within higher education (Kimmel, 2004) and men are more likely to struggle navigating their identity and…

  9. Schweizer Soziolinguistik--Soziolinguistik der Schweiz (Swiss Sociolinguistics--Sociolinguistics in Switzerland).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werlen, Iwar, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The 13 articles in this serial issue are as follows (with all titles translated into English); "Swiss Sociolinguistics--Sociolinguistics in Switzerland" (Iwar Werlen); "Public Space, Medias, and Identities of Language. Reference Points for an Analysis of the Swiss Imaginary Collective"; (Jean Widmer); "Anthropological and…

  10. Tools for the Classroom. Gruezi Miteinand! A Focus on Swiss-German Culture and Language Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moehle-Vieregge, Linda

    1999-01-01

    Swiss-German language and culture rarely form the core focus in basic German language instruction. This article examines Swiss-German culture, focusing on geography and history, language, sports, world organizations, legendary figures, literature, music, art, holidays, and food. It points out online resources that touch upon aspects of Swiss…

  11. Swiss-German versus Standard German: Switzerland's Language Policy and the European Union.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdmann, Ursula M.

    A survey investigated the increasing preference for Alemannic Swiss German over standard German in public functions in Switzerland, particularly in light of Switzerland's decision in 1996 not to join the European Union, which suggests an emphasis on national independence. The history of Alemannic Swiss usage and language policy are briefly…

  12. [Epidemiology of Osteoporosis in Men].

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Saeko

    2016-07-01

    Estimated number of those with osteoporosis was about 12,800,000, and about 23%, 3,000,000 were male osteoporosis in Japan. Incidence of hip, vertebral, distal radius, and proximal humeral fracture in men was half of that in women. Lifetime risk of hip fracture was 5.6% in men. Risk factors for osteoporotic fracture in men were low bone mineral density(BMD), previous fracture, low body mass index, smoking, family history of fracture, glucocorticoid use and others. For osteoporotic fractures, the fracture risk in smokers was significantly higher in men than in women. There was no differences in fracture risks by BMD, previous fracture, glucocorticoid use, and family fracture history between men and women.

  13. What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men After Treatment What Happens After Treatment for Breast Cancer in Men? For many men with breast cancer, ... Breast Cancer in Men Stops Working More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  14. Women and men.

    PubMed

    Bartle, D

    1989-01-01

    If equal employment opportunities were a reality, one would expect all salaries to be more or less randomly distributed between the genders. The data does not show random distribution. Of the awards studied in depth, 11 of the 18 showed a statistically significant different salary between women and men. Two awards had a marginal probability of significance, and five had a probability of significance of less than five per cent. The data shows clearly the need for EEO initiatives for women within the health service and identifies the areas of greatest concern. The many questions raised through this general analysis of the data will guide further research and the development of an EEO management plan that is specific to the needs of the Palmerston North Area Health Board. Also highlighted is the need for similar statistics showing the composition of the workforce by ethnicity and disability. Only when this has been obtained and analysed can specifically targeted EEO programmes be developed to meet the workforce needs of the Board. Other Boards interested in receiving a statistical analysis of their workforce by gender should contact Patrick Mulcahy at the National Health Statistics Centre, Private Bag 2, Upper Willis Street, Wellington, phone (04) 844-167.

  15. Tracing of recently assimilated carbon in respiration at high temporal resolution in the field with a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer after in situ 13CO2 pulse labelling of 20-year-old beech trees.

    PubMed

    Plain, Caroline; Gerant, Dominique; Maillard, Pascale; Dannoura, Masako; Dong, Yanwen; Zeller, Bernd; Priault, Pierrick; Parent, Florian; Epron, Daniel

    2009-11-01

    The study of the fate of assimilated carbon in respiratory fluxes in the field is needed to resolve the residence and transfer times of carbon in the atmosphere-plant-soil system in forest ecosystems, but it requires high frequency measurements of the isotopic composition of evolved CO2. We developed a closed transparent chamber to label the whole crown of a tree and a labelling system capable of delivering a 3-h pulse of 99% 13CO2 in the field. The isotopic compositions of trunk and soil CO2 effluxes were recorded continuously on two labelled and one control trees by a tuneable diode laser absorption spectrometer during a 2-month chase period following the late summer labelling. The lag times for trunk CO2 effluxes are consistent with a phloem sap velocity of about 1 m h(-1). The isotopic composition (delta13C) of CO2 efflux from the trunk was maximal 2-3 days after labelling and declined thereafter following two exponential decays with a half-life of 2-8 days for the first and a half-life of 15-16 days for the second. The isotopic composition of the soil CO2 efflux was maximal 3-4 days after labelling and the decline was also well fitted with a sum of two exponential functions with a half-life of 3-5 days for the first exponential and a half-life of 16-18 days for the second. The amount of label recovered in CO2 efflux was around 10-15% of the assimilated 13CO2 for soil and 5-13% for trunks. As labelling occurred late in the growing season, substantial allocation to storage is expected.

  16. SAPHYR: the Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenning, Q. C.; Zappone, A. S.; Kissling, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR) is a multi-year project, aiming to compile a comprehensive data set on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding areas. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public, such as industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions. Since the early sixties worldwide geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. In combination with efforts to investigate deep structure of the continental crust by controlled source seismology, laboratories capable to reproduce pressure and temperature conditions to depth of 50km and more collected measurements of various parameters on a wide variety of rock types. In recent years, the increasing interest on non-traditional energy supply, (deep geothermal energy, shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. The idea to organize those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS) is supported by the Swiss Commission for Geophysics. The data refer to density and porosity, seismic, magnetic, thermal properties, permeability and electrical properties. An effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that are poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. At present SAPHYR focuses towards developing a 3-D physical properties model of the Swiss subsurface, using the structure of the exposed geology, boreholes data and seismic surveys, combined with lab determined pressure and temperature derivatives. An early version of the final product is presented here.

  17. Structural Quality Control of Swiss-Type Cheese with Ultrasound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2007-03-01

    A study on structural quality control of Swiss-type cheese with ultrasound is presented. We used a longitudinal mode pulse-echo setup using 1-2MHz ultrasonic frequencies to detect cheese-eyes and ripening induced cracks. Results show that the ultrasonic method posses good potential to monitor the cheese structure during the ripening process. Preliminary results indicate that maturation stage could be monitored with ultrasonic velocity measurements. Further studies to verify the method's on-line potential to detect low-structural-quality cheeses are planned.

  18. The Materials Science beamline upgrade at the Swiss Light Source

    PubMed Central

    Willmott, P. R.; Meister, D.; Leake, S. J.; Lange, M.; Bergamaschi, A.; Böge, M.; Calvi, M.; Cancellieri, C.; Casati, N.; Cervellino, A.; Chen, Q.; David, C.; Flechsig, U.; Gozzo, F.; Henrich, B.; Jäggi-Spielmann, S.; Jakob, B.; Kalichava, I.; Karvinen, P.; Krempasky, J.; Lüdeke, A.; Lüscher, R.; Maag, S.; Quitmann, C.; Reinle-Schmitt, M. L.; Schmidt, T.; Schmitt, B.; Streun, A.; Vartiainen, I.; Vitins, M.; Wang, X.; Wullschleger, R.

    2013-01-01

    The Materials Science beamline at the Swiss Light Source has been operational since 2001. In late 2010, the original wiggler source was replaced with a novel insertion device, which allows unprecedented access to high photon energies from an undulator installed in a medium-energy storage ring. In order to best exploit the increased brilliance of this new source, the entire front-end and optics had to be redesigned. In this work, the upgrade of the beamline is described in detail. The tone is didactic, from which it is hoped the reader can adapt the concepts and ideas to his or her needs. PMID:23955029

  19. Pitting within the Martian South Polar Swiss Cheese Terrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pathare, A.; Ingersoll, A.; Cushing, G.; Titus, T.

    2004-12-01

    The morphology of the Martian South Permanent Residual Cap is dominated by enigmatic quasi-circular landforms commonly referred to as "Swiss cheese" terrain. These large Swiss cheese depressions, which typically have widths of more than 100 m and extend down to the base of the layer, are expanding at rates of a few meters per Martian year due to CO2 sublimation. We present high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images detailing extensive "pits," by which we mean small cavities generally less than 10 m in diameter that do not penetrate completely through the Swiss cheese terrain. This pitting is only observed upon the thickest (~10 m) Swiss cheese mesas ("Unit A" as classified by Thomas et al. 2004), and moreover only occurs within 50 meters of the edges of these deposits. We argue that the pits are collapse features caused by the release of CO2 gas from a pressurized layer several meters below the mesa top. As the walls of the mesa retreat due to radiation imbalance, the pressurized layer is exposed, and CO2 vents out laterally, weakening the layer and causing the collapse. We can think of no other process that communicates laterally over distances of 50 meters in one Martian year, which is the time scale over which the pits form. For a layer 6 meters thick, the hydrostatic head is ~200 mbar, which provides an upper bound to the gas pressure in the sealed lower layer. However, for that maximum pressure to be attained, the CO2 in the lower layer must be approximately 30 K warmer than CO2 on the surface. Such a temperature differential is difficult to maintain, though, given that 6 meters is also the thermal skin depth for CO2 over 1 Martian year. We are exploring a number of mechanisms that might continually or cyclically warm this layer and enable rapid venting when the seal is broken. The persistence of polygonal cracks on the mesa tops could be further evidence of subsurface thermal variations.

  20. Alcohol policy changes and 22-year trends in individual alcohol consumption in a Swiss adult population: a 1993–2014 cross-sectional population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Dumont, Shireen; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Favrod-Coune, Thierry; Theler, Jean-Marc; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Broers, Barbara; Guessous, Idris

    2017-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the impact of legislative changes on individual alcohol consumption is limited. Using an observational study design, we assessed trends in individual alcohol consumption of a Swiss adult population following the public policy changes that took place between 1993 and 2014, while considering individual characteristics and secular trends. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Swiss general adult population. Participants Data from 18 963 participants were collected between 1993 and 2014 (aged 18–75 years). Outcome measures We used data from the ‘Bus Santé’ study, an annual health survey conducted in random samples of the adult population in the State of Geneva, Switzerland. Individual alcohol intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire. Individual characteristics including education were self-reported. 7 policy changes (6 about alcohol and 1 about tobacco) that occurred between 1993 and 2014 defined 6 different periods. We predicted alcohol intake using quantile regression with multivariate analysis for each period adjusting for participants' characteristics and tested significance periods. Sensitivity analysis was performed including drinkers only, the 10th centile of highest drinkers and smoker's status. Results Between 1993 and 2014, participants' individual alcohol intake decreased from 7.1 to 5.4 g/day (24% reduction, p<0.001). Men decreased their alcohol intake by 34% compared with 22% for women (p<0.001). The decrease in alcohol intake remained significant when considering drinkers only (28% decrease, p<0.001) and the 10th centile highest drinkers (24% decrease, p<0.001). Consumption of all alcoholic beverages decreased between 1993 and 2014 except for the moderate consumption of beer, which increased. After adjustment for participants' characteristics and secular trends, no independent association between alcohol legislative changes and individual alcohol intake was found. Conclusions Between 1993 and

  1. Testosterone treatment in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Srinivas-Shankar, U; Sharma, D

    2009-01-01

    Testosterone has been used in testicular and hypothalamo-pituitary diseases since the 1940s. There is growing interest in the use of testosterone in aging men, and this has stimulated research into the benefits of male hormone replacement. Testosterone treatment of men with hypogonadism might have beneficial effects on body composition, muscle strength, sexual function, and cognition. There are several modes of administration of the male hormone, with injectable testosterone esters and implanted testosterone pellets being the mainstay of treatment until recently. These preparations are increasingly being replaced by transdermal patches, gels, and long-acting parenteral preparations. Testosterone patches and gels are ideally for elderly men. Treatment with the male hormone is relatively safe, if patients are selected appropriately and monitored carefully. The most important adverse effects are on the prostate. In this review, we briefly discuss the indications, contraindications, and benefits of testosterone treatment. Further, we list the adverse effects, advantages, and disadvantages of various testosterone preparations in elderly men.

  2. BODY VOLUME OF ADULT MEN

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The ideal weight given on the USAF standard weight table was found to have a correlation coefficient of only .672 with calculated percent body fat....volume from height and weight revealed the chart to be biased for adult men. Body volume was found to correlate well with body weight ( correlation ... coefficient of .996). Body volume of men in liters, V, may be estimated from body weight in kilograms, W, by using the formula: V = -4.7573 + 1.0153 W

  3. Food Color Induced Hepatotoxicity in Swiss Albino Rats, Rattus norvegicus

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Beenam; Sharma, Shiv

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Certain dietary constituents can induce toxicity and play a critical role in the development of several hepatic disorders. Tartrazine, metanil yellow and sunset yellow are widely used azo dyes in food products, so the present study is aimed to investigate the food color induced hepatotoxicity in Swiss albino rats. Materials and Methods: Swiss albino rats were divided into four groups, each group having six animals. Group I served as control, Group II, Group III and Group IV were administered with 25, 50 and 75 mg/kg body weight blend of sunset yellow, metanil yellow and tartrazine for 30 days. Hepatotoxicity in rats treated with a blend of these food colors was studied by assessing parameters such as serum total protein, serum albumin, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) as well as hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT) were assessed. Results: Significantly increased concentrations of serum total protein, serum albumin, serum ALP and hepatic MDA and significantly lowered levels of SOD, reduced GSH and CAT in the liver tissue of treated animals were observed when compared with control animals. The alteration in the liver includes necrosis of hepatocytes, infiltration and vacuolation. Conclusion: The result indicates that consumption of food color in diet induces liver tissue damage. The used doses of food color were mostly attributable to hepatocellular damage and drastic alteration in antioxidant defense system. PMID:26862277

  4. Distributed landsurface skin temperature sensing in Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Giesen, N.; Baerenbold, F.; Nadeau, D. F.; Pardyjak, E.; Parlange, M. B.

    2010-12-01

    The ZyTemp TN9 is a mass-produced thermal infrared (TIR) sensor that is normally used to build handheld non-contact thermometers. The measurement principle of the TN9 is similar to that of very costly meteorological pyrgeometers. The costs of the TN9 are less than 10. The output of the TN9 consists of observed thermal radiation, the temperature of the measurement instrument, and the emissivity used. The output is provided through a Serial Peripheral Interface protocol. The TN9 was combined with an Arduino board that registered data onto a USB memory stick. A solar cell, lead acid battery, housing and stand completed the meausrement set up. Total costs per set was in the order of 200 Land surface atmosphere interactions in mountainous areas, such as the Swiss Alps, are spatially heterogeneous. Shading, multi-layer cloud formation, and up- and downdrafts make for a very dynamic exchange of mass and energy along and across slopes. In order to better understand these exchanges, the Swiss Slope Experiment at La Fouly (SELF) has built a distributed sensing network consisting of eight micro-met stations and two flux towers in the "La Fouly" watershed in the upper Alps. To obtain a better handle on surface temperature, fifteen TIR sensing stations were installed that made observations during the 2010 Summer. Methods and results will be presented. Overview La Fouly watershed (source: http://eflum.epfl.ch/research/images/fouly_2.jpg)

  5. Lameness and foot lesions in Swiss dairy cows: I. Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Becker, J; Steiner, A; Kohler, S; Koller-Bähler, A; Wüthrich, M; Reist, M

    2014-02-01

    Prevalences of foot lesions and lameness were recorded in 1'449 Swiss dairy cows during routine claw-trimming on 78 farms from June 2010 until February 2011. Lameness was present in 14.8 % of cows and on 80.8 % of investigated farms. Highest prevalences were seen for widened white line (80.7 %/100 %), signalling foot lesion (65.6 %/98.7 %), heel-horn erosion (34.2 %/88.5 %), digital dermatitis complex (29.1 %/73.1 %), severe hemorrhages (27.9 %/87.2 %), and Rusterholz' sole ulcers (11.5 %/74.4 %) at cow and herd level, respectively. Lower prevalences were found for subclinical laminitis (5.4 %/47.4 %), chronic laminitis (3.3 %/25.6 %), white line disease (4.7 %/42.3 %), double soles (2.6 %/33.3 %), interdigital hyperplasia (3.1 %/33.3 %), sole ulcers (0.4 %/6.4 %), toe infections caused by faulty claw-trimming (3.9 %/39.7 %) and by injury (0.1 %/2.6 %), deep lacerations (0.4 %/6.4 %), and interdigital phlegmona (0.1 %/1.3 %). Lameness and foot lesions were shown to represent important health problems of dairy cows under the conditions of the typical grass-based production system in Switzerland. Digital dermatitis has developed to the most relevant foot disease with a high impact on welfare of Swiss dairy cows within the past 10 years.

  6. Serial snapshot crystallography for materials science with SwissFEL

    DOE PAGES

    Dejoie, Catherine; Smeets, Stef; Baerlocher, Christian; ...

    2015-04-21

    New opportunities for studying (sub)microcrystalline materials with small unit cells, both organic and inorganic, will open up when the X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) presently being constructed in Switzerland (SwissFEL) comes online in 2017. Our synchrotron-based experiments mimicking the 4%-energy-bandpass mode of the SwissFEL beam show that it will be possible to record a diffraction pattern of up to 10 randomly oriented crystals in a single snapshot, to index the resulting reflections, and to extract their intensities reliably. The crystals are destroyed with each XFEL pulse, but by combining snapshots from several sets of crystals, a complete set of datamore » can be assembled, and crystal structures of materials that are difficult to analyze otherwise will become accessible. Even with a single shot, at least a partial analysis of the crystal structure will be possible, and with 10–50 femtosecond pulses, this offers tantalizing possibilities for time-resolved studies.« less

  7. Needle exchange ends HIV transmission in Swiss jail.

    PubMed

    1996-07-26

    According to Swiss researchers, making drug injection equipment available to inmates in a low-security prison has prevented new HIV infections without disrupting prison life. Inmates often shared smuggled drug equipment, creating an enormous potential for HIV infection. During a 12-month pilot project, the prison distributed more than 5,000 sterile syringes through 6 needle-exchange machines and offered inmates counseling and information about HIV risks. The prison detected no new cases of HIV or hepatitis B, and only one instance of needle-sharing was reported. According to Swiss Federal Office of Public Health researchers, fears that the project would encourage drug consumption or needles would be used as weapons against guards proved unfounded. As a result of the findings, the prison is continuing the HIV prevention program. In another study, researchers at Canada's Matsqui Institution in Abbottsford, British Columbia, found that a pilot project of bleach distribution to prison inmates who share injection-drug equipment proved successful. A total of 305 bleach kits was distributed. Results were so positive that the pilot program is being extended to all Federal prisons in Canada by the end of September.

  8. Frequency of and Risk Factors for Depression among Participants in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS)

    PubMed Central

    Jaccard, René; Shaw, Susy Ann; Stoeckle, Marcel; Bernasconi, Enos; Barth, Jürgen; Calmy, Alexandra; Berney, Alexandre; Jenewein, Josef; Weber, Rainer

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We studied the incidence and prevalence of, and co-factors for depression in the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. Methods Depression-specific items were introduced in 2010 and prospectively collected at semiannual cohort visits. Clinical, laboratory and behavioral co-factors of incident depression among participants free of depression at the first two visits in 2010 or thereafter were analyzed with Poisson regression. Cumulative prevalence of depression at the last visit was analyzed with logistic regression. Results Among 4,422 participants without a history of psychiatric disorders or depression at baseline, 360 developed depression during 9,348 person-years (PY) of follow-up, resulting in an incidence rate of 3.9 per 100 PY (95% confidence interval (CI) 3.5–4.3). Cumulative prevalence of depression during follow-up was recorded for 1,937/6,756 (28.7%) participants. Incidence and cumulative prevalence were higher in injection drug users (IDU) and women. Older age, preserved work ability and higher physical activity were associated with less depression episodes. Mortality (0.96 per 100 PY, 95% CI 0.83–1.11) based upon 193 deaths over 20,102 PY was higher among male IDU (2.34, 1.78–3.09), female IDU (2.33, 1.59–3.39) and white heterosexual men (1.32, 0.94–1.84) compared to white heterosexual women and homosexual men (0.53, 0.29–0.95; and 0.71, 0.55–0.92). Compared to participants free of depression, mortality was slightly elevated among participants with a history of depression (1.17, 0.94–1.45 vs. 0.86, 0.71–1.03, P = 0.033). Suicides (n = 18) did not differ between HIV transmission groups (P = 0.50), but were more frequent among participants with a prior diagnosis of depression (0.18 per 100 PY, 95%CI 0.10–0.31; vs. 0.04, 0.02–0.10; P = 0.003). Conclusions Depression is a frequent co-morbidity among HIV-infected persons, and thus an important focus of care. PMID:26492488

  9. [Between law and psychiatry: homosexuality in the project of the Swiss penal code (1918)].

    PubMed

    Delessert, Thierry

    2005-01-01

    In 1942 the Swiss penal code depenalises homosexual acts between agreeing adults under some conditions. The genesis of the penal article shows that it was constructed before the First World War and bears marks of the forensic theories of the turn of the century. Both by direct contacts and the authority of its eminent figures, Swiss psychiatry exerts an unquestionable influence on the depenalisation. The conceptualisation of homosexuality is also strongly influenced by the German psychiatric theories and discussed in reference to Germanic law. By the penal article, the Swiss lawyers and psychiatrists link the homosexual question with the determination of the irresponsibility of criminal mental patients and degeneracy.

  10. Validation of French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire among young Swiss males, and its relationship with substance use.

    PubMed

    Dupuis, Marc; Studer, Joseph; Henchoz, Yves; Deline, Stéphane; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-02-01

    This study main purpose was the validation of both French and German versions of a Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire. The sample group comprised 5065 Swiss men from the "Cohort Study on Substance Use Risk Factors." Multigroup Confirmatory factor analysis showed that a three-factor model fits the data well, which substantiates the generalizability of Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire factor structure, regardless of the language. The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire demonstrated excellent homogeneity (α = 95) and split-half reliability (r = .96). The Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire was sensitive to community size and participants' financial situation, confirming that it also measures real social conditions. Finally, weak but frequent correlations between Perceived Neighborhood Social Cohesion Questionnaire and alcohol, cigarette, and cannabis dependence were measured.

  11. Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases, childhood adversities and familial aggregation are independently associated with the risk for mental disorders: Results from a large Swiss epidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Aleksandrowicz, Aleksandra; Rodgers, Stephanie; Mutsch, Margot; Tesic, Anja; Müller, Mario; Kawohl, Wolfram; Rössler, Wulf; Seifritz, Erich; Castelao, Enrique; Strippoli, Marie-Pierre F; Vandeleur, Caroline; von Känel, Roland; Paolicelli, Rosa; Landolt, Markus A; Witthauer, Cornelia; Lieb, Roselind; Preisig, Martin

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the associations between mental disorders and infectious, atopic, inflammatory diseases while adjusting for other risk factors. METHODS We used data from PsyCoLaus, a large Swiss Population Cohort Study (n = 3720; age range 35-66). Lifetime diagnoses of mental disorders were grouped into the following categories: Neurodevelopmental, anxiety (early and late onset), mood and substance disorders. They were regressed on infectious, atopic and other inflammatory diseases adjusting for sex, educational level, familial aggregation, childhood adversities and traumatic experiences in childhood. A multivariate logistic regression was applied to each group of disorders. In a complementary analysis interactions with sex were introduced via nested effects. RESULTS Associations with infectious, atopic and other chronic inflammatory diseases were observable together with consistent effects of childhood adversities and familial aggregation, and less consistent effects of trauma in each group of mental disorders. Streptococcal infections were associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (men), and measles/mumps/rubella-infections with early and late anxiety disorders (women). Gastric inflammatory diseases took effect in mood disorders (both sexes) and in early disorders (men). Similarly, irritable bowel syndrome was prominent in a sex-specific way in mood disorders in women, and, moreover, was associated with early and late anxiety disorders. Atopic diseases were associated with late anxiety disorders. Acne (associations with mood disorders in men) and psoriasis (associations with early anxiety disorders in men and mood disorders in women) contributed sex-specific results. Urinary tract infections were associated with mood disorders and, in addition, in a sex-specific way with late anxiety disorders (men), and neurodevelopmental and early anxiety disorders (women). CONCLUSION Infectious, atopic and inflammatory diseases are important risk factors for all groups of

  12. Arrest History among Men and Sexual Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Dennis G.; Milroy, Michael E.; Reynolds, Grace L.; Klahn, Jennifer A.; Wood, Michele M.

    2004-01-01

    This study explored associations between ever having been arrested and other variables among 490 male drug users. Participants were classified into three groups based on recent sexual history: men who had not had sex (NOSEX), men who had had sex with women (HETERO), and men who had had sex with men (MSM). We found that MSM who had been arrested…

  13. Men's Health Studies: Origins and Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don

    2000-01-01

    Outlines the development of men's health studies, situating its development in a general historical context; discussing the study of men's health within the context of critical feminist theories and theories of men and masculinities; outlining and illustrating a relational theory for understanding men's health in an effort to integrate this study…

  14. Grid Data Management and Customer Demands at MeteoSwiss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigo, G.; Lukasczyk, Ch.

    2010-09-01

    Data grids constitute the required input form for a variety of applications. Therefore, customers increasingly expect climate services to not only provide measured data, but also grids of these with the required configurations on an operational basis. Currently, MeteoSwiss is establishing a production chain for delivering data grids by subscription directly from the data warehouse in order to meet the demand for precipitation data grids by governmental, business and science customers. The MeteoSwiss data warehouse runs on an Oracle database linked with an ArcGIS Standard edition geodatabase. The grids are produced by Unix-based software written in R called GRIDMCH which extracts the station data from the data warehouse and stores the files in the file system. By scripts, the netcdf-v4 files are imported via an FME interface into the database. Currently daily and monthly deliveries of daily precipitation grids are available from MeteoSwiss with a spatial resolution of 2.2km x 2.2km. These daily delivered grids are a preliminary based on 100 measuring sites whilst the grid of the monthly delivery of daily sums is calculated out of about 430 stations. Crucial for the absorption by the customers is the understanding of and the trust into the new grid product. Clearly stating needs which can be covered by grid products, the customers require a certain lead time to develop applications making use of the particular grid. Therefore, early contacts and a continuous attendance as well as flexibility in adjusting the production process to fulfill emerging customer needs are important during the introduction period. Gridding over complex terrain can lead to temporally elevated uncertainties in certain areas depending on the weather situation and coverage of measurements. Therefore, careful instructions on the quality and use and the possibility to communicate the uncertainties of gridded data proofed to be essential especially to the business and science customers who require

  15. Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zappone, Alba; Kissling, Eduard

    2015-04-01

    The Swiss Atlas of PHYsical properties of Rocks (SAPHYR), is a multi-year project, funded entirely by Swiss Commission for Geophysics (SGPK), with the aim to compile a comprehensive data set in digital form on physical properties of rocks exposed in Switzerland and surrounding regions. The ultimate goal of SAPHYR is to make these data accessible to an open and wide public including industrial, engineering, land and resource planning companies, as well as academic institutions, or simply people interested in geology. Since the early sixties worldwide many scientists, i.e. geophysicists, petrologists, and engineers, focused their work on laboratory measurements of rocks physical properties, and their relations with microstructures, mineralogical compositions and other rock parameters, in the effort to constrain the geological interpretation of geophysical surveys. Particularly in the years in which seismic reflection and refraction crustal scale projects were investigating the deep structures of the Alps, laboratories capable to reproduce the pressure and temperature ranges of the continental crust were collecting measurements of various rock parameters on a wide variety of lithologies, developing in the meantime more and more sophisticated experimental methodologies. In recent years, the increasing interest of European Countries on non-traditional energy supply, (i.e. Deep Geothermal Energy and shale gas) and CO2 storage renovated the interests in physical characterization of the deep underground. SAPHYR aims to organize all those laboratory data into a geographically referenced database (GIS). The data refer to density, porosity, permeability, and seismic, magnetic, thermal and electric properties. In the past years, effort has been placed on collecting samples and measuring the physical properties of lithologies that were poorly documented in literature. The phase of laboratory measurements is still in progress. Recently, SAPHYR project focused towards developing

  16. Retroviral infection in Peruvian men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, Alberto M; Zunt, Joseph R; Peinado, Jesus; Lama, Javier R; Ton, Thanh G N; Suarez, Luis; Pun, Monica; Cabezas, Cesar; Sanchez, Jorge

    2009-07-01

    We tested 2655 Peruvian men who have sex with men for the presence of retroviral infection. Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) was detected in 48 (1.8%) of the patients, HTLV-2 was detected in 28 (1.1%), and HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 were both detected in 5 (0.2%). Human immunodeficiency virus infection was detected in 329 (12.4%) of the patients; 24 (7.3%) had HTLV coinfection. Risk factors for HTLV-1 and HTLV-2 infection varied with sexual role.

  17. What Are the Key Statistics about Breast Cancer in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men What Are the Key Statistics About Breast Cancer in Men? The American Cancer Society estimates for ... Treatment in Breast Cancer in Men? More In Breast Cancer In Men About Breast Cancer in Men Causes, ...

  18. Relative Earnings of Black Men to White Men by Region, Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Lisa

    1995-01-01

    The earnings gap between black men and white men widened from 1979-89. Black men were more likely to experience declines in regions where they were concentrated. White men's earnings rose relative to black men's in lower-paying industries. (SK)

  19. Men's Studies as a Foundation for Student Development Work with College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capraro, Rocco L.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter surveys the history and theory of men's studies, a field concerned primarily with masculinity and other aspects of men's experience and identity. It argues that men's studies would be an ideal foundation for our work with college men and offers guidelines for programs for men.

  20. The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics’ resources: focus on curated databases

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) provides world-class bioinformatics databases, software tools, services and training to the international life science community in academia and industry. These solutions allow life scientists to turn the exponentially growing amount of data into knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of SIB's resources and competence areas, with a strong focus on curated databases and SIB's most popular and widely used resources. In particular, SIB's Bioinformatics resource portal ExPASy features over 150 resources, including UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENZYME, PROSITE, neXtProt, STRING, UniCarbKB, SugarBindDB, SwissRegulon, EPD, arrayMap, Bgee, SWISS-MODEL Repository, OMA, OrthoDB and other databases, which are briefly described in this article. PMID:26615188

  1. Mental Preparation and Evaluation: A Sportpsychological Project with the Swiss Orienteering National Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venzl, Reto

    1994-01-01

    Lists the training themes and levels of intervention of a psychological orienteering project for Swiss athletes. Presents an outline for preparation and evaluation of team or individual performance over time on technical, physical, mental, and environmental aspects of orienteering. (SV)

  2. Costs and Benefits of Dual Apprenticeship: Lessons from the Swiss System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanhard, Siegfried; Bossio, Sandra

    1998-01-01

    After compulsory schooling, nearly two-thirds of Swiss youth undertake apprenticeships. Although it has been an efficient and effective system, young people are losing interest and businesses are questioning the time and costs involved in changing economic conditions. (SK)

  3. The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics' resources: focus on curated databases.

    PubMed

    2016-01-04

    The SIB Swiss Institute of Bioinformatics (www.isb-sib.ch) provides world-class bioinformatics databases, software tools, services and training to the international life science community in academia and industry. These solutions allow life scientists to turn the exponentially growing amount of data into knowledge. Here, we provide an overview of SIB's resources and competence areas, with a strong focus on curated databases and SIB's most popular and widely used resources. In particular, SIB's Bioinformatics resource portal ExPASy features over 150 resources, including UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot, ENZYME, PROSITE, neXtProt, STRING, UniCarbKB, SugarBindDB, SwissRegulon, EPD, arrayMap, Bgee, SWISS-MODEL Repository, OMA, OrthoDB and other databases, which are briefly described in this article.

  4. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast? (paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Arceuthobium spp., Armillaria, Phaseolus schweinitzii, Dendroctonus ponderosae, Dendroctonu...

  5. Methyl isocyanate: reproductive and development toxicology studies in Swiss mice

    SciTech Connect

    Schwetz, B.A.; Adkins, B. Jr.; Harris, M.; Moorman, M.; Sloane, R.

    1987-06-01

    Studies were conducted in Swiss (CD-1) mice to evaluate the potential of inhaled vapors of methyl isocyanate (MIC) to affect reproduction and development. Inhaled MIC at concentrations of 0, 1, or 3 ppm, 6 hr per day during days 14 through 17 of gestation caused a significant increase in the number of dead fetuses at birth and caused a significant decrease in neonatal survival during lactation. In contrast, exposure of male and female mice to 1 or 3 ppm given 6 hr per day for 4 consecutive days had no effect on reproduction during mating trials conducted 1, 8, and 17 weeks after the exposure period. Similarly, there was no evidence of a dominant lethal effect in exposed male mice.

  6. Generalized Swiss-cheese cosmologies. II. Spherical dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Cédric; Lake, Kayll

    2011-10-01

    The generalized Swiss-cheese model, consisting of a Lemaître-Tolman (inhomogeneous dust) region matched, by way of a comoving boundary surface, onto a Robertson-Walker background of homogeneous dust, has become a standard construction in modern cosmology. Here, we ask if this construction can be made more realistic by introducing some evolution of the boundary surface. The answer we find is no. To maintain a boundary surface using the Darmois-Israel junction conditions, as opposed to the introduction of a surface layer, the boundary must remain exactly comoving. The options are to drop the assumption of dust or allow the development of surface layers. Either option fundamentally changes the original construction.

  7. How did the swiss cheese plant get its holes?

    PubMed

    Muir, Christopher D

    2013-02-01

    Adult leaf fenestration in "Swiss cheese" plants (Monstera Adans.) is an unusual leaf shape trait lacking a convincing evolutionary explanation. Monstera are secondary hemiepiphytes that inhabit the understory of tropical rainforests, where photosynthesis from sunflecks often makes up a large proportion of daily carbon assimilation. Here I present a simple model of leaf-level photosynthesis and whole-plant canopy dynamics in a stochastic light environment. The model demonstrates that leaf fenestration can reduce the variance in plant growth and thereby increase geometric mean fitness. This growth-variance hypothesis also suggests explanations for conspicuous ontogenetic changes in leaf morphology (heteroblasty) in Monstera, as well as the absence of leaf fenestration in co-occurring juvenile tree species. The model provides a testable hypothesis of the adaptive significance of a unique leaf shape and illustrates how variance in growth rate could be an important factor shaping plant morphology and physiology.

  8. Mitochondrial anomalies in a Swiss family with autosomal dominant myoglobinuria

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-du Pan, R.C.; Favre, H.; Junod, A.

    1997-04-14

    We report on a Swiss family in which 10 individuals of both sexes in 4 successive generations suffered from myoglobinuria, precipitated by febrile illness. It is the second family described with autosomal dominant inheritance of myoglobinuria. Four individuals suffered acute renal failure, which in two was reversible only after dialysis. In a recent case, a mitochondrial disorder was suspected because of an abnormal increase in lactate levels during an exercise test and because of a subsarcolemmal accumulation of mitochondria in a muscle biopsy, associated with a lack of cytochrome C oxidase in some muscle fibers. No mutation in the mitochondrial DNA was identified. Along with the inheritance pattern, these findings suggest that the myoglobinuria in this family is caused by a nuclear-encoded mutation affecting the respiratory chain. 22 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Increase in participation but decrease in performance in age group mountain marathoners in the 'Jungfrau Marathon': a Swiss phenomenon?

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas; Zingg, Matthias A; Rüst, Christoph A

    2015-01-01

    Participation and performance trends for age group marathoners have been investigated for large city marathons such as the 'New York City Marathon' but not for mountain marathons. This study investigated participation and trends in performance and sex difference in the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' held in Switzerland from 2000 to 2014 using single and mixed effects regression analyses. Results were compared to a city marathon (Lausanne Marathon) also held in Switzerland during the same period. Sex difference was calculated using the equation ([race time in women] - [race time in men]/[race time in men] × 100). Changes in sex differences across calendar years and were investigated using linear regression models. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', participation in all female and male age groups increased with exception of women in age groups 18-24 and men in age groups 30-34, 40-44 and 60-64 years where participation remained unchanged. In 'Lausanne Marathon', participation increased in women in age groups 30-34 to 40-44 years. In men, participation increased in age groups 25-29 to 44-44 years and 50-54 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon' runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 to 70-74 years. In 'Lausanne Marathon', runners became slower across years in age groups 18-24 and 30-34 to 65-69 years, but not for 25-29, 70-74 and 75-79 years. In 'Jungfrau Marathon', sex difference increased in age groups 25-29 (from 4 to 10 %) and 60-64 years (from 3 to 8 %) but decreased in age group 40-44 years (from 12 to 6 %). In 'Lausanne Marathon', the sex difference showed no changes. In summary, participation increased in most female and male age groups but performance decreased in most age groups for both the mountain marathon 'Jungfrau Marathon' and the city marathon 'Lausanne Marathon'. The sex differences were lower in the 'Jungfrau Marathon' (~6-7 %) compared to the 'Lausanne Marathon' where the sex difference was ~10-12 % from age groups 18-24 to 55

  10. Suicide tourism: a pilot study on the Swiss phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Gauthier, Saskia; Mausbach, Julian; Reisch, Thomas; Bartsch, Christine

    2015-08-01

    While assisted suicide (AS) is strictly restricted in many countries, it is not clearly regulated by law in Switzerland. This imbalance leads to an influx of people-'suicide tourists'-coming to Switzerland, mainly to the Canton of Zurich, for the sole purpose of committing suicide. Political debate regarding 'suicide tourism' is taking place in many countries. Swiss medicolegal experts are confronted with these cases almost daily, which prompted our scientific investigation of the phenomenon. The present study has three aims: (1) to determine selected details about AS in the study group (age, gender and country of residence of the suicide tourists, the organisation involved, the ingested substance leading to death and any diseases that were the main reason for AS); (2) to find out the countries from which suicide tourists come and to review existing laws in the top three in order to test the hypothesis that suicide tourism leads to the amendment of existing regulations in foreign countries; and (3) to compare our results with those of earlier studies in Zurich. We did a retrospective data analysis of the Zurich Institute of Legal Medicine database on AS of non-Swiss residents in the last 5 years (2008-2012), and internet research for current legislation and political debate in the three foreign countries most concerned. We analysed 611 cases from 31 countries all over the world. Non-terminal conditions such as neurological and rheumatic diseases are increasing among suicide tourists. The unique phenomenon of suicide tourism in Switzerland may indeed result in the amendment or supplementary guidelines to existing regulations in foreign countries.

  11. NASA Rodent Foodbar: Long Term Effects in Swiss Webster Mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, D. L.; Yu, D. S.; Naficy, N. H.; Roghani, P. M.; Dalton, B. P.; Barrett, J. E.; Dalton, Bonnie (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Swiss Webster male and female mice (150 of each) were fed NASA Rodent Foodbar for more than 110 days to test the diet's nutritional adequacy for use in future long-term studies aboard the International Space Station. Mice were grouped three to a cage (one cage = one sample) and cages were assigned to either Foodbar or Purina Chow #5001 (control) diet groups. Body weights, food intake, and water intake were obtained throughout the study. There were no significant differences in body weights between male Foodbar fed and Chow fed males (p=0.58), and at 15 weeks into the female mouse study there appear to be no significant body weight differences. Both male and female Foodbar fed groups consumed more food and less water than their Chow controls, both factors thought to be attributable to the high moisture content of the Foodbars (26% versus 10% for Chow). All differences in gross food and water consumption had p-values of less than 0.01. When food and water intake were adjusted for the moisture content in the food, both male and female Foodbar fed animals consumed less food, but still had a lower water intake rate than their controls. (p is less than 0.01). Preliminary analysis on blood samples from male and female halfway point dissections suggests differences in glucose and fat metabolism. In both male and female Foodbar fed animals, blood glucose values were significantly lower (p is less than 0.01) but there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels (p=0.51). In Foodbar fed females, triglycerides were significantly higher (p is less than 0.01). These data suggest that Foodbars allow for normal growth in Swiss Webster mice, but affect some blood chemistry parameters.

  12. Swiss University Students’ Attitudes toward Pharmacological Cognitive Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Larissa J.; Liakoni, Evangelia; Schildmann, Jan; Schaub, Michael P.; Liechti, Matthias E.

