Science.gov

Sample records for 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03

  1. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-03 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,415. The total was comprised of 12,377 males and 12,038 females. This was an increase of 512 students from the 2001-02 total of 23,903. Except for 2001-02, the total for Pennsylvania home education students has increased every year since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  2. Quite Good News--for Now. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academe, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The annual American Association of University Professors (AAUP) Faculty Compensation Survey revealed that average faculty salaries increased from 3.8 percent from 2000-01 to 2001-02, a rise of 2.2 percent after adjusting for inflation in consumer prices. Appendices include extensive data tables with individual institutional numbers. (EV)

  3. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    This document presents results of the 2000-01 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Medical Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 63 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  4. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    This document presents results of the 2000-01 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  5. Equality through Access. Annual Report, 2000/01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Human Rights Commission, Vancouver.

    This report describes the British Columbia Human Rights Commission's activities during 2000-01. The Commission held public hearings to learn about barriers that prevent Aboriginal students from full participation in the British Columbia education system, and published a report on the findings with recommendations for improving educational…

  6. Degrees and Certificates Earned, University of Hawaii, Community Colleges, Fiscal Year 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This document presents the data on degrees and certificates earned at the University of Hawaii Community Colleges during fiscal year 2001-02. The data presented are for the following community colleges: (1) Windward; (2) Hawaii; (3) Honolulu; (4) Kapi'olani; (5) Kaua'i; (6) Leeward; and (7) Maui. The data are presented in the format of tables and…

  7. Washington Community and Technical Colleges Academic Year Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, Olympia.

    This 2001-02 report of the Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges examines courses offered, student demographics and enrollment, student progress and success, staff, facilities, and expenditures for the system's 30 college districts. Highlights of the report follow. Washington community and technical colleges enrolled the…

  8. The State of Charter Schools in Colorado, 2001-02: The Characteristics, Status and Performance Record of Colorado Charter Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzgerald, Joy

    This report presents and analyzes data on charter schools in Colorado from the 2001-02 school year. During the 2001-02 school year, 86 charter schools operated in Colorado and served 24,658 students. This descriptive evaluation rests on a review of student and school data regularly maintained by the Colorado Department of Education and individual…

  9. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  10. Results from Vernier Scans in RHIC from 2001/02 Au-Au and pp Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drees, Angelika; Xu, Zhangbu; Zhang, Haibin

    2002-10-01

    A series of Vernier Scans (or Van-der-Meer Scans) has been performed during the Au-Au run as well as the pp run at a beam energy of 100 GeV in RHIC during the 2001/02 operation period. During a scan one beam is swept across the other in the two transverse planes while collision rates are monitored as a function of beam displacement. Scans were done at various settings of beta* and various IRs. Maximum collision rate and transverse beam profiles are derived from a Gauss fit to the scan data. This report explains the method and summarizes the data taken during this operation period. first results from the fits are shown and compared to prediction and earlier runs.

  11. Revenues and Expenditures by Public School Districts: School Year 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason; Johnson, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This short report on revenues and expenditures at the school district level is a companion to the state-level E.D. TAB, Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2002-03 (NCES 2005-353R), which presents total state and national spending on public elementary and secondary education. This report provides…

  12. Occurrence of Selected Nutrients, Trace Elements, and Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment in the Lower Chena River Watershed near Fairbanks, Alaska, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Hall, Cassidee C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-03, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of streambed sediment at 18 sites in the lower Chena River watershed for analysis of selected nutrients, traces elements, and organic compounds. The purpose of the project was to provide Federal, State, and local agencies as well as neighborhood committees, with information for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions in the watershed. The exploratory sampling program included analysis of streambed sediment from the Chena River and Chena Slough, a tributary to the Chena River. Results were compared to streambed-sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and to 2001-02 sediment data from Noyes Slough, a side channel of the lower Chena River. The median total phosphorus concentration in Chena Slough sediment samples, 680 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), was two orders of magnitude greater than median total phosphorus concentration in Chena River sediment samples of 5.2 mg/kg. Median concentrations of chloride and sulfate also were greater in Chena Slough samples. Low concentrations of nitrate were detected in most of the Chena Slough samples; nitrate concentrations were below method reporting limits or not detected in Chena River sediment samples. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, nickel, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceeded probable-effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of arsenic in Chena Slough samples ranged from 11 to 70 mg/kg and concentrations in most of the samples exceeded the probable-effect guideline for arsenic of 17 mg/kg. Arsenic concentrations in samples from the Chena River ranged from 9 to 12 mg/kg. The background level for arsenic in the lower Chena River watershed is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of elevated concentrations of zinc in one sample, and of nickel in two samples

  13. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  14. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    Lake Huron (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003; 2004). The net decline in the water level of Lake Huron from January 1, 2002 to December 31, 2003 was about 0.3 ft. Annual precipitation in 2002 was about 0.3 inches above normal, with much of it occurring during summer months. The provisional precipitation total for 2003 is about an inch below normal (NOAA, 2003, 2004; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003, 2004). Four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the glacial, Saginaw, and Marshall aquifers. Water levels in three of the four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders experienced a net decline over the period from January 2002 to December 2003, while the level in well H9r, completed in the Saginaw aquifer in Fairhaven Township adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), rose about 1.3 ft over the same period. Interestingly, the water level in Saginaw Bay declined about 0.3 ft over the same period. A period-ofrecord maximum depth to water was recorded in September 2003 in well H25Ar, completed in the Marshall aquifer in Lake Township. Hydrographs showing altitude of the water surface are presented for each of four wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Twenty three wells were measured on a quarterly basis in 2002-03. These wells are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers, and Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly measurement only provides a ?snapshot? water level, the data adequately define the ?generalized? water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. The water level in one quarterly-measured well completed in the Saginaw aquifer near Saginaw Bay, had a net rise for the period from January 2002 to December 2003, while levels in the other 22 quarterly-measured wells declined about 0.5 to 2.0 ft during the same period. A period-of-record minimum depth to water (high) was measured in 2002 in two quarterly-measured wells completed in the Saginaw aquife

  15. Children Entering School Ready To Learn: School Readiness Information. School Year 2002-03 by State and County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    As part of efforts to improve services for children from birth to age five, the Maryland Joint Committee on Children, Youth, and Families charged the State Department of Education with identifying and implementing, by school year 2000-01, an early childhood assessment system that would provide baseline information on children entering…

  16. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2002, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2002-03. E.D. Tabs. NCES 2005-167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Wu, Shiying; Huh, Seungho; Levine, Burton; Broyles, Susan G.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents information from the Winter 2002-03 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data requested from all postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs. The tables in this publication include data on the number of staff…

  17. An Interim Report on the Student Support Services Program: 2002-03 and 2003-04, with Select Data from 1998-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze

    2007-01-01

    This report describes essential characteristics and key program outcome measures for the Student Support Services (SSS) program grantees and participants in reporting years 2002-03 and 2003-04. The SSS program is designed to increase college persistence and graduation rates for eligible students, increase the transfer rates of eligible students…

  18. Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge of treated municipal-sewage effluent to the Carson River in western Nevada and eastern California ceased by 1987 and resulted in a substantial decrease in phosphorus concentrations in the Carson River. Nonetheless, concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment still commonly exceed beneficial-use criteria established for the Carson River by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Potential sources of phosphorus in the study area include natural inputs from undisturbed soils, erosion of soils and streambanks, construction of low-head dams and their destruction during floods, manure production and grazing by cattle along streambanks, drainage from fields irrigated with streamwater and treated municipal-sewage effluent, ground-water seepage, and urban runoff including inputs from golf courses. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Carson Water Subconservancy District, began an investigation with the overall purpose of providing managers and regulators with information necessary to develop and implement total maximum daily loads for the Carson River. Two specific goals of the investigation were (1) to identify those reaches of the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir where the greatest increases in phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loading occur, and (2) to identify the most important sources of phosphorus within the reaches of the Carson River where the greatest increases in concentration and loading occur. Total-phosphorus concentrations in surface-water samples collected by USGS in the study area during water years 2001-02 ranged from <0.01 to 1.78 mg/L and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 1.81 mg/L as phosphorus. In streamflow entering Carson Valley from headwater areas in the East Fork Carson River, the majority of samples exceeding the total phosphorus water-quality standard of 0.1 mg/L occur during spring runoff (March, April, and May) when suspended

  19. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    to onsite conditions tended to neutralize the acidity of the samples by less than 1.0 microequivalent per liter. Onsite exposure of the sampling bucket appeared to slightly increase the concentration of most of the analytes but not to an extent that was environmentally significant to NADP data users. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to estimate the analytical variability and bias of the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) during 2002-03. Bias was identified in the CAL data for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, hydrogen ion, and specific conductance, but the absolute value of the bias was less than analytical minimum detection limits for all constituents except magnesium, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance. Control charts showed that CAL results were within statistical control approximately 90 percent of the time. Data for the analysis of ultrapure deionized-water samples indicated that CAL did not have problems with laboratory contamination. During 2002-03, the overall variability of data from the NADP/NTN precipitation-monitoring system was estimated using data from three collocated monitoring sites. Measurement differences of constituent concentration and deposition for paired samples from the collocated samplers were evaluated to compute error terms. The medians of the absolute percentage errors (MAEs) for the paired samples generally were larger for cations (approximately 8 to 50 percent) than for anions (approximately 3 to 33 percent). MAEs were approximately 16 to 30 percent for hydrogen-ion concentration, less than 10 percent for specific conductance, less than 5 percent for sample volume, and less than 8 percent for precipitation depth. The variability attributed to each component of the sample-collection and analysis processes, as estimated by USGS quality-assurance programs, varied among analytes. Laboratory analysis variability accounted for approximately 2 percent of the

  20. Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study: 2000/01 Follow-Up Field Test Methodology Report. Working Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biber, Melissa R.; Link, Michael W.; Riccobono, John A.; Siegel, Peter H.

    This report describes and evaluates the methods and procedures used for the field test of the Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01). The B&B:2000/01 field test included important changes from previous B&B surveys (conducted in 1994 and 1997) in its sample design and collection of data. The introductory chapter describes the…

  1. Overview of Ozone Loss In Several Arctic Winters From 1991/92 To 2001/02 Based On Haloe Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilmes, S.; Müller, R.; Grooß, J.-U.; McKenna, D.: S.; Russell, J. M.; Sasano, Y.; Engel, A.; Schmidt, U.

    Chemical ozone loss in several Arctic winters (1991/92 to 2001/02) are calculated from satellite measurements of the HALOE instrument using the ozone tracer corre- lation technique. For each winter an early vortex reference function is deduced either based on HALOE or on balloon measurements, depending on the availability of ob- servations in the early vortex. The ozone tracer correlation technique is applied here to two different independent tracers (CH4 and HF) so that quality control measures can be applied to detect uncertain satellite measurements. In this way more consistent results are obtained than in earlier studies where only one tracer was employed. The severity of the ozone loss depends on the different characteristics of each indi- vidual winter. These are for example the temperature development or an early break up of the vortex. Also, the spatial structure of the vortex (in particular the temperature distribution) impacts the homogeneity of ozone losses inside the vortex. We calcu- lated large ozone losses of about 100 Dobson-units (as a mean over the entire vortex) for 1992/93, 1994/95, 1995/96, 1996/97, and 1999/2000. These findings are largely consistent with earlier studies analysing HALOE data for these winters. However, the deduced ozone loss values have improved owing to using a consistent HALOE (V19) data set, new quality controls, and employing additional measurements particularly for the early winter reference.

  2. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  3. Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality in the Mine Workings within the Picher Mining District, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.; Andrews, William J.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    seepage from the aquifer to downstream portions of Tar Creek was much more likely. Water properties and major-ion concentrations indicate that water in the mining area was very hard, with large concentrations of dissolved solids that increased from areas of presumed recharge toward areas with older ground water. Most of the ground-water samples, particularly those from the airshafts, had dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 1.0 milligram per liter. Small concentrations of dissolved oxygen may have been introduced during the sampling process. The small dissolved-oxygen concentrations were associated with samples containing large iron concentrations that indicates possible anoxic conditions in much of the aquifer. Ground water in the mining district was dominated by calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. Sodium concentrations tended to increase relative to calcium and magnesium concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2002-03 had large concentrations of many trace elements. Larger concentrations of metals and sulfate occurred in ground water with smaller pHs and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Iron was the metal with the largest concentrations in the ground-water samples, occurring at concentrations up to 115,000 micrograms per liter. Cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc, and the other analyzed metals occurred in smaller concentrations in ground water than iron. However, larger cadmium concentrations appeared to be associated with sites that have small iron concentrations and more oxygenated waters. This is noteworthy because the small sulfate and iron concentrations in these waters could lead to conclusions that the waters are less contaminated than waters with large sulfate and iron concentrations. Ground-water quality in the mining district was compared with subsets of samples collected in 1983-85 and in 2002. Concentrations of most mine-water indicators such as specific conductance, acidity, magnesium, sulfate, and trace elements concentrations dec

  4. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2000-01: A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Blixrud, Julia, Comp.

    This document presents data from 123 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2000-01 fiscal year. Since 1987-88, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown irregularly from 66 to around 80 in more recent years. A fluctuating growth…

  5. Catalyst, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Barbara E., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    "Catalyst" is a publication designed to assist higher education in developing alcohol and other drug prevention polices and programs that will foster students' academic and social development and promote campus and community safety. Issue 1 of volume 6 introduces a series of "Presidential Profiles" in which university presidents describe their…

  6. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  7. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  8. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  9. ARL Supplementary Statistics 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 25%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $228 million on electronic…

  10. Trends in medical and nonmedical immunization exemptions to measles-containing vaccine in Ontario: an annual cross-sectional assessment of students from school years 2002/03 to 2012/13

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah E.; Seo, Chi Yon; Lim, Gillian H.; Fediurek, Jill; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Under Ontario legislation, for select vaccine-preventable diseases nonimmunized or under-immunized students must undergo vaccination or provide a statement of exemption, or risk suspension from school. At the time of this assessment, these diseases included measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus and polio. Methods: Exemptions data for the school years 2002/03 to 2012/13 were obtained from the Immunization Records Information System used in Ontario. Temporal trends were expressed for 7- and 17-year-old students by exemption classification (medical, prior immunity, religious or conscientious belief, total) at the provincial level, by school year and by birth cohort. Regional analysis was conducted for the 2012/13 school year. A temporal trend analysis of exemptions for measles-containing vaccines was performed by using a Poisson distribution with a 2-sided test (α = 5%). Results: For both 7- and 17-year-old students, religious or conscientious exemptions for measles-containing vaccines significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.001 in both age groups), whereas medical exemptions decreased (p < 0.001 in both age groups). The trends were reproduced when examined by birth cohort. The percentage of Ontario students with any exemption classification (total exemptions) remained low (< 2.5%) during the study period, although considerable geographic variation was noted. Interpretation: Ontario data suggest that nonmedical exemptions have increased during the last 11 years, consistent with trends reported elsewhere. The trend toward increasing religious or conscientious exemptions coupled with declining medical exemptions explains why total exemptions have remained stable or decreased at the provincial level. The prominent geographic variability in exemptions suggests that targeted interventions may be suitable for consideration. PMID:26457292

  11. Tropical cyclone Dera, the unusual 2000/01 tropical cyclone season in the South West Indian Ocean and associated rainfall anomalies over Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Struchtrup, Henning; Thatcher, Toby

    2007-08-01

    Austral summer 2000/01 in the southern African region was unusual in several respects. Tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean was substantially less than average despite large areas of this region showing anomalously warm sea surface temperatures (SST) for much of the season. Many areas of southern Africa experienced above average rainfall with local flooding in parts of Mozambique. In the tropical southeast Atlantic, a large warm SST anomaly evolved off the coast of Angola and northern Namibia in late summer suggesting a Benguela Niño event. During the late summer (February April 2001), three particularly widespread and intense wet spells occurred over tropical southern Africa, one of which coincided with tropical cyclone Dera. This study considers the generation and evolution of the middle wet spell of late summer 2001 and its relationship with tropical cyclone Dera. This storm was generated in the northwestern part of the Mozambique Channel and then tracked more or less due south through the Channel and into the subtropical southwest Indian Ocean. Rainfall associated with Dera contributed to the ongoing floods over central Mozambique that arose from rains earlier in the season. Dera occurred in early March following a relatively long period of no tropical cyclone activity in the southwest Indian Ocean. A build up of favorable conditions during the preceding weeks contributed towards the storm whereas an anticyclonic anomaly east of Madagascar led to the northerly steering current and the southward track of tropical cyclone Dera out of the Mozambique Channel.

  12. Sources of groundwater based on Helium analyses in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be

  13. SIAST Annual Report, 2000/01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saskatchewan Inst. of Applied Science and Technology, Saskatoon.

    This is the annual report for 2000-2001 from the Saskatchewan Institute of Applied Science and Technology (SIAST). The SIAST Review Committee's report identified four priorities: (1) an appropriate and progressive mandate; (2) a commitment to accessibility; (3) responsiveness to the labor market; and (4) organizational effectiveness. This report…

  14. Environmental Scan, 2002-03: Governance and Accountability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology of Ontario, North York.

    Ontario's Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology have been governed by the Ministry of Training, Colleges, and Universities Act (MTCU) and related regulations and policies since their inception in 1965. In June 2002, the Ontario Colleges of Applied Arts and Technology Act, 2002 (OCAATA) was passed by the Ontario legislature; proclamation is…

  15. Fall Colors, 2001-02: Prime Time Diversity Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, McCrae A.; Miller, Patti; Espejo, Eileen; Grossman-Swenson, Sarah

    Television is an integral part of American culture, and has the ability to play a major role in shaping belief systems, particularly for the youngest and most impressionable viewers. This study is the third annual study of diversity of characters in prime time television programming. The study examined the first two episodes of each prime time…

  16. Student Financial Aid: 2001-02 Update. Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    This memorandum provides information about students granted financial aid in the University of Wisconsin (UW) system in 2001-2002 and earlier years. The total financial aid provided to UW students was $550.0 million, up $52.2 million from 2000-2001. Total loan dollars for UW students totaled $371.2 million, up $30.9 million from 2000-2001. UW…

  17. Sinkhole flooding in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg Edward

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, conducted an investigation from January 2001 through April 2002 to delineate sinkholes and sinkhole watersheds in the Murfreesboro area and to characterize the hydrologic response of sinkholes to major rainfall events. Terrain analysis was used to define sinkholes and delineate the sinkhole drainage areas. Flooding in 78 sinkholes in three focus areas was identified and tracked using aerial photography following three major storms in February 2001, January 2002, and March 2002. The three focus areas are located to the east, north, and northwest of Murfreesboro and are underlain primarily by the Ridley Limestone with some outcrops of the underlying Pierce Limestone. The observed sinkhole flooding is controlled by water inflow, water outflow, and the degree of the hydraulic connection (connectivity) to a ground-water conduit system. The observed sinkholes in the focus areas are grouped into three categories based on the sinkhole morphology and the connectivity to the ground-water system as indicated by their response to flooding. The three types of sinkholes described for these focus areas are pan sinkholes with low connectivity, deep sinkholes with high connectivity, and deep sinkholes with low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Shallow, broad pan sinkholes flood as water inflow from a storm inundates the depression at land surface. Water overflow from one pan sinkhole can flow downgradient and become inflow to a sinkhole at a lower altitude. Land-surface modifications that direct more water into a pan sinkhole could increase peak-flood altitudes and extend flood durations. Land-surface modifications that increase the outflow by overland drainage could decrease the flood durations. Road construction or alterations that reduce flow within or between pan sinkholes could result in increased flood durations. Flood levels and durations in the deeper sinkholes observed in the three focus areas are primarily affected by the connectivity with the ground-water conduit system. Deep sinkholes with a relatively high connectivity to the ground-water system fill quickly after a storm, and drain rapidly after the storm ends, and water levels decline as much as 3 to 5 feet per day in the first 2 to 3 days after a major storm. These sinkholes store the initial floodwater and then rapidly transmit water to the ground-water conduit system (high outflow). Land-surface changes that direct more water into the sinkhole may increase the flood peaks, but may not have a substantial effect on the flood durations. Deep sinkholes that have low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system may have a delayed peak water level and may drain slowly, only about 2 to 3 feet in 10 days. Outflow from these sinkholes is limited or restricted by low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Land-surface alterations that increase the inflow to the sinkholes can result in high flood levels or increased flood durations.

