Science.gov

Sample records for 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

  1. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-03 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,415. The total was comprised of 12,377 males and 12,038 females. This was an increase of 512 students from the 2001-02 total of 23,903. Except for 2001-02, the total for Pennsylvania home education students has increased every year since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  2. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Blixrud, Julia, Comp.

    This report presents statistics on how ARL (Association of Research Libraries) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. The following tables are included: (1) a summary table of electronic resources and library materials expenditures in ARL university libraries, 1992-93 to 2000-01; (2) summary statistics for university libraries,…

  3. System Performance on Partnership for Excellence Goals: District and College Data for 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This is the fifth in a series of reports that present information specific to California Community Colleges' Partnership for Excellence performance goals. The primary purpose of the report is to convey data included in the Management Information System (MIS) on systemwide, district, and college performance related to the 5 Partnership goals for…

  4. Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance, 2001-02.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Richard G; Haden, N Karl; Valachovic, Richard W

    2004-01-01

    The American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance obtained data by which to report, in aggregate and by type of school, the amount of financial assistance being received by dental students, in the form of loans, grants and scholarships, and work-study programs. Over 90 percent of the dental students received financial assistance through one or more federal, state, and/or school source. The average amount of assistance per student was dollar 35,100, ranging from an average of dollar 27,700 at public dental schools to dollar 51,100 at private dental schools. Loan programs accounted for almost 88 percent of all financial assistance; grants and scholarships, for 12 percent; work-study programs, for 0.2 percent. Overall, financial assistance exceeded average tuition and fees by 102 percent. With such levels of reliance on financial assistance, it remains imperative that students, even at the undergraduate level, receive the counseling, monitoring, and advice that will help them judiciously seek and manage appropriate types and amounts of financial assistance as they obtain their dental education.

  5. 7 CFR 993.409 - Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year. 993.409 Section 993.409 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Undersized Prune Regulation § 993.409 Undersized...

  6. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    This document presents results of the 2000-01 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  7. Equality through Access. Annual Report, 2000/01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

    This report describes the British Columbia Human Rights Commission's activities during 2000-01. The Commission held public hearings to learn about barriers that prevent Aboriginal students from full participation in the British Columbia education system, and published a report on the findings with recommendations for improving educational…

  8. Degrees and Certificates Earned, University of Hawaii, Community Colleges, Fiscal Year 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This document presents the data on degrees and certificates earned at the University of Hawaii Community Colleges during fiscal year 2001-02. The data presented are for the following community colleges: (1) Windward; (2) Hawaii; (3) Honolulu; (4) Kapi'olani; (5) Kaua'i; (6) Leeward; and (7) Maui. The data are presented in the format of tables and…

  9. Santa Barbara City College Institutional Effectiveness Annual Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document contains a comprehensive assessment institutional effectiveness at Santa Barbara City College (SBCC), California, during 2001-02. The report is divided into the following seven major areas related to SBCC's mission, function, and resources: (1) Student Learning; (2) Achievement and Development; (3) Student Outreach and Responsiveness…

  10. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  11. Occurrence of Selected Nutrients, Trace Elements, and Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment in the Lower Chena River Watershed near Fairbanks, Alaska, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Hall, Cassidee C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-03, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of streambed sediment at 18 sites in the lower Chena River watershed for analysis of selected nutrients, traces elements, and organic compounds. The purpose of the project was to provide Federal, State, and local agencies as well as neighborhood committees, with information for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions in the watershed. The exploratory sampling program included analysis of streambed sediment from the Chena River and Chena Slough, a tributary to the Chena River. Results were compared to streambed-sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and to 2001-02 sediment data from Noyes Slough, a side channel of the lower Chena River. The median total phosphorus concentration in Chena Slough sediment samples, 680 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), was two orders of magnitude greater than median total phosphorus concentration in Chena River sediment samples of 5.2 mg/kg. Median concentrations of chloride and sulfate also were greater in Chena Slough samples. Low concentrations of nitrate were detected in most of the Chena Slough samples; nitrate concentrations were below method reporting limits or not detected in Chena River sediment samples. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, nickel, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceeded probable-effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of arsenic in Chena Slough samples ranged from 11 to 70 mg/kg and concentrations in most of the samples exceeded the probable-effect guideline for arsenic of 17 mg/kg. Arsenic concentrations in samples from the Chena River ranged from 9 to 12 mg/kg. The background level for arsenic in the lower Chena River watershed is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of elevated concentrations of zinc in one sample, and of nickel in two samples

  12. State ESEA Title I Participation Information for 2001-02. Final Summary Report 2005. PPSS Doc # 2005-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Beth

    2005-01-01

    This state "Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)" report summarizes data for the Title I, Part A, Grants to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) program. It provides Title I participation data for 2001-02, prior to the implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)," and reflects implementation under the prior law, the…

  13. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  14. Streamflow and Water-Quality Characteristics for Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-year study of streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Wind Cave National Park was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service. During this study, streamflow and water-quality data were collected for three of the park's perennial streams (Cold Spring, Beaver, and Highland Creeks) from January 2002 through November 2003. The potential influence of parking lot runoff on cave drip within Wind Cave also was investigated by collecting and analyzing several time-dependent samples from a drainage culvert downstream from the parking lot and from Upper Minnehaha Falls inside the cave following a series of simulated runoff events. The primary focus of the report is on data collected during the 2-year study from January 2002 to November 2003; however, data collected previously also are summarized. Losing reaches occur on both Beaver and Highland Creeks as these streams flow across outcrops of bedrock aquifers within the park. No streamflow losses occur along Cold Spring Creek because its confluence with Beaver Creek is located upstream from the outcrop of the Madison aquifer, where most streamflow losses occur. Physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrates, organic (wastewater) compounds, bottom sediment, and suspended sediment are summarized for samples collected from 2 sites on Cold Spring Creek, 2 sites on Beaver Creek, and 1 site on Highland Creek. None of the constituent concentrations for any of the samples collected during 2002-03 exceeded any of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards, with the exception of the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for pH, which was exceeded in numerous samples from Beaver Creek and Highland Creek. Additionally, the pH values in several of these same samples also exceeded beneficial-use criteria for coldwater permanent fisheries and coldwater marginal fisheries. Water temperature exceeded the coldwater

  15. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Huron (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003; 2004). The net decline in the water level of Lake Huron from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003 was about 0.3 ft. Annual precipitation in 2002 was about 0.3 inches above normal, with much of it occurring during summer months. The provisional precipitation total for 2003 is about an inch below normal (NOAA, 2003, 2004; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003, 2004). Four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the glacial, Saginaw, and Marshall aquifers. Water levels in three of the four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders experienced a net decline over the period from January 2002 to December 2003, while the level in well H9r, completed in the Saginaw aquifer in Fairhaven Township adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), rose about 1.3 ft over the same period. Interestingly, the water level in Saginaw Bay declined about 0.3 ft over the same period. A period-ofrecord maximum depth to water was recorded in September 2003 in well H25Ar, completed in the Marshall aquifer in Lake Township. Hydrographs showing altitude of the water surface are presented for each of four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Twenty three wells were measured on a quarterly basis in 2002-03. These wells are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers, and Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly measurement only provides a ?snapshot? water level, the data adequately define the ?generalized? water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. The water level in one quarterly-measured well completed in the Saginaw aquifer near Saginaw Bay, had a net rise for the period from January 2002 to December 2003, while levels in the other 22 quarterly-measured wells declined about 0.5 to 2.0 ft during the same period. A period-of-record minimum depth to water (high) was measured in 2002 in two quarterly-measured wells completed in the Saginaw aquife

  16. Children Entering School Ready To Learn: School Readiness Information. School Year 2002-03 by State and County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    As part of efforts to improve services for children from birth to age five, the Maryland Joint Committee on Children, Youth, and Families charged the State Department of Education with identifying and implementing, by school year 2000-01, an early childhood assessment system that would provide baseline information on children entering…

  17. Occupational Projections and Training Data. 2000-01 Edition. Bulletin 2521.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sean; Nelson, Andrew; Shelley, Kristina; Stringer, Tiffany T.; Tate, Patricia; Toossi, Mitra

    This statistical and research supplement to the 2000-01 "Occupational Outlook Handbook" presents detailed, national, comprehensive statistics used in preparing the handbook. It also discusses recent research results and other topics valuable to training officials, education planners, vocational and employment counselors, job-seekers, and others…

  18. A Snapshot of Title I Schools Serving Migrant Students, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, Sheila Nataraj; McCombs, Jennifer Sloan; Naftel, Scott

    This report uses a series of exhibits to present a snaphot of Title I schools serving migrant students on the eve of the passage of NCLB. In addition to updating the information provided in the earlier report, this report also focuses on a third evaluation question: What progress did these schools make over time between 1998-99 and 2000-01 in…

  19. An Interim Report on the Student Support Services Program: 2002-03 and 2003-04, with Select Data from 1998-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze

    2007-01-01

    This report describes essential characteristics and key program outcome measures for the Student Support Services (SSS) program grantees and participants in reporting years 2002-03 and 2003-04. The SSS program is designed to increase college persistence and graduation rates for eligible students, increase the transfer rates of eligible students…

  20. Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2002?03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-314

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer; Naum, Julia; Gray, Dell

    2005-01-01

    This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2002-03 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Discussion of data is limited to the 50 states and the District of Columbia and excludes the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of…

  1. Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge of treated municipal-sewage effluent to the Carson River in western Nevada and eastern California ceased by 1987 and resulted in a substantial decrease in phosphorus concentrations in the Carson River. Nonetheless, concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment still commonly exceed beneficial-use criteria established for the Carson River by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Potential sources of phosphorus in the study area include natural inputs from undisturbed soils, erosion of soils and streambanks, construction of low-head dams and their destruction during floods, manure production and grazing by cattle along streambanks, drainage from fields irrigated with streamwater and treated municipal-sewage effluent, ground-water seepage, and urban runoff including inputs from golf courses. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Carson Water Subconservancy District, began an investigation with the overall purpose of providing managers and regulators with information necessary to develop and implement total maximum daily loads for the Carson River. Two specific goals of the investigation were (1) to identify those reaches of the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir where the greatest increases in phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loading occur, and (2) to identify the most important sources of phosphorus within the reaches of the Carson River where the greatest increases in concentration and loading occur. Total-phosphorus concentrations in surface-water samples collected by USGS in the study area during water years 2001-02 ranged from <0.01 to 1.78 mg/L and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 1.81 mg/L as phosphorus. In streamflow entering Carson Valley from headwater areas in the East Fork Carson River, the majority of samples exceeding the total phosphorus water-quality standard of 0.1 mg/L occur during spring runoff (March, April, and May) when suspended

  2. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    to onsite conditions tended to neutralize the acidity of the samples by less than 1.0 microequivalent per liter. Onsite exposure of the sampling bucket appeared to slightly increase the concentration of most of the analytes but not to an extent that was environmentally significant to NADP data users. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to estimate the analytical variability and bias of the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) during 2002-03. Bias was identified in the CAL data for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, hydrogen ion, and specific conductance, but the absolute value of the bias was less than analytical minimum detection limits for all constituents except magnesium, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance. Control charts showed that CAL results were within statistical control approximately 90 percent of the time. Data for the analysis of ultrapure deionized-water samples indicated that CAL did not have problems with laboratory contamination. During 2002-03, the overall variability of data from the NADP/NTN precipitation-monitoring system was estimated using data from three collocated monitoring sites. Measurement differences of constituent concentration and deposition for paired samples from the collocated samplers were evaluated to compute error terms. The medians of the absolute percentage errors (MAEs) for the paired samples generally were larger for cations (approximately 8 to 50 percent) than for anions (approximately 3 to 33 percent). MAEs were approximately 16 to 30 percent for hydrogen-ion concentration, less than 10 percent for specific conductance, less than 5 percent for sample volume, and less than 8 percent for precipitation depth. The variability attributed to each component of the sample-collection and analysis processes, as estimated by USGS quality-assurance programs, varied among analytes. Laboratory analysis variability accounted for approximately 2 percent of the

  3. Degree Completions in Areas of National Need, 1996-97 and 2001-02. E.D. Tab. NCES 2006-154

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goan, Sarah Krichels; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. Tab focuses on degree completions in academic programs that have been deemed areas of national need by federal legislation. The analysis focuses on completions data from 1996-97 and 2001-02 and examines completions at institutions granting awards of associate's degrees and higher. In particular, it looks at the change in the total number…

  4. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  5. Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality in the Mine Workings within the Picher Mining District, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.; Andrews, William J.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    seepage from the aquifer to downstream portions of Tar Creek was much more likely. Water properties and major-ion concentrations indicate that water in the mining area was very hard, with large concentrations of dissolved solids that increased from areas of presumed recharge toward areas with older ground water. Most of the ground-water samples, particularly those from the airshafts, had dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 1.0 milligram per liter. Small concentrations of dissolved oxygen may have been introduced during the sampling process. The small dissolved-oxygen concentrations were associated with samples containing large iron concentrations that indicates possible anoxic conditions in much of the aquifer. Ground water in the mining district was dominated by calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. Sodium concentrations tended to increase relative to calcium and magnesium concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2002-03 had large concentrations of many trace elements. Larger concentrations of metals and sulfate occurred in ground water with smaller pHs and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Iron was the metal with the largest concentrations in the ground-water samples, occurring at concentrations up to 115,000 micrograms per liter. Cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc, and the other analyzed metals occurred in smaller concentrations in ground water than iron. However, larger cadmium concentrations appeared to be associated with sites that have small iron concentrations and more oxygenated waters. This is noteworthy because the small sulfate and iron concentrations in these waters could lead to conclusions that the waters are less contaminated than waters with large sulfate and iron concentrations. Ground-water quality in the mining district was compared with subsets of samples collected in 1983-85 and in 2002. Concentrations of most mine-water indicators such as specific conductance, acidity, magnesium, sulfate, and trace elements concentrations dec

  6. Quality control assessment of influenza and RSV testing in Europe: 2000-01 season.

    PubMed

    Valette, M; Aymard, M

    2002-11-01

    The Quality Control Assessment (QCA) was initiated to evaluate the quality of the influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) testing in the national reference centres belonging to the European Influenza Surveillance Scheme (EISS) network. Samples were coded and sent in two panels of 12 samples within a two week interval to 16 laboratories during the 2000-01 winter season. The antibodies titration by HI test was reported by 60% of the laboratories (n=16), and the results were correct for 56% of them. One false detection of influenza B antibodies was reported by one laboratory, and for the others the sensitivity varied widely. The sensitivity of the tests for the detection of influenza virus varied for A(H3N2) from 10 to 100,000 TCID50/ml. The influenza A subtyping was performed by 87% of the laboratories, and 31% gave correct results. The characterisation of the variants was undertaken by six laboratories and half of them fully achieved it. Fifty six percent of the laboratories used RT-PCR for the diagnosis; the results were specific and the sensitivity equivalent to the cell culture.

  7. Pesticides in the Lower Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carpenter, Kurt D.

    2004-01-01

    In 2000-01, the U. S. Geological Survey sampled the Clackamas River and its major lower-basin tributaries during storm runoff conditions for 86 dissolved pesticides and selected breakdown products. Twenty-seven compounds, including 18 herbicides, 7 insecticides, and 2 pesticide breakdown products, were detected in 18 stream samples. The most commonly detected pesticides, in decreasing frequency, included atrazine, simazine, diazinon, metolachlor, and diuron, which variously occurred in 46-92% of samples collected from the tributaries. Of these, atrazine, simazine, and metolachlor, plus six other compounds, also were detected in the main-stem Clackamas River. Pesticides were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in the four lowermost tributaries (Deep, Richardson, Rock, and Sieben Creeks). In these streams, 12 to 18 pesticides were detected per stream in samples collected during spring and fall. Pesticides always occurred with at least one other pesticide, and about half of the samples, including one sample from the Clackamas River in October 2000, contained six or more pesticides. Nine pesticides, including the insecticide diazinon and the herbicides 2,4-D, atrazine, dichlobenil, diuron, imazaquin, metolachlor, simazine, and trifluralin, were detected in five water samples of Clackamas River water. No pesticides were detected in three samples of treated Clackamas River water used for drinking-water supply. Concentrations of six compounds--carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dieldrin, malathion, and the breakdown product of DDT (p,p'-DDE)--exceeded established or recommended criteria for the protection of aquatic life in some of the tributaries, sometimes for multiple pesticides in one sample. Identifying the sources of pesticides detected in the Clackamas River Basin is difficult because of the diverse land use in the basin and the multiple-use nature of many of the pesticides detected. Of the 25 parent compounds detected, 22 have agricultural uses

  8. Nutrient concentrations in Upper and Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and associated outlet streams, California and Nevada, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Five lakes and their outlet streams in the Lake Tahoe Basin were sampled for nutrients during 2002-03. The lakes and streams sampled included Upper Echo, Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and Echo, Taylor, and Marlette Creeks. Water samples were collected to determine seasonal and spatial concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, and total bioreactive iron. These data will be used by Tahoe Regional Planning Agency in revising threshold values for waters within the Lake Tahoe Basin. Standard U.S. Geological Survey methods of sample collection and analysis were used and are detailed herein. Data collected during this study and summary statistics are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  9. The Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate for Public High Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Years 2002-03 and 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-606rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seastrom, Marilyn; Hoffman, Lee; Chapman, Chris; Stillwell, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the averaged freshman graduation rate for public high school students for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 based on data reported by state education agencies to the National Center for Education Statistics. Rates are included for most of the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and three other jurisdictions for both…

  10. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  11. Zonal variations in abundance and body length of chaetognaths in the 140°E seasonal ice zone during the austral summer of 2001/02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazaki, Makoto; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Odate, Tsuneo

    2013-03-01

    Time-series observations of chaetognaths were carried out during four cruises along the 140°E transect between 61°S and 66°28‧S from November to March in the 2001/02 austral summer. Three species -Eukrohnia hamata, Sagitta gazellae and Sagitta marri - occurred in the samples between 0 and 150 m. E. hamata was the most dominant species comprising between 89.6 and 100% of the chaetognath population, followed by S. gazellae (0-5.7%). There were large differences in the abundance and size frequency distribution of body length of E. hamata between the north and south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB-ACC) which was located between 64°S and 65°S. For E. hamata, low abundance and large sized animals (22-24 mm) occurred south of the SB-ACC. A possible reason could be that the breeding season in waters north of the SB-ACC may be early spring and summer. On the other hand, low reproduction was recognized by low the abundance of E. hamata and few occurrences of juveniles south of the SB-ACC (65°S). The result of a general comparison suggests that the abundance of chaetognaths along the 140°E transect has decreased during the 20 years since 1983.

  12. Catalyst, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Catalyst" is a publication designed to assist higher education in developing alcohol and other drug prevention polices and programs that will foster students' academic and social development and promote campus and community safety. Issue 1 of volume 6 introduces a series of "Presidential Profiles" in which university presidents describe their…

  13. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  14. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  15. A Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2000/01 to 2004/05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia on the basis of transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2000/01 through 2004/05 academic years. Data are provided that indicates the number of transfer students, where they…

  16. ARL Supplementary Statistics 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 25%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $228 million on electronic…

  17. Prekindergarten Evaluation, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curry, Janice

    The prekindergarten (pre-K) program is an important part of the systemic effort by the Austin Independent School District, Texas (AISD) to help every student meet the state's student performance standards. In 2000-2001, 41 of the district's schools offering pre-K (79% of all elementary schools) had full-day programs and 17 had half-day programs. A…

  18. Trends in medical and nonmedical immunization exemptions to measles-containing vaccine in Ontario: an annual cross-sectional assessment of students from school years 2002/03 to 2012/13

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah E.; Seo, Chi Yon; Lim, Gillian H.; Fediurek, Jill; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Under Ontario legislation, for select vaccine-preventable diseases nonimmunized or under-immunized students must undergo vaccination or provide a statement of exemption, or risk suspension from school. At the time of this assessment, these diseases included measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus and polio. Methods: Exemptions data for the school years 2002/03 to 2012/13 were obtained from the Immunization Records Information System used in Ontario. Temporal trends were expressed for 7- and 17-year-old students by exemption classification (medical, prior immunity, religious or conscientious belief, total) at the provincial level, by school year and by birth cohort. Regional analysis was conducted for the 2012/13 school year. A temporal trend analysis of exemptions for measles-containing vaccines was performed by using a Poisson distribution with a 2-sided test (α = 5%). Results: For both 7- and 17-year-old students, religious or conscientious exemptions for measles-containing vaccines significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.001 in both age groups), whereas medical exemptions decreased (p < 0.001 in both age groups). The trends were reproduced when examined by birth cohort. The percentage of Ontario students with any exemption classification (total exemptions) remained low (< 2.5%) during the study period, although considerable geographic variation was noted. Interpretation: Ontario data suggest that nonmedical exemptions have increased during the last 11 years, consistent with trends reported elsewhere. The trend toward increasing religious or conscientious exemptions coupled with declining medical exemptions explains why total exemptions have remained stable or decreased at the provincial level. The prominent geographic variability in exemptions suggests that targeted interventions may be suitable for consideration. PMID:26457292

  19. Sources of groundwater based on Helium analyses in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be

  20. Flow origin, drainage area, and hydrologic characteristics for headwater streams in the mountaintop coal-mining region of Southern West Virginia, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paybins, Katherine S.

    2003-01-01

    Characteristics of perennial and intermittent headwater streams were documented in the mountaintop removal coal-mining region of southern West Virginia in 2000?01. The perennial-flow origin points were identified in autumn during low base-flow conditions. The intermittent-flow origin points were identified in late winter and early spring during high base-flow conditions. Results of this investigation indicate that the median drainage area upstream of the origin of intermittent flow was 14.5 acres, and varied by an absolute median of 3.4 acres between the late winter measurements of 2000 and early spring measurements of 2001. Median drainage area in the northeastern part of the study unit was generally larger (20.4 acres), with a lower median basin slope (322 feet per mile) than the southwestern part of the study unit (12.9 acres and 465 feet per mile, respectively). Both of the seasons preceding the annual intermittent flow visits were much drier than normal. The West Virginia Department of Environmental Protection reports that the median size of permitted valley fills in southern West Virginia is 12.0 acres, which is comparable to the median drainage area upstream of the ephemeralintermittent flow point (14.5 acres). The maximum size of permitted fills (480 acres), however, is more than 10 times the observed maximum drainage area upstream of the ephemeral-intermittent flow point (45.3 acres), although a single valley fill may cover more than one drainage area. The median drainage area upstream of the origin of perennial flow was 40.8 acres, and varied by an absolute median of 18.0 acres between two annual autumn measurements. Only basins underlain with mostly sandstone bedrock produced perennial flow. Perennial points in the northeast part of the study unit had a larger median drainage area (70.0 acres) and a smaller median basin slope (416 feet per mile) than perennial points in the southwest part of the study unit (35.5 acres and 567 feet per mile, respectively

  1. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  2. SIAST Annual Report, 2000/01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    This is the annual report for 2000-2001 from the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST). The SIAST Review Committee's report identified four priorities: (1) an appropriate and progressive mandate; (2) a commitment to accessibility; (3) responsiveness to the labor market; and (4) organizational effectiveness. This report…

  3. Selected State Policies, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education Commission of the States, Denver, CO.

    This collection of selected state policies covers the entire range of educational issues. It furnishes descriptions of legislative bills, arranged by category, from all 50 states. Essentially, the information in this report is raw data rapidly processed to be released in printed form at the earliest possible date. Editing has been kept to a…

  4. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents the results of the latest in a series of triennial surveys conducted by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) (Ontario, Canada) in order to monitor the existing university space inventory and changes in space requirements as determined by the COU Building Blocks space formula. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the…

  5. Sinkhole flooding in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg Edward

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, conducted an investigation from January 2001 through April 2002 to delineate sinkholes and sinkhole watersheds in the Murfreesboro area and to characterize the hydrologic response of sinkholes to major rainfall events. Terrain analysis was used to define sinkholes and delineate the sinkhole drainage areas. Flooding in 78 sinkholes in three focus areas was identified and tracked using aerial photography following three major storms in February 2001, January 2002, and March 2002. The three focus areas are located to the east, north, and northwest of Murfreesboro and are underlain primarily by the Ridley Limestone with some outcrops of the underlying Pierce Limestone. The observed sinkhole flooding is controlled by water inflow, water outflow, and the degree of the hydraulic connection (connectivity) to a ground-water conduit system. The observed sinkholes in the focus areas are grouped into three categories based on the sinkhole morphology and the connectivity to the ground-water system as indicated by their response to flooding. The three types of sinkholes described for these focus areas are pan sinkholes with low connectivity, deep sinkholes with high connectivity, and deep sinkholes with low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Shallow, broad pan sinkholes flood as water inflow from a storm inundates the depression at land surface. Water overflow from one pan sinkhole can flow downgradient and become inflow to a sinkhole at a lower altitude. Land-surface modifications that direct more water into a pan sinkhole could increase peak-flood altitudes and extend flood durations. Land-surface modifications that increase the outflow by overland drainage could decrease the flood durations. Road construction or alterations that reduce flow within or between pan sinkholes could result in increased flood durations. Flood levels and durations in the deeper sinkholes observed in the three focus areas are primarily affected by the connectivity with the ground-water conduit system. Deep sinkholes with a relatively high connectivity to the ground-water system fill quickly after a storm, and drain rapidly after the storm ends, and water levels decline as much as 3 to 5 feet per day in the first 2 to 3 days after a major storm. These sinkholes store the initial floodwater and then rapidly transmit water to the ground-water conduit system (high outflow). Land-surface changes that direct more water into the sinkhole may increase the flood peaks, but may not have a substantial effect on the flood durations. Deep sinkholes that have low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system may have a delayed peak water level and may drain slowly, only about 2 to 3 feet in 10 days. Outflow from these sinkholes is limited or restricted by low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Land-surface alterations that increase the inflow to the sinkholes can result in high flood levels or increased flood durations.

  6. Degrees Conferred: 2001-02 Update. Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    This memorandum contains facts about degrees conferred by institutions in the University of Wisconsin (UW) System in 2001-2002. Overall, the system conferred 28,894 degrees, of which 1,164 were associate degrees and 21,304 were bachelor's degrees. Institutions in the system conferred 5,083 master's degrees, 736 doctoral degrees, and 607…

  7. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Reports and Records § 996.75... subsequent crop year peanuts, to 2002-03 and 2001-02 crop year peanuts not yet inspected, or failing...

  8. Career Guide to Industries, 2000-01 Edition. Bulletin 2523.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This document provides information on the nature, working conditions, and employment opportunities of 42 industries that accounted for nearly 3 of 4 wage and salary jobs in 1998. The following are among the types of information provided for each industry discussed: (1) nature of the industry (goods produced and services provided, individual…

  9. Running Start: 2000-01 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sally Zeiger

    This document is a report on Washington State's Running Start program, which allows eleventh- and twelfth-grade high school students to take college courses for free at any of the 34 state community and technical colleges or at Washington State, Eastern Washington, or Western Washington universities. The program, which was started in 1990, is…

  10. Selected Papers in School Finance, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The National Center for Education Statistics commissioned the papers in this publication to address education-finance issues of interest to the education-finance community. Although teacher salaries rose between 1980 and 1997 by 120 percent, that is only equal to a 19 percent increase after removing inflation, or a little over 1 percent per year.…

  11. Snapshot 2001: 2000-01 School District Profiles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Performance Reporting.

    This publication provides a detailed look at public education in Texas for the 2000-2001 school year. It provides readers with the basic information needed to examine differences in size, wealth, ethnic composition, and academic achievement and to assess the relative strengths and weaknesses of public school districts in Texas. This Snapshot…

  12. Ohio's Independent Colleges: Transforming Lives, Transforming Communities. Fact File, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Ohio, Columbus.

    This "Fact File" provides information about the colleges and universities that are members of the Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Ohio (AICUO). This organization represents a diverse group of 51 independent, nonprofit institutions of higher education in Ohio. In the fall of 2001, AICUO member institutions enrolled 122,866…

  13. Arsenic in ground water in selected parts of southwestern Ohio, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann; Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 57 domestic wells in Preble, Miami, and Shelby Counties, in southwestern Ohio. The median arsenic concentration was 7.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. Thirty-seven percent of samples had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 ?g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations (>10 ?g/L) were detected over the entire range of depths sampled (42 to 221 feet) and in each of three aquifer types, Silurian carbonate bedrock, glacial buried-valley deposits, and glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel. One factor common in all samples with elevated arsenic concentrations was that iron concentrations were greater than 1,000 ?g/L. The observed correlations of arsenic with iron and alkalinity are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic was released from iron oxides under reducing conditions (by reductive dissolution or reductive desorption). Comparisons among the three aquifer types revealed some differences in arsenic occurrence. For buried-valley deposits, the median arsenic concentration was 4.6 ?g/L, and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. There was no correlation between arsenic concentrations and depth; the highest concentrations were at intermediate depths (about 100 feet). Half of the buried-valley samples were estimated to be methanic. Most of the samples with elevated arsenic concentrations also had elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and ammonia. For carbonate bedrock, the median arsenic concentration was 8.0 ?g/L, and the maximum was 30.7 ?g/L. Arsenic concentrations increased with depth. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in iron- or sulfate-reducing samples. Arsenic was significantly correled with molybdenum, strontium, fluoride, and silica, which are components of naturally ocurring minerals. For glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel, half of the samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. The median was 11.4 ?g/L, and the maximum was 27.6 ?g/L. At shallow depths (<100 feet), this aquifer type had higher arsenic and iron concentrations than carbonate bedrock. It is not known whether these observed differences among aquifer types are related to variations in (1) arsenic content of the aquifer material, (2) organic carbon content of the aquifer material, (3) mechanisms of arsenic mobilization (or uptake), or (4) rates of arsenic mobilization (or uptake). A followup study that includes solid-phase analyses and geochemical modeling was begun in 2004 in northwestern Preble County.

  14. Water-quality data for Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments, Arizona, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data are provided for four sites in Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments in north-central Arizona. These data describe the current water quality and provide baseline water-quality information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected from a ground-water seep and well in Walnut Canyon and from a spring and a river in Wupatki during September 2001 to September 2002. Water from the four sites is from four different sources. In Walnut Canyon, Cherry Canyon seep is in a shallow local aquifer, and the Little Colorado River contains ground-water discharge from several aquifers and runoff from a 22,000 square-mile drainage area. Concentrations of dissolved solids were similar within the two monuments; the range for water samples from Walnut Canyon was 203 to 248 milligrams per liter, and the range for water samples from Wupatki was 503 to 614 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace elements were generally low in water samples from the three ground-water sites--Cherry Canyon seep, Walnut Canyon headquarters well, and Heiser Spring. The water sample collected from the Little Colorado River, however, had high concentrations of aluminum (4,020 micrograms per liter), antimony (54 micrograms per liter), arsenic (14.3 micrograms per liter), and iron (749 micrograms per liter) relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in water samples from the four sites were generally low (0.11 to 1.8 milligrams per liter) and are within the upper 25 percent of nitrate concentrations measured in the regional aquifer near Flagstaff in 1996 and 1997. Water samples from Cherry Canyon seep, Heiser Spring, and the Little Colorado River contained total coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were found in water samples from Cherry Canyon seep and the Little Colorado River.

  15. Financial Report of the Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume I: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on…

  16. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume II: Affiliated and Federated Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on 21…

  17. Modeling Streamflow and Water Temperature in the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers, Oregon, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Roundsk, Stewart A.

    2004-01-01

    To support the development of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for water temperature in the Willamette Basin, the laterally averaged, two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to construct a water temperature and streamflow model of the Santiam and North Santiam Rivers. The rivers were simulated from downstream of Detroit and Big Cliff dams to the confluence with the Willamette River. Inputs to the model included bathymetric data, flow and temperature from dam releases, tributary flow and temperature, and meteorologic data. The model was calibrated for the period July 1 through November 21, 2001, and confirmed with data from April 1 through October 31, 2002. Flow calibration made use of data from two streamflow gages and travel-time and river-width data. Temperature calibration used data from 16 temperature monitoring locations in 2001 and 5 locations in 2002. A sensitivity analysis was completed by independently varying input parameters, including point-source flow, air temperature, flow and water temperature from dam releases, and riparian shading. Scenario analyses considered hypothetical river conditions without anthropogenic heat inputs, with restored riparian vegetation, with minimum streamflow from the dams, and with a more-natural seasonal water temperature regime from dam releases.

  18. Water-Quality Data for Navajo National Monument, Northeastern Arizona--2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data are provided for six sites in Navajo National Monument in northeastern Arizona. These data describe the current water quality and provide baseline water-quality information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected from six sites near three ancient Indian ruins during September 2001 to August 2002. Two springs and one well near Betatakin Ruin, one spring is near Keet Seel Ruin, and one spring and one stream are near Inspection House Ruin. Water from all the sites is from the N aquifer, a regional sandstone aquifer that is the source of drinking water for most members of the Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe in northeastern Arizona. Concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, and uranium were low at the six sites. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 94 to 221 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate (as nitrogen) were generally low (less than 0.05 to 0.92 milligrams per liter) and were within the range of concentrations at other N-aquifer sites within 20 miles of the study area. Water samples from Inscription House Spring, Navajo Creek Tributary (near Inscription House Ruin), and Keet Seel Ruin Spring contained indicators of human or animal wastes--fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  19. The Liversidge Lecture 2001-02. Chemistry amongst the stars: reaction kinetics at a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian W M

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, experiments in the Universities of Rennes and Birmingham have provided rate constants for over 40 reactions of molecular and atomic radicals with neutral molecules at temperatures down to 13 K using the CRESU (cinétique de réaction en écoulement supersonique uniforme) technique. The demonstration that reactions between electrically neutral species can be extremely rapid at these very low temperatures has excited interest both from theoreticians and from those seeking to understand the chemistry that gives rise to the 120 or so molecules that have been identified as being present in dense interstellar clouds. This laboratory work, and its astrochemical and theoretical contexts, are reviewed here. In addition, I deal briefly with the present limitations of the experiments and how they might be overcome in future work.