    2015-01-01

    Pharmacological cognitive enhancement (PCE) refers to the nonmedical use of prescription or recreational drugs to enhance cognitive performance. Several concerns about PCE have been raised in the public. The aim of the present study was to investigate students’ attitudes toward PCE. Students at three Swiss universities were invited by e-mail to participate in a web-based survey. Of the 29,282 students who were contacted, 3,056 participated. Of these students, 22% indicated that they had used prescription drugs (12%) or recreational substances including alcohol (14%) at least once for PCE. The use of prescription drugs or recreational substances including alcohol prior to the last exam was reported by 16%. Users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers were more likely to consider PCE fair (24%) compared with nonusers (11%). Only a minority of the participants agreed with the nonmedical use of prescription drugs by fellow students when assuming weak (7%) or hypothetically strong efficacy and availability to everyone (14%). Two-thirds (68%) considered performance that is obtained with PCE less worthy of recognition. Additionally, 80% disagreed that PCE is acceptable in a competitive environment. More than half (64%) agreed that PCE in academia is similar to doping in sports. Nearly half (48%) claimed that unregulated access to pharmacological cognitive enhancers increases the pressure to engage in PCE and educational inequality (55%). In conclusion, Swiss students’ main concerns regarding PCE were related to coercion and fairness. As expected, these concerns were more prevalent among nonusers than among users of pharmacological cognitive enhancers. More balanced information on PCE should be shared with students, and future monitoring of PCE is recommended. PMID:26657300

  13. Development and validation of a food pyramid for Swiss athletes.

    PubMed

    Mettler, Samuel; Mannhart, Christof; Colombani, Paolo C

    2009-10-01

    Food-guide pyramids help translate nutrient goals into a visual representation of suggested food intake on a population level. No such guidance system has ever been specifically designed for athletes. Therefore, the authors developed a Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes that illustrates the number of servings per food group needed in relation to the training volume of an athlete. As a first step, an average energy expenditure of 0.1 kcal . kg(-1) . min(-1) for exercise was defined, which then was translated into servings of different food groups per hour of exercise per day. Variable serving sizes were defined for athletes' different body-mass categories. The pyramid was validated by designing 168 daily meal plans according to the recommendations of the pyramid for male and female athletes of different body-mass categories and training volumes of up to 4 hr/d. The energy intake of the meal plans met the calculated reference energy requirement by 97% +/- 9%. The carbohydrate and protein intakes were linearly graded from 4.6 +/- 0.6-8.5 +/- 0.8 g . kg(-1) . d(-1) and 1.6 +/- 0.2-1.9 +/- 0.2 g . kg(-1) . d(-1), respectively, for training volumes of 1-4 hr of exercise per day. The average micronutrient intake depended particularly on the dietary energy intake level but was well above the dietary reference intake values for most micronutrients. No tolerable upper intake level was exceeded for any micronutrient. Therefore, this Food Pyramid for Swiss Athletes may be used as a new tool in sports nutrition education (e.g., teaching and counseling).

  14. How representative is pesticide monitoring in Swiss streams?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munz, Nicole; Wittmer, Irene; Strahm, Ivo; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2013-04-01

    The surveillance of surface water quality in Switzerland is the task of the 26 cantons. This includes the assessment of the level of pesticide pollution. Each of the cantons may follow different procedures, which makes a comparison difficult and cumbersome. Nevertheless, in this study presents the main results of the first nation-wide compilation and interpretation of cantonal and federal monitoring data as well as results from specific research projects on agricultural and urban pesticides are presented. Overall, more than 345'000 concentration data of 281 biocidal compounds have been analyzed. This set of substances includes 203 compounds that have been registered either only as agricultural plant protection (N = 149) product or only as urban biocide (N = 18), but also some (N = 36) which were registered for both uses. This data set contains 70 out of the 100 most sold agricultural plant protection products in 2010. A comparable assessment for the representativeness of the biocide data is hardly possible due to a lack of systematic use data. The data stem from 565 measuring sites. However, these sites are not representative for all size classes of the Swiss stream network. While about 75% of the total length of the stream network is made up by small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2), only 28% of the measuring sites are located on such streams. In combination with the sampling strategies that have been used - about 50% grab samples and 50% composite samples - it can be concluded that the 2% of measured values > 100 ng L-1 most probably severely underestimates the true level of pesticide pollution in the Swiss stream network. In the future, more emphasis has to be put on small streams, where higher concentrations are expected and thus also actual ecological effects.

  15. Swiss AlpArray: deployment of the Swiss AlpArray temporary broad-band stations and their noise characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinari, Irene; Kissling, Edi; Clinton, John; Hetényi, György; Šipka, Vesna; Stipćević, Josip; Dasović, Iva; Solarino, Stefano; Wéber, Zoltán; Gráczer, Zoltán; Electronics Lab, SED

    2016-04-01

    One of the main actions of the AlpArray European initiative is the deployment of a dense seismic broad-band network, that complements the existing permanent stations. This will ensure a spatially homogeneous seismic coverage of the greater Alpine area for at least two years, allowing a great number of innovative scientific works to be carried out. Our contribution to the AlpArray Seismic Network consists in the deployment of 24 temporary broad-band stations: three in Switzerland, twelve in Italy, three in Croatia, three in Bosnia and Herzegovina and three in Hungary. This deployment is lead by ETH Zurich and founded by the Swiss-AlpArray Sinergia programme by SNSF, and is the result of a fruitful collaboration between five research institutes. Stations were installed between Autumn and Winter 2015. Our installations are both free field and in-house and consist of 21 STS-2 and 3 Trillium Compact sensors equipped with Taurus digitizers and 3G telemetry sending data in real time to the ETH EIDA node. In this work, we present sites and stations setting and we discuss in details the characteristics in terms of site effects and noise level of each station. In particular we analyse the power spectral density estimates investigating the major source of noise and the background noise related to seasons, time of the day, human activities and type of installation. In addition we will show examples of data usage - i.e. earthquake locations, noise cross correlations, measures of surface wave dispersion curves. We thanks the Swiss AlpArray Field Team: Blanchard A., Erlanger E. D., Jarić D., Herak D., M. Herak, Hermann M., Koelemeijer P. J., Markušić S., Obermann A., Sager K., Šikman S., Singer J., Winterberg S. SED Electronic Lab: Barman S., Graf P., Hansemann R., Haslinger F., Hiemer S., Racine R., Tanner R., Weber F.

  16. Epidemiology and direct medical costs of osteoporotic fractures in men and women in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Kurt; Golder, Matthias; Greiner, Roger

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the hospitalization incidence and the total number of hospital days related to all fractures and osteoporotic fractures in the year 2000 in Switzerland and to compare these with data from other frequent disorders in men and women. The official administrative and medical statistics database of the Swiss Federal Office of Statistics (SFOS) from the year 2000 was used. It covered 81.2% of all registered patient admissions and was considered to be representative of the entire population. We included the ICD-10 codes of 84 diagnoses that were compatible with an underlying osteoporosis and applied the best matching age-specific osteoporosis attribution rates published for the ICD-9 diagnosis codes to the individual ICD-10 codes. To preserve comparability with previously published data from 1992, we grouped the data related to the ICD-10 fracture codes into seven diagnosis pools (fractures of the axial skeleton, fractures of the proximal upper limbs, fractures of the distal upper limbs, fractures of the proximal lower limbs, fractures of the distal lower limbs, multiple fractures, and osteoporosis) and analyzed them separately for women and men by age group. Incidences of hospitalization due to fractures were calculated, and the direct medical costs related to hospitalization were estimated. In addition, we compared the results with those from chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD), stroke, acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, diabetes and breast carcinoma from the same database. In Switzerland during 2000, 62,535 hospitalizations for fractures (35,586 women and 26,949 men) were registered. Fifty-one percent of all fractures in women and 24% in men were considered as osteoporotic. The overall incidences of hospitalization due to fractures were 969 and 768 per 100,000 in women and men, respectively. The hospitalization incidences for fractures of the proximal lower limbs and the axial skeleton increased exponentially after

  17. Women, Men and the Doctorate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centra, John A; Kuykendall, Nancy M.

    This study describes the current status and professional development of a sample of women doctorates and compares them to a sample of men who have attained the same educational status. Chapters cover the sample and procedures used; employment patterns; doctorates in academe; publications, income, and job satisfaction; marriage and family life;…

  18. Women's Liberation: Are Men Victims?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juhasz, Anne McCreary; Aladjem, Sonia

    Varied theoretical approaches provide insight into the complexity of the process of role shift for men and women. The concept of role "shift" as opposed to role "change" recognizes the need to consider the progressively complex interactions and processes which occur intraindividually, interindividually, culturally, and historically as individuals…

  19. African American Men in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuyjet, Michael J., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    This book is a much-needed resource that includes examples of real-world programs and activities to enhance academic success in the college environment for African American men. The examples are collected from a variety of institutions across the country. With contributions from leading practitioners and scholars in the field, this book explores…

  20. The Wages of Older Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carliner, Geoffrey

    1982-01-01

    Net depreciation rates in human capital are estimated from wage data on a longitudinal sample of men aged 45 to 64. The results indicate that wage rates begin to decline in the early 50s at rates under one percent annually and decline at about two percent annually after age 60. (Author)

  1. Sexually transmitted diseases in men.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Kenneth D; Dudgeon, Wesley D; Becker, Joel; Bopp, Christopher M

    2004-06-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases are the most common infectious diseases in the United States. Physicians, nurses, and other health care providers are uncomfortable discussing sexual issues with their clients. Therefore many health care needs are not addressed, and many opportunities for education aimed at preventing STDs are missed. In the periodic health history, the health care provider must elicit information about sexual practices (vaginal,oral, or anal intercourse), sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, or bisexual), sexual risk behaviors (ie, unprotected intercourse with multiple partners), contraceptive use (particularly condoms), and prior STDs. Based on this information, the health care practitioner moves to more specific questions regarding sexual health. The health care practitioner asks about sores on the penis, dripping or discharge from the penis, staining of the underwear, testicular pain, and scrotal swelling. For the client who engages in oral sex, the health care practitioner asks about sore throat. For the client who engages in anal intercourse ask about diarrhea, rectal bleeding, anal itching, and pain. Probe the desire phase, the arousal phase (erection), and the ejaculation phase. Ask about the desire for fatherhood and concerns about fatherhood. An important part of health care is prevention. Culturally specific and sensitive information should be available for patients. Patient education should not consist of simply handing a brochure to a man. Using the brochure as a guide for including all the necessary information and ascertaining the man's understanding may be a very effective method of patient education. For men who are at increased risk for STDs or who present with symptoms of STDs, offering diagnostic testing is necessary. Men who have multiple sexual partners especially need diagnostic testing and prevention counseling. The CDC recommends annual HIV and hepatitis C testing for men who have sex with men and other men who have

  2. "Cum play" among gay men.

    PubMed

    Prestage, Garrett; Hurley, Michael; Brown, Graham

    2013-10-01

    The exchange of semen, often referred to as "cum play," has featured in gay literature and may be a unique aspect of many gay men's sexual behavior. We investigated the prevalence of "cum play" and its context among 1153 HIV-negative and 147 HIV-positive Australian gay men in an online survey. Receptive cum play (partner ejaculating or rubbing his semen over participant's anus, or participant using partner's semen as lubricant) was reported by one in six HIV-negative and one quarter of HIV-positive men on the same occasion of protected anal intercourse with a casual partner (PAIC). HIV-negative men who engaged in receptive cum play during PAIC often believed that their partner was HIV seroconcordant and tended to trust that partner. They were also generally more optimistic about the likelihood of HIV transmission, and they often only used condoms at their partners' instigation. Cum play was not uncommon and highlights the narrowness (or danger) of focusing on condom use without considering the implications of broader sexual practices and their meaning for sexual health promotion. "Safe sex" for some gay and bisexual men does not necessarily mean consistent commitment to condom use or to avoiding semen exchange. Many feel confident in their knowledge of their partner's HIV serostatus and only use condoms with these partners at their partner's request. Their commitment to safe sex may not necessarily be compromised by their practice of cum play, but the extent to which this could represent a risk for HIV transmission depends on the reliability of their assessment of their partners' HIV serostatus.

  3. Sexually transmitted diseases in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Kenneth H

    2011-12-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) have increased rates of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) compared with demographically matched controls. The reasons for the disproportionate infection burden are complex, including biological, behavioral, and sociocultural factors. HIV and syphilis may often be coprevalent among MSM. The use of nucleic acid amplification testing has enhanced the ability to detect frequently asymptomatic gonococcal and chlamydial infections of the rectum and other sites. Lymphogranuloma proctitis outbreaks among MSM were noted in the developed world several years ago but have not been common recently. MSM are at increased risk for viral hepatitis and anal human papillomavirus disease. Preventive interventions include vaccination for the former and anal cytologic screening for the latter. Because of the diverse ways in which MSM may be exposed to STDs, it is essential for clinicians to obtain a thorough sexual history in a culturally competent manner.

  4. The Lisbon Cohort of men who have sex with men

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, Paula; Lucas, Raquel; Martins, Ana; Carvalho, Ana Cláudia; Fuertes, Ricardo; Brito, João; Campos, Maria José; Mendão, Luís; Barros, Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Newly diagnosed HIV infections among men who have sex with men (MSM) are rising in many European countries. Surveillance tools must be tailored to the current state of the epidemic, and include decentralised prospective monitoring of HIV incidence and behavioural changes in key populations. In this scenario, an open prospective cohort study was assembled—The Lisbon Cohort of MSM—aiming to dynamically monitor the frequency of disease and its predictors. Participants The Lisbon Cohort of MSM is an ongoing observational prospective study conducted at a community-based voluntary HIV counselling and testing centre in Lisbon, Portugal (CheckpointLX). Men testing negative for HIV, aged 18 or over and reporting having had sex with men are invited to follow-up visits every 6 months. At each evaluation, a face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire is conducted, and HIV and syphilis rapid tests are performed by trained peer counsellors. From April 2011 to February 2014, 3106 MSM were eligible to the cohort of whom 923 (29.7%) did not participate. The remaining 2183 (70.3%) MSM were enrolled and 804 had at least one follow-up evaluation, for a total of 893 person-years of observation. Future plans The study findings will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals and presented at national and international conferences. The follow-up of this cohort of HIV-negative MSM will be a valuable tool for monitoring HIV incidence in a setting where limited prospective information existed. Moreover, it will allow for a deeper analytical approach to the study of population time trends and individual changes in risk factors that currently shape the HIV epidemic among MSM. PMID:25967995

  5. Attitudes of women and men physicians.

    PubMed Central

    Heins, M; Hendricks, J; Martindale, L; Smock, S; Stein, M; Jacobs, J

    1979-01-01

    Attitudinal data obtained from interviewing random samples of women and men physicians in metropolitan Detroit indicated that women were generally more liberal and egalitarian than men. Older women were more liberal/egalitarian than older men while younger men were closer in attitudes to younger women. Within specialities, women and men physicians frequently held similar attitudinal scores; however, controlling for age, sex accounted for more variation than did specialty. A weighted combination of variables which together most significantly discriminated between age and sex subgroups pointed to a sensitivity dimension. This was stronger in the women; yet men demonstrating a similar sensitivity were found in almost every age and specialty grouping. Although younger men physicians are less conservative than older men physicians, both younger and older women physicians demonstrated strong liberalism/egalitarianism. PMID:507244

  6. Men More Prone to Severe Psoriasis

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_164498.html Men More Prone to Severe Psoriasis: Study Researchers say this may explain why more ... 2017 THURSDAY, April 6, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Severe psoriasis is much more common in men than women, ...

  7. Men's Health: Prevent the Top Threats

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Many of the leading causes of death among men can be prevented. Here's what ... reduce your risks is another. Start by making healthy lifestyle choices. The impact might be greater than you' ...

  8. Aging-Related Hormone Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    Healthy Lifestyle Men's health Aging-related hormone changes in men — sometimes called male menopause — are different from those ... to erectile dysfunction and other sexual issues. Make healthy lifestyle choices. Eat a healthy diet and include physical ...

  9. Hepatitis C virus transmission among human immunodeficiency virus‐infected men who have sex with men: Modeling the effect of behavioral and treatment interventions

    PubMed Central

    Salazar‐Vizcaya, Luisa; Kouyos, Roger D.; Zahnd, Cindy; Wandeler, Gilles; Battegay, Manuel; Darling, Katharine Elizabeth Anna; Bernasconi, Enos; Calmy, Alexandra; Vernazza, Pietro; Furrer, Hansjakob; Egger, Matthias; Rauch, Andri

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)‐infected men who have sex with men has increased in recent years and is associated with high‐risk sexual behavior. Behavioral interventions that target high‐risk behavior associated with HCV transmission and treatment with direct‐acting antivirals may prevent further HCV infections. We predicted the effect of behavioral and treatment interventions on HCV incidence and prevalence among HIV‐infected men who have sex with men up to 2030 using a HCV transmission model parameterized with data from the Swiss HIV Cohort Study. We assessed behavioral interventions associated with further increase, stabilization, and decrease in the size of the population with high‐risk behavior. Treatment interventions included increase in treatment uptake and use of direct‐acting antivirals. If we assumed that without behavioral interventions high‐risk behavior spread further according to the trends observed over the last decade and that the treatment practice did not change, HCV incidence converged to 10.7/100 person‐years. All assessed behavioral interventions alone resulted in reduced HCV transmissions. Stabilization of high‐risk behavior combined with increased treatment uptake and the use of direct‐acting antivirals reduced incidence by 77% (from 2.2 in 2015 to 0.5/100 person‐years) and prevalence by 81% (from 4.8% in 2015 to 0.9%) over the next 15 years. Increasing treatment uptake was more effective than increasing treatment efficacy to reduce HCV incidence and prevalence. A decrease in high‐risk behavior led to a rapid decline in HCV incidence, independent of treatment interventions. Conclusion: Treatment interventions to curb the HCV epidemic among HIV‐infected men who have sex with men are effective if high‐risk behavior does not increase as it has during the last decade; reducing high‐risk behavior associated with HCV transmission would be the most

  10. DayCent modelling of Swiss cropping systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Necpalova, Magdalena; Lee, Juhwan; Büchi, Lucie; Mäder, Paul; Mayer, Jochen; Charles, Raphael; van der Heijden, Marcel; Six, Johan

    2016-04-01

    There is a growing need to identify and evaluate sustainable greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options, their bio-economic feasibility in the agricultural sector, and support implementation of agricultural GHG mitigation activities that are an integral part of climate change strategies. In recent years, several ecosystem biogeochemical process-based models and comprehensive decision making tools integrated with these models have been developed. The DayCent model simulates all major ecosystem processes that affect soil C and N dynamics, including plant production, water flow, heat transport, SOC decomposition, N mineralization and immobilization, nitrification, denitrification, and methane oxidation. However, if the model is to be reliably used for identification of GHG mitigation options and climate change strategies across the EU agricultural regions, it requires site- and region-specific calibration and evaluation. Here, we calibrated and validated the model to Swiss climate and soil conditions and management options using available long-term experimental data. Data on crop productivity, soil organic carbon and N2O emissions were derived from four field sites located in Thervil (1977-2013), Frick (2003-2013), Changins (1971-2013), and Reckenholz (2009-2013) that have evaluated the effects of agricultural input systems (specifically, organic, biodynamic, and conventional with and without manure additions) and soil management options (various tillage practices and cover cropping). The preliminary results show that the DayCent model was able to reproduce 76% of variability in the crop productivity (n = 1 316) and 75% variability in measured soil organic carbon (n = 402) across all long-term trials. Model calibration was evaluated against independent proportions of the data. The uncertainty in model predictions induced by model structure and uncertainty in the measured data still needs to be further evaluated using the Monte Carlo approach. The calibrated model will be

  11. Fatherhood and Men's Lives at Middle Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eggebeen, David J.; Dew, Jeffrey; Knoester, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This article uses data on 2,024 men who were followed through the third wave of the National Survey of Families and Households to examine the implications of fatherhood experiences for men's involvement in altruistic social activities at middle age. We find that middle-aged men (ages 45-65) who at some point in their lives become fathers are…

  12. Men's Alcohol Expectancies at Selected Community Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derby, Dustin C.

    2011-01-01

    Men's alcohol expectancies are an important cognitive-behavioral component of their consumption; yet, sparse research details such behaviors for men in two-year colleges. Selected for inclusion with the current study were 563 men from seven Illinois community colleges. Logistic regression analysis indicated four significant, positive relationships…

  13. Men and Family Planning. Worldwatch Paper 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Bruce

    This monograph focuses on men's potentially positive role in family planning. In addition, it identifies reasons why so few organized family planning programs have targeted men as clients and why men have so often played a peripheral or negative role in family planning. The document is presented in seven chapters. Chapter I introduces the topic…

  14. Stereotypes of Older Lesbians and Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sara L.; Canetto, Silvia Sara

    2009-01-01

    This study examined stereotypes of older lesbians and gay men. Key findings are that older lesbians and gay men were perceived as similar to older heterosexual women and men with regard to aging stereotypes, such as being judicious. At the same time, sexual minorities were targets of unique stereotypes. Consistent with the implicit inversion…

  15. Poetry therapy, men and masculinities

    PubMed Central

    Furman, Rich; Dill, LeConté

    2016-01-01

    Therapists have long utilized poetry with various at risk male populations. Yet, in spite of its use, therapists have also been aware of the dilemmas associated with using poetry in a population whose behavior and identity may at times run counter to the core tenants of poetry therapy. However, the literature of poetry therapy does not fully explore what therapists need to know about men and masculinities in order to work with them. This article helps prepare therapists using poetry to become more sensitive to gender issues and utilize this understanding in their practice with men. It explores some of the key concepts from gender and masculinities studies and provides examples for how these concepts can be used in practice. PMID:27134327

  16. A Men's Workplace Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Steven T.; Stolp, Sean; Seaton, Cherisse; Sharp, Paul; Caperchione, Cristina M.; Bottorff, Joan L.; Oliffe, John L.; Jones-Bricker, Margaret; Lamont, Sonia; Medhurst, Kerensa; Errey, Sally; Healy, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore physical activity and eating behaviors among men following the implementation of a gender-sensitive, workplace health promotion program. Methods: Using a pre-post within-subjects design, computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) was used to collect health-related information along with physical activity and fruit/vegetable intake at baseline and after 6 months. Results: At baseline, participants (N = 139) consumed 3.58 servings of fruit and vegetables/day and engaged in an average of 229.77 min/week moderate-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). At 6 months, daily fruit/vegetable intake did not increase, whereas MVPA increased by 112.3 min/week. Conclusions: The POWERPLAY program successfully increased weekly MVPA. Engaging men in health promotion can be a challenge; here, the workplace served as a valuable environment for achieving positive change. PMID:27281710

  17. Poetry therapy, men and masculinities.

    PubMed

    Furman, Rich; Dill, LeConté

    2012-04-01

    Therapists have long utilized poetry with various at risk male populations. Yet, in spite of its use, therapists have also been aware of the dilemmas associated with using poetry in a population whose behavior and identity may at times run counter to the core tenants of poetry therapy. However, the literature of poetry therapy does not fully explore what therapists need to know about men and masculinities in order to work with them. This article helps prepare therapists using poetry to become more sensitive to gender issues and utilize this understanding in their practice with men. It explores some of the key concepts from gender and masculinities studies and provides examples for how these concepts can be used in practice.

  18. Chronic Urogenital Pain in Men

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Current terminology uses the 2008 European Association of Urology guidelines, but variably used historical terms suggest inflammation or infection that is rarely found. Central sensitisation is important in causing visceral and muscle hyperalgesia throughout the pelvis. There can be considerable overlap between urogenital pain conditions. Men who have a chronic urological pain condition often have a disturbance of urinary, bowel and sexual function. Working with urologists as well as a multidisciplinary team is essential. PMID:26526127

  19. Mortality differentials among Israeli men.

    PubMed Central

    Manor, O; Eisenbach, Z; Peritz, E; Friedlander, Y

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study examined differentials in mortality among adult Israeli men with respect to ethnic origin, marital status, and several measures of social status. METHODS: Data were based on a linkage of records from a 20% sample of the 1983 census to records of deaths occurring before the end of 1992. The study population included 72,527 men, and the number of deaths was 17,378. RESULTS: Differentials is mortality by origin show that mortality was higher among individuals of North African origin than among those of Asian and European origin. After allowance for several socioeconomic indicators, the excess mortality among North African Jews was eliminated. Substantial and consistent differences in mortality were found according to education, occupation, income, possession of a car, housing, and household amenities. Differentials among the elderly were markedly narrower than those among men younger than 70 years. CONCLUSIONS: Some sectors of Israeli society have higher risks of death than others, including, among the male population, these who are poor, less educated, unmarried, unskilled, out of the labor force, and of North African origin. PMID:10589307

  20. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Jane S.; Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P.F.

    2017-01-01

    The rate of gonorrhea is much higher in men who have sex with men than in heterosexuals. Because of unique behavioral characteristics, asymptomatic sites of infection, mainly the pharynx, are principal drivers of gonorrhea prevalence in men who have sex with men. On the basis of this observation, we call for interventions. PMID:27983487

  1. Frequent Transmission of Gonorrhea in Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Fairley, Christopher K; Hocking, Jane S; Zhang, Lei; Chow, Eric P F

    2017-01-01

    The rate of gonorrhea is much higher in men who have sex with men than in heterosexuals. Because of unique behavioral characteristics, asymptomatic sites of infection, mainly the pharynx, are principal drivers of gonorrhea prevalence in men who have sex with men. On the basis of this observation, we call for interventions.

  2. The Men's Stress Workshop: A Gender-Sensitive Treatment for Depressed Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Primack, Jennifer M.; Addis, Michael E.; Syzdek, Matthew; Miller, Ivan W.

    2010-01-01

    Over 10% of men will meet lifetime criteria for major depressive disorder, yet men often are unwilling to enter treatment, and have more negative attitudes toward therapy than do depressed women. The Men's Stress Workshop was developed as a gender-sensitive group therapy protocol for men that explicitly addresses the role of masculine norms in the…

  3. Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to Know Your Risk Diabetes Basics Symptoms Type 1 Type 2 Gestational Myths Statistics Common Terms Genetics Living With Diabetes Recently Diagnosed Treatment & Care ...

  4. From men to the media and back again: help-seeking in popular men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Anstiss, David; Lyons, Antonia

    2014-11-01

    Men's help-seeking behaviour for health issues is apparent in advice columns in men's magazines. This study discursively analysed men's help-seeking letters and expert replies within two international and popular men's magazines, Men's Health and For Him Magazine or FHM. Findings showed that the texts reinforced hegemonic ideals. Letters positioning men as self-reliant, independently knowledgeable, stoic and avoiding associations with femininity were positively reinforced in expert replies, while other types of positioning were responded to with condescension or ridicule. Results suggest the policing of boundaries by 'experts' around unacceptable/acceptable enactments of masculinity, which may have implications for if, how and when men seek help from experts.

  5. [Cost-benefit analysis of an intervention to improve udder health in Swiss dairy farms].

    PubMed

    Heiniger, D; van den Borne, B H P; Lechner, I; Tschopp, A; Strabel, D; Steiner, A; Meier, H

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this study was to calculate the national costs associated with udder health in Switzerland and to estimate the cost effectiveness of an udder health intervention program. In 49 farms, yearly mastitis associated costs before and during an intervention were collected at herd level. Costs were calculated for each lactating cow being present in the herd. At the beginning of the intervention, 24 farms received a report with recommendations to improve the udder health. In the following year, those herds were followed-up by their veterinarian at a monthly basis. The other 25 farms were used as a negative control group and neither received any recommendations nor any follow-up. In the first year of analysis (2010), the median udder health associated costs were 209.- Swiss Francs for each lactating cow, regardless of the intervention group. During the intervention period (2012), mastitis associated costs were 191.- Swiss Francs for control farms and 396.- Swiss Francs for farms with veterinary intervention on a monthly basis. The median additional costs for herds with intervention were 159.- Swiss Francs per lactating cow. At the national level, mastitis associated costs were estimated at 129.4 millions of Swiss Francs per year. The cost effectiveness of future mastitis control programs can be evaluated with the help of the deterministic model developed during this study.

  6. Ulcerative fungal keratitis in a Brown Swiss cow.

    PubMed

    Voelter-Ratson, Katrin; Monod, Michel; Braun, Ueli; Spiess, Bernhard M

    2013-11-01

    An 11-year-old Brown Swiss cow was referred to the Farm Animal Department of the Veterinary Teaching Hospital in Zurich, Switzerland, because of lateral recumbency due to puerperal hemolytic anemia. The animal had developed enophthalmos due to dehydration at the time of presentation. Two days after hospitalization, the cow showed blepharospasm and epiphora of the right eye. Ophthalmic examination of the right eye revealed a fluorescein-positive, paraxial, superficial corneal ulcer with focal edema, and mild superficial neovascularization. White corneal stromal infiltrates were seen at the edges of the ulcer bed. After initial topical treatment with an antibiotic ointment (Neomycin 3.5 mg/g, Bacitracin 250 IU/g) three times a day, an increase in corneal infiltrates was noted on re-examination 2 days later. Several fluorescein-negative, punctate, stromal, white opacities were seen dorsal to the ulcer. Cytology demonstrated the presence of fungal hyphae. Topical treatment with 2% miconazole ointment and 0.36% K-EDTA eye drops six times daily and four times daily, respectively, from the second day and continued antibiotics three times daily resolved the clinical symptoms within 6 days. Fungal culture identified the fungal organism as Eurotium amstelodami.

  7. Bilateral congenital lacrimal fistula in a Brown Swiss bull.

    PubMed

    Braun, U; Spiess, B; Matheis, F; Schnetzler, C; Trösch, L; Drögemüller, C; Gerspach, C

    2012-03-01

    A five-year-old Brown Swiss bull was referred to the Department of Farm Animals, University of Zurich, because of bilateral epiphora that was unresponsive to treatment. Clinical examination revealed a fistulous opening medial to the medial canthus of both eyes and mucopurulent discharge from both openings. Attempts to flush the nasolacrimal duct via the lacrimal points resulted in the fluid exiting via the fistulous opening. Retrograde flushing of the nasolacrimal duct from the nasolacrimal opening resulted in the flush fluid flowing back out the nasolacrimal opening. Bilateral lacrimal fistula medial to the medial canthus of the eye was diagnosed based on the findings. The same anomaly was diagnosed a year later in 4 related female animals referred to our Department for other reasons. Three of the cases were sired by the bull described above and one was sired by his half-brother. Therefore, an autosomal recessive mode of inheritance of this anomaly was assumed. Clinical, epidemiological and molecular studies of the offspring of both bulls are underway to further investigate this anomaly.

  8. [Paragliding accidents--a prospective analysis in Swiss mountain regions].

    PubMed

    Lautenschlager, S; Karli, U; Matter, P

    1993-01-01

    During the period from 1.1 to 31.12.90, 86 injuries associated with paragliding were analysed in a prospective study in 12 different Swiss hospitals with reference to causes, patterns, and frequencies. Spine injuries (36%) and lesions of the lower extremities (35%) were diagnosed most frequently. Surprisingly no neurological complications occurred, which is possibly explained by the solitary axial trauma. In 15 cases very severe malleolar fractures required surgical intervention. One accident was fatal due to a lung rupture. 60% of all accidents happened during the landing phase, 26% at launching and 14% at flight. Half of the pilots were affected in their primary training course. Most accidents were due to an in-flight error of judgement, such as incorrect estimation of wind conditions and a choice of unfavourable landing sites. In contrast to early reports of hang-gliding injuries, only one accident was due to an equipment failure, namely a ruptured steering line. In more than a third of all accidents, the used paraglider was not in correct correlation with the pilot's weight and experience. Inspired by the desire for a long flight, gliders of too large surface-areas were often used, leading to a more unstable flight. To reduce the frequency of paragliding injuries, an accurate choice of equipment and increased attention to environmental factors is mandatory. Furthermore education-programs should focus more on intensifying the pilot's mental and practical skills.

  9. Diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis in cattle in the Swiss Alps.

    PubMed

    Puschner, Birgit; Booth, Marcia C; Tor, Elizabeth R; Odermatt, Arnold

    2002-02-01

    Between 1995 and 1999, several cattle of a group of 80 heifers died acutely on a pasture in the Swiss Alps. The animals were Found dead between July 9th and 15th eachyear. Only 1 animal was examined on post-mortem, and no significant lesions were found. Aconitum vulpera, A napellus, and Delphinium elatum were identified in the pasture. The presence of diterpenoid alkaloid-containing plants in the pasture, the rapid death of the animals, and the lack of pathologic lesions suggested diterpenoid alkaloid toxicosis as a cause of death. A multiresidue alkaloid screen using gas chromatography with a mass spectrometric detector was employed on rumen, abomasal, small intestine, and cecal contents from the I heifer. Deltaline, deltamine, and lycoctonine were identified. Aconitine was found in all gastrointestinal samples using a sensitive and highly specific liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry methodology for aconitine analysis. The findings ofditerpenoid alkaloids in the gastrointestinal contents confirmed exposure to Delphinium and Aconitum spp, possibly resulting in sudden death.

  10. Factors associated with intersucking in Swiss dairy heifers.

    PubMed

    Keil, N M; Audigé, L; Langhans, W

    2000-06-12

    Intersucking is a problem that may lead to udder damage, mastitis, milk loss, and culling of breeding animals. To analyse the risk factors for intersucking in dairy heifers in Switzerland, we asked 130 randomly selected dairy farmers about a broad spectrum of environmental factors that might be associated with intersucking (such as housing conditions, management, and the feeding of calves and heifers). In total, 2768 heifers (Swiss Brown Cattle, Simmental and Holstein Friesian) were included of which 303 had ever performed intersucking. Data at the farm level were analysed using path analysis (linear and logistic regression). Two outcome variables were considered: the occurrence of intersucking on the farm and the proportion of intersucking heifers above the cut-off of 7.2%. Farms where calves had no access to barnyard or pasture, where calves were reared in pens in enclosed buildings, where heifers after weaning were not restrained while feeding, where heifers after weaning received <0.5kg concentrate per day, and where heifers after weaning were fed > or =40% maize silage (dry-matter ratio) were most likely to have intersucking heifers.

  11. Spectral action models of gravity on packed swiss cheese cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ball, Adam; Marcolli, Matilde

    2016-06-01

    We present a model of (modified) gravity on spacetimes with fractal structure based on packing of spheres, which are (Euclidean) variants of the packed swiss cheese cosmology models. As the action functional for gravity we consider the spectral action of noncommutative geometry, and we compute its expansion on a space obtained as an Apollonian packing of three-dimensional spheres inside a four-dimensional ball. Using information from the zeta function of the Dirac operator of the spectral triple, we compute the leading terms in the asymptotic expansion of the spectral action. They consist of a zeta regularization of the divergent sum of the leading terms of the spectral actions of the individual spheres in the packing. This accounts for the contribution of points 1 and 3 in the dimension spectrum (as in the case of a 3-sphere). There is an additional term coming from the residue at the additional point in the real dimension spectrum that corresponds to the packing constant, as well as a series of fluctuations coming from log-periodic oscillations, created by the points of the dimension spectrum that are off the real line. These terms detect the fractality of the residue set of the sphere packing. We show that the presence of fractality influences the shape of the slow-roll potential for inflation, obtained from the spectral action. We also discuss the effect of truncating the fractal structure at a certain scale related to the energy scale in the spectral action.

  12. Payment schemes and cost efficiency: evidence from Swiss public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Stefan

    2015-03-01

    This paper aims at analysing the impact of prospective payment schemes on cost efficiency of acute care hospitals in Switzerland. We study a panel of 121 public hospitals subject to one of four payment schemes. While several hospitals are still reimbursed on a per diem basis for the treatment of patients, most face flat per-case rates-or mixed schemes, which combine both elements of reimbursement. Thus, unlike previous studies, we are able to simultaneously analyse and isolate the cost-efficiency effects of different payment schemes. By means of stochastic frontier analysis, we first estimate a hospital cost frontier. Using the two-stage approach proposed by Battese and Coelli (Empir Econ 20:325-332, 1995), we then analyse the impact of these payment schemes on the cost efficiency of hospitals. Controlling for hospital characteristics, local market conditions in the 26 Swiss states (cantons), and a time trend, we show that, compared to per diem, hospitals which are reimbursed by flat payment schemes perform better in terms of cost efficiency. Our results suggest that mixed schemes create incentives for cost containment as well, although to a lesser extent. In addition, our findings indicate that cost-efficient hospitals are primarily located in cantons with competitive markets, as measured by the Herfindahl-Hirschman index in inpatient care. Furthermore, our econometric model shows that we obtain biased estimates from frontier analysis if we do not account for heteroscedasticity in the inefficiency term.

  13. The Szekeres Swiss Cheese model and the CMB observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolejko, Krzysztof

    2009-08-01

    This paper presents the application of the Szekeres Swiss Cheese model to the analysis of observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. The impact of inhomogeneous matter distribution on the CMB observations is in most cases studied within the linear perturbations of the Friedmann model. However, since the density contrast and the Weyl curvature within the cosmic structures are large, this issue is worth studying using another approach. The Szekeres model is an inhomogeneous, non-symmetrical and exact solution of the Einstein equations. In this model, light propagation and matter evolution can be exactly calculated, without such approximations as small amplitude of the density contrast. This allows to examine in more realistic manner the contribution of the light propagation effect to the measured CMB temperature fluctuations. The results of such analysis show that small-scale, non-linear inhomogeneities induce, via Rees-Sciama effect, temperature fluctuations of amplitude 10-7-10-5 on angular scale ϑ < 0.24° ( ℓ > 750). This is still much smaller than the measured temperature fluctuations on this angular scale. However, local and uncompensated inhomogeneities can induce temperature fluctuations of amplitude as large as 10-3, and thus can be responsible the low multipoles anomalies observed in the angular CMB power spectrum.

  14. Cosmological observables in a Swiss-cheese universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino; Riotto, Antonio

    2007-12-01

    Photon geodesics are calculated in a Swiss-cheese model, where the cheese is made of the usual Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) solution and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. The observables on which we focus are the changes in the redshift, in the angular-diameter-distance relation, in the luminosity-distance-redshift relation, and in the corresponding distance modulus. We find that redshift effects are suppressed when the hole is small because of a compensation effect acting on the scale of half a hole resulting from the special case of spherical symmetry. However, we find interesting effects in the calculation of the angular distance: strong evolution of the inhomogeneities (as in the approach to caustic formation) causes the photon path to deviate from that of the FRW case. Therefore, the inhomogeneities are able to partly mimic the effects of a dark-energy component. Our results also suggest that the nonlinear effects of caustic formation in cold dark matter models may lead to interesting effects on photon trajectories.

  15. Relationships between Swiss needle cast and ectomycorrhizal fungus diversity.

    PubMed

    Luoma, Daniel L; Eberhart, Joyce L

    2014-01-01

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a disease specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) caused by the ascomycete Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii. Here we examine characteristics of the EM fungus community that are potentially useful in predictive models that would monitor forest health. We found that mean EM density (number of colonized root tips/soil core) varied nearly 10-fold among sites of varying levels of SNC, while mean EM fungus species richness (number of species/soil core) varied by about 2.5 times. Strong relationships were found between EM and SNC parameters: EM species richness was positively correlated with both Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.93) and EM density (R(2) = 0.65); EM density also was significantly correlated with Douglas-fir needle retention (R(2) = 0.70). These simple characteristics of the EM fungus community could be used to monitor forest health and generate predictive models of site suitability for Douglas-fir. Based on previous findings that normally common EM types were reduced in frequency on sites with severe SNC, we also hypothesized that some EM fungi would be stress tolerant-dominant species. Instead, we found that various fungi were able to form EM with the stressed trees, but none were consistently dominant across samples in the severely diseased areas.

  16. Osteoporosis in men: findings from the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Shahnazari, Mohammad; Orwoll, Eric S; Lane, Nancy E

    2016-02-01

    The lifespan of men is increasing and this is associated with an increased prevalence of osteoporosis in men. Osteoporosis increases the risk of bone fracture. Fractures are associated with increased disability and mortality, and public health problems. We review here the study of osteoporosis in men as obtained from a longitudinal cohort of community-based older men, the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS).

  17. 78 FR 69640 - Notice of Decision To Authorize the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service... importation into the continental United States of Swiss chard from Colombia. Based on the findings of a pest... importation of Swiss chard from Colombia. DATES: Effective: November 20, 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...