  18. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Reports and Records § 996.75... subsequent crop year peanuts, to 2002-03 and 2001-02 crop year peanuts not yet inspected, or failing...

  19. Bilingual Education/ESL Program Evaluation, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Rosa Maria

    In compliance with Texas legislation, the Austin Independent School District (AISD), Texas, provides two programs to serve students identified as limited English proficient (LEP): Bilingual Education (BE), which provides dual language instruction in the major content areas and English as a Second Language (ESL), which provides intensive English…

  20. Selected Papers in School Finance, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The National Center for Education Statistics commissioned the papers in this publication to address education-finance issues of interest to the education-finance community. Although teacher salaries rose between 1980 and 1997 by 120 percent, that is only equal to a 19 percent increase after removing inflation, or a little over 1 percent per year.…

  1. Faculty Work and Results: Productivity Review, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon Univ., Eugene.

    This report describes the roles and productivity of faculty members in the Oregon University System (OUS). Of the 3,199 ranked instructional faculty members in 2000-2001, three-fourths were full time, but the proportion of full-time faculty in the senior ranks and holding tenure has declined since 1995-1996. The proportion of faculty members who…

  2. Career Guide to Industries, 2000-01 Edition. Bulletin 2523.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Labor Statistics (DOL), Washington, DC.

    This document provides information on the nature, working conditions, and employment opportunities of 42 industries that accounted for nearly 3 of 4 wage and salary jobs in 1998. The following are among the types of information provided for each industry discussed: (1) nature of the industry (goods produced and services provided, individual…

  3. Running Start: 2000-01 Annual Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Sally Zeiger

    This document is a report on Washington State's Running Start program, which allows eleventh- and twelfth-grade high school students to take college courses for free at any of the 34 state community and technical colleges or at Washington State, Eastern Washington, or Western Washington universities. The program, which was started in 1990, is…

  4. Montana High School Dropout Rates by Race/Ethnicity, 2002-03 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    The Montana School Accreditation Standards (10.55.603, ARM) require schools to do follow-up studies of graduates and students no longer in attendance, therefore, dropout data is collected from all public and accredited (by the Montana Board of Public Education) nonpublic schools. Each fall, schools report dropout data for grades 7 through 12 by…

  5. Arsenic in ground water in selected parts of southwestern Ohio, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann; Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 57 domestic wells in Preble, Miami, and Shelby Counties, in southwestern Ohio. The median arsenic concentration was 7.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. Thirty-seven percent of samples had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 ?g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations (>10 ?g/L) were detected over the entire range of depths sampled (42 to 221 feet) and in each of three aquifer types, Silurian carbonate bedrock, glacial buried-valley deposits, and glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel. One factor common in all samples with elevated arsenic concentrations was that iron concentrations were greater than 1,000 ?g/L. The observed correlations of arsenic with iron and alkalinity are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic was released from iron oxides under reducing conditions (by reductive dissolution or reductive desorption). Comparisons among the three aquifer types revealed some differences in arsenic occurrence. For buried-valley deposits, the median arsenic concentration was 4.6 ?g/L, and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. There was no correlation between arsenic concentrations and depth; the highest concentrations were at intermediate depths (about 100 feet). Half of the buried-valley samples were estimated to be methanic. Most of the samples with elevated arsenic concentrations also had elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and ammonia. For carbonate bedrock, the median arsenic concentration was 8.0 ?g/L, and the maximum was 30.7 ?g/L. Arsenic concentrations increased with depth. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in iron- or sulfate-reducing samples. Arsenic was significantly correled with molybdenum, strontium, fluoride, and silica, which are components of naturally ocurring minerals. For glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel, half of the samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. The median was 11.4 ?g/L, and the maximum was 27.6 ?g/L. At shallow depths (<100 feet), this aquifer type had higher arsenic and iron concentrations than carbonate bedrock. It is not known whether these observed differences among aquifer types are related to variations in (1) arsenic content of the aquifer material, (2) organic carbon content of the aquifer material, (3) mechanisms of arsenic mobilization (or uptake), or (4) rates of arsenic mobilization (or uptake). A followup study that includes solid-phase analyses and geochemical modeling was begun in 2004 in northwestern Preble County.

  6. State Education Indicators with a Focus on Title I: 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andra; Blank, Rolf K.; Toye, Carla; Petermann, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the eighth in a series of reports designed to provide (1) consistent, reliable indicators to allow analysis of trends for each state over time, (2) high data quality for comparability from state to state, and (3) accessible indicator formats aimed toward facilitating use by a variety of audiences. Since its inception, the report has…

  7. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document provides background information as well as degree completion statistics for Associate Degrees awarded in British Columbia from 1993-1994 to 2001-2002. The Associate Degree is a 2-year academic credential available with an art or science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer initiated the credential in…

  8. Financial Report of the Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume I: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on…

  9. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume II: Affiliated and Federated Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on 21…

  10. Hydrogeologic and Ground-Water-Quality Data for Belvidere, Illinois, and Vicinity, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, P.C.; Kay, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents miscellaneous geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water-quality data collected in and near Belvidere, Ill. during May 2001-November 2002. The data were collected for two studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990-2002, but subsequent to publication of the final interpretive reports for the studies. The cooperative studies with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Illinois Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the hydrogeology, ground-water-flow system, and distribution of contaminants in the glacial drift and bedrock (primarily Galena-Platteville) aquifers underlying the vicinity of Belvidere, including the Parson?s Casket Hardware Superfund site. Data presented in the report include lithologic descriptions, geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic characteristics, field-measured characteristics of water quality, and laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and herbicides.

  11. Education Cost Study, 2001-02: Higher Education Expenditures for Instruction (State Support Plus Tuition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Produced every 4 years by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, the "Education Cost Study" provides detailed instructional cost information for the state's public 2-year and 4-year institutions. The cost analysis is based on expenditures drawn from two sources: state appropriations and tuition revenue. By using data gathered from…

  12. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data about aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the "Financial Report of Ontario Universities," the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial OfficersUniversities of Ontario (COFO-UO). The Compendium contains supplementary information on Ontario…

  13. Bathymetric mapping, sediment quality, and water quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; McVay, Jason C.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality sampling results indicate areas affected by elevated nutrient and bacteria concentrations in the lake and tributary streams. The tributary streams had the highest median nitrate concentrations (12.1 milligrams per liter) when compared to median nitrate concentrations in the lake (8.7 milligrams per liter) or the Maquoketa River (10.5 milligrams per liter). The maximum nitrate concentrations detected for Maquoketa River, lake, and tributary sites were 13.5, 13.5, and 18.6 milligrams per liter, respectively. Nitrate concentrations in the late summer decreased from 2 Bathymetric Mapping, Sediment Quality, and Water Quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001–02 the upstream (7.8 milligrams per liter) to the downstream (5.0 milligrams per liter) one-third of Lake Delhi and most likely were the result of uptake of nitrate by algae and aquatic biota in the lake. Median concentrations of total coliform and E. coli bacteria for the lake sites were 450 and 17 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for full body contact (swimming or bathing) are 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for fecal bacteria and 126 colonies per 100 milliliters for E. coli bacteria. The highest bacteria concentrations in the lake occurred after a rain and were 25,000 colonies per 100 milliliters total coliform and 1,900 colonies per 100 milliliters E. coli.

  14. Planning Information, University of Hawaii Community Colleges, 1992-93 to 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Institutional Research Office.

    This planning information for the University of Hawaii Community Colleges for 1992-1993 through 2001-2002 consists of a series of tables that provide relevant information about the system and its seven campuses. For the overall system the following information is provided for general education and vocational education courses for the years 1992-93…

  15. Secondary School Completion and Dropouts in Texas Public Schools, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    The Texas Education Agency (TEA) prepares an annual report on dropouts in Texas public schools. This report includes state summaries of the annual dropout rate, longitudinal secondary school completion/student status rates, and state attrition rates. Out of 1,849,690 students attending grades 7-12 in Texas public schools during 2001-2002, 16,622…

  16. Water-quality data for Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments, Arizona, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data are provided for four sites in Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments in north-central Arizona. These data describe the current water quality and provide baseline water-quality information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected from a ground-water seep and well in Walnut Canyon and from a spring and a river in Wupatki during September 2001 to September 2002. Water from the four sites is from four different sources. In Walnut Canyon, Cherry Canyon seep is in a shallow local aquifer, and the Little Colorado River contains ground-water discharge from several aquifers and runoff from a 22,000 square-mile drainage area. Concentrations of dissolved solids were similar within the two monuments; the range for water samples from Walnut Canyon was 203 to 248 milligrams per liter, and the range for water samples from Wupatki was 503 to 614 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace elements were generally low in water samples from the three ground-water sites--Cherry Canyon seep, Walnut Canyon headquarters well, and Heiser Spring. The water sample collected from the Little Colorado River, however, had high concentrations of aluminum (4,020 micrograms per liter), antimony (54 micrograms per liter), arsenic (14.3 micrograms per liter), and iron (749 micrograms per liter) relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in water samples from the four sites were generally low (0.11 to 1.8 milligrams per liter) and are within the upper 25 percent of nitrate concentrations measured in the regional aquifer near Flagstaff in 1996 and 1997. Water samples from Cherry Canyon seep, Heiser Spring, and the Little Colorado River contained total coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were found in water samples from Cherry Canyon seep and the Little Colorado River.

  17. Medication sales and syndromic surveillance, France.

    PubMed

    Vergu, Elisabeta; Grais, Rebecca F; Sarter, Hélène; Fagot, Jean-Paul; Lambert, Bruno; Valleron, Alain-Jaques; Flahault, Antoine

    2006-03-01

    Although syndromic surveillance systems using nonclinical data have been implemented in the United States, the approach has yet to be tested in France. We present the results of the first model based on drug sales that detects the onset of influenza season and forecasts its trend. Using weekly lagged sales of a selected set of medications, we forecast influenzalike illness (ILI) incidence at the national and regional level for 3 epidemic seasons (2000-01, 2001-02, and 2002-03) and validate the model with real-time updating on the fourth (2003-04). For national forecasts 1-3 weeks ahead, the correlation between observed ILI incidence and forecast was 0.85-0.96, an improvement over the current surveillance method in France. Our findings indicate that drug sales are a useful additional tool to syndromic surveillance, a complementary and independent source of information, and a potential improvement for early warning systems for both epidemic and pandemic planning. PMID:16704778

  18. Research Results from the Student Transitions Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights student transition trends across a four-year period, with K-12 data from 2001/02 - 2004/05 and post-secondary data from 2002/03-2005/06. Reported findings include: (1) There is a consistent trend in immediate entry transition rates, with slightly more than half of all high school graduates making an immediate transition into…

  19. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2004-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2002, total ground-water withdrawals were 8,000 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,640 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,360 acre-feet. From 2001 to 2002, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial use increased by 2 percent, and municipal use increased by 7 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 32 municipal wells in 2003. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.0 percent. Values ranged from -13.7 percent at Hopi High School no. 2 to +12.9 percent at Shonto PM3. From 2002 to 2003, water levels declined in 5 of 13 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 13 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.1 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -8.3 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.4 foot for 13 wells in the unconfirned part of the aquifer and -60.3 feet for 13 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2002 and once in 2003 at four springs. Discharge decreased by 16 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 10 percent at Moenkopi Spring and 90 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and did not change at Burro Spring. For the past 11 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2002 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2002 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2002 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2002 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2003, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 118 to 642 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 10 of the wells and from all of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 4 springs; 7 wells had more than 8 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 10 years of data.

  20. WorkFirst: Fifth Year Accountability Report for WorkFirst Training Programs Conducted in 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    WorkFirst is Washington State's welfare-to-work program. The program's mission is to help citizens get "a job, a better job, a better life." Inaugurated in 1996, it is based on the 1996 federal Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF) welfare reform legislation. As part of this new program, the community and technical college system created…

  1. Summary and Synthesis of Mercury Studies in the Cache Creek Watershed, California, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Slotton, Darell G.; Alpers, Charles N.; Suchanek, Thomas H.; Churchill, Ronald; Bloom, Nicolas; Ayers, Shaun M.; Clinkenbeard, John

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the principal findings of the Cache Creek, California, components of a project funded by the CALFED Bay?Delta Program entitled 'An Assessment of Ecological and Human Health Impacts of Mercury in the Bay?Delta Watershed.' A companion report summarizes the key findings of other components of the project based in the San Francisco Bay and the Delta of the Sacramento and San Joaquin Rivers. These summary documents present the more important findings of the various studies in a format intended for a wide audience. For more in-depth, scientific presentation and discussion of the research, a series of detailed technical reports of the integrated mercury studies is available at the following website: .

  2. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data on various aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the Financial Report of Ontario Universities, the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial Officers-Universities of Ontario (COFO-UO). This compendium contains supplementary information that helps…

  3. Grade-Level Retention in Texas Public Schools, 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Div. of Research and Evaluation.

    This report provides annual information for the 2000-2001 school year on grade-level retention in the Texas public school system, based on the Public Education Information Management System. Data on retention are provided by grade, socioeconomic status, ethnicity, gender, participation in special education, degree of English proficiency, and…

  4. Biennial Transfer Student Report: 1999-00 and 2000-01 Academic Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heidi Janicki

    This report is published every other year in an effort to evaluate Tidewater Community College's (TCC) (Virginia) effectiveness in preparing students for transfer. It provides an analysis of TCC students who transferred to a four-year institution in Virginia beginning in fall 1999 or fall 2000. Students must have completed 12 or more credits at…

  5. Differential Item Functioning of a Family Affluence Scale: Validation Study on Data from HBSC 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnohr, C. W.; Kreiner, S.; Due, E. P.; Currie, C.; Boyce, W.; Diderichsen, F.

    2008-01-01

    Methodology for making cross-national comparisons is an area of increasing interest in social and public health related research. When studying socio-economic differences in health outcomes cross-nationally, there are several methodological issues of concern, especially when data is derived from self-reported questionnaires. Health Behaviour in…

  6. Ground-water, surface-water and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2001, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,680 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,530 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,150 acre-feet. From 2000 to 2001, total withdrawals decreased by 1 percent, industrial use increased by 1 percent, and municipal use decreased by 3 percent. From 2001 to 2002, water levels declined in 5 of 14 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was +0.2 foot. Water levels declined in 12 of 17 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2002, the median water-level change for 32 wells was -15.8 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.3 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.7 feet for 17 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2001 and once in 2002 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 26 percent and 66 percent at two springs, increased by 100 percent at one spring, and did not change at one spring. For the past 10 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2001 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2001 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2001 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2001 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2002, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 96 to 636 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 8 of the wells and from 3 of the springs had less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 9 wells and 4 springs; the 9 wells had more than 7 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 9 years of data.

  7. Investigation of H7N2 avian influenza outbreaks in two broiler breeder flocks in Pennsylvania, 2001-02.

    PubMed

    Lu, Huaguang; Dunn, Patricia A; Wallner-Pendleton, Eva A; Henzler, David J; Kradel, David C; Liu, Jiabo; Shaw, Daniel P; Miller, Paul

    2004-01-01

    An avian influenza (AI) outbreak occurred in meat-type chickens in central Pennsylvania from December 2001 to January 2002. Two broiler breeder flocks were initially infected almost simultaneously in early December. Avian influenza virus (AIV), H7N2 subtype, was isolated from the two premises in our laboratory. The H7N2 isolates were characterized as a low pathogenic strain at the National Veterinary Services Laboratories based on molecular sequencing of the virus hemagglutinin cleavage site and virus challenge studies in specific-pathogen-free leghorn chickens. However, clinical observations and pathologic findings indicated that this H7N2 virus appeared to be significantly pathogenic in meat-type chickens under field conditions. Follow-up investigation indicated that this H7N2 virus spread rapidly within each flock. Within 7 days of the recognized start of the outbreak, over 90% seroconversion was observed in the birds by the hemagglutination inhibition test. A diagnosis of AI was made within 24 hr of bird submission during this outbreak using a combination of virus detection by a same-day dot-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and virus isolation in embryonating chicken eggs. Follow-up investigation revealed that heavy virus shedding (90%-100% of birds shedding AIV) occurred between 4 and 7 days after disease onset, and a few birds (15%) continued to shed virus at 13 days post-disease onset, as detected by virus isolation on tracheal and cloacal swabs. AIV was not detected in or on eggs laid by the breeders during the testing phase of the outbreak. The two flocks were depopulated at 14 days after disease onset, and AIV was not detected on the two premises 23 days after depopulation. PMID:15077795

  8. Effects of roads and well pads on erosion in the Largo Canyon watershed, New Mexico, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matherne, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Largo Canyon, located in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico, is one of the longest dry washes in the world. Oil and gas production in the San Juan Basin, which began in the 1940's, required the development of an extensive network of dirt roads to service the oil and gas wells in the Navajo Reservoir area. Presently, there are about eight wells per square mile, and the density of oil and gas wells is expected to increase. Potential environmental effects on landscape stability that may result from the additional roads and well pads have not been documented. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management to evaluate the effects of roads and well pads associated with oil and gas operations on the erosion potential of Bureau of Land Management lands in the Largo Canyon watershed. The effects of roads and well pads on erosion were quantified by installing sediment dams (dams) and by surveying transects across roads and well pads. Data from 26 dams were used in the analysis. Dams were installed at 43 sites: 21 on hillsides upslope from roads or pads to measure erosion from hillslopes, 11 at the downslope edges of roads to measure erosion from roads, and 11 at the downslope edges of well pads to measure erosion from well pads. Pairs of survey transects were established at nine well pads and two road locations. Sediment-accumulation data for 26 dams, recorded at 17 measurement intervals, indicate that average erosion rates at the dams significantly correlate to size of the contributing area. The average erosion rate normalized by drainage area was 0.001 foot per year below roads, 0.003 foot per year on hillslopes, and 0.011 foot per year below well pads. Results of a two-sample t-test indicate that there was no significant difference in average erosion rates for dams located on hillslopes and below roads, whereas average erosion rates were significantly greater for dams below well pads than for dams on hillslopes and dams below roads. The average erosion rates estimated from the data collected during this study most likely represent minimum erosion rates. Sediment-accumulation data for measurement intervals and for dams that were breached during 2002, resulting from the large volume of runoff generated by high-intensity storms, were not used to compute erosion rates. For this reason, the higher range of erosion rates is underrepresented and the results of this study are biased toward the lower end of the range of erosion rates. Measurements along road transects generally indicate that sediment is eroded from the top of road berms and redeposited at the base of the berms and may be transported downslope along the road. Measurements along well-pad transects generally indicate that sediment eroded from hillslopes is transported over the surface of the well pad and down the well-pad edges. Based on field observations, roads aligned parallel to topographic contours facilitate erosional processes in two ways: (1) roads cut across and collect runoff from previously established drainages and (2) roads, where they are cut into hillsides or into the land surface, provide focal points for the initiation of erosion. Roads aligned across topographic contours can serve as conduits to channel runoff but do not constitute a large percentage of the road network.