  20. Bathymetric mapping, sediment quality, and water quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; McVay, Jason C.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality sampling results indicate areas affected by elevated nutrient and bacteria concentrations in the lake and tributary streams. The tributary streams had the highest median nitrate concentrations (12.1 milligrams per liter) when compared to median nitrate concentrations in the lake (8.7 milligrams per liter) or the Maquoketa River (10.5 milligrams per liter). The maximum nitrate concentrations detected for Maquoketa River, lake, and tributary sites were 13.5, 13.5, and 18.6 milligrams per liter, respectively. Nitrate concentrations in the late summer decreased from 2 Bathymetric Mapping, Sediment Quality, and Water Quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001–02 the upstream (7.8 milligrams per liter) to the downstream (5.0 milligrams per liter) one-third of Lake Delhi and most likely were the result of uptake of nitrate by algae and aquatic biota in the lake. Median concentrations of total coliform and E. coli bacteria for the lake sites were 450 and 17 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for full body contact (swimming or bathing) are 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for fecal bacteria and 126 colonies per 100 milliliters for E. coli bacteria. The highest bacteria concentrations in the lake occurred after a rain and were 25,000 colonies per 100 milliliters total coliform and 1,900 colonies per 100 milliliters E. coli.

  1. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document provides background information as well as degree completion statistics for Associate Degrees awarded in British Columbia from 1993-1994 to 2001-2002. The Associate Degree is a 2-year academic credential available with an art or science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer initiated the credential in…

  2. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions. The original curricular requirements, the goal of which were to…

  3. Youth, AIDS, and HIV: Resources for Educators, Policymakers, and Parents, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document provides information about technical assistance and educational materials that can guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention education for school-age youth. It also presents resources that can increase the awareness of those…

  4. Planning Information, University of Hawaii Community Colleges, 1992-93 to 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Institutional Research Office.

    This planning information for the University of Hawaii Community Colleges for 1992-1993 through 2001-2002 consists of a series of tables that provide relevant information about the system and its seven campuses. For the overall system the following information is provided for general education and vocational education courses for the years 1992-93…

  5. Water Quality and Streamflow of the Indian River, Sitka, Alaska, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward J.; Brabets, Timothy P.; Frenzel, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The Indian River Basin, located near Sitka Alaska, drains an area of 12.3 square miles. This watershed is an important natural resource of Sitka National Historic Park. At the present time, the watershed faces possible development on large tracts of private land upstream of the park that could affect the water quality of Indian River. Due to this concern, a study was conducted cooperatively with the National Park Service. The approach was to examine the water quality of the Indian River in the upper part of the watershed where no development has occurred and in the lower part of the basin where development has taken place. Measurements of pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Indian River were within acceptable ranges for fish survival. The Indian River is calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of dissolved ions and nutrients generally were low and exhibited little variation between the two study sites. Analysis of bed sediment trace element concentrations at both sampling sites indicates the threshold effect concentration was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc; while the probable effect concentration was exceeded by arsenic, chromium and nickel. However, due to relatively large amounts of organic carbon present in the bed sediments, the potential toxicity from trace elements is low. Discharge in the Indian River is typical of coastal southeast Alaska streams where low flows generally are in late winter and early spring and greater flows are during the wetter fall months. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has established instream flow reservations on the lower 2.5 miles of the Indian River. Discharge data indicate minimum flow requirements were not achieved during 236 days of the study period. Natural low flows are frequently below the flow reservations, but diversions resulted in flow reservations not being met a total of 140 days. Thirty-five algae species were identified from the sample collected at Indian River near Sitka while 24 species were identified from the sample collected at Indian River at Sitka. Most species of algae identified in the Indian River samples were diatoms and the majority were pinnate diatoms; however, green algae and (or) blue-green algae accounted for much of the algal biomass at the two sites. The trophic condition of the Indian River is oligotrophic, and algal productivity likely is limited by low concentrations of dissolved nitrogen. Few invertebrate taxa were collected relative to many high-quality streams in the contiguous United States, but the number of taxa in Indian River appears to be typical of Alaska streams. Ephemeroptera was the most abundant order sampled followed by Diptera.

  6. Modelling the Effusive Eruption of Volcan de Colima, Mexico 2001-02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, N. R.; Gavilanes-Ruiz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Volcan de Colima has produced frequent eruptions during historic times; both effusive, with dome growth and blocky lava flows, and explosive, e.g. the plinian event of 1913. In general, the mechanisms that influence an eruption to change from effusive to explosive or vice versa remain poorly understood. Field measurements and monitoring at Volc n de Colima have allowed the development of a model of its most recent effusive eruption, which started with the formation of a lava dome on 8 May 2001 and continues to the present. Based on physical characteristics, the eruption has been divided into seven phases. Digital models of the different stages of dome growth were used to calculate the volume and the associated extrusion rates. The initial stages included the filling of the large crater, which had been formed by the three major explosions that occurred in 1999, and the smaller inner crater formed by the 22 February 2001 explosion. Later stages followed the over-spilling of the crater rim and the development of several short blocky lava flows with associated rockfalls. The 2001/2 eruption has been characterised by a low rate of effusion (maximum 0.62 m3 s-1). The rate of degassing has been variable, with the flux of SO2 varying from 50 to 900 t d-1. The location and temperature of the summit fumaroles have undergone migration associated with the development of different lobes of the dome. In addition, the seismicity has varied from extremely low levels at the beginning of the eruption, to extended periods of harmonic tremor in May 2002. These parameters, along with temporal geochemical variations within the local spring waters and monitoring of diffuse degassing of CO2 at several locations, have been combined to form a model of this eruption.

  7. Education Cost Study, 2001-02: Higher Education Expenditures for Instruction (State Support Plus Tuition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Produced every 4 years by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, the "Education Cost Study" provides detailed instructional cost information for the state's public 2-year and 4-year institutions. The cost analysis is based on expenditures drawn from two sources: state appropriations and tuition revenue. By using data gathered from…

  8. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data about aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the "Financial Report of Ontario Universities," the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial OfficersUniversities of Ontario (COFO-UO). The Compendium contains supplementary information on Ontario…

  9. Achieving Excellence: The University of Wisconsin System Accountability Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This report presents information about the condition of the University of Wisconsin system (UW) and its progress toward educational excellence. The first section, "Context and Capacity," describes the environment and resources available to the UW system to fulfill its mission as a context for understanding progress on the six goals presented in…

  10. Hydrogeologic and Ground-Water-Quality Data for Belvidere, Illinois, and Vicinity, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, P.C.; Kay, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents miscellaneous geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water-quality data collected in and near Belvidere, Ill. during May 2001-November 2002. The data were collected for two studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990-2002, but subsequent to publication of the final interpretive reports for the studies. The cooperative studies with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Illinois Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the hydrogeology, ground-water-flow system, and distribution of contaminants in the glacial drift and bedrock (primarily Galena-Platteville) aquifers underlying the vicinity of Belvidere, including the Parson?s Casket Hardware Superfund site. Data presented in the report include lithologic descriptions, geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic characteristics, field-measured characteristics of water quality, and laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and herbicides.

  11. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 2002-03 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 53rd U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956–57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science, and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)], it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica during the 2002–03 field season (Mullins, 2002).

  12. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2004-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2002, total ground-water withdrawals were 8,000 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,640 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,360 acre-feet. From 2001 to 2002, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial use increased by 2 percent, and municipal use increased by 7 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 32 municipal wells in 2003. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.0 percent. Values ranged from -13.7 percent at Hopi High School no. 2 to +12.9 percent at Shonto PM3. From 2002 to 2003, water levels declined in 5 of 13 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 13 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.1 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -8.3 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.4 foot for 13 wells in the unconfirned part of the aquifer and -60.3 feet for 13 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2002 and once in 2003 at four springs. Discharge decreased by 16 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 10 percent at Moenkopi Spring and 90 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and did not change at Burro Spring. For the past 11 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2002 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2002 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2002 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2002 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2003, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 118 to 642 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 10 of the wells and from all of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 4 springs; 7 wells had more than 8 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 10 years of data.

  13. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  14. Differential Item Functioning of a Family Affluence Scale: Validation Study on Data from HBSC 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnohr, C. W.; Kreiner, S.; Due, E. P.; Currie, C.; Boyce, W.; Diderichsen, F.

    2008-01-01

    Methodology for making cross-national comparisons is an area of increasing interest in social and public health related research. When studying socio-economic differences in health outcomes cross-nationally, there are several methodological issues of concern, especially when data is derived from self-reported questionnaires. Health Behaviour in…

  15. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Arnold, Terri L.; Cannon, William F.; Graham, David; Morton, Eric; Bienert, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are ubiquitous in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago, Illinois. PAH concentrations in samples collected in June 2001 and January 2002 were typically in the following order from highest to lowest: fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and anthracene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene were consistently at the lowest concentrations in each sample. Concentrations of the PAH compounds showed variable correlation. Concentrations of PAH compounds with higher molecular weights typically show a higher degree of correlation with other PAH compounds of higher molecular weight, whereas PAH compounds with lower molecular weights tended to show a lower degree of correlation with all other PAH compounds. These differences indicate that high and low molecular-weight PAHs behave differentl y once released into the environment. Concentrations of individual PAH compounds in soils typically varied by at least three orders of magnitude across the city and varied by more than an order of magnitude over a distance of about 1,000 feet. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils are affected by a variety of site-specific factors, and may be affected by proximity to industrial areas. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils did not appear to be affected the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to non-industrial land use, or proximity to a roadway. The concentration of the different PAH compounds in ambient surface soils appears to be affected by the propensity for the PAH compound to be in the vapor or particulate phase in the atmosphere. Lower molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are primarily in the vapor phase in the atmosphere, were detected in lower concentrations in the surface soils. Higher molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are present primarily in the particulate phase in the atmosphere, tended to be in higher concentrations in the surface soils. The apparent effect of the PAH phase in the atmosphere on the concentration of a PAH in ambient surface soils indicates that atmospheric settling of particulate matter is an important source of the PAH compounds in ambient surface soils in Chicago. The distribution of PAH compounds within the city was complex. Comparatively high concentrations were detected near Lake Michigan in the northern part of the city, in much of the western part of the city, and in isolated areas in the southern part of the city. Concentrations were lower in much of the northwestern, south-central, southwestern, and far southern parts of the city. The arithmetic mean concentration of arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium was from 2 to 6 times higher in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago than in soils from surrounding agricultural areas. The arithmetic mean concentration of lead in Chicago soils was about 20 times higher. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium above those of surrounding agricultural areas appear to be related to the effects of dolomite bedrock on the chemical composition of the soil. Elevated concentrations of the remaining elements listed above indicate a potential anthropogenic source(s) of these elements in Chicago soils.

  16. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 19.6%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $171 million on electronic…

  17. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents data from 124 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. Since 1987-1988, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown irregularly from 66 to around 80 in more recent years. A fluctuating…

  18. Sediment Characteristics and Configuration within the Otsego City Dam Impoundment on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Hubbell, D.L.; Rachol, C.M.; Simard, A.; Fuller, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of the Otsego City Dam on the Kalamazoo River at Otsego, Mich., is under consideration by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the city of Otsego. The historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls from sources upstream from the dam has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate the Kalamazoo River from Morrow Dam near Comstock to its mouth near Saugatuck as a Federal Superfund site. The papermill waste is concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay, with the sediment containing as much as 94 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls. This contaminated sediment could move if the dam is removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristics and configuration of the sediment before removal plans begin. Data from augered sections and sediment cores show that the current Otsego City impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments: (1) lacustrine sediments consisting of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the Otsego City impoundment water levels were 2-4 feet higher (1880s-1960s), and from downstream movement of lacustrine sediments during the removal of the upstream Plainwell Dam superstructure in the 1980s; and (2) more recent (1980s-2002) coarse-grained alluvium deposited on top of the lacustrine sediments. The volume of instream sediment contained within the Otsego City impoundment is estimated to be about 457,270 cubic yards. This estimate is based on the composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium, which were determined to contain PCBs, and does not include bank or flood-plain deposits.

  19. Effects of roads and well pads on erosion in the Largo Canyon watershed, New Mexico, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matherne, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Largo Canyon, located in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico, is one of the longest dry washes in the world. Oil and gas production in the San Juan Basin, which began in the 1940's, required the development of an extensive network of dirt roads to service the oil and gas wells in the Navajo Reservoir area. Presently, there are about eight wells per square mile, and the density of oil and gas wells is expected to increase. Potential environmental effects on landscape stability that may result from the additional roads and well pads have not been documented. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management to evaluate the effects of roads and well pads associated with oil and gas operations on the erosion potential of Bureau of Land Management lands in the Largo Canyon watershed. The effects of roads and well pads on erosion were quantified by installing sediment dams (dams) and by surveying transects across roads and well pads. Data from 26 dams were used in the analysis. Dams were installed at 43 sites: 21 on hillsides upslope from roads or pads to measure erosion from hillslopes, 11 at the downslope edges of roads to measure erosion from roads, and 11 at the downslope edges of well pads to measure erosion from well pads. Pairs of survey transects were established at nine well pads and two road locations. Sediment-accumulation data for 26 dams, recorded at 17 measurement intervals, indicate that average erosion rates at the dams significantly correlate to size of the contributing area. The average erosion rate normalized by drainage area was 0.001 foot per year below roads, 0.003 foot per year on hillslopes, and 0.011 foot per year below well pads. Results of a two-sample t-test indicate that there was no significant difference in average erosion rates for dams located on hillslopes and below roads, whereas average erosion rates were significantly greater for dams below well pads than for dams on hillslopes and dams below roads. The average erosion rates estimated from the data collected during this study most likely represent minimum erosion rates. Sediment-accumulation data for measurement intervals and for dams that were breached during 2002, resulting from the large volume of runoff generated by high-intensity storms, were not used to compute erosion rates. For this reason, the higher range of erosion rates is underrepresented and the results of this study are biased toward the lower end of the range of erosion rates. Measurements along road transects generally indicate that sediment is eroded from the top of road berms and redeposited at the base of the berms and may be transported downslope along the road. Measurements along well-pad transects generally indicate that sediment eroded from hillslopes is transported over the surface of the well pad and down the well-pad edges. Based on field observations, roads aligned parallel to topographic contours facilitate erosional processes in two ways: (1) roads cut across and collect runoff from previously established drainages and (2) roads, where they are cut into hillsides or into the land surface, provide focal points for the initiation of erosion. Roads aligned across topographic contours can serve as conduits to channel runoff but do not constitute a large percentage of the road network.

  20. Ground-water, surface-water and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2001, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,680 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,530 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,150 acre-feet. From 2000 to 2001, total withdrawals decreased by 1 percent, industrial use increased by 1 percent, and municipal use decreased by 3 percent. From 2001 to 2002, water levels declined in 5 of 14 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was +0.2 foot. Water levels declined in 12 of 17 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2002, the median water-level change for 32 wells was -15.8 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.3 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.7 feet for 17 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2001 and once in 2002 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 26 percent and 66 percent at two springs, increased by 100 percent at one spring, and did not change at one spring. For the past 10 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2001 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2001 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2001 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2001 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2002, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 96 to 636 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 8 of the wells and from 3 of the springs had less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 9 wells and 4 springs; the 9 wells had more than 7 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 9 years of data.

  1. Quite Good News--For Now: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This annual report shows that economically it would seem that faculty members have much about which to be happy. The academic year 2001-2002 was the fifth consecutive year in which the value of the average faculty salary rose, and the one in which academics saw the largest single-year jump in their real (inflation-adjusted) salaries since the…

  2. Revenues and Expenditures by Public School Districts: School Year, 2001-02. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-342

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Common Core of Data (CCD) "School District Finance Survey." These data are collected annually from state education agencies through the U.S. Census Bureau's "Survey of Local Government Finances: School Systems." Data in the "School District Finance Survey" include revenues by source, expenditures by function…

  3. Performance 2000-01: System and Institution Summaries and Report Cards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ. System, Eugene. Office of Academic Affairs.

    Under a legislative mandate, system and institution performance reports are prepared for the Oregon higher education system annually to share descriptive information about the movement institutions are making with respect to the indicators adopted by the state in 1997. Chancellor'us staff prepared Report Cards and Summary Performance Reports for…

  4. Water, ice, and meteorological measurements at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, 2000-01 balance years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krimmel, Robert M.

    2002-01-01

    Winter snow accumulation and summer snow, firn, and ice melt were measured at South Cascade Glacier, Washington, to determine the winter and net balances for the 2000 and 2001 balance years. In 2000, the winter balance, averaged over the glacier, was 3.32 meters, and the net balance was 0.38 meters. The winter balance was the ninth highest since the record began in 1959. The net balance was greater than 33 of the 41 years since 1959. In 2001, the winter balance was 1.90 meters, and net balance was -1.57 meters. The winter balance was lower than all but 4 years since 1959, and the net balance was more negative than all but 5 other years. Runoff was measured from the glacier basin and an adjacent non-glacierized basin. Air temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind speed and solar radiation were measured nearby. Ice displacements were measured for the 1998-2001 period.

  5. Ground-Water Quality and its Relation to Land Use on Oahu, Hawaii, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2003-01-01

    Water quality in the main drinking-water source aquifers of Oahu was assessed by a one-time sampling of untreated ground water from 30 public-supply wells and 15 monitoring wells. The 384 square-mile study area, which includes urban Honolulu and large tracts of forested, agricultural, and suburban residential lands in central Oahu, accounts for 93 percent of the island's ground-water withdrawals. Organic compounds were detected in 73 percent of public-supply wells, but mostly at low concentrations below minimum reporting levels. Concentrations exceeded drinking-water standards in just a few cases: the solvent trichloroethene and the radionuclide radon-222 exceeded Federal standards in one public-supply well each, and the fumigants 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP) and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (TCP) exceeded State standards in three public-supply wells each. Solvents, fumigants, trihalomethanes, and herbicides were prevalent (detected in more than 30 percent of samples) but gasoline components and insecticides were detected in few wells. Most water samples contained complex mixtures of organic compounds: multiple solvents, fumigants, or herbicides, and in some cases compounds from two or all three of these classes. Characteristic suites of chemicals were associated with particular land uses and geographic locales. Solvents were associated with central Oahu urban-military lands whereas fumigants, herbicides, and fertilizer nutrients were associated with central Oahu agricultural lands. Somewhat unexpectedly, little contamination was detected in Honolulu where urban density is highest, most likely as a consequence of sound land-use planning, favorable aquifer structure, and less intensive application of chemicals (or of less mobile chemicals) over recharge zones in comparison to agricultural areas. For the most part, organic and nutrient contamination appear to reflect decades-old releases and former land use. Most ground-water ages were decades old, with recharge dates ranging from pre-1940 to the present, and with most dates falling within the 1950s to 1980s time span. Several widely detected compounds were discontinued as long ago as the 1970s but have yet to be flushed from the ground-water system. Although large tracts of land in central Oahu have been converted from agriculture to residential urban use since the 1950s, water quality in the converted areas still more closely reflects the former agricultural land. It appears to be too early to detect a distinct water-quality signature characteristic of the newer urban use, although several urban turfgrass herbicides in use for just 10 years or so were detected in monitoring wells and may represent early arrivals of urban contaminants at the water table.

  6. Low-pathogenicity avian influenza (LPAI) in Italy (2000-01): epidemiology and control.

    PubMed

    Marangon, S; Bortolotti, L; Capua, I; Bettio, M; Dalla Pozza, M

    2003-01-01

    In 1999-2000, Italy was affected by the most severe avian influenza (AI) epidemic that has ever occurred in Europe. The epidemic was caused by a type A influenza virus of the H7N1 subtype, which originated from the mutation of a low-pathogenicity (LP) AI virus of the same subtype. From August to November 2000, 4 months after the eradication of the highly pathogenic (HP) AI virus, the LPAI strain re-emerged and infected 55 poultry farms mainly located in the southern area of Verona province (Veneto region). To supplement disease control measures already in force, an emergency vaccination program against the disease was implemented in the area. Vaccination was carried out using an inactivated heterologous vaccine (A/chicken/Pakistan/1995-H7N3). In order to establish whether LPAI infection was circulating in the area, regular serological testing of sentinel birds in vaccinated flocks and a discriminatory test able to distinguish the different types of antineuraminidase antibodies (anti-N1 and anti-N3) were performed. Shortly after the beginning of the vaccination campaign (December 2000 to March 2001), the H7N1 LPAI virus emerged again, infecting 23 farms. Among these, only one vaccinated flock was affected, and infection did not spread further to other vaccinated farms. The data reported in the present paper indicate that the combination of biosecurity measures, official control, and vaccination can be considered successful for the control of LPAI infections in densely populated poultry areas.

  7. Biennial Transfer Student Report: 1999-00 and 2000-01 Academic Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidi Janicki

    This report is published every other year in an effort to evaluate Tidewater Community College's (TCC) (Virginia) effectiveness in preparing students for transfer. It provides an analysis of TCC students who transferred to a four-year institution in Virginia beginning in fall 1999 or fall 2000. Students must have completed 12 or more credits at…

  8. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data on various aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the Financial Report of Ontario Universities, the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial Officers-Universities of Ontario (COFO-UO). This compendium contains supplementary information that helps…

  9. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  10. Washington Community and Technical Colleges Academic Year Report 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This report provides 2000-2001 information on funding, staffing, facilities, and enrollment at all Washington State community and technical colleges. It also includes demographics on student characteristics, enrollment, graduation, and transfer rates. Highlights include: (1) the colleges enrolled the equivalent of 158,192 full-time students; (2) a…

  11. Home Education in Pennsylvania 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-04 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,076. The total was comprised of 12,285 males and 11,791 females. This was a decrease of 339 students, or 1.4%, from the 2002-03 total of 24,415. This was the second year (along with 2001-02) that home education enrollments decreased since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  12. Student Transitions from the Kindergarten to Grade 12 Education System to the Public Post-Secondary System: 2002/03-2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education on behalf of the 22 Central Data Warehouse participating institutions, the Ministry of Education, and the BC Universities signed an agreement to establish a formal mechanism that protects individual privacy while enabling the exchange of personal information between the parties for the…

  13. Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students. 2002-03. E.D. Tab. NCES 2005-010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; Lewis, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Nontraditional methods of instructional delivery at the postsecondary level, such as Technology based distance education course offerings, have been a topic of considerable attention and debate. To date, however, no nationally representative study has examined technology based distance education availability, course offerings, and enrollments in…

  14. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  15. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense schools, Puerto Rico, and four outlying areas: American Samoa, Guam,…

  16. Report on the Implementation of the "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" in the States and Outlying Areas for School Year 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" ("GFSA") was reauthorized by Section 4141 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001" (Public Law 107-110). "GFSA" requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the ESEA have a law that requires all local…

  17. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the principal crops in the area. The load estimates ranged from 18 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for sorghum crops to 430 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for turf-grass farms. Potential nitrate load from poultry farm wastes and from communities with septic tanks were estimated at about 580 and 47 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen, respectively. Results obtained from the analyses of the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate samples indicated that the high nitrate concentrations are from poultry wastes near the foothills, whereas artificial fertilizers were estimated to contribute between 39 to 97 percent of the total nitrate in the central part of the alluvial fan.

  18. ARL Statistics 2002-03: A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Twenty-Three Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This document is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries, the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported by member…

  19. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-353

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The data on public elementary and secondary education in this document are collected and reported each year by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education. The data are part of the "National Public Education Financial Survey" (NPEFS), one of the components of the Common Core of Data (CCD) collection of…

  20. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Social Work for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Social Work…

  1. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  2. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

  3. Engaging the Demons. Report on a Collaboration between English Faculty of Baldwin High School and Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, Georgia: 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Peter M.; Smith, Melissa

    A collaborative project between Georgia College and State University (GC&SU) and Baldwin High School (BHS) in Milledgeville, Georgia, had as its initial goals: to provide an opportunity for two-way mentoring between the GC&SU's Arts and Sciences faculty and BHS's English faculty; to improve curriculum alignment; to establish realistic expectations…

  4. Developments in School Finance, 2001-02. Fiscal Proceedings from the Annual State Data Conferences of July 2001 and July 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The papers collected for this volume were selected from the fiscal proceedings of the 2001 and 2002 conferences of the National Center for Education Statistics. They represent current research in public-school education finance. The papers are as follows: "What We Know and What We Need to Know About Vouchers and Charter Schools" (Brian P. Gill,…

  5. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  6. Diffusion and drive-point sampling to detect ordnance-related compounds in shallow ground water beneath Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion samplers and temporary drive points were used to test for ordnance-related compounds in ground water discharging to Snake Pond near Camp Edwards at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA. The contamination resulted from artillery use and weapons testing at various ranges upgradient of the pond.The diffusion samplers were constructed with a high-grade cellulose membrane that allowed diffusion of explosive compounds, such as RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), into deionized water inside the samplers. Laboratory tests confirmed that the cellulose membrane was permeable to RDX and HMX. One transect of 22 diffusion samplers was installed and retrieved in August-September 2001, and 12 transects with a total of 108 samplers were installed and retrieved in September-October 2001. The diffusion samplers were buried about 0.5 feet into the pond-bottom sediments by scuba divers and allowed to equilibrate with the ground water beneath the pond bottom for 13 to 27 days before retrieval. Water samples were collected from temporary well points driven about 2-4 feet into the pond bottom at 21 sites in December 2001 and March 2002 for analysis of explosives and perchlorate to confirm the diffusion-sampling results. The water samples from the diffusion samplers exhibited numerous chromatographic peaks, but evaluation of the photo-diode-array spectra indicated that most of the peaks did not represent the target compounds. The peaks probably are associated with natural organic compounds present in the soft, organically enriched pond-bottom sediments. The presence of four explosive compounds at five widely spaced sites was confirmed by the photo-diode-array analysis, but the compounds are not generally found in contaminated ground water near the ranges. No explosives were detected in water samples obtained from the drive points. Perchlorate was detected at less than 1 microgram per liter in two drive-point samples collected at the same site on two dates about 3 months apart. The source of the perchlorate in the samples could not be related directly to other contamination from Camp Edwards with the available information. The results from the diffusion and drive-point sampling do not indicate an area of ground-water discharge with concentrations of the ordnance-related compounds that are sufficiently elevated to be detected by these sampling methods. The diffusion and drive-point sampling data cannot be interpreted further without additional information concerning the pattern of ground-water flow at Snake Pond and the distributions of RDX, HMX, and perchlorate in ground water in the aquifer near the pond.

  7. Reconnaissance of surface-water and ground-water quality at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City, Indiana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated water quality of key water bodies at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City in southwestern Indiana. The key water bodies were a stock pond, representing possible nonpoint agricultural effects on water quality; an ephemeral stream, representing the water quality of drainage from forested areas of the park; parking-lot runoff, representing water quality related to roads and parking lots; an unnamed ditch below the parking lot, representing the water quality of drainage from the parking lot and from an adjacent railroad track; and Lincoln Spring, a historical ground-water source representing ground-water conditions near a former diesel-fuel-spill site along a rail line. Water samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and for concentrations of selected major ions and trace metals, nutrients, organic constituents, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Surface-water-quality data of water samples from the park represent baseline conditions for the area in relation to the data available from previous studies of area streams. Specific-conductance values and concentrations of most major ions and various nutrients in surface-water samples from the park were smaller than those reported for samples collected in other USGS studies in areas adjacent to the park. Water-quality-management issues identified by this investigation include potentially impaired water quality from parking-lot runoff, unknown effects on surface-water quality from adjacent railroads, and the potential impairment of water quality in Lincoln Spring from human influences. Parking-lot runoff is a source of calcium, alkalinity, iron, lead, and organic carbon in the water samples from the unnamed ditch. Detection of small concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in water from Lincoln Spring could indicate residual contamination from a 1995 diesel-fuel spill and cleanup. The concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from Lincoln Spring was 16.5 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, greater than the State of Indiana standard for nitrate in drinking water (10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen). Lead concentrations in samples from the stock pond, parking-lot runoff, and the unnamed ditch exceeded the Indiana chronic aquatic criteria.

  8. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2001, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2001-02. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Wu, Shiying; Huh, Seungho; Levine, Burton; Broyles, Susan G.

    This report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) winter 2001-2002 data collection that included both race and gender information for staff employed in fall 2001 and salaries and fringe benefits of full-time instructional faculty for academic year 2001-2002. Data were collected through a Web-based data…

  9. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  10. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  11. Management Information Reporting 2000-01 Data Analysis for Special Education, English as a Second Language (ESL), Early Literacy Initiative (ELI), and Technology Integration Funding (TIF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This report is intended to stimulate inquiry into the achievement of special groups of students in Alberta schools and model reporting to the public on these students, a traditionally weak area of school board Annual Education Results reports. The data in the report provide provincial level comparisons to data that may be compiled by school…

  12. Direct Entry Enrollments of Miami-Dade County High School Graduates: Fall and Spring (Winter) Terms, 1996-97 through 2000-01. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Anne

    This document is a report on the enrollment of high school graduates from Miami-Dade County (Florida) at Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC). The report includes statistics on students from Florida high schools as well as out-of-state high schools. Provided are demographics on the students, including ethnicity, gender, and type of high school…

  13. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Speech Pathology and Audiology for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Speech…

  14. Investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Ann K.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of highly intensive residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham?Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, both of which drain less-urbanized areas. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal bacteria, trace and major elements, pesticides, and selected organic constituents. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were analyzed for trace and major elements, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and additional organic compounds. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the fish community and in-stream habitat and two surveys of the benthic-invertebrate community. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples, benthic-invertebrates, and habitat data were collected between June 2000 and October 2000 at six of the nine water-quality sites; fish communities were evaluated in April and May 2001 at the six sites where habitat and benthic-invertebrate data were collected. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. The structure of the aquatic communities, the physical condition of the fish, and the chemical analyses of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Water chemistry was similar at all sites, characterized by strong calcium-bicarbonate component and magnesium components. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were highest at the headwaters of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. In Village Creek, median concentrations of nitrite and ammonia increased in a downstream direction. In Valley Creek, median concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen, suspended phosphorus, and orthophosphate decreased in a downstream direction. Median concentrations of Escherichia coli and fecal coliform bacteria were highest at the most upstream site of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion in 80 percent of the samples; concentrations of Escherichia coli exceeded the criterion in 56 percent of the samples. Concentrations of bacteria at the downstream sites on Village and Valley Creeks were elevated during high flow rather than low flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Surface-water samples were analyzed for chemical compounds that are commonly found in wastewater and urban runoff. The median number of wastewater indicators was highest at the most upstream site on Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of total recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in surface water exceeded acute and chronic aquatic life criteria in up to 24 percent of the samples that were analyzed for trace and major elements. High concentrations of trace and major elements in the water column were detected most frequently during high flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Of the 24 pesticides detected in surface water, 17 were herbicides and 7 were insecticides. Atrazine, simazine, and prometon were the most commonly detected herbicides; diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and carbaryl were the most commonly detected insecticides. Concentrations of atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion periodically exceeded criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Trace-element priority pollutants, pesticides, and other organic compounds were detected in higher concentrations in bed sediment at the Village and Valley Creek sites t

  15. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Marketing Management and Research for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Marketing…

  16. Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water and in Untreated Drinking Water Sources in the United States, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The five most frequently detected compounds in samples collected from ambient ground-water sites are N,N-diethyltoluamide (35 percent, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30 percent, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethy) phosphate (30 percent, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23 percent, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19 percent, detergent metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from surface-water sources are cholesterol (59 percent, natural sterol), metolachlor (53 percent, herbicide), cotinine (51 percent, nicotine metabolite), β-sitosterol (37 percent, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27 percent, caffeine metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from ground-water sources are tetrachloroethylene (24 percent, solvent), carbamazepine (20 percent, pharmaceutical), bisphenol A (20 percent, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16 percent, caffeine metabolite), and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12 percent, fire retardant).

  17. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas, respectively. The highest median triazine concentration was found in the cropland/pastureland area. Chloroacetanilide concentra-tions ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, integrated, urban/built-up, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. Chlorophenoxy compound concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the urban/built-up, integrated, citrus, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. The maximum concentrations of triazines, chloroacetanilides, and chlorophenoxy compounds were 0.63, 1.0, and 14 micrograms per liter, respectively. Organophosphate was detected once at an integrated site at a concentration of 0.20 microgram per liter. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. However, assuming that all triazine and metolachlor concentrations from ELISA and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were the result of atrazine and metolachlor detections, no concentrations exceeded the Canadian aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. One organophosphate detection (0.2 microgram per liter) did exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life guideline for chlorpyrifos. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) is an important indicator of atrazine transport in the environment. The DAR ranged from 0.25 to 0.33, indicating that postapplication runoff was the most likely source of atrazine to the environment at the time of sampling. Deisopropylatrazine is a metabolite of atrazine and structurally similar compounds, such as simazine and cyanazine. The deisopropylatrazine/deethylatrazine ratio (D2R) is an indicator of nonpoint sources of deisopropylatrazine to the environment. The ratio ranged from 1 to 3 in this study, indicating simazine was an important source of deisopropylatrazine to the environment at the time of sampling, as opposed to atrazine alone. Confirmation analyses by GC/MS for triazines detected by ELISA indicated t

  18. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact Area indicates a likely connection with the deeper water-producing zone. No pesticides, explosives, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, organic halogens, or perchlorate were found in water samples from the Southern High Plains aquifer at the Range.