  18. 78 FR 40688 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Importation of Swiss Chard From Colombia Into the Continental United States AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health... Colombia into the continental United States. Based on that analysis, we have concluded that the application... introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of Swiss chard from Colombia....

  19. Urolithiasis with penile erection: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Xing, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or infection. We describe a unique case of giant impacted stones in a 20-year-old man with unreal penile erection.

  20. Effect on gastric function and symptoms of drinking wine, black tea, or schnapps with a Swiss cheese fondue: randomised controlled crossover trial

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Henriette; Goetze, Oliver; Menne, Dieter; Iten, Peter X; Fruehauf, Heiko; Vavricka, Stephan R; Schwizer, Werner; Fried, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of drinking white wine or black tea with Swiss cheese fondue followed by a shot of cherry schnapps on gastric emptying, appetite, and abdominal symptoms. Design Randomised controlled crossover study. Participants 20 healthy adults (14 men) aged 23-58. Interventions Cheese fondue (3260 kJ, 32% fat) labelled with 150 mg sodium 13Carbon-octanoate was consumed with 300 ml of white wine (13%, 40 g alcohol) or black tea in randomised order, followed by 20 ml schnapps (40%, 8 g alcohol) or water in randomised order. Main outcome measures Cumulative percentage dose of 13C substrate recovered over four hours (higher values indicate faster gastric emptying) and appetite and dyspeptic symptoms (visual analogue scales). Results Gastric emptying was significantly faster when fondue was consumed with tea or water than with wine or schnapps (cumulative percentage dose of 13C recovered 18.1%, 95% confidence interval 15.2% to 20.9% v 7.4%, 4.6% to 10.3%; P<0.001). An inverse dose-response relation between alcohol intake and gastric emptying was evident. Appetite was similar with consumption of wine or tea (difference 0.11, −0.12 to 0.34; P=0.35), but reduced if both wine and schnapps were consumed (difference −0.40, −0.01 to −0.79; P<0.046). No difference in dyspeptic symptoms was present. Conclusions Gastric emptying after a Swiss cheese fondue is noticeably slower and appetite suppressed if consumed with higher doses of alcohol. This effect was not associated with dyspeptic symptoms. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00943696. PMID:21156747

  1. Temporomandibular disorders/myoarthropathy of the masticatory system. Costs of dental treatment and reimbursement by Swiss federal insurance agencies according to the Health Care Benefits Ordinance (KLV).

    PubMed

    Katsoulis, Konstantinos; Bassetti, Renzo; Windecker-Gétaz, Isabelle; Mericske-Stern, Regina; Katsoulis, Joannis

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the study was to calculate the direct costs of therapy for patients with MAP. This retrospective study included 242 MAP patients treated at the Department of Prosthodontics of the University of Bern between 2003 and 2006. The following parameters were collected from the clinical charts: chief complaint, diagnosis, treatment modalities, total costs, costs of the dental technician, number of appointments, average cost per appointment, length of treatment, and services reimbursed by health insurance agencies. The average age of the patients was 40.4 ± 17.3 years (76.4% women, 23.6% men). The chief complaint was pain in 91.3% of the cases, TMJ noises (61.2%) or limitation of mandibular mobility (53.3%). Tendomyopathy (22.3%), disc displacement (22.4%), or a combination of the two (37.6%) were more often diagnosed than arthropathy alone (7.4%). Furthermore, 10.3% of the MAP patients had another primary diagnosis (tumor, trauma, etc.). Patients were treated with counseling and exercises (36.0%), physiotherapy (23.6%), or occlusal splints (32.6%). The cost of treatment reached 644 Swiss francs for four appointments spread over an average of 21 weeks. In the great majority of cases, patients can be treated with inexpensive modalities. 99.9% of the MAP cases submitted to the insurance agencies were reimbursed by them, in accordance with Article 17d1-3 of the Swiss Health Care Benefits Ordinance (KLV) and Article 25 of the Federal Health Insurance Act (KVG). The costs of treatment performed by dentists remain modest. The more time-consuming services, such as providing information, counseling and instructions, are poorly remunerated. This aspect should be re-evaluated in a future revision of the tariff schedule.

  2. Pituitary disease in MEN type 1 (MEN1): data from the France-Belgium MEN1 multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Vergès, Bruno; Boureille, Françoise; Goudet, Pierre; Murat, Arnaud; Beckers, Albert; Sassolas, Geneviève; Cougard, Patrick; Chambe, Béatrice; Montvernay, Corinne; Calender, Alain

    2002-02-01

    To date, data on pituitary adenomas in MEN type 1 (MEN1) still have to be evaluated. We analyzed the data of a large series of 324 MEN1 patients from a French and Belgian multicenter study. Data on pituitary disease were compared with those from 110 non-MEN1 patients with pituitary adenomas, matched for age, year of diagnosis, and follow-up period. Genetic analysis of the MEN1 gene was performed in 197 of the MEN1 patients. In our MEN1 series, pituitary disease occurred in 136 of 324 (42%), less frequently than hyperparathyroidism (95%, P < 0.001) and endocrine enteropancreatic tumors (54%, P < 0.01). Mean age of onset of pituitary tumors was 38.0+/-15.3 yr (range, 12-83 yr). Pituitary disease was associated with hyperparathyroidism in 90% of cases, with enteropancreatic tumors in 47%, with adrenal tumors in 16%, and with thoracic neuroendocrine tumors in 4%. Pituitary disease was the initial lesion of MEN1 in 17% of all MEN1 patients. MEN1 pituitary adenomas were significantly more frequent in women than in men (50% vs. 31%, P < 0.001). Among the 136 pituitary adenomas, there were 85 prolactinomas and 12 GH-secreting, 6 ACTH-secreting, 13 cosecreting, and 20 nonsecreting tumors. Eighty-five percent of MEN1-related pituitary lesions were macroadenomas (vs. 42% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), including 32% of invasive cases. Among secreting adenomas, hormonal hypersecretion was normalized, after treatment, in only 42% (vs. 90% in non-MEN1 patients, P < 0.001), with a median follow-up of 11.4 yr. No correlation was found between the type of MEN1 germ-line mutation and the presence or absence of pituitary adenoma. Our study, based on a large group of MEN1 patients, shows that pituitary adenomas occur in 42% of the cases and are characterized by a larger size and a more aggressive presentation than without MEN1.

  3. The Sexual Networks of Racially Diverse Young Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Birkett, Michelle; Kuhns, Lisa; Latkin, Carl; Muth, Stephen; Mustanski, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men are at increased risk for HIV. Research with older men and high risk populations suggests that network dynamics may contribute to the spread of infectious disease and HIV, but little is known about the sexual networks of young men who have sex with men. Utilizing a unique dataset, this study presents novel descriptive data about the sexual networks of racially diverse 17- to 23-year-old young men who have sex with men. Additionally, individual, partner, and network characteristics of these young men who have sex with men were examined as potential drivers of HIV, STI, and unprotected intercourse. Results indicated several partner- and network-level factors associated with HIV and associated outcomes. PMID:26201650

  4. Dating violence among gay men in China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yong; Xiao, Shuiyuan; Liu, Kirin Qilin

    2013-08-01

    This is the first study on the prevalence of dating violence and threats of being forced to "come out of the closet" among Chinese gay men. Data on social demographic information and the experience of dating violence, including types of abuse, threats of "outing," and the gender of abusers were collected from 418 gay men and 330 heterosexual men by self-administered questionnaires. Mann-Whitney U test, χ(2) test, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to test group differences. Up to 32.8% of the gay men had experienced one abuse or more. Among those experiencing abuse, 83.9% of the gay men never told anyone about their abuse. The experience of any form of abuse by gay men was 5.07 times higher than the rate of abuse among heterosexual men controlling for age in logistic regression models. In addition, 12.4% of the gay men have experienced the threat of being outed. Overall, dating violence is more prevalent in gay men than in heterosexuals. Efforts to prevent dating violence, especially among gay men, should be made in China.

  5. Prostate cancer in men of African origin.

    PubMed

    McGinley, Kathleen F; Tay, Kae Jack; Moul, Judd W

    2016-02-01

    Men of African origin are disproportionately affected by prostate cancer: prostate cancer incidence is highest among men of African origin in the USA, prostate cancer mortality is highest among men of African origin in the Caribbean, and tumour stage and grade at diagnosis are highest among men in sub-Saharan Africa. Socioeconomic, educational, cultural, and genetic factors, as well as variations in care delivery and treatment selection, contribute to this cancer disparity. Emerging data on single-nucleotide-polymorphism patterns, epigenetic changes, and variations in fusion-gene products among men of African origin add to the understanding of genetic differences underlying this disease. On the diagnosis of prostate cancer, when all treatment options are available, men of African origin are more likely to choose radiation therapy or to receive no definitive treatment than white men. Among men of African origin undergoing surgery, increased rates of biochemical recurrence have been identified. Understanding differences in the cancer-survivorship experience and quality-of-life outcomes among men of African origin are critical to appropriately counsel patients and improve cultural sensitivity. Efforts to curtail prostate cancer screening will likely affect men of African origin disproportionately and widen the racial disparity of disease.

  6. Reactor physics teaching and research in the Swiss nuclear engineering master

    SciTech Connect

    Chawla, R.

    2012-07-01

    Since 2008, a Master of Science program in Nuclear Engineering (NE) has been running in Switzerland, thanks to the combined efforts of the country's key players in nuclear teaching and research, viz. the Swiss Federal Inst.s of Technology at Lausanne (EPFL) and at Zurich (ETHZ), the Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI) at Villigen and the Swiss Nuclear Utilities (Swissnuclear). The present paper, while outlining the academic program as a whole, lays emphasis on the reactor physics teaching and research training accorded to the students in the framework of the developed curriculum. (authors)

  7. The heterogeneous HLA genetic makeup of the Swiss population.

    PubMed

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9-13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national--and hence global--donor registry. It also

  8. The Heterogeneous HLA Genetic Makeup of the Swiss Population

    PubMed Central

    Buhler, Stéphane; Nunes, José Manuel; Nicoloso, Grazia; Tiercy, Jean-Marie; Sanchez-Mazas, Alicia

    2012-01-01

    This study aims at investigating the HLA molecular variation across Switzerland in order to determine possible regional differences, which would be highly relevant to several purposes: optimizing donor recruitment strategies in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), providing reliable reference data in HLA and disease association studies, and understanding the population genetic background(s) of this culturally heterogeneous country. HLA molecular data of more than 20,000 HSCT donors from 9–13 recruitment centers of the whole country were analyzed. Allele and haplotype frequencies were estimated by using new computer tools adapted to the heterogeneity and ambiguity of the data. Non-parametric and resampling statistical tests were performed to assess Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, selective neutrality and linkage disequilibrium among different loci, both in each recruitment center and in the whole national registry. Genetic variation was explored through genetic distance and hierarchical analysis of variance taking into account both geographic and linguistic subdivisions in Switzerland. The results indicate a heterogeneous genetic makeup of the Swiss population: first, allele frequencies estimated on the whole national registry strongly deviate from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, by contrast with the results obtained for individual centers; second, a pronounced differentiation is observed for Ticino, Graubünden, and, to a lesser extent, Wallis, suggesting that the Alps represent(ed) a barrier to gene flow; finally, although cultural (linguistic) boundaries do not represent a main genetic differentiation factor in Switzerland, the genetic relatedness between population from south-eastern Switzerland and Italy agrees with historical and linguistic data. Overall, this study justifies the maintenance of a decentralized donor recruitment structure in Switzerland allowing increasing the genetic diversity of the national—and hence global—donor registry. It also

  9. Excessive lead burden among golden eagles in the Swiss Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madry, Milena M.; Kraemer, Thomas; Kupper, Jacqueline; Naegeli, Hanspeter; Jenny, Hannes; Jenni, Lukas; Jenny, David

    2015-03-01

    Fragments from lead ammunition pose a poisoning risk for predators like golden eagles that scavenge on non-retrieved carcasses or offal left behind by hunters. Three golden eagles were found in the Swiss Alps with an acute lead poisoning. To investigate whether the few cases of lead-poisoned golden eagles are exceptional events or whether a substantial proportion of the Alpine golden eagle population is affected by lead at sublethal levels, we measured body burdens in golden eagles from Switzerland in comparison to eagle owls from the same area and to their respective prey. These two raptor species differ in their food as eagle owls feed on live-caught prey. Lead levels in soft tissues were significantly higher in golden eagles (median 1.14 μg g-1 dry weight in liver, 0.99 μg g-1 in kidney) than in eagle owls (0.14 and 0.23 μg g-1). Bones of golden eagles contained 10 times more lead (median of 12.45 μg g-1 dry weight) than owl bones (1.28 μg g-1), which represent substantially higher levels than previously reported for golden eagles. Bones of prey of both golden eagles and eagle owls had low lead concentrations. In order to investigate whether the sublethal lead of golden eagles originates from ammunition or from generic environmental contamination, we examined lead isotope ratios. Lead isotope signatures of golden eagle bones were very similar to those of ammunition, but differed from the signatures of bones of their prey, eagle owls and soil. Isotope signatures did not change with increasing bone lead concentration in golden eagles or any other group examined. These findings indicate that in the Alps, most golden eagles take up lead from spent ammunition in carcasses or their offal in sublethal quantities throughout their life and a few in lethal quantities leading to acute lead poisoning.

  10. Mapping organic carbon stocks of Swiss forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, M.; Papritz, A.; Baltensweiler, A.; Walthert, L.

    2012-04-01

    Carbon (C) sequestration into forest sinks offsets greenhouse gas emissions under the Kyoto protocol. Therefore, quantifying C stocks and fluxes in forest ecosystems is of interest for reporting greenhouse gas emissions. In Switzerland, the National Forest Inventory offers comprehensive data to quantify the above ground forest biomass and its change in time. Estimating stocks of soil organic C (SOC) in forests is more difficult because of its high spatial variability. To date the greenhouse gas inventory relies only on sparse data and regionally differentiated predictions of SOC stocks in forest soils are currently not possible. Recently, more soil data and new explanatory variables for statistical modeling like high resolution elevation data and satellite images became available. Based on data from 1'033 sites, we modeled SOC stocks to a depth of 1 m including the organic layer for the Swiss forested area. We used a novel robust restricted maximum likelihood method to fit a linear regression model with spatially correlated errors to the C stock data. For the regression analysis we used a broad range of covariates derived from climate data (precipitation, temperature, radiation), two elevation models (resolutions 25 and 2 m) and spectral variables representing vegetation. Furthermore, the main cartographic categories of an overview soil map were used to broadly represent the parent material. The numerous covariates, that partly correlated strongly, were reduced to a first subset using LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator). This subset of covariates was then further reduced based on cross validation of the robustly fitted spatial model. The levels of categorical covariates were partly aggregated during this process and interactions between covariates were explored to account for nonlinear dependence of C stocks on the covariates. Using the final model, robust kriging prediction and error maps were computed with a resolution of one hectare.

  11. Differential macrophage function in Brown Swiss and Holstein Friesian cattle.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Amanda Jane; Woodman, Sally; Pennelegion, Christopher; Patterson, Robert; Stuart, Emma; Hosker, Naomi; Siviter, Peter; Douglas, Chloe; Whitehouse, Jessica; Wilkinson, Will; Pegg, Sherri-Anne; Villarreal-Ramos, Bernardo; Werling, Dirk

    2016-11-15

    There is strong evidence that high yielding dairy cows are extremely susceptible to infectious diseases, and that this has severe economic consequences for the dairy industry and welfare implications. Here we present preliminary functional evidence showing that the innate immune response differs between cow breeds. The ability of macrophages (MØ) to kill pathogens depends in part on oxygen-dependent and independent mechanisms. The oxygen-dependent mechanisms rely on the generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS, respectively). ROS production has been shown to activate the inflammasome complex in MØ leading to increased production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Conversely RNS inhibits inflammasome mediated IL-1β activation, indicating a division between inflammasome activation and RNS production. In the present study MØ from Brown Swiss (BS) cattle produce significantly more RNS and less IL-1β when compared to cells from Holstein Friesian (HF) cattle in response to bacterial or fungal stimuli. Furthermore, BS MØ killed ingested Salmonella typhimurium more efficiently, supporting anecdotal evidence of increased disease resistance of the breed. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-methyladenine (3-MA) stimulated IL-1β secretion in cells from both breeds, but was more pronounced in HF MØ. Blocking RNS production by l-arginase completely abolished RNS production but increased IL-1β secretion in BS MØ. Collectively these preliminary data suggest that the dichotomy of inflammasome activation and RNS production exists in cattle and differs between these two breeds. As pattern recognition receptors and signaling pathways are involved in the assessed functional differences presented herein, our data potentially aid the identification of in vitro predictors of appropriate innate immune response. Finally, these predictors may assist in the discovery of candidate genes conferring increased disease resistance for future use in

  12. [Frequency of diseases and injuries in the Swiss horse population].

    PubMed

    Knubben, J M; Gygax, L; Auer, J; Fürst, A; Stauffacher, M

    2008-08-01

    Through a written questionnaire, which was sent to a representatively distributed and randomly selected sample of Swiss horse owners, data of 2912 horses and ponies were acquired to extrapolate prevalence data of health disorders. General questions about the horse and associated factors of housing and use, as well as questions about the current health status and the occurrence of diseases and injuries had been asked. 718 horses (24.7% of the sample) had been examined by a veterinarian within the 12 months prior to the survey. Orthopaedic and traumatic disorders (41.5%) had the largest proportion, followed by gastrointestinal--(27.1%) and respiratory (14.0%) diseases. Half of the lameness cases occurred as a direct consequence of a injury. The injuries were associated with pasture/paddock (38.1%), kicking and biting (21.6%), boxstall (7.8%), terrain and hacking (13.4%), training (3.5%), competition (3.5%), transportation (3.0%) or other circumstances (9.1%). A change in feeding management up to 4 weeks before development of a colic episode occurred in 26.5% of all colic cases. In 13.8% of all respiratory cases the same disease was diagnosed in other horses in the same barn. 8.1% of all cases had to be treated surgically, 6.7% required hospitalization for several days. Information about diagnostic or therapeutic procedures was related to specific disease categories. In 25.6% of all cases diagnosed by a veterinarian alternative therapeutic methods were used either in addition to traditional medicine or exclusively.

  13. Men's Educational Group Appointments in Rural Nicaragua.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Bruce B; Gonzalez, Hugo; Campbell, McKenzie; Campbell, Kent

    2017-03-01

    Men's preventive health and wellness is largely neglected in rural Nicaragua, where a machismo culture prevents men from seeking health care. To address this issue, a men's educational group appointment model was initiated at a rural health post to increase awareness about hypertension, and to train community health leaders to measure blood pressure. Men's hypertension workshops were conducted with patient knowledge pretesting, didactic teaching, and posttesting. Pretesting and posttesting performances were recorded, blood pressures were screened, and community leaders were trained to perform sphygmomanometry. An increase in hypertension-related knowledge was observed after every workshop and community health leaders demonstrated proficiency in sphygmomanometry. In addition, several at-risk patients were identified and follow-up care arranged. Men's educational group appointments, shown to be effective in the United States in increasing patient knowledge and satisfaction, appear to function similarly in a resource-constrained environment and may be an effective mechanism for reaching underserved men in Nicaragua.

  14. Do men overperceive women's sexual interest?

    PubMed

    Perilloux, Carin; Kurzban, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Substantial evidence comparing men's perceptions of women's sexual intentions with women's own reports of their sexual intentions has shown a systematic pattern of results that has been interpreted as support for the idea that men overestimate women's true sexual intentions. However, because women's true sexual intentions cannot be directly measured, an alternative interpretation of the existing data is that women understate their sexual intentions and that men's assessments of women's intentions are generally accurate. In three studies, we (a) replicated the typical sex difference in sexual-intent ratings, (b) showed that men maintain their ratings of women's sexual intentions even when incentivized to tell the truth, and (c) showed that women believe that other women are understating their sexual intentions in self-report measures. Taken together, these results imply that men might be accurate in perceiving and reporting women's sexual intentions and that men might be managing errors through biased behavior rather than biased beliefs.

  15. The "Swiss-cheese Doppler-guided laser tonsillectomy": a new safe cribriform approach to intracapsular tonsillectomy.

    PubMed

    Palmieri, B; Iannitti, T; Fistetto, G; Rottigni, V

    2013-05-01

    Outpatient laser ablation of palatine tonsils is a very interesting procedure that has been recently introduced as a routine in head and neck surgery departments. The aim of this study was to describe a new strategy using a Doppler-guided fibre optic neodymium-yttrium-aluminium-garnet (YAG) laser to remove up to 80 % of tonsillar tissue, as assessed in the long-term postoperative clinical evaluation of the volume of the tonsils at the follow-up, and leaving the capsule in place, thus avoiding any haemorrhagic complication and minimize pain. A total of 20 patients (men, n=13; women, n=7), aged between 6 and 63, were recruited for the procedure. They were affected by chronic hypertrophic tonsillitis with a recurrent fever and other symptoms that were related to oral inflammation. Among the 20 patients, no serious adverse events, including haemorrhage-related complications, were observed. Treatment was well tolerated, even in patients displaying an overall low pain threshold. No dropout or uncompleted procedure occurred in the present study. Minor complications included sore throat, moderate oedema, mild acute pharynx inflammation, slight peritonsillar exudate and local burning. The postoperative pain, measured by Scott-Huskisson visual analogue scale, was between 5 and 40 mm and was easily counteracted by means of external ice packages and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, according to the individual patient's need. During the 12-36-month follow-up patients showed improved symptoms (n=7) and complete recovery (n=13). A relapse episode was observed in two patients. This study supports fibre optic laser neodymium-YAG tonsil surgery, named "cribriform intracapsular tonsillectomy" or "Swiss-cheese laser tonsillectomy", as an effective alternative to the traditional cold knife approach or electrosurgery. This approach could become the gold standard for tonsil surgery in the third millennium for safety reasons, acceptable cost-benefit ratio, the precise targeting of

  16. Swiss Haemovigilance Data and Implementation of Measures for the Prevention of Transfusion Associated Acute Lung Injury (TRALI).

    PubMed

    Jutzi, Markus; Levy, Guy; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY: In Switzerland, blood donations are collected exclusively from healthy non-remunerated voluntary blood donors mainly by 13 regional Blood Transfusion Services throughout the country. Thereby, self-sufficient blood supply for a population of about 7.5 million is achieved, and approximately 300,000 units of red cells, 75,000 therapeutic units of fresh plasma, and 20,000 therapeutic units of platelets are transfused annually. Reporting to Swissmedic (the Swiss agency for therapeutic products) of all suspected adverse transfusion events on a standardised form is mandatory. Data are then analysed to estimate the risks of the most serious transfusion events. Together with transfusion of an incorrect blood component and bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates, TRALI is a significant risk of transfusion in Switzerland and occurs in approximately every 8,000-20,000 FFP transfusions according to current haemovigilance data. Among 25 reported cases between 2002 and November 2007, 4 are proven immune TRALI, 2 are highly likely immune TRALI, 10 are possibly immune TRALI, 8 are non-immune TRALI, and 1 is a suspected case which could not be confirmed as TRALI. Based on the hypothesis of an immunological trigger of TRALI, an exclusion of the transfusion of plasma from female donors can be considered as a precautionary measure which might have prevented 4 cases of proven immune TRALI, 2 cases of highly likely immune TRALI, and an unknown number of the 10 cases of possibly immune TRALI. Based on these data and encouraging preliminary reports of the effects of comparable measures in other countries, the decision was made that starting with January 1st 2007 the production of quarantined FFP is restricted to donations from men or from women confirming that they have never been pregnant (to their knowledge) or with negative tests for antibodies against HLA class I and II. The analysis of further vigilance data is needed to elucidate the efficacy of this preventive

  17. Swiss Haemovigilance Data and Implementation of Measures for the Prevention of Transfusion Associated Acute Lung Injury (TRALI)

    PubMed Central

    Jutzi, Markus; Levy, Guy; Taleghani, Behrouz Mansouri

    2008-01-01

    Summary In Switzerland, blood donations are collected exclusively from healthy non-remunerated voluntary blood donors mainly by 13 regional Blood Transfusion Services throughout the country. Thereby, self-sufficient blood supply for a population of about 7.5 million is achieved, and approximately 300,000 units of red cells, 75,000 therapeutic units of fresh plasma, and 20,000 therapeutic units of platelets are transfused annually. Reporting to Swissmedic (the Swiss agency for therapeutic products) of all suspected adverse transfusion events on a standardised form is mandatory. Data are then analysed to estimate the risks of the most serious transfusion events. Together with transfusion of an incorrect blood component and bacterial contamination of platelet concentrates, TRALI is a significant risk of transfusion in Switzerland and occurs in approximately every 8,000–20,000 FFP transfusions according to current haemovigilance data. Among 25 reported cases between 2002 and November 2007, 4 are proven immune TRALI, 2 are highly likely immune TRALI, 10 are possibly immune TRALI, 8 are non-immune TRALI, and 1 is a suspected case which could not be confirmed as TRALI. Based on the hypothesis of an immunological trigger of TRALI, an exclusion of the transfusion of plasma from female donors can be considered as a precautionary measure which might have prevented 4 cases of proven immune TRALI, 2 cases of highly likely immune TRALI, and an unknown number of the 10 cases of possibly immune TRALI. Based on these data and encouraging preliminary reports of the effects of comparable measures in other countries, the decision was made that starting with January 1st 2007 the production of quarantined FFP is restricted to donations from men or from women confirming that they have never been pregnant (to their knowledge) or with negative tests for antibodies against HLA class I and II. The analysis of further vigilance data is needed to elucidate the efficacy of this preventive

  18. Conjugal violence: a comparison of violence against men by women and women by men.

    PubMed

    Thureau, S; Le Blanc-Louvry, I; Thureau, S; Gricourt, C; Proust, B

    2015-04-01

    Because few studies demonstrated the types of violence performed by women, the aim of our study was to access violence men against women as well as women against men. A retrospective study was performed based on all the medical certificates for victims who consulted our centre specialized in assault victims. Eleven percent of the victims were men (81 men, 626 women). Episodes of violence were most often repeated against women than men (p < 0.05). Injuring, in most cases mild, were more frequently found in men than women (p < 0.01). They were primarily cutaneous in 66% of cases (85% men, 64% women) and severe in 5% of cases i.e. fractures, with no difference in gender. Three cases of sexual assault and one case of chemical submission was observed in women. Insults were made more often by men than by women (p < 0.002). A psychological impact was more frequently found in women than in men (p < 0.01). The duration of the total incapacity (incapacité totale de travail = ITT) was less than 0-3 days in most cases, and this occurred more often in 91% men than in 65% women (p < 0.01). Consultations for domestic violence occur less frequently in men than in women. Men present more often with injuries that are less severe compared to those observed in women. In contrast, the psychological impact is less frequent in men. Also episodes of violence were most often repeated when the aggressor was a man.

  19. Will the global HIV response fail gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men?

    PubMed Central

    Ayala, George; Santos, Glenn-Milo

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men are among the small number of groups for whom HIV remains uncontrolled worldwide. Although there have been recent and notable decreases in HIV incidence across several countries, prevalence and incidence is consistently higher or rising among men who have sex with men when compared with other groups. Methods In 2014, MSMGF (the Global Forum on MSM & HIV) conducted its third biennial Global Men's Health and Rights Study, an international, multilingual, web-based cross-sectional survey of men who have sex with men recruited through online convenience sampling. We tested hypothesized correlates (selected a priori) of successfully achieving each step along the HIV prevention and treatment continuum by fitting separate generalized estimating equation models adjusted for clustering by country in multivariate analyses. All models controlled for ability to meet basic financial needs, age, healthcare coverage, having a regular provider, region and country-level income. Results Higher provider discrimination and sexual stigma were associated with lower odds of perceived access to services, service utilization and virologic suppression. Conversely, accessing services from community-based organizations focused on lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people; greater engagement in gay community; and comfort with healthcare providers were associated with higher odds of achieving steps along the prevention and treatment continuum. Conclusions To meet accelerated global HIV targets, global leaders must adopt a differentiated and bolder response, in keeping with current epidemiologic trends and community-based research. The HIV-related needs of gay and bisexual men and other men who have sex with men must be addressed openly, quickly and with sufficient resources to support evidence-based, community-led and human rights-affirming interventions at scale. PMID:27876454

  20. Men, HIV/AIDS, and human rights.

    PubMed

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J

    2009-07-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as "the problem", and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally.

  1. Men, HIV/AIDS, and Human Rights

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, Dean; Stemple, Lara; Sawires, Sharif; Coates, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    Though still limited in scale, work with men to achieve gender equality is occurring on every continent and in many countries. A rapidly expanding evidence base demonstrates that rigorously implemented initiatives targeting men can change social practices that affect the health of both sexes, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS. Too often however, messages only address the harm that regressive masculinity norms cause women, while neglecting the damage done to men by these norms. This article calls for a more inclusive approach which recognizes that men, far from being a monolithic group, have unequal access to health and rights depending on other intersecting forms of discrimination based on race, class, sexuality, disability, nationality, and the like. Messages that target men only as holders of privilege miss men who are disempowered or who themselves challenge rigid gender roles. The article makes recommendations which move beyond treating men simply as “the problem”, and instead lays a foundation for engaging men both as agents of change and holders of rights to the ultimate benefit of women and men. Human rights and other policy interventions must avoid regressive stereotyping, and successful local initiatives should be taken to scale nationally and internationally. PMID:19553779

  2. Predictors of HIV Sexual Risk Behavior among Men Who Have Sex with Men, Men Who Have Sex with Men and Women, and Transgender Women

    PubMed Central

    Bowers, Jane Rohde; Branson, Catherine M.; Fletcher, Jesse B.; Reback, Cathy J.

    2014-01-01

    Men who have sex with men, men who have sex with men and women, and transgender women are at high risk for HIV infection. This study seeks to clarify which known HIV risk factors (partner type, sex location, serodiscordance, multiple sex partners, substance use during sex) contribute to engagement in high-risk (unprotected receptive anal) sex in each population. Data collected from June 2005 through June 2008 indicate all three populations display different HIV sexual risk profiles. The data suggest that HIV-prevention interventions should be individually tailored to address the specific needs of these three highly vulnerable and impacted populations. PMID:24660042

  3. Perceptions of general practice among homosexual men.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzpatrick, R; Dawson, J; Boulton, M; McLean, J; Hart, G; Brookes, M

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND. Primary care has an important role to play in the prevention and management of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It has been suggested that homosexual men experience a variety of problems in relation to primary care. AIM. As part of a larger study, it was decided to examine the extent to which a sample of homosexually active men experienced difficulties in general practice and whether they consulted their general practitioner for problems related to HIV or the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHOD. Homosexual men were recruited for interview in 1991-92 from a variety of sources including genitourinary clinics and homosexual organizations. RESULTS. Of 623 men registered with a general practitioner 44% had not informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation and 44% of the 77 men who were HIV antibody positive, as confirmed by the study, had not informed their general practitioner of this fact. Men who viewed their practice as unsympathetic towards homosexual men were less likely to have informed their general practitioner of their sexual orientation or HIV status. The majority of men (87%) nevertheless viewed primary care as an appropriate source of HIV/AIDS advice. CONCLUSION. There is considerable scope for improvement in the acceptability of general practice to homosexual men. PMID:8179951

  4. RET mutations in MEN 2 associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Hofstra, R.M.W.; Stelwagen, T.; Stulp, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) comprises three clinically distinct dominantly inherited cancer syndromes namely MEN 2A, MEN 2B and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). Germline (point) mutations of the RET proto-oncogene have been reported to occur in all these syndromes. In MEN 2A and FMTC patients the mutations occurred within codons specifying cysteine residues in the transition of the RET extracellular and transmembrane domains, while in MEN 2B patients we could detect a single RET mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain in all patients. Also in patients suffering from Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR), mutations in the RET gene have been found. These mutations are spread all over the gene. Several families have been described in which MEN 2 and HSCR are associated. MEN 2A is also found associated with cutaneous lichen amyloidosis (CLA). It might be that specific RET mutations correlate with these disease associations. We therefore scanned DNA from patients from a family with MEN 2A and HSCR, MEN 2A and CLA and CLA only for RET mutations. Results obtained thus far do not support the existence of specific correlations.

  5. Psychiatric disorders, suicidality, and personality among young men by sexual orientation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Dey, M; Soldati, L; Weiss, M G; Gmel, G; Mohler-Kuo, M

    2014-10-01

    Personality and its potential role in mediating risk of psychiatric disorders and suicidality are assessed by sexual orientation, using data collected among young Swiss men (n=5875) recruited while presenting for mandatory military conscription. Mental health outcomes were analyzed by sexual attraction using logistic regression, controlling for five-factor model personality traits and socio-demographics. Homo/bisexual men demonstrated the highest scores for neuroticism-anxiety but the lowest for sociability and sensation seeking, with no differences for aggression-hostility. Among homo/bisexual men, 10.2% fulfilled diagnostic criteria for major depression in the past 2weeks, 10.8% for ADHD in the past 12months, 13.8% for lifetime anti-social personality disorder (ASPD), and 6.0% attempted suicide in the past 12months. Upon adjusting (AOR) for personality traits, their odds ratios (OR) for major depression (OR=4.78, 95% CI 2.81-8.14; AOR=1.46, 95% CI 0.80-2.65) and ADHD (OR=2.17, 95% CI=1.31-3.58; AOR=1.00, 95% CI 0.58-1.75) lost statistical significance, and the odds ratio for suicide attempt was halved (OR=5.10, 95% CI 2.57-10.1; AOR=2.42, 95% CI 1.16-5.02). There are noteworthy differences in personality traits by sexual orientation, and much of the increased mental morbidity appears to be accounted for by such underlying differences, with important implications for etiology and treatment.

  6. Men-Invasion of Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlsson, M. E.

    2002-01-01

    Last year I was given the fantastic opportunity by ESA to go to the IAF congress in Toulouse. This was one of the most exciting experiences of my life. I loved every minute of it, listening to the brilliant men from different areas of space research, telling us wonderfully interesting things about space. After a couple of sessions I understood there were very few women standing up there and giving presentations. Except of course, the Russian women translators and the students that were invited. This struck me and I started to think about it and wondered why? This encouraged me to investigate. I realized that I had to turn to the children, the ones that are going to take over after us, our new faces in space. When we were children we all wanted to become astronauts, both boys and girls. But after a couple of years it changed, why? So I started my research by asking questions to the children in different ages concerning their lives and upbringing. I was curious to find out when and how their personal goals changed in life, compared to the men. Could it depend on what our parents did when we were growing up or maybe where we were raised geographically? Perhaps the encouragement of our teachers in our first years in school or our social background, genes, manners and customs. When we have the answers we also must ask ourselves how we can make women choose a more engineering and scientific profile. Should we try to convert them to engineers or should we use their other special abilities and try to integrate them into the space program for example as medical doctors? I think that ESA and other space organizations should use their university students in a new outreach project. The students should visit their local schools and inform the children about space and the wonderful opportunities it can give us. This would give the boys, but mostly the girls, a chance to discover space.

  7. Can a fake fir tell the truth about Swiss needle cast?

    EPA Science Inventory

    A key question in dendrochronology to reconstruct forest disturbance history is how to distinguish between the effects of Swiss needle cast (SNC) and other forest disturbance agents (e.g., Douglas-fir beetle, tussock moth, western spruce budworm, laminated root rot, Armillaria ro...

  8. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in the Western Oregon coast

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) disease is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) and is native to the Pacific Northwest. The SNC disease is caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii and has been found to occur primarily in sites where mild winters and wet summers favor th...

  9. The Swiss "Willensnation" at Risk: Teachers in the Cultural Gap during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brühwiler, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    As a neutral and multilingual country, Switzerland struggled with major domestic political conflicts during the First World War due to the two cultures of the French-speaking and German-speaking parts of the country. The divided cultural loyalties ("fossé moral", "Röstigraben"), consisting of Swiss-Germans supporting Germany…

  10. Non-explicit Symbolic Concepts in the Swiss Political Socialization Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melich, Anna

    1981-01-01

    Describes a study which identified concepts and images which Swiss children and youth recognized as representing their country as a whole. Five hundred and sixty, 10-15-year-old-students consistently chose geographic features such as mountains and meadows, democracy, and neutrality to symbolize Switzerland. (AM)

  11. Relative age effects in Swiss junior soccer and their relationship with playing position.

    PubMed

    Romann, Michael; Fuchslocher, Jörg

    2013-01-01

    Relative age effects (RAEs) refer to age differences between children in the same selection year. The present study investigated the prevalence of RAEs and their link to playing positions in Swiss junior soccer. Swiss male junior soccer players (n=50,581) representing 11% of the age-matched population - members of extra-curricular soccer teams - were evaluated to determine the influence of RAEs on Swiss junior soccer. Subgroups were the national talent development programme (n=2880), and U-15 to U-21 national teams (n=630). While no RAEs were found for the self-selected extra-curricular soccer teams or for the U-20 teams (P>0.05), significant RAEs were found for talent development and the national U-15 to U-19 and U-21 teams (P<0.01). Additionally, defenders born early in the year were significantly overrepresented compared with goalkeepers, midfielders and strikers (P<0.05). In Switzerland, RAEs apparently have substantial influence on the talent identification process for U-15 to U-18 teams, significantly influencing the selection of players in talent development teams already at an early age, but do not influence self-selected participation in extra-curricular soccer. Additionally, the RAE bias may be a predictor of playing positions in national teams. To minimise RAEs in Swiss soccer, systematic education for all coaches regarding RAEs should be established, in addition to a slotting system with rotating calendar cut-off dates.

  12. Application of The Real_time Swiss Permanent GPS Network 'agnes'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brockmann, E.; Grünig, S.; Hug, R.; Schneider, D.; Wiget, A.; Wild, U.

    The Swiss Federal Office of Topography (S+T) has been building up and operating an automated GPS network for Switzer-land (AGNES) since 1998. The final ex- pansion of 29 permanently operating GPS tracking stations was reached at the end of 2001. AGNES is a multipurpose network serving scien-tific applications (geody- namics and atmospheric research) as well as surveying applications (ref-erence frame maintenance, densification of the reference frame). In addition, a positioning service is offered on a commercial basis under the pro-duct name swipos-GIS/GEO (Swiss Positioning Service for GIS and Geodetic Applications). The paper focuses on the different applications and the results achieved so far. In the field of geody- namics, results of a kinematic model of the tectonic movements in the Swiss Alps derived from GPS time series will be shown. Since end of 2001 the S+T contributes hourly zenith path delay estimates with a time delay of 1:15 hours to the European COST-716 project and to MeteoSwiss as additional information for numerical weather prediction. Furthermore results of the high-precision real-time positioning service swipos-GIS/GEO (accuracy 0.01-0.1m) using the GSM technique for broadcasting differ-ential corrections are presented with the focus on improving the performance (ambiguity initialization, coordinate repeatability) by using the virtual reference sta- tion concept.

  13. Learning Documentations in VET Systems: An Analysis of Current Swiss Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Valentina; Cattaneo, Alberto; Gurtner, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    Swiss vocational education and training (VET) is defined as a dual-track system where apprentices weekly alternate between vocational school and a (real) workplace. At the workplace, they have to keep a learning documentation throughout their training, in which they are expected to regularly document their professional development. The actual use…

  14. Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi: 18th Century Swiss Educator and Correctional Reformer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Fredalene B.; Gehring, Thom

    2004-01-01

    This is the second in a series of articles on famous correctional educators. The first article introduced Mary Carpenter: 19th Century English Correctional Education Hero. (Editor's Note: See the September 2003 Issue for the first article) This article focuses on Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, 18th century Swiss educator. It begins with a summary of…

  15. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee, 2002 (Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adamzik, Kirsten, Ed; Roos, Eva, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This special issue, written in German and French, is a collection of articles that were presented to the Swiss Association for Applied Linguistics during 2001 and which can be categorized as "linguistic biographies" organized under the auspices and support of the Forum du bilingualisme (Forum of Bilingualism) in Bienne (Biel) and the…

  16. Who Seeks Career Counselling? A Prospective Study of Personality and Career Variables among Swiss Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balin, Elif; Hirschi, Andreas

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether career adaptability, personality, attitude towards career counselling and some demographic variables predict the help seeking behaviour in career counselling among 330 Swiss adolescents in eighth grade. The results indicated that boys were less likely to seek help and that career related variables and attitude but…

  17. 26 CFR 509.106 - Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 19 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Control of a United States enterprise by a Swiss enterprise. 509.106 Section 509.106 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER TAX CONVENTIONS SWITZERLAND General Income Tax § 509.106 Control...