  9. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 19.6%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $171 million on electronic…

  10. Quite Good News--For Now: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This annual report shows that economically it would seem that faculty members have much about which to be happy. The academic year 2001-2002 was the fifth consecutive year in which the value of the average faculty salary rose, and the one in which academics saw the largest single-year jump in their real (inflation-adjusted) salaries since the…

  11. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Arnold, Terri L.; Cannon, William F.; Graham, David; Morton, Eric; Bienert, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are ubiquitous in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago, Illinois. PAH concentrations in samples collected in June 2001 and January 2002 were typically in the following order from highest to lowest: fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and anthracene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene were consistently at the lowest concentrations in each sample. Concentrations of the PAH compounds showed variable correlation. Concentrations of PAH compounds with higher molecular weights typically show a higher degree of correlation with other PAH compounds of higher molecular weight, whereas PAH compounds with lower molecular weights tended to show a lower degree of correlation with all other PAH compounds. These differences indicate that high and low molecular-weight PAHs behave differentl y once released into the environment. Concentrations of individual PAH compounds in soils typically varied by at least three orders of magnitude across the city and varied by more than an order of magnitude over a distance of about 1,000 feet. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils are affected by a variety of site-specific factors, and may be affected by proximity to industrial areas. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils did not appear to be affected the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to non-industrial land use, or proximity to a roadway. The concentration of the different PAH compounds in ambient surface soils appears to be affected by the propensity for the PAH compound to be in the vapor or particulate phase in the atmosphere. Lower molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are primarily in the vapor phase in the atmosphere, were detected in lower concentrations in the surface soils. Higher molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are present primarily in the particulate phase in the atmosphere, tended to be in higher concentrations in the surface soils. The apparent effect of the PAH phase in the atmosphere on the concentration of a PAH in ambient surface soils indicates that atmospheric settling of particulate matter is an important source of the PAH compounds in ambient surface soils in Chicago. The distribution of PAH compounds within the city was complex. Comparatively high concentrations were detected near Lake Michigan in the northern part of the city, in much of the western part of the city, and in isolated areas in the southern part of the city. Concentrations were lower in much of the northwestern, south-central, southwestern, and far southern parts of the city. The arithmetic mean concentration of arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium was from 2 to 6 times higher in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago than in soils from surrounding agricultural areas. The arithmetic mean concentration of lead in Chicago soils was about 20 times higher. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium above those of surrounding agricultural areas appear to be related to the effects of dolomite bedrock on the chemical composition of the soil. Elevated concentrations of the remaining elements listed above indicate a potential anthropogenic source(s) of these elements in Chicago soils.

  12. Home Education in Pennsylvania 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-04 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,076. The total was comprised of 12,285 males and 11,791 females. This was a decrease of 339 students, or 1.4%, from the 2002-03 total of 24,415. This was the second year (along with 2001-02) that home education enrollments decreased since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  13. Zero Tolerance in Tennessee Schools: An Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Kim; Njie, Bintou; Detch, Ethel R.; Walton, Jason

    As required by Tennessee law, this report examines the state's zero-tolerance disciplinary data collected by the Tennessee Department of Education for school years 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02. The first section displays statewide zero-tolerance statistics. The second section focuses on the zero-tolerance statistics of Tennessee's five major…

  14. Student Health Partnership Annual Report Guidelines for 2000/2001 and 2001/2002. Student Health Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This document provides guidelines for fulfilling the requirements of the annual report for 2000-01 and 2001-02 of the Student Health Partnership, a program in Alberta, Canada, designed to provide health services to students with special health needs. The guidelines explain each of the annual report's required components, including: (1) a statement…

  15. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Anthropology for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for the…

  16. Labor Force Participation in Formal Work-Related Education in 2000-01. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-048

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hudson, Lisa; Bhandari, Rajika; Peter, Katharin; Bills, David B.

    2005-01-01

    Of the many purposes education serves in society, one of the most important is to prepare people for work. In today's economy, education is important not just to help adults enter the labor market, but also to ensure that adults remain marketable throughout their working lives. This report examines how adults in the labor force use formal…

  17. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Accounting for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for the…

  18. Surface Melt Magnitude Retrieval Over Ross Ice Shelf, Antarctica Using Coupled MODIS Optical and Thermal Satellite Measurements During the 2002-03 Melt Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmosky, C. C.; Lampkin, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Ice shelf stability is of crucial importance in the Antarctic because shelves serve as buttresses to glacial ice advancing from the Antarctic Ice Sheet. Surface melt has been increasing over recent years, especially over the Antarctic Peninsula, contributing to disintegration of shelves such as Larsen. Unfortunately, we are not realistically able to quantify surface snowmelt from ground-based methods because there is sparse coverage in automatic weather stations. Satellite based assessments of melt from passive microwave systems are limited in that they only provide an indication of melt occurrence and have coarse resolution. Though this is useful in tracking the duration of melt, melt amount of magnitude is still unknown. Coupled optical/thermal surface measurements from MODIS were calibrated by estimates of liquid water fraction (LWF) in the upper 1cm of the firn derived from a one-dimensional thermal snowmelt model (SNTHERM). SNTHERM was forced by hourly meteorological data from automatic weather station data at reference sites spanning a range of melt conditions across the Ross Ice Shelf during a particularly intense melt season. Melt intensities or LWF were derived for satellite composite periods covering the Antarctic summer months at a 4km resolution over the entire Ross Ice Shelf, ranging from 0-2 percent LWF in early December to areas along the coast with upwards of 10 percent LWF during the time of peak surface melt. Spatial and temporal variations in the amount of surface melt are seen to be related to both katabatic wind strength and wind shifts due to the progression of cyclones along the circumpolar vortex. Sea ice concentration along the ice shelf front, specifically the formation of polynyas, are also thought to be driving factors for surface melt as latent and sensible heat fluxes increase by one to three orders of magnitude as polynyas form. A future application of surface melt mapping using this empirical retrieval model is to determine melt magnitude over other Antarctic Ice Shelves, such as Larsen, where surface melt has been well documented in contributing to the disintegration of the ice shelf.

  19. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2003 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2002-03. NCES 2005-154

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Wu, Shiying; Gallego, Lorrie; Cong June; Berzofsky, Marcus; Huh, Seungho; Levine,Burton; Broyles,Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    This document presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2003 data collection, which includes two survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2003-04 academic year and Completions covering the period July 1, 2002, through June 30, 2003. This data was collected through the IPEDS web-based…

  20. Report on the Implementation of the "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" in the States and Outlying Areas for School Year 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" ("GFSA") was reauthorized by Section 4141 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001" (Public Law 107-110). "GFSA" requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the ESEA have a law that requires all local…

  1. Student Transitions from the Kindergarten to Grade 12 Education System to the Public Post-Secondary System: 2002/03-2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education on behalf of the 22 Central Data Warehouse participating institutions, the Ministry of Education, and the BC Universities signed an agreement to establish a formal mechanism that protects individual privacy while enabling the exchange of personal information between the parties for the…

  2. ARL Statistics 2002-03: A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Twenty-Three Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This document is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries, the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported by member…

  3. The Mission Continues: Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs. 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    From 1993-2002, federal support to Historically Black Colleges and Universities increased by $639 million, or 60 percent, while support for all institutions of higher education (IHEs) increased by 79 percent. The President's Advisory Board on HBCUs is concerned that federal support for HBCUs is not keeping pace with overall federal support for…

  4. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  5. Dual Credit and Exam-Based Courses in U.S. Public High Schools: 2002-03. E.D.TAB. NCES 2005-009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waits, Tiffany; Setzer, J. Carl; Lewis, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    This survey was conducted by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) using the Fast Response Survey System (FRSS). FRSS is designed to administer short, focused, issue-oriented surveys that place minimal burden on respondents and have a quick turnaround from data collection to reporting. Questionnaires for the survey "Dual Credit and…

  6. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the principal crops in the area. The load estimates ranged from 18 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for sorghum crops to 430 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for turf-grass farms. Potential nitrate load from poultry farm wastes and from communities with septic tanks were estimated at about 580 and 47 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen, respectively. Results obtained from the analyses of the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate samples indicated that the high nitrate concentrations are from poultry wastes near the foothills, whereas artificial fertilizers were estimated to contribute between 39 to 97 percent of the total nitrate in the central part of the alluvial fan.

  7. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-353

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The data on public elementary and secondary education in this document are collected and reported each year by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education. The data are part of the "National Public Education Financial Survey" (NPEFS), one of the components of the Common Core of Data (CCD) collection of…

  8. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

  9. Diffusion and drive-point sampling to detect ordnance-related compounds in shallow ground water beneath Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion samplers and temporary drive points were used to test for ordnance-related compounds in ground water discharging to Snake Pond near Camp Edwards at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA. The contamination resulted from artillery use and weapons testing at various ranges upgradient of the pond.The diffusion samplers were constructed with a high-grade cellulose membrane that allowed diffusion of explosive compounds, such as RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), into deionized water inside the samplers. Laboratory tests confirmed that the cellulose membrane was permeable to RDX and HMX. One transect of 22 diffusion samplers was installed and retrieved in August-September 2001, and 12 transects with a total of 108 samplers were installed and retrieved in September-October 2001. The diffusion samplers were buried about 0.5 feet into the pond-bottom sediments by scuba divers and allowed to equilibrate with the ground water beneath the pond bottom for 13 to 27 days before retrieval. Water samples were collected from temporary well points driven about 2-4 feet into the pond bottom at 21 sites in December 2001 and March 2002 for analysis of explosives and perchlorate to confirm the diffusion-sampling results. The water samples from the diffusion samplers exhibited numerous chromatographic peaks, but evaluation of the photo-diode-array spectra indicated that most of the peaks did not represent the target compounds. The peaks probably are associated with natural organic compounds present in the soft, organically enriched pond-bottom sediments. The presence of four explosive compounds at five widely spaced sites was confirmed by the photo-diode-array analysis, but the compounds are not generally found in contaminated ground water near the ranges. No explosives were detected in water samples obtained from the drive points. Perchlorate was detected at less than 1 microgram per liter in two drive-point samples collected at the same site on two dates about 3 months apart. The source of the perchlorate in the samples could not be related directly to other contamination from Camp Edwards with the available information. The results from the diffusion and drive-point sampling do not indicate an area of ground-water discharge with concentrations of the ordnance-related compounds that are sufficiently elevated to be detected by these sampling methods. The diffusion and drive-point sampling data cannot be interpreted further without additional information concerning the pattern of ground-water flow at Snake Pond and the distributions of RDX, HMX, and perchlorate in ground water in the aquifer near the pond.

  10. Reconnaissance of surface-water and ground-water quality at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City, Indiana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated water quality of key water bodies at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City in southwestern Indiana. The key water bodies were a stock pond, representing possible nonpoint agricultural effects on water quality; an ephemeral stream, representing the water quality of drainage from forested areas of the park; parking-lot runoff, representing water quality related to roads and parking lots; an unnamed ditch below the parking lot, representing the water quality of drainage from the parking lot and from an adjacent railroad track; and Lincoln Spring, a historical ground-water source representing ground-water conditions near a former diesel-fuel-spill site along a rail line. Water samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and for concentrations of selected major ions and trace metals, nutrients, organic constituents, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Surface-water-quality data of water samples from the park represent baseline conditions for the area in relation to the data available from previous studies of area streams. Specific-conductance values and concentrations of most major ions and various nutrients in surface-water samples from the park were smaller than those reported for samples collected in other USGS studies in areas adjacent to the park. Water-quality-management issues identified by this investigation include potentially impaired water quality from parking-lot runoff, unknown effects on surface-water quality from adjacent railroads, and the potential impairment of water quality in Lincoln Spring from human influences. Parking-lot runoff is a source of calcium, alkalinity, iron, lead, and organic carbon in the water samples from the unnamed ditch. Detection of small concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in water from Lincoln Spring could indicate residual contamination from a 1995 diesel-fuel spill and cleanup. The concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from Lincoln Spring was 16.5 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, greater than the State of Indiana standard for nitrate in drinking water (10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen). Lead concentrations in samples from the stock pond, parking-lot runoff, and the unnamed ditch exceeded the Indiana chronic aquatic criteria.

  11. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2001, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2001-02. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Wu, Shiying; Huh, Seungho; Levine, Burton; Broyles, Susan G.

    This report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) winter 2001-2002 data collection that included both race and gender information for staff employed in fall 2001 and salaries and fringe benefits of full-time instructional faculty for academic year 2001-2002. Data were collected through a Web-based data…

  12. Engaging the Demons. Report on a Collaboration between English Faculty of Baldwin High School and Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, Georgia: 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Peter M.; Smith, Melissa

    A collaborative project between Georgia College and State University (GC&SU) and Baldwin High School (BHS) in Milledgeville, Georgia, had as its initial goals: to provide an opportunity for two-way mentoring between the GC&SU's Arts and Sciences faculty and BHS's English faculty; to improve curriculum alignment; to establish realistic expectations…

  13. Developments in School Finance, 2001-02. Fiscal Proceedings from the Annual State Data Conferences of July 2001 and July 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The papers collected for this volume were selected from the fiscal proceedings of the 2001 and 2002 conferences of the National Center for Education Statistics. They represent current research in public-school education finance. The papers are as follows: "What We Know and What We Need to Know About Vouchers and Charter Schools" (Brian P. Gill,…

  14. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  15. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  16. Water-Quality Data for Pharmaceuticals and Other Organic Wastewater Contaminants in Ground Water and in Untreated Drinking Water Sources in the United States, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Focazio, Michael J.; Furlong, Edward T.; Meyer, Michael T.; Zaugg, Steven D.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael

    2008-01-01

    The five most frequently detected compounds in samples collected from ambient ground-water sites are N,N-diethyltoluamide (35 percent, insect repellant), bisphenol A (30 percent, plasticizer), tri(2-chloroethy) phosphate (30 percent, fire retardant), sulfamethoxazole (23 percent, veterinary and human antibiotic), and 4-octylphenol monoethoxylate (19 percent, detergent metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from surface-water sources are cholesterol (59 percent, natural sterol), metolachlor (53 percent, herbicide), cotinine (51 percent, nicotine metabolite), β-sitosterol (37 percent, natural plant sterol), and 1,7-dimethylxanthine (27 percent, caffeine metabolite). The five most frequently detected organic wastewater contaminants in samples of untreated drinking water from ground-water sources are tetrachloroethylene (24 percent, solvent), carbamazepine (20 percent, pharmaceutical), bisphenol A (20 percent, plasticizer), 1,7-dimethylxanthine (16 percent, caffeine metabolite), and tri(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (12 percent, fire retardant).

  17. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Speech Pathology and Audiology for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Speech…

  18. ARL Statistics, 2000-01: A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Twenty-Four Members of the Association of Research Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    This document is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries; the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and private research libraries. ARL member libraries are the…

  19. Occurrence and Distribution of Pesticides in the St. Lucie River Watershed, South-Central Florida, 2000-01, Based on Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) Screening

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A.C.

    2003-01-01

    The St. Lucie River watershed is a valuable estuarine ecosystem and resource in south-central Florida. The watershed has undergone extensive changes over the last century because of anthropogenic activities. These activities have resulted in a complex urban and agricultural drainage network that facilitates the transport of contaminants, including pesticides, to the primary canals and then to the estuary. Historical data indicate that aquatic life criteria for selected pesticides have been exceeded. To address this concern, a reconnaissance was conducted to assess the occurrence and distribution of selected pesticides within the St. Lucie River watershed. Numerous water samples were collected from 37 sites among various land-use categories (urban/built-up, citrus, cropland/pastureland, and inte-grated). Samples were collected at inflow points to primary canals (C-23, C-24, and C-44) and at control structures along these canals from October 2000 to September 2001. Samples were screened for four pesticide classes (triazines, chloroacetanilides, chlorophenoxy compounds, and organophosphates) by using Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) screening. A temporal distribution of pesticides within the watershed was made based on samples collected at the integrated sites during different rainfall events between October 2000 and September 2001. Triazines were detected in 32 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Chloroacetanilides were detected in 60 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites, with most detections occurring at one site. Chlorophenoxy compounds were detected in 17 percent of the samples collected at the integrated sites. Organophosphates were detected in only one sample. A spatial distribution and range of concentration of pesticides at the 37 sampling sites in the watershed were determined among land-use categories. Triazine concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, urban/built-up, and integrated areas, respectively. The highest median triazine concentration was found in the cropland/pastureland area. Chloroacetanilide concentra-tions ranged from highest to lowest in the citrus, integrated, urban/built-up, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. Chlorophenoxy compound concentrations ranged from highest to lowest in the urban/built-up, integrated, citrus, and cropland/pastureland areas, respectively. The maximum concentrations of triazines, chloroacetanilides, and chlorophenoxy compounds were 0.63, 1.0, and 14 micrograms per liter, respectively. Organophosphate was detected once at an integrated site at a concentration of 0.20 microgram per liter. Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has no aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. However, assuming that all triazine and metolachlor concentrations from ELISA and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analyses were the result of atrazine and metolachlor detections, no concentrations exceeded the Canadian aquatic life guidelines for atrazine and metolachlor. One organophosphate detection (0.2 microgram per liter) did exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency aquatic life guideline for chlorpyrifos. The deethylatrazine/atrazine ratio (DAR) is an important indicator of atrazine transport in the environment. The DAR ranged from 0.25 to 0.33, indicating that postapplication runoff was the most likely source of atrazine to the environment at the time of sampling. Deisopropylatrazine is a metabolite of atrazine and structurally similar compounds, such as simazine and cyanazine. The deisopropylatrazine/deethylatrazine ratio (D2R) is an indicator of nonpoint sources of deisopropylatrazine to the environment. The ratio ranged from 1 to 3 in this study, indicating simazine was an important source of deisopropylatrazine to the environment at the time of sampling, as opposed to atrazine alone. Confirmation analyses by GC/MS for triazines detected by ELISA indicated t

  20. Management Information Reporting 2000-01 Data Analysis for Special Education, English as a Second Language (ESL), Early Literacy Initiative (ELI), and Technology Integration Funding (TIF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    This report is intended to stimulate inquiry into the achievement of special groups of students in Alberta schools and model reporting to the public on these students, a traditionally weak area of school board Annual Education Results reports. The data in the report provide provincial level comparisons to data that may be compiled by school…

  1. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Enterprise Management and Operation for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for faculty in…

  2. Investigation of Water Quality and Aquatic-Community Structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama 2000-01

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherson, A. K.