  19. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2001-02. A Reference Tool for School Administrators [and] Education Leaders. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. 29th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    This annual survey presents salary and wage data on 23 professional and 10 support positions in the following categories: central office administrators, school building-level personnel, classroom teachers, auxiliary professional personnel, and support personnel. The positions selected represent the full scope of public-school employment. The data…

  20. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  1. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  2. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  3. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  4. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  5. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  6. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  7. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and ross's geese as disease carriers in the Playa Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R; Johnson, William P

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000-01 and 2001-02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Ross's geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection. PMID:15827210

  8. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Facultative and Spontaneous Torpor in Apline Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, C. L.; Hood, W. R.; Stevens, M.; Gary, G.

    2007-12-01

    Mean annual air temperatures have increased in North America by 1.0°C during the past 100 years, and are predicted to increase by 4-8 °C further within the next 70 years. Hibernating mammals may be particularly sensitive to climate change since body temperatures during torpor are strongly influence by ambient temperature. We conducted 3-7 year studies on the relationship between ambient (air/soil) temperature and the torpor patterns of free-ranging facultative and spontaneous hibernators. The facultative hibernation of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in New York State and the spontaneous hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in the mountains of California were continuously monitored using temperature sensitive radiocollars during winters of 2000-01 through 2006-07. Mean air/soil temperatures during the winter 2001-02 were much greater than those observed during the same periods of 2000-1 and 2002-3 winters at both sites, and the winter of 2001-2 was one of the warmest measured in both New York State and California since 1895. Consequently T. striatus during the winter 2001-2 had: a) fewer individuals using torpor, b) reduced the time spent in torpor by 96%, and, c) increased energy expenditure by 100% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the colder winters of 2000-1/2002-3. Likewise, S. lateralis during the winter of 2001-2 had: a) delayed the entrance into hibernation by a mean of 12.2 days, b) increased mean body temperatures by an average of 5.4 C during torpor, and, c) increased metabolic rate during torpor by 75% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the winters of 2000-1/2002-3.

  9. Teaching for quality learning in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira-Dias, José J. C.; Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Neri de Souza, Francislê; Watts, Mike

    2005-09-01

    In Portugal, the number of students in higher education increased from 80,000 in 1975 to 381,000 in 2000 (a change from 11% to 53% in the age group 18 22), meaning a major change in the diversity of student population with consequences well known and studied in other countries. The teaching of chemistry at the University of Aveiro, for the first-year students of science and engineering, has been subjected to continuous attention to implement quality and student-centred approaches. The work devoted to excellence and deep learning by several authors has been carefully followed and considered. This communication reports research work on chemistry teaching, associated with those developments for first-year students. The work included the design of strategies and the adoption of teaching and learning activities exploring ways to stimulate active learning by improving the quality of classroom interactions. In addition to regular lectures, large classes' teaching based on student-generated questions was explored. In order to improve students' motivation and stimulate their curiosity, conference-lectures were adopted to deal with selected topics of wide scientific, technological and social interest. Quantitative analysis and discussion of selected case studies, together with the organization of laboratory classes based on selected enquiry-based experiments, planned and executed by students, stimulated deep learning processes. A sample of 32 students was followed in the academic year of 2000/01 and the results obtained are here discussed in comparison with those of a sample of 100 students followed in 2001/02. Particular attention was paid to the quality of classroom interactions, the use of questions by students and their views about the course design.

  10. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  11. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  12. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  13. WCTC Graduate Follow-Up Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Coll., Pewaukee, WI.

    This paper reports on a survey of 2001-02 graduates of Waukesha County Technical College (WCTC), Wisconsin. The report indicates 1,257 students were awarded Associate's Degrees, technical diplomas, and apprenticeship certificates by WCTC in 2001-02. Of those graduates, 702 (56%) responded to the Graduate Follow-up Survey. Also, 84% of all…

  14. The State of Funding School Facilities' Needs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates variations in state funding programs for school building needs. Includes table of 2001-02 primary state aid programs for school facilities. Also describes use of local voter-approved bond issues to fund local school construction. Includes table of 2001-02 state bond programs, debt limits, and state aid for debt. Discusses emerging…

  15. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  16. Meeting the Demand for Future Dental School Faculty: Trends, Challenges, and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, N. Karl; Weaver, Richard G.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents data from the American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 survey of vacant budgeted faculty positions and examines challenges likely to exacerbate faculty shortages in the immediate future. (EV)

  17. Streamflow and water-quality characteristics at selected sites of the St. Johns River in central Florida, 1933 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    To meet water-supply needs in central Florida for 2020, the St. Johns River is being considered as a source of water supply to augment ground water from the Floridan aquifer system. Current (2004) information on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of the St. Johns River in east-central Florida is needed by water resources planners to assess the feasibility of using the river as an alternate source of water supply and to design water treatment facilities. To address this need, streamflow and water quality of the 90-mile-long middle reach of the St. Johns River, Florida, from downstream of Lake Poinsett to near DeLand, were characterized by using retrospective (1991-99) and recently collected data (2000-02). Streamflow characteristics were determined by using data from water years 1933-2000. Water-quality characteristics were described using data from 1991-99 at 15 sites on the St. Johns River and 1 site each near the mouths of the Econlockhatchee and Wekiva Rivers. Data were augmented with biweekly water-quality data and continuous physical properties data at four St. Johns River sites and quarterly data from sites on the Wekiva River, Blackwater Creek, and downstream of Blue Springs from 2000-02. Water-quality constituents described were limited to information on physical properties, major ions and other inorganic constituents, nutrients, organic carbon, suspended solids, and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of antibiotics, human prescription and nonprescription drugs, pesticides, and a suite of organic constituents, which may indicate domestic or industrial waste, were described at two St. Johns River sites using limited data collected in water years 2002-03. The occurrence of these same constituents in water from a pilot water treatment facility on Lake Monroe also was described using data from one sampling event conducted in March 2003. Dissolved oxygen concentration and water pH values in the St. Johns River were significantly lower during

  18. Effects of Single-Drop Impactions and Natural and Simulated Rains on the Dispersal of Botryosphaeria dothidea Conidia.

    PubMed

    Ahimera, Neph; Gisler, Simon; Morgan, David P; Michailides, Themis J

    2004-11-01

    the 1999-2000 and 2001-02 sampling seasons, with r(2) values of >/=0.73, whereas the exponential law model fit best for the 2000-01 data, with r(2) values of >/=0.81. In a rain simulation experiment, the intensity of the rain generated by a nozzle at 138 kPa of pressure inside the tree canopy was approximately five times higher than rain recorded outside the tree canopy. Rain removed up to 65% of conidia from infected fruit. These results confirmed that B. dothidea is a splash-dispersed pathogen with relatively short distances of spore dispersal within pistachio orchards. Only pycnidia are present in pistachio orchards; therefore, the results also indicate that inoculum of B. dothidea should be entirely splashed dispersed. PMID:18944454

  19. CCSF Management Plan, 2002/2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is the 2001-2002 management plan for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. The plan contains the following sections: (1) Overview of Planning and Budgeting; (2) Vision, Values, and Mission; (3) College Goals and Strategic Priorities; (4) Annual Institutional Plan CCSF 2002-03; (5) College Core Performance Indicators; and (6)…

  20. "No Child Left Behind" State Education Report, School Year 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains statistical information for the following performance targets for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 in the state of Hawaii: (1) reading; (2) mathematics; (3) graduation; and (4) retention. The federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) law requires the state to report this information. The state performance of these groups are…

  1. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) Field Test Methodology Report, 2004. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, R. E.; Cahalan, M.; Fahimi, M.; Curry-Tucker, J. L.; Carley-Baxter, L.; Curtin, T. R.; Hinsdale, M.; Jewell, D. M.; Kuhr, B. D.; McLean, L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and findings of the NSOPF:04 field test that took place during the 2002?03 academic year. The NSOPF:04 field test was used to plan, implement, and evaluate methodological procedures, instruments, and systems proposed for use in the full-scale study scheduled for the 2003-04 academic year. The field test was…

  2. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... under AD number 002-06-2000, requiring repetitive Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) crack inspections on the..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38953). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2002- 03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002), to require actions intended...

  3. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... under AD number 002-06-2000, requiring repetitive Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) crack inspections on the... was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6575), and proposed to supersede AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002). That NPRM proposed to correct an...

  4. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  5. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  6. Statewide Educational Accountability Systems under the NCLB Act: A Report on 2009 and 2010 Amendments to State Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The conclusion of the 2010-11 school year will mark nine plus years since enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Throughout this period, numerous states--sometimes almost every one--have annually sought to amend the educational accountability systems they first developed as "workbooks" in 2002-03, consistent with the law's…

  7. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Better Schools, Less Crime?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of public school choice on adult crime and school-based outcomes. Prior to the 2002-03 school year, the Charlotte-Mecklenberg school district switched from forced desegregation to a district-wide open enrollment lottery. This study focuses on more than 2,000 male students in grades 6-11 who participated in the subset…

  8. Changes in the Cost of Energy in One State's School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cymrot, Donald J.; Martinez, Miguel; Jones, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    To support the work of Tennessee's Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Council, this report describes data on energy expenditures in school districts for 2002/03-2007/08. Energy expenditures rose from about 2.6 percent to about 3.0 percent of total expenditures over the period, with some differences in the mix of energy types and…

  9. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking 8th grade algebra increased from less than half to nearly 90%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just six age cohorts. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  10. WWC Review of the Report “Better Schools, Less Crime?” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effect of school choice on the criminal activity, academic achievement, and high school graduation rate of more than 2,000 male middle and high school students in North Carolina’s Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district. For the 2002-03 school year, all district students were given the choice to either…

  11. Teaching for Understanding: Harvard Comes to Pennell Elementary. A Teacher Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    During the 2002-03 school year, one Philadelphia fifth grade class developed a core curriculum designed to teach every child the 21st century basic skills: the ability to think, learn, and create. This effort was a pilot for a rigorous Harvard University based program to develop proficiency for each child in a mixed ability classroom of 29…

  12. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies. Fifth Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    This document, prepared by an Arizona State University education research unit, provides profiles of 47 educational-management organizations (EMOs) for 2002-03. The report begins with a description of the structure of the educational management industry and a discussion of the pros and cons of EMOs. This edition (fifth annual report) divides EMOs…

  13. Writing Changes in the Nation's K-12 Education System. Research Notes RN-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether there have been any changes in writing instruction across K-12 education in the past three years. A three-year time frame was chosen to structure the study as it included the time period subsequent to the College Board's first announcement of the SAT writing section (the 2002-03 academic year). The…

  14. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  15. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  16. Third-Grade Retention in 2004. Research Brief. Volume 0404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Luzon-Canasi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, the revised Florida School Code required 3rd grade students to demonstrate reading proficiency by scoring at level 2 or higher on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). If not, the student must be retained, unless exempted from mandatory retention for special circumstances…

  17. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  18. An Evaluation of Health and Sexuality Education in Turkish Elementary School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikmaz, Fatma Hazir; Guler, Duygu S.

    2007-01-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate whether and to what extent the health-related domains, including sexuality education, specified by the Development of Health Awareness in Adolescent Project Science Committee overlapped with the goals and objectives of the 2002/03 elementary school curricula (grades one to eight; ages 7-14 years) in Turkey. For…

  19. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  20. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Head Start Impact Study: Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of offering Head Start to preschoolers. Head Start is a federal program aimed at boosting the school readiness of low-income children by providing preschool education and health and nutrition services. The study analyzed data on about 4,700 preschool-aged children who applied for enrollment for the 2002-03 program…

  1. Profile of Personnel Preparation Programs in Visual Impairments and Their Faculty: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Rosanne K.; Ambrose-Zaken, Grace; Corn, Anne L.; Trief, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles the program delivery models, funding sources, and faculty demographics of 43 personnel preparation programs in 2002-03. It shows that there was an increase in the number of programs and fulltime faculty and a greater diversity of delivery models, although the number of tenure-track positions declined.

  2. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

  4. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

  5. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  6. Northwest Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Boss, Suzie, Ed.; Weeks, Denise Jarrett, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the four issues of Northwest Education published during the 2002-03 school year. Issue themes are: (1) "Closing the Gap: How Northwest Schools Are Raising Minority Achievement"; (2) "Focus on Writing"; (3) "The Hidden Disability: When Bright Children Struggle To Learn"; and (4) "Discoveries in Learning: Lessons from Lewis &…

  7. Ideologies of Violence: The Social Origins of Islamist and Leftist Transnational Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Kristopher K.; Crenshaw, Edward M.; Jenkins, J. Craig,

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that Islamist terrorist attacks represent a distinctive "4th wave" of transnational terrorism that has supplanted Leftist terrorism. Drawing on ITERATE data for 1968-2003, the annual count of Leftist attacks has declined since the end of the Cold War while Islamist attacks have persisted and spiked upward in 2002-03.…

  8. Physical Activity, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, Maternal Education and Self-Reported Educational Performance of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…

  9. A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools. REL 2015-068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study using the Florida Department of Education staffing database to describe the demographic make-up, Florida Educator Certificate coverages, career paths from 2001/02 to 2011/12, and evaluation ratings of Florida's educational leaders (i.e., assistant principals and principals) in the 2011/12…

  10. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  11. Report on Transfers from Community Colleges at Virginia Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the total number of Virginia Community College System (VCCS) transfer students each institution of higher education enrolled, and graduated from 2001-02 to 2005-06. The number of VCCS transfer students admitted to each higher education institution is not included because the State Council of Higher Education does not require…

  12. Middle School Concept Helps High-Poverty Schools Become High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…

  13. Homeschooling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    Homeschooling has grown over the past several decades. It is estimated that 923,700 to 1,275,098 children will be homeschooled by the 2001-02 school year. Homeschooling families come from all major ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds and all income levels. Homeschooling parents are commonly active in their communities and join community…

  14. Ivory Tower to Concrete Jungle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crebert, Gay; Bates, Merrelyn; Bell, Barry; Patrick, Carol-Joy; Cragnolini, Vanda

    2004-01-01

    In 2001-02, a project team at Griffith University undertook Stage 4 of the Griffith Graduate Project. Stage 4 used a survey and focus group discussions to gather graduates' and employers' perceptions of the role of the university, work placements and postgraduation employment in the development of generic skills and abilities. This article will…

  15. Dance and Cheerleading as Competitive Sports: Making a Case for OCR Sport Recognition & NCAA Emerging Sport Designation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennefer, April; Sowder, Kristina; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Easterly, Debra M.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, Idaho State University engaged a nationwide study to investigate the prevalence of dance and cheerleading programs among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) D-I schools. The goal of the study was to build a case for Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and NCAA sport recognition and designation. The study…

  16. BC International Student Revenue Grows Again. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2012-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Larry

    2011-01-01

    After two years of decline, the tuition from international students increased in 2010-11 and reached more than $129 million. The revenue from international students has more than doubled in a decade, from $55.5 million in 2001-02. This revenue is the most significant source of funding for K-12 education in BC outside of direct grants from the…

  17. An Evaluation of Milwaukee Area Technical College District. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kate; Monroe, Kellie; Bajkiewicz, David; Coulthart, Tim; Osmanski, Thomas; Smyth, Conor; Sommerfeld, Robert

    The Legislative Audit Bureau of the State of Wisconsin analyzed financial issues concerning the Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC). The MATC District is the largest district in Wisconsin's technical college system, with 12,504 FTE students enrolled and 1,944 staff in the 2001-02 academic year. Operating expenses for that year were $152.0…

  18. Do Non-Census Funding Systems Encourage Special Education Identification?: Reconsidering Greene and Forster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahitivanichcha, Kanya; Parrish, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Special education as a percentage of total enrollment has risen significantly across the nation, increasing from 8% of the school-age population in 1975-76 to 12% in 2001-02. These growing numbers have garnered increased public attention and have raised questions as to whether the type of special education funding formula used by states may be…

  19. Public Education Finances: 2002 Census of Governments: Volume 4, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Volume 4. Government Finances contains six parts that cover a wide range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1) Public Education Finances; (2)Finances of Special District Governments; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of Government…

  20. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  1. Challenges and Tensions in Implementing Current Directions for Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    In 2001-02, the Queensland Indigenous Education Consultative Body conducted seven research projects examining Indigenous educational policies and strategies. Qualitative and quantitative methods included literature reviews; academic data collection; and interviews and focus groups with Indigenous and non-Indigenous educators, parents, community…

  2. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  3. Changes in Patterns of Pricing and Financial Aid: Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2006-153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Carroll, C. Dennis

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on first-time, full-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in order to examine patterns of sticker prices, financial aid, and net prices from an institutional perspective. For the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02, the report examines how the price of attendance for full-time freshmen changed for various types of…

  4. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  5. Making a Difference: An Exploration of Leadership Roles within Sixth Form Colleges in Maintaining Ethos within a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Ann R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001?02, the Nuffield Foundation funded research into the impact of government policy upon the management of sixth form colleges since 1992. National and regional questionnaire surveys were carried out among senior managers at sixth form colleges, further education colleges and schools. Case studies were undertaken at five sixth form colleges…

  6. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  7. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  8. Constructivist Teaching and Student Achievement: The Results of a School-Level Classroom Observation Study in Washington. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Martin L.; Fouts, Jeffrey T.

    This study built on a 2001-02 classroom observation study of Washington K-12 and technical schools that identified the extent of constructivist teaching activity. Results from classroom observations found that strong constructivist teaching was observable in 17 percent of the classroom lessons. The other 83 percent of the lessons observed may have…

  9. Good for Nothing: In-Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneady, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Texas Education Association (TEA) show that 177,340 students (4.6 percent) in kindergarten through grade 12 were retained in 2001-02. This is enough students to fill Texas Stadium more than 2.5 times. Of this number, roughly 59,812 were elementary school students (grades kindergarten through six). There are several problems with in…

  10. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  11. 7 CFR 2812.6 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Title. 2812.6 Section 2812.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture-(Continued) OFFICE OF OPERATIONS,DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) § 2812.6 Title. Title to excess personal property/equipment donated under this Part will...

  12. 7 CFR 3200.7 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Title. 3200.7 Section 3200.7 Agriculture Regulations... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.7 Title. Title to excess personal property obtained under Part 3200 will... will give preference to the Federal agency that will retain title in the Government....

  13. Impact of glacio-morphological parameters in the glacier change: A case study of parts of Western Himalaya, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmbhatt, R.; Bahuguna, I. M.; Rathore, B. P.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Shah, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayas possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a huge freshwater reservoir. Monitoring the glaciers is important to assess the overall reservoir health. In last few decades the most of the mountainous glaciers have undergone negative mass balance and terminal recessions, unlike the advancing glaciers. In this investigation, glaciers of Western Himalaya have been monitored since 1962 and variability in retreat was identified within the region. Thus, further analysis about significant parameters was taken into account to understand the relationship between glacio-morphological factors and change in glacial area. Initially change in areal extent of glaciers was derived for two time frames (1962-2001/02 and 2001/02-2010/11). The study comprised of 324 glaciers for the monitoring period of 1962-2001/02. A loss in glacial area was observed as 11% for this period. Many of these glaciers (238) were further monitored between 2001/02 and 2010/11. These glaciers showed a loss of 1.1%. The annual deglaciation has been found higher during the period of 1962-2001/02, which means rate of melting is less in this region in latest decade. Another observation in deglaciation was found spatial and temporal variability in glaciers which was addressed using glacio-morphic parameters. Areal extent of glaciers was observed to be having significant role on rate of glacial shrinkage. The another important parameter is equilibrium line altitude, i.e. the glaciers located below ELA have experienced 4.6% of deglaciation for the time frame 2001/02 - 2010/11 where as it was found to be 1.1% for the glaciers occurring above ELA. Moreover, glaciers located at lower altitude and having gentle slope show more area retreat. The results of area retreat in debris covered and debris free glaciers supports that the glaciers covered by debris retard ice melting at some extent. 158 glaciers were observed having no debris cover which shows 14% of loss in surface area. In

  14. How Long do Students Take to Graduate in the State University System? Information Brief, Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It has been found that students who took the traditional path to a bachelor degree--those who started and finished at the same institution--averaged 4.3 years to complete their degrees at State University System (SUS) institutions in 2002-03. 12.4% took 3.5 years or less, 54.2% took 4 years or less, 69.5% took 4.5 years or less, and 86.5% took 5…

  15. Physics Students from Abroad: Monitoring the Continuing Impact of Visa Problems. AIP Report, Number R-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the US government set in motion a broad set of measures whose aim was to screen foreign applicants for entrance into the US, to try to identify those who it was felt might attempt to carry out further attacks. Since the 2001-02 academic year had already begun in most schools, and since it took time for…

  16. Molecular identification of a new pestivirus associated with increased mortality in the Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Ana; Aduriz, Gorka; Gómez, Nieves; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Lavin, Santiago; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge R; Marco, Ignasi

    2004-10-01

    Pestivirus infection was identified in 16 of 17 chamois during an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in northeastern Spain in 2001-02. By analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of the virus, we assigned it to the border disease virus cluster with pairwise similarity values ranging from 82.1% to 88.1%. It will be important to investigate the association of this pestivirus with disease in Pyrenean chamois.

  17. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  18. Access: Net Prices, Affordability, and Equity at a Highly Selective College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    With financial aid data on over 14,000 aided students at Williams College for the past 14 years, we can describe how much students actually paid to go to this highly selective and expensive school--their net prices--across income levels and over time. In 2001-02, the last year of our data, aided students across the five income quintiles of the US…

  19. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    The number of English language learners has grown in the Northeast & Islands Region over the past decade. While the total student population shrank 3.5 percent between 2001/02 and 2009/10, the population of English language learner students grew 7.6 percent and now constitutes 6.1 percent of students in the region, up from 5.5 percent in…

  20. Geochemical Patterns Classification of recent Mt. Etna Volcanic Products based on a synopsis of Kohonen Maps and Fuzzy Clustering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2010-05-01

    During the last two decades Mt. Etna experienced many summit and flank eruptions with different styles of activity, ranging from quiet lava effusion to explosive activity consisting of Strombolian explosions and/or spectacular fire fountains. This complex picture entails the presence of a complex plumbing system where magma dynamics strongly controls both the eruptive style and magma differentiation. All these eruptive events have furnished volcanic products on which systematic petrographic and geochemical analyses have been carried out since the mid 1990s. In particular, the content of major and trace elements of lavas is a key-point to characterize the composition of a magma emitted during an eruption. Petrologic investigations are traditionally based on the interpretation of compositional patterns described by selected oxides and/or elements in binary and ternary petrologic systems. This kind of analysis provides useful information about the magmatic processes occurring in the plumbing system. In this presentation we investigate whether the quality of petrologic investigations is improved by the application of more sophisticated analytical techniques based on the use of a relatively large number of parameters. To this purpose, we selected 13 components, i.e., SiO2, K2O, CaO/Al2O3, Mg#, Th, La, Nb, Nd, Sr, Tb, Cr, Ni and Rb/Nb. This choice brings along the problem of designing a suitable statistics and a convenient visualization of the results. As a way out, we propose advanced concepts of multivariate classification based on a synopsis of Kohonen Maps and Fuzzy Clustering, and apply them to the study of volcanics erupted from Mt. Etna between 1995 and 2005. Lavas erupted during the fire fountains (in 2000) and during the flank eruptions (2001, 2002-03) represent the most primitive products erupted from Mt. Etna in the investigated period. The literature data suggest that during the 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions two magmas with different geochemical characteristics

  1. Curriculum change in dental education, 2003-09.

    PubMed

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William D; Kassebaum, Denise K; Ranney, Richard R; Weinstein, George; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W

    2010-05-01

    This 2009 study of dental school curricula follows a similar one conducted in 2002-03. Through a web-based survey, the authors gathered information from dental schools about 1) past trends in curricular change over seven years; 2) current changes under way in dental school curricula; 3) significant challenges to curricular innovation; and 4) projected future trends in curricular change and innovation. Fifty-five schools (fifty U.S. and five Canadian) responded to the survey for a response rate of 86 percent. In addition to background information, the survey requested information in four broad areas: curriculum format, curriculum assessment, curriculum innovation, and resources needed for curriculum enhancement. Forty-nine percent of the respondents defined their curriculum format as primarily organized by disciplines. Half of the respondents reported the use of problem-based and case-reinforced learning for a section or specific component of some courses. In a significant change from the 2002-03 study, a high proportion (91 percent) of the responding schools require community-based patient care by all students, with just over half requiring five or more weeks of such experience. Competency-based education to prepare an entry-level general dentist seems well established as the norm in responding dental schools. Forty-three percent or less of the responding schools indicated that their students participate with other health professions education programs for various portions of their educational experience. Since the 2002-03 survey, dental schools have been active in conducting comprehensive curriculum reviews; 65 percent indicated that their most recent comprehensive curriculum review is currently under way or was conducted within the past two years. Respondents indicated that the primary reasons for the configuration of the current curriculum were "perceived success" (it works), "compatibility with faculty preferences," "faculty comfort," and "capacity

  2. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  3. Hi, I'm from the Administration and I'm Here to Help: My Journey to the Far Side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard F.

    2002-12-01

    This article describes my experiences when I served as Interim Dean for Liberal Arts and Sciences during the 2001-02 academic year. While I had to expand my knowledge base of disciplines other than chemistry, there were many similarities in my interactions with colleagues, chairpersons, faculty, and students from previous experience as a faculty member and chairperson. Although I had less direct contact with students, I was still working towards the same goals as the faculty in providing the best educational experience for our students.

  4. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500-m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5-km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  5. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  6. Enteric helminths of juvenile and adult wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in eastern Kansas.

    PubMed

    McJunkin, Jared W; Applegate, Roger D; Zelmer, Derek A

    2003-01-01

    Viscera of 49 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) collected in the spring of 2001 and 23 wild turkeys collected in the fall and winter of 2001-02 from 12 counties in eastern Kansas were examined for enteric helminths. Four cestode species, two trematode species, one nematode species, and one acanthocephalan species were identified. Two cestode and two trematode species present in the spring sample also were present in the fall and winter sample. Parasite prevalence was similar to previous studies of enteric helminths of wild turkeys except for the low numbers of nematode species and individuals recovered in the present study.

  7. A Look Back at the Long Path to Mandating Electric Reliability Standards through the Energy Policy Act of 2005

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Ellen Swyler

    2006-07-15

    The Act was the culmination of more than eight years of legislative effort in Congress. During this period, the nation saw the Western electricity crisis of 2000-01, the Sept. 11 attacks, the collapse of Enron, the growth of RTOs, and the August 2003 blackout. Each of these influenced the dynamics of the debate. (author)

  8. Performance Based Budgeting Update. Information Capsule.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bashford, Joanne

    The report shows the performance of Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) (Florida) on the measures stipulated for the 2000-01 allocation of Performance Based Budgeting (PBB). Of the total state funds allocated for Performance Based Budgeting, a certain percentage is designated for each of the measures. Colleges earn "points" according to the…

  9. The Indigenous World, 2000/2001 = El mundo indigena, 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molbech, Anette, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2000-01. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America; Australia and…

  10. Fiscal Profiles, 2000: The Tenth Annual in a Series of Factsheets about the Financing of California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from 1965-66 through 2000-01. It also presents financial and enrollment information on California public elementary and secondary education as well as information on state government in general. An introduction presents changes in…

  11. School Choice 2001: What's Happening in the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Robert E., Ed.; Garrett, Jennifer J., Ed.; Smith, Janice A., Ed.

    This publication tracks U.S. school choice efforts, examining research on their results. It includes: current public school data on expenditures, schools, and teachers for 2000-01 from a report by the National Education Association; a link to the states' own report cards on how their schools are performing; current private school information from…

  12. Multiple Perspectives on Charter School Accountability: Research Findings from Charter Schools and Charter School Authorizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lee; Finnigan, Kara; Price, Tiffany; Adelman, Nancy; Cotton, Lynyonne; Donnelly, Mary Beth

    This paper presents national 2000-01 data from charter schools and charter-school authorizers in the United States regarding the various stages of the accountability process: the charter application stage, the monitoring stage, and the sanctions stage. The larger accountability context of public schools and its impact on charter schools are also…

  13. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  14. The High-Skilled VET Practitioner: Interim Findings from the Evaluation of the Long-Term Impacts of the Framing the Future Projects in 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John; Wood, Sarah; Young, Susan

    Research was conducted in 2000-01 on the long-term impacts of the 200 projects funded by Australia's Framing the Future in 1999 and of the 250 conducted in 2000. Two main research methodologies (case study investigations and a survey) were used for the study. Case study investigations were conducted with the Deaf Education Network in Sydney; South…

  15. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael

    In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…

  16. The Use of Print Materials in the Internet Age: A Comparative Study of Academic Library Circulation Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Daniel Joseph

    2010-01-01

    The circulation records from 1997/98 to 2007/08 for UCLA and from 2000/01 to 2007/08 for Pasadena City College (PCC) were analyzed to examine patterns in the use of print materials during a period of increasingly available online digital information resources. The analysis included examinations of longitudinal circulation patterns broken down by…

  17. Graduate School Choice: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, David; Umbach, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2000/01 Baccalaureate & Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:00/01), this paper employs multilevel modeling to test a conceptual model of graduate school choice that draws significantly from human capital theory while incorporating the salient concepts of cultural and social capital. The model posits that the graduate school choice…

  18. The Effect of Special-Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program. Civic Report No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of exposure to a voucher program for disabled students in Florida on the academic performance of disabled students who remain in the public school system. The authors utilize student-level data on the universe of public school students in the state of Florida from 2000-01 through 2004-05 to study the effect of the…

  19. Endangered Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowden-Racette, Kellie

    2005-01-01

    Male educators, especially at the elementary school level, are a shrinking minority. Only 9 percent of the country's elementary school teachers are male, according to the National Education Association's (NEA) 2003 report "Status of the American Public School Teacher." Although the NEA's statistics were drawn from the 2000-01 school year, they're…

  20. Lifelong Learning as a Chameleonic Concept and Versatile Practice: Y2K Perspectives and Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grace, Andre P.

    2004-01-01

    This essay focuses on contemporary lifelong-learning discourse as it was reflected in deliberations during three events held in Australia, Canada and the UK during 2000-01. Through the dialogical lenses of these Y2K events that brought together an array of international participants, it examines lifelong learning as a chameleonic concept and…

  1. The Homies in Silicon Valley: Figuring Styles of Life and Work in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marez, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    The dot-com crash of 2000-01 provides unique opportunities for historicizing what Manuel Castells calls the information age. This age is characterized by the dominance of information capital, a regime of accumulation organized around networks of computers and other information technologies whose production is partly centered in Northern…

  2. Is Reading Recovery Worth the Cost?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marina, Brenda; Gilman, David A.

    A study was conducted to analyze the impact of the Reading Recovery Program on first grade students in Vigo County, Indiana. The program was implemented in Vigo County just last school year (2000-01). For the study, a first-round sample of 51 students who were successfully discontinued from Reading Recovery was measured to obtain information on…

  3. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  4. Postsecondary Awards in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics, by State: 2001 and 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2011-226

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginder, Scott; Mason, Marcinda

    2011-01-01

    These tables provide state-level information on the conferring of Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) awards (degrees and certificates) from academic years 2000-01 and 2008-09, both overall and by field. Specifically, the tables provide information on: (1) the number of awards conferred in STEM fields, overall (table 1) and by…

  5. County Maps of the English Learner (EL) Population. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The maps presented depict the EL population by county--changes in their numbers from SY 2000-01 to SY 2011-12, and the total number and percentage of all students identified as…

  6. Trends in Hate-Related Words at School among Students Ages 12 to 18. Data Point. NCES 2016-166

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidade, Melissa; Lessne, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of students ages 12 through 18, were used to analyze trends in hate-related words. The SCS study is completed every other year. Data from seven consecutive surveys are included in this report: school years 2000-01,…

  7. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  8. Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the percentage of undergraduate degrees in economics from 1991 to 2004. The explosive growth from academic year 2001 (2000-01) through 2003 in undergraduate economics degrees awarded by American colleges and universities, particularly large state universities, moderated a bit in 2004. Virtually all of the 27…

  9. 78 FR 22802 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... searching for Docket No. FAA-2013-0331. Other Relevant Rulemaking AD 2000-01-05, Amendment 39-11502 (65 FR... terminating modification. AD 2000-02-22, Amendment 39-11540 (65 FR 5222, February 3, 2000), for certain Boeing... 94-17-03, Amendment 39-8998 (59 FR 41647, August 15, 1994), for certain Boeing Model 767...

  10. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 82-16-05 R1, amendment 39-5278 (51 FR 11707, April... September 18, 2012 (77 FR 57534). The NPRM included a detailed inspection that involved disassembling the v... part surfaces and tight cracks corrode faster than open surfaces.) The AD, 2000-01-16 (65 FR...

  11. Private School Teacher Turnover and Teacher Perceptions of School Organizational Characteristics. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-061

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Daniel J.; Princiotta, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    In a study of teacher turnover in U.S. private schools between the 1999-2000 and 2000-01 school years, within each private school type (i.e., Catholic, other religious, and nonsectarian), teachers who left their school or the profession (movers and leavers) were more likely to report relatively low levels of administrative support, satisfaction…

  12. Knocking on the Door: Barriers to Welfare and Other Assistance for Teen Parents. A Three-City Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah L.; Marcy, Helene M.