  18. Young Learner Writing Performance in Swiss Elementary Schools--Which Teacher Variables Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loder Buechel, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Elementary school English language teachers in Swiss public schools often question the role of writing in early years language instruction because there is a significant disparity in messages they receive from Board of Education members, from fellow teachers and from teacher trainers. This study describes the issues concerning writing in the first…

  19. "Cooking Lunch, That's Swiss": Constructing Hybrid Identities Based on Socio-Cultural Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonçalves, Kellie

    2013-01-01

    This study looks at the discursive construction and negotiation of hybrid identities within binational couples. I analyze conversations produced by Anglophones married to German-speaking Swiss residing in central Switzerland. I employ Bucholtz & Hall's sociocultural linguistic model (2004, 2005, 2010), which views identity as emergent in…

  20. Just Scan It!-Weapon Reconstruction in Computed Tomography on Historical and Current Swiss Military Guns.

    PubMed

    Franckenberg, Sabine; Binder, Thomas; Bolliger, Stephan; Thali, Michael J; Ross, Steffen G

    2016-09-01

    Cross-sectional imaging, such as computed tomography, has been increasingly implemented in both historic and recent postmortem forensic investigations. It aids in determining cause and manner of death as well as in correlating injuries to possible weapons. This study illuminates the feasibility of reconstructing guns in computed tomography and gives a distinct overview of historic and recent Swiss Army guns.

  1. Bulletin suisse de linguistique appliquee, 2003 (Swiss Bulletin for Applied Linguistics, 2003).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Heather, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This issue, written in English and French, focuses on the increasing role of English in Switzerland, as it affects both the general public and the education system. The articles include the following: "The Function of English in Swiss Advertisement" [written in French] (Marc Bonhomme); "Unpacking before Take-Off: English for Swiss…

  2. Dropouts in Swiss Vocational Education and the Effect of Training Companies' Trainee Selection Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forsblom, Lara; Negrini, Lucio; Gurtner, Jean-Luc; Schumann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    In the Swiss vocational education system, which is often called a "Dual System", trainees enter into an apprenticeship contract with a training company. On average, 25% of those contracts are terminated prematurely (PCT). This article examines the relationship between training companies' selection methods and PCTs. The investigation is…

  3. Swiss Children's Moral and Psychological Judgments about Inclusion and Exclusion of Children with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gasser, Luciano; Malti, Tina; Buholzer, Alois

    2014-01-01

    Children's judgments about inclusion and exclusion of children with disabilities were investigated in a Swiss sample of 6-, 9-, and 12-year-old children from inclusive and noninclusive classrooms (N = 422). Overall, the majority of children judged it as morally wrong to exclude children with disabilities. Yet, participants were less likely to…

  4. Tree-ring analysis of the fungal disease Swiss needle cast in Western Oregon coastal forests

    EPA Science Inventory

    Swiss needle cast (SNC) is a foliage disease caused by the fungus Phaeocryptopus gaeumannii, which is specific to Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii). The goal of this study was to reconstruct the history of the disease and determine the climatic conditions that influence the di...

  5. Some Suggestive Features of the Swiss School System. Bulletin, 1913, No. 56. Whole Number 567

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, William Knox

    1914-01-01

    The demand grows constantly more urgent for the closer adaptation of schools to the needs of the communities in which they are located and by which they are supported. Some countries have succeeded in this better than others. Among those that have succeeded best are the Swiss Cantons. Believing that a careful study of the methods by which they…

  6. Rapid profiling of Swiss cheese by attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy and descriptive sensory analysis.

    PubMed

    Kocaoglu-Vurma, N A; Eliardi, A; Drake, M A; Rodriguez-Saona, L E; Harper, W J

    2009-08-01

    The acceptability of cheese depends largely on the flavor formed during ripening. The flavor profiles of cheeses are complex and region- or manufacturer-specific which have made it challenging to understand the chemistry of flavor development and its correlation with sensory properties. Infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technology for the rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analysis of foods, providing information related to its composition and conformation of food components from the spectra. Our objectives were to establish infrared spectral profiles to discriminate Swiss cheeses produced by different manufacturers in the United States and to develop predictive models for determination of sensory attributes based on infrared spectra. Fifteen samples from 3 Swiss cheese manufacturers were received and analyzed using attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR). The spectra were analyzed using soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) to build a classification model. The cheeses were profiled by a trained sensory panel using descriptive sensory analysis. The relationship between the descriptive sensory scores and ATR-IR spectra was assessed using partial least square regression (PLSR) analysis. SIMCA discriminated the Swiss cheeses based on manufacturer and production region. PLSR analysis generated prediction models with correlation coefficients of validation (rVal) between 0.69 and 0.96 with standard error of cross-validation (SECV) ranging from 0.04 to 0.29. Implementation of rapid infrared analysis by the Swiss cheese industry would help to streamline quality assurance.

  7. Is the swiss health care system a model for the United States?

    PubMed

    Chaufan, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    Both supporters and critics of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) have argued that it is similar to Switzerland's Federal Law on Health Insurance (LAMal), which currently governs Swiss health care, and have either praised or condemned the ACA on the basis of this alleged similarity. I challenge these observers on the grounds that they overlook critical problems with the Swiss model, such as its inequities in access, and critical differences between it and the ACA, such as the roots in, and continuing commitment to, social insurance of the Swiss model. Indeed, the daunting challenge of attempting to impose the tightly regulated model of operation of the Swiss model on mega-corporations like UnitedHealth, WellPoint, or Aetna is likely to trigger no less ferocious resistance than a fully public, single-payer system would. I also conclude that the ACA might unravel in ways unintended or even opposed by its designers and supporters, as employers, confronted with ever-rising costs, retreat from sponsoring insurance, and workers react in outrage as they confront the unaffordable underinsurance mandated by the ACA. A new political and ideological landscape may then ensue that finally ushers in a truly national health program.

  8. Mens' attitudes about abortion in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ann M; Jagwe-Wadda, Gabriel; Bankole, Akinrinola

    2011-01-01

    Abortion is illegal in Uganda except to save the life of the woman. Nevertheless, the practice is quite common: about 300,000 induced abortions occur annually among Ugandan women aged 15-49 (Singh et al., 2005) and a large proportion of these women require treatment for post-abortion complications. In the male-dominant culture of Uganda, where men control most of the financial resources, men play a critical part in determining whether women receive a safe abortion, or appropriate treatment if they experience abortion complications. This study examines men's roles in determining women's access to a safer abortion and post-abortion care. It draws on in-depth interviews carried out in 2003 with 61 women aged 18-60 and 21 men aged 20-50 from Kampala and Mbarara, Uganda. Respondents' descriptions of men's involvement in women's abortion care agreed that men's stated attitudes about abortion often prevented women from involving them in either the abortion or post-abortion care. Most men believe that if a woman is having an abortion, it must be because she is pregnant with another man's child, although this does not correspond with women's reasons for having an abortion--a critical disjuncture revealed by the data between men's perceptions of, and women's realities regarding, reasons for seeking an abortion. If the woman does experience post-abortion complications, the prevailing attitude among men in the sample was that they cannot support a woman in such a situation seeking care because if it had been his child, she would not have had a covert abortion. Since money is critical to accessing appropriate care, without men's support, women seeking an abortion may not be able to access safer abortion options and if they experience complications, they may delay care-seeking or may not obtain care at all. Barriers to involving men in abortion decision-making endanger women's health and possibly their lives.

  9. Estradiol enhances object recognition memory in Swiss female mice by activating hippocampal estrogen receptor α.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana M; Bastos, Cristiane P; de Souza, Jéssica M; Ribeiro, Fabíola M; Pereira, Grace S

    2014-10-01

    In rodents, 17β-estradiol (E2) enhances hippocampal function and improves performance in several memory tasks. Regarding the object recognition paradigm, E2 commonly act as a cognitive enhancer. However, the types of estrogen receptor (ER) involved, as well as the underlying molecular mechanisms are still under investigation. In the present study, we asked whether E2 enhances object recognition memory by activating ERα and/or ERβ in the hippocampus of Swiss female mice. First, we showed that immediately post-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of E2 (0.2 mg/kg) allowed object recognition memory to persist 48 h in ovariectomized (OVX) Swiss female mice. This result indicates that Swiss female mice are sensitive to the promnesic effects of E2 and is in accordance with other studies, which used C57/BL6 female mice. To verify if the activation of hippocampal ERα or ERβ would be sufficient to improve object memory, we used PPT and DPN, which are selective ERα and ERβ agonists, respectively. We found that PPT, but not DPN, improved object memory in Swiss female mice. However, DPN was able to improve memory in C57/BL6 female mice, which is in accordance with other studies. Next, we tested if the E2 effect on improving object memory depends on ER activation in the hippocampus. Thus, we tested if the infusion of intra-hippocampal TPBM and PHTPP, selective antagonists of ERα and ERβ, respectively, would block the memory enhancement effect of E2. Our results showed that TPBM, but not PHTPP, blunted the promnesic effect of E2, strongly suggesting that in Swiss female mice, the ERα and not the ERβ is the receptor involved in the promnesic effect of E2. It was already demonstrated that E2, as well as PPT and DPN, increase the phospho-ERK2 level in the dorsal hippocampus of C57/BL6 mice. Here we observed that PPT increased phospho-ERK1, while DPN decreased phospho-ERK2 in the dorsal hippocampus of Swiss female mice subjected to the object recognition sample phase

  10. Latino gay and bisexual men's relationships with non-gay-identified men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Reisen, Carol A; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Bianchi, Fernanda T; Poppen, Paul J; Shedlin, Michele G; Penha, Marcelo Montes

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated relationships between Latino gay-identified men in metropolitan New York City and their non-gay-identified male partners. Phase 1 consisted of in-depth interviews (N = 33), and Phase 2 consisted of quantitative surveys (N = 120) with Brazilian, Colombian, and Dominican men who have sex with men (MSM). A majority of participants reported having had sex with heterosexually identified men, and in many cases, the relationship was sustained over time. We found mixed results concerning an attitude sometimes attributed to Latinos that sexual orientation is defined by sexual role, with receptive MSM seen as gay and insertive MSM seen as straight. Although there were no significant associations between partner sexual orientation and unprotected anal intercourse, gay men were less likely to take the insertive role in oral or anal sex with straight-identified male partners than with gay partners.

  11. Swiss teleradiology survey: present situation and future trends.

    PubMed

    Lienemann, Bernhard; Hodler, Juerg; Luetolf, Marcus; Pfirrmann, Christian W A

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain a survey about the present situation including the usage pattern, technical characteristics and the anticipated future of teleradiology in Switzerland. An internet-based questionnaire was made available to all members of the Swiss Society of Radiology. Questions concerning current teleradiology usage, the type of transmitted modalities, the technology employed, security, billing issues and the anticipated future of teleradiology were addressed. One hundred and two (22.67%) of 450 radiologists responded to the survey. Of the total, 41.2% (42) were teleradiology users, 35.3% (36) planned to use teleradiology in the near future and 24.5% (25) did not use or plan to use teleradiology. The mean number of examinations transmitted per month was 198 (range 1-2,000) and the mean distance was 33 km (range 1,250 km). An emergency service was considered the most important purpose (mean score 6.90; minimum 1, maximum 10) for the use of teleradiology, followed by image distribution (mean 6.74) and expert consultation (mean 6.61). The most commonly transmitted modality was computed tomography (mean 8.80), followed by conventional X-rays (8.40) and magnetic resonance imaging (8.32). The most commonly transmitted format was Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) (66.7%), followed by bitmap/Joint Photographic Experts Group (jpg) (38.1%), using the DICOM send/receive protocol (52.4%), followed by the hypertext transfer protocol (26.2%) and e-mail (21.4%). For security a secure connection (54.8%) followed by encryption (14.3%) and anonymization (9.5%) was used. For the future, image distribution was rated the most important aspect of teleradiology (7.88), followed by emergency (7.22) and expert consultation (6.53). Development of legal regulations is considered most important (8.17), followed by data security guidelines (8.15). Most radiologists believe that insurance companies should pay for the costs of teleradiology (37

  12. Model for Formation of Martian Residual Cap Depressions (Swiss Cheese)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, S.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2001-12-01

    In an effort for explain the formation of the `Swiss-cheese' terrain visible on the southern residual cap of Mars (Thomas et al., Nature, 404,2000); we have developed a radiative model to follow the growth/decay of an initial depression due to sublimation/condensation of carbon dioxide. The pits making up this terrain have many distinctive features; they are shallow (~10m deep), with steep walls and flat floors and contain an interior moat that runs along the bottom of the walls. Their diameters range from a few 10's of meters to a kilometer. The model accounts for incident sunlight, emitted thermal radiation, and scattered short and long wave radiation. We have included the effects of a layer of water ice placed under the carbon dioxide at adjustable depth. The water ice layer is free to store heat during the summer (when the carbon dioxide has been removed) through subsurface diffusion of heat. Release of this heat at the end of the summer can inhibit frost formation. We have investigated many cases involving pure dry ice with constant albedo, albedo as a function of insolation, and differing albedo for fresh and residual frost (the latter has lower albedo). In most cases the initial depressions heal themselves and disappear into the surrounding terrain. Cases involving the layer of water ice provide a much closer approximation to the shape of the observed features (especially the flat bottoms). A problem arises of how much exposed water ice we can have during the summer season and still have temperatures averaged over the footprint of the Thermal Emission Spectrometer be close to the carbon dioxide sublimation temperatures. The depth to the water ice layer is a strong controlling factor of the evolution of depression shape and depth in our model. Matching this shape with observations yields important information regarding the depth to any putative water ice layer within the residual cap itself. It is known from laboratory measurements that carbon dioxide is too

  13. The role of glaciers for Swiss hydropower production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaefli, Bettina; Manso, Pedro; Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias

    2016-04-01

    In Switzerland, hydropower represents over 50% of the total annual electricity production. Given the Alpine setting of the country, this hydropower production (HPP) strongly relies on the natural storage of discharge in form of ice and snow over months to decades. The sensitivity of glacier-fed HPP systems with respect to climate change depends on how the today's production and the infrastructure design relies on the seasonal streamflow delay expected from the natural storage effect of snow and ice. For low-head run-of-river HPP plants built on large lowland rivers, the ongoing glacier retreat (resulting in strong summer melt) currently sustains higher flows during summer months, an effect that will certainly be reduced once the glaciers will have reached a critical size. This effect will also modify the inflow to the large storage HPP plants that have been designed to shift large amounts of meltwater inflows from summer to winter. The management of these reservoirs will certainly have to be adapted to future inflow patterns. An interesting case are high-head run-of-river plants (with heads from 100 to 1100 m) that short-circuit a given river reach. Future regime shifts with less sustained summer flow and more concentrated spring melt flows might critically reduce the annual production due to intake overflow during spring and reduced flow during summer. In this work, we discuss the role of glaciers for these different HPP types in detail, including an overview of how glacier retreat might influence their production. This comprehensive study synthesizes up-to-date estimations of glacier mass change since the 1980s and its influence on high Alpine discharge regimes and state-of-the art simulations of potential future glacier discharge regimes. We also attempt an extrapolation to the country level based on a hydropower GIS database that has been developed for economic purposes. Ongoing Swiss research on sediment production and management might complete this picture

  14. An intersectional approach to social determinants of stress for African American men: men's and women's perspectives.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Derek M; Ellis, Katrina R; Allen, Julie Ober

    2013-07-01

    Stress is a key factor that helps explain racial and gender differences in health, but few studies have examined gendered stressors that affect men. This study uses an intersectional approach to examine the sources of stress in African American men's lives from the perspectives of African American men and important women in their lives. Phenomenological analysis was used to examine data from 18 exploratory focus groups with 150 African American men, ages 30 years and older, and eight groups with 77 African American women. The two primary sources of stress identified were seeking to fulfill socially and culturally important gender roles and being an African American man in a racially stratified society. A central focus of African American men's daily lives was trying to navigate chronic stressors at home and at work and a lack of time to fulfill roles and responsibilities in different life domains that are traditionally the responsibility of men. Health was rarely mentioned by men as a source of stress, though women noted that men's aging and weathering bodies were a source of stress for men. Because of the intersection of racism and economic and social stressors, men and women reported that the stress that African American men experienced was shaped by the intersection of race, ethnicity, age, marital status, and other factors that combined in unique ways. The intersection of these identities and characteristics led to stressors that were perceived to be of greater quantity and qualitatively different than the stress experienced by men of other races.

  15. Positive Portrayals of Feminist Men Increase Men's Solidarity with Feminists and Collective Action Intentions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiley, Shaun; Srinivasan, Ruhi; Finke, Elizabeth; Firnhaber, Joseph; Shilinsky, Alyssa

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined whether positive portrayals of feminist men could increase men's sense of solidarity with feminists and, through it, their intentions to engage in collective action in support of women. A sample of 102 mostly White men between the ages of 18 and 63 was recruited from Mechanical Turk, an online crowdsourcing marketplace.…

  16. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom

    PubMed Central

    Saxon, Cara; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic. PMID:26691688

  17. Asymptomatic Lymphogranuloma Venereum in Men who Have Sex with Men, United Kingdom.

    PubMed

    Saxon, Cara; Hughes, Gwenda; Ison, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated prevalence of lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV) among men who have sex with men who were tested for chlamydia at 12 clinics in the United Kingdom during 10 weeks in 2012. Of 713 men positive for Chlamydia trachomatis, 66 (9%) had LGV serovars; 15 (27%) of 55 for whom data were available were asymptomatic.

  18. Men on the Move: A Pilot Program to Increase Physical Activity among African American Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Derek M.; Allen, Julie Ober; Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Langford, Aisha

    2014-01-01

    Despite the important contribution increasing physical activity levels may play in reducing chronic disease morbidity and mortality, there is a paucity of interventions and research indicating how to improve physical activity levels in African American men. "Men on the Move" was a pilot study to increase African American men's levels of…

  19. Swiss Ball Versus Mat Exercises For Core Activation of Transverse Abdominis in Recreational Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nirmala; Nair, Sudeep; Sherpa, Lobsang Bhuti; Dsouza, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Core stability is an essential component for improving athletic performance and injury prevention. Exercises on a Swiss ball and on the mat are two different ways of improving core stability. Comparison of these methods can help physiotherapists incorporate the better method for athletic training and rehabilitation. Aim To compare swiss ball and mat exercises for core stability of transverse abdominis in recreational athletes. Materials and Methods This pilot randomized control trial was performed on a total of 25 recreational athletes. Subjects were alternatively allocated into three different groups: group A performed swiss ball exercises; group B performed mat exercises; and group C was the control group. Statistical analysis Paired t-test for pre and post values within the group and one-way ANOVA for between the groups comparison was used. Results There was significant improvement in the core stability in Group A (Pre values: 3.6±2.06; Post values: 8.3±3.02; p-value: <0.05) and Group B (Pre values: 2.1±2.4; Post values: 4.3±2.5; p-value<0.05), however, improvement was more in group A compared to group B. Conclusion There was significant improvement seen in the recreational athletes performing exercises on Swiss ball as compared to athletes performing exercises on mat. Therefore, Swiss ball exercises can be included in the prehabilitation and rehabilitation stages of athletic training to prevent injury and enhanced recovery post injury, thereby, improving performance of the athletes. PMID:28208990

  20. Workplace Etiquette for Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baridon, Andrea P.; Eyler, David R.

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that sexual harassment would be less of a problem if men and women paid more attention to commonplace rules of workplace etiquette. Offers examples of etiquette rules that suggest how to behave reasonably while respecting the rights of both men and women. (Author/JOW)

  1. Toward a Mandatory Work Policy for Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mead, Lawrence M.

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence Mead addresses the problem of nonwork among low-income men, particularly low-income black men, and its implications for families and children. The poor work effort, he says, appears to be caused partly by falling wages and other opportunity constraints but principally by an oppositional culture and a breakdown of work discipline. Mead…

  2. Latino men's sexual behavior with transgender persons.

    PubMed

    Bockting, Walter; Miner, Michael; Rosser, B R Simon

    2007-12-01

    Male-to-female transgender persons are thought to be "vectors" for HIV/STI transmission, yet little quantitative information exists about the risk behavior of their male sexual partners who may serve as a "bridge" for HIV transmission into the general population. As part of an online survey examining the sexual risk behavior of Latino men who have sex with men (N = 1,026), we identified 44 (4%) participants who reported having had sex with a transgender partner. Compared with a randomly selected sub-sample of 200 men who did not report sex with a transgender person, sexual partners of transgender persons were almost three times more likely to have had unprotected sexual intercourse in the last three months. In addition, men who had sex with transgender persons were more likely to be HIV-positive; married, separated, or divorced; identify as bisexual or straight; have sex with women; and live in rural or small town communities. Regression analysis revealed that community size, sexual compulsivity, and having had a transgender partner were independent predictors of unprotected sex. Among Latino men who have sex with men, men with a history of sex with a transgender person appear more likely to be sexually compulsive and at greater risk for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. These men may, therefore, also serve as a "bridge" for HIV transmission to (as opposed to from) the transgender population.

  3. Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

  4. The "Marital" Liaisons of Gay Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harry, Joseph

    1979-01-01

    Reports research on the nature of enduring sexual liaisons among homosexual men. Such relationships vary widely and may be subinstitutional adaptions to lack of community support. Gay men committed to the heterosexual world were less likely to enter enduring relationships. Open marriage is the more enduring form of gay male liaisons. (Author)

  5. Young Men, Masculinities and Sex Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limmer, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper draws on focus group and interview data from 45 young men from the north of England to explore the barriers to effective sex and relationships education (SRE). Recent policy debates in relation to establishing statutory SRE in schools provide an opportunity to revisit how it is currently delivered to, and received by, young men. The…

  6. Household and kin provisioning by Hadza men.

    PubMed

    Wood, Brian M; Marlowe, Frank W

    2013-09-01

    We use data collected among Hadza hunter-gatherers between 2005 and 2009 to examine hypotheses about the causes and consequences of men's foraging and food sharing. We find that Hadza men foraged for a range of food types, including fruit, honey, small animals, and large game. Large game were shared not like common goods, but in ways that significantly advantaged producers' households. Food sharing and consumption data show that men channeled the foods they produced to their wives, children, and their consanguineal and affinal kin living in other households. On average, single men brought food to camp on 28% of days, married men without children at home on 31% of days, and married men with children at home on 42% of days. Married men brought fruit, the least widely shared resource, to camp significantly more often than single men. A model of the relationship between hunting success and household food consumption indicates that the best hunters provided 3-4 times the amount of food to their families than median or poor hunters. These new data fill important gaps in our knowledge of the subsistence economy of the Hadza and uphold predictions derived from the household and kin provisioning hypotheses. Key evidence and assumptions backing prior claims that Hadza hunting is largely a form of status competition were not replicated in our study. In light of this, family provisioning is a more viable explanation for why good hunters are preferred as husbands and have higher fertility than others.

  7. Men and Families = Hombres y Familias, 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Men and Families Newsletter, 1995

    1995-01-01

    This newsletter, published in both English and Spanish versions, focuses on men and their roles in families. It stems from a 3-day workshop held at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City. The 24 participating researchers and practitioners discussed ways to support men in fathering roles in order to enhance the…

  8. Older Men's Explanatory Model for Osteoporosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solimeo, Samantha L.; Weber, Thomas J.; Gold, Deborah T.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To explore the nature of men's experiences of osteoporosis by developing an understanding of men's explanatory models. Design and Methods: This descriptive study invited community-residing male osteoporosis patients aged 50+ to participate in interviews about osteoporosis. Participants were recruited from a hospital-affiliated bone…

  9. Men of Color Focus Group Manual

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Community College Student Engagement, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The Center for Community College Student Engagement received funding from"The Kresge Foundation to deepen its work on improving outcomes for men of color in community colleges. The primary goals of the initiative were: (1) to advance the understanding within the community college field regarding the assets and challenges that men of color…

  10. Family Life Education--For Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Katherine K.; MacFarlane, Ann

    1971-01-01

    Account of a family-life film-lecture series for poor farm laborers, primarily men. Some of the topics discussed were: priorities in human needs, family communications, sexuality, family planning and masculine and feminine roles. The program improved the men's ability to communicate and made them more receptive to counseling. (Authors/JB)

  11. Men and women, alcohol and aggression.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Peter R; Levinson, Cheri A; Corman, Michelle D; Godlaski, Aaron J; Morris, David H; Phillips, Joshua P; Holt, Jerred C D

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of alcohol on aggressive behavior in men and women in a laboratory setting. Participants were 526 (261 men and 265 women) healthy social drinkers between 21 and 35 years of age. They were randomly assigned to either an alcohol or a placebo group. Aggression was measured using a modified version of the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in which electric shocks are received from, and delivered to, a same gender fictitious opponent during a supposed competitive interpersonal task. Aggression was operationalized as the intensity and duration of shocks that participants administered to their "opponent." Overall, men were more aggressive than women. Alcohol increased aggression for both men and women but this effect was stronger for men. This is one of the first laboratory studies to demonstrate that alcohol increases aggression in women.

  12. Understanding older men and their male friendships: a comparison of african american and white men.

    PubMed

    Greif, Geoffrey L

    2009-01-01

    Friendships can lead to longer and healthier lives. Yet little is known about how older men, particularly African American men, define and carry out their friendships with other men. This article presents the findings from qualitative interviews with 23 African American and 23 White older men who were part of a larger study. The subjects were asked whether friendships are important; if they have enough male friends; how they define, carry out, and maintain their friendships; and the nature of their fathers' friendships. Comparisons are drawn between the African American and White men. Implications for social work practice are included.

  13. Higher Prevalence of Childhood Sexual Abuse among Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men than Non-Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men: Data from the Urban Men's Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, S.G.; Neilands, T.B.; Pollack, L.M.; Paul, J.P.; Catania, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective:: The prevalence of childhood sexual abuse among Latino adult men who have sex with men who live in the US was estimated because a history of childhood sexual abuse increases HIV sexual risk behaviors and other negative health outcomes in adulthood. Method:: The Urban Men's Health Study is a random-digit telephone probability survey of…

  14. Exploring U.S. men's birth intentions.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Laura Duberstein; Kost, Kathryn

    2014-04-01

    While recently there have been renewed interest in women's childbearing intentions, the authors sought to bring needed research attention to understanding men's childbearing intentions. Nationally representative data from the 2006-2010 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) was used to examine pregnancy intentions and happiness for all births reported by men in the 5 years preceding the interview. We used bivariate statistical tests of associations between intention status, happiness about the pregnancy, and fathers' demographic characteristics, including joint race/ethnicity and union status subgroups. Multivariate logistic regressions were used to calculate adjusted odds ratios of a birth being intended, estimated separately by father's union status at birth. Using comparable data and measures from the male and female NSFG surveys, we tested for gender differences intentions and happiness, and examined the sensitivity of our results to potential underreporting of births by men. Nearly four out of ten of births to men were reported as unintended, with significant variation by men's demographic traits. Non-marital childbearing was more likely to be intended among Hispanic and black men. Sixty-two percent of births received a 10 on the happiness scale. Happiness about the pregnancy varied significantly by intention status. Men were significantly happier than women about the pregnancies, with no significant difference in intention status. Potential underreporting of births by men had little impact on these patterns. This study brings needed focus to men's childbearing intentions and improves our understanding of the context of their role as fathers. Men need to be included in strategies to prevent unintended pregnancy.

  15. Women achieve peak freestyle swim speed at earlier ages than men

    PubMed Central

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background The age of peak swim performance has been investigated for freestyle swimmers for distances ranging from 50 m to 1500 m among swimmers aged 19 to 99 years. However, studies have yet to investigate the 10 to 19 year-old age group. The aims of the present study were (1) to investigate the age range of peak freestyle swim speed, and (2) to find differences in age range and peak freestyle swim speed between male and female freestyle swimmers from 50 m to 1500 m at a national level. Methods The changes in age range and peak freestyle swim speed among Swiss elite freestyle swimmers aged 0–9 years and 70–79 years who were ranked on the Swiss high score list between 2006 and 2010 were analyzed using linear regression analyses and analysis of variance. Results Men were fastest at ages 22–23 years for 100 m and 200 m; at ages 24–25 years for 400 m and 800 m; and at 26–27 years for 50 m and 1500 m. Women achieved peak freestyle swim speed at ages 20–21 years for all distances with the exception of 800 m. In the 800 m, women were fastest at ages 26–27 years. The difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m (ie, 13.1% ± 1.3% in 50 m; 13.2% ± 0.9% in 100 m; 10.8% ± 0.9% in 200 m; 7.9% ± 1.3% in 400 m; and 4.2% ± 2.0% in 800 m). For 1500 m, however, the gender difference increased to 6.4% ± 2.3%. Conclusion These findings suggest that peak freestyle swim speed is achieved at lower age ranges in women when compared to men at 50 m to 1500 m, but not at 800 m. The gender difference in peak freestyle swim speed decreased with increasing swim distance from 50 m to 800 m, but not for 1500 m. These data should be confirmed with swimmers at an international level. PMID:24198602

  16. Intimate partner, familial and community violence among men who have sex with men in Namibia

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Rob; Hast, Marisa; Finneran, Catherine; Sineath, Craig R.

    2015-01-01

    Men who have sex with men in sub-Saharan Africa are known to experience high levels of violence, yet little research has focused on their perceptions of intimate partner violence (IPV). This study examines the perceived typologies and sources of multiple forms of violence, including IPV, family/community violence and discrimination from healthcare workers, among men who have sex with men in Namibia. Focus-group discussions and in-depth interviews were conducted with a 52 men residing in five cities across Namibia. Results indicate that violence, in varying forms, is commonplace in the lives of men who have sex with men in this community, and may be associated with HIV testing patterns. PMID:24735113

  17. Thorium in occupationally exposed men.

    SciTech Connect

    Stehney, A. F.

    1999-02-24

    Higher than environmental levels of {sup 232}Th have been found in autopsy samples of lungs and other organs from four former employees of a thorium refinery. Working periods of the subjects ranged from 3 to 24 years, and times from end of work to death ranged from 6 to 31 years. Examination of the distribution of thorium among the organs revealed poor agreement with the distribution calculated from the dosimetric models in Publication 30 of the International Commission on Radioprotection (ICRP). Concentrations in the lungs relative to pulmonary lymph nodes, bone or liver were much higher than calculated from the model for class Y thorium and the exposure histories of the workers. Much better agreement was found with more recently proposed models in Publications 68 and 69 of the ICRP. Radiation doses estimated from the amounts of thorium in the autopsy samples were compatible with health studies that found no significant difference in mortality from that of the general population of men in the US.

  18. Men, Masculinities, and Murder-Suicide.

    PubMed

    Oliffe, John L; Han, Christina S E; Drummond, Murray; Sta Maria, Estephanie; Bottorff, Joan L; Creighton, Genevieve

    2015-11-01

    Murder-suicide (M-S) is a complex phenomenon that can involve a multifaceted set of interrelated biological and social factors. M-S is also sexed and gendered in that the perpetrators are most often male and their underpinning motives and actions link to masculinities in an array of diverse ways. With the overarching goal to describe connections between men, masculinities, and M-S, 296 newspaper articles describing 45 North American M-S cases were analyzed. The inductively derived findings revealed three themes: (a) domestic desperation, (b) workplace justice, and (c) school retaliation. Cases in the domestic desperation theme were characterized by the murder of a family member(s) and were often underpinned by men's self-perceptions of failing to provide economic security. Workplace justice cases emerged from men's grievances around paid-work, job insecurity, and perceptions of being bullied and/or marginalized by coworkers or supervisors. The school retaliation cases were strongly linked to "pay back" against individuals and/or society for the hardships endured by M-S perpetrators. Prevailing across the three themes was men's loss of control in their lives, hopelessness, and marginalized masculine identities. Also evident were men's alignments to hegemonic masculinities in reasserting one's masculine self by protesting the perceived marginalization invoked on them. Overall, the findings give pause to consider the need for men-centered M-S prevention strategies to quell the catastrophic impacts of this long-standing but understudied men's health issue.

  19. Testosterone replacement therapy for older men

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Stephen E; Mulligan, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Despite intensive research on testosterone therapy for older men, important questions remain unanswered. The evidence clearly indicates that many older men display a partial androgen deficiency. In older men, low circulating testosterone is correlated with low muscle strength, with high adiposity, with insulin resistance and with poor cognitive performance. Testosterone replacement in older men has produced benefits, but not consistently so. The inconsistency may arise from differences in the dose and duration of testosterone treatment, as well as selection of the target population. Generally, studies reporting anabolic responses to testosterone have employed higher doses of testosterone for longer treatment periods and have targeted older men whose baseline circulating bioavailable testosterone levels were low. Most studies of testosterone replacement have reported anabolic that are modest compared to what can be achieved with resistance exercise training. However, several strategies currently under evaluation have the potential to produce greater anabolic effects and to do so in a safe manner. At this time, testosterone therapy can not be recommended for the general population of older men. Older men who are hypogonadal are at greater risk for the catabolic effects associated with a number of acute and chronic medical conditions. Future research is likely to reveal benefits of testosterone therapy for some of these special populations. Testosterone therapy produces a number of adverse effects, including worsening of sleep apnea, gynecomastia, polycythemia and elevation of PSA. Efficacy and adverse effects should be assessed frequently throughout the course of therapy. PMID:18225456

  20. Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early?

    MedlinePlus

    ... in Men Early Detection, Diagnosis, and Staging Can Breast Cancer in Men Be Found Early? Early detection improves ... be treated successfully. Differences affecting early detection of breast cancers in men and women There are many similarities ...

  1. A water vapor Raman lidar as part of the Swiss meteorology service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinoev, T.; Arshinov, Y.; Bobrovnikov, S.; Ristori, P.; Calpini, B.; van den Bergh, H.; Parlange, M. B.; Simeonov, V.

    2009-09-01

    Vertical water vapor profiles with high time resolution are necessary for improved numerical weather prediction (NWP). Meteorological services rely, in part, on NWP models for short to mid-term weather forecasting. Typically vertical water vapor profiles are acquired from twice a day radiosonde observations which have time resolution insufficient to resolve rapidly changing meteorological phenomena. New operational instruments with near real-time sampling of the water vapor field are needed. Raman LIDARs can provide vertical humidity profiles within the troposphere with time and range resolution suitable for NWP model assimilation and validation. That is why in 2004 the Swiss meteo-service (MeteoSwiss), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL), and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF), initiated a project to build an automated Raman lidar for day and night vertical profiling of tropospheric water vapor and aerosol properties. Currently RALMO (Raman Lidar for meteorological observations) is operational at MeteoSwiss aerological station at Payerne. It is fully automated, self-contained, eye-safe instrument for day and night-time vertical profiling of water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter, and extinction within the troposphere. The lidar profiles of water vapor mixing ratio have vertical resolution from 15 m (boundary layer) to 100-450 m (free troposphere) and time resolution of 2 min (boundary layer) to 30 min (free troposphere). The range resolved aerosol extinction and backscatter coefficients are measured with similar resolution. The lidar operational range is from ~50 m to 5 km during daytime (detection limit of 0.2 g/kg), and from ~50 m to 10 km night-time. LabView based software allows continuous fully automated operation. Automated data treatment software reads the accumulated lidar data, derives vertical profiles of water vapor mixing ratio (grams per kilogram of dry air) estimates statistical error, and stores the result

  2. Indonesian men's perceptions of violence against women.

    PubMed

    Nilan, Pam; Demartoto, Argyo; Broom, Alex; Germov, John

    2014-07-01

    This article explores male perceptions and attitudes toward violence against women in Indonesia. It analyzes interview data from Indonesian men collected as part of a large multimethod Australian government-funded project on masculinities and violence in two Asian countries. Reluctance to talk about violence against women was evident, and the accounts of those men who did respond referred to three justificatory discourses: denial, blaming the victim, and exonerating the male perpetrator. The findings support continuation of government and nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects aimed at both empowering women and reeducating men.

  3. Shackleton's men: life on Elephant Island.

    PubMed

    Piggott, Jan R

    2004-09-01

    The experiences of the 22 men from Ernest Shackleton's Endurance expedition of 1914-1916 who were marooned on Elephant Island during the Antarctic winter are not as well known as the narrative of the ship being beset and sunk, and Shackleton's open boat journey to South Georgia to rescue them. Frank Wild was left in charge of the marooned men by Shackleton and saved them from starvation and despair. The morale of the men in the face of extreme exposure to the elements, the ingenuity of their devices for survival and their diet, conversation and entertainments all reveal heroic qualities of Shackletonian endurance.

  4. Heteronormativity and 'troubled' masculinities among men who have sex with men in Addis Ababa.

    PubMed

    Tadele, Getnet

    2011-04-01

    In most societies, heterosexuality is the dominant way of expressing sexuality and masculinity and those men outside of it are stigmatised and discriminated against. This paper explores the sexual lives of men who have sex with men and the personal and social conflicts that arise as they attempt to both live up to societal expectations and manage their sexual desires. It critically explores how an overriding heteronormativity structures and influences men's perception and understanding of sexuality and masculinity/femininity. The paper draws on data from 24 in-depth/life history interviews, one focus group discussion and ethnographic observation conducted between July 2006 and June 2007. The study reveals that powerful and dominating beliefs about heteronormativity and masculinity result in men who have sex with men dealing with a number of issues of personal conflict and contradiction resulting in uncertainty, resentment, ambivalence, worry and discomfort. Heteronormativity or the expectations of parents, community and society at large is far more influential on the sexuality of men who have sex with men than their own individual desires and needs. The paper concludes that there is little room for individuality for Ethiopian men who have sex with men with their sexual bodies 'belonging' to parents, families and to society at large.

  5. Sexual Stereotypes Ascribed to Black Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Intersectional Analysis.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, Sarah K; Earnshaw, Valerie A; Magnus, Manya; Hansen, Nathan B; Krakower, Douglas S; Underhill, Kristen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Kershaw, Trace S; Betancourt, Joseph R; Dovidio, John F

    2017-02-21

    Sexual stereotypes may adversely affect the health of Black men who have sex with men (MSM). Greater understanding of the nature and nuances of these stereotypes is needed. This online, survey-based study used an inductive, intersectional approach to characterize the sexual stereotypes ascribed to Black MSM by the U.S. general public, their distinctiveness from those ascribed to Black men and MSM in general, and their relative prototypicality as compared to dominant subgroups. Members of the public, recruited in 2014-2015, were randomly assigned to survey conditions that varied systematically by race (Black, White, or unspecified) and sexual orientation (gay, heterosexual, or unspecified) of a designated social group. Participants (n = 285) reported stereotypes of their assigned group that they perceived to exist in U.S. culture in an open-response format. Cross-condition comparisons revealed that, overall, Black gay male stereotypes were non-prototypical of Black men or gay men. Rather, stereotypes of Black men were more similar to Black heterosexual men and stereotypes of gay men were more similar to White gay men. Nonetheless, 11 of the 15 most frequently reported Black gay male stereotypes overlapped with stereotypes of Black men (e.g., large penis), gay men (e.g., deviant), or both (e.g., promiscuous). Four stereotypes were unique relative to both Black men and gay men: down low, diseased, loud, and dirty. Findings suggest that Black MSM face multiple derogatory sexual stereotypes, several of which are group-specific. These stereotypes are consistent with cultural (mis)representations of Black MSM and suggest a need for more accurate portrayals of existing sexual diversity within this group.

  6. HIV risk among drug-using men who have sex with men, men selling sex, and transgender individuals in Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Vu, Bao Ngoc; Mulvey, Kevin P; Baldwin, Simon; Nguyen, Son Thanh

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge about drug use and its association with HIV risk among men who have sex with men is limited. Although the HIV epidemic among this population in Vietnam is increasingly acknowledged, understanding the impact of drug use on the spread of HIV is largely lacking. Using qualitative data from in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 93 drug users, 15 non-drug users and 9 community stakeholders, this analysis explores emerging patterns of drug use and risk factors for engaging in risk behaviours among drug-using men having sex with men, men selling sex and transgender individuals in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City. Findings revealed that drug use is shifting from heroin to ecstasy and ice. Drug users reported unsafe sex associated with drug use and men selling sex were particularly at elevated risk because of using drugs as a tool for sex work and trading sex for drugs. These findings are guiding development of programmes addressing unmet HIV-prevention needs in Vietnam.