    2002-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham, Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, that drain less urbanized areas. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. Aquatic-community structure, physical condition of fish, and analysis of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of the water quality on the aquatic biota. Degraded water quality was seen at the more urbanized sites on Village and Valley Creeks. Elevated concentrations of nutrients, bacteria, trace elements, and organic contaminants were detected in the water column. Trace-element priority pollutants, pesticides, and other organic compounds were detected in higher concentrations in bed sediment and fish tissue at the Village and Valley Creek sites than at the reference site. The richness and density of the fish and benthic-invertebrate communities indicate that the integrity of the aquatic communities in Village and Valley Creeks is poor in comparison to that observed at the two reference sites. Correlations between land use and aquatic-community structure, water quality, bed sediment, and fish tissue were observed. The abundance of mayflies and the number of EPT (ephemeroptera, plecoptera, tricoptera) taxa were negatively correlated with industrial land use. The abundance of midges (an indicator of poor water quality) was positively correlated with industrial land use; the percentage of mosquitofishes (a tolerant species) was positively correlated with commercial land use. In contrast, the numbers of fish species, fish families, and the percentage of sunfishes (intolerant species) were positively correlated with forested land use, indicating that the more diverse fish communities were found in basins with a higher percentage of forested land. The concentrations of 12 water-quality constituents and 18 organic compounds detected in bed sediment were positively correlated with industrial land use. Mercury and molybdenum concentrations detected in fish-liver tissue also were positively correlated with industrial land use. The water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks are degraded in comparison to streams flowing through less urbanized areas. Decreased diversity and elevated concentrations of trace elements and organic contaminants in the water column, bed sediment, and fish tissues at Village and Valley Creeks are indicative of the effects of urbanization. Industrial land use, in particular, was significantly correlated to elevated contaminant levels in the water column, bed sediment, fish tissues, and to the declining health of the benthic-invertebrate communities. The results of this 16-month study have long-range watershed management implications, demonstrating the association between urban development and stream degradation. These data can serve as a baseline from which to determine the effectiveness of stream-restoration programs.

  3. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Business/Managerial Economics for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for faculty in…

  4. Salary-Trend Study of Faculty in Marketing Management and Research for the Years 1997-98 and 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Richard D.

    This report is part of an annual national survey that examines salaries of full-time teaching faculty in 54 selected disciplines. Data for the study as a whole were collected from 305 public and 403 private institutions for the baseline year of 1997-1998 and the trend year of 1999-2000. This portion of the study covers salary data for Marketing…

  5. Investigation of water quality and aquatic-community structure in Village and Valley Creeks, City of Birmingham, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2000-01

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Ann K.; Abrahamsen, Thomas A.; Journey, Celeste A.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a 16-month investigation of water quality, aquatic-community structure, bed sediment, and fish tissue in Village and Valley Creeks, two urban streams that drain areas of highly intensive residential, commercial, and industrial land use in Birmingham, Alabama. Water-quality data were collected between February 2000 and March 2001 at four sites on Village Creek, three sites on Valley Creek, and at two reference sites near Birmingham?Fivemile Creek and Little Cahaba River, both of which drain less-urbanized areas. Stream samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, fecal bacteria, trace and major elements, pesticides, and selected organic constituents. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples were analyzed for trace and major elements, pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and additional organic compounds. Aquatic-community structure was evaluated by conducting one survey of the fish community and in-stream habitat and two surveys of the benthic-invertebrate community. Bed-sediment and fish-tissue samples, benthic-invertebrates, and habitat data were collected between June 2000 and October 2000 at six of the nine water-quality sites; fish communities were evaluated in April and May 2001 at the six sites where habitat and benthic-invertebrate data were collected. The occurrence and distribution of chemical constituents in the water column and bed sediment provided an initial assessment of water quality in the streams. The structure of the aquatic communities, the physical condition of the fish, and the chemical analyses of fish tissue provided an indication of the cumulative effects of water quality on the aquatic biota. Water chemistry was similar at all sites, characterized by strong calcium-bicarbonate component and magnesium components. Median concentrations of total nitrogen and total phosphorus were highest at the headwaters of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. In Village Creek, median concentrations of nitrite and ammonia increased in a downstream direction. In Valley Creek, median concentrations of nitrate, nitrite, ammonia, organic nitrogen, suspended phosphorus, and orthophosphate decreased in a downstream direction. Median concentrations of Escherichia coli and fecal coliform bacteria were highest at the most upstream site of Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of enterococci exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criterion in 80 percent of the samples; concentrations of Escherichia coli exceeded the criterion in 56 percent of the samples. Concentrations of bacteria at the downstream sites on Village and Valley Creeks were elevated during high flow rather than low flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Surface-water samples were analyzed for chemical compounds that are commonly found in wastewater and urban runoff. The median number of wastewater indicators was highest at the most upstream site on Valley Creek and lowest at the reference site on Fivemile Creek. Concentrations of total recoverable cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in surface water exceeded acute and chronic aquatic life criteria in up to 24 percent of the samples that were analyzed for trace and major elements. High concentrations of trace and major elements in the water column were detected most frequently during high flow, indicating the presence of nonpoint sources. Of the 24 pesticides detected in surface water, 17 were herbicides and 7 were insecticides. Atrazine, simazine, and prometon were the most commonly detected herbicides; diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and carbaryl were the most commonly detected insecticides. Concentrations of atrazine, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion periodically exceeded criteria for the protection of aquatic life. Trace-element priority pollutants, pesticides, and other organic compounds were detected in higher concentrations in bed sediment at the Village and Valley Creek sites t

  6. Teacher Salaries, Expenditures and Federal Revenue in School Districts Serving the Nation's Largest Cities, 1990-91 to 2000-01. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, F. Howard; Gould, Jewell C.

    This report provides data on school districts in the nation's largest cities regarding decade-long national trends in teacher salaries, expenditures, and federal revenue, particularly compensatory education funding. These districts, which are working to close achievement gaps, enroll disproportionate and increasingly larger shares of low-income…

  7. Emergence or re-emergence of visceral leishmaniasis in areas of Somalia, north-eastern Kenya, and south-eastern Ethiopia in 2000-01.

    PubMed

    Marlet, M V L; Sang, D K; Ritmeijer, K; Muga, R O; Onsongo, J; Davidson, R N

    2003-01-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) was known to be endemic in Somalia along the basins of the (Middle) Shebelle and (Lower) Juba rivers, and in Kenya in parts of the Rift Valley, on the border with Uganda and the Eastern Provinces. From May 2000 to August 2001, we diagnosed 904 patients with VL. The patients came from an area which spanned the Wajir and Mandera districts of north-eastern Kenya, southern Somalia, and south-eastern Ethiopia. Small numbers of patients were also seen in northern Somalia. These areas were either previously non-endemic for VL, or had only sporadic cases prior to the epidemic. We describe the features of the outbreak and review the history of VL in the region. Unusual rainfall patterns, malnutrition, and migration of a Leishmania-infected population seeking food and security may have contributed to this outbreak. PMID:15307414

  8. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact Area indicates a likely connection with the deeper water-producing zone. No pesticides, explosives, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, organic halogens, or perchlorate were found in water samples from the Southern High Plains aquifer at the Range.

  9. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2001-02. A Reference Tool for School Administrators [and] Education Leaders. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. 29th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    This annual survey presents salary and wage data on 23 professional and 10 support positions in the following categories: central office administrators, school building-level personnel, classroom teachers, auxiliary professional personnel, and support personnel. The positions selected represent the full scope of public-school employment. The data…

  10. Wheat Yield Prediction Using Remotely Sensed Agromet Trend-Based Models for Hoshiarpur District of Punjab, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazgeer, S.; Mahey, R. K.; Sidhu, S. S.; Sharma, P. K.; Sood, A.; Noorian, A. M.; Kamali, Gh.

    Estimation of crop production in advance of the harvest has been an intensively researched field in agriculture. The aim of present study was to predict wheat yield using different agrometeorological indices, spectral index (NDVI, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) and Trend Estimated Yield (TEY) in Hoshiarpur district of Punjab for the years 2001-02 and 2002-03. On the basis of examination of Correlation Coefficients (R), Standard Error of Estimate (SEOE) and Relative Deviation (RD) values resulted from different agromet models, the best agromet subset were selected as Minimum Temperature (Tmin), Maximum Temperature (Tmax) and Accumulated Heliothermal Units (HTU) for Hoshiarpur district. In order to improve model accuracy the above mentioned agrometeorological indices together with NDVI and TEY were used as independent variables for yield prediction at reproductive stage (2nd week of March) of wheat. It was found that Agromet-Spectral-Trend-Yield model could explain 96% (SEOE = 87 kg ha-1) of wheat yield variations for Hoshiarpur district.

  11. Statistical-Dynamical Seasonal Forecasts of Central-Southwest Asian Winter Precipitation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tippett, Michael K.; Goddard, Lisa; Barnston, Anthony G.

    2005-06-01

    Interannual precipitation variability in central-southwest (CSW) Asia has been associated with East Asian jet stream variability and western Pacific tropical convection. However, atmospheric general circulation models (AGCMs) forced by observed sea surface temperature (SST) poorly simulate the region's interannual precipitation variability. The statistical-dynamical approach uses statistical methods to correct systematic deficiencies in the response of AGCMs to SST forcing. Statistical correction methods linking model-simulated Indo-west Pacific precipitation and observed CSW Asia precipitation result in modest, but statistically significant, cross-validated simulation skill in the northeast part of the domain for the period from 1951 to 1998. The statistical-dynamical method is also applied to recent (winter 1998/99 to 2002/03) multimodel, two-tier December-March precipitation forecasts initiated in October. This period includes 4 yr (winter of 1998/99 to 2001/02) of severe drought. Tercile probability forecasts are produced using ensemble-mean forecasts and forecast error estimates. The statistical-dynamical forecasts show enhanced probability of below-normal precipitation for the four drought years and capture the return to normal conditions in part of the region during the winter of 2002/03.May Kabul be without gold, but not without snow.—Traditional Afghan proverb

  12. Kauffman Teen Survey. An Annual Report on Teen Health Behaviors: Use of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs among 8th-, 10th-, and 12th-Grade Students in Greater Kansas City, 1991-92 to 2000-01.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation, Kansas City, MO.

    The Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation began surveying Kansas City area teens during the 1984-85 school year. The Kauffman Teen Survey now addresses two sets of issues for teens. Teen Health Behaviors, addressed in this report, have been a focus of the survey since its inception. The report focuses on teen use of alcohol, tobacco, and other drugs in…

  13. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  14. Sulphur management in onion (Allium cepa) cultivation in hills of Himachal Pradesh.

    PubMed

    Jaggi, R C; Sharma, R K

    2010-05-01

    Field experiment were conducted at CSK HPKV Research Farm, Palampur during Rabi seasons of 2000-01 and 2001-02, to study the response of onion (Allium cepa var Patna red) at four sulphur levels (0, 15, 30 and 60 kg ha(-1)) applied through Gypsum and S95. The analysis was done to allocate the limited availability of sulphur for maximizing net profit over fertilizer cost. The results show that the dose of sulphur under its full availability is 43.02 kg ha(-1). But under its scarce availability the maximum benefit would occur when it is applied up to 32.11 kg ha(-1) followed by even distribution of fertilizer i.e. 20 kg ha(-1). The returns following sulphur application at these rates, would be Rs 69340, 73092 and 68700 ha(-1) respectively. PMID:21047017

  15. Improving Child Oral Health: Cost Analysis of a National Nursery Toothbrushing Programme

    PubMed Central

    Anopa, Yulia; McMahon, Alex D.; Conway, David I.; Ball, Graham E.; McIntosh, Emma; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common diseases of childhood. The aim of this study was to compare the cost of providing the Scotland-wide nursery toothbrushing programme with associated National Health Service (NHS) cost savings from improvements in the dental health of five-year-old children: through avoided dental extractions, fillings and potential treatments for decay. Methods Estimated costs of the nursery toothbrushing programme in 2011/12 were requested from all Scottish Health Boards. Unit costs of a filled, extracted and decayed primary tooth were calculated using verifiable sources of information. Total costs associated with dental treatments were estimated for the period from 1999/00 to 2009/10. These costs were based on the unit costs above and using the data of the National Dental Inspection Programme and then extrapolated to the population level. Expected cost savings were calculated for each of the subsequent years in comparison with the 2001/02 dental treatment costs. Population standardised analysis of hypothetical cohorts of 1000 children per deprivation category was performed. Results The estimated cost of the nursery toothbrushing programme in Scotland was £1,762,621 per year. The estimated cost of dental treatments in the baseline year 2001/02 was £8,766,297, while in 2009/10 it was £4,035,200. In 2002/03 the costs of dental treatments increased by £213,380 (2.4%). In the following years the costs decreased dramatically with the estimated annual savings ranging from £1,217,255 in 2003/04 (13.9% of costs in 2001/02) to £4,731,097 in 2009/10 (54.0%). Population standardised analysis by deprivation groups showed that the largest decrease in modelled costs was for the most deprived cohort of children. Conclusions The NHS costs associated with the dental treatments for five-year-old children decreased over time. In the eighth year of the toothbrushing programme the expected savings were more than two and a half times the costs of the

  16. The effects of walnut and pine leaves on bread wheat growth and frequence of common weed species in the East-Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Akkaya, Aydin; Dokuyucu, Tevrican; Kara, Rukiye; Dumlupinar, Ziya

    2006-07-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) and pine (Pinus sp.) leaves on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and weed control, during 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing seasons in East Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this research, the treatments were: applications of ground walnut leaves (GWL) and ground pine leaves (GPL) at 19 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-11, applications of 200, 400 and 800 cc/m2 of walnut leaves extract (WLE2, WLE4 and WLE8 respectively), pine leaves extract (PLE2, PLE4 and PLE8 respectively), mixture extract of 200 cc walnut and 200 cc pine (ME), herbicide application (HA) at 8 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-21, and control (C) without any treatment. The results have indicated that the effects of treatments were significant for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), weed number per square meter (WN), but non significant for grain number per head (GN), grain weight per head (GW), 1000 grain weight (1000 GW), flag leaf width (FLW), head number per square meter (HN), vegetative period (VP), grain filling period (GFP) and days to maturity (DM). PMID:17402244

  17. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  18. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  19. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  20. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  1. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  2. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  3. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  4. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among English Language Learner Students in Pennsylvania. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 127

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes English language learner (ELL) student enrollment and achievement trends in Pennsylvania public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of ELL students in Pennsylvania public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage…

  6. WCTC Graduate Follow-Up Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Coll., Pewaukee, WI.

    This paper reports on a survey of 2001-02 graduates of Waukesha County Technical College (WCTC), Wisconsin. The report indicates 1,257 students were awarded Associate's Degrees, technical diplomas, and apprenticeship certificates by WCTC in 2001-02. Of those graduates, 702 (56%) responded to the Graduate Follow-up Survey. Also, 84% of all…

  7. Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates for the Graduating Class of 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report details the graduation rates for the class of 2003 for Montana High Schools. Sections include: Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rate Overview, and Montana High School Completion and Graduation Rates, 2002-03 School Year.

  8. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  9. Meeting the Demand for Future Dental School Faculty: Trends, Challenges, and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, N. Karl; Weaver, Richard G.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents data from the American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 survey of vacant budgeted faculty positions and examines challenges likely to exacerbate faculty shortages in the immediate future. (EV)

  10. Hydrological and erosion behaviour in two experimental agricultural watersheds in the centre of Navarra (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalí, J.; Gastesi, R.; Álvarez-Mozos, J.; Del Valle de Lersundi, J.; Giménez, R.; Díez, J.; Goñi, M.; Agirre, U.; Campo, M. A.; López, J. J.

    2009-04-01

    Two experimental watersheds, La Tejería and Latxaga, located in the central area of Navarra and maintained by the regional government, were monitored for 12 years (1996-2008) with the aim of assessing their hydrological and erosion behaviour, as well as the quality of their water. In this work, an extensive and detailed analysis has been made of these aspects on different time scales, from annual to per ten minutes, or per rain event. Both watersheds have a similar surface coverage (approx. 200 ha), geology, soils, climate (a Mediterranean one with a mean annual temperature and precipitation of around 13° and 750 mm, respectively), and land use (cereal growing). However, their sediment production records are very different. For instance, the total sediment evacuated in La Tejería ranged between 390 Kg ha-1 (2000/01) and 5,609 Kg ha-1 (1996/97), whereas in Latxaga it only varied between 48 Kg ha-1 (2002/03) and 1,386 Kg ha-1 (2006/07). Simulations made with the EUROSEM model led to the assumption that this notable contrast in sediment production was mainly due to the different general shape of the watersheds, along with the unequal relief predominant in each of them. In another direction, the largest amount of sediment was recorded during the winter, as, in that season, the soil is usually bare and contains a high degree of moisture. The mean annual sediment discharge in La Tejería was of 1,342.27±2,390.39 Kg ha-1, with 84% of the total annual sediment being accumulated in wintertime. This figure was, again, much more modest in Latxaga: 444.94±436.15 Kg ha-1 and 61% of the total annual sediment. With regard to water quality, the nitrate concentration values were also disparate in both watersheds. In Latxaga, the nitrate concentration was of 31.22 ± 26.98 mg NO3 l-1, namely, below human consumption tolerance and environmental values (50 mg NO3 l-1). Conversely, in La Tejería, this concentration was notably higher, 93.89 ± 26.98 mg NO3 l-1, thus, continuously

  11. Commitment to partnership: interdisciplinary initiatives in developing expert practice in the care of survivors of violence.