    This study, conducted in 2000-01, investigated young mothers' experiences with the receipt of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), focusing on whether changes in the TANF application process for teen parents were needed, whether the TANF system inappropriately led to teen exits, and whether local welfare offices were effectively…

  13. Destination Graduation: Sixth Grade Early Warning Indicators for Baltimore City Schools. Their Prevalence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Even with the declining number of dropouts in Baltimore City, a focus on dropout prevention is essential. Recent research has emphasized the utility of an early warning system to inform prevention efforts. With this in mind, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium examined the 2000-01 cohort of sixth grade students (Class of 2007) from the…

  14. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  15. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  16. Indoor radon concentrations in the town of Niksic, Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N; Vukotic, P; Zekic, R; Ilic, R

    2007-01-01

    Indoor radon was systematically surveyed in the town of Niksic-the second largest town in Montenegro-which has some of its settlements built above red bauxite deposits. The radon concentrations were measured in 55 homes in 2002/03, in the summer and winter period, using CR-39 etched track detectors. The average annual radon concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed (geometric mean = 66.2 Bq m(-3), geometric standard deviation = 3.0) within the range from 10 to 966 Bq m(-3), with arithmetic mean of 122.7 Bq m(-3) and median of 61.7 Bq m(-3). Although the annual mean radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m(-3) are found only in four dwellings, the indoor radon levels in the town of Niksic are relatively high when compared with the average in the South European countries, as well as with indoor radon levels in other regions in Montenegro.

  17. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW: This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented. This is the final report in a series of five USGS Open-File Reports spanning five WYs, from October 2000 through September 2005. The previous four reports are listed in the references (Schuster, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006). Water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected on the Yukon River and selected major tributaries in Alaska for synoptic studies during WYs 2002-03 are published in Dornblaser and Halm (2006).

  18. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  19. Analysis of ENSO with an intermediate model through the ensemble Kalman filter and smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, G.; Higuchi, T.; Kagimoto, T.; Hirose, N.

    2006-12-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) are applied to an intermediate coupled atmosphere-ocean model by Zebiak and Cane [1987], into which the sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observations by TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry are assimilated. Smoothed estimates of the 54,403 dimensional state are obtained from 1981 observational points with 2048 ensemble members. While assimilated data are SSH anomalies alone, the estimated sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies reproduce actual SST behaviors as a whole. The smoothed estimate of the zonal wind anomalies is also consistent with the observation except for the westerly anomalies in the western Pacific. An ensemble experiment of 2002/03 El Nino event based on the EnKF can predict consistent Nino 3 SST anomalies about 5 months in advance.

  20. Analysis of ENSO with an intermediate model through the ensemble Kalman filter and smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, G.; Higuchi, T.; Kagimoto, T.; Hirose, N.

    2005-05-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) are applied to an intermediate coupled atmosphere-ocean model by Zebiak and Cane [1987], into which the sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observations by TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry are assimilated. Smoothed estimates of the 54,403 dimensional state are obtained from 1981 observational points with 2048 ensemble members. While assimilated data are SSH anomalies alone, the estimated sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies reproduce actual SST behaviors as a whole. The smoothed estimate of the zonal wind anomalies is also consistent with the observation except for the westerly anomalies in the western Pacific. An ensemble experiment of 2002/03 El Nino event based on the EnKF can predict consistent Nino 3 SST anomalies about 5 months in advance.

  1. Disease management: a leap of faith to lower-cost, higher-quality health care.

    PubMed

    Short, Ashley; Mays, Glen; Mittler, Jessica

    2003-10-01

    With managed care's promise to reduce costs and improve quality waning, employers and health plans are exploring more targeted ways to control rapidly rising health costs. Disease management programs, which focus on patients with chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, are growing in popularity, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2002-03 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. In addition to condition-based disease management programs, some health plans and employers are using intensive case management services to coordinate care for high-risk patients with potentially costly and complex medical conditions. Despite high expectations, evidence of both disease management and case management programs' success in controlling costs and improving quality remains limited.

  2. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  3. GOME Observations of OClO in the Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, S.; Wilms-Grabe, W.; Beirle, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Hollwedel, J.; Kraus, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2003-04-01

    The GOME instrument onboard the ERS-2 satellit consists of a set of four spectrometers covering the wavelength range between 240 and 790 nm. By applying the DOAS method to the GOME measurements, the integrated concentration of several trace gases along the light path, the so called Slant Column Densities (SCDs), can be derived. Since GOME has a global coverage every three days, the SCDs of OClO give a good overview of the intensity and the extension of the chlorine activation. The OClO SCDs for the arctic winters 1995/96 to 2002/03 are discussed with respect to the minimum temperature at the Tpot = 475 K level, the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and the chemical ozone depletion. For certain interesting periods, the effect of stratospheric mountain waves and denitrification on the activation and deactivation of chlorine is examined.

  4. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  5. Cognate xenoliths in Mt. Etna lavas: witnesses of the high-velocity body beneath the volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Rotolo, Silvio Giuseppe; Cocina, Ornella; Tumbarello, Gianvito

    2014-01-01

    Various xenoliths have been found in lavas of the 1763 ("La Montagnola"), 2001, and 2002-03 eruptions at Mt. Etna whose petrographic evidence and mineral chemistry exclude a mantle origin and clearly point to a cognate nature. Consequently, cognate xenoliths might represent a proxy to infer the nature of the high-velocity body (HVB) imaged beneath the volcano by seismic tomography. Petrography allows us to group the cognate xenoliths as follows: i) gabbros with amphibole and amphibole-bearing mela-gabbros, ii) olivine-bearing leuco-gabbros, iii) leuco-gabbros with amphibole, and iv) Plg-rich leuco gabbros. Geobarometry estimates the crystallization pressure of the cognate xenoliths between 1.9 and 4.1 kbar. The bulk density of the cognate xenoliths varies from 2.6 to 3.0 g/cm3. P wave velocities (V P ), calculated in relation to xenolith density, range from 4.9 to 6.1 km/s. The integration of mineralogical, compositional, geobarometric data, and density-dependent V P with recent literature data on 3D V P seismic tomography enabled us to formulate the first hypothesis about the nature of the HVB which, in the depth range of 3-13 km b.s.l., is likely made of intrusive gabbroic rocks. These are believed to have formed at the "solidification front", a marginal zone that encompasses a deep region (>5 km b.s.l.) of Mt. Etna's plumbing system, within which magma crystallization takes place. The intrusive rocks were afterwards fragmented and transported as cognate xenoliths by the volatile-rich and fast-ascending magmas of the 1763 "La Montagnola", 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions.

  6. Pestivirus exposure in free-living and captive deer in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika; Froetscher, Wolfgang; Benetka, Viviane; Moestl, Karin; Baumgartner, Walter

    2004-10-01

    During the hunting season of 2001-02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n = 133) and one deer farm (n = 12) in southern Austria. Sera were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization tests against three BVDVs and one border disease virus strain. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for detection of pestivirus-specific RNA in spleen samples. Antibodies were detected in one serum sample when using ELISA and virus neutralization tests. Results of the virus neutralization tests of this sample provided strong evidence for the exposure to the BVDV-1 genotype. The spleen samples were negative for pestivirus-specific RNA.

  7. Influence of observers and stream flow on northern two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) relative abundance estimates in Acadia and Shenandoah National Parks, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, J.B.; Bank, M.S.; Loftin, C.S.; Jung Brown, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of observers and stream flow on Northern Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) counts in streams in Acadia (ANP) and Shenandoah National Parks (SNP). We counted salamanders in 22 ANP streams during high flow (May to June 2002) and during low flow (July 2002). We also counted salamanders in SNP in nine streams during high flow (summer 2003) and 11 streams during low flow (summers 2001?02, 2004). In 2002, we used a modified cover-controlled active search method with a first and second observer. In succession, observers turned over 100 rocks along five 1-m belt transects across the streambed. The difference between observers in total salamander counts was not significant. We counted fewer E. b. bislineata during high flow conditions, confirming that detection of this species is reduced during high flow periods and that assessment of stream salamander relative abundance is likely more reliable during low or base flow conditions.

  8. Element Abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays with Atomic Number (Z) in the Interval 30 is less than or equal to Z is less than or equal to 40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E.; deNolfo, G.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J.; Rauch, B. F.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results on the elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays with atomic number, Z, greater than 30, and comparison of these observations with abundances expected from galactic propagation of various suggested models of the cosmic-ray source. We combine preliminary results from the 2003-04 flight of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) cosmic-ray detector with previously reported results from the 2001-02 flight. This instrument flew over Antarctica for nearly 32 days at a mean atmospheric depth of 5.2 mb in December 2001 - January 2002. At the time of submission of this abstract, January 8, 2004, TIGER was again in the air over Antarctica having completed 22 days of an expected 30day flight at a mean atmospheric depth of about 4 nb, Data from the first flight demonstrated excellent resolution of individual elements, and we expect similar resolution from the second flight.

  9. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  10. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants.

  11. Surface-water/ground-water interaction along reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Vidmar, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Declining water levels in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and decreases in spring discharges from the aquifer to the Snake River have spurred studies to improve understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction on the plain. This study was done to estimate streamflow gains and losses along specific reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork and to compare changes in gain and loss estimates to changes in ground-water levels over time. Data collected during this study will be used to enhance the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to refine computer models of ground-water flow and surface-water/ground-water interactions. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses along specific subreaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, based on the results of five seepage studies completed during 2001?02, varied greatly across the study area, ranging from a loss estimate of 606 ft3/s in a subreach of the upper Snake River near Heise to a gain estimate of 3,450 ft3/s in a subreach of the Snake River that includes Thousand Springs. Some variations over time also were apparent in specific subreaches. Surface spring flow accounted for much of the inflow to subreaches having large gain estimates. Several subreaches alternately gained and lost streamflow during the study. Changes in estimates of streamflow gains and losses along some of the subreaches were compared with changes in water levels, measured at three different times during 2001?02, in adjacent wells. In some instances, a strong relation between changes in estimates of gains or losses and changes in ground-water levels was apparent.

  12. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    PubMed

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range < 0.1-19.0 microg kg(-1) with a median concentration of 0.9 microg kg(-1). In the 2001/02 study, the range was < 0.1-34.6 microg kg(-1) with a median of 0.2 microg kg(-1). Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  13. Investigating Student Attitudes and Performance in a Revised Introductory Physics Sequence II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Juliette; Martinez, Aramis; Lopez, Ramon

    2001-10-01

    Research shows that the traditional lecture-and-lab format is not the most effective way to introduce students to calculus-based physics. Accordingly, the curriculum for UTEP's introductory calculus based physics courses was revised for the 2000-01 academic year to include techniques that have proven to improve students' understanding of physics. This paper will focus on student attitudes and retention rates.

  14. The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-02-01

    Self-reported experience of racial discrimination has been linked to a range of health outcomes in various countries and for different ethnic groups. This study builds on previous work in New Zealand to further investigate the prevalence of self-reported experience of racial discrimination by ethnicity, changes over time and associations with multiple health measures. The study uses data from the 2002/03 (n=12,500) and 2006/07 (n=12,488) New Zealand Health Surveys, nationally representative population-based surveys of adults (15+ years). Reported experience of racial discrimination was measured in both surveys and covered 5 items: experience of an ethnically motivated physical or verbal attack; and unfair treatment because of ethnicity by a health professional, in work, or when gaining housing. Ethnicity was classified as Maori, Pacific, Asian or European. Health indicators included measures of: mental health (SF36 mental health scale, psychological distress, doctor diagnosed mental health condition); physical health (self-rated health, SF36 physical functioning scale, cardiovascular disease); and health risk (smoking, hazardous drinking, excess body fat). Logistic regression was used to examine changes in prevalence of reported experience of racial discrimination over time and associations with health. Reported experience of racial discrimination increased between 2002/03 (28.1% ever) and 2006/07 (35.0% ever) among Asian peoples but remained largely unchanged for other ethnic groupings (Maori 29.5%, Pacific 23.0%, European 13.5%). Experience of racial discrimination was associated with all negative health measures except excess body fat. Where there were significant associations, a dose-response relationship was also evident. We conclude that racial discrimination experienced across a range of settings has the potential to impact on a wide range of health outcomes and risk factors. While ongoing research is needed to understand the multifarious nature of racism

  15. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  16. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  17. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  18. Comparison of AMSR-E and SSM/I snow parameter retrievals over the Ob river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mognard, N.M.; Grippa, M.; LeToan, T.; Kelly, R.E.J.; Chang, A.T.C.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) and from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are used to analyse the evolution of the snow pack in the Ob river basin during the snow season of 2002-03. The Ob river is the biggest Russian river with respect to its watershed area (2 975 000 km2). The Ob originates in the Altai mountains and flows northward across the vast West Siberian lowland towards the Arctic Ocean. The majority of snow cover is contained in the lowlands rather than in mountainous regions and persists for six months or more. During the snow season, surface air temperatures are very cold. Therefore, the combination of cold dry snow and large areas of uniform topography is ideal for snowpack extent and water equivalent retrievals from passive microwave observations. The thermal gradient through the snow pack is estimated and used to model the growth of the snow grain size and to compute the evolution of the passive microwave derived snow depth over the region. A comparison between the AMSR-E and SSM/I estimates is performed and the differences between the snow parameters from the two satellite instruments are analysed.

  19. Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

    2005-07-01

    The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

  20. Grid Oriented Implementation of the Tephra Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Drago, A.; Pistagna, F.; Prestifilippo, M.; Reitano, D.; Scollo, S.; Spata, G.

    2009-04-01

    TEPHRA is a two dimensional advection-diffusion model implemented by Bonadonna et al. [2005] that describes the sedimentation process of particles from volcanic plumes. The model is used by INGV - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, to forecast tephra dispersion during Etna volcanic events. Every day weather forecast provided by the Italian Air Force Meteorological Office in Rome and by the hydrometeorological service of ARPA in Emilia Romagna are processed by TEPHRA model with other volcanological parameters to simulate two different eruptive scenarios of Mt. Etna (corresponding to 1998 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions). The model outputs are plotted on maps and transferred to Civil Protection which takes the trouble to give public warnings and plan mitigation measures. The TEPHRA model is implemented in ANSI-C code using MPI commands to maximize parallel computation. Actually the model runs on an INGV Beowulf cluster. In order to provide better performances we worked on porting it to PI2S2 sicilian grid infrastructure inside the "PI2S2 Project" (2006-2008). We configured the application to run on grid, using Glite middleware, analyzed the obtained performances and comparing them with ones obtained on the local cluster. As TEPHRA needs to be run in a short time in order to transfer fastly the dispersion maps to Civil Protection, we also worked to minimize and stabilize grid job-scheduling time by using customized high-priority queues called Emergency Queue.

  1. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  2. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  3. Trend of Income-related Inequality of Child Oral Health in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Do, L.G.; Spencer, A.J.; Slade, G.D.; Ha, D.H.; Roberts-Thomson, K.F.; Liu, P.

    2010-01-01

    It is important that we monitor socio-economic inequality in health. Inequality in child oral health has been expected to widen because of widening socio-economic inequality. This study aimed to evaluate trends in income-related inequality in caries experience of Australian children. Cross-sectional studies in 1992/93 and 2002/03 collected data on deciduous caries experience of 5- to 10-year-olds and permanent caries experience of 6- to 12-year-olds. Household composition and income was used to calculate quartiles of equivalized income. Slope Index of Inequality (SII), Concentration Index (CI), and regression-based rate ratios were used to quantify income-related inequality and to evaluate trends. Income-related inequality in caries experience was evident regardless of time and dentition. The three indicators of inequality indicate a significant increase in income-related inequality in child deciduous caries experience during the decade. The income inequality in permanent caries experience did not change significantly. Income inequalities increased in deciduous teeth, but not in permanent teeth, among Australian children. PMID:20543094

  4. Trend of income-related inequality of child oral health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Do, L G; Spencer, A J; Slade, G D; Ha, D H; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Liu, P

    2010-09-01

    It is important that we monitor socio-economic inequality in health. Inequality in child oral health has been expected to widen because of widening socio-economic inequality. This study aimed to evaluate trends in income-related inequality in caries experience of Australian children. Cross-sectional studies in 1992/93 and 2002/03 collected data on deciduous caries experience of 5- to 10-year-olds and permanent caries experience of 6- to 12-year-olds. Household composition and income was used to calculate quartiles of equivalized income. Slope Index of Inequality (SII), Concentration Index (CI), and regression-based rate ratios were used to quantify income-related inequality and to evaluate trends. Income-related inequality in caries experience was evident regardless of time and dentition. The three indicators of inequality indicate a significant increase in income-related inequality in child deciduous caries experience during the decade. The income inequality in permanent caries experience did not change significantly. Income inequalities increased in deciduous teeth, but not in permanent teeth, among Australian children.

  5. Dynamicimagestoaddressconceptualnodes about mechanical waves: Example materials and preliminary results of the experimentation of the teacher training module IMAGONDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, I.; Lombardi, S.; Monroy, G.; Sassi, E.

    2004-09-01

    In the framework of the 2002-03 project “Fisica per la Formazione Culturale - FORMazione Insegnanti" funded by Italy ministry of Education, a set of training materials, focused on mechanical waves, has been developed. The core of the materials is represented by animated images purposely designed in order to: 1) address intrinsically dynamic aspects of one-dimensional impulses/waves propagation on a string; 2) have the trainees reflect upon students' difficulties in reading/interpreting static images (as the ones which are featured in common textbooks) and animations. In this paper we discuss example materials concerning transversal impulses on strings to address conceptual nodes such as: 1) configuration of the string at a given time and its aaabstract representation; 2) displacement vs. time graph of a string element and its aaabstract representation; 3) relationships between the two aaabstract representations; 4) modelization of mechanical wave propagation in one dimension. Moreover the results of the experimentation of the training materials in the framework of the Post Graduate School to Became Physics Teacher in Secondary Schools are presented and commented.

  6. Ice velocities on the front of Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, from static GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengkai; E, Dongchen; Wang, Zemin

    2006-10-01

    The Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf (LAS) system is the largest glacier-ice-shelf system in East Antarctica, the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) and its tributaries drain ice from the LAS system. During the austral summer season of 2002/03, the 19th Chinese National Antarctica Research Expedition (CHINARE) carried out the first expedition on the Amery Ice Shelf and set up 7 GPS sites, During the austral summer season of 2003/04, the 20th Chinese National Antarctica Research Expedition (CHINARE) cooperated with Australian National Antarctica Research Expedition (ANARE) visited the Amery Ice Shelf again, 5 GPS sites were reoccupied. The GPS data were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, and the surface ice velocities was calculated. Results show that surface horizontal velocities at the 5 GPS sites at the front of the Amery Ice Shelf vary between 900m/y and 1600m/y. Such studies are fundamental to improving our knowledge of the Antarctic ice sheet mass balance and dynamical models of ice/ocean interaction.

  7. How Sensitive are Helioseismic Mode Parameters and Subsurface Flows to Choice of the Spectral Line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Jain, K.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, I.; Toner, C. G.; Tripathy, S. C.; Armstrong, J. D.; Jefferies, S.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Rose, P. J.

    2006-06-01

    We analyze simultaneous multi-spectral line observations to investigate how the results of helioseismology are affected by the spectral line used to observe the solar oscillations. The data sets include observations obtained with the Ni I 676.8 nm (from Global Oscillation Network Group - GONG), K I 769.9 nm (from Magneto Optical Filters at Two Heights - MOTH experiment) and Na I D2 589.0 nm (from MOTH experiment and Mount Wilson Observatory) lines during the Austral summer of 2002-03. The depth formation of these lines occurs about 200 km, 420 km and 780 km above the base of the photosphere, respectively. The simultaneous observations in several atmospheric layers allow us to determine the propagation behavior of acoustic waves between these layers. We carry out ring-diagram analysis, a local helioseismology technique, to study the relative changes in local mode parameters and subsurface velocity fields inferred from the different data sets. Preliminary analysis of the mode parameters obtained from the Ni I 676.8 nm and K I 769.9 nm spectral lines clearly show a significant increase in mode amplitude with increasing observing height but with no apparent change in the mode width.

  8. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  9. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  10. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five measures of economic burden due to health care payments: any health expenditure, health expenditure amount, catastrophic health expenditure, indebtedness, and impoverishment. We used generalized linear models to assess the correlations between these measures and other constructs with which they have expected associations, such as health care need, wealth, and risk protection. Results Measures of impoverishment and indebtedness most often correlated with health care need, wealth, and risk protection as expected. Having any health expenditure, a large health expenditure, or even a catastrophic health expenditure did not consistently predict degree of economic burden. Conclusions Studies that examine economic burden attributable to health care payments should include measures of impoverishment and indebtedness. PMID:23822552

  11. Heterosexual men and women who seek sex through the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Graham; Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    Heterosexual women (n = 330), heterosexual men (n = 319) and gay men (n = 331) attending a London HIV-testing clinic in 2002-03 completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire concerning their sexual behaviour and use of the Internet for seeking sexual partners (response rate 70%). One-in-twenty (5%) heterosexual women and one-in-ten (10%) heterosexual men had used the Internet to look for sexual partners in the previous 12 months compared with nearly half (43%) the gay men (P<0.001). Rates of high-risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner were elevated among those who used the Internet to look for sex (compared with those who did not). However, people who looked for sex through the Internet were just as likely to meet their high-risk casual partners offline as online. Our findings suggest that high-risk heterosexual women and men are selectively using the Internet to look for sex rather than the Internet per se leading to riskier sexual behaviour.

  12. Calving processes and lake evolution at Miage glacier, Mont Blanc, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diolaiuti, G.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Smiraglia, C.; Benn, D. I.; D'Agata, C.; Nicholson, L.

    A marginal ice-contact lake at Miage glacier, Mont Blanc, Italian Alps, has been studied to reconstruct changes in lake area. Historical sources, comprising sketches, maps, photographs and scientific surveys, have been supplemented by recent field surveys. These include surveys of glacier surface velocity (which varied along the glacier tongue from 70 m a-1 in the upper part to about 6 m a-1 close to the snout, consistent with data in the literature, showing that velocity rates have remained constant during the last 40 years), volumetric ice-cliff loss (-92 000 ± 180 m3 in 2002 03), lake temperature and bathymetry, and qualitative observation of calving events, crevassing, and meltwater production. Results indicate that the lake has been stable for the last half-century following a period of enlargement due to ice-marginal retreat. The lake hydrology is complex, with possible reversals of englacial water flow causing infrequent emptying episodes. The debris cover on the glacier and ice-cliff surfaces seems to have played an important role in the ice-cliff evolution and the calving phenomena; calving is driven by undercutting at the water-line aided by the opening of water- and debris-filled crevasses in the glacier surface.

  13. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages.

  14. Velocity Profile Normalization of Field-Measured Turbidity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple occurrences of turbidity currents were observed in moored-ADCP measurements in Monterey (2002/03) and Hueneme (2007/08) submarine canyons, California. These turbidity currents, almost all of which were supercritical (densimetric Froude number greater than unity), lasted for hours and obtained a maximum speed of greater than 200 cm/s. The layer-averaged velocity of the turbidity currents varied from 100+ cm/s at the onset of the turbidity currents to 20+ cm/s toward the end of the events. The thickness of the turbidity currents tended to increase from 10 to 40 m over an event. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the field measurements [e.g. Altinakar, Graf, and Hopfinger, 1996, Flow structure in turbidity currents, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 34(5):713-718], were found to represent the field data fairly well. However, the best similarity collapse of the turbidity current velocity profiles was obtained when the streamwise velocity was normalized by the layer-averaged velocity and the elevation was normalized by the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to the same empirical function y = exp (-α xm) for the jet region above the velocity maximum.

  15. Tracking health care costs: hospital care key cost driver in 2000.

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    This Data Bulletin is based on data from the Milliman USA Health Cost Index ($0 deductible), which is designed to reflect claims increases faced by private insurers; the Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust survey of employer-based health plans for 1999-2001; the KPMG survey of employer-based plans for 1991-98; the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment, Hours and Earnings series to track payroll costs; and Center for Studying Health System Change 2000-01 site visits (see www.hschange.org). PMID:12580170

  16. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  17. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  18. Female collegiate windmill pitchers: influences to injury incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennifer L; Humphries, Brendan; Weidner, Thomas; Newton, Robert U

    2004-08-01

    Few studies have examined fast-pitch softball pitchers and associated injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate injuries occurring to collegiate softball pitchers and associated influential factors. A web-based survey of 181 Division I (n = 45), II (n = 30), and III (n = 54) collegiate softball pitchers was conducted. The survey involved self-reported data from the previous year that addressed (a) demographic information, (b) pitching and game data, (c) training program information, and (d) injury reporting. Demographic information, pitching and game data, and training program information were not statistically significant (p < 0.05) in relation to injury. Descriptive statistics were used to report totals and percentages of pitchers surveyed. Among 131 reported injuries, 36 were acute, 92 chronic/overuse, and 3 unspecified. Of the total injuries, 80 were directly from pitching, with 33 shoulder-related and 16 related to the lower back. Among injured pitchers, 109 took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 140 used modalities, 11 received surgeries, and 95 saw additional specialists. Pitchers are at a risk for injury, with 72.8% of surveyed pitchers being injured during the 2001-02 year.

  19. Assessment of trophic dynamics of cephalopods and large pelagic fishes in the central North Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic ecosystems in the central North Atlantic Ocean support numerous commercially-exploited tuna, shark, and billfish species, which rely largely on cephalopod as well as fish and crustacean prey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on tuna and billfish predators as well as cephalopod prey species sampled during two research longline cruises (2001-02) to study their trophic structure. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) analyses revealed similarity in trophic position (TP) among sampled fish predator species, with large swordfish occupying the highest TP. Species with wider vertical distributions (swordfish and bigeye tuna) had higher δ15N values than species more constrained to the epipelagic zone (yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish). Analysis of tissue nitrogen isotope values showed an ontogenetic increase for swordfish and white marlin but no effects for other sampled fish species. For cephalopods as a group, δ15N increased with size. Smaller cephalopods sampled in this study had δ15N values that were about one TP below co-occurring tunas and billfishes, confirming their importance as a prey resource. Larger cephalopods had similar δ15N values to tunas and billfishes, indicating that these large cephalopods occupy a comparable TP to their fish predators. Both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of large pelagic fishes showed spatial gradients relative to conspecifics analyzed in coastal regions, which can be used to trace large scale movements.

  20. Determination of β -Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sean; Bénet, Thierry; Michaud, Julien; Cuany, Denis; Rohfritsch, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90-110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80-120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92-102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%. PMID:24719617

  1. Overview and quality assurance for the oral health component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-04.

    PubMed

    Dye, B A; Nowjack-Raymer, R; Barker, L K; Nunn, J H; Steele, J G; Tan, S; Lewis, B G; Beltran-Aguilar, E D

    2008-01-01

    The 2003-04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was a collaborative effort involving 28 federal funding partners with the National Center for Health Statistics. The collaborators for the 2003-04 NHANES oral health component included the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health. Oral health data are available on 8272 persons aged 2 years or older. This report provides an overview of the 2003-04 oral health component including content descriptions and procedures for oral health assessments conducted for the first time in a national survey in the United States. These assessments include posterior functional contacts, tooth wear, and oral health-related quality of life. This report also provides evaluations of data quality in terms of examiner reliability statistics (percent agreements, kappas, and correlation coefficients) for various NHANES 2003-04 oral health examination components and analytical recommendations for producing 6-year estimates using the previous two NHANES data collection components (1999-2000 and 2001-02).

  2. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of humanbear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenleaf, S.S.; Matthews, S.M.; Wright, R.G.; Beecham, J.J.; Leithead, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The management of human-American black bear (Ursus americanus) conflict has been of significant concern for Yosemite National Park (YNP) personnel since the 1920s. Park managers implemented the YNP Human-Bear Management Plan in 1975 in an effort to reduce human-bear conflicts, especially in the extensively developed Yosemite Valley (YV). We used scat analysis to estimate annual and seasonal food habits of black bears in YV during 2001-02. We assessed the success of efforts to reduce the availability of anthropogenic foods, including garbage, by examining changes in the diet compared to a study from 1974-78 (Graber 1981). We also quantified consumption of non-native fruit to address its possible contribution to human-bear conflicts. The annual percent volume of human-provided food and garbage in black bear scats in YV decreased from 21% to 6% between 1978 and 2002, indicating YNP efforts have been effective. We found high use of non-native apples by bears throughout YV. Non-native food sources could be contributing to habituation and food conditioning, given their proximity to developed areas of YV. We recommend that YNP managers continue to (1) adapt and improve their management tools to address changing circumstances, (2) quantify the success of new management tools, and (3) reduce the availability of non-native food sources. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  3. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  4. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a braided river: a tracer-based assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, P.; Soulsby, C.; Petry, J.; Malcolm, I.; Gibbins, C.; Dunn, S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural tracers (alkalinity and silica) were used to infer groundwater-surface water exchanges in the main braided reach of the river Feshie, Cairngorms, Scotland. Stream water samples were collected upstream and downstream of the braided section at fortnightly intervals throughout the 2001-02 hydrological year and then at finer resolution over two rainfall events. The braided reach was found to exert a significant downstream buffering effect on the alkalinity of these waters, particularly at moderate flows. Extensive hydrochemical surveys were undertaken to characterise the different source waters feeding the braids. Shallow groundwater flow systems at the edge of the braided floodplain recharged by effluent streams and hillslope drainage appear to be of particular significance. Deeper groundwater was identified closer to the main channel, upwelling through the hyporheic zone. Both sources contributed to the significant groundwater-surface water interactions that promote the buffering effect observed through the braided reach. Their impact was less significant at higher flows when acidic storm runoff from the peat-covered catchment headwaters dominated, as well as under baseflow conditions, when upstream alkalinity was already buffered due to headwater groundwater sources assuming dominance. The significant temporally and spatially dynamic influence of these groundwater-surface water interactions was therefore seen to have important implications for both catchment functioning and in-stream ecology.

  5. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in Europe--effective control requires a co-ordinated response.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Morgan, D; Brown, D

    2002-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have attracted the attention of the medical world and general public for many reasons, some based in reality and more on misinformation. They are amongst the highest profile infections in the public mind, because they are thought to be highly infectious and to kill most of their victims in a dramatic way (1,2). To add to the intrigue, mysteries remain about the source of some of the viruses involved. They emerge and re-emerge in many countries, most recently Ebola in Uganda in 2000 (3) and Gabon in 2001/02 (4), and Congo Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Kosovo (5) and Pakistan in 2001 (6). Large outbreaks have affected populations in endemic areas, living mainly in inaccessible areas or refugee camps where living conditions are very difficult. Poorly resourced medical facilities have played a role in amplifying transmission and infection control measures have been difficult or virtually impossible to establish. These viruses are likely to remain a threat until the reservoir is identified and as long as endemic areas are afflicted with ecological change, poverty and social instability. Recent events since September 11 2001 remind us of their potential to be used as weapons, and that fear can present a risk to public health. PMID:12631941

  6. Geoprospection of Mound A, Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, P. M.; Schneider, K. A.; Garrison, E. G.

    2005-05-01

    Mound A, located at Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia, was the subject of a multi-sensor geoprospection study in 2001-02. Mound A, a late prehistoric mound, built by the Mississippian Culture, ca. 1250 - 1400 AD,is, due to its size, ~ 1 ha in area at the base and 20 m in height, a formidable subject for the use of shallow geoprospection techniques. Techniques used were ground radar (GPR), conductivity (EM) and electrical (resistivity) methods. Common Mid-Point (CMP) radar data produced detail on the mound interior from surface to base. Electrical pesudo-sections produced excellent detail of the mound's interior. The EM data appears relevant for only the upper half of the mound, perhaps to a depth of 10 m, and suggests significant heterogeneity in the sediment fill used in the mound's construction. Our results speak directly to the efficacy of shallow geophyscial techniques in exploring large archeological mounds and tells. Another important aspect of this study is the use of a geoprospection approach as a non-invasice methodology for characterizing culturally sensitive archaeological sites.

  7. Determination of β -Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sean; Bénet, Thierry; Michaud, Julien; Cuany, Denis; Rohfritsch, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90-110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80-120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92-102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%.

  8. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  9. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions.

  10. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  11. International rescue? The dynamics and policy implications of the international recruitment of nurses to the UK.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one global aspect of the current health sector workforce policy agenda - the international recruitment and migration of health workers. It does so primarily by using a case study of the recruitment of nurses to the UK, as a means of exploring the policy challenges and associated research questions. The paper highlights the limitations in comparing national data on the nursing workforce, illustrating the extent to which currently collated national data can present a misleading picture of staff:population ratios in different countries. It then reports on the significant growth in the numbers of nurses entering the UK from other countries, using registration data. In 2001/02, more than 16 000 nurses entered the UK nursing register from non-UK sources. In this year, for the first time, the number exceeded the number of home-trained nurses. An analysis of postcode data highlights that these non-UK nurses have a younger age profile than home-based registered nurses and are more likely to report a postcode in London and south-east England. The paper also examines the push and pull factors that contribute to the international mobility of health workers. The paper concludes by examining the policy implications of this growing reliance on international recruitment, including the effect of the ethical guidelines on international recruitment introduced by the Department of Health in England.

  12. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  13. Relative abundance, age, growth, and fecundity of grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus in Niantic River and Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Tomichek, Christine A.; Maynard, Tracy; Burton, Jennifer A.