  7. Risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing and HIV/STI prevalence between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women in China

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Alissa; Best, John; Luo, Juhua; Van Der Pol, Barbara; Dodge, Brian; Meyerson, Beth; Aalsma, Matthew; Wei, Chongyi; Tucker, Joseph D

    2015-01-01

    Background Differences in risk behaviours between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women have important implications for HIV and STI transmission. We examined differences in risk behaviours, HIV/STI testing, self-reported HIV/STI diagnoses, and linkage to HIV care between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women across China. Methods Participants were recruited through three men who have sex with men-focused websites in China. An online survey containing items on socio-demographics, risk behaviours, testing history, self-reported HIV/STI diagnosis, and linkage to and retention in HIV care was completed from September to October 2014. Chi square tests and logistic regression analyses were conducted. Results Men who have sex with both men and women were less likely to use a condom during last anal sex (p ≤ 0.01) and more likely to engage in group sex (p ≤ 0.01) and transactional sex (p ≤ 0.01) compared to men who have sex with men. Self-reported HIV/STI testing and positivity rates between men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women were similar. Among HIV-infected men who have sex with men, there was no difference in rates of linkage to or retention in antiretroviral therapy when comparing men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women. Conclusions Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women may benefit from different HIV and STI intervention and prevention strategies. Achieving a successful decrease in HIV/STI epidemics among Chinese men who have sex with men and men who have sex with both men and women will depend on the ability of targeted and culturally congruent HIV/STI control programmes to facilitate a reduction in risk behaviours. PMID:26185041

  8. PHYSIOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF MEN DURING SLEEP DEPRIVATION,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The effects of 84 hours of sleep deprivation were examined in a group of six young men and compared with a group of six controls. Subjects were... sleep deprivation , physiological regulating systems are relatively unaffected by sleep loss. (Author)

  9. Differences and Similarities in HIV Testing Among Men Who have Sex with Men and Women (MSMW) and Men Who Have Sex with Men Only (MSMO).

    PubMed

    Maulsby, Cathy; Sifakis, Frangiscos; German, Danielle; Flynn, Colin P; Holtgrave, David

    2012-01-01

    The study examined differences in HIV testing between men who have sex with men only (MSMO) (n=300) and men who have sex with men and women (MSMW) (n=105) and assessed associations with HIV testing among MSMW. A venue-based cross-sectional HIV surveillance study in 2008 (BESURE-MSM2) was examined. Prevalence of HIV testing was similar for MSMO and MSMW. One-on-one counseling (excluding counseling that is part of HIV testing) and having seen a health care provider in the past twelve months were associated with HIV testing in the past six months among MSMW in multivariate analyses. One-on-one counseling interventions may increase rates of HIV testing among MSMW.

  10. The Window Men, Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Window Men, Inc. (the Company) is located in Lynchburg, Virginia. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at properties constructed prior to 1978, located in Lynchburg and Amherst, Virginia.

  11. Treatment options for men with sexual dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J H

    1992-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction can occur in men of any age, but it is more common in older men. It is one of the most devastating problems a man can face. An estimated 10 to 12 million American men experience impotence. Increased sexual expectations for an aging population have resulted in an increased interest in the treatment of impotence. Treatment options range from a simple adjustment in medication to surgical implantation of a penile prosthesis. The good news is that sexual function can almost always be restored. The bad news is that many men with chronic erectile dysfunction never seek help. A sensitive nurse who has an understanding of sexual health and functioning and the conditions that interfere with them can steer those who need help in the direction of treatment.

  12. Black Men and the Digital Divide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.

  13. Vaccine Reduces HPV Infections in Young Men

    Cancer.gov

    An international randomized clinical trial has shown that the vaccine Gardasil can reduce the incidence of anogenital human papillomavirus (HPV) infections in young men 16 to 26 years of age at the time of vaccination.

  14. For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Diabetes For Men, Ignoring Diabetes Can Be Deadly Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table ... Man's Guide to Living Well with Diabetes. Simpler Diabetes Care: Estimated Average Glucose (eAG) The American Diabetes ...

  15. Implementation of the new international standards in Swiss legislation on radon protection in dwellings.

    PubMed

    Palacios Gruson, Martha; Barazza, Fabio; Murith, Christophe; Ryf, Salome

    2015-04-01

    The current revision of the Swiss Radiological Protection Ordinance aims to bring Swiss legislation in line with new international standards. In future, the control of radon exposure in dwellings will be based on a reference level of 300 Bq m(-3). Since this value is exceeded in >10 % of the buildings so far investigated nationwide, the new strategy requires the development of efficient measures to reduce radon-related health risks at an acceptable cost. The minimisation of radon concentrations in new buildings is therefore of great importance. This can be achieved, for example, through the enforcement of building regulations and the education of construction professionals. With regard to radon mitigation in existing buildings, synergies with the ongoing renewal of the building stock should be exploited. In addition, the dissemination of knowledge about radon and its risks needs to be focused on specific target groups, e.g. notaries, who play an important information role in real estate transactions.

  16. Further evidence of benzene carcinogenicity. Results on Wistar rats and Swiss mice treated by ingestion.

    PubMed

    Maltoni, C; Conti, B; Perino, G; Di Maio, V

    1988-01-01

    Wistar rats and Swiss mice were treated by ingestion (stomach tube) with benzene in olive oil at a dose of 500 and 0 mg/kg b.w. once daily, 4-5 days weekly, for 104 weeks (rats) or for 78 weeks (mice). In Wistar rats, benzene caused Zymbal gland carcinomas, carcinomas of the oral cavity, and carcinomas of the nasal cavities, and an increase in the incidence of total malignant tumors. In Swiss mice, benzene produced Zymbal gland carcinomas and dysplasias and an increase in the incidence of mammary carcinomas (in females), lung tumors, and total malignant tumors. These experiments further confirm that benzene is a multipotential carcinogen as was shown before by long-term bioassays performed on Sprague-Dawley rats in the same Experimental Unit.

  17. Neutron dose rate at the SwissFEL injector test facility: first measurements.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, E; Frey, N; Fuchs, A; Harm, C; Hödlmoser, H; Lüscher, R; Mayer, S; Morath, O; Philipp, R; Rehmann, A; Schietinger, T

    2014-10-01

    At the Paul Scherrer Institute, the new SwissFEL Free Electron Laser facility is currently in the design phase. It is foreseen to accelerate electrons up to a maximum energy of 7 GeV with a pulsed time structure. An injector test facility is operated at a maximum energy of 300 MeV and serves as the principal test and demonstration plant for the SwissFEL project. Secondary radiation is created in unavoidable interactions of the primary beam with beamline components. The resulting ambient dose-equivalent rate due to neutrons was measured along the beamline with different commercially available survey instruments. The present study compares the readings of these neutron detectors (one of them is specifically designed for measurements in pulsed fields). The experiments were carried out in both, a normal and a diagnostic mode of operation of the injector.

  18. Effects of Testosterone Treatment in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, P.J.; Bhasin, S.; Cunningham, G.R.; Matsumoto, A.M.; Stephens-Shields, A.J.; Cauley, J.A.; Gill, T.M.; Barrett-Connor, E.; Swerdloff, R.S.; Wang, C.; Ensrud, K.E.; Lewis, C.E.; Farrar, J.T.; Cella, D.; Rosen, R.C.; Pahor, M.; Crandall, J.P.; Molitch, M.E.; Cifelli, D.; Dougar, D.; Fluharty, L.; Resnick, S.M.; Storer, T.W.; Anton, S.; Basaria, S.; Diem, S.J.; Hou, X.; Mohler, E.R.; Parsons, J.K.; Wenger, N.K.; Zeldow, B.; Landis, J.R.; Ellenberg, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Serum testosterone concentrations decrease as men age, but benefits of raising testosterone levels in older men have not been established. METHODS We assigned 790 men 65 years of age or older with a serum testosterone concentration of less than 275 ng per deciliter and symptoms suggesting hypoandrogenism to receive either testosterone gel or placebo gel for 1 year. Each man participated in one or more of three trials — the Sexual Function Trial, the Physical Function Trial, and the Vitality Trial. The primary outcome of each of the individual trials was also evaluated in all participants. RESULTS Testosterone treatment increased serum testosterone levels to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age. The increase in testosterone levels was associated with significantly increased sexual activity, as assessed by the Psychosexual Daily Questionnaire (P<0.001), as well as significantly increased sexual desire and erectile function. The percentage of men who had an increase of at least 50 m in the 6-minute walking distance did not differ significantly between the two study groups in the Physical Function Trial but did differ significantly when men in all three trials were included (20.5% of men who received testosterone vs. 12.6% of men who received placebo, P=0.003). Testosterone had no significant benefit with respect to vitality, as assessed by the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy–Fatigue scale, but men who received testosterone reported slightly better mood and lower severity of depressive symptoms than those who received placebo. The rates of adverse events were similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS In symptomatic men 65 years of age or older, raising testosterone concentrations for 1 year from moderately low to the mid-normal range for men 19 to 40 years of age had a moderate benefit with respect to sexual function and some benefit with respect to mood and depressive symptoms but no benefit with respect to vitality or

  19. HIV Knowledge and Beliefs among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Buenos Aires, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Pando, MA; Balan, I; Marone, R; Dolezal, C; Barreda, V; Carballo Dieguez, A; Avila, MM

    2013-01-01

    Five hundred men who have sex with men (MSM), recruited through Respondent Driven Sampling in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were interviewed in order to assess knowledge and beliefs about HIV infection. The mean proportion of HIV correct knowledge answers was 62%; however participants whose sexual partners in the prior year included women (MSM&W) had lower frequencies of correct answers than participants with no women partners. Men with previous HIV testing experience and those who were HIV positive had higher HIV knowledge. In relation to HIV beliefs, less than half of participants responded correctly to each of the scenarios presented. Accurate answers for all items were more likely among those who only have sex with men. Men have basic HIV knowledge but also many misconceptions about transmission and prevention. Furthermore, MSM&W have less information than those who are exclusively MSM, probably related to the fact that information campaigns specifically targeted gay identified men. PMID:23297085

  20. Men's recognition of violence against women and spousal abuse: comparison of three groups of men.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Claire; Fortin, Andrée; Turgeon, Joane; Laporte, Lise

    2007-01-01

    Our goal was to assess whether men in the following three groups differ in their ability to recognize and judge the severity of diverse forms of aggressive behavior: (a) men who reported being physically aggressive toward their spouses and who were entering treatment for domestic violence; (b) men who, after participating in a treatment program, were no longer physically violent; and (c) men who reported never having been physically violent towards their spouses (NPV group-non-physically violent). All 81 men in the study reported being verbally aggressive toward their spouses. Men who had been in treatment for spousal abuse and who had not been physically violent toward their spouses since finishing the program were better able than the other two groups to recognize emotionally abusive behaviors.

  1. "Macho men" and preventive health care: implications for older men in different social classes.

    PubMed

    Springer, Kristen W; Mouzon, Dawne M

    2011-06-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health care is unknown. Using the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, the authors conduct a population-based assessment of masculinity beliefs and preventive health care, including whether these relationships vary by SES. The results show that men with strong masculinity beliefs are half as likely as men with more moderate masculinity beliefs to receive preventive care. Furthermore, in contrast to the well-established SES gradient in health, men with strong masculinity beliefs do not benefit from higher education and their probability of obtaining preventive health care decreases as their occupational status, wealth, and/or income increases. Masculinity may be a partial explanation for the paradox of men's lower life expectancy, despite their higher SES.

  2. Masculinity and health in late life men.

    PubMed

    Tannenbaum, Cara; Frank, Blye

    2011-05-01

    Masculinity is a social construction that defines itself according to context. Older men constitute an unseen minority when it comes to their health, and thus the study of masculinity as it relates to health in older men requires deeper understanding. This article offers insights into how gender, health, and ageing interact for older men and explores how men negotiate the concept of masculinity in later life. The findings from two complementary studies are presented and discussed. The first study, a qualitative analysis of focus group discussions held with 48 community-dwelling older men, indicates that the desire to uphold hegemonic ideals of independence, self-reliance, and imperviousness to pain and illness are embedded in older men's health-related beliefs and behaviors. Ill health and help seeking are often perceived as a threat to the masculine identity, and taking action for health is considered only when health status jeopardizes independence. In the second study, more than 2,000 men aged 55 to 97 years responded to a postal survey on health behaviors and masculinity. Results of the survey indicated that age predicts health behaviors and health care seeking better than scores on a masculinity index, which tended to remain stable regardless of age. Both the qualitative and quantitative findings support the hypothesis that with age men will succeed in incorporating actions into their daily lives in a way that does not conflict with their perceived resilience to frailty and weakness, even if such actions involve seeking help for illness or adopting healthier lifestyle behaviors.

  3. Cardiometabolic Risk in Hyperlipidemic Men and Women

    PubMed Central

    Leutner, Michael; Wielandner, Alice; Howorka, Eleonora; Prünner, Marlies; Bozkurt, Latife; Harreiter, Jürgen; Prosch, Helmut; Schlager, Oliver; Charwat-Resl, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate sex specific differences of metabolic and clinical characteristics of treated hyperlipidemic men and women (HL-men and HL-women). Methods. In this study vascular and metabolic characteristics of 35 HL-women and 64 HL-men were assessed. In addition a sex specific analysis of metabolic and nutritional habits of HL-patients with prediabetes (HL-IGR) was done. Results. HL-women were older and had favourable concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol), triglycerides (TG), and triglyceride/HDL-cholesterol ratio (TG/HDL-ratio) but were also shown to have higher concentrations of lipoprotein-a compared to HL-men. HL-men were characterized as having higher levels of liver-specific parameters and body weight as well as being more physically active compared to HL-women. Brain natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) was higher in HL-women than HL-men, while no differences in metabolic syndrome and glycemic parameters were shown. HL-IGR-women were also older and still had a better profile of sex specific lipid parameters, as well as a lower body weight compared to HL-IGR-men. No differences were seen in vascular parameters such as the intima media thickness (IMT). Conclusion. HL-women were older and had overall more favourable concentrations of lipid parameters and liver enzymes but did not differ regarding vascular morphology and insulin sensitivity compared to HL-men of comparable body mass index (BMI). PMID:27895666

  4. Men targeted for family planning in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Chirambo, K

    1992-08-01

    80% of women using contraception in Zambia use oral contraceptives (OCs), yet they often complain about side effects. 66% of people polled at family planning (FP) clinics prefer OCs and 30% chose condoms. Nevertheless only 10% of the 60% of married couples familiar with FP use contraception. This contributes to Zambia having 1 of the highest annual population growth rates in the world (3.4%). The Planned Parenthood Association of Zambia (PPAZ) thinks that if males become more knowledgeable about FP, the population growth would slow down. At least 60% of men in Zambia approve of their wives using FP, yet they are slow to use male contraception. They say condoms reduce sensation and wives often consider condoms a nuisance. The AIDS epidemic forces men to rethink their views toward condom use, however. Those 30% of men who do use condoms are more likely to use them with their girlfriends or women with whom they are unfamiliar. So they are not using them for FP purposes. Men fear vasectomy because they perceive it to cause impotence. Considerable education to counter this myth is needed to increase the number of vasectomies. Besides some men prefer their wives be sterilized rather than themselves because if the men lose all their children they can have other children with other wives. PPAZ aims programs at men in order to expand their participation and nurture their influence in FP matters. It has a male counseling program serving rural villages along the railroad lines which begin in the northern copper belt and end in urban areas in the south to promote birth spacing. It is working with companies to include FP services in their clinics so men can learn more about FP. FP specialists in Zambia foresee an increase in male support of FP as they realize the difficulty of supporting large families during the economic crises.

  5. "You're in that realm of unpredictability": mateship, loyalty, and men challenging men who use domestic violence against women.

    PubMed

    Towns, Alison J; Terry, Gareth

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on discourse analysis of transcripts from focus group discussions held with 28 "ordinary" men about domestic violence. Two broad "mateship" themes emerged: (a) a strong "mateship" discourse that produced public/private boundaries around discussions about intimate heterosexual relationships. Policed by the threat of violence, these boundaries prevented some men from challenging men about their violence. (b) "Loyalty to mates" discourses constituted attention to men's violence against women as threatening the moral integrity of all men. Finally, some men positioned themselves against men's domestic violence, distinguishing their masculinity from men who abuse women. Implications for prevention campaigns are discussed.

  6. Swiss Experiment: Design, implemention and use of a cross-disciplinary infrastructure for data intensive science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawes, N.; Salehi, A.; Clifton, A.; Bavay, M.; Aberer, K.; Parlange, M. B.; Lehning, M.

    2010-12-01

    It has long been known that environmental processes are cross-disciplinary, but data has continued to be acquired and held for a single purpose. Swiss Experiment is a rapidly evolving cross-disciplinary, distributed sensor data infrastructure, where tools for the environmental science community stem directly from computer science research. The platform uses the bleeding edge of computer science to acquire, store and distribute data and metadata from all environmental science disciplines at a variety of temporal and spatial resolutions. SwissEx is simultaneously developing new technologies to allow low cost, high spatial and temporal resolution measurements such that small areas can be intensely monitored. This data is then combined with existing widespread, low density measurements in the cross-disciplinary platform to provide well documented datasets, which are of use to multiple research disciplines. We present a flexible, generic infrastructure at an advanced stage of development. The infrastructure makes the most of Web 2.0 technologies for a collaborative working environment and as a user interface for a metadata database. This environment is already closely integrated with GSN, an open-source database middleware developed under Swiss Experiment for acquisition and storage of generic time-series data (2D and 3D). GSN can be queried directly by common data processing packages and makes data available in real-time to models and 3rd party software interfaces via its web service interface. It also provides real-time push or pull data exchange between instances, a user management system which leaves data owners in charge of their data, advanced real-time processing and much more. The SwissEx interface is increasingly gaining users and supporting environmental science in Switzerland. It is also an integral part of environmental education projects ClimAtscope and O3E, where the technologies can provide rapid feedback of results for children of all ages and where the

  7. Benefits of an ISO 9001 certification--the case of a Swiss regional hospital.

    PubMed

    Staines, A

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the experience of a quality management project leading to an ISO 9001 certification in a Swiss regional hospital. It describes the motivations for the project, the process that was followed and the benefits of the approach. It also shows its limitations, problems encountered as well as costs and resources involved. The emphasis is on practical issues. Choices that were made are discussed and lessons are drawn.

  8. Analysis of geohazards events along Swiss roads from autumn 2011 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voumard, Jérémie; Jaboyedoff, Michel; Derron, Marc-Henri

    2014-05-01

    In Switzerland, roads and railways are threatened throughout the year by several natural hazards. Some of these events reach transport infrastructure many time per year leading to the closing of transportation corridors, loss of access, deviation travels and sometimes infrastructures damages and loss of human lives (3 fatalities during the period considered). The aim of this inventory of events is to investigate the number of natural events affecting roads and railways in Switzerland since autumn 2011 until now. Natural hazards affecting roads and railway can be classified in five categories: rockfalls, landslides, debris flows, snow avalanches and floods. They potentially cause several important direct damages on transportation infrastructure (roads, railway), vehicles (slightly or very damaged) or human life (slightly or seriously injured person, death). These direct damages can be easily evaluated from press articles or from Swiss police press releases. Indirect damages such as deviation cost are not taken into account in this work. During the two a half last years, about 50 events affecting the Swiss roads and Swiss railways infrastructures were inventoried. The proportion of events due to rockfalls is 45%, to landslides 25%, to debris flows 15%, to snow avalanches 10% and to floods 5%. During this period, three fatalities and two persons were injured while 23 vehicles (car, trains and coach) and 24 roads and railways were damaged. We can see that floods occur mainly on the Swiss Plateau whereas rockfalls, debris flow, snow avalanches and landslides are mostly located in the Alpine area. Most of events occur on secondary mountain roads and railways. The events are well distributed on the whole Alpine area except for the Gotthard hotspot, where an important European North-South motorway (hit in 2003 with two fatalities) and railway (hit three times in 2012 with one fatalities) are more frequently affected. According to the observed events in border regions of

  9. Swiss biotech--an overview of the industry and the key stakeholders 2010.

    PubMed

    Alexakis, Domenico P

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the stakeholders of the Swiss Biotechnology sector. From academia to industry, from TechTransfer initiatives to state impulse programs, the sector has developed rapidly in the last years. Public Private Partnerships such as Life Science Clusters and collaborations between industry associations have proven to be an essential part for sustainable success for our national GDP. The author has extensive experience in the various sub-sectors.

  10. The inequity of the Swiss health care system financing from a federal state perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Previous studies have shown that Swiss health-care financing is particularly regressive. However, as it has been emphasized in the 2011 OECD Review of the Swiss Health System, the inter cantonal variations of income-related inequities are still broadly unexplored. The present paper aims to fill this gap by analyzing the differences in the level of equity of health-care system financing across cantons and its evolution over time using household data. Methods Following the methodology proposed by Wagstaff et al. (JHE 11:361–387, 1992) we use the Kakwani index as a summary measure of regressivity and we compute it for each canton and for each of the sources that have a role in financing the health care system. We graphed concentration curves and performed relative dominance tests, which utilize the full distribution of expenditures. The microdata come from the Swiss Household Income and Expenditure Survey (SHIES) based on a sample of the Swiss population (about 3500 households per year), for the years 1998 - 2005. Results The empirical evidence confirms that the health-care financing in Switzerland has remained regressive since the major reform of 1996 and shows that the variations in equity across cantons are quite significant: the difference between the most and the least regressive canton is about the same as between two extremely different financing systems like the US and Sweden. There is no evidence, instead, of a clear evolution over time of regressivity. Conclusions The significant variation in equity across cantons can be explained by fiscal federalism and the related autonomy in the design of tax and social policies. In particular, the results highlight that earmarked subsidies, the policy adopted to smooth the regressivity of the premiums, appear to be not enough; in the practice of federal states the combination of allowances with mandatory community-rated health insurance premiums might lead to a modest outcome in terms of equity. PMID

  11. NTN Swiss Biotech - A Look at Support Measures for Dynamic Start-ups.

    PubMed

    Heinzelmann, Elsbeth

    2016-01-01

    The Swiss biotech landscape seems to be on a healthy footing: There are many imaginative start-ups, we have first-class hospitals, highly advanced clinical research and the availability of a great deal of capital. But we have no reason to rest on our laurels as countries like the USA lead the field. We must lay down the tracks today to remain an attractive country and maintain our ranking among the 10 best locations.

  12. Men's changing social roles in the 1990s: emerging issues in the psychiatric treatment of men.

    PubMed

    Dickstein, L J; Stein, T S; Pleck, J H; Myers, M F; Lewis, R A; Duncan, S F; Brod, H

    1991-07-01

    In the last two decades, men's social roles have changed to incorporate the increasing time they spend with their families, their greater concern about adult children's leaving or returning home, and alternative sexual preferences and life-styles. One related development is the increased amounts of psychiatric distress reported by men in recent years. Mental health professionals should be familiar with these and other complex issues specific to men and with how such issues might manifest themselves in psychotherapy.

  13. Osteoporosis in men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism

    SciTech Connect

    Finkelstein, J.S.; Klibanski, A.; Neer, R.M.; Greenspan, S.L.; Rosenthal, D.I.; Crowley, W.F. Jr.

    1987-03-01

    To assess the effect of testosterone deficiency on skeletal integrity in men, we determined bone density in 23 hypogonadal men with isolated gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency and compared those values with ones from controls. Cortical bone density, as assessed by single-photon absorptiometry of the nondominant radius, ranged from 0.57 to 0.86 g/cm2 (mean +/- SE, 0.71 +/- 0.02) in patients with fused epiphyses and from 0.57 to 0.67 g/cm2 (mean, 0.61 +/- 0.01) in patients with open epiphyses, both of which were significantly (p less than 0.001) lower than normal. Spinal trabecular bone density, as assessed by computed tomography, was similarly decreased (p less than 0.0001) and ranged from 42 to 177 mg K2HPO4/cm3 (mean, 112 +/- 7). Cortical bone density was at least 2 SD below normal in 16 of 23 men, and 8 men had spinal bone densities below the fracture threshold of 80 to 100 mg K2HPO4/cm3. Osteopenia was equally severe in men with immature and mature bone ages, suggesting that abnormal bone development plays an important role in the osteopenia of men with idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

  14. Moderators of Sexual Behavior in Gay Men

    PubMed Central

    Roloff, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    We investigated factors that might moderate the association between sexual behavior desires and sexual behavior enactments in gay men. Condom eschewal, number of STIs, HIV serostatus, age, and relationship status were each hypothesized to moderate this association. An Internet survey collected data from 219 self-identifying gay men. Results indicated that sexual behavior desires and enactments were highly correlated, and of the five moderators tested, four varied this association. Condom eschewers had a stronger association between desires and enactments than condom users. Gay men with fewer STIs/STDs (excluding HIV) also had a stronger association between the two variables. HIV serostatus did not exclusively moderate the association. Rather, a three-way interaction was produced such that HIV-positive men with STIs had a stronger association between sexual behavior desires and enactments than HIV-negative men with STIs. Finally, gay men in monogamous relationships were least likely to have their desires associated with enactments. Age was not found to be a significant moderator. Overall, we concluded the moderators representing sexual health and sexual health behaviors were most influential over the enactment of sexual behavior desires. PMID:18719988

  15. Evaluation of Impotence in Older Men

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Susan Stanik; Viosca, Sharon P.; Guralnik, Mordechai; Windsor, Clara; Mehta, Arun J.; Korenman, Stanley G.; Buttiglieri, Matthew W.; Baker, J. Dennis

    1985-01-01

    Careful evaluation was carried out in 93 men older than 50 with erectile dysfunction. Their mean age was 61 years and the disorder had been present for a mean of 4.5 years. While 14 men (15%) had psychosocial factors that may have been pertinent, only 2 scored poorly on an Affect Balance Scale and 3 were receiving psychoactive medications. Results of nocturnal penile tumescence were abnormal in 91%. In 39% penile-brachial pressure indices were suggestive of pelvic vascular disease and in 9% were consistent with a pelvic “steal syndrome.” Pelvic or peripheral nerve conduction disorders were also commonly seen in 54%. Endocrinopathy may have contributed to the dysfunction in 35%. Twenty-one men had diabetes mellitus, two new cases of hypothyroidism were discovered and hypogonadism was diagnosed definitely in four and considered likely in five others. Coexisting medical conditions were found in more than 90% of the men, especially hypertension, use of antihypertensive medications and atherosclerotic disease. Previous prostatectomies (19%) and vasectomies (30%) were common in the surgical histories. Given the wide range of disorders uncovered in older men complaining of impotence, diagnostic study of potential causes may lead to a more rational approach for the evaluation and management of these men. PMID:4013264

  16. Cigarette smoking and leukocyte subpopulations in men.

    PubMed

    Freedman, D S; Flanders, W D; Barboriak, J J; Malarcher, A M; Gates, L

    1996-07-01

    Because of previously reported associations among the total leukocyte count, cigarette smoking, and risk of cardiovascular disease, we examined the relation of cigarette smoking to various leukocyte subpopulations among 3467 men aged 31 to 45 years. The median total leukocyte count was 36% higher (7840 vs. 5760 cells/mL) among current cigarette smokers than among men who had never smoked, and both stratification and regression analyses were used to examine independent associations with leukocyte subpopulations. At equivalent counts of other subpopulations, CD4+ lymphocytes and neutrophils were the cell types most strongly associated with cigarette smoking; each standard deviation change in counts of these subpopulations increased the odds of current (vs. never) smoking by approximately threefold. Furthermore, whereas 15% of the 238 men with relatively low (< 25 percentile) counts of both neutrophils and CD4+ lymphocytes were cigarette smokers, 96% of the 249 men with relatively high counts of both subpopulations were current smokers. Counts of T lymphocytes also tended to be higher among the 32 men with self-reported ischemic heart disease than among other men. These results, along with previous reports of immunologically active T lymphocytes in atherosclerotic plaques, suggest that this subpopulation may be of particular interest in studies examining the relation of leukocytes to cardiovascular disease.

  17. Eugenics, politics and the state: social democracy and the Swiss 'gardening state'.

    PubMed

    Mottier, Véronique

    2008-06-01

    This article explores the connections between eugenics, politics and the state, taking the Swiss case as a particular focus. It is argued that Switzerland provides a historical example of what Bauman [Bauman, Z. (1989). Modernity and the Holocaust. Cambridge: Polity Press.] describes as 'gardening states': states that are concerned with eliminating the 'bad weeds' from the national garden and thereby constructing sharply exclusionary national identities. The Swiss experiments with eugenics (1920s-1960s) can be seen as an example of an ongoing struggle against 'difference'. Against this backdrop I will examine, first, the ways in which state regulation of reproductive sexuality, and other eugenic measures, became central mechanisms for dealing with cultural and other 'differences' in the Swiss nation. Second, I will analyse the gendered nature of such mechanisms, as well as the preoccupation with racial 'difference' exemplified by eugenic policies towards 'Gypsies'. To conclude, I will examine the impact of political institutions and political ideology, in particular, social democracy, on these eugenic gardening efforts.

  18. Bayesian segregation analysis of milk flow in Swiss dairy cattle using Gibbs sampling

    PubMed Central

    Ilahi, Houcine; Kadarmideen, Haja N

    2004-01-01

    Segregation analyses with Gibbs sampling were applied to investigate the mode of inheritance and to estimate the genetic parameters of milk flow of Swiss dairy cattle. The data consisted of 204 397, 655 989 and 40 242 lactation records of milk flow in Brown Swiss, Simmental and Holstein cattle, respectively (4 to 22 years). Separate genetic analyses of first and multiple lactations were carried out for each breed. The results show that genetic parameters especially polygenic variance and heritability of milk flow in the first lactation were very similar under both mixed inheritance (polygenes + major gene) and polygenic models. Segregation analyses yielded very low major gene variances which favour the polygenic determinism of milk flow. Heritabilities and repeatabilities of milk flow in both Brown Swiss and Simmental were high (0.44 to 0.48 and 0.54 to 0.59, respectively). The heritability of milk flow based on scores of milking ability in Holstein was intermediate (0.25). Variance components and heritabilities in the first lactation were slightly larger than those estimates for multiple lactations. The results suggest that milk flow (the quantity of milk per minute of milking) is a relevant measurement to characterise the cows milking ability which is a good candidate trait to be evaluated for a possible inclusion in the selection objectives in dairy cattle. PMID:15339633

  19. Some Mars South Polar Swiss CheeseTerrain has Warm Walls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titus, T. N.; Cushing, G.; Pathare, A. V.; Christensen, P. R.

    2004-12-01

    Much of the surface of the Mars south polar residual cap (SPRC) consists of quasi-circular depressions with steep walls that have been named "Swiss Cheese" terrain. High-resolution Mars Observer Camera (MOC) images have shown that the "Swiss Cheese" mesas, consisting of CO2 ice, are retreating on the order of 1-4 meters per martian year. Many of these "Swiss Cheese" mesas are surrounded by dark moats that appear warm in mid summer Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) IR images. These warm moats are thought to be the exposed substrate of the underlying water ice rich polar layered deposits. In addition to the thermal signatures from the warm moats, THEMIS also detects a thermal signature from the walls of some of these mesas. By combining THEMIS IR and VIS imaging, we are able to spectrally deconvolve warm and cold temperatures at a higher spatial resolution than the nominal THEMIS resolution of 100m/pix. We take into account that each THEMIS band has a slightly offset footprint from the other bands and assume that the thermal signature is coming from the darkest regions identified by the THEMIS VIS image. Preliminary analysis of one of these warm walled mesas suggests the wall consists of a low thermal inertia dust lag, which would have significant implications for the volatile content and evolution of the SPRC.

  20. A proposal for refining the forced swim test in Swiss mice.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ana Paula Ramos; Vieira, Cintia; Bohner, Lauren O L; Silva, Cristiane Felisbino; Santos, Evelyn Cristina da Silva; De Lima, Thereza Christina Monteiro; Lino-de-Oliveira, Cilene

    2013-08-01

    The forced swim test (FST) is a preclinical test to the screening of antidepressants based on rats or mice behaviours, which is also sensitive to stimulants of motor activity. This work standardised and validated a method to register the active and passive behaviours of Swiss mice during the FST in order to strength the specificity of the test. Adult male Swiss mice were subjected to the FST for 6 min without any treatment or after intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 ml/10 g), antidepressants (imipramine, desipramine, or fluoxetine, 30 mg/kg) or stimulants (caffeine, 30 mg/kg or apomorphine, 10mg/kg). The latency, frequency and duration of behaviours (immobility, swimming, and climbing) were scored and summarised in bins of 6, 4, 2 or 1 min. Parameters were first analysed using Principal Components Analysis generating components putatively related to antidepressant (first and second) or to stimulant effects (third). Antidepressants and stimulants affected similarly the parameters grouped into all components. Effects of stimulants on climbing were better distinguished of antidepressants when analysed during the last 4 min of the FST. Surprisingly, the effects of antidepressants on immobility were better distinguished from saline when parameters were scored in the first 2 min. The method proposed here is able to distinguish antidepressants from stimulants of motor activity using Swiss mice in the FST. This refinement should reduce the number of mice used in preclinical evaluation of antidepressants.

  1. Psychological violence experienced by men who have sex with men in Puducherry, India: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Elouard, Yajna; Essén, Birgitta

    2013-01-01

    Men who have sex with men are a hidden population in India. This study explores the psychological violence such men are exposed to in Puducherry, India. Eleven in-depth interviews probe experiences of blackmail, discrimination, and rejection. Some informants modified their behaviors or appearances to avoid harassment and safeguard their families' reputations. Others told how Indian men accepted their behaviors, but rejected their identities. Social pressure to marry was also a recurring theme. Understanding the factors behind these violent experiences may facilitate their amelioration.

  2. Men's talk: men's understandings of violence against women and motivations for change.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Nicky; Fell, Benedict; Miller, Pam; Thomson, Gill; Watson, John

    2012-11-01

    This article reports research undertaken to inform a social marketing campaign targeting men's violence toward women in a city in northern England. Eighty-four men drawn from community groups participated in 15 focus groups. Participants struggled with wider definitions of domestic abuse and resisted depictions of men as wholly responsible for domestic violence. The potential loss of the relationship with children and, to a lesser degree, the relationship with their partner were identified as powerful incentives for changing abusive behavior. Men were particularly affected by the prospect of damage to their own self-image that children's perceptions of their fathers' violence conveyed.

  3. The Swiss Multiple Sclerosis Cohort-Study (SMSC): A Prospective Swiss Wide Investigation of Key Phases in Disease Evolution and New Treatment Options.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Giulio; Benkert, Pascal; Lorscheider, Johannes; Mueller, Stefanie; Vehoff, Jochen; Zecca, Chiara; Ramseier, Simon; Achtnichts, Lutz; Findling, Oliver; Nedeltchev, Krassen; Radue, Ernst-Wilhelm; Sprenger, Till; Stippich, Christoph; Derfuss, Tobias; Louvion, Jean-François; Kamm, Christian P; Mattle, Heinrich P; Lotter, Christoph; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Schluep, Myriam; Pot, Caroline; Lalive, Patrice H; Yaldizli, Özgür; Gobbi, Claudio; Kappos, Ludwig; Kuhle, Jens

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms leading to disability and the long-term efficacy and safety of disease modifying drugs (DMDs) in multiple sclerosis (MS) are unclear. We aimed at building a prospective cohort of MS patients with standardized collection of demographic, clinical, MRI data and body fluids that can be used to develop prognostic indicators and biomarkers of disease evolution and therapeutic response. The Swiss MS Cohort (SMSC) is a prospective observational study performed across seven Swiss MS centers including patients with MS, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), radiologically isolated syndrome or neuromyelitis optica. Neurological and radiological assessments and biological samples are collected every 6-12 months. We recruited 872 patients (clinically isolated syndrome [CIS] 5.5%, relapsing-remitting MS [RRMS] 85.8%, primary progressive MS [PPMS] 3.5%, secondary progressive MS [SPMS] 5.2%) between June 2012 and July 2015. We performed 2,286 visits (median follow-up 398 days) and collected 2,274 serum, plasma and blood samples, 152 cerebrospinal fluid samples and 1,276 brain MRI scans. 158 relapses occurred and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores increased in PPMS, SPMS and RRMS patients experiencing relapses. Most RRMS patients were treated with fingolimod (33.4%), natalizumab (24.5%) or injectable DMDs (13.6%). The SMSC will provide relevant information regarding DMDs efficacy and safety and will serve as a comprehensive infrastructure available for nested research projects.

  4. Do acute myocardial infarction and stroke mortality vary by distance to hospitals in Switzerland? Results from the Swiss National Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Zwahlen, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Objective Switzerland has mountains and valleys complicating the access to a hospital and critical care in case of emergencies. Treatment success for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) or stroke depends on timely treatment. We examined the relationship between distance to different hospital types and mortality from AMI or stroke in the Swiss National Cohort (SNC) Study. Design and setting The SNC is a longitudinal mortality study of the census 2000 population of Switzerland. For 4.5 million Swiss residents not living in a nursing home and older than 30 years in the year 2000, we calculated driving time and straight-line distance from their home to the nearest acute, acute with emergency room, central and university hospital (in total 173 hospitals). On the basis of quintiles, we used multivariable Cox proportional hazard models to estimate HRs of AMI and stroke mortality for driving time distance groups compared to the closest distance group. Results Over 8 years, 19 301 AMI and 21 931 stroke deaths occurred. Mean driving time to the nearest acute hospital was 6.5 min (29.7 min to a university hospital). For AMI mortality, driving time to a university hospital showed the strongest association among the four types of hospitals with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.19 (95% CI 1.10 to 1.30) and 1.10 (95% CI 1.01 to 1.20) for men and women aged 65+ years when comparing the highest quintile with the lowest quintile of driving time. For stroke mortality, the association with university hospital driving time was less pronounced than for AMI mortality and did not show a clear incremental pattern with increasing driving time. There was no association with driving time to the nearest hospital. Conclusions The increasing AMI mortality with increasing driving time to the nearest university hospital but not to any nearest hospital reflects a complex interplay of many factors along the care pathway. PMID:27803109

  5. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers.

    PubMed

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O'Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) - a proposed marker of biological age - in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η(2) = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: -0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with BTL

  6. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Adverse Childhood Events, and Buccal Cell Telomere Length in Elderly Swiss Former Indentured Child Laborers

    PubMed Central

    Küffer, Andreas Lorenz; O’Donovan, Aoife; Burri, Andrea; Maercker, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with increased risk for age-related diseases and early mortality. Accelerated biological aging could contribute to this elevated risk. The aim of the present study was to assess buccal cell telomere length (BTL) – a proposed marker of biological age – in men and women with and without PTSD. The role of childhood trauma was assessed as a potential additional risk factor for shorter telomere length. The sample included 62 former indentured Swiss child laborers (age: M = 76.19, SD = 6.18) and 58 healthy controls (age: M = 71.85, SD = 5.97). Structured clinical interviews were conducted to screen for PTSD and other psychiatric disorders. The Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) was used to assess childhood trauma exposure. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was used to measure BTL. Covariates include age, sex, years of education, self-evaluated financial situation, depression, and mental and physical functioning. Forty-eight (77.42%) of the former indentured child laborers screened positive for childhood trauma, and 21 (33.87%) had partial or full-blown PTSD. Results did not support our hypotheses that PTSD and childhood trauma would be associated with shorter BTL. In fact, results revealed a trend toward longer BTL in participants with partial or full PTSD [F(2,109) = 3.27, p = 0.04, η2 = 0.06], and longer BTL was marginally associated with higher CTQ scores (age adjusted: β = 0.17 [95% CI: −0.01 to 0.35], t = 1.90, p = 0.06). Furthermore, within-group analyses indicated no significant association between BTL and CTQ scores. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study exploring the association between childhood trauma and BTL in older individuals with and without PTSD. Contrary to predictions, there were no significant differences in BTL between participants with and without PTSD in our adjusted analyses, and childhood adversity was not associated with

  7. The Association between Penis Size and Sexual Health among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Grov, Christian; Parsons, Jeffrey T.; Bimbi, David S.