    PubMed

    Sully, Philippa

    2002-06-01

    The debate surrounding The Human Rights Act (The Human Rights Act 1998. Home Office, London) and its impact on survivors of violence, has coincided with current political emphasis and UK Government policy on promoting partnership in the development and d elivery of statutory and voluntary health and social services (Crime and Disorder Act 1998, Home Office, London, Making a difference. Department of Health, London, 1999a, Modernising health and social services national priorities guidance 2000/01-2002/03 . Department of Health, London, 1999b, MacPherson 1999 The Stephen Lawrence Inquiry. Vol. 1 & 2. The Home Office, London. NHS Executive 1998 The New NHS, modern and dependable: a national framework for assessing performance. Consultation document. NHS Executive, London, 1999. Working Together. Securing a quality work force for the NHS. Department of Health, London). Within this social and political arena, staff at City University, London, UK have developed an Interprofessional MSc - Society Violence and Practice. The focus is on the d elivery of expert practice in caring for survivors of violence of all sorts, e.g. rape, child abuse, domestic and road traffic violence. The curriculum has developed in the international arena and is based on the work of Dr Lee Ann Hoff and colleagues fr om the University of Massachusetts, Lowell, USA. This is a reflective account of the macro and micro group processes which evolved during the establishment of this programme, the first two modules of which have already been offered at BSc Honours level. The enthusiasm and creativity from practitioners and educationalists across disciplines, who supported the development and implementation of this programme, prompted this reflection based on Bion's (1968 Experiences in groups: and other papers. Tavistock, London) theories of effective working groups. The parallel processes evident in practice the human services (Obholzer 1994 The unconscious at work. Individual and organizational

  12. "No Child Left Behind" State Education Report, School Year 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains statistical information for the following performance targets for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 in the state of Hawaii: (1) reading; (2) mathematics; (3) graduation; and (4) retention. The federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) law requires the state to report this information. The state performance of these groups are…

  13. Study of the Effectiveness and Efficiency of Charter Schools in Indiana. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akey, Terri; Plucker, Jonathan A.; Hansen, John A.; Michael, Robert; Branon, Suzanne; Fagen, Rebecca; Zhou, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The Indiana General Assembly passed charter school enabling legislation in 2001, and the first charter schools opened their doors for the 2002-03 school year. As of fall 2008, 49 charter schools are operating in Indiana. A total of 17 of these schools are sponsored by the City of Indianapolis, Office of the Mayor, 29 schools are sponsored by…

  14. The Superintendent's Fourteenth Annual Report on School Performance and Improvement in Hawaii, 2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Superintendent's Annual Report on School Performance and Improvement in Hawaii is one of three reports in the state's system of school accountability. This report contains collective data on Hawaii schools for school year 2002-03, showing trends over time and, where appropriate, comparisons with data from other states. The Superintendent's…

  15. WWC Review of the Report “Better Schools, Less Crime?” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effect of school choice on the criminal activity, academic achievement, and high school graduation rate of more than 2,000 male middle and high school students in North Carolina’s Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district. For the 2002-03 school year, all district students were given the choice to either…

  16. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  17. Report on Local Investments of Partnership Funds: Investments for 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheldon, Debra

    This report was created with the goal of showing how California Community College districts have been using their funds from the Partnership For Excellence during the 2002-03 fiscal year. The report is based upon the individual findings of 108 colleges which was gathered through an online survey that asked each district to report data on the…

  18. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  19. Statewide Educational Accountability Systems under the NCLB Act: A Report on 2009 and 2010 Amendments to State Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The conclusion of the 2010-11 school year will mark nine plus years since enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Throughout this period, numerous states--sometimes almost every one--have annually sought to amend the educational accountability systems they first developed as "workbooks" in 2002-03, consistent with the law's…

  20. The Supportive Roles that Learners' Families Play in Adult Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2007-01-01

    In 2002-03, a qualitative case study explored the experiences of stakeholders connected to two adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Data were collected through official documents, personal documents, and interviews. Influences by family members contributed significantly to the theme of human relations that arose from these data. The…

  1. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Head Start Impact Study: Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of offering Head Start to preschoolers. Head Start is a federal program aimed at boosting the school readiness of low-income children by providing preschool education and health and nutrition services. The study analyzed data on about 4,700 preschool-aged children who applied for enrollment for the 2002-03 program…

  2. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies. Fifth Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    This document, prepared by an Arizona State University education research unit, provides profiles of 47 educational-management organizations (EMOs) for 2002-03. The report begins with a description of the structure of the educational management industry and a discussion of the pros and cons of EMOs. This edition (fifth annual report) divides EMOs…

  3. A Work of Art

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Katherine

    2009-01-01

    During the 2002-03 fiscal crisis in Massachusetts, Gov. Mitt Romney proposed sweeping changes for public colleges in the state. Among them was a proposal to privatize three highly specialized colleges, including the Massachusetts College of Art and Design (MassArt), the nation's only independent public college of art and design. The rationale was…

  4. An Evaluation of Dropouts from Outward Bound Programs for the Unemployed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Robert; Perry, Martin; Martin, Andrew John

    2008-01-01

    Outward Bound New Zealand provides 21-day residential motivational intervention courses (Catalyst courses) to long-term unemployed clients approved by the Ministry of Social Development. During the period 2002/03, 20% of participants starting the course dropped out before course completion; which was double the contracted acceptable level set by…

  5. 75 FR 38953 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-07

    ... Civil Aviation Authority under AD number 002-06-2000, requiring repetitive non- destructive testing (NDT... proposed AD. Discussion On February 6, 2002, we issued AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855... Inspection Service Bulletin (SB) 32-158. This SB was classified mandatory by the UK Civil Aviation...

  6. The Class "C" Survey, 2002-2003: Comparisons of Budgets, Levies and Enrollments of Class "C" Montana School Districts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Montana Coll., Dillon. Montana Rural Education Center.

    This report presents data on enrollments, budgets, levies, costs per pupil, and teacher and staff salaries in Montana's smallest (Class "C") school districts for 2002-03. Class C indicates high school enrollment of 130 students or less. Surveys were received from 69 of 93 public schools and 1 of 5 nonpublic schools in the category. The range of…

  7. Changes in the Cost of Energy in One State's School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cymrot, Donald J.; Martinez, Miguel; Jones, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    To support the work of Tennessee's Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Council, this report describes data on energy expenditures in school districts for 2002/03-2007/08. Energy expenditures rose from about 2.6 percent to about 3.0 percent of total expenditures over the period, with some differences in the mix of energy types and…

  8. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  9. The Importance of Interpersonal Relations in Adult Literacy Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Marion

    2006-01-01

    In 2002-03, a qualitative case study explored the perspectives of 70 stakeholders connected to two community-based adult literacy programs in Manitoba, Canada. Four themes emerged from within-case and cross-case analyses of the data: program design, human relations, community context, and financial support. Instructor-learner and learner-learner…

  10. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6575), and proposed to supersede AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002). That NPRM proposed to correct an unsafe... ''significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and...

  11. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38953). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2002- 03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002), to require actions intended to... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3....

  12. Third-Grade Retention in 2004. Research Brief. Volume 0404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Luzon-Canasi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, the revised Florida School Code required 3rd grade students to demonstrate reading proficiency by scoring at level 2 or higher on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). If not, the student must be retained, unless exempted from mandatory retention for special circumstances…

  13. Update: School Enrollment Projections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liner, Charles D.

    1994-01-01

    Statewide enrollment in North Carolina's public schools is expected to increase 9.2% between 1992-93 and 1997-98, and by 15.6% between 1992-93 and 2002-03. Two tables and one figure illustrate these projections. (MLF)

  14. An Evaluation of Health and Sexuality Education in Turkish Elementary School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikmaz, Fatma Hazir; Guler, Duygu S.

    2007-01-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate whether and to what extent the health-related domains, including sexuality education, specified by the Development of Health Awareness in Adolescent Project Science Committee overlapped with the goals and objectives of the 2002/03 elementary school curricula (grades one to eight; ages 7-14 years) in Turkey. For…

  15. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  16. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  17. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  18. CCSF Management Plan, 2002/2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is the 2001-2002 management plan for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. The plan contains the following sections: (1) Overview of Planning and Budgeting; (2) Vision, Values, and Mission; (3) College Goals and Strategic Priorities; (4) Annual Institutional Plan CCSF 2002-03; (5) College Core Performance Indicators; and (6)…

  19. Writing Changes in the Nation's K-12 Education System. Research Notes RN-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether there have been any changes in writing instruction across K-12 education in the past three years. A three-year time frame was chosen to structure the study as it included the time period subsequent to the College Board's first announcement of the SAT writing section (the 2002-03 academic year). The…

  20. Ideologies of Violence: The Social Origins of Islamist and Leftist Transnational Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Kristopher K.; Crenshaw, Edward M.; Jenkins, J. Craig,

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that Islamist terrorist attacks represent a distinctive "4th wave" of transnational terrorism that has supplanted Leftist terrorism. Drawing on ITERATE data for 1968-2003, the annual count of Leftist attacks has declined since the end of the Cold War while Islamist attacks have persisted and spiked upward in 2002-03.…

  1. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) Field Test Methodology Report, 2004. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, R. E.; Cahalan, M.; Fahimi, M.; Curry-Tucker, J. L.; Carley-Baxter, L.; Curtin, T. R.; Hinsdale, M.; Jewell, D. M.; Kuhr, B. D.; McLean, L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and findings of the NSOPF:04 field test that took place during the 2002?03 academic year. The NSOPF:04 field test was used to plan, implement, and evaluate methodological procedures, instruments, and systems proposed for use in the full-scale study scheduled for the 2003-04 academic year. The field test was…

  2. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  3. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  4. Teaching for Understanding: Harvard Comes to Pennell Elementary. A Teacher Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    During the 2002-03 school year, one Philadelphia fifth grade class developed a core curriculum designed to teach every child the 21st century basic skills: the ability to think, learn, and create. This effort was a pilot for a rigorous Harvard University based program to develop proficiency for each child in a mixed ability classroom of 29…

  5. Ivory Tower to Concrete Jungle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crebert, Gay; Bates, Merrelyn; Bell, Barry; Patrick, Carol-Joy; Cragnolini, Vanda

    2004-01-01

    In 2001-02, a project team at Griffith University undertook Stage 4 of the Griffith Graduate Project. Stage 4 used a survey and focus group discussions to gather graduates' and employers' perceptions of the role of the university, work placements and postgraduation employment in the development of generic skills and abilities. This article will…

  6. Adult Career Counseling Center Nineteenth Annual Report, September 2001-June 2002. Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems and Career Counseling Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Jane; Anderson, Mary; Flatter, Brian; Harvey, Jennifer; McCarthy, Kelly; Yousif, Newjen

    The year 2001-02 marks the Adult Career Counseling Center's (ACCC's) nineteenth year of service, during which career advisors saw 102 community clients for over 300 hours of counseling. ACCC provides advising services at no charge for adults who are seeking guidance with career-related issues, including career exploration and planning. The…

  7. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  8. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  9. Evaluation of a Randomized Intervention to Delay Sexual Initiation among Fifth-Graders Followed through the Sixth Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koo, Helen P.; Rose, Allison; El-Khorazaty, M. Nabil; Yao, Qing; Jenkins, Renee R.; Anderson, Karen M.; Davis, Maurice; Walker, Leslie R.

    2011-01-01

    US adolescents initiate sex at increasingly younger ages, yet few pregnancy prevention interventions for children as young as 10-12 years old have been evaluated. Sixteen Washington, DC schools were randomly assigned to intervention versus control conditions. Beginning in 2001/02 with fifth-grade students and continuing during the sixth grade,…

  10. BC International Student Revenue Grows Again. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2012-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Larry

    2011-01-01

    After two years of decline, the tuition from international students increased in 2010-11 and reached more than $129 million. The revenue from international students has more than doubled in a decade, from $55.5 million in 2001-02. This revenue is the most significant source of funding for K-12 education in BC outside of direct grants from the…

  11. Challenges and Tensions in Implementing Current Directions for Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    In 2001-02, the Queensland Indigenous Education Consultative Body conducted seven research projects examining Indigenous educational policies and strategies. Qualitative and quantitative methods included literature reviews; academic data collection; and interviews and focus groups with Indigenous and non-Indigenous educators, parents, community…

  12. Homeschooling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    Homeschooling has grown over the past several decades. It is estimated that 923,700 to 1,275,098 children will be homeschooled by the 2001-02 school year. Homeschooling families come from all major ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds and all income levels. Homeschooling parents are commonly active in their communities and join community…

  13. Low Performance on High-Stakes Test Drives Special Education Referrals: A Texas Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielding, Cheryl

    2004-01-01

    This article is based on a survey of educational diagnosticians working in Texas for the 2001-02 school year. The Executive Board of the Texas Educational Diagnosticians' Association (TEDA) developed the comprehensive survey that contained over 50 items. Only three items were related specifically to the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS)…

  14. Do Non-Census Funding Systems Encourage Special Education Identification?: Reconsidering Greene and Forster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahitivanichcha, Kanya; Parrish, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Special education as a percentage of total enrollment has risen significantly across the nation, increasing from 8% of the school-age population in 1975-76 to 12% in 2001-02. These growing numbers have garnered increased public attention and have raised questions as to whether the type of special education funding formula used by states may be…

  15. California High School Outreach Program Inventory: Final Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2002

    2002-01-01

    The "2001-02 Budget Act" included approximately $127 million to fund 19 different outreach programs designed to encourage and support high school students to attend college. Since some programs also receive additional funds from federal, private, and local school districts the combined outreach program revenue is even greater. Over the past five…

  16. Piedmont Virginia Community College Management Information Book, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piedmont Virginia Community Coll., Charlottesville, VA. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This is the 14th PVCC Management Information handbook. Piedmont Virginia Community College (PVCC) is a two-year, state-supported college whose region includes Albemarle, Fluvanna, Greene, Louisa, and Nelson counties, as well as the northern half of Buckingham County and the city of Charlottesville. PVCC's unduplicated annual headcount for 2001-02

  17. FERPA Update 2002: The Two New Supreme Court FERPA Cases, and Post-9/11 Congressional Balancing of Student Privacy and Safety Interests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daggett, Lynn M.

    Congress enacted the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) in 1974 as a floor amendment to a comprehensive education statute. Until 2002, persons trying to understand and comply with FERPA were without guidance from the Supreme Court, which did not hear a single FERPA case from 1974 to 2001. In its 2001-02 term, however, the Court…

  18. Comparison of label vs. analytical values for 23 vitamins and minerals in adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products for the Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Representative adult MVM products (n>2 vitamins) reported in NHANES 2001-02 were chemically analyzed for 23 nutrients in order to evaluate the relationship between their label and analytical levels. A total of 240 MVM products were purchased based on commonly reported % Daily Value (DV) levels, repa...

  19. Making a Difference: An Exploration of Leadership Roles within Sixth Form Colleges in Maintaining Ethos within a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Ann R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001?02, the Nuffield Foundation funded research into the impact of government policy upon the management of sixth form colleges since 1992. National and regional questionnaire surveys were carried out among senior managers at sixth form colleges, further education colleges and schools. Case studies were undertaken at five sixth form colleges…

  20. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  1. Changes in Patterns of Pricing and Financial Aid: Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2006-153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Carroll, C. Dennis

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on first-time, full-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in order to examine patterns of sticker prices, financial aid, and net prices from an institutional perspective. For the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02, the report examines how the price of attendance for full-time freshmen changed for various types of…

  2. An Evaluation of Milwaukee Area Technical College District. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kate; Monroe, Kellie; Bajkiewicz, David; Coulthart, Tim; Osmanski, Thomas; Smyth, Conor; Sommerfeld, Robert

    The Legislative Audit Bureau of the State of Wisconsin analyzed financial issues concerning the Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC). The MATC District is the largest district in Wisconsin's technical college system, with 12,504 FTE students enrolled and 1,944 staff in the 2001-02 academic year. Operating expenses for that year were $152.0…

  3. Outcome and Process Evaluation of a Norwegian School-Randomized Fruit and Vegetable Intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks intervention, a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a home economics classroom component and parental involvement and encouraged participation in the Norwegian School Fruit Programme, all delivered during the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly…

  4. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  5. Variability of four nutrients evaluated in adult multivitamin/mineral (MVM) products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nutrient Data Laboratory, USDA, is collaborating with Office of Dietary Supplements to create an analytically verified Dietary Supplement Ingredient Database (DSID). As part of the DSID, variability within and between lots was assessed in MVM products. Using NHANES 2001-02 supplement use data, the ...

  6. Good for Nothing: In-Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneady, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Texas Education Association (TEA) show that 177,340 students (4.6 percent) in kindergarten through grade 12 were retained in 2001-02. This is enough students to fill Texas Stadium more than 2.5 times. Of this number, roughly 59,812 were elementary school students (grades kindergarten through six). There are several problems with in…

  7. The Results of the New Hampshire Education Funding Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlob, Brian J.

    This report highlights research that examined education finance data for the 1998-99 school year, the year prior to the introduction of finance reforms in New Hampshire, and the 1999-00 to 2001-02 school years, the 3 years following the introduction of reform. Following are some of the conclusions about New Hampshire's education finance reform.…

  8. Physical Activity, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, Maternal Education and Self-Reported Educational Performance of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…

  9. Do More Effective Teachers Earn More outside of the Classroom? Working Paper Series. PEPG 10-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chingos, Matthew M.; West, Martin R.

    2010-01-01

    We examine earnings records for more than 90,000 classroom teachers employed by Florida public schools between the 2001-02 and 2006-07 school years, roughly 20,000 of whom left the classroom during that time. A majority of those leaving the classroom remained employed by public school districts. Among teachers in grades 4-8 leaving for other…

  10. Middle School Concept Helps High-Poverty Schools Become High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…

  11. Dance and Cheerleading as Competitive Sports: Making a Case for OCR Sport Recognition & NCAA Emerging Sport Designation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennefer, April; Sowder, Kristina; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Easterly, Debra M.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, Idaho State University engaged a nationwide study to investigate the prevalence of dance and cheerleading programs among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) D-I schools. The goal of the study was to build a case for Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and NCAA sport recognition and designation. The study…

  12. Graduate Assessment Survey Report Summary, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This 2001-02 report from Santa Fe Community College (SFCC), Florida, rates student perceptions and opinions of SFCCs classrooms, courses, instructors, academic resources, student services, overall college atmosphere, and cultural atmosphere. Results of the research include the following: (1) of the 2,499 students who responded, 2,229 (89.2%) rated…

  13. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  14. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  15. A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools. REL 2015-068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study using the Florida Department of Education staffing database to describe the demographic make-up, Florida Educator Certificate coverages, career paths from 2001/02 to 2011/12, and evaluation ratings of Florida's educational leaders (i.e., assistant principals and principals) in the 2011/12…

  16. Trends in the Participation and Performance of Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Quenemoen, Rachel; Altman, Jason; Cuthbert, Marge

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the participation and performance trends over time for students with disabilities, progressing from school year 2001-02, a base year for determining AYP goals under NCLB, through school year 2004-05, the third year that states reported after the NCLB baseline year (VanGetson & Thurlow, 2007). Within this…

  17. When Do Secondary School Graduates Go on to Post-Secondary Education? Research Question 2. Student Transition Project Highlights

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heslop, Joanne

    2006-01-01

    The topic of this newsletter is Student Transitions Project Research Question #2: What is the nature and distribution of the transition of students from the kindergarten to Grade 12 (K-12) education system into B.C. public post-secondary institutions over a multi-year period? (For secondary school graduates of 2001/02 to 2003/04 and post-secondary…

  18. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  19. Teaching Science On-Line: A Reflection on a Year's Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bentley, Michael L.

    This paper describes how one university professor came to recognize that a computer-mediated learning environment can effectively facilitate student knowledge construction. During the 2001-02 academic year, he taught several online, undergraduate science courses at two different institutions. Delivery, which was entirely online, used e-mail, drop…

  20. A Profile of the American High School Sophomore in 2002. Initial Results From the Base Year of the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-338

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingels, Steven J.; Burns, Laura J.; Charleston, Stephanie; Chen, Xianglei; Cataldi, Emily Forrest; Owings, Jeffrey A.

    2005-01-01

    The data for this report describe the tested achievement and educational status of a cohort based on a nationally representative probability sample of 15,362 10th-graders in 752 public, Catholic, and other private schools, who were studied in the spring term of the 2001-02 school year. The base-year data collection for the Education Longitudinal…

  1. Title I Migrant Education Program, National Trends Report: 1998-2001. Doc # 2003-16

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes Title I, Part C, Consolidated Performance Report information for the Migrant Education Program (MEP) submitted by the states for the 2000-01 school year. Also presented are national trends on participation in the MEP for the three years spanning 1998-99 through 2000-01. In addition to providing a national description of the…

  2. 10 CFR 501.122 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 501.122 Section 501.122 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY-CONTINUED ALTERNATE FUELS ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURES AND SANCTIONS Requests for Stay § 501.122 Contents. (a) A petition for a stay shall contain a full and complete statement of all facts believed to...