    2005-04-01

    Grubby ( Myoxocephalus aenaeus, Cottidae) is a common benthic fish of inshore waters and estuaries of eastern Long Island Sound; however, little information exists on their life history or population demographics. This study utilised a long-term data series (1976-2002) to assess grubby life history and population demographics and explores trends in the Niantic River and Niantic Bay populations. In addition, we examined the age, size, and fecundity of adult grubby in 2001-02 to determine the population characteristics in the region. Mean grubby catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Niantic Bay ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1976 to 2.9 per trawl in 1984 while river CPUE ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1977 to 7.6 per trawl in 1989. Catch of grubby in bottom trawls varied seasonally with highest CPUE occurring in winter. Highest entrainment of grubby larvae occurred in 2001 while the lowest entrainment observed was in 1991. Four age classes, 0+ through III+, were derived from otolith analysis (N = 51) although length frequency analysis suggested the possibility of older fish in the population. The total number of eggs in ovaries ranged from 286 to 16 451 for grubby (N = 64) between 52 mm and 155 mm TL. Results of this study indicated a decline in abundance of adult grubby over the 26-year period, possibly related to concurrent declines in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) abundance and/or increased water temperature.

  14. Relative abundance, age, growth, and fecundity of grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus in Niantic River and Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Tomichek, C.A.; Maynard, T.; Burton, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus, Cottidae) is a common benthic fish of inshore waters and estuaries of eastern Long Island Sound; however, little information exists on their life history or population demographics. This study utilised a long-term data series (1976-2002) to assess grubby life history and population demographics and explores trends in the Niantic River and Niantic Bay populations. In addition, we examined the age, size, and fecundity of adult grubby in 2001-02 to determine the population characteristics in the region. Mean grubby catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Niantic Bay ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1976 to 2.9 per trawl in 1984 while river CPUE ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1977 to 7.6 per trawl in 1989. Catch of grubby in bottom trawls varied seasonally with highest CPUE occurring in winter. Highest entrainment of grubby larvae occurred in 2001 while the lowest entrainment observed was in 1991. Four age classes, 0+ through III+, were derived from otolith analysis (N = 51) although length frequency analysis suggested the possibility of older fish in the population. The total number of eggs in ovaries ranged from 286 to 16 451 for grubby (N = 64) between 52 mm and 155 mm TL. Results of this study indicated a decline in abundance of adult grubby over the 26-year period, possibly related to concurrent declines in eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance and/or increased water temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  16. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, David Bryan

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  17. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  18. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  19. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  20. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region.

  1. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves.

  2. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  3. Patients treated by dental students in outreach: the first year of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Elkind, A; Potter, C; Watts, C; Blinkhorn, F; Duxbury, J; Hull, P; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the patients treated by 4th year undergraduate students during the first year of a pilot outreach course to teach Restorative Dentistry in community clinics in 2001-02. Data were collected from 908 summaries of patient treatment completed by the students, and from 139 patient questionnaires. Some 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 64, 58% were female, and 16% had dental phobia or anxiety. Most lived locally to the clinic and 41% made their initial contact as an emergency or drop-in. Some 37% made only a single visit (including children treated as emergencies) but 22% made six or more visits. Did not attend (DNA) was a problem and 18% of patients DNA to complete their treatment. Students undertook the full range of restorative procedures, with the emphasis on direct restorations, preventive treatment and advice, scaling, extractions and emergency treatment. Patients' main reasons for attending the clinic were lay recommendation, the need for treatment, convenience, free treatment, or the lack of access to a dentist. Some 30% said they did not have or did not know of an alternative source of dental care, and half had not seen a dentist for at least 2 years. The study demonstrates that despite difficulties related to attendance, a suitable patient base can be established offering students the opportunity to provide comprehensive care for adults in a primary care setting.

  4. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Jurtsenko, S; Tenńo, T; Kiis, A

    2005-11-01

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not exceeded in the samples analysed. However, a great variation in the content of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines was found for all the products. The concentrations of these compounds in domestic cured meat products showed a decrease from year to year. The mean intake of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines by Estonian children (n=346) from cured meat products was calculated on the basis of individual intake data. The mean daily intake of nitrates was 1.7 mg, that of nitrites was 0.83 mg and that of N-nitrosoamines was 0.073 microg. In the 2000-01 study, the calculated nitrite intake exceeded the acceptable daily intake by up to 140% for 1-6-year-old children and up to 105% in 2003-04.

  5. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse in patients with early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Harris, Steve; Checchi, Francesco; Hamel, Catherine; Karunakara, Unni

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In 2002-03, the Republic of the Congo increased the threshold separating stage 1 and 2 cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count of 5 cells/mm(3) to 10 cells/mm(3). We aimed to assess whether the increased threshold of 10 cells/mm(3) is a safe indicator of stage 2 disease. METHODS: We assessed patients treated for stage 1 HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Republic of the Congo between April 2001 and April 2005. Patients with 0-10 cells/mm(3) in CSF were classed as stage 1 and treated with pentamidine. Patients with CSF of > 10 cells/mm(3) were classed as stage 2 and treated with either melarsoprol or eflornithine. We did a retrospective analysis of all patients treated after the September 2002 increase in threshold for classification of HAT disease stage 2, and who were eligible for at least 1 year of follow-up. Primary outcome was survival without death or relapse within 1 year of discharge. Risk factors for treatment failure, in particular CSF white cell count on diagnosis, were assessed. FINDINGS: Between September 2002 to April 2004, 692 patients eligible for our analysis were treated with pentamidine. All were discharged alive. Relapse rate was 5% (n = 33). The only identified risk factor for relapse was a CSF white cell count of 6-10 cells/mm(3) rather than 0-5 cells/mm(3) (adjusted hazard ratio 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-7.01); P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: A threshold of 5 white cells/mm(3) in CSF is safer than 10 cells/mm(3) to determine stage 2 HAT and reduce risk of relapse. PMID:17128357

  6. Monitoring of Structural Components and Water Balance as AN Aid to Wetland Management Using Geospatial Techniques - a Case Study for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. V. R.; Panigrahy, S.

    2011-09-01

    The hydrologic variability greatly influences the structural components of wetlands that have a great bearing on habitats for avifauna, aquatic fauna including fish etc. This paper highlights the results of a study carried out to derive changes in open-water and vegetation, and also water balance for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat. MODIS 8-day composite data for three consecutive years viz 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 were used to study the seasonal and inter annual dynamics of water regime in the lake. Digital elevation model derived using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data with interpolated bottom topography was used to generate elevation contours and compute water volume from water spread data. The reference data of 2002 (drought year) shows the maximum extent of wetland to be 8.06 km2 with emergent vegetation of recorded as 2.36 km2 and open-water as 5.70 km2. The rainfall has an impact on the preferred habitat availability for various species of avifauna and it is noted that emergent vegetation present in the lake completely dried up by summer 2002, a rainfall deficit year but revived again in the preceding year i.e. 2003 which was a good rainfall year with 46.68 km2 under emergent vegetation and 61.96 km2 under open-water. The 2002 being a drought year has shown very low reference storage (0.256 MCM), which has shown a gradual decrease in the storage to 0.00019 MCM in March 2003. The reference storage also registered a steep increase to 18.165 MCM in October 2003 and decreased 1.264 MCM in March 2004. From this study it is evident that water level of about 9 m elevation at the end of the rainy season is found to be optimal for maintaining various habitats that in turn support the avifauna for the rest of the lean period.

  7. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Chimacum Creek basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater flow system in the Chimacum Creek basin. It includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal fluctuations in groundwater level; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a groundwater budget. The study area covers 124 square miles in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington, and includes the Chimacum Creek basin, which drains an area of about 37 square miles. The area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and western interior of the study area. Six hydrogeologic units consisting of unconsolidated aquifers and confining units, along with an underlying bedrock unit, were identified. A surficial hydrogeologic map was developed and used with well information from 187 drillers' logs to construct 4 hydrogeologic sections, and maps showing the extent and thickness of the units. Natural recharge was estimated using precipitation-recharge relation regression equations developed for western Washington, and estimates were calculated for return flow from data on domestic indoor and outdoor use and irrigated agriculture. Results from synoptic streamflow measurements and water table elevations determined from monthly measurements at monitoring wells are presented and compared with those from a study conducted during 2002-03. A water budget was calculated comprising long-term average recharge, domestic public-supply withdrawals and return flow, self-supplied domestic withdrawals and return flow, and irrigated agricultural withdrawals and return flow.

  8. Impact of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus on congenital anomalies, Canada, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Rouleau, J.; León, J. A.; Sauve, R.; Joseph, K. S.; Ray, J. G.; System, Canadian Perinatal Surveillance

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To examine the impact of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (DM) on the population birth prevalence of congenital anomalies in Canada. Methods: We carried out a population-based study of all women who delivered in Canadian hospitals (except those in the province of Quebec) between April 2002 and March 2013 and their live-born infants with a birth weight of 500 grams or more and/or a gestational age of 22 weeks or more. Pre-pregnancy type 1 or type 2 DM was identified using ICD-10 diagnostic codes. The association between DM and all congenital anomalies as well as specific congenital anomaly categories was estimated using adjusted odds ratios; the impact was calculated as a population attributable risk percent (PAR%). Results: There were 118 892 infants with a congenital anomaly among 2 839 680 live births (41.9 per 1000). While the prevalence of any congenital anomaly declined from 50.7 per 1000 live births in 2002/03 to 41.5 per 1000 in 2012/13, the corresponding PAR% for a congenital anomaly related to pre-pregnancy DM rose from 0.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4–0.8) to 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.4). Specifically, the PAR% for congenital cardiovascular defects increased from 2.3% (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) to 4.2% (95% CI: 3.5–4.9) and for gastrointestinal defects from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.2–1.9) to 1.4% (95% CI: 0.7–2.6) over the study period. Conclusion: Although there has been a relative decline in the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Canada, the proportion of congenital anomalies due to maternal pre-pregnancy DM has increased. Enhancement of preconception care initiatives for women with DM is recommended. PMID:26186019

  9. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  10. Silicoflagellate Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso, Mexico During the 2002-2003 El Niño Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, I. G.; Martínez-López, A.; Silverberg, N.

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the circulation and water mass patterns in the Gulf of California are closely associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. At the interannual scale, such changes are associated with events like El Niño, which in the Gulf are characterized by greater penetration of tropical-equatorial water. Subsamples of sediment trap material, collected between January 2002 and February 2004 were examined with the aim of inferring average oceanographic conditions in Cuenca Alfonso, Bahia de La Paz and those during the relatively mild 2002- 03 El Niño. Analysis of the silicoflagellate data series reveals seasonal and interannual relationships between the silicoflagellate fluxes and the dynamics of the water column. Comparison of silicoflagellate fluxes with those of the diatom group indicate that the former represent 0-52% of their combined flux. Both silicate groups generally co-vary but show differences in intensity. Thirteen taxa made up the silicoflagellate species composition. The simultaneous occurrence of Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum with Dictyocha calida and Dictyocha californica during August 2002 to May 2003, indicated the presence of both California Current Water and Equatorial Surface Water in the area close to Cuenca Alfonso. This favored the increase, mainly in November-December, in the flux of the dominant species, Octactis pulchra (as high as 7 x 106 skeletons m-2 day-1). Spring, on the other hand, was notable for a drop in the total silicoflagellate flux, probably due to the influence of the El Niño event. The subsequent increase in species typical of warm water and the replacement of the dominant species (O. pulchra) by Dictyocha messanensis var messanensis, suggest that the effects of El Niño extended to the fall of 2003.

  11. Outstanding Science at Neptune: Aerocapture Implementation of NASA's "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    After successfully proposing to NASA's "Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) the authors are studying an implementation option for the "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" mission that performs Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload including multiple Neptune entry probes. Significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team allowed focusing quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's "Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its parent institution, the California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  12. Outstanding Science in the Neptune System From an Aerocaptured Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    In 2003 the authors successfully proposed to NASA's ``Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) to study an implementation option for the ``Neptune Orbiter with Probes" mission that does Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload that includes multiple Neptune entry probes. We leveraged the significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team to focus quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's ``Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was done at multiple NASA Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  13. Trophic and environmental drivers of the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Vadas, Flora; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Interannual environmental variability in Peru is dominated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The most dramatic changes are associated with the warm El Niño (EN) phase (opposite the cold La Niña phase), which disrupts the normal coastal upwelling and affects the dynamics of many coastal marine and terrestrial resources. This study presents a trophic model for Sechura Bay, located at the northern extension of the Peruvian upwelling system, where ENSO-induced environmental variability is most extreme. Using an initial steady-state model for the year 1996, we explore the dynamics of the ecosystem through the year 2003 (including the strong EN of 1997/98 and the weaker EN of 2002/03). Based on support from literature, we force biomass of several non-trophically-mediated ‘drivers’ (e.g. Scallops, Benthic detritivores, Octopus, and Littoral fish) to observe whether the fit between historical and simulated changes (by the trophic model) is improved. The results indicate that the Sechura Bay Ecosystem is a relatively inefficient system from a community energetics point of view, likely due to the periodic perturbations of ENSO. A combination of high system productivity and low trophic level target species of invertebrates (i.e. scallops) and fish (i.e. anchoveta) results in high catches and an efficient fishery. The importance of environmental drivers is suggested, given the relatively small improvements in the fit of the simulation with the addition of trophic drivers on remaining functional groups’ dynamics. An additional multivariate regression model is presented for the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, which demonstrates a significant correlation between both spawning stock size and riverine discharge-mediated mortality on catch levels. These results are discussed in the context of the appropriateness of trophodynamic modeling in relatively open systems, and how management strategies may be focused given the highly environmentally influenced marine

  14. The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ronveaux, O.; Rickert, D.; Hadler, S.; Groom, H.; Lloyd, J.; Bchir, A.; Birmingham, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. METHODS: The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanuspertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). FINDINGS: The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks, injection supplies and adverse events; unsafe computer practices; and poor monitoring of completeness and timeliness of reporting. CONCLUSION: Inconsistencies in immunization data occur in many countries, hampering their ability to manage their immunization programmes. Countries should use these findings to strengthen monitoring systems so that data can reliably guide programme activities. The DQA is an innovative tool that provides a way to independently assess the quality of immunization monitoring systems at all levels of a health service and serves as a point of entry to make improvements. It provides a useful example for other global health initiatives. PMID:16175824

  15. Financial Burden of Health Care Expenditures: Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sulku, S Nur; Bernard, D Minbay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether and to what extent the health insurance system in Turkey provided adequate protection against high out of pocket expenditures in the period prior to “The Health Transformation Programme”. Furthermore, we examine the distribution of out of pocket expenditures by demographic characteristics, poverty status, health service type, access to health care and self-reported health status. We employ the 2002/03 National Household Health Expenditure Survey data to analyze financial burden of health care expenditure. Following the literature, we define high burdens as expenses above 10 and 20% of income. We find that 19% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 10% of family income and that 14% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 20% of family income on health care. Furthermore, the poor and those living in economically less developed regions had the greatest risk of high out of pocket burdens. The risk of high financial burdens varied by the type of insurance among the insured due to differences in benefits among the five separate public schemes that provided health insurance in the pre-reform period. Our results are robust to three alternative specifications of the burden measure and including elderly adults in the sample population. We see that prior to the reforms there were not adequate protection against high health expenditures. Our study provides a baseline against which policymakers can measure the success of the health care reform in terms of providing financial protection. PMID:23113149

  16. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Global Seasonality of Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharia M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Levy, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. These pathogens are generally understood to exhibit a wintertime seasonality, though a systematic assessment of seasonal patterns has not been conducted in the era of modern diagnostics. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed Medline database for articles published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed multivariate linear models to identify factors associated with the strength of norovirus seasonality. Results The searched identified 293 unique articles, yielding 38 case and 29 outbreak data series. Within these data series, 52.7% of cases and 41.2% of outbreaks occurred in winter months, and 78.9% of cases and 71.0% of outbreaks occurred in cool months. Both case and outbreak studies showed an earlier peak in season-year 2002-03, but not in season-year 2006-07, years when new genogroup II type 4 variants emerged. For outbreaks, norovirus season strength was positively associated with average rainfall in the wettest month, and inversely associated with crude birth rate in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. For cases, none of the covariates examined was associated with season strength. When case and outbreaks were combined, average rainfall in the wettest month was positively associated with season strength. Conclusions Norovirus is a wintertime phenomenon, at least in the temperate northern hemisphere where most data are available. Our results point to possible associations of season strength with rain in the wettest month and crude birth rate. PMID:24098406

  17. Expanding Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple at small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization- improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accommodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  18. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple as small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization-improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accomodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  19. Health systems' responsiveness and reporting behaviour: Multilevel analysis of the influence of individual-level factors in 64 countries.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Nicole; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; Bonsel, Gouke

    2015-08-01

    Health systems' responsiveness encompasses attributes of health system encounters valued by people and measured from the user's perspective in eight domains: dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, communication, prompt attention, social support, quality of basic amenities and choice. The literature advocates for adjusting responsiveness measures for reporting behaviour heterogeneity, which refers to differential use of the response scale by survey respondents. Reporting behaviour heterogeneity between individual respondents compromises comparability between countries and population subgroups. It can be studied through analysing responses to pre-defined vignettes - hypothetical scenarios recounting a third person's experience in a health care setting. This paper describes the first comprehensive approach to studying reporting behaviour heterogeneity using vignettes. Individual-level variables affecting reporting behaviour are grouped into three categories: (1) sociodemographic, (2) health-related and (3) health value system. We use cross-sectional data from 150,000 respondents in 64 countries from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (2002-03). Our approach classifies effect patterns for the scale as a whole, in terms of strength and in relation to the domains. For the final eight variables selected (sex; age; education; marital status; use of inpatient services; perceived health (own); caring for close family or friends with a chronic illness; the importance of responsiveness), the strongest effects were present for education, health, caring for friends or relatives with chronic health conditions, and the importance of responsiveness. Patterns of scale elongation or contraction were more common than uniform scale shifts and were usually constant for a particular factor across domains. The dependency of individual-level reporting behaviour heterogeneity on country is greatest for prompt attention, quality of basic amenities and confidentiality domains

  20. New Zealand risk management approach for toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kouzminov, Alexander; Ruck, John; Wood, Susanna A

    2007-06-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are common seasonal phenomena occurring worldwide in fresh, estuarine and coastal waters, including those used for drinking-water supplies, recreation and stock watering. In New Zealand, the frequency of blooms and their geographic spread is likely to grow with increasing eutrophication and global climate change. The New Zealand Ministry of Health has recently developed national criteria for assessing and managing the risk of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking-water supplies. This paper investigates a cyanobacterial bloom incident in the summer 2002/03 in the Waikato River and hydro lakes, which are a major drinking-water supply for Hamilton City and many other smaller towns along the river. The procedures invoked by the Hamilton City Council and other authorities to deal with this bloom event are considered in terms of the best practice of the day and compared with the Drinking-Water Standards for New Zealand 2005. The presence of cyanobacteria has significant economic effects because of increases in water supply treatment costs or the need to use an alternative source, and there are also social effects from the disruption of recreational use of water bodies and loss of confidence in the quality of reticulated, treated water supplies. Notional evaluation of economic cost of monitoring regimes and control, based on the Waikato River cyanobacterial bloom incident, is also given. The multi-barrier and process-control risk management approach, reliant on good vertical communication systems between central and local government, is an advanced approach useful for any country that regularly experiences cyanobacterial problems.

  1. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

  2. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  3. Why it is time to review the role of private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    The role of private health insurance (PHI) within the Australian health-care system is urgently in need of comprehensive review. Two decades of universal health cover under Medicare have meant a change in the function of PHI, which is not reflected in policies to support PHI nor in the public debate around PHI. There is increasing evidence that the series of policy adjustments introduced to support PHI have served to undermine rather than promote the efficiency and equity of Australia's health care system. While support for PHI has been justified to 'take pressure off the public hospital system' and to facilitate choice of insurer and private provider', and the incentives have indeed increased PHI membership, this increase comes at a high cost relative to benefits achieved. The redirection of hospital admissions from the public to private hospitals is small, with a value considerably less than 25% of the cost of the policies. The Commonwealth share of the health care budget has increased and the relative contribution from private health insurance is lower in 2001-02, despite an increase in PHI membership to nearly 45% of the population, compared with the 30% coverage in 1998. The policies have largely directed subsidies to those on higher incomes who are more likely to take out PHI, and to private insurance companies, private hospitals and medical specialists. Ad hoc policy adjustments need to be replaced by a coherent policy towards PHI, one that recognises the fundamental change in its role and significance in the context of universal health coverage. PMID:15362292

  4. Success with Web-based image access.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean W

    2003-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Miss., is the only medical school in the state. We performed 235,000 procedures in the 2001-02 fiscal year. All imaging services within the radiology department are networked to a PACS and are filmless. The elimination of film required that we decentralize our traditional file room to allow easy access to our radiology network across the campus. In our facility, there are three levels of image access: Diagnostic Quality, Review Quality and Web Access. Diagnostic Quality requires top-of-the-line workstations and monitors and is the most expensive. Review Quality workstations represent some savings over Diagnostic and are used in the ICU, orthopedics and surgery. Web Access appears to satisfy most areas outside the main diagnostic department. The account set-up procedure is simple because it uses our intranet email system. Images are easily pasted into presentation applications for articles and conferences. However, the main advantage of Web Access is the low cost. The downside of Web Access is that the images are for review only and are limited by the quality of the monitor in use. It is also somewhat cumbersome to retrieve old or comparison images via this method. The Web only holds approximately 45 days of the most recent images, therefore older studies may not be available. The deployment of this Web-based service has aided in our efforts to reduce the amount of film we print and has also been beneficial in improving patient care through faster service. PMID:12800563

  5. Introduction to the Deep Gulf of Mexico Benthos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.

    2008-12-01

    The Deep Gulf of Mexico Benthos Program (DGoMB) investigated the structure and function of sea-floor biota on the continental slope and abyssal plain of the Gulf of Mexico. Supported by the Minerals Management Service of the US Department of the Interior, DGoMB's purpose was to gain better understanding of how oil and gas exploration and production might affect the ecosystem and its natural inhabitants. The goal of assessing both community structure (abundance, biomass and species composition) and biogeochemical processes (community function) was unique, because traditionally such studies have been investigated independently. The field work aboard R/V Gyre was conducted in two phases over a 3-year period (2000-02). The first phase, a broad geographic survey stretching from the western GoM near Mexico to the upper Florida slope, was designed to provide a database from which large detailed maps could be created to explore potential controls on community structure. Physiographic features (depth, the base of steep escarpments, the axes of canyons, methane seep sites, mesoscale "salt" basins, etc.) were sampled in replicate locations to assess the relationships between topography and spatial distribution patterns. During the second phase (2001-02), a limited number (7) of locations were investigated with measurements designed to estimate rates of processes related to the cycling of organic matter. The strategy was successful in defining the quantitative relationships between carbon cycling (trophic conditions) and community structure (zonation and diversity), for those groups for which "species" lists were generated (harpacticoid copepods in the meiofauna, macrofauna, megafauna and fishes). In retrospect, additional "process" locations in the western GoM would have improved the second phase of the study by more rigorously describing the relationships between broader geographic patterns in community structure and trophic conditions.

  6. Is Workplace Smoking Policy Equally Prevalent and Equally Effective Among Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined whether immigrants were less likely to be covered by a smokefree workplace policy, as well as whether workplace smoking policies garnered comparable associations with smoking for immigrants and the US-born, in the US. Methods We applied the 2001/02 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement among US indoor workers (n=85,784) using multiple logistic regression analyses. First, we examined whether nativity (immigrants vs. US-born) was independently associated with smokefree policy coverage. Second, we examined whether the smokefree policy association with current smoking was differential by nativity (effect modification). Results Immigrants were less likely to work in smokefree workplaces than the US-born; however occupation and industry accounted for these disparities. Employment in a workplace that was not smokefree was associated with higher odds of smoking (vs. smokefree workplaces), both before (OR=1.83, 95% CI:1.74–1.92) and after (OR=1.36, (1.29–1.44)) covariate adjustment among the US-born, but associations were weaker among immigrants (OR=1.39(1.20–1.61) unadjusted, OR=1.15(0.97–1.35) adjusted). Worker industry partly explained (16% of) the weaker policy-smoking association among immigrants, while other socioeconomic variables reduced the policy-smoking association without explaining the disparity. Conclusions The patchwork of US workplace smoking restriction policy at different governmental levels, combined with a voluntary regime among some employers, generates coverage inequalities. Workplace smokefree policies may be less effective for immigrants, and this is related to differential coverage by such policies due to occupational segregation. Understanding the complex patterns of the social context of smoking is important for understanding how policy interventions might have heterogeneous effects for different demographic groups. PMID:19359272

  7. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  8. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  9. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    PubMed

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  10. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  11. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems responding to climatic events that enhance hydrologic transport acress the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Fountain, A. G.; Gooseff, M. N.; Doran, P. T.; Wall, D. H.; Virginia, R. A.; Priscu, J. C.; Adams, B.; Vesbach-Takacs, C.; Barrett, J. E.; Howkins, A.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is comprised of alpine and terminal glaciers, large expanses of patterned ground, and permanently ice-covered lakes in the valley floors, which are linked by glacial meltwater streams that flow during the austral summer. These valleys were first explored by Robert Scott and his party in 1903. In 1968 the New Zealand Antarctic Program began a gauging network on the Onyx River, a 32 km river in Wright Valley which is the longest river in Antarctica. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological research project our research group has monitored meteorological conditions, glacial mass balance, lake level and streamflow in the adjacent Taylor Valley. The extent of liquid water throughout the landscape is strongly controlled by summer climate, and the availability of liquid water in turn is a limitation to the microscopic life that is present in the diverse habitats in the valleys. We have studied the responses of soil, lake, stream and cryoconite ecosystems through a sustained cooling period that has been driven by atmospheric changes associated with the ozone hole. In the past decade, this cooling period appears to have ceased and summer conditions have become more variable. Three warm sunny summers have occurred since 2001/02. These conditions have created weeks long "flood events" in the valleys, causing wet areas to emerge in the soils, thermokarsting in some stream channels and increases in lake level. These flood events can be considered as pulse events that drive an increase in ecosystem connectivity, changing rates of biogeochemical processes and the distribution of biota. Collectively the ecosystems of the McMurdo Dry Valleys are highly responsive to dynamic climatic influences associated with the ozone hole and global warming.

  12. School environment as predictor of teacher sick leave: data-linked prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying) predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Methods Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05) in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers’ (n = 1678) sick leaves in 2001–02 and in 2004–05. Results Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days) sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Conclusions Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed. PMID:22966903

  13. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  14. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  15. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  16. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  17. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension. PMID:24658452

  18. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    PubMed

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. PMID:20420870

  19. Why it is time to review the role of private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    The role of private health insurance (PHI) within the Australian health-care system is urgently in need of comprehensive review. Two decades of universal health cover under Medicare have meant a change in the function of PHI, which is not reflected in policies to support PHI nor in the public debate around PHI. There is increasing evidence that the series of policy adjustments introduced to support PHI have served to undermine rather than promote the efficiency and equity of Australia's health care system. While support for PHI has been justified to 'take pressure off the public hospital system' and to facilitate choice of insurer and private provider', and the incentives have indeed increased PHI membership, this increase comes at a high cost relative to benefits achieved. The redirection of hospital admissions from the public to private hospitals is small, with a value considerably less than 25% of the cost of the policies. The Commonwealth share of the health care budget has increased and the relative contribution from private health insurance is lower in 2001-02, despite an increase in PHI membership to nearly 45% of the population, compared with the 30% coverage in 1998. The policies have largely directed subsidies to those on higher incomes who are more likely to take out PHI, and to private insurance companies, private hospitals and medical specialists. Ad hoc policy adjustments need to be replaced by a coherent policy towards PHI, one that recognises the fundamental change in its role and significance in the context of universal health coverage.

  20. Socioeconomic status and children's health: evidence from a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam.

  1. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners.

  2. Aerogeophysical evidence for complex subglacial geology below the Rutford drainage basin,WestAntarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Smith, A. M.; King, E.; Vaughan, D.

    2003-12-01

    A significant part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet appears to be imposed upon a complex and still largely unknown continental rift system, perhaps featuring sedimentary basins, thin crust and high heat flow. Subglacial geology has been postulated to strongly modulate the dynamics and stability of the ice sheet itself. Specifically, recent aerogeophysics collected over central West Antarctica at edge of the Whitmore Mountains crustal block show that narrow subglacial rift basins with thick sedimentary infill may control the onsets and lateral margins of ice streams. The British Antarctic Survey flew an aerogeophysical survey during the 2001-02 field season: the main aim was to investigate what factors control the location and dynamics of the onset region of the Rutford Ice stream. Airborne radar, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data were simultaneously collected over the drainage basin of the Rutford Ice Stream. The new bedrock elevation grid for the area shows that the Rutford Ice Stream is constrained by a deep bedrock trough with a N-S to NE-SW trend. The onset region appears however to lie within an E-W bedrock trough at the edge of the Ellsworth Mountains crustal block. Bouguer gravity maps do not reveal typical signatures for a coincident deep rift basin at this location. However, a sharp NE-SW trending gradient, likely separating crustal blocks with contrasting crustal thickness is revealed. Aeromagnetic data image NE-SW trends north of the Rutford Ice Stream. In the onset region, these trends appear to be truncated by a NNW-SSE trend, lying on strike with the Ellsworth Mountains. Hence, the new aerogeophysical data suggests greater complexity in the subglacial geology and structure of an onset region of an ice stream compared to previous investigations.

  3. Case study on industrial hazmat response teams.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shelly J

    2009-11-01

    In 1991, Amway formed an industrial hazardous materials (hazmat) team in order to respond quickly and efficiently to potential chemical spills. The company's goals were, and still are today, to protect employees, the environment and the local community, and to reduce the amount of resulting downtime. In 1991, the hazmat team was very well funded, enabling it to become a discrete department with its own management staff and nearly 100 hazmat volunteers. Due to changes in the business climate, Amway reorganised in 2000/01, and the hazmat team became part of a company that incorporated contract work into its scope. When this reorganisation occurred, the hazmat team was thoroughly re-evaluated. Its response function was maintained, but was systematically reinvented in the most lean way practicable while still meeting corporate goals. This case study represents Amway's hazmat team's journey through the evaluation process and subsequent reorganisation.

  4. Case study on industrial hazmat response teams.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shelly J

    2009-11-01

    In 1991, Amway formed an industrial hazardous materials (hazmat) team in order to respond quickly and efficiently to potential chemical spills. The company's goals were, and still are today, to protect employees, the environment and the local community, and to reduce the amount of resulting downtime. In 1991, the hazmat team was very well funded, enabling it to become a discrete department with its own management staff and nearly 100 hazmat volunteers. Due to changes in the business climate, Amway reorganised in 2000/01, and the hazmat team became part of a company that incorporated contract work into its scope. When this reorganisation occurred, the hazmat team was thoroughly re-evaluated. Its response function was maintained, but was systematically reinvented in the most lean way practicable while still meeting corporate goals. This case study represents Amway's hazmat team's journey through the evaluation process and subsequent reorganisation. PMID:20378491

  5. Low whole grain intake in the UK: results from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11.

    PubMed

    Mann, Kay D; Pearce, Mark S; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Seal, Chris J

    2015-05-28

    Increased whole grain intake has been shown to reduce the risk of many non-communicable diseases. Countries including the USA, Canada, Denmark and Australia have specific dietary guidelines on whole grain intake but others, including the UK, do not. Data from 1986/87 and 2000/01 have shown that whole grain intake is low and declining in British adults. The aim of the present study was to describe whole grain intakes in the most current dietary assessment of UK households using data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey rolling programme 2008-11. In the present study, 4 d diet diaries were completed by 3073 individuals between 2008 and 2011, along with details of socio-economic status (SES). The median daily whole grain intake, calculated for each individual on a dry weight basis, was 20 g/d for adults and 13 g/d for children/teenagers. The corresponding energy-adjusted whole grain intake was 27 g/10 MJ per d for adults and 20 g/10 MJ per d for children/teenagers. Whole grain intake (absolute and energy-adjusted) increased with age, but was lowest in teenagers (13-17 years) and younger adults up to the age of 34 years. Of the total study population, 18% of adults and 15% of children/teenagers did not consume any whole-grain foods. Individuals from lower SES groups had a significantly lower whole grain intake than those from more advantaged classifications. The whole grain intake in the UK, although higher than in 2000/01, remains low and below that in the US and Danish recommendations in all age classes. Favourable pricing with increased availability of whole-grain foods and education may help to increase whole grain intake in countries without whole-grain recommendations. Teenagers and younger adults may need targeting to help increase whole grain consumption. PMID:25904034

  6. Time trends in incidence of cutaneous melanoma by detailed anatomical location and patterns of ultraviolet radiation exposure: a retrospective population-based study.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Daniela; Gillgren, Peter; Eloranta, Sandra; Olsson, Henrik; Gordon, Max; Hansson, Johan; Smedby, Karin E

    2015-08-01

    Given the wide public health implications of the melanoma epidemic, ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure patterns contributing to cutaneous melanoma development should be clearly identified. To describe time trends of anatomic sites of melanoma using a UVR exposure model based on clothing and sun habits, we reviewed the medical records of all patients diagnosed with primary invasive melanoma or melanoma in situ (MIS) during the years 1977-78, 1983-84, 1989-90, 1995-96, and 2000-01 (n=3058) in one healthcare region of Sweden. Age-standardized incidence rates and relative risks (RRs) of melanoma by calendar period were estimated for intermittent and chronic UVR exposure sites. From 1977-78 to 2000-01, the incidence rates of all melanomas at intermittent UVR exposure sites increased both among men (7.8-16.5/10 person-years) and among women (7.6-14.6/10 person-years), with a sex-adjusted and age-adjusted RR of 2.1 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-2.4, Ptrend<0.0001]. This increase was evident for both invasive melanoma and MIS. Melanoma at chronic sites increased among men from 1.7 to 2.3/10 person-years, and among women from 1.4 to 1.8/10 person-years, with a corresponding adjusted RR of 1.4 (95% CI 1.0-1.9, Ptrend=0.01), driven primarily by MIS. For melanomas at intermittent UVR exposure sites, the male sex was positively associated with central (core) areas (chest, back, neck, shoulders, thighs; RR 1.7, 95% CI 1.5-1.9), but negatively associated with peripheral areas (lateral arms, lower legs, dorsum of feet; RR 0.3, 95% CI 0.3-0.4), compared with the female sex. Sex-specific intermittent UVR exposure patterns drove the observed increase in melanoma incidence, whereas chronic UVR exposure contributed less.