    2010-01-01

    Larger penis size has been equated with a symbol of power, stamina, masculinity, and social status. Yet, there has been little research among men who have sex with men assessing the association between penis size and social-sexual health. Survey data from a diverse sample of 1,065 men who have sex with men were used to explore the association between perceived penis size and a variety of psychosocial outcomes. Seven percent of men felt their penis was “below average,” 53.9% “average,” and 35.5% “above average.” Penis size was positively related to satisfaction with size and inversely related to lying about penis size (all p < .01). Size was unrelated to condom use, frequency of sex partners, HIV status, or recent diagnoses of HBV, HCV, gonorrhea/Chlamydia/urinary tract infections, and syphilis. Men with above average penises were more likely to report HPV and HSV-2 (Fisher’s exact p ≤ .05). Men with below average penises were significantly more likely to identify as “bottoms” (anal receptive) and men with above average penises were significantly more likely to identify as tops (anal insertive). Finally, men with below average penises fared significantly worse than other men on three measures of psychosocial adjustment. Though most men felt their penis size was average, many fell outside this “norm.” The disproportionate number of viral skin-to-skin STIs (HSV-2 and HPV) suggest size may play a role in condom slippage/breakage. Further, size played a significant role in sexual positioning and psychosocial adjustment. These data highlight the need to better understand the real individual-level consequences of living in a penis-centered society. PMID:19139986

  8. A central repository for gridded data in the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grueter, E.

    2010-09-01

    The significance of gridded data in meteorology and climatology has increased remarkably over the last years. New products of observing systems such as radars, improved interpolation techniques, spatial analyses or modeling procedures have already led to a proliferated amount of available grid data within the meteorological and climatological community. Since these products are generated by different systems the format in which they are delivered can vary quite much. To facilitate the combined use of different gridded data sets (f. ex. rain accumulation based on radar data and interpolated rainfall based on observations) MeteoSwiss decided to incorporate them in one central data repository. It's been the strategy of MeteoSwiss over the last ten years to store and manage all of its data in a single central data platform - the MeteoSwiss Data Warehouse - which is completely metadata driven. After the integration of all kind of historical and current surface data the system was extended in 2009 to store different types of upper air data. The last release of this Data Warehouse project focuses on grid data to complete MeteoSwiss' data integration strategy. This release comprises both the storage of different types of gridded datasets being delivered in various data formats into one single grid database and its data management. Here from datasets, which have originally been created in different data formats (f. ex. gif and netCDF), can be exported in whatever format is supported by the system. This procedure facilitates to a great extent the combined analyses of grid data originating in different data sources. Additionally interfaces to other software packages such as R allow direct access to the grid database. Web applications are implemented to allow users to carry out predefined spatial analyses such as spatial aggregation for a user specified extent of the dataset. After evaluating different solutions MeteoSwiss decided to implement its system using existing GIS

  9. Estimation of Swiss methane emissions by near surface observations and inverse modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henne, Stephan; Brian, Oney; Leuenberger, Markus; Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Steinbacher, Martin; Meinhardt, Frank; Brunner, Dominik

    2015-04-01

    On a global scale methane (CH4) is the second most important long-lived greenhouse gas. It is released from both natural and anthropogenic processes and its atmospheric burden has more than doubled since preindustrial times. Current CH4 emission estimates are associated with comparatively large uncertainties both globally and regionally. For example, the Swiss national greenhouse gas inventory assigns an uncertainty of 18% to the country total anthropogenic CH4 emissions as compared to only 3% for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. In Switzerland, CH4 is thought to be mainly released by agricultural activities (ruminants and manure management >80%), while natural emissions from wetlands and wild animals represent a minor source (~3 %). The country total and especially the spatial distribution of CH4 emission within Switzerland strongly differs between the national and different European scale inventories. To validate the 'bottom-up' Swiss CH4 emission estimate and to reduce its uncertainty both in total and spatially, 'top-down' methods combining atmospheric CH4 observations and regional scale transport simulations can be used. Here, we analyse continuous, near surface observations of CH4 concentrations as collected within the newly established CarboCountCH measurement network (http://www.carbocount.ch). The network consists of 4 sites situated on the Swiss Plateau, comprising a tall tower site (217 m), two elevated (mountaintop) sites and a small tower site (32 m) in flat terrain. In addition, continuous CH4 observations from the nearby high-altitude site Jungfraujoch (Alps) and the mountaintop site Schauinsland (Germany) were used. Two inversion frameworks were applied to the CH4 observations in combination with source sensitivities (footprints) calculated with the regional scale version of the Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model FLEXPART. One inversion system was based on a Bayesian framework, while the other utilized an extended Kalman filter approach. The transport

  10. Thermal maps of young women and men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chudecka, Monika; Lubkowska, Anna

    2015-03-01

    The objective was to use thermal imaging (ThermaCAM SC500) as an effective tool in establishing a thermal map of young participants, with a high diagnostic value for medicine, physiotherapy and sport. A further aim was to establish temperature distributions and ranges on the body surface of the young women and men as standard temperatures for the examined age group, taking into account BMI, body surface area and selected parameters of body fat distribution. The participants included young, healthy and physically active women (n = 100) and men (n = 100). In the women and men, the highest Tmean temperatures were found on the trunk. The warmest were the chest and upper back, then the lower back and abdomen. The lowest Tmean were found in the distal parts of the body, especially on the lower limbs. The results showed that only in the area of the chest was Tmean significantly higher in women than in men. In the areas of the hands (front and back) Tmean were similar for women and men. In the other analyzed body surface areas, Tmean were significantly lower in women. Research showed significant differences in body surface temperature between the women and men. Among the analyzed characteristics, Tmean in the chest, upper back, abdomen, lower back (both in women and men) were mainly correlated with BMI and PBF; the correlations were negative. Difficulties in interpreting changes in temperature in selected body areas in people with various conditions can be associated with the lack of studies on large and representative populations of healthy individuals with normal weight/height parameters. Therefore, it seems that this presented research is a significant practical and cognitive contribution to knowledge on thermoregulation, and may therefore be used as a reference for other studies using thermal imaging in the evaluation of changes in body surface temperatures.

  11. Teaching Men's Anal Pleasure: Challenging Gender Norms with "Prostage" Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branfman, Jonathan; Ekberg Stiritz, Susan

    2012-01-01

    To help students critique sex/gender norms, sexuality educators should address men's anal pleasure. Men's anal receptivity blurs accepted binaries like male/female, masculine/feminine, and straight/queer. By suppressing men's receptivity, the taboo against men's anal pleasure helps legitimize hegemonic sex/gender beliefs--and the sexism,…

  12. Men as Victims: "Victim" Identities, Gay Identities, and Masculinities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The impact and meanings of homophobic violence on gay men's identities are explored with a particular focus on their identities as men and as gay men. Homosexuality can pose a challenge to conventional masculinities, and for some gay men, being victimized on account of sexual orientation reawakens conflicts about their masculinity that they…

  13. Gay Men: Negotiating Procreative, Father, and Family Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkowitz, Dana; Marsiglio, William

    2007-01-01

    Our qualitative study examines the social psychology of gay men's experiences with their procreative, father, and family identities. In-depth interviews were conducted with 19 childless gay men and 20 gay men in the United States who have fathered using diverse means excluding heterosexual intercourse. By focusing on men aged 19-55 residing…

  14. Sexual and Intimacy Issues for Aging Gay Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pope, Mark; Wierzalis, Edward A.; Barret, Bob; Rankins, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The authors focus on the special issues involved in providing counseling to aging gay men regarding sex and intimacy. Although the stresses of aging experienced by gay men are similar to those of heterosexual men, older gay men face issues of a stigmatized sexual orientation, invisibility, negative stereotypes, and discrimination regarding aging.

  15. Reasons for Alcohol Use in Maritally Violent Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Ronald W.; And Others

    Alcohol consumption is often associated with aggressive behaviors. This study compared the contexts and reasons for drinking of maritally violent men (N=44) and three maritally nonviolent comparison groups: happily married men (N=54), unhappily married men (N=41), and men who had been convicted of a violent offense, but who did not beat their…

  16. Marriage, parenting, and testosterone variation among Kenyan Swahili men.

    PubMed

    Gray, Peter B

    2003-11-01

    Male variation in testosterone (T) levels may, in part, reflect a differential behavioral allocation to mating and parenting effort. This research tests whether demographic indicators of pair bonding and parenting were associated with salivary T levels among Kenyan Swahili men. Men in the sample were either unmarried (N = 17), monogamously married (N = 57), or polygynously married (N = 14), and between ages 29-52. In contrast with earlier findings among North American men, monogamously married men did not have lower T levels than unmarried men. However, among all married men, men with younger genetic children tended to have marginally lower T levels. Polygynously married men, all of whom had two wives, had higher T levels than all other Swahili men. Possible explanations of higher T levels among polygynously married men are explored.

  17. Space: The New Frontier in HIV Prevention for Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easton, Delia; Iverson, Ellen; Cribbin, Melissa; Wilson, Erin; Weiss, George

    2007-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (MSM) in urban areas of the United States continue to be vulnerable to HIV infection. Qualitative data collected with participants in a community level HIV intervention in West Hollywood and Orange County, California, suggest that space--both actual physical space and the concept of having space--should be an…

  18. HPV Vaccine Decision-Making among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheldon, Christopher W.; Daley, Ellen M.; Buhi, Eric R.; Baldwin, Julie A.; Nyitray, Alan G.; Giuliano, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination is recommended for all men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA until the age of 26 years. Despite this recommendation, vaccine uptake remains low. The purpose of this study was to (1) describe salient beliefs related to HPV vaccination among young MSM; (2) determine factors that underlie these…

  19. Men who have sex with men's sexual relations with women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sharful Islam; Hudson-Rodd, Nancy; Saggers, Sherry; Bhuiya, Abbas

    2005-03-01

    Studies of men who have sex with men in South Asian countries including Bangladesh have tended to focus mainly on measuring male-to-male sexual risk behaviours, with less attention being given to understanding the nature and meaning of their sexual relations with women. This can result in missed opportunities for HIV/AIDS-related intervention. This paper, based on a small scale qualitative study, attempts to develop a cultural model to understand men who have sex with men's sexual relations with women within a gender and masculinity framework. Findings reveal that in Bangladesh men who have sex with men frequently surrender to societal pressures to marry, become husbands and shoulder fatherhood. This forces some women to become the silent sufferers of some of the negative consequences of hetero-normative patriarchal practice. Importantly, however, men who have sex with men consider sex with women a form of real sex within a framework of masculine sexual potency irrespective of preference, desire or eroticism. Thus, challenges exist to undertaking sexual health promotion and HIV/AIDS prevention in culturally sensitive ways.

  20. "Macho Men" and Preventive Health Care: Implications for Older Men in Different Social Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Kristen W.; Mouzon, Dawne M.

    2011-01-01

    The gender paradox in mortality--where men die earlier than women despite having more socioeconomic resources--may be partly explained by men's lower levels of preventive health care. Stereotypical notions of masculinity reduce preventive health care; however, the relationship between masculinity, socioeconomic status (SES), and preventive health…

  1. Correlates of unprotected anal sex among men who have sex with men in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although men who have sex with men (MSM) are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS in Mexico, data on current risk behaviors in this population are lacking. This study investigated the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse (UAI) in a sample of 260 MSM in Tijuana, Mexico. Methods In June 2010, men attending a gay pride celebration were invited to complete a sexual risk survey. Men who reported UAI with a male partner in the past year were compared with men who reported only protected anal sex during the same period. Results Mean age of participants was 29.7; 54% had a high school diploma or less; and 43% were unemployed. In the past year, 55% had been tested for HIV, 21% reported using illicit drugs before or during sex, and 94% had sex only with men. Overall, 50% reported having UAI with another male in the past year. Factors independently associated with UAI in the past year were unemployment (AOR = 1.87), attending adult movie theaters (AOR = 2.21), using illicit drugs before or during sex (AOR = 2.43), and not having a recent HIV test (AOR = 1.85). Conclusions Interventions to promote HIV testing and condom use among men who have sex with men may want to consider venue-specific approaches, as well as focus on drug-use issues in the context of unsafe sex. PMID:22694837

  2. HIV Testing among Men Who Have Sex with Men (MSM): Systematic Review of Qualitative Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenc, Theo; Marrero-Guillamon, Isaac; Llewellyn, Alexis; Aggleton, Peter; Cooper, Chris; Lehmann, Angela; Lindsay, Catriona

    2011-01-01

    We conducted a systematic review of qualitative evidence relating to the views and attitudes of men who have sex with men (MSM) concerning testing for HIV. Studies conducted in high-income countries (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development members) since 1996 were included. Seventeen studies were identified, most of gay or bisexual…

  3. Methamphetamine Treatment Issues and Considerations among Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodrich, Kristopher M.

    2011-01-01

    Methamphetamine use is epidemic among men who have sex with men (MSM), but treatment has lagged for this group. The author reviews literature concerning use, individual effects of the drug, and treatment for MSM and discusses implications for counselor training, future practice, and research.

  4. Increase in Sexually Transmitted Infections among Men Who Have Sex with Men, England, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Holly; Sile, Bersabeh; Duffell, Stephen; Nardone, Anthony; Hughes, Gwenda

    2016-01-01

    Surveillance data from sexual health clinics indicate recent increases in sexually transmitted infections, particularly among men who have sex with men. The largest annual increase in syphilis diagnoses in a decade was reported in 2014. Less condom use may be the primary reason for these increases. PMID:26689861

  5. Community and Individual Factors Associated with Cigarette Smoking among Young Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Ian W.; Traube, Dorian E.; Rice, Eric; Schrager, Sheree M.; Palinkas, Lawrence A.; Richardson, Jean; Kipke, Michele D.

    2012-01-01

    Young men who have sex with men (YMSM) have higher rates of cigarette smoking than their heterosexual counterparts, yet few studies have examined factors associated with cigarette smoking among YMSM. The present study sought to understand how different types of gay community connection (i.e., gay community identification and involvement, gay bar…

  6. Exploring Sexual Health among Young Black Men Who Have Sex with Men in New York City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martos, A. J.; Valera, P.; Bockting, W. O.; Wilson, P. A.

    2016-01-01

    Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) account for approximately 10% of the total HIV infection in the United States but represent <1% of the population. Few interventions exist that address their unique needs, and those that do adopt a narrow, risk-based framework for prevention. Qualitative data from the Brothers Connect Study were…

  7. Ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei among men who have sex with men, Canada, 2010.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Ratnayake, Ruwan; Pilon, Pierre A; Gagnon, Simon; Roger, Michel; Lévesque, Simon

    2011-09-01

    In 2010, we observed isolates with matching pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns from 13 cases of ciprofloxacin-resistant Shigella sonnei in Montréal. We report on the emergence of this resistance type and a study of resistance mechanisms. The investigation suggested local transmission among men who have sex with men associated with sex venues.

  8. Campylobacter coli outbreak in men who have sex with men, Quebec, Canada, 2010-2011.

    PubMed

    Gaudreau, Christiane; Helferty, Melissa; Sylvestre, Jean-Loup; Allard, Robert; Pilon, Pierre A; Poisson, Michel; Bekal, Sadjia

    2013-05-01

    During September 2010-November 2011, a cluster of erythromycin-susceptible, tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli pulsovar 1 infections was documented, involving 10 case-patients, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The findings suggested sexual transmission of an enteric infection among men who have sex with men.

  9. Working towards Men's Health: Findings from the Sefton Men's Health Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Mark; Robertson, Steve; McCullagh, Jo; Hacking, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate a health improvement initiative aimed at enhancing the health of men in deprived areas. Design: A healthy lifestyle programme was undertaken with men to increase their health knowledge, and encourage behaviour modification and access to health improvement services. A peer mentoring programme was implemented and a training…

  10. Two Cases of Neisseria meningitidis Proctitis in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez-Fernandez, José; Medina, Verónica; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen; Abad, Raquel

    2017-03-01

    We report 2 cases from Spain of infectious proctitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Genetic characterization of the isolates showed that they are unusual strains not found in other more frequent meningococcal locations. This finding suggests an association between specific strains and anogenital tract colonization.

  11. Prevalence Estimates of Health Risk Behaviors of Immigrant Latino Men Who Have Sex with Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Scott D.; McCoy, Thomas P.; Hergenrather, Kenneth C.; Vissman, Aaron T.; Wolfson, Mark; Alonzo, Jorge; Bloom, Fred R.; Alegria-Ortega, Jose; Eng, Eugenia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Little is known about the health status of rural immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). These MSM comprise a subpopulation that tends to remain "hidden" from both researchers and practitioners. This study was designed to estimate the prevalence of tobacco, alcohol, and drug use, and sexual risk behaviors of Latino MSM…

  12. Two Cases of Neisseria meningitidis Proctitis in HIV-Positive Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Fernandez, José; Medina, Verónica; Hidalgo-Tenorio, Carmen

    2017-01-01

    We report 2 cases from Spain of infectious proctitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis in HIV-positive men who have sex with men. Genetic characterization of the isolates showed that they are unusual strains not found in other more frequent meningococcal locations. This finding suggests an association between specific strains and anogenital tract colonization. PMID:28221124

  13. Correlates of African American Men's Sexual Schemas

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Dawn A.; Coyne-Beasley, Tamera; St. Lawrence, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Sexual schemas are cognitive representations of oneself as a sexual being and aid in the processing of sexually relevant information. We examined the relationship between sociosexuality (attitudes about casual sex), masculine ideology (attitudes toward traditional men and male roles), and cultural centrality (strength of identity with racial group) as significant psychosocial and sociocultural predictors in shaping young, heterosexual African American men's sexual schemas. A community sample (n=133) of men in a southeastern city of the United States completed quantitative self-report measures examining their attitudes and behavior related to casual sex, beliefs about masculinity, racial and cultural identity, and self-views of various sexual aspects of themselves. Results indicated that masculine ideology and cultural centrality were both positively related to men's sexual schemas. Cultural centrality explained 12 % of the variance in level of sexual schema, and had the strongest correlation of the predictor variables with sexual schema (r=.36). The need for more attention to the bidirectional relationships between masculinity, racial/cultural identity, and sexual schemas in prevention, intervention, and public health efforts for African American men is discussed. PMID:24031118

  14. Andropause. Testosterone replacement therapy for aging men.

    PubMed Central

    Bain, J.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To review the rationale for treating symptomatic aging men whose testosterone levels are mildly reduced or low-normal with testosterone replacement therapy. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: Large-scale multicentre prospective studies on the value of treating andropausal men with hormone therapy do not exist because the whole area of hormone therapy is barely 10 years old. Evidence presented is based on physiologic studies, particularly studies in which treatment has been assessed. These were largely uncontrolled open studies. Studies to date report positive responses to testosterone treatment with very few serious side effects. MAIN MESSAGE: Physicians should consider hypoandrogenism if male patients complain of loss of libido, erectile dysfunction, weakness, fatigue, lethargy, loss of motivation, or mood swings. Less obvious associations with reduced levels of testosterone are anemia and osteoporosis. The main cause of reduced testosterone production is primary gonadal insufficiency, but secondary causes, such as hypothalamic-pituitary disease, should be considered. Evidence shows that most men treated with testosterone will feel better about themselves and their lives. CONCLUSION: Andropause is a term of convenience describing a complex of symptoms in aging men who have low testosterone levels. Physicians should be aware of its existence, should consider ordering tests for men who have symptoms, and should treat carefully selected patients whose serum testosterone levels are low. PMID:11212438

  15. Azithromycin-Nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Taiwan, 2015–2016

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ying-Shu; Liu, Yen-Yi; Lo, Yi-Chun

    2017-01-01

    We report an outbreak of azithromycin-nonsusceptible Shigella flexneri 3a infection in Taiwan associated with men who have sex with men. The bacterial strains belonged to the sublineage A of a recently reported outbreak lineage associated with men who have sex with men, characterized by reduced azithromycin susceptibility and circulation in shigellosis low-risk regions. PMID:28098533

  16. Role versatility among men who have sex with men in urban Peru.

    PubMed

    Goodreau, Steven M; Peinado, Jesus; Goicochea, Pedro; Vergara, Jorge; Ojeda, Nora; Casapia, Martin; Ortiz, Abner; Zamalloa, Victoria; Galvan, Rosa; Sanchez, Jorge R

    2007-08-01

    Role versatility refers to the practice in which individual men who have sex with men (MSM) play both insertive and receptive sexual roles over time. Versatility has been thought to be relatively uncommon among Latin American MSM but possibly rising. Versatility has also been shown to be a potentially large population-level risk factor for HIV infection. In this study we examine the correlates of versatile behavior and identity among 2,655 MSM in six Peruvian cities. Versatile behavior with recent male partners was found in 9% of men and versatile ("moderno") identity was reported by 16%. Significant predictors included high education, white-collar occupation, sex work, and residence in Lima. Age was not significant in any analysis. Since sex work is negatively correlated with other predictors, versatile men appear to comprise two distinct sub-populations. Insertive-only men appear to play a strong role in bridging the HIV epidemic between MSM and women.

  17. Men's sex-dominance inhibition: do men automatically refrain from sexually dominant behavior?

    PubMed

    Kiefer, Amy K; Sanchez, Diana T

    2007-12-01

    Men receive conflicting messages about their sexual roles in heterosexual relationships. Men are socialized to initiate and direct sexual activities with women; yet societal norms also proscribe the sexual domination and coercion of women. The authors test these competing hypotheses by assessing whether men inhibit the link between sex and dominance. In Studies 1a and b, using a subliminal priming procedure embedded in a lexical decision task, the authors demonstrate that men automatically suppress the concept of dominance following exposure to subliminal sex primes relative to neutral primes. In Studies 2 and 3, the authors show that men who are less likely to perceive sexual assertiveness as necessary, to refrain from dominant sexual behavior, and who do not invest in masculine gender ideals are more likely to inhibit dominant thoughts following sex primes. Implications for theories of automatic cognitive networks and gender-based sexual roles are discussed.

  18. Perceived Similarity With Gay Men Mediates the Effect of Antifemininity on Heterosexual Men's Antigay Prejudice.

    PubMed

    Martínez, Carmen; Vázquez, Carolina; Falomir-Pichastor, Juan Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This research examined the hypothesis that heterosexual men's motivation to differentiate themselves from gay men mediates the relationship between the antifemininity norm of masculinity and antigay prejudice. We assessed masculinity through three concepts: status, thoughness, and antifemininity. Participants then reported their perceived similarity with gay men and their antigay prejudice. The results showed that antifemininity was the best predictor of both perceived similarity and antigay prejudice: The more people endorsed the antifemininity norm, the more they perceived themselves as dissimilar from gay men and showed antigay prejudice. More important, perceived similarity mediated the effect of antifemininity on antigay prejudice. These findings provide direct evidence for the link between masculinity and the motivation to differentiate oneself from gay men, and they suggest that antigay prejudice accomplishes the identity function of maintaining unambiguous gender boundaries.

  19. Reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses harboring exopolysaccharide-producing probiotic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426.

    PubMed

    Ryan, P M; Burdíková, Z; Beresford, T; Auty, M A E; Fitzgerald, G F; Ross, R P; Sheehan, J J; Stanton, C

    2015-12-01

    Exopolysaccharide-producing Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was previously shown to have promising hypocholesterolemic activity in the atherosclerosis-prone apolipoprotein-E-deficient (apoE(-/-)) murine model. The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of reduced-fat Cheddar and Swiss-type cheeses as functional (carrier) foods for delivery of this probiotic strain. All cheeses were manufactured at pilot-scale (500-L vats) in triplicate, with standard commercially available starters: for Cheddar, Lactococcus lactis; and for Swiss-type cheese, Streptococcus thermophilus, Lactobacillus helveticus, and Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 was used as an adjunct culture during cheese manufacture, at a level of ~10(6) cfu·mL(-1) cheese milk (subsequently present in the cheese curd at>10(7) cfu·g(-1)). The adjunct strain remained viable at >5×10(7) cfu·g(-1) in both Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses following ripening for 6 mo. Sensory analysis revealed that the presence of the adjunct culture imparted a more appealing appearance in Swiss-type cheese, but had no significant effect on the sensory characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. Moreover, the adjunct culture had no significant effect on cheese composition, proteolysis, pH, or instrumentally quantified textural characteristics of Cheddar cheeses. These data indicate that low-fat Swiss-type and Cheddar cheeses represent suitable food matrices for the delivery of the hypocholesterolemic Lactobacillus mucosae DPC 6426 in an industrial setting.

  20. Experimental study on premixed CH{sub 4}/air mixture combustion in micro Swiss-roll combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Bei-Jing; Wang, Jian-Hua

    2010-12-15

    Excess enthalpy combustion is a promising approach to stabilize flame in micro-combustors. Using a Swiss-roll combustor configuration, excess enthalpy combustion can be conveniently achieved. In this work, three types of Swiss-roll combustors with double spiral-shaped channels were designed and fabricated. The combustors were tested using methane/air mixtures of various equivalence ratios. Both temperature distributions and extinction limits were determined for each combustor configuration at different methane mass flow rates. Results indicate that the Swiss-roll combustors developed in the current study greatly enhance combustion stability in center regions of the combustors. At the same time, excess enthalpy combustors of the Swiss-roll configuration significantly extend the extinction limits of methane/air mixtures. In addition, the effects of combustor configurations and thermal insulation arrangements on temperature distributions and extinction limits were evaluated. With heat losses to the environment being significant, the use of thermal insulations further enhances the flame stability in center regions of the Swiss-roll combustors and extends flammable ranges. (author)

  1. Loss of hip BMD in older men: the osteoporotic fractures in men (MrOS) study.

    PubMed

    Cawthon, Peggy M; Ewing, Susan K; McCulloch, Charles E; Ensrud, Kristine E; Cauley, Jane A; Cummings, Steven R; Orwoll, Eric S

    2009-10-01

    Previous studies in older men have not evaluated whether loss of BMD or BMC accelerates nonlinearly with age. This study aimed to describe hip bone loss (both in BMC and BMD) in older men and to test whether BMD loss accelerates with age in an exponential manner in a cohort of 4720 community-dwelling men >or=65 yr of age. Men had two to three measures of femoral neck (FN) BMD (by DXA) over an average follow-up of 4.6 yr. Change in BMD during follow-up was estimated from mixed effects regression models; the significance of a quadratic term for age was evaluated. Mean FN BMD loss was 0.013 g/cm(2) (-1.72%) during follow-up. The quadratic term for age was significant, and the model showed that bone loss accelerated with age. Estimated loss of FN BMD over follow-up for men 85 yr of age (0.021 g/cm(2)) was 2.5 times greater than the loss expected for men 65 yr of age (0.008 g/cm(2)); such bone loss in 85-yr-old men may be sufficient to increase the risk of hip fracture by 25% (HR per 0.021 g/cm(2) cross-sectional decrease in FN BMD: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.18-1.31) over 4.6 yr. Men with lower BMD at baseline lost the most BMD over follow-up. Although average bone loss over time is modest in older men, there is considerable variability in rate of loss. Older men and those with lower BMD lose bone more rapidly, offering potential explanation for the increasing risk of fracture with advancing age.

  2. [Andrological aspects of men's health in Kazakhstan].

    PubMed

    Khamzin, A; Frolov, R

    2015-05-01

    To study the prevalence of male sexual disorders in the Republic of Kazakhstan, the survey by the urologist and endocrinologist with the use of self-reported questionnaires (IIEF and AMS) was conducted in 2007. 2203 of 2676 men (70,4% - urban, 29,6% - rural residents) aged 18-74 years completed the survey. The prevalence rates for erectile dysfunction were 50,8% (1,3%) for 18- to 74-year olds which numbered 1550 urban residents and 55,6% (1,9%) for 18- to 74-year olds with a number of 653 rural residents; symptoms of androgen deficiency were defined at 29,3% (1,2%) (454/1550) of men and 30,3% (1,8%) (198/653) of men respectively. The scale devised by Prins was used for the survey in order to be considered a valid epidemiological study.

  3. Ecological Model of Australian Indigenous Men's Health.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Marita P; Mellor, David; Ricciardelli, Lina A; Mussap, Alexander J; Hallford, David J

    2016-11-01

    This study was designed to examine the health behaviors as well as the enablers and barriers to health behaviors among Indigenous Australian men. One hundred and fifty Indigenous Australian men in rural, regional, and urban locations were interviewed about their health behaviors. The results revealed several themes of importance: (a) role of community activities, (b) the Indigenous man as a leader and role model, (c) negative impact of discrimination/racism, (d) importance of partner and family, (e) positive and negative role of peer relationships, (f) central role of culturally appropriate health care facilities, and (g) association between employment and health care problems. These findings highlight the importance of broad community-based (rather than individualistic) approaches to promoting health behavior in Indigenous men.

  4. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    PubMed

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  5. Assessing the "Good Life" in a Military Context: How Does Life and Work-Satisfaction Relate to Orientations to Happiness and Career-Success among Swiss Professional Officers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proyer, Rene T.; Annen, Hubert; Eggimann, Nadine; Schneider, Andrea; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-01-01

    The study examines work- and life satisfaction along with orientation to happiness, and their relation to subjective but also objective career success, among Swiss military professional officers. They frequently report worsening of their working conditions due to two reforms that have recently been conducted. A total of N = 221 Swiss career…

  6. [Why do Hungarian men die early?].

    PubMed

    Kopp, Mária; Skrabski, Arpád

    2009-09-01

    The mortality rate for 40- 69-year-old men was 12.2/thousand males of corresponding age in 1960 and 16.2 in 2005: it increased by 33%, while among 40- 69-year-old women it decreased from 9.6 0/thousand females of corresponding age to 7.8. The aim of the present follow up study was to analyze which psychosocial risk factors might explain the high premature mortality rates among Hungarian men. Participants in the Hungarostudy 2002 study, a nationally representative sample, 1130 men and 1529 women were contacted again in the follow up study in 2006, who in 2002 were between the age of 40-69 years. By 2006, 99 men (8.8%) and 53 women (3.5%) died in this age group. Socio-economic, psychosocial and work-related measures, self-rated health, chronic disorders, depressive symptoms (BDI), WHO well-being, negative affect, self-efficacy, meaning in life and health behavioral factors were included in the analysis. After adjustment according to smoking, alcohol abuse, BMI, education and age, a number of variables were significant predictors of mortality only in men: low education, low subjective social status, low personal and family income, insecurity of work, no control in work, severe depression, no meaning in life, low social support from spouse, low social support from child. Socio-economic and work related risk factors predicted only male premature death. Among women dissatisfaction with personal relations was the most important risk factor. Among men depression seems to mediate between these chronic stress factors and premature death.

  7. Congenital color blindness in young Turkish men.

    PubMed

    Citirik, Mehmet; Acaroglu, Golge; Batman, Cosar; Zilelioglu, Orhan

    2005-04-01

    We investigated a healthy population of men from different regions of Turkey for the presence of congenital red-green color blindness. Using Ishihara pseudoisochromatic plates, 941 healthy men from the Turkish army were tested for congenital red-green color blindness. The prevalence of red-green color blindness was 7.33 +/- 0.98% (5.10% protans and 2.23% deutans). These ratios were higher than other reported samples from Mediterranean Europe. Higher percentages of color blindness were found in regions with a lower education level and more consanguineous marriages.

  8. Characteristics of homosexual men who donate blood.

    PubMed

    Ross, M W; Drew, P A; Beal, R W

    1985-03-18

    A number of demographic, psychological, medical, immunological and haematological indices, as well as sexual practices and partner numbers, were investigated in 97 homosexual men in Adelaide. A comparison of blood donors with non-donors among these men showed that the donors were younger, spent more time in the homosexual subculture, maintained a stable blood-donation pattern, and were significantly less likely to have had a sexually transmitted disease. Donors contacted their sexual partners in non-anonymous settings more frequently than did non-donors.

  9. Treatment of primary osteoporosis in men.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Andrea; Bianchi, Gerolamo

    2015-01-01

    With the aging of the population worldwide, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures are becoming a serious health care issue in the Western world. Although less frequent than in women, osteoporosis in men is a relatively common problem. Hip and vertebral fractures are particularly relevant, being associated with significant mortality and disability. Since bone loss and fragility fractures in men have been recognized as serious medical conditions, several randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been undertaken in males with osteoporosis to investigate the anti-fracture efficacy of the pharmacological agents commonly used to treat postmenopausal osteoporosis. Overall, treatments for osteoporosis in men are less defined than in women, mainly due to the fact that there are fewer RCTs performed in male populations, to the relatively smaller sample sizes, and to the lack of long-term extension studies. However, the key question is whether men are expected to respond differently to osteoporosis therapies than women. The pharmacological properties of bisphosphonates, teriparatide, denosumab, and strontium ranelate make such differentiation unlikely, and available clinical data support their efficacy in men with primary osteoporosis as well as in women. In a series of well-designed RCTs, alendronate, risedronate, zoledronic acid, and teriparatide were demonstrated to reduce the risk of new vertebral fractures in men presenting with primary osteoporosis (including osteoporosis associated with low testosterone levels) and to improve the bone mineral density (BMD). In preliminary studies, ibandronate, denosumab, and strontium ranelate also showed their beneficial effects on surrogate outcomes (BMD and markers of bone turnover) in men with osteoporosis. Although direct evidence about their non-vertebral anti-fracture efficacy are lacking, the effects of bisphosphonates, denosumab, teriparatide, and strontium ranelate on surrogate outcomes (BMD and markers of bone turnover

  10. Utilization of dating apps by men who have sex with men for persuading other men toward substance use

    PubMed Central

    Boonchutima, Smith; Kongchan, Watsayut

    2017-01-01

    Background Dating apps play a major role in connecting men who are interested in meeting other men for sex. Besides finding a partner, these tools are also exploited for other activities such as encouraging people to get involved in the habit of illicit drug consumption (substance use). Methods This study evaluated the overall usage of dating apps among Thai men who have sex with men (MSMs), with an emphasis on abusing these apps to convey messages encouraging substance use. A well-structured Survey Monkey questionnaire posted on specialized websites and social sites used by MSMs was used to collect the data. Data were analyzed using regression and correlation analysis in order to establish the relationship between variables. Results A substantial proportion (73%) of the Thai MSM community is using dating apps to find their partners as well as for inviting others into illicit drug practice. Unfortunately, persuasion through dating significantly influenced people toward accepting a substance use invitation, with a 77% invitation success rate. Substance use was also linked with unprotected sex, potentially enhancing the transmission of sexually transmitted infections. Conclusion Dating apps significantly increased motivational substance use through messaging from their counterparts. One of the major concerns revealed in this study is that Thai MSMs who reported being involved in substance use also reported avoiding use of condoms during intercourse. PMID:28138269

  11. Internet use, recreational travel, and HIV risk behaviors in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Benotsch, Eric G; Martin, Aaron M; Espil, Flint M; Nettles, Christopher D; Seal, David W; Pinkerton, Steven D

    2011-06-01

    Previous studies have documented higher rates of HIV risk behavior in gay and bisexual men traveling for leisure. Most of these studies collected data in high-risk tourist areas known for promoting alcohol and other substance use. The present study sampled a broader range of men by collecting data at a Gay Pride celebration, and asking participants about vacation experiences over the past 12 months. We also collected information about men's use of the Internet to find sexual partners before they traveled. Overall, two-thirds of participants reported recreational travel in the previous year. Of these men, 17% reported having sex with a new partner during their most recent vacation. Forty-three percent of the respondents were sexually active during their vacation. Sexually-active participants reported a mean of 2.01 unprotected anal sex acts during their brief vacation stay (M = 6.2 days). Close to half of the sexually-active men reported having sex with a partner of unknown HIV status. Alcohol and drug use were associated with unprotected sex. Men who used the Internet to set up dates prior to travel reported significantly more sexual partners and were significantly more likely to report having sex with a new partner. Many gay and bisexual men on vacation report behaviors that may place their health at risk, including substance use and unprotected sexual activity. Interventions designed to reduce risk behaviors in this population are needed.

  12. The Internet profiles of men who have sex with men within bareback websites

    PubMed Central

    Valera, Pamela; Ventuneac, Ana; Maynard, Emily; Carballo-Diéguez, Alex

    2011-01-01

    The Internet has become a venue for men who have sex with men (MSM) to search for sexual partners. Some of these men intentionally seek unprotected anal intercourse with other men (a.k.a., “bareback” sex). This paper focuses on the creation, use,and content of Internet personal profiles of MSM in the greater New York Citymetropolitan area whouse bareback sites for sexual networking. We used a mixed-methods approach to examine data from a cybercartography of Internet sites conducted during the first phase of the research (199 personal profiles), and from in-depth interviews conducted during its second phase (120 MSM who sought partners online for bareback sex). Results indicate that men generally followed offline stereotypical patterns in their online profiles. However, men who disclosed being HIV positive were more likely to include face and head pictures. Overall, the images they used were heavily sexualised in accordance with group norms perceived and reinforced by the websites’ design and imagery. Bottom-identified men tended to be more explicit in the exposition of their sexual and drug use interests online. This paper highlights how certain virtual and social performances play upon and reinforce other, in the flesh, performances. PMID:21815842

  13. Heterosexually married men who have sex with men: marital separation and psychological adjustment.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, James P

    2008-01-01

    There have been few investigations of sexual identity and psychological adjustment among behaviorally-bisexual married men. A critical issue is whether such men experience increased psychological adjustment if they exit their primary heterosexual relationship and assume a gay identity. Two hundred and one ever-married men (n = 201) with same-sex sexual interests and behaviors were administered the Brady and Busse (1994) gay identity development questionnaire (GIQ) and the symptom check list-90 (SCL-90) as part of a larger investigation of sexual identity development. The measurement of homosexual identity formation (HIF) using the original nominal scoring criteria for the GIQ did not adequately detail processes of HIF among respondents, and an alternative scoring system that allowed continuous, rather than stage, measurement of HIF was utilized. Psychological adjustment was found to be significantly correlated with HIF among ever-married gay-identified men. Within bisexual-identified men, no relationships between HIF and psychological adjustment were found. Future studies of HIF should clearly differentiate between gay and bisexual men. The findings suggest significant psychological gains accompany public affirmation of gay identity among self-identified gay men who have been in a previous heterosexual relationship.

  14. High HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men in Soweto, South Africa: results from the Soweto Men's Study.

    PubMed

    Lane, Tim; Raymond, H Fisher; Dladla, Sibongile; Rasethe, Joseph; Struthers, Helen; McFarland, Willi; McIntyre, James

    2011-04-01

    The Soweto Men's Study assessed HIV prevalence and associated risk factors among MSM in Soweto, South Africa. Using respondent driven sampling (RDS) recruitment methods, we recruited 378 MSM (including 15 seeds) over 30 weeks in 2008. All results were adjusted for RDS sampling design. Overall HIV prevalence was estimated at 13.2% (95% confidence interval 12.4-13.9%), with 33.9% among gay-identified men, 6.4% among bisexual-identified men, and 10.1% among straight-identified MSM. In multivariable analysis, HIV infection was associated with being older than 25 (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 3.8, 95% CI 3.2-4.6), gay self-identification (AOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-3.0), monthly income less than ZAR500 (AOR 1.4, 95% CI 1.2-1.7), purchasing alcohol or drugs in exchange for sex with another man (AOR 3.9, 95% CI 3.2-4.7), reporting any URAI (AOR 4.4, 95% CI 3.5-5.7), reporting between six and nine partners in the prior 6 months (AOR 5.7, 95% CI 4.0-8.2), circumcision, (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1-0.2), a regular female partner (AOR 0.2, 95% CI 0.2-0.3), smoking marijuana in the last 6 months (AOR 0.6, 95% CI 0.5-0.8), unprotected vaginal intercourse in the last 6 months (AOR 0.5, 95% CI 0.4-0.6), and STI symptoms in the last year (AOR 0.7, 95% CI 0.5-0.8). The results of the Soweto Men's Study confirm that MSM are at high risk for HIV infection, with gay men at highest risk. HIV prevention and treatment for MSM are urgently needed.

  15. Challenging machismo: promoting sexual and reproductive health with Nicaraguan men.

    PubMed

    Sternberg, P

    2000-03-01

    This article presents the results of a participatory exploration of male attitudes towards sexual and reproductive health issues in Nicaragua. Nicaraguan culture views men in a machismo concept. The study examined the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of men in relation to the social construction of masculinity: sexuality, reproduction, and fatherhood. Employing 90 men from both rural and urban communities, attitudes towards sexuality, reproduction, abortion and fatherhood were discussed. Several insights were gathered from the research, which explains men's behavior. Thus, it was deemed imperative that in empowering women by promoting sexual and reproductive health among men would require challenging male hegemony and persuading men to participate in health promotion. However, the setting and application of a men's agenda for sexual health promotion should not result in the curtailment of services for women because funds are being reallocated to men, nor should it give men the opportunity to more subtle forms of domination and exploitation.