  3. 10 CFR 1003.44 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 1003.44 Section 1003.44 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Stays § 1003.44 Contents. (a) An Application for Stay shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant...

  4. 10 CFR 1003.35 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 1003.35 Section 1003.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Appeals § 1003.35 Contents. (a) The appeal shall contain a concise statement of grounds upon which it is brought and...

  5. 10 CFR 1003.75 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 1003.75 Section 1003.75 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Private Grievances and Redress § 1003.75 Contents. The petition shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant...

  6. 10 CFR 1003.54 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 1003.54 Section 1003.54 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Modification or Rescission § 1003.54 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of...

  7. 10 CFR 1003.24 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Contents. 1003.24 Section 1003.24 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) OFFICE OF HEARINGS AND APPEALS PROCEDURAL REGULATIONS Exceptions § 1003.24 Contents. (a) The application shall contain a full and complete statement of all relevant facts...

  8. Elementary/Secondary School Teaching Among Recent College Graduates: 1994 and 2001. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2005-161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henke, Robin R.; Peter, Katharin; Li, Xiaojie; Geis, Sonya; Griffith, James

    2005-01-01

    New bachelor's degree recipients represent a small but essential component of the U.S. elementary/secondary teacher workforce. This study uses data from the 2000/01 Baccalaureate and Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:2000/01), the spring 2001 follow-up of bachelor's degree recipients who were first surveyed as part of the 1999-2000 National …

  9. Computer Technology in the Public School Classroom: Teacher Perspectives. Issue Brief. NCES 2005-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanahan, Lawrence; Boysen, Janet

    2005-01-01

    This Issue Brief uses data from the 2000-01 Teacher Follow-up Survey (TFS) to examine teacher views on the technology in their classrooms. Specifically, teachers reported which types of technology they considered essential for teaching and whether they felt such technology was sufficiently available in their classrooms. In 2000-01, technologies…

  10. 7 CFR 3200.7 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Title. 3200.7 Section 3200.7 Agriculture Regulations... PERSONAL PROPERTY § 3200.7 Title. Title to excess personal property obtained under Part 3200 will... will give preference to the Federal agency that will retain title in the Government....

  11. 7 CFR 2812.6 - Title.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2000-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2000-01-01 2000-01-01 false Title. 2812.6 Section 2812.6 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture-(Continued) OFFICE OF OPERATIONS,DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...) § 2812.6 Title. Title to excess personal property/equipment donated under this Part will...

  12. How Long do Students Take to Graduate in the State University System? Information Brief, Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It has been found that students who took the traditional path to a bachelor degree--those who started and finished at the same institution--averaged 4.3 years to complete their degrees at State University System (SUS) institutions in 2002-03. 12.4% took 3.5 years or less, 54.2% took 4 years or less, 69.5% took 4.5 years or less, and 86.5% took 5…

  13. The IES Annual Graduate Review, 2002 Update. Part 1: Higher Education: The New Status Quo and Part 2: Graduates' Early Careers. IES Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    S., Perryman

    Part 1 identifies the far-reaching changes to higher education (HE) in Great Britain during the 1990s. It shows that HE has settled into a new status quo, with a market for new graduates in 2001-02. Findings indicate that around 37 percent of 18-year-olds take part in full-time, further, or higher education; the participation rate at age 19 is now…

  14. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    The number of English language learners has grown in the Northeast & Islands Region over the past decade. While the total student population shrank 3.5 percent between 2001/02 and 2009/10, the population of English language learner students grew 7.6 percent and now constitutes 6.1 percent of students in the region, up from 5.5 percent in…

  15. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  16. Physics Students from Abroad: Monitoring the Continuing Impact of Visa Problems. AIP Report, Number R-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the US government set in motion a broad set of measures whose aim was to screen foreign applicants for entrance into the US, to try to identify those who it was felt might attempt to carry out further attacks. Since the 2001-02 academic year had already begun in most schools, and since it took time for…

  17. Access: Net Prices, Affordability, and Equity at a Highly Selective College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    With financial aid data on over 14,000 aided students at Williams College for the past 14 years, we can describe how much students actually paid to go to this highly selective and expensive school--their net prices--across income levels and over time. In 2001-02, the last year of our data, aided students across the five income quintiles of the US…

  18. The 2012 AS&U 100

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School & University, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The first decade of the 21st century has been one of slow growth for education institutions, and that is reflected in the enrollment numbers of the nation's 100 largest school districts. The combined enrollment of those districts grew nearly 21 percent from 1990-91 to 2000-01; from 2000-01 to 2010-11, the student population in those districts'…

  19. Infrared variability properties of the blazar 3C 279

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, J. H.

    1999-10-01

    The long-term (about 27 years) near-infrared K light curve is constructed from the published literature for the blazar 3C 279. The Jurkevich method is adopted to analyse the periodicity, and a strong 7.1+/-0.44yr period is found, suggesting that the next near-infrared outburst will occur in 2002/03. The correlation between colour index (spectral index) and magnitude is discussed, and a significant correlation between (J-H) and K is found with a correlation coefficient r=0.72 (p=2.0x10^-10), which is consistent with Brown et al.'s proposal.

  20. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  1. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  2. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500-m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5-km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  3. Multiple Perspectives on Charter School Accountability: Research Findings from Charter Schools and Charter School Authorizers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lee; Finnigan, Kara; Price, Tiffany; Adelman, Nancy; Cotton, Lynyonne; Donnelly, Mary Beth

    This paper presents national 2000-01 data from charter schools and charter-school authorizers in the United States regarding the various stages of the accountability process: the charter application stage, the monitoring stage, and the sanctions stage. The larger accountability context of public schools and its impact on charter schools are also…

  4. Teachers, Teaching and Educational Exclusion: Pupil Referral Units and Pedagogic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meo, Analia; Parker, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the findings of a qualitative research project carried out in a UK Pupil Referral Unit during the 2000/01 academic year. It describes and analyses the strategies adopted by a small group of Behaviour Support Service teachers in order to achieve their everyday occupational goals. It is argued that despite their commitment to the…

  5. Fiscal Profiles, 2000: The Tenth Annual in a Series of Factsheets about the Financing of California Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento.

    This report contains and analyzes statistical information about the financing of California postsecondary education from 1965-66 through 2000-01. It also presents financial and enrollment information on California public elementary and secondary education as well as information on state government in general. An introduction presents changes in…

  6. Evaluation of the School Breakfast Program Pilot Project: Findings from the First Year of Implementation. Nutrition Assistance Program Report Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Joan E.; Bernstein, Lawrence S.; Crepinsek, May Kay; Daft, Lynn M.; Murphy, J. Michael

    In 1998, Congress authorized implementation of a 3-year pilot breakfast program involving 4,300 students in elementary schools in 6 school districts representing a range of economic and demographic characteristics. The program began in the 2000-01 school year. This lengthy report presents the findings from the pilot's first year. The study had two…

  7. Following-Up with Former Students: A Summary of Seven Program Studies. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glyer-Culver, Betty

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 2000-01 Academic Year, the Los Rios Community College District Office of Institutional Research (IR) began a collaboration with Occupational and Area Deans as well as Faculty from each of the four Los Rios Colleges located in Sacramento, CA (American River College, Cosumnes River College, Folsom Lake College and Sacramento City…

  8. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  9. The High-Skilled VET Practitioner: Interim Findings from the Evaluation of the Long-Term Impacts of the Framing the Future Projects in 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, John; Wood, Sarah; Young, Susan

    Research was conducted in 2000-01 on the long-term impacts of the 200 projects funded by Australia's Framing the Future in 1999 and of the 250 conducted in 2000. Two main research methodologies (case study investigations and a survey) were used for the study. Case study investigations were conducted with the Deaf Education Network in Sydney; South…

  10. School Choice 2001: What's Happening in the States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffit, Robert E., Ed.; Garrett, Jennifer J., Ed.; Smith, Janice A., Ed.

    This publication tracks U.S. school choice efforts, examining research on their results. It includes: current public school data on expenditures, schools, and teachers for 2000-01 from a report by the National Education Association; a link to the states' own report cards on how their schools are performing; current private school information from…

  11. SOUTH FAÇADE OF THE GRANARY FROM PARKING LOT. (Vinyl windows ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SOUTH FAÇADE OF THE GRANARY FROM PARKING LOT. (Vinyl windows and a door were added to the granary in 2000-01 along with the patio and landscaping. The workshop and cattle pasture can be seen behind the granary.) - Jenne Farm, Granary, 538 Engle Road, Coupeville, Island County, WA

  12. Endangered Species

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowden-Racette, Kellie

    2005-01-01

    Male educators, especially at the elementary school level, are a shrinking minority. Only 9 percent of the country's elementary school teachers are male, according to the National Education Association's (NEA) 2003 report "Status of the American Public School Teacher." Although the NEA's statistics were drawn from the 2000-01 school year, they're…

  13. Trends in Undergraduate Economics Degrees, 1991 to 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegfried, John J.

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author reports the percentage of undergraduate degrees in economics from 1991 to 2004. The explosive growth from academic year 2001 (2000-01) through 2003 in undergraduate economics degrees awarded by American colleges and universities, particularly large state universities, moderated a bit in 2004. Virtually all of the 27…

  14. The Challenge of Compliance: Food Security in Rural Households Affected by Welfare Reform. Food Assistance Needs of the South's Vulnerable Population.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Pamela A.; O'Neil, Carol; Tiller, Vicky V.; Smith, Jennifer

    A study examined welfare reform and food security issues. Interviews were conducted with 32 rural Louisiana women in 1997-98 when they were receiving welfare payments, in 1998-99 when they were in transition, and in 2000-01 when none received Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF). Most women were African-American; about half had not…

  15. Graduate School Choice: An Examination of Individual and Institutional Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    English, David; Umbach, Paul D.

    2016-01-01

    Using the 2000/01 Baccalaureate & Beyond Longitudinal Study (B&B:00/01), this paper employs multilevel modeling to test a conceptual model of graduate school choice that draws significantly from human capital theory while incorporating the salient concepts of cultural and social capital. The model posits that the graduate school choice…

  16. 78 FR 35110 - Airworthiness Directives; Piper Aircraft, Inc. Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-12

    ... rulemaking (NPRM) to amend 14 CFR part 39 to supersede AD 82-16-05 R1, amendment 39-5278 (51 FR 11707, April... September 18, 2012 (77 FR 57534). The NPRM included a detailed inspection that involved disassembling the v... part surfaces and tight cracks corrode faster than open surfaces.) The AD, 2000-01-16 (65 FR...

  17. County Maps of the English Learner (EL) Population. Fast Facts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of English Language Acquisition, US Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Office of English Language Acquisition (OELA) has synthesized key data on English learners (ELs) into two-page PDF sheets, by topic, with graphics, plus key contacts. The maps presented depict the EL population by county--changes in their numbers from SY 2000-01 to SY 2011-12, and the total number and percentage of all students identified as…

  18. Rising to the Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agron, Joe

    2001-01-01

    Presents data on college spending for maintenance and facility operations for the 2000-01 school year. Data reveal a greater allocation of maintenance and operations being funded by colleges. Funding comparisons per student and per square foot of building maintained are provided along with data on median salaries and personnel allocation. (GR)

  19. Learning English in Rural America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreck, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Today, English language learners (ELLs)--students whose primary language is other than English--are the fastest-growing major school population in the United States. Between 2000-01 and 2010-11, the number of these students, whose level of English proficiency is not sufficient to support learning in a regular English language classroom, rose 18…

  20. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses U.S. Supreme Court cases during the 2000-01 term. Focuses on federalism, such as the case Solid Waste Agency v. Army Corps of Engineers, No. 99-1178, and cases related to the U.S. Bill of Rights First Amendment, such as United States and Department of Agriculture v. United Foods, Inc., No. 00-276. (CMK)

  1. 78 FR 22802 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... searching for Docket No. FAA-2013-0331. Other Relevant Rulemaking AD 2000-01-05, Amendment 39-11502 (65 FR... terminating modification. AD 2000-02-22, Amendment 39-11540 (65 FR 5222, February 3, 2000), for certain Boeing... 94-17-03, Amendment 39-8998 (59 FR 41647, August 15, 1994), for certain Boeing Model 767...

  2. The Homies in Silicon Valley: Figuring Styles of Life and Work in the Information Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marez, Curtis

    2006-01-01

    The dot-com crash of 2000-01 provides unique opportunities for historicizing what Manuel Castells calls the information age. This age is characterized by the dominance of information capital, a regime of accumulation organized around networks of computers and other information technologies whose production is partly centered in Northern…

  3. The Indigenous World, 2000/2001 = El mundo indigena, 2000/2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molbech, Anette, Ed.

    This annual publication (published separately in English and Spanish) examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2000-01. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America; Australia and…

  4. Are Attendance Gains Sustained? A Follow-Up on the Educational and Child Welfare Outcomes of Students with Child Welfare Involvement for Educational Neglect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Anita; Zuel, Timothy; Swanson, Mira

    2011-01-01

    This study reexamined the school attendance and child welfare involvement of students for whom a report of educational neglect was received by child welfare during the 2000-01 school year in one midwestern state. The majority (71.9 percent) of these students experienced a marked improvement in their school attendance in the year following their…

  5. A Multiracial Society with Segregated Schools: Are We Losing the Dream?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankenberg, Erica; Lee, Chungmei; Orfield, Gary

    This report describes patterns of racial enrollment and segregation in U.S. public schools at the national, regional, state, and district levels using the 2000-01 NCES Common Core of Data. Trends in desegregation and resegregation over the last one-third century are also examined. Whites are the most segregated group, attending schools that are,…

  6. Knocking on the Door: Barriers to Welfare and Other Assistance for Teen Parents. A Three-City Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Deborah L.; Marcy, Helene M.

    This study, conducted in 2000-01, investigated young mothers' experiences with the receipt of Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), focusing on whether changes in the TANF application process for teen parents were needed, whether the TANF system inappropriately led to teen exits, and whether local welfare offices were effectively…

  7. Destination Graduation: Sixth Grade Early Warning Indicators for Baltimore City Schools. Their Prevalence and Impact

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltimore Education Research Consortium, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Even with the declining number of dropouts in Baltimore City, a focus on dropout prevention is essential. Recent research has emphasized the utility of an early warning system to inform prevention efforts. With this in mind, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium examined the 2000-01 cohort of sixth grade students (Class of 2007) from the…

  8. Broadening of neutralization activity to directly block a dominant antibody-driven SARS-coronavirus evolution pathway.

    PubMed

    Sui, Jianhua; Aird, Daniel R; Tamin, Azaibi; Murakami, Akikazu; Yan, Meiying; Yammanuru, Anuradha; Jing, Huaiqi; Kan, Biao; Liu, Xin; Zhu, Quan; Yuan, Qing-An; Adams, Gregory P; Bellini, William J; Xu, Jianguo; Anderson, Larry J; Marasco, Wayne A

    2008-11-01

    Phylogenetic analyses have provided strong evidence that amino acid changes in spike (S) protein of animal and human SARS coronaviruses (SARS-CoVs) during and between two zoonotic transfers (2002/03 and 2003/04) are the result of positive selection. While several studies support that some amino acid changes between animal and human viruses are the result of inter-species adaptation, the role of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in driving SARS-CoV evolution, particularly during intra-species transmission, is unknown. A detailed examination of SARS-CoV infected animal and human convalescent sera could provide evidence of nAb pressure which, if found, may lead to strategies to effectively block virus evolution pathways by broadening the activity of nAbs. Here we show, by focusing on a dominant neutralization epitope, that contemporaneous- and cross-strain nAb responses against SARS-CoV spike protein exist during natural infection. In vitro immune pressure on this epitope using 2002/03 strain-specific nAb 80R recapitulated a dominant escape mutation that was present in all 2003/04 animal and human viruses. Strategies to block this nAb escape/naturally occurring evolution pathway by generating broad nAbs (BnAbs) with activity against 80R escape mutants and both 2002/03 and 2003/04 strains were explored. Structure-based amino acid changes in an activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) "hot spot" in a light chain CDR (complementarity determining region) alone, introduced through shuffling of naturally occurring non-immune human VL chain repertoire or by targeted mutagenesis, were successful in generating these BnAbs. These results demonstrate that nAb-mediated immune pressure is likely a driving force for positive selection during intra-species transmission of SARS-CoV. Somatic hypermutation (SHM) of a single VL CDR can markedly broaden the activity of a strain-specific nAb. The strategies investigated in this study, in particular the use of structural information in

  9. Decline in perfluorooctane sulfonate and perfluorooctanoate serum concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Toms, L.-M.L.; Thompson, J.; Rotander, A.; Hobson, P.; Calafat, A.M.; Kato, K.; Ye, X.; Broomhall, S.; Harden, F.; Mueller, J.F.

    2016-01-01

    Some perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) have become widespread pollutants detected in human and wildlife samples worldwide. The main objective of this study was to assess temporal trends of PFAS concentrations in human blood in Australia over the last decade (2002–2011), taking into consideration age and sex trends. Pooled human sera from 2002/03 (n = 26); 2008/09 (n = 24) and 2010/11 (n = 24) from South East Queensland, Australia were obtained from de-identified surplus pathology samples and compared with samples collected previously from 2006/07 (n = 84). A total of 9775 samples in 158 pools were available for an assessment of PFASs. Stratification criteria included sex and age: <16 years (2002/03 only); 0–4 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 5–15 (2006/07, 2008/09, 2010/11); 16–30; 31–45; 46–60; and >60 years (all collection periods). Sera were analyzed using on-line solid-phase extraction coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography–isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) was detected in the highest concentrations ranging from 5.3–19.2 ng/ml (2008/09) to 4.4–17.4 ng/ml (2010/11). Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) was detected in the next highest concentration ranging from 2.8–7.3 ng/ml (2008/09) to 3.1–6.5 ng/ml (2010/11). All other measured PFASs were detected at concentrations <1 ng/ml with the exception of perfluorohexane sulfonate which ranged from 1.2–5.7 ng/ml (08/09) and 1.4–5.4 ng/ml (10/11). The mean concentrations of both PFOS and PFOA in the 2010/11 period compared to 2002/03 were lower for all adult age groups by 56%. For 5–15 year olds, the decrease was 66% (PFOS) and 63% (PFOA) from 2002/03 to 2010/11. For 0–4 year olds the decrease from 2006/07 (when data were first available for this age group) was 50% (PFOS) and 22% (PFOA). This study provides strong evidence for decreasing serum PFOS and PFOA concentrations in an Australian population from 2002 through 2011. Age trends

  10. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  11. Post-Annealing Ex-Vessel Dosimetry at Loviisa 1 - AN International Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serén, Tom; Hógel, Josef; Voorbraak, Willem P.

    2003-06-01

    In order to improve the assessment of the post-annealing neutron exposure an ex-vessel (cavity) irradiation was carried out during cycle 22 (1998-99) at unit 1 of the Loviisa NPP (type VVER 440) in Finland. A dosimeter holder rack was designed and built by Škoda JS a.s., Czech Republic. Dosimeter sets were provided by VTT, Škoda and JRC/NRG Petten, the Netherlands. Some of the dosimeters were counted at Škoda and NRG Petten in addition to VTT. The large number of reactions used provided a good basis for spectrum adjustment. The results of the intercomparison are presented as well as a critical assessment of the materials and methods used. A similar irradiation is planned for Loviisa unit 2 during 2002-03.