  7. The changing direct costs of medical care for patients with HIV/AIDS, 1995–2001

    PubMed Central

    Krentz, Hartmut B.; Auld, M. Christopher; Gill, M. John

    2003-01-01

    Background Determining the direct cost of providing medical care to patients with HIV/AIDS is important for both short-term and long-term decision-making and for appropriate resource allocation. We aimed to categorize and measure the direct costs of medical care provided to the entire HIV-positive population receiving care in southern Alberta between 1995 and 2001. Methods We collected all patient-specific direct costs including the cost of pharmaceutical drugs (HIV and non-HIV drugs), outpatient care (including physician costs and laboratory testing), inpatient (in-hospital) care and home care (acute, long-term, palliative) from primary sources for all patients between April 1995 and April 2001. We determined cost per patient per month (PPPM) adjusted to 2001 Canadian dollars. Results Since 1995, the direct cost of providing medical care to patients with HIV/AIDS has increased primarily as a result of increased antiretroviral drug costs both in absolute and in PPPM terms. Mean PPPM expenditures increased from $655 in 1995/96, that is, before the use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), to $1036 in 1997/98 when HAART was widely used. During the following 3 years, mean overall PPPM costs remained stable. Antiretroviral drugs accounted for 30% ($198 PPPM) of the total cost in 1995/96 increasing to 69% ($775 PPPM) in 2000/01. Inpatient, outpatient and home care costs decreased in both percentage and cost PPPM between 1995/96 and 2000/01 from 26% to 10%, 27% to 14% and 8% to 3% respectively. Interpretation The cost of providing medical care to HIV-positive patients continues to increase, although the burden of costs is distributed differently from before the introduction of HAART, with the costs of drug therapy offsetting the costs of inpatient care and home care. Careful consideration of all aspects of direct costing data is needed when any health economic policy issues are examined. PMID:12874156

  8. Comparison of two blanket surveys of arsenic in tubewells conducted 12 years apart in a 25 km(2) area of Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    van Geen, Alexander; Ahmed, Ershad B; Pitcher, Lynnette; Mey, Jacob L; Ahsan, Habibul; Graziano, Joseph H; Ahmed, Kazi Matin

    2014-08-01

    The arsenic (As) content of groundwater pumped from all tubewells within 61 contiguous villages of Araihazar, Bangladesh, was determined a first time in 2000-01 with laboratory measurements and a second time in 2012-13 using the ITS Arsenic Econo-Quick kit. The two surveys indicate that the total number of tubewells within the area almost doubled from 5560 to 10,879 over 12 years. The evolution of the distribution of well ages between the two surveys is consistent with a simple model that combines an annual increase of 42 wells/year in the rate of installations within the 61 villages starting in 1980 and a 7%/year rate of abandonment of wells as a function of well age. Colored placards were posted on each pumphead in 2012-13 on the basis of the kit results relative to the WHO guideline for As and the Bangladesh standard for As in drinking water: blue for As≤10 μg/L, green>10-50 μg/L, and red: >50 μg/L. According to quality-control samples collected from 502 tubewells for comparing the kit results with laboratory measurements, not a single well labeled blue in 2012-13 should have been labeled red and vice-versa. Field-kit testing in 2012-13 did not change the status of wells relative to the Bangladesh standard of 876 (87%) out of 1007 wells with a placard based on laboratory measurements in 2000-01 still attached to the pumphead. The high proportion of tubewells believed by households to be unsafe (66% out of 2041) that were still used for drinking and cooking in 2012-13 underlines the need for more widespread testing to identify low-As wells as an alternative source of drinking water.

  9. Proximity to Mosquito Breeding Habitat and Ross River Virus Risk in the Peel Region of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Peter J.; Lindsay, Michael D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are

  10. A multidisciplinary system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, Mauro; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spata, Gaetano; Scollo, Simona; Andronico, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most active volcanoes in the world is Mt. Etna, in Italy, characterized by frequent explosive activity from the central craters and from fractures opened along the volcano flanks which, during the last years, caused several damages to aviation and forced the closure of the Catania International Airport. To give precise warning to the aviation authorities and air traffic controller and to assist the work of VAACs, a novel system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, was developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, the managing institution for the surveillance of Etna volcano. Monitoring is carried out using multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite able to track the volcanic plume with a high time resolution, visual and thermal cameras used to monitor the explosive activity, three continuous wave X-band disdrometers which detect ash dispersal and fallout, sounding balloons used to evaluate the atmospheric fields, and finally field data collected after the end of the eruptive event needed to extrapolate important features of explosive activity. Forecasting is carried out daily using automatic procedures which download weather forecast data obtained by meteorological mesoscale models from the Italian Air Force national Meteorological Office and from the hydrometeorological service of ARPA-SIM; run four different tephra dispersal models using input parameters obtained by the analysis of the deposits collected after few hours since the eruptive event similar to 22 July 1998, 21-24 July 2001 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions; plot hazard maps on ground and in air and finally publish them on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. The system has been already tested successfully during several explosive events occurring at Etna in 2006, 2007 and 2008. These events produced eruption

  11. Comparison and Relative Utility of Inequality Measurements: As Applied to Scotland’s Child Dental Health

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Yvonne I.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared and assessed the utility of tests of inequality on a series of very large population caries datasets. National cross-sectional caries datasets for Scotland’s 5-year-olds in 1993/94 (n = 5,078); 1995/96 (n = 6,240); 1997/98 (n = 6,584); 1999/00 (n = 6,781); 2002/03 (n = 9,747); 2003/04 (n = 10,956); 2005/06 (n = 10,945) and 2007/08 (n = 12,067) were obtained. Outcomes were based on the d3mft metric (i.e. the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth). An area-based deprivation category (DepCat) measured the subjects’ socioeconomic status (SES). Simple absolute and relative inequality, Odds Ratios and the Significant Caries Index (SIC) as advocated by the World Health Organization were calculated. The measures of complex inequality applied to data were: the Slope Index of Inequality (absolute) and a variety of relative inequality tests i.e. Gini coefficient; Relative Index of Inequality; concentration curve; Koolman & Doorslaer’s transformed Concentration Index; Receiver Operator Curve and Population Attributable Risk (PAR). Additional tests used were plots of SIC deciles (SIC10) and a Scottish Caries Inequality Metric (SCIM10). Over the period, mean d3mft improved from 3.1(95%CI 3.0–3.2) to 1.9(95%CI 1.8–1.9) and d3mft = 0% from 41.1(95%CI 39.8–42.3) to 58.3(95%CI 57.8–59.7). Absolute simple and complex inequality decreased. Relative simple and complex inequality remained comparatively stable. Our results support the use of the SII and RII to measure complex absolute and relative SES inequalities alongside additional tests of complex relative inequality such as PAR and Koolman and Doorslaer’s transformed CI. The latter two have clear interpretations which may influence policy makers. Specialised dental metrics (i.e. SIC, SIC10 and SCIM10) permit the exploration of other important inequalities not determined by SES, and could be applied to many other types of disease where ranking of morbidity

  12. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    used to calculate current (2002-03) loadings of Hg to Lake Whatcom. Hg in tributaries contributed 59 percent of the total Hg, whereas non-local atmospheric deposition was estimated to have contributed 41 percent of the 303 grams of Hg entering Lake Whatcom each year. However, these inputs cannot be verified without a better understanding of the sources of sediment to Lake Whatcom.

  13. Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

  14. The difference of tropical Indian Ocean warming, PJ-pattern, oceanic and atmospheric changes around Philippines Sea and East Asia after two types of El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Kubota, H.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S.

    2012-12-01

    At the termination year of El Nino event, the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) SST warming appears in boreal summer accompanying with anomalous anticyclone over the Philippine Sea with negative phase of Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern (i.e., low pressure centered east of Japan) and is related to the increase of mei-yu-baiu rainfall over East Asia. Previous studies showed that above oceanic and atmospheric process becomes dominant after the climate regime shift of 1977. It was reported that there are two types of El Nino: one is strong El Nino type having large positive SST anomalies in the central-to-eastern Pacific (e.g., 1997/98 El Nino), and the other is weak El Nino type that shows weak/medium positive SST anomalies centered at the International Date Line (or El Nino Modoki). At present it is unclear whether or not TIO SST warming and following atmospheric and oceanic variations show different feature between the two El Nino types. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in TIO SST warming and also related climate variations in the boreal summer of the El Nino termination year between the two El Nino types after the 1977 regime shift. The composite analysis of SST shows that strong El Nino type (occurring in 1982, 1986, and 1998) shows TIO SST warming in boreal summer of El Nino termination year. On the other hand, weak type (occurring in 1991, 1994, 2002, 2004, and 2006) shows other SST anomaly pattern in IO: weak positive SST anomalies and negative SST anomalies appear in the north IO and the south IO respectively. Also, strong type shows clear negative PJ pattern and negative air temperature anomalies especially in the north Japan. Weak type does not show such tendency. In summer of the termination year of weak type El Nino events except for 2002/03 El Nino, anomalies of air-temperature in north Japan are positive or almost zero, in contrast to strong type. The present study indicates that strong type shows clear signals of TIO SST

  15. Longitudinal study of body mass index in Asian men who immigrate to the US.

    PubMed

    Oakkar, Eva Erber; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Cai, Jianwen; Perreira, Krista M; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Young, Deborah R; Ghai, Nirupa R; Caan, Bette; Quinn, Virginia P

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的:横断面研究表明:适应西方的规范,尤其是在年轻的时候,或许可以解释生活在美国的亚洲人的平均体质指数(BMI)高于生活在亚洲的亚洲人。然而,移民和非移民之间社会文化因素难以测量,因此,需要对同一人群移民前后进行纵向研究。为确定不同年龄BMI因居住地(美国或亚洲)不同变化的差别,采用纵向数据记录移民时的年龄和移民前后的BMI。方法和研究设计:加州男性健康研究包括1549位2002-03调查基线时年龄在44-71岁的亚裔男性。用自己报告的体重历史和当前的身高计算其30、40、50和60岁时的BMI。确定每个年龄段的居住地和移民时的年龄。使用广义估计方程进行数据分析。结果:亚裔男性在移民美国之前,十年BMI增幅小于已经在美国生活的亚裔男性。年龄在30-40岁的人群中这种效果最明显,居住在亚洲的亚洲人群,其十年间BMI增幅比在美国生活的亚裔男性低0.69 kg/m2 (95% CI: -1.08, -0.30)。40岁之前移民到美国其BMI增幅大于年龄较大时移民到美国的人群。结论:本研究是第一个支持生活在美国和年轻时移民导致亚裔男性较大的BMI增长这一假设的研究。.

  16. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected.

    A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue.

    Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise.

    NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy.

    Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.

    The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State

  17. Habitat and hydrology: assessing biological resources of the Suwannee River Estuarine System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Edwards, Randy E.; McIvor, Carole C.; Grubbs, Jack W.; Dennis, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot integrated-science study during 2002 and 2003 to map, describe, and evaluate benthic and emergent habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Categories of aquatic, emergent, and terrestrial habitats were determined from hyperspectral imagery and integrated with hydrologic data to identify estuarine fish habitats. Maps of intertidal and benthic habitat were derived from 12-band, 4-m resolution hyperspectral imagery acquired in September 2002. Hydrologic data were collected from tidal creeks during the winter of 2002-03 and the summer-fall of 2003. Fish were sampled from tidal creeks during March 2003 using rivulet nets, throw traps, and seine nets. Habitat characteristics, hydrologic data, and fish assemblages were compared for tidal creeks north and south of the Suwannee River. Tidal creeks north of the river had more shoreline edge and shallow habitat than creeks to the south. Tidal creeks south of the river were generally of lower salinity (fresher) and supported more freshwater marsh and submerged aquatic vegetation. The southern creeks tended to be deeper but less sinuous than the northern creeks. Water quality and inundation were evaluated with hydrologic monitoring in the creeks. In-situ gauges, recording pressure and temperature, documented a net discharge of brackish to saline groundwater into the tidal creeks with pronounced flow during low tide. Groundwater flow into the creeks was most prominent north of the river. Combined fish-sampling results showed an overall greater abundance of organisms and greater species richness in the southern creeks, nominally attributed a greater range in water quality. Fish samples were dominated by juvenile spot, grass shrimp, bay anchovy, and silverside. The short time frame for hydrologic monitoring and the one-time fish-sampling effort were insufficient for forming definitive conclusions. However, the combination of hyperspectral imagery and

  18. Water quality and ground-water/surface-water interactions along the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    The headwaters of the John River are located near the village ofAnaktuvuk Pass in the central Brooks Range of interior Alaska. With the recent construction of a water-supply system and a wastewater-treatment plant, most homes in Anaktuvuk Pass now have modern water and wastewater systems. The effluent from the treatment plant discharges into a settling pond near a tributary of the John River. The headwaters of the John River are adjacent to Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the John River is a designated Wild River. Due to the concern about possible water-quality effects from the wastewater effluent, the hydrology of the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass was studied from 2002 through 2003. Three streams form the John River atAnaktuvuk Pass: Contact Creek, Giant Creek, and the John RiverTributary. These streams drain areas of 90.3 km (super 2) , 120 km (super 2) , and 4.6 km (super 2) , respectively. Water-qualitydata collected from these streams from 2002-03 indicate that the waters are a calcium-bicarbonate type and that Giant Creek adds a sulfate component to the John River. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found at the John River Tributary below the wastewater-treatment lagoon. These concentrations have little effect on the water quality of the John River because the flow of the John River Tributary is only about 2 percent of the John River flow. To better understand the ground-water/surface-water interactions of the upper John River, a numerical groundwater-flow model of the headwater area of the John River was constructed. Processes that occur during spring break-up, such as thawing of the active layer and the frost table and the resulting changes of storage capacity of the aquifer, were difficult to measure and simulate. Application and accuracy of the model is limited by the lack of specific hydrogeologic data both spatially and temporally. However

  19. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists.

  20. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists. PMID:26410715

  1. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners

  2. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  3. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  4. Burden of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics in Italy: comparison with the H1N1v (A/California/07/09) pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella; Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Amicizia, Daniela; Patria, Antonio Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite preventive efforts, seasonal influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, including developed countries. The A/H1N1v pandemic imposed a considerable healthcare and economic burden. In order to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic burden of influenza, and hence to guide policymakers effectively, systematic studies are necessary. To this end, data from epidemiological surveillance are essential. To estimate the impact of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics and the H1N1v pandemic, we analyzed data from the Italian Influenza Surveillance System (CIRI NET). In the period 1999-2008, the Italian surveillance network consisted of sentinel general practitioners and pediatricians, who reported cases of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI ) observed during their clinical practice from mid-October to late April each year; reports were sent to the Center for Research on Influenza and other Viral Infections (CIRI -IV). CIRI -IV receives data from 9 of the 20 Italian regions: Liguria, Abruzzo, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Puglia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria. Previous estimates of influenza case costs were used in economic evaluations. Clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 showed that the highest epidemic period was 2004-2005, when a new variant of the H3N2 influenza virus subtype emerged (A/California/07/04). Indeed, the highest peak of morbidity in the decade occurred in February 2005 (12.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 1999-2008, H1N1 subtype strains circulated and co-circulated with strains belonging to the H3N2 subtype and B type. Regarding B viruses in 2001-02, viruses belonged to the B/Victoria/02/07 lineage re-emerged, and in subsequent years co-circulated with viruses belonging to the B/Yamagata/lineage. The estimated costs of seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 in Italy ranged from €15 to €20

  5. Groundwater seeps in Taylor Valley Antarctica: an example of a subsurface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Welch, Kathleen A.; Carey, Anne E.; Doran, Peter T.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Csathó, Bea M.; Tremper, Catherine M.

    The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (˜78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named 'Wormherder Creek' (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ˜6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in 'rinsing' the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota

  6. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2012-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. Cassini carries a set of three "fixed" reaction wheels and a backup reaction wheel (reaction wheel #4) is mounted on top of an articulable platform. If necessary, this platform could be articulated to orient the backup reaction wheel with the degraded wheel. The reaction wheels are used primarily for attitude control when precise and stable pointing of a science instrument such as the narrow angle camera is required. In 2001-02, reaction wheel #3 exhibited signs of bearing cage instability. As a result, reaction wheel #4 was articulated to align with reaction wheel #3. Beginning in July 2003, Cassini was controlled using wheel #1, #2, and #4. From their first use in the spring of 2000 until today, reaction wheels #1 and #2 have accumulated more than3.5 billions revolutions each. As such, in spite of very carefully management of the wheel spin rates by the mission operation team, there are some observed increases in the drag torque of the wheels' bearings. Hence, the mission operations team must prepare for the contingency scenario in which the reaction wheel #1 (in addition to wheel #3) had degraded. In this hypothetical fault scenario, the two remaining reaction wheels (#2 and #4) will not be able to provide precise and stable three-axis control of the spacecraft. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of controlling Cassini using the two remaining reaction wheels and four thrusters to meet the science pointing requirements for two key science operational modes: the Optical Remote Sensing and Downlink, Fields, Particles, & Waves operation modes. The performance (e.g., pointing control error, pointing stability, hydrazine consumption rate, etc.) of the hybrid controllers in both operations scenarios will be compared with those achieved

  7. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  8. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  9. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff From Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001?02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the possibility that PAHs from seal-coated parking lots might be transported to urban creeks, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, sampled runoff and scrapings from four test plots and 13 urban parking lots. The surfaces sampled comprise coal-tar-emulsion-sealed, asphalt-emulsion-sealed, unsealed asphalt, and unsealed concrete. Particulates and filtered water in runoff and surface scrapings were analyzed for PAHs. In addition, particulates in runoff were analyzed for major and trace elements. Samples of all three media from coal-tar-sealed parking lots had concentrations of PAHs higher than those from any other types of surface. The average total PAH concentrations in particulates in runoff from parking lots in use were 3,500,000, 620,000, and 54,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed (asphalt and concrete combined) lots, respectively. The probable effect concentration sediment quality guideline is 22,800 micrograms per kilogram. The average total PAH (sum of detected PAHs) concentration in filtered water from parking lots in use was 8.6 micrograms per liter for coal-tar-sealed lots; the one sample analyzed from an asphalt-sealed lot had a concentration of 5.1 micrograms per liter and the one sample analyzed from an unsealed asphalt lot was 0.24 microgram per liter. The average total PAH concentration in scrapings was 23,000,000, 820,000, and 14,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed asphalt lots, respectively. Concentrations were similar for runoff and scrapings from the test plots. Concentrations of lead and zinc in particulates in runoff frequently exceeded the probable effect concentrations, but trace element concentrations showed no

  10. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Wind Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Voulgaris, G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) wave and current data were collected offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC for 2 months in 2001-02. This field measurement campaign was the second of a three-part experiment series. While the overall objective of the study is to describe the processes governing the circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport along the northern South Carolina coast, this presentation focuses on the wave energy dissipation over a heterogeneous seafloor over a distance of 6 km. The data were collected between November 9, 2001 and January 17, 2002. The instruments were placed along a transect crossing a large sand shoal in an area otherwise largely deprived of sand, at depths of 8 to 12 meters. The four instruments used, in order of decreasing distance from shore, were 600 and1200 KHz RDI ADCP's, a Nortek Aquadopp and a Sontek Argonaut-XR. Bathymetry and bottom characteristics such as depth and thickness of sand layer are available through USGS's coastal relief model and side scan surveys. Wind data are supplied by a large-scale numerical wind model. Its output is compared with wind data collected at Frying Pan Shoals buoy and at an anemometer placed at Spring Maid pier after the experiment. The SWAN wave model (Booij et al. 1999) was used to model the spectral wave transformation from the offshore buoy to the inner stations and to compare the observed wave energy dissipation to the available models. There was no extreme storm event during the deployment period. The maximum significant wave height observed was 1.6 meters at the offshore wave station, and the mean wave height was 0.8 meters. The mean period was between 5 and 7 seconds most of the time. Significant wave energy dissipation (up to 40% decrease in wave energy flux) across 6 km was observed. A shift of the spectral peak and a change in the spectral shape was observed in many events, which were not generally reproduced by the model. Sand and rock bottom

  11. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  12. Does gravidity influence smoking behaviour in pregnancy? A comparison of multigravid and primigravid women.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melanie; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

    2007-05-01

    This study used the data from a retrospective cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy in a large UK sample, over more than 20 years of pregnancies. The main objective was to determine whether women in their second or subsequent pregnancy are more or less likely than primigravidae to change their smoking behaviour. The participants were 7506 ever-pregnant women, from 7702 who answered the second stage of a survey of reproductive history in 2001-02, sent to 10 828 women, aged 18-55 years on the UK electoral register. These women gave detailed information on their last pregnancy. The main outcome measure was self-reported cigarette consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy. Nineteen per cent (1417/7506) of women in this sample smoked in the first trimester of the reported pregnancy. The data showed that there had been a decrease over the last 20 years in smoking prevalence, but this trend was not statistically significant after adjustment for confounding (P(trend) = 0.07). There was evidence that multigravidae were more likely to smoke in their pregnancies than were primigravidae (adjusted OR = 1.24, [95% CI 1.01, 1.53]), with a highly significant trend with increasing pregnancy order (P(trend) < 0.0001). Over time, women who reported smoking before pregnancy (n = 1926), showed a decreasing trend in continuing to smoke the same amount after recognising their pregnancies (P(trend) < 0.0001). After adjustment, multigravid smokers were almost 75% more likely than primigravid smokers to continue to smoke with no change in consumption (adjusted OR = 1.74, [95% CI 1.32, 2.28]), with a clear trend found with increasing pregnancy order (P(trend) = 0.001). In this UK population-based study, multigravidae were more likely to smoke in pregnancy than women pregnant for the first time. If already a smoker, they were much less likely to cut down their smoking once they found out they were pregnant, regardless of age. This suggests that a

  13. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2006-01-01

    Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more

  14. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  15. Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    -2001) water levels near the site of the former pumping center with data from previous investigations indicates that, since pumping at the Puchack well field ceased, the dominant local ground-water flow direction is to the southeast, aligned with regional flow. Chromium concentrations were highest (8,010 micrograms per liter in 2000-01) in water from the Middle aquifer immediately downgradient from a possible source; the extent of this chromium plume is unknown but appears to be small. A second, unrelated, localized chromium plume also was identified in the Middle aquifer. The Intermediate Sand was found to contain an areally extensive plume of chromium-contaminated water, with concentrations up to 6,310 micrograms per liter in 2000-01, and another plume of about the same size, with concentrations up to 4,810 micrograms per liter in 2000-01, was identified in the Lower aquifer. The previous USGS investigation indicated the approximate extent of the combined plumes; the current delineation indicates that their locations have shifted slightly to the southeast since 1998. Concentrations of chromium in ground water decreased at some well locations by as much as 60 percent between sampling rounds in 1997-98 and 1999-2001. The decrease in chromium concentration at a given well could be the result of the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of the resulting trivalent chromium, the sorption of hexavalent chromium to aquifer materials, or the physical movement of the plumes. Available data indicate that all three processes likely have affected concentrations. The distribution of hexavalent and total chromium in the soils and sediments of a possible source area indicates that some hexavalent chromium has undergone chemical reduction in the soils, but the degree to which this process takes place in the aquifer currently is not known. Nor is it known whether contaminated soils continue to contribute chromium to the aquifer system. Contamination by vola

  16. Risk Factors and Predictors Of Subsequent ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction: Prospective Analysis Of 2801 Primary ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Christopher C.; Pedroza, Angela; Reinke, Emily; Huston, Laura J.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Retear of an ACL after an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is devastating for all involved. Understanding risk factors and predictors of subsequent ACL tear after an ACLR is vital for patient education of subsequent risk of injury and if a predictor is modifiable, to make adjustments to minimize the risk of repeat ACL tear. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the risk factors and predictors for ispilateral and contralateral ACL tears after primary ACLR and 2) to compare retear risk between the 2002/03 and 2007/08 cohorts. This is the largest and most comprehensive prospective analysis of this kind in the literature. Methods: Data from the 2002-2008 MOON database was used to identify risk factors for ACL retear. Subjects who had a primary ACLR with no history of contralateral knee surgery and had 2 year follow-up data were included. Subjects who had multiligament surgery were excluded. Graft type (auto-BTB, auto-hamstring, allograft), age, Marx score at time of index surgery, sport played post ACLR, sex, smoking status, lateral meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, medial meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, BMI, and MOON site were evaluated to determine their contribution to both ipsilateral retear and contralateral ACL tear. The analysis was repeated using the 2002/3 and 2007/8 cohort and included age, graft, sex, and Marx. An ANOVA with post-hoc analysis was performed to detect significant differences in age and Marx score by graft type over time. Results: A total of 2801 subjects met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. There were 165/2801 (5.89%) ipsilateral and 177/2801 (6.32%) contralateral ACL tears identified in the cohort at the two year follow-up. The odds of ipsilateral retear are 1.68 times greater for hamstring autograft (p=0.04) and 4.67 times greater for an allograft (p<0.001) compared to auto-BTB. The odds of ipsilateral retear decrease by 8% for every yearly increase in age (p < 0.001) and increases by 6% for every increased point on the

  17. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  18. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Sharing Program at the University of Florida. Final report for period August 15, 2000 - May 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG02-96NE38152 was supplied to the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facility through the U.S. Department of Energy's University Reactor Sharing Program. The renewal proposal submitted in January 2000 originally requested over $73,000 to support various external educational institutions using the UFTR facilities in academic year 2000-01. The actual Reactor Sharing Grant was only in the amount of $40,000, all of which has been well used by the University of Florida as host institution to support various educational institutions in the use of our reactor and associated facilities as indicated in the proposal. These various educational institutions are located primarily within the State of Florida. However, when the 600-mile distance from Pensacola to Miami is considered, it is obvious that this Grant provides access to reactor utilization for a broad geographical region and a diverse set of user institutions serving over fourteen million inhabitants throughout the State of Florida and still others throughout the Southeast.

  19. Serologic and Molecular Survey of Hepatitis E Virus in German Deer Populations.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Stephan; Hackl, Sybille S; Piepenschneider, Meike; Vina-Rodriguez, Ariel; Dremsek, Paul; Ulrich, Rainer G; Groschup, Martin H; Eiden, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a human pathogen that is primarily transmitted by the fecal-oral route and causes a usually self-limiting acute viral hepatitis. The virus is endemic in developing countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America and is responsible for sporadic cases in industrialized countries. In western Europe, an increasing number of autochthonous cases have been associated with zoonotic transmissions of HEV from domestic and wild animals. In Germany, animal reservoirs for HEV have been mainly assigned to domestic pigs and wild boars. To investigate the potential role of deer as a reservoir of HEV, we surveyed HEV-specific antibodies and RNA in deer samples from geographic regions in Germany. We sampled red deer (Cervus elaphus) and roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) during active surveillance in three forest districts in northern Hesse and southern Lower Saxony during 2011-12 and 2012-13, respectively. Additionally, archived samples of red, roe, and fallow deer (Dama dama), collected in 2000-01 in German national parks, were included in the study. Antibody prevalence ranged from 2-3.3% in red deer to 5.4-6.8% in roe deer. Viral RNA was detected in red deer and fallow deer at prevalences of 2.0-6.6% and 4.3%, respectively. The investigation confirmed the presence of HEV infections in three deer species in Germany. Red, roe, and fallow deer should be further monitored to assess their role as hosts and potential reservoirs of HEV in Germany.

  20. Case III: Managing conflict--the case of the faculty stuck in the middle.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Robert M; Comer, Robert W; Villamil, Juanita E

    2002-04-01

    The need for administrative faculty members to have superior leadership and management skills to handle their increasingly complex responsibilities is well established. As a part of the 2000-01 ADEA Leadership Institute curriculum, fellows were responsible for developing situational case studies for a faculty development workshop to develop participants' leadership and management skills. The case presented here involved managing conflicts in the dental academic setting. The foundation of conflict management centers on communication techniques including transparent communication, open discussion, open confrontation, and active listening. Management options such as avoidance, accommodation, competition, negotiation, and collaboration are potential strategies for the faculty leader. This case study involves a fictitious public dental school, New Horizons University, which has embarked on solutions to address limited resources, but unwittingly has created conflicts between individuals and groups of faculty members. The case discussion analyzes the cause of conflicts, presents the positive and negative potential of the conflicts, reviews techniques of conflict management, and discusses specific management concepts regarding resource allocation and equity theory.

  1. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  2. Epizootiologic studies of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Augspurger, T.; Miller, K.

    2002-01-01

    Epizootic avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a neurologic disease in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana) in Arkansas, USA in 1994 and 1996, respectively, but attempts to identify the etiology of the disease have been unsuccessful to date. Between 1998 and 2001, wing clipped sentinel birds (wild American coots and game farm mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) were released at Lake Surf, North Carolina, a lake with recurrent outbreaks of AVM, in order to gain a better understanding of the epizootiology of the disease. As early as 5-7 days post-release, sentinel coots and mallards showed neurologic signs of disease and were confirmed with AVM upon histologic examination of their brains. Serial releases of sentinel mallards during the summer, fall, and winter of 2000-01 demonstrated that exposure to the causative agent at a threshold sufficient to manifest disease was seasonal and occurred over about a 2 mo period, during November and December. Our findings that disease onset can be very rapid (5-7 days) and that exposure to the causative agent of AVM is site-specific, seasonal (late fall to early winter), and occurs over a relatively short duration (several months) supports the hypothesis that the disease is caused by a chemical substance, most likely of natural origin.

  3. Can adherence to dietary guidelines address excess caloric intake? An empirical assessment for the UK.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C S

    2013-12-01

    The facilitation of healthier dietary choices by consumers is a key element of government strategies to combat the rising incidence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Public health campaigns to promote healthier eating often target compliance with recommended dietary guidelines for consumption of individual nutrients such as fats and added sugars. This paper examines the association between improved compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients and excess calorie intake, the most proximate determinant of obesity risk. We apply quantile regressions and counterfactual decompositions to cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000-01) to assess how excess calorie consumption patterns in the UK are likely to change with improved compliance with dietary guidelines. We find that the effects of compliance vary significantly across different quantiles of calorie consumption. Our results show that compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients, even if successfully achieved, is likely to be associated with only modest shifts in excess calorie consumption patterns. Consequently, public health campaigns that target compliance with dietary guidelines for specific nutrients in isolation are unlikely to have a significant effect on the obesity risk faced by the population.

  4. [Intergenerational contract and intergenerational justice].

    PubMed

    Rürup, B

    2002-08-01

    Intergenerational justice dominates the discussion about public pension systems. Especially the implicit tax rate, the internal return, and the generational accounts as measures of intergenerational redistribution have brought the debate from the scientific community to the headlines of the political debate. Each of the three measures came to the result that there is too high of a burden for the younger generations as a result of the given demographic change. If intergenerational justice is understood as a equal treatment of different generations, an improvement of the relation between contributions and benefits for the younger generations becomes a necessary item of social policy. To achieve such a situation the introduction of a funded pillar into the public pension system is, according to most economists, the solution. The pension reform of the year 2000/01 in Germany took this into account. The effects of this reform on the relation between the contributions and benefits, and as a result on the intergenerational justice will be investigated in this paper.

  5. Emitted Power of Jupiter Based on Cassini CIRS and VIMS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Baines, Kevin H.; Smith, Mark A.; West, Robert A.; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Trammel, Harold J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Nixon, Conor A.; Filachionne, Gianrico; Fry, Patrick M.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The emitted power of Jupiter and its meridional distribution are determined from observations by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) and Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during its flyby en route to Saturn in late 2000 and early 2001. Jupiter's global- average emitted power and effective temperature are measured to be 14.10+/-0.03 W/sq m and 125.57+/-0.07 K, respectively. On a global scale, Jupiter's 5-micron thermal emission contributes approx. 0.7+/-0.1 % to the total emitted power at the global scale, but it can reach approx. 1.9+/-0.6% at 15degN. The meridional distribution of emitted power shows a significant asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the emitted power in the northern hemisphere 3.0+/-0.3% larger than that in the southern hemisphere. Such an asymmetry shown in the Cassini epoch (2000-01) is not present during the Voyager epoch (1979). In addition, the global-average emitted power increased approx. 3.8+/-1.0% between the two epochs. The temporal variation of Jupiter's total emitted power is mainly due to the warming of atmospheric layers around the pressure level of 200 mbar. The temporal variation of emitted power was also discovered on Saturn (Li et al., 2010). Therefore, we suggest that the varying emitted power is a common phenomenon on the giant planets.

  6. Incidence of quinolone resistance in strains of Salmonella isolated from poultry, cattle and pigs in Germany between 1998 and 2001.