  16. Oropharyngeal aspiration of bleomycin: An alternative experimental model of pulmonary fibrosis developed in Swiss mice

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Swarna; Sunkoju, Manoj; Reddy, Shiva Shankar; Swamy, Veerabhadra; Godugu, Chandraiah

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) is a progressive and predominantly lethal form of several interstitial lung diseases with limited current therapeutics; it is, therefore, essential to develop a simple, homogeneous, and noninvasive disease model to investigate possible anti-fibrotic approaches. The present study is designed to develop oropharyngeal aspiration (OPA) model of bleomycin (BLM)-induced PF as a simple and alternative to intratracheal (IT) administration of BLM in Swiss mice strain. Materials and Methods: Mice were divided into two groups, BLM-treated and normal control. BLM via OPA (2 IU/kg) was used to induce PF. Water for injection was used as a vehicle in control animals. Body weights were measured once in a week, and the study was continued for 21 days. At the end of the study, animals were euthanized and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected and subjected to lymphocytes count, estimation of albumin and protein levels. Lung tissues were collected, and various biochemical assays (malondialdehyde, glutathione, nitric oxide, hydroxyproline) and molecular techniques including ELISA and Western blot were performed to investigate the effect of OPA-BLM. Further, histopathology and Masson's trichrome staining techniques were performed in lung sections. Results: OPA administration of BLM in Swiss mice significantly induced PF, evident from lung index and morphology. Several oxidative stress parameters and hydroxyproline assay revealed the significant (P < 0.05) induction of PF. Further results obtained from histopathology, Masson's trichrome staining, ELISA, and Western blot confirmed the significant induction of PF via OPA-BLM. Conclusion: BLM administration by OPA route in Swiss mice can be used as a simple, homogeneous, and noninvasive model of inducing PF and to investigate the effect of various anti-fibrotic agents as an alternative to IT-BLM. PMID:28066100

  17. Calibration status and plans for the charge integrating JUNGFRAU pixel detector for SwissFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redford, S.; Bergamaschi, A.; Brückner, M.; Cartier, S.; Dinapoli, R.; Ekinci, Y.; Fröjdh, E.; Greiffenberg, D.; Mayilyan, D.; Mezza, D.; Mozzanica, A.; Rajeev, R.; Ramilli, M.; Ruder, C.; Schädler, L.; Schmitt, B.; Shi, X.; Thattil, D.; Tinti, G.; Zhang, J.

    2016-11-01

    JUNGFRAU (adJUstiNg Gain detector FoR the Aramis User station) is a two-dimensional hybrid pixel detector under development for photon science applications at free electron laser and synchrotron facilities. In particular, JUNGFRAU detectors will equip the Aramis end stations of SwissFEL, an X-ray free electron laser currently under construction at the Paul Scherrer Institut in Villigen, Switzerland. JUNGFRAU has been designed specifically to meet the challenges of photon science at XFELs, including high frame rates, single photon sensitivity in combination with a high dynamic range, vacuum compatibility and tilable modules. This has resulted in a charge integrating detector with three dynamically adjusting gains, a low noise of 55 ENC RMS, readout speeds in excess of 2 kHz, single photon sensitivity down to 2 keV (with a signal to noise ratio of 10) and a dynamic range covering four orders of magnitude at 12 keV. Each JUNGFRAU module consists of eight chips of 256 × 256 pixels, each 75 × 75 μm2 in size. The chips are arranged in 2 × 4 formation and bump-bonded to a single silicon sensor 320 μm thick, resulting in an active area of approximately 4 × 8 cm2 per module. Multi-module vacuum compatible systems comprising up to 16 Mpixels (32 modules) will be used at SwissFEL. The design of SwissFEL and the JUNGFRAU system for the Aramis end station A will be introduced, together with results from early prototypes and a characterisation using the first batch of final JUNGFRAU modules. Plans and first results of the pixel-by-pixel calibration will also be shown. The vacuum compatibility of the JUNGFRAU module is demonstrated for the first time.

  18. Demonstrating Group Process Using "12 Angry Men"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Stephen A.; Berg, Robert C.

    2005-01-01

    The feature film "12 Angry Men" focuses on an organizational task group that demonstrates the dynamics of a working group. The film is discussed as an effective tool for illuminating group process. The authors describe their experiences using the movie as a teaching tool and provide examples of how it can be used to depict critical incidents, the…

  19. SPERM COUNT DISTRIBUTIONS IN FERTILE MEN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sperm concentration and count are often used as indicators of environmental impacts on male reproductive health. Existing clinical databases may be biased towards subfertile men with low sperm counts and less is known about expected sperm count distributions in cohorts of fertil...

  20. [Addiction: are women and men equal?].

    PubMed

    Pelet, A

    2010-07-28

    When illicit drugs are taken, men and women have a different biological response to drug used. Likewise, gender differences show more stigmas, more complex familial environment, and more history of sexual abuse for drug addicted women. The expression of psychiatric co-morbidities differs according to gender, with increased mood disorders, eating disorders, anxiety, and post traumatic disorders among drug addicted women.

  1. Civic Engagement among Young Men and Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcelo, Karlo Barrios; Lopez, Mark Hugo; Kirby, Emily Hoban

    2007-01-01

    Political scientists and sociologists have long established significant differences in civic engagement between women and men. Utilizing data from the 2006 Civic and Political Health of the Nation Survey, and several other sources, new information is provided on the civic engagement of youth, confidence in government, and following public affairs…

  2. Women and Men: An Intergroup Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tortu, Stephanie

    Henri Tajfel's theory on intergroup relations is used as a model for thinking about men and women on a group level and discussing the differences between intergroup and interpersonal behavior to integrate the study of the individual within the larger social system. Strategies are described to help women challenge the imbalance of power between the…

  3. Why Men Choose to Become Primary Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cruickshank, Vaughan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a critical analysis of literature relating to why males choose to become primary school teachers. Discussion within the paper concentrates on identifying and exploring connections between what is currently known about being a male primary school teacher and what motivates these men as they both pursue and practice within the…

  4. [Suicide of elderly men in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Minayo, Maria Cecília de Souza; Meneghel, Stela Nazareth; Cavalcante, Fátima Gonçalves

    2012-10-01

    This paper assesses the suicide of elderly men in Brazil. The text is based on studies of gender and masculinity and emphasizes the sense of "hegemonic masculinity" within the logic of patriarchalism that, in the case of suicide, is expressed in the loss of employment as an existential reference and as a loss of honor. The study includes 40 cases of men over 60 who committed suicide between 2007 and 2010 in ten districts of the country. Using the psychosocial autopsy technique, data were collected and analyzed from their history and lifestyle; evaluation of the background to the act; the impact on their families; lethality of the method; proximity to sources of support; previous attempts; mental status which preceded the act; reaction of families and communities. Although many factors are associated with self-inflicted death in this social group, the influence of a hegemonic masculinity culture in the predominance of suicides among elderly men compared with elderly women is undeniable. It is essential to give special attention to men at the moment of transition from working life to retirement, loss or important family members, and when they are diagnosed with chronic and degenerative diseases that cause disabilities, loss of autonomy or sexual impotence.

  5. The Hollow Men: A Cautionary Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fruman, Norman

    1991-01-01

    A review of Charles Sykes' book "The Hollow Men: Politics and Corruption in Higher Education" focuses on the portion that chronicles the political history of Dartmouth College (New Hampshire) from 1769. It is found to be a comprehensive analysis of the college's decline resulting from a "radically politicized and…

  6. Male Categories: Are All Men "Masculine?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    England, Eileen M.; Hyland, Diane T.

    Research on gender stereotypes has contrasted males with females, describing males by competency traits and females by traits which denote warmth or emotionality. However, it has become clear that these traits do not satisfactorily describe all members of either sex, since not all men possess only masculine characteristics and not all women…

  7. Men and Sexuality: Bibliography of Selected Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY. Education Dept.

    This selective, annotated bibliography covers a range of topics associated with male sexuality, reproductive health, and sexism. The books listed in this document are organized in five categories which are not strictly exclusive, as most of the entries overlap topic areas. Part I, Men in Society, contains 10 entries dealing with masculinity,…

  8. Gay men seeking surrogacy to achieve parenthood.

    PubMed

    Norton, Wendy; Hudson, Nicky; Culley, Lorraine

    2013-09-01

    Assisted reproduction technologies have developed at an extraordinary rate in recent years. This, combined with the changing landscape of legal, technical and social possibilities, enables gay men to consider their options for fatherhood as new opportunities emerge for them to create families. Media coverage of gay celebrities embracing surrogacy as a way of having a family and high-profile legal cases have raised awareness of surrogacy across the world. However, gay fatherhood achieved through assisted reproduction is a highly under-researched area, both in the UK and internationally. The research that currently exists on gay fatherhood is largely related to gay men who become parents through processes such as adoption and fostering and children conceived through previous heterosexual relationships. Much of this evidence has centred on parenting experiences, the outcomes for children or the legal perspectives. This paper outlines the different types of surrogacy and the legal issues facing gay men who choose this route to parenthood, summarizes the limited research on gay men and surrogacy and discusses gaps in the current knowledge base.

  9. Comparing the Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eagly, Alice H.; Becker, Selwyn W.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents comments on "Definitions and Omissions of Heroism" by Jeffery W. Martens which is a comment on the original article "The Heroism of Women and Men" by Selwyn W. Becker and Alice H. Eagly. Becker and Eagly welcome the opportunity to discuss the questions about defining heroism that Martens raised in his comment on their…

  10. Enhancing Cognitive Behavioral Therapy's Effectiveness with Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broder, Michael S.

    Until recently, most of the emphasis on the understanding of sex roles has focused on how sexist attitudes and sex role stereotypes affect women. Often times men are the objects of stereotypical thinking, which results in certain assumptions about masculinity that can prove to be self-defeating and destructive to relationships on all levels. Male…

  11. The Heroism of Women and Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Selwyn W.; Eagly, Alice H.

    2004-01-01

    Heroism consists of actions undertaken to help others, despite the possibility that they may result in the helper's death or injury. The authors examine heroism by women and men in 2 extremely dangerous settings: the emergency situations in which Carnegie medalists rescued others and the holocaust in which some non-Jews risked their lives to…

  12. Medical students’ attitudes toward gay men

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Healthcare providers’ attitudes toward sexual minorities influence patient comfort and outcomes. This study characterized medical student attitudes toward gay men, focusing on behavior, personhood, gay civil rights, and male toughness. Methods A cross-sectional web-based anonymous survey was sent to medical students enrolled at the University of California, Davis (N = 371) with a response rate of 68%. Results Few respondents expressed negative attitudes toward gay men or would deny them civil rights. More negative responses were seen with respect to aspects of intimate behavior and homosexuality as a natural form of sexual expression. Men and students younger than 25 years old were more likely to endorse negative attitudes toward behavior as well as more traditional views on male toughness. Conclusions We show that an important minority of students express discomfort with the behavior of gay men and hold to a narrow construction of male identity. These findings suggest that competency training must move beyond conceptual discussions and address attitudes toward behaviors through new pedagogical approaches. PMID:22873668

  13. Of Mice and Men: Interdisciplinary Unit. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck Middle School, Cherry Hill, NJ.

    "Of Mice and Men" is developed as an interdisciplinary unit to be team taught by math, science, language arts, and social studies teachers and team guidance counselors. Developed as an individualized program for middle school students, a variety of supplementary materials is provided to exemplify the types of activities suggested for students.…

  14. Nineteen Negro Men, Personality and Manpower Retraining.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutledge, Aaron L.; Gass, Gertrude Zemon

    In 1963, 19 unemployed Negro men entered a one-year program sponsored by the Office of Manpower, Automation and Training at Sinai Hospital, Detroit to learn practical nursing. Simultaneously a demonstration project to identify trainee and teaching staff problems and their possible solutions was carried out by two psychologists who provided…

  15. Acceptability of contraception for men: a review.

    PubMed

    Glasier, Anna

    2010-11-01

    Methods of contraception for use by men include condoms, withdrawal and vasectomy. Prevalence of use of a method and continuation rates are indirect measures of acceptability. Worldwide, none of these "male methods" accounts for more than 7% of contraceptive use although uptake varies considerably between countries. Acceptability can be assessed directly by asking about intended (hypothetical) use and assessing satisfaction during/after use. Since they have been around for a very long time, there are very few data of this nature on condoms (as contraceptives rather than for prevention of infection), withdrawal or vasectomy. There are direct data on the acceptability of hormonal methods for men but from relatively small clinical trials which undoubtedly do not represent the real world. Surveys undertaken among the male general public demonstrate that, whatever the setting, at least 25% of men - and in most countries substantially more - would consider using hormonal contraception. Although probably an overestimate of the number of potential users when such a method becomes available, it would appear that hormonal contraceptives for men may have an important place on the contraceptive menu. Despite commonly expressed views to the contrary, most women would trust their male partner to use a hormonal method.

  16. Using Biography to Counsel Gifted Young Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebert, Thomas P.

    1995-01-01

    The use of biographies in counseling young men who are gifted is recommended, to assist them in dealing with such issues as underachievement, self-inflicted pressure in athletics, cultural alienation, and father-son relationships. Biographical works that may be used and strategies for using this counseling approach are examined, including case…

  17. Differences in substance use and sexual partnering between men who have sex with men, men who have sex with men and women and transgender women.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jane Rohde; Branson, Catherine M; Fletcher, Jesse; Reback, Cathy J

    2011-06-01

    Men who have sex with men (MSM), men who have sex with men and women (MSM/W) and transgender women (TGW) remain the populations most severely and disproportionately impacted upon by HIV in Los Angeles County. Baseline data from community-based HIV-prevention programmes serving these populations were analysed to explore differences in demographic characteristics, substance use and sexual partnering between the three groups. Despite high HIV prevalence overall (MSM 34.7% versus MSM/W 16.1% versus TGW 21.9%, p < .001), there were striking differences in risk behaviours. Higher rates of homelessness were reported by MSM/W compared to MSM and TGW. Lower rates of education and less substance use were reported by TGW (62.2%), compared to MSM (79.7%) and MSM/W (92.6%). A much higher number of male sexual exchange partners were reported by TGW (MSM 1.04 [SD = 4.8] versus MSM/W 1.54 [SD = 10.3] versus TGW 12.37 [SD = 23.9], p < .001). Findings support the need for HIV-prevention interventions that specifically address the unique risk patterns among each population in order to curb HIV acquisition and transmission.

  18. Aging and masculinity: portrayals in men's magazines.

    PubMed

    Hurd Clarke, Laura; Bennett, Erica V; Liu, Chris

    2014-12-01

    Textual and visual representations of age are instructive as they suggest ideals towards which individuals should strive and influence how we perceive age. The purpose of our study was to investigate textual and visual representations of later life in the advertisements and interest stories of six widely read North American male-oriented magazines (namely, Esquire, GQ, Maxim, Men's Health, Men's Journal, and Zoomer). Through a content analysis and a visual textual analysis, we examined how older men were depicted in the magazine images and accompanying texts. Our findings revealed that older men were largely absent, and when portrayed, were positively depicted as experienced and powerful celebrities or as healthy and happy unknown individuals. The magazine advertisements and interest stories collectively required individuals to engage in consumer culture in order to achieve age and masculinity ideals and stave off the transition from the Third Age to the Fourth Age. We consider our findings in relation to theorizing about ageism, age relations, the Third and Fourth Ages, and idealized aging masculinity.

  19. Men, Teaching, and Caring: Perspectives and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrano, Barbara S.

    2014-01-01

    This article continues and extends the conversation regarding an ethic of care as reflected by two male elementary school teachers. It seeks to discover ways in which these men approach and practice their teaching that demonstrate the ethic of care traditionally linked with women. This article looks in depth at two male teachers in an effort to…

  20. Bladder Outlet Obstruction: Causes in Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction in men Scarring of the urinary channel (urethra) or bladder neck, as a result of injury or surgery Use of certain medications, including antihistamines, decongestants ... of bladder outlet obstruction is important to prevent serious problems caused by ...

  1. The Earnings Gap between Women and Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Women's Bureau (DOL), Washington, DC.

    The size of the earnings gap between men and women has not changed substantially in recent years. The sustained earnings differential contrasts significantly with recent gains women have made in the job market. Several factors contribute to the wage differences: (1) The majority of women are in lower-paying occupations and lower-status jobs even…

  2. Lower urinary tract symptoms in men

    PubMed Central

    Hollingsworth, John M

    2014-01-01

    Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a highly prevalent and costly condition that affects older men worldwide. Many affected men develop lower urinary tract symptoms, which can have a negative impact on their quality of life. In the past, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) was the mainstay of treatment. However, several efficacious drug treatments have been developed, which have transformed BPH from an acute surgical entity to a chronic medical condition. Specifically, multiple clinical trials have shown that α adrenoceptor antagonists can significantly ameliorate lower urinary tract symptoms. Moreover, 5α reductase inhibitors, alone or combined with an α adrenoceptor antagonist, can reverse the natural course of BPH, reducing the risk of urinary retention and the need for surgical intervention. Newer medical regimens including the use of antimuscarinic agents or phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, have shown promise in men with predominantly storage symptoms and concomitant erectile dysfunction, respectively. For men who do not adequately respond to conservative measures or pharmacotherapy, minimally invasive surgical techniques (such as transurethral needle ablation, microwave thermotherapy, and prostatic urethral lift) may be of benefit, although they lack the durability of TURP. A variety of laser procedures have also been introduced, whose improved hemostatic properties abrogate many of the complications associated with traditional surgery. PMID:25125424

  3. The Persistence of African American College Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beale, Tyson J.

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the family dynamics of persistent African American college men. These students were typical Black males, not those pre-categorized as high-achieving or unprepared for college. The stories of participants revealed their strength, ambition, and intentions to successfully gain a baccalaureate degree. In general Black males are…

  4. Counseling and Psychotherapy for Bisexual Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Joseph; Damon, Will

    1995-01-01

    Clinical research on sexual behavior has increased dramatically in the last decade. Connected with these efforts has been the need to understand more about sexuality in order to help reduce the spread of human immunodeficiency virus. This report details the results of a study of men (N=536) aged 18 to 30 years, who reported having had sex with a…

  5. Counseling Men: The Effects of Gender Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnham-Smith, Denise

    A client's gender role plays an important part in his or her life, emotional well being, and the therapeutic relationship. The process of male socialization begins early in a boy's life, typically with primary care givers. In North American culture, men are conditioned to disconnect from relationships, minimize emotional pain, and deal with…

  6. Simulations to Improve Structural Defect Detection and Classification in Swiss-Cheese

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskelinen, J.; Haapalainen, J.; Alavuotunki, A.; Hæggström, E.; Alatossava, T.

    2008-02-01

    Ultrasonic 2D simulations to facilitate defect detection and classification for structural quality control of Swiss-cheese are presented. Three economically relevant structure types were modeled with different geometry parameters and the back-scattered ultrasonic field from the structure boundary was simulated to obtain reference data for waveform analysis. Simulated waveform characteristics were evaluated and compared to the experimental ones. Two parameters were introduced to classify different defects by exploiting the frequency spectrum of the signals. Signal waveform and correlation analysis, based on the simulation results, improved defect detection probability.

  7. Fever of unknown origin in a Swiss-born child: don't miss tuberculosis!

    PubMed

    Cegielski, Melanie; Vaudaux, Bernard; Jaton, Katia; Bervini, David; Perez, Marie-Helene

    2012-03-30

    Tuberculosis incidence is low in Switzer land. We report here on a Swiss-born toddler. Tuberculosis manifested with a fever of unknown origin, mimicking an inflammatory or autoimmune disorder triggering a high dose of corticosteroid treatment. The disease went unrecognized for several weeks until development of a miliary tuberculosis with advanced central nervous system involvement. This case highlights the difficulties encountered in diagnosing tuberculosis and in identifying the origin of this case. It reminds us that this disease must never be forgotten when facing a child with persistent fever who must be screened for, before starting immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Fever of unknown origin in a Swiss-born child: don't miss tuberculosis!

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, Melanie; Vaudaux, Bernard; Jaton, Katia; Bervini, David; Perez, Marie-Helene

    2012-01-01

    Tuberculosis incidence is low in Switzer land. We report here on a Swiss-born toddler. Tuberculosis manifested with a fever of unknown origin, mimicking an inflammatory or autoimmune disorder triggering a high dose of corticosteroid treatment. The disease went unrecognized for several weeks until development of a miliary tuberculosis with advanced central nervous system involvement. This case highlights the difficulties encountered in diagnosing tuberculosis and in identifying the origin of this case. It reminds us that this disease must never be forgotten when facing a child with persistent fever who must be screened for, before starting immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:24765435

  9. Comprehensive model-based prediction of micropollutants from diffuse sources in the Swiss river network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahm, Ivo; Munz, Nicole; Braun, Christian; Gälli, René; Leu, Christian; Stamm, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Water quality in the Swiss river network is affected by many micropollutants from a variety of diffuse sources. This study compares, for the first time, in a comprehensive manner the diffuse sources and the substance groups that contribute the most to water contamination in Swiss streams and highlights the major regions for water pollution. For this a simple but comprehensive model was developed to estimate emission from diffuse sources for the entire Swiss river network of 65 000 km. Based on emission factors the model calculates catchment specific losses to streams for more than 15 diffuse sources (such as crop lands, grassland, vineyards, fruit orchards, roads, railways, facades, roofs, green space in urban areas, landfills, etc.) and more than 130 different substances from 5 different substance groups (pesticides, biocides, heavy metals, human drugs, animal drugs). For more than 180 000 stream sections estimates of mean annual pollutant loads and mean annual concentration levels were modeled. This data was validated with a set of monitoring data and evaluated based on annual average environmental quality standards (AA-EQS). Model validation showed that the estimated mean annual concentration levels are within the range of measured data. Therefore simulations were considered as adequately robust for identifying the major sources of diffuse pollution. The analysis depicted that in Switzerland widespread pollution of streams can be expected. Along more than 18 000 km of the river network one or more simulated substances has a concentration exceeding the AA-EQS. In single stream sections it could be more than 50 different substances. Moreover, the simulations showed that in two-thirds of small streams (Strahler order 1 and 2) at least one AA-EQS is always exceeded. The highest number of substances exceeding the AA-EQS are in areas with large fractions of arable cropping, vineyards and fruit orchards. Urban areas are also of concern even without considering

  10. [Some consequences of the application of the new Swiss penal code on legal psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Gasser, Jacques; Gravier, Bruno

    2007-09-19

    The new text of the Swiss penal code, which entered into effect at the beginning of 2007, has many incidences on the practice of the psychiatrists realizing expertises in the penal field or engaged in the application of legal measures imposing a treatment. The most notable consequences of this text are, on the one hand, a new definition of the concept of penal irresponsibility which is not necessarily any more related to a psychiatric diagnosis and, on the other hand, a new definition of legal constraints that justice can take to prevent new punishable acts and which appreciably modifies the place of the psychiatrists in the questions binding psychiatric care and social control.

  11. SOC storage in Swiss forest soils - driven by climate or historical land-use?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosheva, Sia; Walthert, Lorenz; Niklaus, Pascal; Zimmermann, Stephan; Hagedorn, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Soils store the most carbon of all terrestrial ecosystems, with forest soils being particularly carbon-rich (Schmidt et al. 2011; Hagedorn et al. 2010; Jobaggy & Jackson 2000). The C balance of soils might be altered by land-use changes such as in Switzerland, where the forest cover has increased by approximately 22% in the last century (Ginzler et al. 2011). The objectives of this study were 1) to determine whether historical forest cover change has an impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) storage in Swiss forests, and 2) to estimate the influence of climate on C-stocks in the organic layer and the mineral soil. In our study, we reconstructed forest cover changes for the last 150 years for the coordinates of 1000 soil profiles from the soil database of the Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research (WSL). We evaluated historical and modern topographic maps using ArcGIS, classifying current forest sites into permanently (≥150y) forested and newly forested sites (<150y). To identify the impact of climate and historic land-use change on SOC storage, we statistically analyzed the influence of the estimated forest ages of the sites and of potentially additional drivers such as topography, climate, and soil properties on SOC stocks. Contrary to our expectations, our results indicate slightly higher SOC stocks in younger forest sites compared to permanently forested ones. This result could be observed in both organic layer (28,65 vs. 22,23 t C ha-1) and mineral soil (131,38 vs. 113,68 t C ha-1). We attribute the slightly smaller SOC stocks in the younger forests to their inherently higher SOC-stocks, as associated with favorable land previously used for grassland. Moreover, we observed higher SOC stocks under coniferous than under deciduous forest - however, this was only evident in the organic layer, but not in the mineral soil. Soil carbon increased significantly with decreasing mean annual temperature (MAT) and increasing precipitation (MAP), in

  12. [Review of the 2016 Swiss immunization schedule and technology update for improving vaccine management].

    PubMed

    Diana, Alessandro

    2016-05-11

    The 2016 immunization schedule published by the Swiss Federal Office of Public Health includes three new clauses: reimbursement of the additional Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in young males (11-26 years) as recommended by local canton programs, the end of franchise exemption for the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccination, and the creation of a new system of indemnities and moral compensation in the event of personal injury resulting from vaccinations. This article presents the main features of the 2016 immunization schedule with details of the technology available to physicians to improve vaccine management.

  13. A Survey of the SWISS Researchers on the Impact of Sibling Privacy Protections on Pedigree Recruitment

    PubMed Central

    Worrall, Bradford B.; Chen, Donna T.; Brown, Robert D.; Brott, Thomas G.; Meschia, James F.

    2006-01-01

    To understand the perceptions and attitudes about privacy safeguards in research and investigate the impact of letter-based proband-initiated contact on recruitment, we surveyed researchers in the Siblings With Ischemic Stroke Study (SWISS). All 49 actively recruiting sites provided at least 1 response, and 61% reported that potential probands were enthusiastic. Although 66% of researchers valued proband-initiated contact, only 23% said that probands viewed this strategy as important to protecting the privacy of siblings. A substantial minority of researchers (37%) said the strategy impeded enrollment, and 44% said it was overly burdensome to pro-bands. PMID:15855803

  14. Toward a mandatory work policy for men.

    PubMed

    Mead, Lawrence M

    2007-01-01

    Lawrence Mead addresses the problem of nonwork among low-income men, particularly low-income black men, and its implications for families and children. The poor work effort, he says, appears to be caused partly by falling wages and other opportunity constraints but principally by an oppositional culture and a breakdown of work discipline. Mead argues that if government policies are to increase work among poor men, they must not merely improve wages and skills but enforce work in available jobs. Using the same "help with hassle" approach that welfare reform has used successfully to increase work among poor mothers, policymakers should adapt the child support enforcement and criminal justice systems so that both actively help their clients find employment and then back up that help with a requirement that they work. Men with unpaid child support judgments and parolees leaving prison would be told to get a job or pay up, as they are now. But if they did not, they would be remanded to a required work program where their efforts to work would be closely supervised. They would have to participate and get a private job and have their subsequent employment verified. Failing that, they would be assigned to work crews, where again compliance would be verified. Men who failed to participate and work steadily would--unless there were good cause--be sent back to the child support or parole authorities to be imprisoned. But men who complied would be freed from the work program after a year or two. They would then revert to the looser supervision practiced by the regular child support and parole systems. If their employment record deteriorated, they could again be remanded to the work program. Mead estimates that such a program would involve as many as 1.5 million men who are already in the child support and criminal justice systems and would cost $2.4 billion to $4.8 billion a year. It is premature, says Mead, for such a program to be mandated nationwide. Rather, the best role

  15. Antisperm protein targets in azoospermia men

    PubMed Central

    Zangbar, Mohammad-Sadegh Soltani; Keshtgar, Sara; Zolghadri, Jaleh; Gharesi-Fard, Behrouz

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The number of couples that meet the definition of infertility at reproductive ages is increasing worldwide. One of the most known conditions of infertility in males is azoospermia, defined as complete absence of spermatozoa in the semen. Azoospermia manifests in two forms, namely obstructive and non-obstructive azoospermia. Although the presence of antisperm antibody (ASA) has been reported in 88% of the patients with obstructive azoospermia (OA), interestingly, there is no data regarding ASA targets in OA individuals. AIM: The present study aimed to identify sperm antibody targets in a group of OA men. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: The present study was carried out on 27 OA infertile men and 27 healthy fertile age-matched males as cases and controls, respectively. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The sperm proteome was separated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis technique, transferred onto the polyvinylidene fluoride membrane, and blotted with the sera of a group of OA men. Then, it was compared with the membranes blotted with the sera of a group of healthy fertile men. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight (MALDI TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry was used to identify the different blotted spots and finally the results of the mass analysis were confirmed using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction method. RESULTS: The results indicated that OA patients might produce antibody against two sperm proteins, Tektin-2 and triose phosphate isomerase. Moreover, the expressions of the two targeted proteins were confirmed at RNA level. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the present study revealed two functionally important sperm proteins as antibody targets in azoospermic men. PMID:27110078

  16. Social responsibility, substance use, and sexual risk behavior in men who have sex with men.

    PubMed

    Martin, Aaron M; Benotsch, Eric G; Cejka, Anna; Luckman, Diana

    2014-01-01

    Considerable public health literature focuses on relationships between problematic human characteristics (e.g., psychopathology) and unhealthy behaviors. A recent movement termed positive psychology emphasizes the advantages of assessing relationships between human strengths (e.g., altruism) and beneficial health behaviors. The present study assessed social responsibility, an orientation to help or protect others even when there is nothing to be gained as an individual, and its relationship to HIV-relevant behaviors. In our sample of 350 men who have sex with men (MSM), social responsibility was negatively correlated with substance use and HIV risk behaviors. Men who had been tested for HIV and knew their HIV status-a behavior that helps men protect their partners but does not protect themselves from the virus-also scored higher in social responsibility. Interventions designed to reduce HIV risk behavior in MSM may benefit from efforts to promote human strengths.

  17. Special antigens on sperm from autoimmune infertile men.

    PubMed

    Mathur, S; Chao, L; Goust, J M; Milroy, G T; Woodley-Miller, C; Caldwell, J Z; Daru, J; Williamson, H O

    1988-05-01

    Sera from three fertile men and four infertile men without sperm antibodies, 17 infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and seminal plasma (S.P.), and 25 infertile men with sperm antibodies in S.P. were tested by Western Blot analysis against sperm membrane extracts and S.P. from fertile nonautoimmune men and infertile autoimmune men. Sera from fertile men reacted against common antigens with molecular weights (MW) of 28, 38, 48, 60, and 68 kD present on sperm from autoimmune and nonautoimmune men and special antigen of MW 76 kD on the sperm of fertile men. Sera from 15 of 17 (88%) autoimmune infertile men with sperm antibodies in serum and S.P. detected special antigens with MW of 58 kD (sera reactivity in 47% of these men), 43kD (in 29%), 30 kD (in 24%), 35 kD (in 18%), 52 kD (in 12%), 41 kD (in 6%), and 71 kD (in 6%) on the sperm of autoimmune men in addition to the common antigens. Sera from 15 of 25 (60%) men with sperm antibodies in their S.P. showed reactivity to special antigens with MW 52 kD (in 20%), 35 kD (in 16%), 41 kD (in 16%), 58 kD (in 8%), 70/71 kD (in 8%), 30 kD (in 8%), and 56 kD (in 4%). Sera from 18 of 42 (43%) infertile men with sperm antibodies also detected special antigens of MW 26, 46, and 76 kD present only in fertile men's sperm. Sera from only 15 of 42 (36%) autoimmune infertile men reacted against special antigens with MW 17, 20, 23, 30, 43, and 58 kD in the seminal plasma of autoimmune infertile men.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Pampered sons, (wo)manly men, or do-nothing machos? Costa Rican men coming of age under neoliberalism.

    PubMed

    Mannon, Susan E; Kemp, Eagan

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how young men in Costa Rica negotiate ideas of manhood under neoliberalism. We draw on interview data involving 23 men, ages 15–35, residing in one Costa Rican city. Comparing men across three different class locations, we find diverse "markers of manhood." Our data suggest an emerging globally dominant masculine ideal among an elite class of men, a declining locally dominant masculine ideal among working-class men, and a cynical, possibly counter-cultural masculine ideal among poor men. We conclude that masculinities are not only fluid, but tied to changing economic circumstances and class structures.

  19. Sexual Dysfunction, HIV, and AIDS in Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shindel, Alan W.; Horberg, Michael A.; Smith, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract HIV infection is associated with sexual dysfunction. Using validated instruments, we investigated the relationship between HIV/AIDS and sexual function in a contemporary cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM). An anonymous Internet-based survey was disseminated to MSM via organizations and social networking sites that cater to this population. Information on ethnodemographic variables, health status (including HIV status, disease stage, and other health conditions), and sexual behavior was collected. Men were categorized as HIV-negative, HIV-positive/AIDS-negative, or HIV-positive /AIDS-positive. A modified validated version of the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) for use in MSM and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) were used to stratify risk of sexual dysfunction. The study cohort included 1361 men (236 of whom were HIV-positive) who provided complete data on HIV status, IIEF, and PEDT. There was a significant trend toward greater prevalence of erectile dysfunction (ED) in men with progressive HIV infection 40–59 years of age relative to age matched HIV-negative men (p=0.02). In a logistic regression model controlling for other variables, HIV infection without AIDS was not associated with greater odds of ED; however, HIV infection with AIDS was associated with greater odds of ED (p=0.006). In a separate logistic regression model, HIV infection with or without AIDS was not significantly associated with greater odds of premature ejaculation (p>0.05). Use of phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor drugs was much more common in HIV-infected men. HIV infection is a risk factor for poorer sexual function primarily due to higher risk of erectile dysfunction in men with AIDS. PMID:21501095

  20. Predictors of Risky Sexual Behavior Among Young African American Men Who Have Sex With Men

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Trevor; Peterson, John L.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the prevalence and correlates of unprotected anal intercourse among 758 young African American men who have sex with men. A quarter of the sample reported unprotected anal intercourse in the past 3 months; nonsupportive peer norms and not carrying condoms predicted risky sexual behavior. Effective interventions are needed that promote the use of condoms by changing peer norms and encouraging carrying condoms. PMID:15226130

  1. What might interrupt men's suicide? Results from an online survey of men

    PubMed Central

    Shand, Fiona L; Proudfoot, Judy; Player, Michael J; Fogarty, Andrea; Whittle, Erin; Wilhelm, Kay; Hadzi-Pavlovic, Dusan; McTigue, Isabel; Spurrier, Michael; Christensen, Helen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Men are almost two times more likely to die by suicide than women, yet little research has focused on what is required to prevent suicide among men. This paper aims to investigate what factors interrupt suicidal behaviour in men, and to examine differences according to known suicide risk factors. Setting Australia. Participants 251 Australian men aged 18 years and over who had made a suicide attempt 6–18 months prior to completing the survey. Outcomes The survey canvassed the language men use to describe their depression and suicidality, warning signs, barriers to accessing help and what is needed to interrupt a suicide attempt. ORs and χ2 were used to test for differences by age, geographic location and current depression severity. Results Of 299 men screened and eligible to participate, 251 completed all or part of the survey. Participants identified different words and warning signs for depression compared with suicidality. The most commonly endorsed barriers to accessing help were not wanting to burden others (66%) and having isolated themselves (63%). Men overwhelmingly endorsed ‘I thought about the consequences for my family’ as the factor which stopped a suicide attempt (67%). ‘I need support from someone I really trust and respect’ was also strongly endorsed. There were few differences by age, region or depression severity. Conclusions Participants were able to identify signs, albeit often subtle ones, that they were becoming depressed or suicidal. Similarly, most were able to identify active strategies to interrupt this downward spiral. Men wanted others to notice changes in their behaviour, and to approach them without judgement. PMID:26474936

  2. Anorectal sexually transmitted infections in men who have sex with men--special considerations for clinicians.

    PubMed

    Goldstone, Stephen E; Welton, Mark L

    2004-11-01

    Men who have sex with men have special health-care issues and are at high risk for sexually transmitted infections. In managing their anorectal health it is important to modify the history and physical and handle patients in a nonjudgmental fashion. It is important to understand behavioral patterns including recreational drug use, unprotected sex, and HIV infection. Screening and counseling play important roles in effective management of these patients.

  3. Time trend and determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss population over a transition period (1984-1993) from leaded to unleaded gasoline use

    SciTech Connect

    Wietlisbach, V.; Rickenbach, M.; Berode, M.

    1995-02-01

    This study analyzes the trend and determinants of blood lead levels in a Swiss region (population 770,000) over the 10-year period following the introduction of unleaded gasoline in 1985. The consumption of unleaded fuel increased rapidly, accounting in 1988 for 36% and in 1992 for 65% of all gasoline sales. Blood lead levels were measured in three representative samples (n = 1700) of the adult population within the framework of a health examination survey carried out in 1984/1985, 1988/1989, and 1992/1993. The geometric mean blood lead levels were, respectively, 0.59, 0.42, and 0.33 {mu}mole/liter in men, 0.41, 0.29, and 0.25 {mu}mole/liter in women. Similar trends have been observed across all age groups, occupational classes, and categories across all age groups, occupational classes, and categories based on smoking, drinking, and dietary habits. The overexposure of city residents, in comparison to village residents, fades out over the observation period. These findings suggest that the changeover from leaded to unleaded gasoline has been the major cause of the blood lead decline. Wine drinking, cigarette smoking, and age appear to be significant determinants of blood lead for both sexes in all three surveys. In contrast, the association is inverse for milk consumption. The multivariate regression analysis shows that wine drinking remains the most important predictor of blood lead, whereas the influence of age increases with time and overcomes the effect of smoking in the third survey. 32 refs., 21 refs., 6 tabs.

  4. Sexual Behavior Latent Classes Among Men Who Have Sex With Men: Associations With Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    PubMed

    Rice, Cara E; Turner, Abigail Norris; Lanza, Stephanie T

    2016-08-12

    Men who have sex with men (MSM) are at disproportionate risk of acquisition of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We used latent class analysis (LCA) to examine patterns of sexual behavior among MSM and how those patterns are related to STIs. We examined patterns of sexual behavior using behavioral and clinical data from a cross-sectional study of 235 MSM who presented to an urban sexual health clinic for STI testing. Analyzed data were collected using a combination of interviewer- and self-administered surveys and electronic health records. We used LCA to identify underlying subgroups of men based on their sexual behavior, described the demographics of the latent classes, and examined the association between the latent classes and STI status. We identified three latent classes of sexual behavior: Unprotected Anal Intercourse (UAI) Only (67%), Partner Seekers (14%), and Multiple Behaviors (19%). Men in the Multiple Behaviors class had a 67% probability of being STI positive, followed by men in the UAI Only class (27%) and men in the Partner Seekers class (22%). Examining the intersection of a variety of sexual practices indicates particular subgroups of MSM have the highest probability of being STI positive.

  5. Partner Selection among Latino Immigrant Men Who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Shedlin, Michele G.; Brooks, Kelly D.; Penha, Marcelo Montes; Reisen, Carol A.; Zea, Maria Cecilia; Poppen, Paul J.