  12. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  13. Bubble, critical zone and the crash of Royal Ahold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broekstra, Gerrit; Sornette, Didier; Zhou, Wei-Xing

    2005-02-01

    We find that the seed of the 2002/03 crisis of the Dutch supermarket giant AHOLD was planted in 1996. We have adapted Weidlich's theory of opinion formation to describe the formation of buy or sell decisions among investors, based on a competition between the mechanisms of herding and of personal opinion opposing the herd. Using our identification of a “critical zone” starting in mid-1997 describing the maturation of a systemic instability forewarning of an inevitable crash fueled by raising expectations of investors to maintain strong herding pressures, our study opens the possibility of developing early warning signals but also suggests to top management ways of dealing with the coming crisis.

  14. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  15. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  16. Element Abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays with Atomic Number (Z) in the Interval 30 is less than or equal to Z is less than or equal to 40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E.; deNolfo, G.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J.; Rauch, B. F.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results on the elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays with atomic number, Z, greater than 30, and comparison of these observations with abundances expected from galactic propagation of various suggested models of the cosmic-ray source. We combine preliminary results from the 2003-04 flight of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) cosmic-ray detector with previously reported results from the 2001-02 flight. This instrument flew over Antarctica for nearly 32 days at a mean atmospheric depth of 5.2 mb in December 2001 - January 2002. At the time of submission of this abstract, January 8, 2004, TIGER was again in the air over Antarctica having completed 22 days of an expected 30day flight at a mean atmospheric depth of about 4 nb, Data from the first flight demonstrated excellent resolution of individual elements, and we expect similar resolution from the second flight.

  17. An analysis of poisoning deaths in Manipal, India.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Manoj Kumar; Kumar, Virendra; Bastia, Binay Kumar; Arun, Mohanram

    2004-08-01

    To determine the various factors involved in poisoning deaths, a 10-y retrospective review of 335 cases were carried out. There was an increasing trend in number of poisoning deaths from 1993-94 to 1999-2000, followed by a decline trend the last 2 y (2001-02). Ninety-one percent of the deaths were due to self-poisoning, with 77.6% of the fatalities due to insecticide consumption. Most cases occurred during winter and in the victim's rural home. Amongst all the poisoning deaths, 249 were males and 86 were females, most in the of 20-29 y age group. Suggestions have been made for the prevention of insecticide poisoning. PMID:15303397

  18. Influence of observers and stream flow on northern two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) relative abundance estimates in Acadia and Shenandoah National Parks, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, J.B.; Bank, M.S.; Loftin, C.S.; Jung Brown, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of observers and stream flow on Northern Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) counts in streams in Acadia (ANP) and Shenandoah National Parks (SNP). We counted salamanders in 22 ANP streams during high flow (May to June 2002) and during low flow (July 2002). We also counted salamanders in SNP in nine streams during high flow (summer 2003) and 11 streams during low flow (summers 2001?02, 2004). In 2002, we used a modified cover-controlled active search method with a first and second observer. In succession, observers turned over 100 rocks along five 1-m belt transects across the streambed. The difference between observers in total salamander counts was not significant. We counted fewer E. b. bislineata during high flow conditions, confirming that detection of this species is reduced during high flow periods and that assessment of stream salamander relative abundance is likely more reliable during low or base flow conditions.

  19. Enough! or too much. What is 'excessive' kava use in Arnhem Land?

    PubMed

    Clough, Alan

    2003-03-01

    The objective of the study was to describe parameters for use in monitoring health, social and economic effects of kava use in Arnhem Land Aboriginal communities in the Northern Territory (NT). Kava has been used mainly in eight communities (population > 200), and in smaller associated homeland areas since 1982 with a total population of approximately 6800, using cross-sectional description and comparison using data from three kava-using communities. Interview data combined with health worker assessments were compiled using: (1) a sample (n=136) aged 16-34 years in one community in 2001-02; (2) a sample (n=101) aged 16 years and over in 2000 where physical assessments and biochemical and haematological data were also collected; (3) participant-observation in one community (133 people aged 18 years and over) during 1989-91. Kava, supplied illegally, was still being used in Arnhem Land in 2001-02. In 2000 dermopathy characteristic of heavy use, abnormally low body mass index (BMI), low blood lymphocytes and abnormally high gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) occurred more frequently with increased kava use. These acute effects emerge at average consumption levels of from 310-440 g/week of kava powder. When kava users in one community began to consume it at an average of 240-425 g/week from mid-1990, 19% of available cash resources were spent on kava with 11% of cash resources leaving the local community economy. The proportion of men drinking kava reached 70% and women 62% from mid-1990, with 20% of the population spending unprecedented amounts of time (14 + hours/week) in activities where kava was consumed. These parameters may be useful to monitor kava's adverse health, social and economic effects. Their association with increased kava use suggests that approaches to minimizing harm from its abuse may begin fruitfully with controlling supply. PMID:12745358

  20. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants. PMID:25004854

  1. Investigating Student Attitudes and Performance in a Revised Introductory Physics Sequence II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crowder, Juliette; Martinez, Aramis; Lopez, Ramon

    2001-10-01

    Research shows that the traditional lecture-and-lab format is not the most effective way to introduce students to calculus-based physics. Accordingly, the curriculum for UTEP's introductory calculus based physics courses was revised for the 2000-01 academic year to include techniques that have proven to improve students' understanding of physics. This paper will focus on student attitudes and retention rates.

  2. Chandra HETGS Observes Tortured Coronae in the Rapid Braking Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayres, T. R.; Osten, R. A.; Brown, A.; Gagne, M.; Linsky, J. L.

    2002-05-01

    We have obtained Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer observations of five moderate mass (2--3 Msun) giants straddling the portion of the Hertzsprung gap where early-G III stars---evolving rapidly toward the red giant branch---suffer strong rotational braking and dramatic changes in their X-ray emitting coronae. G0 III giants prior to the braking epoch are fast rotators (υ rot ~ 50-100 km s-1) and display very hot (T> 107 K) coronae, but nevertheless have curiously depressed X-ray luminosities. The post-braking giants are slow rotators (υ rot< 10 km s-1) with cooler coronae (T ~ 106.8 K), but nevertheless manage a healthy level of X-ray emission. We believe the differences reflect the violent replacement of a ``fossil'' magnetosphere---inherited from the late-B or early-A MS progenitor---by a solar-like regenerative magnetic dynamo. The latter becomes dominant when the initially shallow surface convection in yellow giants at the blue edge of the Hertzsprung gap gives way to deep convective layers as the stars evolve to the red edge. Three of the targets were observed in Cycle 2: 31 Com (G0 III) on 2001-03-12 [132.0 ks]; HR 9024 (G1 III) on 2001-08-11 [96.9 ks]; and μ Vel (G5 III) on 2001-09-24 [19.9 ks], 2001-10-29 [58.1 ks], and 2001-12-18 [57.7 ks]. (The first μ Vel observation was scheduled for 80 ks, but was cut short by a solar flare. The second pointing was intended to complete the exposure, but was affected by ``threshold crossing plane'' latchup in the ACIS CCDs, and was repeated two months later, accounting for the third pointing.) The remaining two stars are: Cycle 3 target 24 UMa (G4 III; ~50 ks pointings on 2002-03-26 and 2002-03-29); and GTO target β Ceti (K0 III) observed on 2001-06-29 [87.5 ks]. We describe the HETGS spectra and our efforts to infer plasma conditions (temperature/density models), chemical fractionation, gas dynamics (through emission line Doppler shifts), and coronal variability. [-3mm] This work was supported

  3. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  4. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  5. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  6. Sediment transport by sea ice in the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas: Increasing importance due to changing ice conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eicken, H.; Gradinger, R.; Gaylord, A.; Mahoney, A.; Rigor, I.; Melling, H.

    2005-12-01

    Sediment-laden sea ice is widespread over the shallow, wide Siberian Arctic shelves, with off-shelf export from the Laptev and East Siberian Seas contributing substantially to the Arctic Ocean's sediment budget. By contrast, the North American shelves, owing to their narrow width and greater water depths, have not been deemed as important for basin-wide sediment transport by sea ice. Observations over the Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02 revealed the widespread occurrence of sediment-laden ice over an area of more than 100,000 km 2 between 68 and 74°N and 155 and 170°W. Ice stratigraphic studies indicate that sediment inclusions were associated with entrainment of frazil ice into deformed, multiple layers of rafted nilas, indicative of a flaw-lead environment adjacent to the landfast ice of the Chukchi and Beaufort Seas. This is corroborated by buoy trajectories and satellite imagery indicating entrainment in a coastal polynya in the eastern Chukchi Sea in February of 2002 as well as formation of sediment-laden ice along the Beaufort Sea coast as far eastward as the Mackenzie shelf. Moored upward-looking sonar on the Mackenzie shelf provides further insight into the ice growth and deformation regime governing sediment entrainment. Analysis of Radarsat Synthetic Aperture (SAR) imagery in conjunction with bathymetric data help constrain the water depth of sediment resuspension and subsequent ice entrainment (>20 m for the Chukchi Sea). Sediment loads averaged at 128 t km -2, with sediment occurring in layers of roughly 0.5 m thickness, mostly in the lower ice layers. The total amount of sediment transported by sea ice (mostly out of the narrow zone between the landfast ice edge and waters too deep for resuspension and entrainment) is at minimum 4×10 6 t in the sampling area and is estimated at 5-8×10 6 t over the entire Chukchi and Beaufort shelves in 2001/02, representing a significant term in the sediment budget of the western Arctic Ocean. Recent

  7. Priority setting in health authorities: a novel approach to a historical activity.

    PubMed

    Mitton, Craig; Patten, San; Waldner, Howard; Donaldson, Cam

    2003-11-01

    As resources in health care are scarce, health authorities and other health organizations are charged with determining how best to spend limited resources. While a number of formal approaches to priority setting within health authorities have been used internationally, there has been limited success with such activity, particularly across major service portfolios. This participatory action research project instituted a novel priority setting framework, coined macro-marginal analysis (MMA), in a fully integrated urban health region in Alberta, Canada. The focus of MMA is on identifying areas for service growth and areas for resource release, then determining, based on pre-defined, locally generated criteria, if actual shifts or re-allocation of resources should occur. For fiscal year 2002/03, the Calgary Health Region identified over 40 M dollars in resource releases (approximately 3% of the total budget), which were made available for servicing the deficit, and more importantly for our purposes, re-investing in service growth areas. The MMA framework is pragmatic in nature and has the ability to incorporate relevant evidence directly into the decision-making process. This work constitutes a significant advancement in health economics, and responds where previous priority setting approaches have failed in that it allows decision-makers to achieve genuine re-allocation of resources with the aim of improving population health or better meeting other important criteria. PMID:12948574

  8. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F2 and F 4 , 30 progenies F 2:3 , 30 progenies BC 1 F 2:3 and 30 progenies BC 2 F 2:3 , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F 3 or F 4 ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels. PMID:21637688

  9. Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

    2005-07-01

    The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

  10. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  11. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  12. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  13. Dynamicimagestoaddressconceptualnodes about mechanical waves: Example materials and preliminary results of the experimentation of the teacher training module IMAGONDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, I.; Lombardi, S.; Monroy, G.; Sassi, E.

    2004-09-01

    In the framework of the 2002-03 project “Fisica per la Formazione Culturale - FORMazione Insegnanti" funded by Italy ministry of Education, a set of training materials, focused on mechanical waves, has been developed. The core of the materials is represented by animated images purposely designed in order to: 1) address intrinsically dynamic aspects of one-dimensional impulses/waves propagation on a string; 2) have the trainees reflect upon students' difficulties in reading/interpreting static images (as the ones which are featured in common textbooks) and animations. In this paper we discuss example materials concerning transversal impulses on strings to address conceptual nodes such as: 1) configuration of the string at a given time and its aaabstract representation; 2) displacement vs. time graph of a string element and its aaabstract representation; 3) relationships between the two aaabstract representations; 4) modelization of mechanical wave propagation in one dimension. Moreover the results of the experimentation of the training materials in the framework of the Post Graduate School to Became Physics Teacher in Secondary Schools are presented and commented.

  14. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  15. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages. PMID:17869029

  16. A Hydrometeorological Testbed For Western Water Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralph, F. M.; Reynolds, D.; Martner, B. E.; Kingsmill, D. E.; White, A. B.; Whitaker, J. S.

    2002-12-01

    Based on experience gained between 1997 and 2002 in a series of three West Coast experiments focused on improved prediction of precipitation in land-falling Pacific winter storms, NOAA is leading the creation of a regional Hydrometeorological Testbed (HMT). The goal of this effort is to advance both the understanding of fundamental physical processes influencing primarily winter-season precipitation (rain and snow) in mountainous regions, and to improve quantitative precipitation forecasting, main-stem river flood warnings and flash-flood warning lead time in such regions. The focus will be on processes spanning the weather-climate connection, from the mesoscale to tropical-extratropical connections that modulate regional short-term climate anomalies influencing precipitation. The geographic area covered by the initial HMT encompasses the flood-prone Russian River and Sacramento River watersheds in northern California. While these watersheds represent some of the greatest flood risks in the nation, the scientific and operational results developed there will have bearing on winter season hydrometeorological prediction in many other locations. These goals will be addressed through a joint effort between scientists, weather forecasters, hydrologists and forecast users that will define both the needs and methodologies to tackle this important problem. Annual field activities will begin in the winter of 2002/03, building on results from earlier studies in the region. Priorities and leveraging opportunities for wider participation in the winter 2003/04 season will be explored in upcoming planning meetings where broad input is encouraged.

  17. Types of adolescent exposure to violence as predictors of adult intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Menard, Scott; Weiss, Andrea J; Franzese, Robert J; Covey, Herbert C

    2014-04-01

    Despite evidence that exposure to violence in adolescence may be more predictive of problem behavior outcomes than exposure to violence in earlier childhood, there is limited research on the relationship of adolescent exposure to violence on adult intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetration and victimization. This study examines the relationship of adolescent physical abuse victimization, witnessing parental violence, and adolescent exposure to violence in the community, to perpetration of and victimization by IPV in middle age. Respondents are drawn from a nationally representative longitudinal sample with data collected from 1976-77 to 2002-03, age 11-17 when first interviewed and 37-43 when last interviewed. Univariate descriptive statistics and bivariate correlations are presented, along with Heckman two-step models calculated separately for females and males. The use of the Heckman two-step model allows prediction not only of adult IPV, but also of selection out of intimate partner relationships (i.e., out of the at-risk population). For males, in the multivariate analysis, only physical abuse remains significant as a predictor. For females, adolescent exposure to violence is not predictive of adult IPV perpetration or victimization, but physical abuse is predictive of not being in the at-risk population (married or cohabiting). The combined index of adolescent exposure to violence is significant for both females and males in predicting selection into marriage or cohabitation, and at least marginally significant in predicting IPV. PMID:24594015

  18. Comparison of AMSR-E and SSM/I snow parameter retrievals over the Ob river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mognard, N.M.; Grippa, M.; LeToan, T.; Kelly, R.E.J.; Chang, A.T.C.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) and from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are used to analyse the evolution of the snow pack in the Ob river basin during the snow season of 2002-03. The Ob river is the biggest Russian river with respect to its watershed area (2 975 000 km2). The Ob originates in the Altai mountains and flows northward across the vast West Siberian lowland towards the Arctic Ocean. The majority of snow cover is contained in the lowlands rather than in mountainous regions and persists for six months or more. During the snow season, surface air temperatures are very cold. Therefore, the combination of cold dry snow and large areas of uniform topography is ideal for snowpack extent and water equivalent retrievals from passive microwave observations. The thermal gradient through the snow pack is estimated and used to model the growth of the snow grain size and to compute the evolution of the passive microwave derived snow depth over the region. A comparison between the AMSR-E and SSM/I estimates is performed and the differences between the snow parameters from the two satellite instruments are analysed.

  19. Shedding New Light on Exploding Stars: Terascale Simulations of Nuetrino-Dreiven Supernovas and Their Nucleosynthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis C. Smolarski, S.J.

    2004-11-10

    Project Abstract This project was a continuation of work begun under a subcontract issued off of TSI-DOE Grant 1528746, awarded to the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign. Dr. Anthony Mezzacappa is the Principal Investigator on the Illinois award. A separate award was issued to Santa Clara University to continue the collaboration during the time period May 2003 ? 2004. Smolarski continued to work on preconditioner technology and its interface with various iterative methods. He worked primarily with F. Dough Swesty (SUNY-Stony Brook) in continuing software development started in the 2002-03 academic year. Special attention was paid to the development and testing of difference sparse approximate inverse preconditioners and their use in the solution of linear systems arising from radiation transport equations. The target was a high performance platform on which efficient implementation is a critical component of the overall effort. Smolarski also focused on the integration of the adaptive iterative algorithm, Chebycode, developed by Tom Manteuffel and Steve Ashby and adapted by Ryan Szypowski for parallel platforms, into the radiation transport code being developed at SUNY-Stony Brook.

  20. Tracking health care costs: hospital care key cost driver in 2000.

    PubMed

    2001-09-01

    This Data Bulletin is based on data from the Milliman USA Health Cost Index ($0 deductible), which is designed to reflect claims increases faced by private insurers; the Kaiser Family Foundation/Health Research and Educational Trust survey of employer-based health plans for 1999-2001; the KPMG survey of employer-based plans for 1991-98; the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics Employment, Hours and Earnings series to track payroll costs; and Center for Studying Health System Change 2000-01 site visits (see www.hschange.org). PMID:12580170

  1. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  2. COPD and risk of venous thromboembolism and mortality in a general population.

    PubMed

    Børvik, Trond; Brækkan, Sigrid K; Enga, Kristin; Schirmer, Henrik; Brodin, Ellen E; Melbye, Hasse; Hansen, John-Bjarne

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been scarcely studied in the general population. We aimed to investigate the association between COPD and risk of VTE and mortality in a population-based cohort.Spirometry was conducted in 8646 males and females, participating in the fifth (2001-02) and sixth (2007-08) surveys of the Tromsø Study. Incident VTE events during follow-up were registered from the date of inclusion to December 31, 2011. Cox-regression models with COPD stages and confounders as time varying covariates were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals for VTE and all-cause mortality.During a median follow-up of 6.2 years, 215 subjects developed VTE. Subjects with COPD stage III/IV had a two-fold higher risk of secondary VTE compared to subjects with normal airflow (HR 2.05, 95% CI 1.02-4.10). COPD patients, particularly those with stage III/IV disease, with VTE had a higher mortality rate than COPD patients without VTE (50.2% versus 5.6% per year).Our findings suggest that patients with severe COPD may have increased risk of secondary VTE, and that COPD patients with VTE have a higher mortality rate than COPD patients without VTE. PMID:26585434

  3. Multicentre study of acute alcohol use and non-fatal injuries: data from the WHO collaborative study on alcohol and injuries.