    PubMed

    Malorny, B; Schroeter, A; Guerra, B; Helmuth, R

    2003-11-22

    This paper reports the susceptibility to the quinolone nalidixic acid and the fluoroquinolone ciprofloxacin of 14,514 strains of Salmonella isolated in Germany from poultry, cattle and pigs between 1998 and 2001. Quinolone-resistant salmonellae were most frequently isolated from poultry, with a prevalence of 10.2 to 16.8 per cent. Poultry-associated serotypes, such as Salmonella Paratyphi B (d-tartrate positive), Salmonella Hadar and Salmonella Virchow, had the highest prevalence of quinolone resistance, ranging between 35 and 74 per cent. All the nalidixic acid-resistant strains also had a reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICS) of 0.125 to 2 microg/ml. A comparison of the MICS for ciprofloxacin of the strains of these poultry-associated serotypes and Salmonella Enteritidis phage type 4 isolated in 1998/99 and 2000/01 indicated that there had been a shift towards higher MIC values of up to 2 microg/ml. The quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) of the gyrA gene and the homologue region of the parC gene of 31 selected strains were sequenced. Several different amino acid changes were observed in gyrA of the quinolone-resistant isolates at positions 83 and 87, but no substitutions were observed in parC.

  7. 30 Years of APS Congressional Fellows: Looking Back and Looking Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2003-04-01

    In 1973 AAAS launched a Congressional Fellows Program, and APS was one of three founding participants. Since then, APS has funded one or two Fellows annually to work with a Congressional Committee or on the personal staff of a Member of Congress. These fellows individually and collectively have had and continue to have a large impact in Washington. Six Fellows from different periods of the 30-year program, including a current Member of Congress, will present their views and assessments of the Fellowship program. They will address how it affected them, what it has done for the country and how APS should plan for the future. There will be ample time for questions and discussion. Panelists: Ben Cooper, Association of Oil Pipe Lines (Fellow, 1973-74) Rush Holt, Member, House of Representatives (Fellow, 1982-83) Jane Alexander, Office of Naval Research (Fellow, 1986-87) Duncan Moore, University of Rochester (Fellow, 1993-94) Peter Rooney, House Committee on Science (Fellow, 1997-98) Sherri Stephan, Senate Committee on Government Affairs (Fellow, 2000-01)

  8. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Public Outreach on a Simulated Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Shiro, Brian; Palaia, Joseph E., IV

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in social media and internet communications have revolutionized the ways people interact and disseminate information. Astronauts are already taking advantage of these tools by blogging and tweeting from space, and almost all NASA missions now have presences on the major social networking sites. One priotity for future human explorers on Mars will be communicating their experiences to the people back on Earth. During July 2009, a 6-member crew of volunteers carried out a simulated Mars mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS). The Mars Society built the mock Mars habitat in 2000-01 to help develop key knowledge and inspire the public for human Mars exploration. It is located on Devon island about 1600 km from the North Pole within the Arctic Circle. The structure is situated on the rim of Haughton Crater in an environment geologically and biologically analogous to Mars. Living in a habitat, conducting EVAs wearing spacesuits, and observing communication delays with "Earth,"the crew endured restrictions similar to those that will be faced by future human Mars explorers. Throughout the expedition, crewmembers posted daily blog entries, reports, photos, videos, and updates to their website and social media outlets Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums. During the sixteen EVAs of thier field science research campaign, FMARS crewmembers collected GPS track information and took geotagged photos using GPS-enabled cameras. They combined their traverse GPS tracks with photo location information into KML/KMZ files that website visitors can view in Google Earth.

  9. The Energy Spectra of Heavy Nuclei Measured by the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panov, A. D.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazley, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the spectra and composition of primary cosmic rays in the region of total energy from 100 GeV to near 100 TeV for Z from 1 to 26. ATIC consists of a pixelated silicon matrix detector to measure charge plus a fully active BGO calorimeter, to measure energy, located below a carbon target interleaved with three layers of scintillator hodoscope. The ATIC instrument had a second (scientific) flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 12/29/02 to 1/18/03, yielding 20 days of good data. The GEANT 3.21 Monte Carlo code with the QGSM event generator and the FLUKA code with the DPMJET-II event generator were used to convert energy deposition measurements to primary energy. We present the preliminary energy spectra for the abundant elements C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe and compare them with the results of the first (test) flight of ATIC in 2000-01 and with results from the HEAO-3 and CRN experiments.

  10. The energy spectra of heavy nuclei measured by the ATIC experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, A.; Atic Team

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the spectra and composition of primary cosmic rays in the region of total energy from 100 GeV to near 100 TeV for Z from 1 to 26. ATIC consists of a pixelated silicon matrix detector to measure charge plus a fully active BGO calorimeter, to measure energy, located below a carbon target interleaved with three layers of scintillator hodoscope. The ATIC instrument had a second (scientific) flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 12/29/02 to 1/18/03, yielding 18 days of good data. The GEANT 3.21 Monte Carlo code with the QGSM event generator and the FLUKA code with the DPMJET-II event generator were used to convert energy deposition measurements to primary energy. We present the preliminary energy spectra for the abundant elements C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe and compare them with the results of the first (test) flight of ATIC in 2000-01 and with results from the HEAO-3 and CRN experiments.

  11. Ectoparasites of the swift fox in northwestern Texas.

    PubMed

    Pence, Danny B; Kamler, Jan F; Ballard, Warren B

    2004-07-01

    Ectoparasites were collected from chemically immobilized swift foxes (Vulpes velox) in the Texas Panhandle (USA). Three species of fleas (Pulex irritans, Dactylopsylla percernis, and Euhoplopsyllus affinis) and one species of tick (Ixodes sculptus) were found. Pulex irritans was the only abundant ectoparasite; it occurred on all 23 foxes brushed in 1999-2000 and all but one of 34 hosts examined in 2000-01. Otherwise, this swift fox population had a depauperate ectoparasite fauna; the remainder of the ectoparasites only occurred on a few (< or =5%) of the hosts. Because of previous taxonomic confusion between P. irritans and the closely related P. simulans, the zoogeographic distribution of these two species in many areas of western North America needs to be verified. Apparently, only the human flea P. irritans occurs on wild canids in the Texas Panhandle. However, there are previous records of P. simulans on other carnivores in western and central Texas. Some of these specimens were reexamined, and their identifications were reconfirmed. Also, the recent literature on the controversial taxonomic status of these two flea species is reviewed. The male terminal aedeagal sexual apparatus is the only means currently available to separate P. irritans and P. simulans.

  12. Interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in the pack-ice zone off Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Fuko; Tamura, Takeshi; Shimoda, Haruhito; Uto, Shotaro; Simizu, Daisuke; Tateyama, Kazutaka; Hoshino, Seita; Ozeki, Toshihiro; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Ushio, Shuki; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2016-03-01

    Under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) program, sea-ice thickness has been routinely monitored off Lützow-Holm Bay (East Antarctica) during the summer (mid-December to early January) since 2000/01, using an electromagnetic induction (EM) instrument onboard the icebreaker Shirase. Analysis of these data over a 10-year period, combined with visual observations using a simplified form of the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea ice Processes and Climate) protocol, suggests a strong interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in this region. For the repeat pack-ice observation area, where the sea-ice thickness averaged over the nine seasons is ∼1.9 m, mean thicknesses of observed sea-ice in 2010/11 and 2011/12 are exceptionally large, at ∼3.3 and ∼5.8 m, respectively. This result is strongly related to regional patterns of sea ice dynamics. Ice convergence caused by anomalous northerly winds was particularly high in 2011/12, suggesting that the extremely thick ice observed in that season resulted largely from sea-ice deformation processes (including pressure ridging). Longer-term analysis of data from the past 34 years confirms that sea-ice conditions and thickness off Lützow-Holm Bay in summer are determined mainly by the large-scale pattern of atmospheric pressure in December.

  13. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Cristina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimated density of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model was calibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. The distribution of ISA in the world's primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  14. Case III: Managing conflict--the case of the faculty stuck in the middle.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Robert M; Comer, Robert W; Villamil, Juanita E

    2002-04-01

    The need for administrative faculty members to have superior leadership and management skills to handle their increasingly complex responsibilities is well established. As a part of the 2000-01 ADEA Leadership Institute curriculum, fellows were responsible for developing situational case studies for a faculty development workshop to develop participants' leadership and management skills. The case presented here involved managing conflicts in the dental academic setting. The foundation of conflict management centers on communication techniques including transparent communication, open discussion, open confrontation, and active listening. Management options such as avoidance, accommodation, competition, negotiation, and collaboration are potential strategies for the faculty leader. This case study involves a fictitious public dental school, New Horizons University, which has embarked on solutions to address limited resources, but unwittingly has created conflicts between individuals and groups of faculty members. The case discussion analyzes the cause of conflicts, presents the positive and negative potential of the conflicts, reviews techniques of conflict management, and discusses specific management concepts regarding resource allocation and equity theory. PMID:12014569

  15. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  16. The tremendous cost of seeking hospital obstetric care in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Afsana, Kaosar

    2004-11-01

    In Bangladesh, maternal mortality is estimated to be 320 per 100,000 live births, among the highest in the world, and most deliveries in rural areas occur at home. Women with obstetric complications fear to seek hospital care for various reasons; one of which is the tremendous cost. This paper shows how cost impedes rural, poor women's access to emergency obstetric care. The data are from a larger ethnographic study of childbirth practices in 2000--01 in Apurbabari village, the adjacent sub-district health complex and more distant tertiary hospitals at district level. Families had to spend what for them added up to a fortune for a caesarean section and other surgery, medicines, laboratory investigations, blood transfusion, food, travel and other expenses. Corruption in the form of demands for under-the-table payments to obtain these aspects of essential care is rife. Adequate resources should be allocated to the different health facilities, including for emergency obstetric treatment. Thana health complexes (sub-district hospitals) should be upgraded to provide comprehensive obstetric care. The system for prescribing drugs should be reformed and the causes of corruption investigated and addressed. Hospital care should not be allowed to further impoverish the poor. Addressing these issues will help to encourage rural, poor women to seek skilled delivery and post-partum care, particularly in emergency situations.

  17. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  18. Emitted Power Of Jupiter Based On Cassini CIRS And VIMS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Baines, Kevin H.; Smith, Mark A.; West, Robert A.; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Trammel, Harold J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Nixon, Conor A.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Fry, Patrick M.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The emitted power of Jupiter and its meridional distribution are determined from observations by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) and Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during its flyby en route to Saturn in late 2000 and early 2001. Jupiter's global- average emitted power and effective temperature are measured to be 14.10+/-0.03 W/sq m and 125.57+/-0.07 K, respectively. On a global scale, Jupiter's 5-micron thermal emission contributes approx. 0.7+/-0.1 % to the total emitted power at the global scale, but it can reach approx. 1.9+/-0.6% at 15degN. The meridional distribution of emitted power shows a significant asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the emitted power in the northern hemisphere 3.0+/-0.3% larger than that in the southern hemisphere. Such an asymmetry shown in the Cassini epoch (2000-01) is not present during the Voyager epoch (1979). In addition, the global-average emitted power increased approx. 3.8+/-1.0% between the two epochs. The temporal variation of Jupiter's total emitted power is mainly due to the warming of atmospheric layers around the pressure level of 200 mbar. The temporal variation of emitted power was also discovered on Saturn (Li et al., 2010). Therefore, we suggest that the varying emitted power is a common phenomenon on the giant planets.

  19. Temporal variation and biomagnification of organohalogen compounds in finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Lam, Paul K S; Jefferson, Thomas A; Zhou, Kaiya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2006-11-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and organochlorine compounds (OCs) were determined in the blubber of male finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) collected in 1990 and 2000/01 from the South China Sea. Among the organohalogen compounds analyzed, DDTs and PCBs were the predominant contaminants in the porpoises, ranging from 26,000 to 260,000 and 1400 to 28,000 ng/g lipid wt., respectively. PBDEs ranged from a minimum of 84 ng/g lipid wt., in 1990 to a maximum of 980 ng/g lipid wt., in 2001, showing a significant increase during the time period investigated. Congener profiles in finless porpoises did not shift to higher BDE congeners during these years, implying a continuous discharge of lower BDE commercial mixtures, such as PentaBDE. For OCs, HCHs concentrations decreased significantly, while others did not exhibit any significant temporal variation. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) were found to be highest for CHLs and lowest for HCB. PBDEs and PCBs had comparable BMFs, indicating a similar potential for biomagnification through the food web.

  20. Isomer specific determination of hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) in small cetaceans from the South China Sea--Levels and temporal variation.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Tomohiko; Ramu, Karri; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Takahashi, Shin; Lam, Paul K S; Jefferson, Thomas A; Zhou, Kaiya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-08-01

    A diastereoisomer (alpha, beta, and gamma) specific analytical method for measuring hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) was developed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). The method developed was applied to analyze blubber of small cetaceans to divulge the distribution and temporal variation of HBCDs in the Asian marine environment. HBCDs were detected in all the blubber samples of finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) and Indo-Pacific humpback dolphins (Sousa chinensis) collected from the South China Sea during 1990-2001. Concentrations of HBCDs were higher in humpback dolphins (31-380 ng/g lipid) than in finless porpoises (4.7-55 ng/g lipid), which can be attributed to habitat differences. Average concentrations of alpha-HBCD in finless porpoises increased from 9.5 ng/g lipid in 1990 to 35 ng/g lipid in 2000/01. alpha-HBCD was predominant among the three isomers with some exceptions in finless porpoises collected in 1990. This is the first report on HBCDs contamination in marine mammals from Southeast Asia.

  1. Mount Shasta Snowpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full-size images June 17, 2001 (2.0 MB JPEG) June 14, 2000 (2.1 MB JPEG) Light snowfall in the winter of 2000-01 led to a dry summer in the Pacific Northwest. The drought led to a conflict between farmers and fishing communities in the Klamath River Basin over water rights, and a series of forest fires in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. The pair of images above, both acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, show the snowpack on Mt. Shasta in June 2000 and 2001. On June 14, 2000, the snow extends to the lower slopes of the 4,317-meter (14,162-foot) volcano. At nearly the same time this year (June 17, 2001) the snow had retreated well above the tree-line. The drought in the region was categorized as moderate to severe by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported that streamflow during June was only about 25 percent of the average. Above and to the left of Mt. Shasta is Lake Shastina, a reservoir which is noticeably lower in the 2001 image than the 2000 image. Images courtesy USGS EROS Data Center and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  2. Use of information and communication technology among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Lamis D; Baqain, Zaid H

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current knowledge, skills, and opinions of undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan with respect to information communication technology (ICT). Dental students from the second, third, fourth, and fifth years were asked to complete a questionnaire presented in a lecture at the end of the second semester in the 2002-03 academic year. The response rate was 81 percent. Besides free and unlimited access to computers at the school of dentistry, 74 percent of the students had access to computers at home. However, 44 percent did not use a computer regularly. Male students were more regular and longer users of computers than females (p<0.001). A significant number of students (70 percent) judged themselves competent in information technology (IT) skills. More males felt competent in basic IT skills than did females (p<0.05). More than two-thirds acquired their computer skills through sources other than at the university. The main educational use of computers was accessing the Internet, word processing, multimedia, presentations, Medline search, and data management. More clinical students felt competent in word-processing skills (p<0.05) and many more used word processing for their studies (p<0.001) than did preclinical students. More males used word processing for their studies than females (p<0.001). Students used computers for personal activities more frequently than for academic reasons. More males used computers for both academic (p<0.01) and personal activities (p<0.001) than did females. All students had access to the Internet at the university, and 54 percent had access at home. A high percentage of students (94 percent) indicated they were comfortable using the Internet, 75 percent said they were confident in the accuracy, and 80 percent said they were confident in the relevance of information obtained from the Internet. Most students (90 percent) used email. Most students (83 percent) supported the idea

  3. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    . Final results shows the direct dependence of the soil water content from the rainfall events, as it is usual in Mediterranean. The presence of a period of drought (2004-06) during the monitoring let us to observe the incidence of reduction in the rainfall volumes. 2002-03 and 2003-04 years registered normal volumes of rainfalls and the soil water content followed the climatic gradient of the region: a decrease with the reduction of the rainfalls. Oppositely, during 2004-05 and 2005-06 years, the drought period, it was observed a significant reduction of soil water content for all hillslopes along the pluviometric gradient, although the effects were more evident at the hillslope in transition between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions. The lack of water into the soil caused the reduction of water available for vegetation. This led to a change in the vegetation pattern under different climatic conditions: a decrease in vegetal cover, the number of plants, and herbaceous growth; and an increase in the bare soil exposed to raindrop impacts and runoff. Hence, decreases in soil moisture content causes changes in the vegetal cover that could reduce the organic matter supply making soil aggregates more unstable with reduced soil permeability and water supply for vegetation, enhancing a positive feedback process of degradation. The observed changes related to increasing aridity during the drought period will lead the hillslopes eco-geomorphological system towards a more unstable equilibrium and special attention must be given to areas between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions because they could be used as sensitive indicators of the ecogeomorphological system responses in the Climate Change context.

  4. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  5. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    the collector bucket. Field-audit results for 2004 indicate dissolved analyte loss in more than one-half of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples for all analytes except chloride. Concentrations of contaminants also were estimated from field-audit data. On the basis of 2004 field-audit results, at least 25 percent of the 2004 NADP/NTN concentrations for sodium, potassium, and chloride were lower than the maximum sodium, potassium, and chloride contamination likely to be found in 90 percent of the samples with 90-percent confidence. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data attributed to chemical analysis by the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) were comparable to the variability and bias estimated for other laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program for all analytes. Variability in NADP/NTN ammonium data evident in 2002-03 was reduced substantially during 2004. Sulfate, hydrogen-ion, and specific conductance data reported by CAL during 2004 were positively biased. A significant (a = 0.05) bias was identified for CAL sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate data, but the absolute values of the median differences for these analytes were less than the method detection limits. No detections were reported for CAL analyses of deionized-water samples, indicating that contamination was not a problem for CAL. Control charts show that CAL data were within statistical control during at least 90 percent of 2004. Most 2004 CAL interlaboratory-comparison results for synthetic wet-deposition solutions were within ?10 percent of the most probable values (MPVs) for solution concentrations except for chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance results from one sample in November and one specific conductance result in December. Overall variability of NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements was estimated during water year 2004 by the median absolute errors for weekly wet-deposition sample concentrations and precipitation measurements for tw

  6. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    eventually built up before the ALS acquisition, is corrected. As snow cover biases are particular uncertain, a statistical approach has been applied to assess combined DTM errors by using the population of DTM differences over stable terrain. This method incorporates all known and unknown error sources from the surface difference in stable areas and uses its median thickness for correction in all altitudinal belts. In addition, intensity data of the ALS surveys are used to classify the optical surface properties into ice and firn zones. The resulting grids with according conversion factors (900 and 700 kg/m³ for ice and firn, respectively) are combined to calculate mass changes. In a last step, the survey dates are adjusted, using numerous field observations. On an annual time scale, the geodetic mass balances of HEF corrected using this approach, correlate well with the results from the homogenized direct glaciological method. Significant deviations occur in years with few measurements in the uppermost areas applying the direct glaciological method, due to strong melt in areas not equipped with ablation stakes (cf. Figure 2 for 2002/03) or inaccessibility due to weather conditions. On the basis of these results, the conventional error risk (e.g. confidence levels), was adopted in order to test the null hypothesis and to check if unexplained discrepancies suggest reanalyses of glaciological mass balances. Regarding the cumulative mass balance, the deviations between the two methods tend to become smaller the longer the period of comparison extends. Averaged between 2001 and 2011 the largest sources of differences are snow cover and density assumptions having high uncertainties in their estimates and/or leading to higher error ranges in the geodetic mass balances. Some errors were found to have a minor impact and are not treated explicitly, such as uncertainties in different glacier outlines used in both methods or the influence of snow covered and snow free crevasses in

  7. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) for the ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Millar, Pamela S.; Riris, Haris

    2002-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is a new generation lidar and is the primary science payload for NASA's ICESat Mission. The GLAS design combines a 10 cm precision surface lidar with a sensitive dual wavelength cloud and aerosol lidar. GLAS will precisely measure the heights of the Earth's polar ice sheets, establish a grid of accurate height profiles of the Earth's land topography, and profile the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols on a global scale. GLAS will be integrated onto a small spacecraft built by Ball Aerospace, and will be launched into a polar orbit with a 590-630 km altitude at an inclination of 94 degrees. ICESat is is currently planned to launch in winter 2002/03 and GLAS is designed to operate continuously in space for a minimum of 3 years. GLAS will measure the vertical distance from orbit to the Earth's surface with pulses from a ND:YAG laser at a 40 Hz rate. Each 6 nsec wide 1064 nm laser pulse is used to produce a single range measurement. On the surface, the laser footprints have 66 m diameter and approx. 170 m center-center spacings. The GLAS receiver uses a I m diameter telescope to detect laser backscatter and a Si APD to detect the 1064 nm signals. The detector's output is sampled by a digital ranging receiver, which records each transmitted pulse and surface echo waveform with 1 nsec (15 cm) resolution. Each echo pulse is digitized and is reported to ground with a record length of from 200 to 544 samples, depending on the spacecraft's location . The GLAS location and epoch times are measured by a precision GPS receiver carried on the ICESat spacecraft. Initial processing of the echo waveforms within GLAS permits discrimination between cloud and surface echoes for selecting appropriate waveform samples. This selection is guided by an on-board DEM which is used to set the boundaries for the echo pulse search algorithm. Subsequent ground-based echo pulse analysis, along with GPS-based clock frequency estimates, permit

  8. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Mass cultivation of the prairie and shrubland-steppe on the Columbia Plateau began in the 1880's. This region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss; lower cropland productivity, fouled in-stream habitat for andronomous and non-andronomous salmonids and eels, and deposition of sediment in first, second, and third order channels that continues to migrate down stream during storm runoff events. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields. Presently much of the sediment moved during stormflow originates from stream bank erosion, although the annual development of rills in many fields is still observed. To quantify the continuing contribution of sediment to streams, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct seed farming practices to soil and water conservation, four first order drainages, and one hillslope were instrumented with flumes, weirs, and storm sediment samplers. The area of instrumented drainages and hillslope were, respectfully, 25.0, 18.1, 10.0, and 6.1 ha, and a 25 percent hillslope of 1.6 ha. The 6.1 ha drainage was managed using fallow and inversion tillage practices. In October 2002, the crop stubble was fall burned and the soil was inverted using a moldboard plow; the following spring and summer the drainage was field cultivated and rod-weeded three times to control weeds and prepare the seed bed for winter wheat in October 2003. All other drainages, and the hillslope site, were farmed using direct seed technology consisting of one pass using a direct seed drill to seed and fertilize the crop, one pass to harvest the crop, one pass to break-up crop stubble, and multiple passes to spray herbicides for weed control. Total crop year precipitation for 2002-03 and 2003-04 was 10 percent lower and 15 percent higher, respectively, than the long-term average, representing typical winter

  9. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  10. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  11. Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

    2002-01-01

    conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team

  12. Comparing large eddy simulations and measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy budget in an urban canopy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Meneveau, C. V.; Fang, J.; Christen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) is highly dependent on the actual configuration of obstacles relative to mean wind and stability. For many applications, building-resolving information is neither required nor feasible, and simply beyond the numerical capabilities of operational systems. Common urban canopy parameterizations (UCP) used in dispersion and mesoscale forecasting models hence rely on a horizontally averaged approach, where the UCL is represented as a 1D column, often for simplified geometries such as infinite street canyons. We use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the airflow over and within a realistic urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland to determine all terms of the TKE budget in order to guide and validate current approaches used in UCPs. A series of high-resolution LES runs of the fully developed flow are performed in order to characterize the TKE budget terms in a horizontally averaged frame of view for various directions of the approaching flow under neutral conditions. Equations are solved on a regular domain with a horizontal resolution of 2 m. A Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid-scale stresses and buildings are taken into account adopting an immersed boundary approach with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. The modeled (periodic) domain is centered on the location of a 32 m tall tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed, during the BUBBLE program in 2001/02 (Rotach et al., Theor. Appl. Clim., 82, 231-261, 2005). Selected terms of the TKE budget were inferred from six levels of ultrasonic anemometer measurements operated over nearly a full year between ground level and two times the mean building height. This contribution answers the questions: (1) How well do TKE budget terms calculated by the LES at the exact tower location match the single point measurements on the tower under comparable conditions? (2) How

  13. Hydrogeology and ground-water availability in the carbonate aquifer system of Frederick County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow,, George E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Nelms, David L.; Weary, David J.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2005-01-01

    general direction of ground-water flow is from the hills in the west of the study area into and across the carbonate valley. A ground-water divide may occur north of Round Hill in the vicinity of the Apple Pie Ridge fault where the North Mountain fault zone cuts out the resistant Silurian and Devonian sandstone units and results in surface drainage from the carbonate rocks toward the west and out of the carbonate valley. Estimates of effective ground-water recharge for 2001-02 range from 5.8 to 6.2 inches in the Cedar Creek Basin, with base flow accounting for between 60 and 64 percent of streamflow, and from 3.2 to 3.8 inches in the Opequon Creek Basin, with base flow accounting for between 86 and 92 percent of streamflow. Water budgets calculated for 2001, a year of below-normal precipitation (33.1 inches), and 2002, a year of above-normal precipitation (41.2 inches), include a streamflow of 9.0 inches in 2001 and 9.2 inches in 2002 in Cedar Creek. Evapotranspiration ranged from 25.9 to 30.7 inches, and ground-water storage decreased 1.8 inches in 2001 and increased 1.3 inches in 2002. Streamflow was 3.7 inches in 2001 and 2002 in Opequon Creek. Evapotranspiration ranged from 29.8 to 37.5 inches, and ground-water storage decreased 0.4 inch in 2001 and did not change in 2002.

  14. Nutrient Response of the Ventura River to Drought Conditions in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydecker, A.; Alstatt, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Ventura River drains 580 sq. km of mountainous coastal watershed 100 km northwest of Los Angles, Ca. The climate is Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and extreme seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff; more than 90 % of the rain falls between Nov. and April and most of the annual flow (range: 0 to 11 cu.m/sec) occurs over a few days. Monthly synoptic sampling of nutrients at 15 locations (from Nov. 2000) shows nitrate peaking in early winter, presumably from mineralization and mobilization after the advent of the rainy season, with concentrations decreasing to a minimum by late summer. Phosphate follows a similar pattern. Variation in nitrate (0 to 550 microM) and phosphate (0 to 35 microM) on the river and its tributaries is considerable. During winter stormflow, nitrate concentrations in the lower, urbanized portion of the catchment are decreased by dilution from surface runoff, while phosphate concentrations increase throughout the basin coincident with sediment mobilization. Rainfall in the winter of 2001-02 was only 40 % of the annual mean, insufficient to meet end-of-dry-season soil moisture deficits and generate runoff from upland areas; subsequent groundwater inflows to rivers and creeks were severely diminished. Average flow this past winter was 0.15 cu.m/sec, in contrast with a 72 yr mean of 4.6. In the absence of stormflows, which usually scour the channel, exuberant plant growth overwhelmed the lower river and macrophytes have replaced algae as dominant primary producers. Phosphate concentrations following the drought winter have remained similar to those measured during the previous, normal rainfall, year of 2000-2001 (1-5 microM), except below km 9, where treated sewage effluent is discharged. With lower flows, effluent has become the dominant source of water below the treatment plant, increasing the relative nutrient loading; 3 km below the plant, phosphate and nitrate concentrations increased by late summer to ~ 30

  15. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and

  16. Minimizing uncertainty of daily rainfall interpolation over large catchments through realistic sampling of anisotropic correlogram parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2016-04-01

    It has been established that daily rainfall gauged network density is not adequate for the level of hydrological modelling required of large catchments involving pollutant and sediment transport, such as the catchments draining the coastal regions of Queensland, Australia, to the sensitive Great Barrier Reef. This paper seeks to establish a link between the spatial structure of radar and gauge rainfall for improved interpolation of the limited gauged data over a grid or functional units of catchments in regions with or without radar records. The study area is within Mt. Stapylton weather radar station range, a 128 km square region for calibration and validation, and the Brisbane river catchment for validation only. Two time periods (2000-01-01 to 2008-12-31 and 2009-01-01 to 2015-06-30) were considered, the later period for calibration when radar records were available and both time periods for validation without regard to radar information. Anisotropic correlograms of both the gauged and radar data were developed and used to establish the linkage required for areas without radar records. The maximum daily temperature significantly influenced the distributional parameters of the linkage. While the gauged, radar and sampled correlogram parameters reproduced the mean estimates similarly using leave-one-out cross-validation of Ordinary Kriging, the gauged parameters overestimated the standard deviation (SD) which reflects uncertainty by over 91% of cases compared with the radar or the sampled parameter sets. However, the distribution of the SD generated by the radar and the sampled correlogram parameters could not be distinguished, with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.52. For the validation case with the catchment, the percentage overestimation of SD by the gauged parameter sets decreased to 81.2% and 87.1% for the earlier and later time periods, respectively. It is observed that the extreme wet days' parameters and statistics were fairly widely distributed

  17. Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Ruhlen, T.D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Hanson, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

  18. Changes in waist circumference and body mass index in the US CARDIA cohort: fixed-effects associations with self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Berkman, Lisa F; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jacobs, David R; Seeman, Teresa E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2013-03-01

    Prior studies examining the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and obesity have had mixed results and primarily been cross-sectional. This study tests the hypothesis that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts gains in waist circumference and body mass index in Black and White women and men over eight years. In race/ethnicity- and gender-stratified models, this study examined whether change in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination predicts changes in waist circumference and body mass index over time using a fixed-effects regression approach in SAS statistical software, providing control for both measured and unmeasured time-invariant covariates. Between 1992-93 and 2000-01, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination decreased among 843 Black women (75% to 73%), 601 Black men (80% to 77%), 893 White women (30% to 23%) and 856 White men (28% to 23%). In fixed-effects regression models, controlling for all time-invariant covariates, social desirability bias, and changes in education and parity (women only) over time, an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination over time was significantly associated with an increase in waist circumference (β=1.09, 95% CI: 0.00-2.19, p=0.05) and an increase in body mass index (β=0.67, 95% CI: 0.19-1.16, p=0.007) among Black women. No associations were observed among Black men and White women and men. These findings suggest that an increase in self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination may be associated with increases in waist circumference and body mass index among Black women over time.

  19. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Christina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the product we made is at one km2 resolution and is based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA. Inputs into the product include the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The reference data used in the calibration were derived from 30 meter resolution ISA estimates of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. Hyrdologic and environmental impacts of ISA begin to be exhibited when the density of ISA reaches 10% of the land surface. An examination of the areas with 10% or more ISA in watersheds finds that with the exception of Europe, the majority of watershed areas have less than 0.4% of their area at or above the 10% ISA threshold. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  20. Non-Thermal Plasma System Development for CIDI Exhaust Aftertreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Balmer, M. Lou ); Tonkyn, Russell ); Maupin, Gary; Yoon, Steven; Kolwaite, Ana; Barlow, Stephen; Domingo, Norberto; Storey, John M.; Hoard, John Wm.; Howden, Ken

    2000-04-01

    There is a need for an efficient, durable technology to reduce NOx emissions from oxidative exhaust streams such as those produced by compression-ignition, direct injection (CIDI) diesel or lean-burn gasoline engines. A partnership formed between the DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technology, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the USCAR Low Emission Technologies Research and Development Partnership is evaluating the effectiveness of a non-thermal plasma in conjunction with catalytic materials to mediate NOx and particulate emissions from diesel fueled light duty (CIDI) engines. Preliminary studies showed that plasma-catalyst systems could reduce up to 70% of NOx emissions at an equivalent cost of 3.5% of the input fuel in simulated diesel exhaust. These studies also showed that the type and concentration of hydrocarbon play a key role in both the plasma gas phase chemistry and the catalyst surface chemistry. More recently, plasma/catalyst systems have been evaluated for NOx reduction and particulate removal on a CIDI engine. Performance results for select plasma-catalyst systems for both simulated and actual CIDI exhaust will be presented. The effect of NOx and hydrocarbon concentration on plasma-catalyst performance will also be shown. SAE Paper SAE-2000-01-1601 {copyright} 2000 SAE International. This paper is published on this website with permission from SAE International. As a user of this website, you are permitted to view this paper on-line, download this pdf file and print one copy of this paper at no cost for your use only. The downloaded pdf file and printout of this SAE paper may not be copied, distributed or forwarded to others or for the use of others.

  1. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  2. Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Matyjaszczyk, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A number of potential determinants of medication non-adherence have been described so far. However, the heterogenic quality of existing publications poses the need for the use of a rigorous methodology in building a list of such determinants. The purpose of this study was a systematic review of current research on determinants of patient adherence on the basis of a recently agreed European consensus taxonomy and terminology. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, IPA, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for systematic reviews published between 2000/01/01 and 2009/12/31 that provided determinants on non-adherence to medication. The searches were limited to reviews having adherence to medication prescribed by health professionals for outpatient as a major topic. Results: Fifty-one reviews were included in this review, covering 19 different disease categories. In these reviews, exclusively assessing non-adherence to chronic therapies, 771 individual factor items were identified, of which most were determinants of implementation, and only 47—determinants of persistence with medication. Factors with an unambiguous effect on adherence were further grouped into 8 clusters of socio-economic-related factors, 6 of healthcare team- and system-related factors, 6 of condition-related factors, 6 of therapy-related factors, and 14 of patient-related factors. The lack of standardized definitions and use of poor measurement methods resulted in many inconsistencies. Conclusions: This study provides clear evidence that medication non-adherence is affected by multiple determinants. Therefore, the prediction of non-adherence of individual patients is difficult, and suitable measurement and multifaceted interventions may be the most effective answer toward unsatisfactory adherence. The limited number of publications assessing determinants of persistence with medication, and lack of those providing determinants of adherence to short-term treatment identify

  3. Effect of folic acid fortification on the incidence of neural tube defects.

    PubMed

    Amarin, Zouhair O; Obeidat, Ahmed Z

    2010-07-01

    In a few countries enriched cereal grains have been fortified with folic acid to reduce the incidence of neural tube defects. The objective of this study was to analyse the effect of folic acid fortified foods on the incidence of neural tube defects in live newborns at Princess Badea Teaching Hospital, in the north of Jordan, before and after the national food fortification with folic acid was implemented. For the 7-year period from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2006, we retrospectively extracted the total number of births at Princess Badea Hospital, as well as the number of pregnancies affected by spina bifida and anencephaly, per 1000 births during the periods before (2000-01), during (2002-04) and after (2005-06) folic acid fortification of grain products, was implemented. Neural tube defects were defined in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10): anencephaly, encephalocele and spina bifida. A total of 78 subjects with neural tube defects were recorded among 61 447 births during the study period. The incidence of neural tube defects decreased from 1.85 per 1000 births before fortification [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2, 2.4] to 1.07 per 1000 births during the fortification period [95% CI 0.7, 1.5], and 0.95 after full fortification [95% CI 0.5, 1.5], a 49% reduction. The difference between incidence of neural tube defects in the periods before and after food fortification with folic acid was statistically significant. We conclude that food fortification with folic acid was associated with a significant reduction in the rate of neural tube defects in north Jordan.