    2010-01-01

    This qualitative study explored partner selection in a sample of immigrant Latino men who have sex with men (MSM). In-depth interviews were conducted with men living in the greater New York metropolitan area who had been born in Brazil (n = 10), Colombia (n = 14), or the Dominican Republic (n = 9). One focus group was conducted with MSM from each of the three countries (9 Brazilian, 11 Colombian, and 5 Dominican participants). A grounded theory approach revealed three main themes relating to partner selection. The first concerned stereotypes of how Latino and Anglo-American men tend to behave in their sexual encounters and relationships. The participants perceived Latinos to be more affectionate and passionate, whereas they saw Anglo-American men as more independent and practical. These cultural discrepancies sometimes resulted in a preference for Latino partners. A second theme concerned stereotypes of the national groups, including expectations that Brazilians would be sexy and sensual and that Dominicans would have large penises. As found in other research on MSM of color, ethnic and national stereotypes were associated with experiences of sexual objectification. The third theme addressed the importance of masculine characteristics in sexual attraction and partner selection. Negative feelings towards effeminate men who did not conform to normative male physical or behavioral presentation reflect a stigma found inside and outside of the gay community. These findings suggest that gender and ethnic stereotypes play an important role in shaping partner choice and have implications for sexual risk and relationship formation. PMID:19688592

  6. HIV knowledge and risks among Vietnamese men who have sex with men travelling abroad.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huyen; Nguyen, Hoang Quan; Colby, Donn Joseph

    2014-08-01

    Rapid economic and social development in Vietnam has resulted in increased opportunities for travel and new potential routes of HIV transmission. We conducted a cross-sectional study examining demographics, knowledge, and sexual risk behaviour amongst 100 Vietnamese men who have sex with men who traveled abroad in the previous 12 months. Men who have sex with men surveyed were mostly university-educated, single, and under 30. Most travel (73%) was within Southeast Asia and was undertaken for tourism (51%) or for work (29%). Casual sex with a foreign partner occurred on 39% of trips. Only four were reported to have involved in unsafe sex with a casual partner. Four reported illicit drug use. Alcohol was widely consumed. Multivariate analysis showed that two variables, travelling alone (OR = 5.26,p < 0.001) and a university education (OR = 4.05,p = 0.004), were significantly associated with casual sex abroad. More HIV prevention education on the risks of sex while travelling abroad is needed for men who have sex with men in Vietnam.

  7. Sources of HIV infection among men having sex with men and implications for prevention ✻

    PubMed Central

    Ratmann, O.; van Sighem, A.; Bezemer, D.; Gavryushkina, A.; Jurriaans, S.; Wensing, A.; de Wolf, F.; Reiss, P.; Fraser, C.

    2016-01-01

    New HIV diagnoses among men having sex with men (MSM) have not decreased appreciably in most countries, even though care and prevention services have been scaled up substantially in the past twenty years. To maximize the impact of prevention strategies, it is crucial to quantify the sources of transmission at the population level. We used viral sequence and clinical patient data from one of Europe’s nation-wide cohort studies to estimate probable sources of transmission for 617 recently infected MSM. 71% of transmissions were from undiagnosed men, 6% from men who had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART), 1% from men with no contact to care for at least 18 months, and 43% from those in their first year of infection. The lack of substantial reductions in incidence amongst Dutch MSM is not a result of ineffective ART provision or inadequate retention in care. In counterfactual modeling scenarios, 19% of these past cases could have been averted with current annual testing coverage and immediate ART to those testing positive. 66% of these cases could have been averted with available antiretrovirals (immediate ART provided to all MSM testing positive, and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis taken by half of all who test negative for HIV), but only if half of all men at risk of transmission had tested annually. With increasing sequence coverage, molecular epidemiological analyses can be a key tool to direct HIV prevention strategies to the predominant sources of infection, and help send HIV epidemics amongst MSM into a decisive decline. PMID:26738795

  8. Where are all the men? The marginalization of men in social scientific research on infertility.

    PubMed

    Culley, Lorraine; Hudson, Nicky; Lohan, Maria

    2013-09-01

    There is a wealth of research exploring the psychological consequences of infertility and assisted reproduction technology, a substantial body of sociological and anthropological work on 'reproductive disruptions' of many kinds and a small but growing literature on patient perspectives of the quality of care in assisted reproduction. In all these fields, research studies are far more likely to be focused on the understandings and experiences of women than those of men. This paper discusses reasons for the relative exclusion of men in what has been called the 'psycho-social' literature on infertility, comments on research on men from psychological and social perspectives and recent work on the quality of patient care, and makes suggestions for a reframing of the research agenda on men and assisted reproduction. Further research is needed in all areas, including: perceptions of infertility and infertility treatment seeking; experiences of treatment; information and support needs; decisions to end treatment; fatherhood post assisted conception; and the motivation and experiences of sperm donors and men who seek fatherhood through surrogacy or co-parenting. This paper argues for multimethod, interdisciplinary research that includes broader populations of men which can contribute to improved clinical practice and support for users of assisted reproduction treatment.

  9. Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_162372.html Men More Likely to Use Marijuana Than Women, Study Finds Researchers suggest 2007 recession ... more American adults choose to puff at the marijuana pipe, a gender difference is becoming clear -- men ...

  10. Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The Men of African Descent and Carcinoma of the Prostate Consortium collaborates on epidemiologic studies to address the high burden of prostate cancer and to understand the causes of etiology and outcomes among men of African ancestry.

  11. Geneticists Get to The Roots of Hair Loss in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Human Services. More Health News on: Genes and Gene Therapy Men's Health Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Genes and Gene Therapy Hair Loss Men's Health About MedlinePlus Site Map ...

  12. Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services

    MedlinePlus

    ... NCHS Marriage, Cohabitation, and Men's Use of Preventive Health Care Services Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir NCHS ... other not-married men to have had a health care visit in the past 12 months. Figure 1. ...

  13. Managing Chemotherapy Side Effects: Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemotherapy Side Effects Sexual and Fertility Changes in Men “I talked with my doctor before treatment. I ... other health issues are also important. Questions from men about sexual problems: What sexual problems might I ...

  14. Men: Here Are Ways to Healthier, Younger-Looking Skin

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163115.html Men: Here Are Ways to Healthier, Younger-Looking Skin ... 2017 WEDNESDAY, Jan. 18, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many men don't think about skin care but they ...

  15. What Health Issues or Conditions Affect Women Differently Than Men?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to have treatment to control their cholesterol levels. Mental health Women are more likely to show signs of ... men are. Depression is the most common women’s mental health problem, 5 and more women than men are ...

  16. Marriage Role Expectations of Divorced Men and Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Joseph W.; Andress, Elizabeth L.

    1982-01-01

    Examined six dimensions of expectations of divorced men and women along the continuum of traditionalism versus egalitarianism in sex roles. Data suggested that women, more than men, view marriage role responsibilities evenly applying to both sexes. (Author)

  17. Urinary tract infection in men with AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    De Pinho, A M; Lopes, G S; Ramos-Filho, C F; Santos, O da R; De Oliveira, M P; Halpern, M; Gouvea, C A; Schechter, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate whether bacteriuria and, specifically, symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) occur with increased frequency in men with HIV infection. METHODS--In this cross-sectional study we investigated three groups of men, aged from 18 to 50 years. Group A was composed of patients with a diagnosis of AIDS; Group B, of patients without HIV infection, and group C of patients with asymptomatic HIV infection. Patients with any known predisposing factor for UTI were excluded from the study. A clean-catch midstream urine sample was collected from each patient on the first day of hospital admission (groups A and B) or during a visit to the outpatient clinic (group C). Bacteriuria was diagnosed when > or = 100,000 colony forming units/ml, urine were grown. RESULTS--There were 415 patients, 151 in group A, 170 in group B and 94 in group C. Bacteriuria was significantly more frequently in group A (20 cases, 13.3%) than in groups B (3 cases, 1.8%, p = 0.00007) and C (3 cases, 3.2%, p = 0.009). Ten cases of bacteriuria in group A (6.6%) were symptomatic while no case of symptomatic UTI was seen in groups B (p = 0.0004) and C (p = 0.008). The frequency of UTI in homosexual men with AIDS (7 cases, 6.7%) was not significantly different from that observed in men with AIDS who denied homosexuality (3 cases, 6.5%). E coli was the predominant pathogen associated with UTI. Although adequate response to a two-week course of antibiotics was observed in most cases, an in-hospital mortality rate of 20% was found among AIDS patients with symptomatic UTI. CONCLUSIONS--In the present study, the frequency of bacteriuria and symptomatic UTI was found to be increased in men with AIDS. E coli was the predominant pathogen in these cases. These data suggest that symptomatic UTI may represent a relevant cause of morbidity for men with AIDS. PMID:8300097

  18. Sudden cardiac death in forensic medicine – Swiss recommendations for a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias; Bolliger, Stephan A; Bartsch, Christine; Fokstuen, Siv; Gräni, Christoph; Martos, Viktor; Medeiros Domingo, Argelia; Osculati, Antonio; Rieubland, Claudine; Sabatasso, Sara; Saguner, Ardan M; Schyma, Christian; Tschui, Joelle; Wyler, Daniel; Bhuiyan, Zahurul A; Fellmann, Florence; Michaud, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is by definition unexpected and cardiac in nature. The investigation is almost invariably performed by a forensic pathologist. Under these circumstances the role of the forensic pathologist is twofold: (1.) to determine rapidly and efficiently the cause and manner of death and (2.) to initiate a multidisciplinary process in order to prevent further deaths in existing family members. If the death is determined to be due to "natural" causes the district attorney in charge often refuses further examinations. However, additional examinations, i.e. extensive histopathological investigations and/or molecular genetic analyses, are necessary in many cases to clarify the cause of death. The Swiss Society of Legal Medicine created a multidisciplinary working group together with clinical and molecular geneticists and cardiologists in the hope of harmonising the approach to investigate SCD. The aim of this paper is to close the gap between the Swiss recommendations for routine forensic post-mortem cardiac examination and clinical recommendations for genetic testing of inherited cardiac diseases; this is in order to optimise the diagnostic procedures and preventive measures for living family members. The key points of the recommendations are (1.) the forensic autopsy procedure for all SCD victims under 40 years of age, (2.) the collection and storage of adequate samples for genetic testing, (3.) communication with the families, and (4.) a multidisciplinary approach including cardiogenetic counselling.

  19. [Needs and expectations of Tamil women attending an antenatal care department at a Swiss university hospital].

    PubMed

    Büchi, Simone; Cignacco, Eva; Lüthi, Damaris; Spirig, Rebecca

    2006-10-01

    It has been noted that immigrant women often initiate prenatal care late in their pregnancy and thus may be inadequately prepared for their birth experience. This leads to poorer maternal outcomes and higher morbidity statistics compared to Swiss women. Tamil women of Sri Lanka represent the largest group of immigrant women being seen at the antenatal care clinic of a Swiss University Hospital. To get a deeper understanding of their needs and expectations relative to their antenatal care, a qualitative study was undertaken. Problem centred interviews were conducted with seven Tamil women before and after delivery. An interpreter was consulting. Data were analyzed using content analysis methods as described by Mayring. Four main themes emerged, demonstrating the need of the women and their resulting expectation: 1) to receive esteem--to show respect and attention; 2) to consult with somebody--to ensure communication; 3) to alleviate worries and fear--to give a sense of security and be in charge; and 4) to make up for lack of experience and knowledge--to pass on experience and knowledge. The quality of the relationships to caregivers is viewed as pivotal and seems to influence Tamil women's satisfaction and their motivation to receive prenatal care.

  20. Introducing Mushroom Fruiting Patterns from the Swiss National Poisons Information Centre

    PubMed Central

    Schenk-Jäger, Katharina M.; Egli, Simon; Hanimann, David; Senn-Irlet, Beatrice; Kupferschmidt, Hugo; Büntgen, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the ecology of macrofungi are poorly understood, not only because much of their life cycle is hidden belowground, but also because experiments often miss real-world complexity and most fruitbody inventories are limited in space and time. The National Poisons Information Centre ‘Tox Info Suisse’ provides countrywide 24hours/7days medical advice in case of poisonings since 1966. Here, we introduce a total of 12,126 mushroom-related phone calls that were received by Tox Info Suisse between 1966 and 2014. This indirect source of mycological information is dominated by the families of Boletaceae (11%), Agaricaceae (10%) and Amanitaceae (8%), which account for ~30% of all cases. Mushroom fruiting patterns revealed by the Poisons Centre inventory statistically resemble changes in fungal phenology, productivity and diversity as reflected by the Swiss National Data Centre ‘SwissFungi’. Although the newly developed Tox Info Suisse dataset provides an innovative basis for timely environmental research, caution is advised when interpreting some of the observed long-term changes and autumnal extremes. Uncertainty of the new record relates to possible data incompleteness, imprecise species description and/or identification, as well as the inclusion of cultivated and non-indigenous mushrooms. Nevertheless, we hope that the Tox Info Suisse inventory will stimulate and enable a variety of ecological-oriented follow-up studies. PMID:27648562

  1. Injuries of football referees: a representative survey of Swiss referees officiating at all levels of play.

    PubMed

    Bizzini, M; Junge, A; Bahr, R; Dvorak, J

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the frequency and characteristics of injury and musculo-skeletal complaints in Swiss football referees of all levels. A representative sample of 489 Swiss referees was interviewed regarding their socio-demographic characteristics, refereeing qualifications, time spent in training and in matches, history of injuries and musculo-skeletal complaints caused by training or refereeing, and other medical problems. A total of 110 referees (22.5%) reported having suffered at least one injury related to officiating, and 126 referees (25.8%) at least one refereeing-related musculo-skeletal complaint. Thigh strains and ankle sprains were the most frequent injuries, with the most frequent locations of complaints being the knee and lower back. The incidence of match injuries in the last 12 months was on average 2.06 per 1000 match hours; the incidence of training injuries was substantially lower (0.09 per 1000 training hours). The injury rates were similar for referees officiating at an adult level, but lower at a junior level. In comparison with elite football referees, the incidence of training injuries and the prevalence of musculo-skeletal complaints were lower in amateur referees. Nevertheless, preventive programs are indicated for referees at all levels, especially when considering the length of a referee's career.

  2. Dietary Yucca schidigera supplementation reduces arsenic-induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Ince, Sinan; Kucukkurt, Ismail; Turkmen, Ruhi; Demirel, Hasan Huseyin; Sever, Emine

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the effects of dietary supplementation with Yucca schidigera (Ys) on lipid peroxidation (LPO), antioxidant activity, some biochemical parameters and histopathological changes in arsenic-exposed mice. Forty Swiss albino male mice were divided into five equal groups. Group I (control group) was given normal diet and tap water for 28 days. Group II (arsenic group) was given normal diet and 100 mg/L arsenic along with drinking water for 28 days. Groups III-V were given three different doses of Ys (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) in supplemented diet and arsenic (100 mg/L) along with drinking water throughout the entire period of 28 days. The arsenic significantly increased serum biochemical parameters and malondialdehyde levels in blood and tissue. However, arsenic significantly decreased tissue glutathione concentration, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. In contrast, dietary supplementation of Ys, in a dose-dependent manner, resulted in reversal of arsenic-induced oxidative stress, LPO and activities of antioxidant enzymes. Moreover, Ys also exhibited protective action against the arsenic-induced focal gliosis and hyperemi in brain, necrosis and degeneration in liver, degeneration and dilatation in Bowman's capsule of kidney and hyaline degeneration in heart tissue of mice. Consequently, our results demonstrate that Ys especially high-dose supplementation in diet decreases arsenic-induced oxidative stress and enhances the antioxidant defence mechanism and regenerate of tissues in Swiss albino mice.

  3. [Effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma in Swiss albino mice].

    PubMed

    Lubo-Palma, Adonías; Nava-Leal, Carmen; Villasmil, Víctor; Quevedo, Ana Luisa; Montiel, Maria; Simoes, David; Faría, Clarisa

    2006-09-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of cadmium on the ovarian parenchyma. An experimental study was designed with 25 Swiss albino mice (healthy females) living 50 days under controlled laboratory conditions. For the experimental group, 21 mice were selected at random and divided into 3 groups (B, C, and D) of 7 animals each; thereafter they were exposed, respectively, to 50, 100 and 150 ppm of cadmium chloride dissolved in water offered ad libitum. They were compared with the control group A (6 remaining mice). Beginning on week three, physical and behavioral changes were observed: darkening of the eyes, yellowish discoloration of hair, flaccid and hypotonic muscles, irritability, aggressiveness and indifference. Ovaric histological findings were compared among the groups through optic microscopy and they were the following in cadmium exposed mice: 1) in the epithelium, proliferation, finger-like projections, hyperplasia, degeneration and necrosis; 2) in the ovary cortex, increased numbers of atresic follicles, decreased number of follicles in different stages of maturation, disorganization, edema and decreased number of yellow bodies; 3) in the interfollicular zone, areas of disorganization, edema and necrosis, mainly in the samples belonging to group D; 4) in the ovaric medulla, congestion, hyperemia and large sanguineous vasodilatation tending to haemorrhage. Since these effects increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium chloride, we may conclude that cadmium chloride is a highly toxic agent on the ovaric parenchyma of Swiss albino mice.

  4. Effects of soil type, liming, and sludge application on zinc and cadmium availability to Swiss chard

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, S.; Jellum, E.J.; Baker, A.S.

    1985-02-01

    An investigation was made of the effects of sludge application, liming, and soil type of Zn and Cd availability to Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris L.) in pot culture under field environmental conditions. Increasing sludge application reduced soil pH, increased the amounts of Zn and Cd extractable by MgCl/sub 2/ and DTPA, and increased metal accumulation in the plants. Total metal levels in soil did not predict the accumulation in plants as well as did levels of extractable metals, even though the coefficient of determination (R/sup 2/) between extractable and total levels was high. Soils containing high amorphous Fe oxide levels generally had lower metal extractability at a constant rate of sludge application than those with low amorphous Fe oxide levels. Although pH was important in influencing metal availability for any particular soil, its influence was often less than that of amorphous Fe oxide content when availability was compared among soils. Inclusions of both pH and amorphous Fe oxide content, along with total metal content, gave the best prediction of metal availability. Soil organic matter had little relation to metal availability. Results suggest that soils high in Fe oxide content, in conjunction with soil liming, may give the best control of metal availability for accumulator species, such as Swiss chard.

  5. Mutational spectrum of the SERPING1 gene in Swiss patients with Hereditary Angioedema.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Urs C; Keller, Melanie; Schmid, Pirmin; Cichon, Sven; Wuillemin, Walter A

    2017-02-14

    Hereditary angioedema with C1 inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is a rare autosomal dominant disease caused by mutations in the C1 inhibitor gene SERPING1. Phenotype and clinical features of the disease are very heterogeneous, varying even in the same family. Compared to HAE cohorts in other countries the genetic background of the Swiss HAE patients has not been elucidated yet. In the present study we investigated the mutational spectrum of the SERPING1 gene in nineteen patients of nine unrelated Swiss families. The families comprise a total of 111 HAE - affected subjects which corresponds to approximately 70% of all HAE-affected patients living in Switzerland. Three of the identified mutations are newly described. Members of family A with a nucleotide duplication as genetic background seem to have a more intense disease manifestation with a higher attack frequency compared to the other families. Newly designed genetic screening tests allow a fast and cost efficient testing for HAE in other family members. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Memory and depressive effect on male and female Swiss mice exposed to tannery effluent.

    PubMed

    Guimarães, Abraão Tiago Batista; de Oliveira Ferreira, Raíssa; de Lima Rodrigues, Aline Sueli; Malafaia, Guilherme

    2017-03-10

    Although tannery industries generate substantial profits to the countries they are located in, they work with one of the most environmentally harmful human activities. Tannery effluents (TE) are highly toxic; thus, their improper release into water bodies may cause severe problems to individuals depending on this water. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to assess the effects of oral exposure to TE on the anxiety-, memory deficit- and depression-predictive behaviors in male and female Swiss adult mice. The following experimental groups were set in order to do so, control, positive control (reference drugs) and effluent. The animals in the effluent group were treated with 5% TE diluted in potable water for 15 consecutive days. The neurobehavioral tests started on the 12th experimental day. The results found through the elevated plus-maze test (for anxiety prediction) showed no anxiogenic or anxiolytic effects on animals exposed to TE. On the other hand, animals treated with TE showed short- and long-term memory deficit in the object recognition test, as well as depression-predictive behavior in the forced swimming test. These results may concern the high concentration of heavy metals and neurotoxic organic compounds in the TE. Therefore, the oral exposure to TE, even for a short period-of-time, has effects on the central nervous system (CNS) that lead to neurobehavioral changes. Thus, the current study broadens the knowledge on this research field by demonstrating the neurotoxicity of xenobiotics to male and female Swiss mice.

  7. Antioxidant potential of tea reduces arsenite induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Sinha, D; Roy, S; Roy, M

    2010-04-01

    Environmental arsenic (As) is a potent human carcinogen and groundwater As contamination is a major health concern in West Bengal, India. Oxidative stress has been one of the prime factors in As-induced carcinogenicity. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), beyond the body's endogenous antioxidant balance cause a severe imbalance of the cellular antioxidant defence mechanism. Tea, a popular beverage has excellent chemopreventive and antioxidant properties. In this study it was investigated whether these flavonoids could ameliorate the arsenite (As III) induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice. Bio-monitoring with comet assay elicited that the increase in genotoxicity caused by As III was counteracted by both black tea and green tea. Elevated levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyl by As III were effectively reduced with green as well as black tea. They also exhibited protective action against the As III induced depletion of antioxidants like catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione (GSH) in mice liver tissue. Thus the tea polyphenols by virtue of their antioxidant potential may be used as an effective agent to reduce the As III induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice.

  8. Anticarcinogenic effect of black tea on pulmonary tumors in Swiss albino mice.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Yogeshwer; Taneja, Pankaj

    2002-02-25

    The widespread consumption of tea as beverage throughout the world has stimulated interest in the possibility of its use in chemoprevention of cancer. The present set of investigation was carried out to evaluate the anticarcinogenic activity of black tea using lung tumorigenesis model in Swiss albino mice. Diethylnitrosoamine (DEN), a known inducer of pulmonary tumors was given at the multiple (total eight) doses of 20mg/kg body weight through oral intubation to Swiss albino mice. Simultaneously, three different groups of animals received 1, 2 and 4% aqueous black tea extracts (ATE) as a sole source of drinking solution. The positive control group received DEN treatment only. The animals were sacrificed after 28 weeks of the first dose of DEN. They were identified for different histological types of alveologenic pulmonary tumors. In the positive DEN treated group, higher incidences of pulmonary tumors were observed, while in ATE treated groups, a lower incidence of DEN induced lung tumorigenicity was recorded. The percentage of mice having lung tumors was decreased following ATE administration. Besides this, significant decrease in the number of tumors/mouse was observed in 2 and 4% ATE supplemented groups. The histological examination revealed a significant decrease in pulmonary adenomas at all doses of ATE. The number of animals showing pulmonary adenocarcinomas induced by DEN was found to be inhibited significantly by 4% ATE. In addition, splenomegaly was found to be protected by ATE administration.

  9. JMV641: a potent bombesin receptor antagonist that inhibits Swiss 3T3 cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Azay, J; Gagne, D; Devin, C; Llinares, M; Fehrentz, J A; Martinez, J

    1996-08-27

    The peptides of the bombesin family are involved in stimulation of mitogenesis in various cell lines, including cancerous cell lines. Bombesin receptor antagonists are of great interest to inhibit this proliferation. We have synthesized a potent bombesin receptor antagonist, e.g., compound JMV641 [H-DPhe-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-NH-*CH[CH2-CH(CH3)2]-**CHOH- (CH2)3-CH3 [*(S); **92% of (S) isomer], in which a pseudopeptide bond mimicking the transition state analogue replaced the peptide bond between the two C-terminal residues. This compound was highly potent to dose-dependently inhibit binding of 125I-GRP to Swiss 3T3 cells (IC50 = 0.85 +/- 0.15 nM) and bombesin-stimulated Swiss 3T3 proliferation (pA2 = 8.78). However, compound JMV641 can inhibit bombesin-induced AP-1 regulated genes that are nuclear messengers mediating the actions of signal transduction pathways stimulated by growth factors.

  10. [The Swiss population and drug problems: perception of the problems and proposals for solutions].

    PubMed

    Leuthold, A; Cattaneo, M; Dubois-Arber, F

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate which problems in relation with drug abuse are considered to be the most important by the Swiss population and which measures do they support to reduce them. Base for this study are the results of a representative telephone survey realized in october 1991 with 1004 Swiss residents. People are mostly concerned with problems related to the danger for youth and those concerning public order but also with the human condition of addicts. Drug addicts are considered as people who have lost the sense of live, as sick but also as dangerous and less truthful. Supported are overall prevention, offers for therapies, the repression of trafficking and money-laundering but not of drug users as well as measures going in the direction of harm-minimisation (shooting rooms, medical prescription of drugs). Younger people, those with higher education and the german-speaking population have a more positive view of drug addicts and support measures in the sense of harm-minimisation. Elder people and the french-speaking population have a rather negative view of drug addicts and don't favour measures for harm-minimisation.

  11. Commissioning experience and beam physics measurements at the SwissFEL Injector Test Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schietinger, T.; Pedrozzi, M.; Aiba, M.; Arsov, V.; Bettoni, S.; Beutner, B.; Calvi, M.; Craievich, P.; Dehler, M.; Frei, F.; Ganter, R.; Hauri, C. P.; Ischebeck, R.; Ivanisenko, Y.; Janousch, M.; Kaiser, M.; Keil, B.; Löhl, F.; Orlandi, G. L.; Ozkan Loch, C.; Peier, P.; Prat, E.; Raguin, J.-Y.; Reiche, S.; Schilcher, T.; Wiegand, P.; Zimoch, E.; Anicic, D.; Armstrong, D.; Baldinger, M.; Baldinger, R.; Bertrand, A.; Bitterli, K.; Bopp, M.; Brands, H.; Braun, H. H.; Brönnimann, M.; Brunnenkant, I.; Chevtsov, P.; Chrin, J.; Citterio, A.; Csatari Divall, M.; Dach, M.; Dax, A.; Ditter, R.; Divall, E.; Falone, A.; Fitze, H.; Geiselhart, C.; Guetg, M. W.; Hämmerli, F.; Hauff, A.; Heiniger, M.; Higgs, C.; Hugentobler, W.; Hunziker, S.; Janser, G.; Kalantari, B.; Kalt, R.; Kim, Y.; Koprek, W.; Korhonen, T.; Krempaska, R.; Laznovsky, M.; Lehner, S.; Le Pimpec, F.; Lippuner, T.; Lutz, H.; Mair, S.; Marcellini, F.; Marinkovic, G.; Menzel, R.; Milas, N.; Pal, T.; Pollet, P.; Portmann, W.; Rezaeizadeh, A.; Ritt, S.; Rohrer, M.; Schär, M.; Schebacher, L.; Scherrer, St.; Schlott, V.; Schmidt, T.; Schulz, L.; Smit, B.; Stadler, M.; Steffen, B.; Stingelin, L.; Sturzenegger, W.; Treyer, D. M.; Trisorio, A.; Tron, W.; Vicario, C.; Zennaro, R.; Zimoch, D.

    2016-10-01

    The SwissFEL Injector Test Facility operated at the Paul Scherrer Institute between 2010 and 2014, serving as a pilot plant and test bed for the development and realization of SwissFEL, the x-ray Free-Electron Laser facility under construction at the same institute. The test facility consisted of a laser-driven rf electron gun followed by an S-band booster linac, a magnetic bunch compression chicane and a diagnostic section including a transverse deflecting rf cavity. It delivered electron bunches of up to 200 pC charge and up to 250 MeV beam energy at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The measurements performed at the test facility not only demonstrated the beam parameters required to drive the first stage of an FEL facility, but also led to significant advances in instrumentation technologies, beam characterization methods and the generation, transport and compression of ultralow-emittance beams. We give a comprehensive overview of the commissioning experience of the principal subsystems and the beam physics measurements performed during the operation of the test facility, including the results of the test of an in-vacuum undulator prototype generating radiation in the vacuum ultraviolet and optical range.

  12. A longitudinal study on transmission of Staphylococcus aureus genotype B in Swiss communal dairy herds.

    PubMed

    van den Borne, Bart H P; Graber, Hans U; Voelk, Verena; Sartori, Carlotta; Steiner, Adrian; Haerdi-Landerer, M Christina; Bodmer, Michèle

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common mastitis causing pathogen of dairy cattle. Several S. aureus genotypes exist, of which genotype B (GTB) is highly prevalent in Swiss dairy herds. Dairy farming in mountainous regions of Switzerland is characterised by the movement of dairy cattle to communal pasture-based operations at higher altitudes. Cows from different herds of origin share pastures and milking equipment for a period of 2 to 3 months during summer. The aim of this longitudinal observational study was to quantify transmission of S. aureus GTB in communal dairy operations. Cows (n=551) belonging to 7 communal operations were sampled at the beginning and end of the communal period. Transmission parameter β was estimated using a Susceptible-Infectious-Susceptible (SIS) model. The basic reproduction ratio R0 was subsequently derived using previously published information about the duration of infection. Mean transmission parameter β was estimated to be 0.0232 (95% CI: 0.0197-0.0274). R0 was 2.6 (95% CI: 2.2-3.0), indicating that S. aureus GTB is capable of causing major outbreaks in Swiss communal dairy operations. This study emphasized the contagious behaviour of S. aureus GTB. Mastitis management in communal dairy operations should be optimized to reduce S. aureus GTB transmission between cows and back to their herds of origin.

  13. Genetic diversity analyses reveal first insights into breed-specific selection signatures within Swiss goat breeds.

    PubMed

    Burren, A; Neuditschko, M; Signer-Hasler, H; Frischknecht, M; Reber, I; Menzi, F; Drögemüller, C; Flury, C

    2016-12-01

    We used genotype data from the caprine 50k Illumina BeadChip for the assessment of genetic diversity within and between 10 local Swiss goat breeds. Three different cluster methods allowed the goat samples to be assigned to the respective breed groups, whilst the samples of Nera Verzasca and Tessin Grey goats could not be differentiated from each other. The results of the different genetic diversity measures show that Appenzell, Toggenburg, Valais and Booted goats should be prioritized in future conservation activities. Furthermore, we examined runs of homozygosity (ROH) and compared genomic inbreeding coefficients based on ROH (FROH ) with pedigree-based inbreeding coefficients (FPED ). The linear relationship between FROH and FPED was confirmed for goats by including samples from the three main breeds (Saanen, Chamois and Toggenburg goats). FROH appears to be a suitable measure for describing levels of inbreeding in goat breeds with missing pedigree information. Finally, we derived selection signatures between the breeds. We report a total of 384 putative selection signals. The 25 most significant windows contained genes known for traits such as: coat color variation (MITF, KIT, ASIP), growth (IGF2, IGF2R, HRAS, FGFR3) and milk composition (PITX2). Several other putative genes involved in the formation of populations, which might have been selected for adaptation to the alpine environment, are highlighted. The results provide a contemporary background for the management of genetic diversity in local Swiss goat breeds.

  14. [Smoking and mortality in Swiss physicians: results of an 18-year survey].

    PubMed

    Gsell, O; Abelin, T; Wieltschnig, E

    1979-03-01

    A prospective mortality study of tobacco smoking of Swiss physicians is reported over a period of 18 years (1955-1973). The mortality rate increases with the intensity of the daily smoking quantity, going till to the double of non-smokers. This elevation is not seen in late smokers. Contrary to the habits of English doctors, who smoke mostly cigarettes, in Switzerland the death rates of cigars (mostly Stumpen) and pipe smokers are as much elevated as for cigarette smokers. In intensive smokers the mortality reached for all 3 the same rate (2,4-2,6). Under the various causes of death lung cancer was only seen in smokers (92,5% intensive smokers). Heart infarctions death has in smokers the highest rate in the age of 35-54 years, going back till 75 years where the death rate is nearly the same as in non-smokers. The passover in mortality of the intensive smokers in full activity of life is documentated by the statistic of Swiss Doctors. Therefore it is a positive factor that in the last 18 years the number of cigarette-smokers in physicians declined from 37% to 21% and the number of past-smokers has gone up from 17 to 38%, but the number of only cigars and pipesmokers is always the same.

  15. Short communication: Genetic analysis of dairy bull fertility from field data of Brown Swiss cattle.

    PubMed

    Tiezzi, F; Maltecca, C; Penasa, M; Cecchinato, A; Bittante, G

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate heritability and repeatability of dairy bull fertility in Italian Brown Swiss cattle. Bull fertility indicators were calving per service and nonreturn rate at 56 d after service. Data included 124,206 inseminations carried out by 86 technicians on 28,873 heifers and cows in 1,400 herds. Services were recorded from 1999 to 2008 and were performed with semen from 306 AI Brown Swiss bulls. Data were analyzed with a threshold animal model, which included the fixed effects of parity by class of days in milk of the inseminated cow (age at insemination for heifers), year-season of insemination, and status of the service bull at the time of insemination (progeny testing or proven), and the random effects of herd, technician, additive genetic, and permanent environment of inseminated heifer/cow and service bull, and residual. Also, genetic covariance between heifer/cow and service bull effects was considered in the model. Heritability and repeatability were 0.0079 and 0.0100 for nonreturn rate at 56 d after service, and 0.0153 and 0.0202 for calving per service, respectively. The low estimates obtained in the present study indicate that selection for male fertility using field data is hardly pursuable.

  16. Assessment of imidacloprid-induced mutagenic effects in somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

    PubMed

    Bagri, Preeti; Kumar, Vinod; Sikka, Anil K

    2016-10-01

    Pesticides are being used for plant protection to increase food protection and to reduce insect-borne diseases worldwide. Exposure to the pesticides may cause genotoxic effects on both the target and nontarget organisms, including man. Therefore, the mutagenicity evaluation of such pesticides has become a priority area of research. Imidacloprid (IMI), a neonicotinoid insecticide, is widely used in agriculture either alone or in combination with other insecticides. A combined approach employing micronucleus test (MNT) and chromosomal aberrations assay (CA) was utilized to assess the mutagenicity of imidacloprid in bone marrow of Swiss albino male mice. IMI suspension was prepared in 3% gum acacia and administered at doses of 5.5, 11 and 22 mg/kg body weight for 7, 14 and 28 days to mice. IMI treatment resulted in a dose and time-dependant increase in the frequencies of micronuclei per cell and chromosomal aberrations in bone marrow cells. A statistically significant increase in chromosomal aberrations and micronuclei/cell was found only after daily treatment of IMI at highest selected dose (22 mg/kg body weight) for longest selected time period (28 days) compared to the control group. Thus, daily exposure of imidacloprid at a dose level of 22 mg/kg body weight for 28 days caused mutagenic effects on the somatic cells of Swiss albino male mice.

  17. Phenomenology of men with body dysmorphic disorder concerning penis size compared to men anxious about their penis size and to men without concerns: a cohort study.

    PubMed

    Veale, David; Miles, Sarah; Read, Julie; Troglia, Andrea; Carmona, Lina; Fiorito, Chiara; Wells, Hannah; Wylie, Kevan; Muir, Gordon

    2015-03-01

    Men with body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) may be preoccupied with the size or shape of the penis, which may be causing significant shame or impairment. Little is known about the characteristics and phenomenology of such men and whether they can be differentiated from men with small penis anxiety (SPA) (who do not have BDD), and men with no penile concerns. Twenty-six men with BDD, 31 men with SPA, and 33 men without penile concerns were compared on psychopathology, experiences of recurrent imagery, avoidance and safety-seeking behaviours. Men with BDD had significantly higher scores than both the SPA group and no penile concern group for measures of imagery, avoidance, safety seeking and general psychopathology. The groups differed on the phenomenology of BDD specific to penile size preoccupation clearly from the worries of SPA, which in turn were different to those of the men without concerns. The common avoidance and safety seeking behaviours were identified in such men that may be used clinically.

  18. Characteristics of men who have sex with men on the internet but identify as heterosexual, compared with heterosexually identified men who have sex with women.

    PubMed

    Ross, Michael W; Månsson, Sven-Axel; Daneback, Kristian; Tikkanen, Ronny

    2005-04-01

    We compared men who have sex with other men on the Internet with the remainder of the sample of men who reported only sex with women on the Internet, in a sample of 1,846 Swedish men recruited from a major Swedish portal. We report on the self-identified heterosexual men in the sample who reported engaging in cybersex in the past year, and for whom there was complete data on sexual identity and the gender of cybersexual partners. Of the 244 cases with full data, 76% were heterosexual in both identity and behavior, 16% were gay or bisexual in identity and reported both male and female cybersexual contacts on the Internet, and 8% indicated their sexual preference was heterosexual but also reported at least one male sexual partner on the Internet. Thus, 11% of self-identified heterosexual men had sex with other men online. Comparing the two groups, the men who had sex with men (MSM) who did not identify (MSM-NI) spent significantly more time per week online, although a similar amount of time on sexual pursuits, as the heterosexual men. The MSM-NI were significantly more likely to agree that their online sexuality had affected their sexuality in a positive way, to have bought sex from prostitutes, to agree that they do things online that they would not do offline, have cybersex more often, use a web-camera and microphone more often, flirt and visit contact sites more often, and agree more often that sexual thoughts and behaviors are causing problems, desire to have sex creates problems, and sometimes fail to meet commitments due to their sexual behavior. These data taken together suggest that MSM-NI online are not uncommon and are characterized by the extent of their cybersexual involvement that sometimes extends to other men. Such men may rationalize this cybersex with other men as not, or minimally, sexual in much the same way as Humphreys characterized MSMs in public restrooms.

  19. Changes in area and volume of all Swiss glaciers over the last 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Mauro; Huss, Matthias; Hoelzle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Since the mid-1980s, glaciers in the European Alps have shown widespread and accelerating mass losses. These glacier changes have been investigated in several studies both focusing on area and length changes as well as on volume losses. Because the Alps are dominated by relatively small glaciers, we argue that a sound analysis of glacier elevation changes can only satisfactorily be done if source data of sufficient quality is available. For the Swiss Alps, these prerequisites are now given with the new Swiss Glacier Inventory INVGLAZ10MF derived by manual digitization from high-resolution (50cm) aerial orthophotographs and a new digital elevation model swissALTI3D of the same acquisition dates. By comparing the DHM25 level1 Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) acquired during the 1980s with the swissALTI3D DEMs from 2008-2011 and combining the former with the 1973 inventory and the latter with the 2010 inventory, we present glacier-specific changes in area, surface elevation, volume and geodetic mass balance for every single glacier in Switzerland. Because there are - depending on the individual acquisition dates of the source data - significant differences in the observation period over which glacier elevation changes have been derived by DEM differencing, we present an approach to temporally homogenize resulting changes. This is necessary for directly comparing individual glaciers or glacierized catchments. Furthermore, we validate our results using volume changes calculated over the same periods from photogrammetrically derived DEMs. According to the latest Swiss Glacier Inventory, the total area still glacierized in Switzerland by 2010 amounts to 944 km2 (-28% or 366 km2 since 1973). Very small glaciers (< 0.5 km2) account for 82% of the total number, but in relative terms even more glacierized area (and volume) belongs to fewer glacier entities compared to 1973. Observed area changes are largest between 2800-2900 m a.s.l. and still significant even above 3500 m a

  20. High resolution humidity, temperature and aerosol profiling with MeteoSwiss Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinoev, Todor; Arshinov, Yuri; Bobrovnikov, Sergei; Serikov, Ilya; Calpini, Bertrand; van den Bergh, Hubert; Parlange, Marc B.; Simeonov, Valentin

    2010-05-01

    Meteorological services rely, in part, on numerical weather prediction (NWP). Twice a day radiosonde observations of water vapor provide the required data for assimilation but this time resolution is insufficient to resolve certain meteorological phenomena. High time resolution temperature profiles from microwave radiometers are available as well but have rather low vertical resolution. The Raman LIDARs are able to provide temperature and humidity profiles with high time and range resolution, suitable for NWP model assimilation and validation. They are as well indispensible tools for continuous aerosol profiling for high resolution atmospheric boundary layer studies. To improve the database available for direct meteorological applications the Swiss meteo-service (MeteoSwiss), the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne (EPFL) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) initiated a project to design and build an automated Raman lidar for day and night vertical profiling of tropospheric water vapor with the possibility to further upgrade it with an aerosol and temperature channels. The project was initiated in 2004 and RALMO (Raman Lidar for meteorological observations) was inaugurated in August 2008 at MeteoSwiss aerological station at Payerne. RALMO is currently operational and continuously profiles water vapor mixing ratio, aerosol backscatter ratio and aerosol extinction. The instrument is a fully automated, self-contained, eye-safe Raman lidar operated at 355 nm. Narrow field-of-view multi-telescope receiver and narrow band detection allow day and night-time vertical profiling of the atmospheric humidity. The rotational-vibrational Raman lidar responses from water vapor and nitrogen are spectrally separated by a high-throughput fiber coupled diffraction grating polychromator. The elastic backscatter and pure-rotational Raman lidar responses (PRR) from oxygen and nitrogen are spectrally isolated by a double grating polychromator and are used to