  4. Application of Remote Sensing to Assess the Impact of Short Term Climate Variability on Coastal Sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Huh, Oscar K.; Walker, Nan D.; Rouse, Lawrence J.; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to modify coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the microtidal Louisiana coast. The assessment includes quantifying the influence of cumulative winter season atmospheric forcing (through surface wind observations) from year to year in response to short term climate variability, such as El Nino events. A correlation between winter cyclone frequency and the strength of El Nino events has been suggested. The atmospheric forcing data are being correlated to geomorphic measurements along western Louisiana's prograding muddy coast. Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODIS observations will enable estimates of SSC in case 2 waters over the global domain. Progress in Year 1 of this study has included data collection and analysis of wind observations for atmospheric forcing characterization, a field activity (TX-2001) to collect in situ water samples with co-incident remote sensing measurements from the NASA ER-2 based MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and the EOS Terra based MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, aerial photography and of sediment burial pipe field measurements along the prograding muddy Chenier Plain coast of western Louisiana for documenting coastal change in that dynamic region, and routine collection of MODIS 250 in resolution data for monitoring coastal sediment patterns. The data sets are being used in a process to transfer an SSC estimation algorithm to the MODIS platform. Work is underway on assessing coastal transport for the winter 2000-01 season. Water level data for use in a Geomorphic Impact

  5. Water quality and the effects of changes in phosphorus loading, Red Cedar Lakes, Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Garn, Herbert S.

    2003-01-01

    The Red Cedar Lakes consist of three mainstem lakes (Balsam, Hemlock and Red Cedar) on the Red Cedar River in Barron and Washburn Counties, Wisconsin. These lakes are productive because of high phosphorus loading, and classified as mesotrophic to eutrophic. Because of concerns that the water quality of these lakes was degrading, three cooperative studies were conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1993 and 2003. As part of these studies, water quality in the lakes was documented in 1993?94, 1996?97, and 2000?01, and water and phosphorus budgets were constructed for water year 2001. Historical water-quality data indicated that the lakes have changed little since the late 1980s. A detailed phosphorus budget indicated that most of the 14,100 pounds of phosphorus input to the lakes during 2001 came from the upstream lakes, streams draining relatively undeveloped land upstream of Hemlock Lake, and ground water. Simulation results from two water-quality models (BATHTUB and WiLMS) indicated that about a 50-percent reduction in phosphorus loading from that measured in 2001 is required for all three lakes to be classified as mesotrophic; therefore, appreciable improvements in the water quality would require improvements in the water quality of the upstream lakes. Although the water quality of the lakes has not changed appreciably in recent years and major improvements in water quality are unlikely without major improvements to upstream lakes, continued efforts to protect the susceptible watershed are necessary to maintain the current level of water quality.

  6. 'The kids are alright' - Changes in GP consultations with children 2000-15.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Clare; Harrison, Christopher; Charles, Janice; Britt, Helena

    2015-12-01

    The ageing of Australia's population has led to a focus on the health resources required for older patients, and there has been concern that this might be at the expense of children's healthcare. Over the past few decades the number of children in Australia has increased, but has steadily declined as a proportion of the population. This has paralleled an increase in the absolute number of general practitioner (GP) encounters with children aged <15 years, but a decline in the percentage of GP workload from 14.3% in 2000-01 to 11.2% in 2013-14. There are disparities in the use of general practice services by age, with children making up a greater proportion of the population (19.3%) than of GP visits (13.0%), while people aged 65 years and older accounted for 13.0% of the population and 26.5% of visits in 2006. It is unclear whether the decline in the proportion of GP workload accounted for by children reflects a change in the way children use these general practice services, or a redistribution based on the ageing of the patient population. Over time, there have been marked changes in the types of problems managed in children. From the 1990s to 2001, Australia's children became well vaccinated and decreasingly likely to have 'traditional' childhood illnesses (notably infections). More recently, there has been significant growth in the management of child mental health problems in general practice, although mental health problems account for a small proportion of childhood problems managed. We examined children's use of general practice services and the problems managed in 2000-03 and 2012-15 to determine whether their service use has been influenced by the demands associated with the management of older Australians, and whether trends in problems managed identified in early studies have continued. PMID:27054203

  7. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, William S.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  8. Simulation of flow and sediment transport in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Bennett, James P.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of sediment transport of the Kootenai River in the white sturgeon spawning reach is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to predict sediment-transport conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The decreasing population and spawning failure of the white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeon are found in the river today. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. A 15-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied, including the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and a 1-mile long side channel around the western side of Shorty Island. A one-dimensional sediment-transport model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to simulate the response of the hydraulic and sediment system to varying discharges and water-surface elevations. The model comprises 79 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. Bed-sediment samples collected in 2002 and additional samples collected for this study in 2004 were used in the model. The model was calibrated to discharge and water-surface elevations at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. The model also was calibrated to suspended-sediment discharge at several sites in the study reach. The calibrated model was used to simulate six different management alternatives to assess erosion and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions at the end of 21 days of simulation. Alternative 1 was simulated with a discharge of 6,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), alternative 2 with 20,000 ft3/s, alternative 3 with 40,000 ft3/s, and alternatives 4 through 6 with 60,000 ft3/s and represents low to high discharges in the river since the construction of Libby Dam. Sediment deposition

  9. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C

    2015-06-01

    increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 42% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2011/12, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. As a result of the epidemics which are of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and the expansion of private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$45,321 million (46.9% of total current expenditure) in 2011/12 with the remaining HK$51,251 million made up of private sources of funds. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.2%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.1% of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.3%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.4%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.7%), whereas in-patient care (24.7%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding

  10. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    /90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social

  11. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    /90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social

  12. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2009/10.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2013-04-01

    -patient curative care (27.3%), day patient hospital services (4.9%) and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding the small share of total spending for day patient hospital services, there was an increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2009/10, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped steadily to 43% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2009/10. This trend was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of epidemics that were of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last 2 decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$40,951 million (48.2% of total current expenditure) in 2009/10. The remaining HK$43,923 expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (50.9%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.0% of total current spending), the distribution patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (48.9%) and substantially less on out-patient care (26.0%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.4%), whereas in-patient care (23.3%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.5%) accounted for the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has

  13. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C

    2015-06-01

    increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 42% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2011/12, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. As a result of the epidemics which are of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and the expansion of private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$45,321 million (46.9% of total current expenditure) in 2011/12 with the remaining HK$51,251 million made up of private sources of funds. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.2%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.1% of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.3%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.4%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.7%), whereas in-patient care (24.7%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding

  14. Which Ringed Planet...!?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere

  15. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  16. Dynamics of Meddies Interaction With Submarine Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cenedese, A.; Espa, S.; Sciarra, R.; Cicerani, S.

    and to investigate its evolution during the impact event. REFERENCES Richardson P.L., Bower A.S. &Zenk W. (2000) 'A census of Med- dies tracked by floats'. Progress in Oceanography, 45, 209-250. Cenedese C.(2000) 'Mesoscale vortices colliding with a seamount' J.Geophys.Res. Cenedese, A., Quer- zoli, G., (2000), SParticle Tracking Velocimetry: measuring in the Lagrangian ref- ´ erence frameS, in: Particle Image Velocimetry and associated techniques, Lectures series 2000-01, von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics

  17. Climatological characterization of wind and snowfall in Minnesota and assessing the impacts of living snow fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulski, Martha Elizabeth Durr

    Blowing and drifting snow on roadways is a common occurrence in Minnesota due to the topographic, vegetative, and winter climate characteristics of this area. Through proper road design and the use of snow fences this problem can be alleviated, however snowfall and wind climatological information must first be analyzed. Archived climatological records for locations in Minnesota were recently compiled. Snowfall time series data show a statistically significant increase of 28cm in the annual total since 1890. The increase is shown to occur for November--December while February and March show a decrease. This increase is largely due to an increase in the frequency of snow events less than 10cm. Wind data from federal observing sites in Minnesota show a correlation to landscape variability, with a high frequency of higher wind speeds in western and southern Minnesota. A snow relocation factor needed to quantify seasonal snow transport was calculated and shows a strong dependence on the wind speed distribution. A case study of the 2000--01 winter season allowed for examination of snow storage and agricultural implications of three living snow fence designs in southern Minnesota (two 8-row strips of corn, twin-row honeysuckle, single-row honeysuckle/red cedar). For a winter with high seasonal snowfall and spring rainfall, results of snow storage and modeled seasonal snow transport show good agreement for the two corn row strips. However, snow storage totaled approximately 50% of the modeled snow transport for the honeysuckle fence designs, which appeared to reach storage capacity prior to the end of the snow season. A key factor is the absence of a bottom gap, which promotes leeward displacement of the downwind drift and prevents snow deposition on the fence. Soil temperature and frost depth data show a moderation in temperatures and a decrease in freezing depth with an increase in associated snowpack depth. Post-season soil moisture shows no significant variability with

  18. An ENSO prediction approach based on ocean conditions and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-heng; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Ding, Ruiqiang; Chen, Han-ching

    2016-05-01

    A simple statistical model for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction is derived based on the evolution of the ocean heat condition and the oceanic Kelvin wave propagation associated with westerly wind events (WWEs) and easterly wind surges (EWSs) in the tropical Pacific. The multivariate linear regression model solely relies on the pentad thermocline depth anomaly evolution in 25 days along with the zonal surface wind modulation. It successfully hindcasts all ENSOs except for the 2000/01 La Niña, using the pentad (or monthly) mean tropical atmosphere ocean array data since 1994 with an averaged skill (measured by anomaly correlation) of 0.62 (or 0.67) with a 6-month lead. The exception is mainly due to the long-lasting cold sea surface temperature anomalies in the subtropics resulting from the strong 1998/99 La Niña, even though the tropical warm water volume (WWV) had rebounded and turned phases after 2000. We also note that the hindcast skill is comparable using pentad or monthly mean NCEP global ocean data assimilation system data for the same time period. The hindcast skill of the proposed statistical model is better than that based on the WWV index in terms of the monthly correlation, normalized RMSEs and ENSO occurrences, which suggest that including the evolution of the subsurface ocean temperature anomaly and the WWEs/EWSs in the central tropical Pacific can enhance the ability to predict ENSO. The hindcast skill is also comparable to the predictions using other dynamical and statistical models, indicating that these processes are the keys to ENSO development. The dynamics behind the statistical model are consistent with the physical processes of ENSO development as follows: the tropical WWV resulting from the interannually-varying meridional subtropical cell transport provides a sufficient heat source. When the seasonal phase lock of ocean-atmosphere coupling triggers the positive (negative) zonal wind anomaly in boreal summer and fall, an

  19. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  20. Regional Variations in U.S. Diurnal Temperature Range for the 11 14 September 2001 Aircraft Groundings: Evidence of Jet Contrail Influence on Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2004-03-01

    The grounding of all commercial aircraft within U.S. airspace for the 3-day period following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks provides a unique opportunity to study the potential role of jet aircraft contrails in climate. Contrails are most similar to natural cirrus clouds due to their high altitude and strong ability to efficiently reduce outgoing infrared radiation. However, they typically have a higher albedo than cirrus; thus, they are better at reducing the surface receipt of incoming solar radiation. These contrail characteristics potentially suppress the diurnal temperature range (DTR) when contrail coverage is both widespread and relatively long lasting over a specific region. During the 11 14 September 2001 grounding period natural clouds and contrails were noticeably absent on high-resolution satellite imagery across the regions that typically receive abundant contrail coverage. A previous analysis of temperature data for the grounding period reported an anomalous increase in the U.S.-averaged, 3-day DTR value. Here, the spatial variation of the DTR anomalies as well as the separate contributions from the maximum and minimum temperature departures are analyzed. These analyses are undertaken to better evaluate the role of jet contrail absence and synoptic weather patterns during the grounding period on the DTR anomalies.It is shown that the largest DTR increases occurred in regions where contrail coverage is typically most prevalent during the fall season (from satellite-based contrail observations for the 1977 79 and 2000 01 periods). These DTR increases occurred even in those areas reporting positive departures of tropospheric humidity, which may reduce DTR, during the grounding period. Also, there was an asymmetric departure from the normal maximum and minimum temperatures suggesting that daytime temperatures responded more to contrail absence than did nighttime temperatures, which responded more to synoptic conditions. The application of a

  1. Reconstruction of the West Pacific ENSO precipitation anomaly using the compound-specific hydrogen isotopic record of marine lake sediments of Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smittenberg, R. H.; Sachs, J. P.; Dawson, M. N.

    2004-12-01

    There is still much uncertainty whether the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will become stronger or more frequent in a warming global climate. A principal reason for this uncertainty stems from a glaring lack of paleoclimate data in the equatorial Pacific, which hampers model validation. To partly resolve this data deficiency, sediments of three marine anoxic lakes were cored in Palau, an island group that lies in the heart of the West Pacific Warm Pool. The lakes contain seawater that seeps through fissures in the surrounding karst, and they are permanently stratified due to fresh water input provided by the year-round wet climate (map 1970-2000 = 3.7m). During ENSO events, however, the islands suffer from drought. The surface water hydrogen isotopic compositions in the lakes are sensitive to the relative proportions of D-depleted rainwater and D-enriched seawater, and are therefore sensitive to ENSO events. The lake surface water H/D values are recorded by algal and bacterial biomarkers that are preserved well in the highly organic and anoxic sediments, which accumulate relatively fast (mean 1 mm/yr). Ongoing down core measurement will eventually result in a precipitation proxy record of the islands. To obtain endmember D/H values, a comprehensive set of water samples from sea, lakes and rain water was obtained, as well as suspended particulate matter. Higher plant biomarker D/H values derived from the jungle vegetation surrounding the lakes may render supporting climatic proxy data, being influenced by evapotranspiration. Some lakes are inhabited by millions of jellyfish (Mastigias) that live in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. The jellyfish of one of the investigated lakes disappeared completely after the last large ENSO event in 1998 (returning in 2000-01), and a correlation is suggested. To reconstruct the history of jellyfish occurrence, jellyfish and sedimentary lipids were extracted and compared. In addition to a possible ENSO proxy record, this

  2. Longitudinal Associations between Objective Sleep and Lipids: The CARDIA Study

    PubMed Central

    Petrov, Megan E. Ruiter; Kim, Yongin; Lauderdale, Diane; Lewis, Cora E.; Reis, Jared P.; Carnethon, Mercedes R.; Knutson, Kristen; Glasser, Stephen J.

    2013-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the longitudinal relationships between actigraph-derived sleep duration, fragmentation, and lipid levels. Design and Setting: Longitudinal data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults Sleep Study (2003-05), an observational cohort at the Chicago site. Participants: There were 503 black and white adults, ages 32-51 years, with no prior history of cardiovascular disease. Interventions: N/A. Measurement and Results: Sleep duration and fragmentation were measured using 6 days of wrist actigraphy. Sleep quality was measured with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. The outcome variables, measured at 3 examinations over 10 years (Baseline [2000-01], 5-year [2005-06], and 10-year follow-up [2010-11]), were total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), triglycerides (TG), and TC/HDL ratio. The associations between each sleep parameter and 10-year change in lipids were analyzed with generalized estimating equation models adjusting for relevant confounders. After adjustment, each hour increase in sleep duration was significantly associated with higher TC (5.2 mg/dL, 95%CI: 1.7, 8.6) and LDL (3.4 mg/dL, 95%CI: 0.2, 6.6) in the total sample, a 1.1 mg/dL increase in TG (95%CI: 1.0, 1.1) among men, and a borderline significant greater odds for a TC/HDL ratio ≥ 5 among men (OR: 1.37, 95%CI: 0.99, 1.90). Overall, sleep fragmentation and sleep quality scores were not associated with change in lipids. Conclusions: Beyond relevant covariates, over a 10-year follow-up, longer objective sleep duration was longitudinally and significantly associated with a poorer lipid profile. Greater objective sleep fragmentation and self-reported poor sleep quality were not related to a poorer lipid profile. Citation: Petrov MER; Kim Y; Lauderdale D; Lewis CE; Reis JP; Carnethon MR; Knutson K; Glasser SJ. Longitudinal associations between objective sleep and lipids: The CARDIA Study. SLEEP 2013

  3. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  4. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  5. Synoptic climatological analyses on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability (Comparing with that in East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Hamaki, Tatsuya; Haga, Yuichi; Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Haruko

    2016-04-01

    There are many stages with rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling". The seasonal cycle has been an important background for generation of the many kinds of arts also in Europe around the western edge of the Eurasian Continent. Especially around Germany, there are so many music or literature works in which the "May" is treated as the special season. However, more detailed examination and its comparison with that in East Asia about the seasonal evolution from winter to spring including before May would be interesting. Deeper knowledge on the seasonal cycle would contribute greatly to the cultural understanding as mentioned above, as well as for considering the detailed response of the regional climate to the global-scale impacts such as the global warming. As such, the present study examined, based mainly on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1971-2010, the synoptic climatological features on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability, by comparing with those in East Asia (detailed analyses were made mainly for 2000/01 - 2010/11 winters). Around the region from Germany to Turkey, the surface air temperature (TS) showed rather larger day-to-day variation (including the interannual or intraseasonal variation) throughout a year than in the Japan Islands area in East Asia. Especially from December to March (the minimum period of the climatological TS in the European side), the day-to-day variation was extremely great around Germany and its northern region (to the north of around 45N/10E). Thus, the extremely low temperature events sometimes appeared around Germany till the end of March, although the seasonal mean TS was not so considerably low. The day-to-day variation of sea level pressure (SLP) was also very large where such large amplitude of TS

  6. Mercury in Sediment, Water, and Biota of Sinclair Inlet, Puget Sound, Washington, 1989-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.; Keys, Morgan E.; Scholting, Kelly L.

    2010-01-01

    Historical records of mercury contamination in dated sediment cores from Sinclair Inlet are coincidental with activities at the U.S. Navy Puget Sound Naval Shipyard; peak total mercury concentrations occurred around World War II. After World War II, better metallurgical management practices and environmental regulations reduced mercury contamination, but total mercury concentrations in surface sediment of Sinclair Inlet have decreased slowly because of the low rate of sedimentation relative to the vertical mixing within sediment. The slopes of linear regressions between the total mercury and total organic carbon concentrations of sediment offshore of Puget Sound urban areas was the best indicator of general mercury contamination above pre-industrial levels. Prior to the 2000-01 remediation, this indicator placed Sinclair Inlet in the tier of estuaries with the highest level of mercury contamination, along with Bellingham Bay in northern Puget Sound and Elliott Bay near Seattle. This indicator also suggests that the 2000/2001 remediation dredging had significant positive effect on Sinclair Inlet as a whole. In 2007, about 80 percent of the area of the Bremerton naval complex had sediment total mercury concentrations within about 0.5 milligrams per kilogram of the Sinclair Inlet regression. Three areas adjacent to the waterfront of the Bremerton naval complex have total mercury concentrations above this range and indicate a possible terrestrial source from waterfront areas of Bremerton naval complex. Total mercury concentrations in unfiltered Sinclair Inlet marine waters are about three times higher than those of central Puget Sound, but the small numbers of samples and complex physical and geochemical processes make it difficult to interpret the geographical distribution of mercury in marine waters from Sinclair Inlet. Total mercury concentrations in various biota species were compared among geographical locations and included data of composite samples, individual

  7. Examining Elementary Teachers' Identities through Analysis of Student Science Notebooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Lauren

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how teacher identity influences elementary teachers' science practices from multiple perspectives---the teacher's self-reported identity, the researcher's perspective, and the students' perspectives. Two frameworks on identity were synthesized and used in this research. The first, developed by Gee (2000-01) examines who a teacher is with respect to four areas: nature, institution, discourse, and affinity group belonging. The second, developed by Beijaard, Verloop, and Vermunt (2000) examines factors that drive what a teacher does in his/her practice through examining teachers' expertise divided among three areas: content, pedagogy, and didactics. These frameworks were used to guide interpretation of the data sources in order to better understand how instruction unfolded. The science instruction of one class of second grade students receiving science instruction from three different teachers was studied over the course of one school year. The first manuscript of this study is a qualitative case study describing the three teachers' identities and practices from the perspective of the teacher, researcher, and students. Classroom observations, teacher interviews and questionnaires, and student interviews were coded thematically using identity markers as themes. These data sources were triangulated to reveal differences in both the identities and practices among the three teachers. For two of the three teachers, their self-described identities were different from how they were viewed by their students and the researcher. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating multiple perspectives, including those of students, when describing teachers' practices and identities. The study revealed that the three experienced teachers at the same grade level had vastly different science needs, underscoring the utility of identity theory for the design of professional development efforts. The second manuscript of this study is a

  8. Impacts of Changing Climate on Agricultural Variability: Implications for Smallholder Farmers in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Galford, G. L.; Small, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest employment sector in India, where food productivity, and thus food security, is highly dependent on seasonal rainfall and temperature. Projected increase in temperature, along with less frequent but intense rainfall events, will have a negative impact on crop productivity in India in the coming decades. These changes, along with continued ground water depletion, could have serious implications for Indian smallholder farmers, who are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes. Hence baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability is important for strategies and policies that promote adaptation to climate variability. This study examines how cropping patterns in different agro-ecological zones in India respond to variations in precipitation and temperature. We specifically examine: a) which climate variables most influence crop cover for monsoon and winter crops? and b) how does the sensitivity of crop cover to climate variability vary in different agro-ecological regions with diverse socio-economic factors? We use remote sensing data (2000-01 - 2012-13) for cropping patterns (developed using MODIS satellite data), climate parameters (derived from MODIS and TRMM satellite data) and agricultural census data. We initially assessed the importance of these climate variables in two agro-ecoregions: a predominantly groundwater irrigated, cash crop region in western India, and a region in central India primarily comprised of rain-fed or surface water irrigated subsistence crops. Seasonal crop cover anomaly varied between -25% and 25% of the 13-year mean in these two regions. Predominantly climate-dependent region in central India showed high anomalies up to 200% of the 13-year crop cover mean, especially during winter season. Winter daytime mean temperature is overwhelmingly the most important climate variable for winter crops irrespective of the varied biophysical and socio

  9. Investigating the activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through remote and in situ sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Bonafede, M.; Buongiorno, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, whose structure includes submerged and continental parts at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The last eruption took place in 1538 A.D. and since then intense degassing, seismic swarms and several episodes of ground uplift have been observed. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). During the following decades the area has been generally subsiding but minor uplift episodes of the order of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000-01 and 2004-06, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. Since March 1970 leveling surveys were regularly carried out to monitor the elevation changes. In the following decades many efforts have been done to monitor the different aspects of the activity of the area, and nowadays Campi Flegrei is subjected to intense geodetic, geophysical and geochemical monitoring. In the last 30 years a number of geophysical investigations has provided important constraints to the description of the subsurface structure and the historical volcanic activity. Surface deformation, microgravity changes and geochemical anomalies at Campi Flegrei have been interpreted either in terms of instabilities of the hydrothermal system or variations in the magmatic source. In particular, discerning between magmatic vs hydrothermal origin of the source responsible of the large uplift episode during 1982-84 (most probably due to deep magmatic source) and of the mini-uplifts (e.g. 2000 and 2004-06, most probably due to pressure variations in the shallow aquifer) may have important implications in terms of civil protection. In the last two decades, the precise and

  10. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  11. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  12. Hydrology and water quality of lakes and streams in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.

    2005-01-01

    increases. Low flows in the Econlockhatchee River at Chuluota have increased because of discharge of treated wastewater since 1982. However, trends in increasing 7-day low streamflow are evident before 1982, which cannot be attributed to wastewater discharge. Some of the increases in 7-day low flows may be related to drainage changes resulting from increased development in Orange County. Development for most purposes, including those as diverse as cattle grazing and residential construction, may involve modification of surface drainage through stream channelization and construction of canals. These changes in land drainage can lower the water table, resulting in reductions of regional evapotranspiration rates and increased streamflow. Another possible cause of increasing low flows in streams is use of water from the Floridan aquifer system for irrigation. Runoff of irrigation water or increased seepage from irrigated areas to streams could increase base streamflow compared to natural conditions. Water-level data were analyzed to determine temporal trends from 83 lakes that had more than 15 years of record. There were significant temporal trends in 33 of the 83 lakes (40 percent) over the entire period of record. Of these 33 lakes, 14 had increasing water levels and 19 lakes had decreasing water levels. The downward trends in long-term lake levels could in part be due to high rainfall accumulation in 1960-1961, which included precipitation from Hurricane Donna (September 1960). The high rainfall resulted in historical high-water levels in many lakes in 1960 or 1961. A large range of water-quality conditions exists in lakes and streams of Orange County (2000-01). Specific conductance in lake samples ranged from 57 to 1,185 microsiemens per centimeter. Values of pH ranged from 3.2 to 8.7 in stream samples and 4.6 to 9.6 in lake samples. Total nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 7.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in stream samples, and

  13. Intraannual and interannual chlorophyll variability in the Arabien Sea and Bay of Bengal as observed from SeaWiFS data: and its interrelationship with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from NOAA/AVHRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, N.

    by satellite sensors. In order to develop any model for biophysical coupling, the study of relationship of parameters, at temporal and spatial basis is a prerequisite. Launch of SeaWiFS in August 1997 made it possible to acquire the biological data on global basis from 1997 onward. The present study has made use of SeaWiFS data for the period 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000, and 2000-01, to understand the variability in chlorophyll pattern in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on intraannual and interannual basis. Eight days average, chlorophyll images have been analysed. This is level-3 global gridded product with 9 km resolution distributed by DAAC, NASA. The Standard Mapped Images (SMI) generated from SeaWiFS data (atmospherically, radiometrically and geometrically corrected) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal were used. In order to assess the satellite derived chlorophyll, a limited comparison was made with the cruise data for the Arabian Sea for different seasons and representative locations. This comparison was restricted to the cloud free period of the year (October to April). The chlorophyll concentration values and the overall distribution pattern was found to match reasonably well. Nine representative locations have been selected in the Arabian Sea, two nearshore, five open ocean and two offshore waters. Similarly 9 locations were selected for the Bay of Bengal. The range of chlorophyll concentration varies from as low as 0.06 mg m- 3 to as high as 5.5 mg m- 3. Variability is seen more in nearshore locations. Interannual comparison shows close similarity at most of the locations. Features are stable during certain period of the year, while at others rapid changes are observed. High concentration is observed in November December, in the Bay of Bengal, while Arabian Sea showed peak in February March, in general. This may be largely due to different circulation pattern in both the regions. Though it is considered that the Bay of Bengal is low

  14. Estuarine and Tidal Freshwater Habitat Cover Types Along the Lower Columbia River Estuary Determined from Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM+) Imagery, Technical Report 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    Garono, Ralph; Robinson, Rob

    2003-10-01

    Spectrographic Imager (CASI). Compared to the rather coarse, low spectral resolution of the satellite imagery, the CASI imagery provides the spectral resolution (19 CASI bands vs. 7 ETM+ Bands) necessary to discriminate between spectrally similar vegetation types and thus provided a greater ability to resolve habitat features important to species such as salmonids. Unfortunately, image acquisition costs and logistics (time and poor weather) prevented complete coverage of the study area at a 1.5 m spatial scale. However, in 2000/01 CASI imagery was collected for several key focal areas including the Chinook watershed, the area around the Astoria Airport mitigation site, Russian Island, Tenasillahe Island, Sauvie Island, Scappose Bay lowlands, Lord and Walker Islands and much of the shoreline. This report presents the classification methodology and initial results from the satellite image classification.

  15. Hydrogeology and trichloroethene contamination in the sea-level aquifer beneath the Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of waste trichloroethene (TCE) and other materials in the East Gate Disposal Yard near the Logistics Center on Fort Lewis, Washington, from the 1940s to the early 1970s. As a result, ground water contaminated with primarily TCE extends more than 3 miles downgradient from the East Gate Disposal Yard. The site is underlain by a complex and heterogeneous sequence of glacial and non-glacial deposits that have been broadly categorized into an upper and a lower aquifer (the latter referred to as the sea-level aquifer). TCE contamination was detected in both aquifers. This report describes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the source, migration, and attenuation of TCE in the sea-level aquifer. A refined conceptual model for ground-water flow and contaminant migration into and through the sea-level aquifer was developed in large part from interpretation of environmental tracer data. The tracers used included stable isotopes of oxygen (18O), hydrogen (2H), and carbon (13C); the radioactive hydrogen isotope tritium (3H); common ions and redox-related analytes; chlorofluorocarbons; and sulfur hexafluoride. Tracer and TCE concentrations were determined for samples collected by the USGS from 37 wells and two surface-water sites in American Lake during 1999-2000. Ground-water levels were measured by the USGS in more than 40 wells during 2000-01, and were combined with measurements by the U.S. Army and others to create potentiometric-surface maps. Localized ground-water flow features were identified that are of particular relevance to the migration of TCE in the study area. A ridge of ground water beneath American Lake diverts the flow of TCE-contaminated ground water in the sea-level aquifer to the west around the southern end of the lake. Tracer data provided clear evidence that American Lake is a significant source of recharge to the sea-level aquifer that has created that ridge of ground water. High ground-water altitudes at

  16. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota

  17. The Sun as you never saw it before

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    to the minimum count of sunspots, LASCO observes so many outbursts large and small - roughly one a day - that scientists are having to think again about how to define a coronal mass ejection. SOHO's continuing success Later LASCO images, on 6 January 1997, revealed a large mass ejection directed towards the Earth. As it swelled it appeared as a halo around the Sun. The mass ejection reached SOHO itself less than four days later, and the solar-wind analyser CELIAS detected an acceleration in the solar wind, from 350 to more than 500 kilometres per second. Soon afterwards, American, Russian and Japanese satellites operating closer to the Earth registered the event, which caused a magnetic storm and bright auroras. The failure of an American TV satellite on 11 January may have been directly related to this event. Mass ejections and other upheavals on the Sun will become even commoner during the coming years, as the count of sunspots increases towards the expected maximum of solar activity in 2000-01. Meanwhile, SOHO is seeking the fundamental reason for the cycle of sunspot activity, which is essentially a magnetic phenomenon. One of the helioseismic instruments probing the solar interior, SOI/MDI, has detected a likely source for the Sun's puzzling magnetism. There may be a natural dynamo operating at the base of the turbulent outer region of the Sun, called the convective zone. This rotates about 7 per cent faster than the underlying and more cohesive region of dense gas, the radiative zone. With the spacecraft in excellent condition and their instruments performing beyond expectations, SOHO's scientists are urging ESA and NASA to allow them to continue their work beyond April 1998, when the initial year of their scientific operations will have been completed.

  18. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    of only 0.50 arsec (FWHM), cf. PR Photo 33a/01 (left) . Then, by another command, the instrument operator switched on the NAOS adaptive optics system , thereby "closing the loop" for the first time on a sky field, by using that ordinary star as a reference light source to measure the atmospheric turbulence. Obediently, the deformable mirror in NAOS began to follow the "orders" that were issued 500 times per second by its powerful control computer.... As if by magics, that stellar image on the computer screen pulled itself together....! What seconds before had been a jumping, rather blurry patch of light suddenly became a rock-steady, razor-sharp and brilliant spot of light. The entire room burst into applause - there were happy faces and smiles all over, and then the operator announced the measured image diameter - a truly impressive 0.068 arcsec, already at this first try, cf. PR Photo 33a/01 (right) ! All the team members who were lucky to be there sent a special thought to those many others who had also put in over four years' hard and dedicated work to make this event a reality. The time of this historical moment was November 25, 2001, 23:00 Chilean time (November 26, 2001, 02:00 am UT) . During this and the following nights, more images were made of astronomcal objects, opening a new chapter of the long tradition of Adaptive Optics at ESO. More information about the NAOS-CONICA international collaboration , technical details about this instrument and its special advantages are available below. The first images The star-forming region around NGC 3603 ESO PR Photo 33c/01 ESO PR Photo 33c/01 [Preview - JPEG: 326 x 400 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 651 x 800 pix - 480k] ESO PR Photo 33d/01 ESO PR Photo 33d/01 [Preview - JPEG: 348 x 400 pix - 240k] [Normal - JPEG: 695 x 800 pix - 592k] Caption : PR Photo 33c/01 displays a NAOS-CONICA image of the starburst cluster NGC 3603, obtained during the second night of NAOS-CONICA operation. The sky region shown is some 20