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Guilherme; Cherpitel, Cheryl; Orozco, Ricardo; Bond, Jason; Ye, Yu; Macdonald, Scott; Rehm, Jürgen; Poznyak, Vladimir

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the risk of non-fatal injury at low levels and moderate levels of alcohol consumption as well as the differences in risk across modes of injury and differences among alcoholics. METHODS: Data are from patients aged 18 years and older collected in 2001-02 by the WHO collaborative study on alcohol and injuries from 10 emergency departments around the world (n = 4320). We used a case-crossover method to compare the use of alcohol during the 6 hours prior to the injury with the use of alcohol during same day of the week in the previous week. FINDINGS: The risk of injury increased with consumption of a single drink (odds ratio (OR) = 3.3; 95% confidence interval = 1.9-5.7), and there was a 10-fold increase for participants who had consumed six or more drinks during the previous 6 hours. Participants who had sustained intentional injuries were at a higher risk than participants who had sustained unintentional injuries. Patients who had no symptoms of alcohol dependence had a higher OR. CONCLUSION: Since low levels of drinking were associated with an increased risk of sustaining a non-fatal injury, and patients who are not dependent on alcohol may be at higher risk of becoming injured, comprehensive strategies for reducing harm should be implemented for all drinkers seen in emergency departments. PMID:16799729

  4. Relative abundance, age, growth, and fecundity of grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus in Niantic River and Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Tomichek, Christine A.; Maynard, Tracy; Burton, Jennifer A.

    2005-04-01

    Grubby ( Myoxocephalus aenaeus, Cottidae) is a common benthic fish of inshore waters and estuaries of eastern Long Island Sound; however, little information exists on their life history or population demographics. This study utilised a long-term data series (1976-2002) to assess grubby life history and population demographics and explores trends in the Niantic River and Niantic Bay populations. In addition, we examined the age, size, and fecundity of adult grubby in 2001-02 to determine the population characteristics in the region. Mean grubby catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Niantic Bay ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1976 to 2.9 per trawl in 1984 while river CPUE ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1977 to 7.6 per trawl in 1989. Catch of grubby in bottom trawls varied seasonally with highest CPUE occurring in winter. Highest entrainment of grubby larvae occurred in 2001 while the lowest entrainment observed was in 1991. Four age classes, 0+ through III+, were derived from otolith analysis (N = 51) although length frequency analysis suggested the possibility of older fish in the population. The total number of eggs in ovaries ranged from 286 to 16 451 for grubby (N = 64) between 52 mm and 155 mm TL. Results of this study indicated a decline in abundance of adult grubby over the 26-year period, possibly related to concurrent declines in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) abundance and/or increased water temperature.

  5. Does sex of children matter? Implications for fertility in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Ali

    2009-01-01

    Preference for children of either sex is considered a constraint on fertility decline as it induces many couples to keep adding on surviving children in the hope of having a desired sex composition of children. However, preferences for children of a particular sex may differ in relation to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women, traditional values and cultural practices, such as propagating a family name, providing economic advantages, and obtaining a medium of social and economic security in times of illness, unemployment and old age. Utilizing the Pakistan Integrated Household Survey (2001-02), this paper aims at investigating the existence of sex preference and examines sex preference differentials by different attributes of women in Pakistan. The results reveal that there is a desire to have another child in the presence of all children of one sex, either sons or daughters. The desire to have a son with only or mostly daughters, however, is stronger than the desire to have a daughter with only or mostly sons. This behaviour will retard fertility decline unless there is a shift in the desire to have children of both sexes in Pakistan. PMID:18647438

  6. Geoprospection of Mound A, Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, P. M.; Schneider, K. A.; Garrison, E. G.

    2005-05-01

    Mound A, located at Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia, was the subject of a multi-sensor geoprospection study in 2001-02. Mound A, a late prehistoric mound, built by the Mississippian Culture, ca. 1250 - 1400 AD,is, due to its size, ~ 1 ha in area at the base and 20 m in height, a formidable subject for the use of shallow geoprospection techniques. Techniques used were ground radar (GPR), conductivity (EM) and electrical (resistivity) methods. Common Mid-Point (CMP) radar data produced detail on the mound interior from surface to base. Electrical pesudo-sections produced excellent detail of the mound's interior. The EM data appears relevant for only the upper half of the mound, perhaps to a depth of 10 m, and suggests significant heterogeneity in the sediment fill used in the mound's construction. Our results speak directly to the efficacy of shallow geophyscial techniques in exploring large archeological mounds and tells. Another important aspect of this study is the use of a geoprospection approach as a non-invasice methodology for characterizing culturally sensitive archaeological sites.

  7. Assessment of trophic dynamics of cephalopods and large pelagic fishes in the central North Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic ecosystems in the central North Atlantic Ocean support numerous commercially-exploited tuna, shark, and billfish species, which rely largely on cephalopod as well as fish and crustacean prey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on tuna and billfish predators as well as cephalopod prey species sampled during two research longline cruises (2001-02) to study their trophic structure. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) analyses revealed similarity in trophic position (TP) among sampled fish predator species, with large swordfish occupying the highest TP. Species with wider vertical distributions (swordfish and bigeye tuna) had higher δ15N values than species more constrained to the epipelagic zone (yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish). Analysis of tissue nitrogen isotope values showed an ontogenetic increase for swordfish and white marlin but no effects for other sampled fish species. For cephalopods as a group, δ15N increased with size. Smaller cephalopods sampled in this study had δ15N values that were about one TP below co-occurring tunas and billfishes, confirming their importance as a prey resource. Larger cephalopods had similar δ15N values to tunas and billfishes, indicating that these large cephalopods occupy a comparable TP to their fish predators. Both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of large pelagic fishes showed spatial gradients relative to conspecifics analyzed in coastal regions, which can be used to trace large scale movements.

  8. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  9. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  10. Outcome and process evaluation of a Norwegian school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention: Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM).

    PubMed

    Bere, E; Veierød, M B; Bjelland, M; Klepp, K-I

    2006-04-01

    This study reports the effect of the Fruits and Vegetables Make the Marks intervention, a school-based fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a home economics classroom component and parental involvement and encouraged participation in the Norwegian School Fruit Programme, all delivered during the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the intervention and 10 schools served as control schools. Participating pupils completed questionnaires at baseline (September 2001), at Follow-up 1 (May-June 2002) and at Follow-up 2 (May 2003). A total of 369 pupils (69%; mean age, 11.3 years at baseline) participated in all three surveys. No effect of the intervention was found for intake of fruit and vegetables eaten at school or all day, neither at Follow-up 1 nor at Follow-up 2. On analysing the effects on potential mediators, significant differences between intervention and control groups were found for Awareness of the five-a-day recommendations only. The intervention programme was rated as very good by the teachers, and the pupils reported that they enjoyed it. However, the intervention failed to change fruit and vegetable intake, probably because it did not succeed in changing the pupils' preferences for or the accessibility of fruit and vegetables--the two strongest correlates of children's fruit and vegetable intake. PMID:16219631

  11. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, David Bryan

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  12. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of humanbear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenleaf, S.S.; Matthews, S.M.; Wright, R.G.; Beecham, J.J.; Leithead, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The management of human-American black bear (Ursus americanus) conflict has been of significant concern for Yosemite National Park (YNP) personnel since the 1920s. Park managers implemented the YNP Human-Bear Management Plan in 1975 in an effort to reduce human-bear conflicts, especially in the extensively developed Yosemite Valley (YV). We used scat analysis to estimate annual and seasonal food habits of black bears in YV during 2001-02. We assessed the success of efforts to reduce the availability of anthropogenic foods, including garbage, by examining changes in the diet compared to a study from 1974-78 (Graber 1981). We also quantified consumption of non-native fruit to address its possible contribution to human-bear conflicts. The annual percent volume of human-provided food and garbage in black bear scats in YV decreased from 21% to 6% between 1978 and 2002, indicating YNP efforts have been effective. We found high use of non-native apples by bears throughout YV. Non-native food sources could be contributing to habituation and food conditioning, given their proximity to developed areas of YV. We recommend that YNP managers continue to (1) adapt and improve their management tools to address changing circumstances, (2) quantify the success of new management tools, and (3) reduce the availability of non-native food sources. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  13. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  14. YES and BEST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewald, Mary Lou

    2002-10-01

    As a land-grant institution, Auburn University is committed to serving the citizens of Alabama through extension services and outreach programs. In following this outreach focus, the College of Sciences and Mathematics (COSAM) at AU has dedicated considerable resources to science and math related K-12 outreach programs, including two of our newest student-aimed programs: Youth Experiences in Science (YES) and Alabama BEST. Youth Experiences in Science (YES) is a Saturday enrichment program for middle school students. It includes a Fall and Spring Saturday component and a Summer camp experience. Activities include: LEGO's with Computers; Blood, Diseases & Forensics; Geometry of Models & Games; GPS Mapping; Polymer Chemistry; Electronics; and Genetics. Last year (2001-02), over 400 students attended a YES program on our campus. Alabama BEST (Boosting Engineering, Science & Technology) is a middle and high school robotics competition co-sponsored by COSAM and the College of Engineering at AU. Teams of students design and build robots and compete in a game format, with a new game theme introduced each year. This year, sixty teams from across Alabama and Georgia will have six weeks to design, build and perfect their robots before competition on October 18 and 19.

  15. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  16. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  17. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in Europe--effective control requires a co-ordinated response.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Morgan, D; Brown, D

    2002-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have attracted the attention of the medical world and general public for many reasons, some based in reality and more on misinformation. They are amongst the highest profile infections in the public mind, because they are thought to be highly infectious and to kill most of their victims in a dramatic way (1,2). To add to the intrigue, mysteries remain about the source of some of the viruses involved. They emerge and re-emerge in many countries, most recently Ebola in Uganda in 2000 (3) and Gabon in 2001/02 (4), and Congo Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Kosovo (5) and Pakistan in 2001 (6). Large outbreaks have affected populations in endemic areas, living mainly in inaccessible areas or refugee camps where living conditions are very difficult. Poorly resourced medical facilities have played a role in amplifying transmission and infection control measures have been difficult or virtually impossible to establish. These viruses are likely to remain a threat until the reservoir is identified and as long as endemic areas are afflicted with ecological change, poverty and social instability. Recent events since September 11 2001 remind us of their potential to be used as weapons, and that fear can present a risk to public health. PMID:12631941

  18. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  19. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  20. Use of Other Tobacco Products among U.S. Adult Cigarette Smokers: Prevalence, Trends and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Backinger, Cathy L.; Fagan, Pebbles; O’Connell, Mary E.; Grana, Rachel; Lawrence, Deirdre; Bishop, Jennifer Anne; Gibson, James Todd

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the trends in concurrent use of cigarettes and other tobacco and sociodemographic variables associated with concurrent use among adult cigarette smokers in the United States. Data from the 1995/96, 1998, 2000, and 2001/02 Tobacco Use Supplements to the Current Population Survey were used to estimate concurrent use of tobacco among cigarette smokers among adults ages 18 years and older (n for all 4 survey groups = 552,804). Concurrent use of tobacco fluctuated over the survey periods for current smokers and ranged from 3.7% in 1995/96 to 7.9% in 1998. Results from the multivariate logistic regression indicate that male current, daily, and intermittent smokers had substantially higher odds of concurrent use (OR = 12.9, 11.7, 17.2, respectively) than their female counterparts. Age, race/ethnicity, geographic region, income, and survey years were significantly associated with concurrent use among current and daily smokers; for intermittent smokers, these variables and occupation were significantly associated with concurrent use. The strongest correlates for multiple tobacco use among cigarettes smokers were being male and Non-Hispanic White. These factors should be considered when planning tobacco prevention and control efforts. In addition, surveillance efforts should continue to monitor changes in concurrent use and further investigate the increased risk of cancer among smokers who also use other forms of tobacco. PMID:18053653

  1. Seasonal dynamics in diatom and particulate export fluxes to the deep sea in the Australian sector of the southern Antarctic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rigual-Hernández, Andrés S.; Trull, Thomas W.; Bray, Stephen G.; Closset, Ivia; Armand, Leanne K.

    2015-02-01

    Particle fluxes were recorded over a one-year period (2001-02) in the southern Antarctic Zone in the Australian Sector of the Southern Ocean. Here, we present the results on the seasonal and vertical variability of biogenic particle and diatom valve fluxes. Total mass and diatom fluxes were highly seasonal, with maxima registered during the austral summer and minima during winter. Biogenic opal dominated sedimentation, followed by carbonate, and very low levels of organic carbon (annual average 1.4%). The strong correlation between opal and organic carbon at both depth levels suggests that a significant fraction of organic matter exported to the deep sea was associated with diatom sedimentation events. Seasonal diatom fluxes appear driven principally by changes in the flux of Fragilariopsis kerguelensis. The occurrence of the sea-ice affiliated diatoms Fragilariopsis cylindrus and Fragilariopsis curta in both sediment traps is considered to correspond to the sedimentation of a diatom bloom advected from an area under the influence of sea ice. Highest fluxes of the subsurface-dwelling species Thalassiothrix antarctica registered at the end of the summer bloom were linked to a drop of the light levels during the summer-autumn transition. This study provides the first annual observation on seasonal succession of diatom species in the Australian sector of the Antarctic Zone, and corresponds, in terms of magnitude and seasonality of diatom fluxes, to those in neighbouring sectors (Pacific and eastern Atlantic).

  2. Determination of β-Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Austin, Sean; Bénet, Thierry; Michaud, Julien; Cuany, Denis; Rohfritsch, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90–110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80–120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92–102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%. PMID:24719617

  3. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions. PMID:22836893

  4. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  5. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Chimacum Creek basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater flow system in the Chimacum Creek basin. It includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal fluctuations in groundwater level; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a groundwater budget. The study area covers 124 square miles in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington, and includes the Chimacum Creek basin, which drains an area of about 37 square miles. The area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and western interior of the study area. Six hydrogeologic units consisting of unconsolidated aquifers and confining units, along with an underlying bedrock unit, were identified. A surficial hydrogeologic map was developed and used with well information from 187 drillers' logs to construct 4 hydrogeologic sections, and maps showing the extent and thickness of the units. Natural recharge was estimated using precipitation-recharge relation regression equations developed for western Washington, and estimates were calculated for return flow from data on domestic indoor and outdoor use and irrigated agriculture. Results from synoptic streamflow measurements and water table elevations determined from monthly measurements at monitoring wells are presented and compared with those from a study conducted during 2002-03. A water budget was calculated comprising long-term average recharge, domestic public-supply withdrawals and return flow, self-supplied domestic withdrawals and return flow, and irrigated agricultural withdrawals and return flow.

  6. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

  7. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Global Seasonality of Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharia M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Levy, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. These pathogens are generally understood to exhibit a wintertime seasonality, though a systematic assessment of seasonal patterns has not been conducted in the era of modern diagnostics. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed Medline database for articles published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed multivariate linear models to identify factors associated with the strength of norovirus seasonality. Results The searched identified 293 unique articles, yielding 38 case and 29 outbreak data series. Within these data series, 52.7% of cases and 41.2% of outbreaks occurred in winter months, and 78.9% of cases and 71.0% of outbreaks occurred in cool months. Both case and outbreak studies showed an earlier peak in season-year 2002-03, but not in season-year 2006-07, years when new genogroup II type 4 variants emerged. For outbreaks, norovirus season strength was positively associated with average rainfall in the wettest month, and inversely associated with crude birth rate in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. For cases, none of the covariates examined was associated with season strength. When case and outbreaks were combined, average rainfall in the wettest month was positively associated with season strength. Conclusions Norovirus is a wintertime phenomenon, at least in the temperate northern hemisphere where most data are available. Our results point to possible associations of season strength with rain in the wettest month and crude birth rate. PMID:24098406

  8. Common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) bycatch in New Zealand commercial trawl fisheries.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Finlay N; Abraham, Edward R; Berkenbusch, Katrin

    2013-01-01

    Marine mammals are regularly reported as bycatch in commercial and artisanal fisheries, but data are often insufficient to allow assessment of these incidental mortalities. Observer coverage of the mackerel trawl fishery in New Zealand waters between 1995 and 2011 allowed evaluation of common dolphin Delphinus delphis bycatch on the North Island west coast, where this species is the most frequently caught cetacean. Observer data were used to develop a statistical model to estimate total captures and explore covariates related to captures. A two-stage Bayesian hurdle model was used, with a logistic generalised linear model predicting whether any common dolphin captures occurred on a given tow of the net, and a zero-truncated Poisson distribution to estimate the number of dolphin captures, given that there was a capture event. Over the 16-year study period, there were 119 common dolphin captures reported on 4299 observed tows. Capture events frequently involved more than one individual, with a maximum of nine common dolphin observed caught in a single tow. There was a peak of 141 estimated common dolphin captures (95% c.i.: 56 to 276; 6.27 captures per 100 tows) in 2002-03, following the marked expansion in annual effort in this fishery to over 2000 tows. Subsequently, the number of captures fluctuated although fishing effort remained relatively high. Of the observed capture events, 60% were during trawls where the top of the net (headline) was <40 m below the surface, and the model determined that this covariate best explained common dolphin captures. Increasing headline depth by 21 m would halve the probability of a dolphin capture event on a tow. While lack of abundance data prevents assessment of the impact of these mortalities on the local common dolphin population, a clear recommendation from this study is the increasing of headline depth to reduce common dolphin captures. PMID:23717614

  9. MISR Observations of Etna Volcanic Plumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scollo, S.; Kahn, R. A.; Nelson, D. L.; Coltelli, M.; Diner, D. J.; Garay, M. J.; Realmuto, V. J.

    2012-01-01

    In the last twelve years, Mt. Etna, located in eastern Sicily, has produced a great number of explosive eruptions. Volcanic plumes have risen to several km above sea level and created problems for aviation and the communities living near the volcano. A reduction of hazards may be accomplished using remote sensing techniques to evaluate important features of volcanic plumes. Since 2000, the Multiangle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) on board NASA s Terra spacecraft has been extensively used to study aerosol dispersal and to extract the three-dimensional structure of plumes coming from anthropogenic or natural sources, including volcanoes. In the present work, MISR data from several explosive events occurring at Etna are analyzed using a program named MINX (MISR INteractive eXplorer). MINX uses stereo matching techniques to evaluate the height of the volcanic aerosol with a precision of a few hundred meters, and extracts aerosol properties from the MISR Standard products. We analyzed twenty volcanic plumes produced during the 2000, 2001, 2002-03, 2006 and 2008 Etna eruptions, finding that volcanic aerosol dispersal and column height obtained by this analysis is in good agreement with ground-based observations. MISR aerosol type retrievals: (1) clearly distinguish volcanic plumes that are sulphate and/or water vapor dominated from ash-dominated ones; (2) detect even low concentrations of volcanic ash in the atmosphere; (3) demonstrate that sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes consist of smaller-sized particles compared to ash plumes. This work highlights the potential of MISR to detect important volcanic plume characteristics that can be used to constrain the eruption source parameters in volcanic ash dispersion models. Further, the possibility of discriminating sulphate and/or water vapor dominated plumes from ash-dominated ones is important to better understand the atmospheric impact of these plumes.

  10. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  11. Health systems' responsiveness and reporting behaviour: Multilevel analysis of the influence of individual-level factors in 64 countries.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Nicole; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; Bonsel, Gouke

    2015-08-01

    Health systems' responsiveness encompasses attributes of health system encounters valued by people and measured from the user's perspective in eight domains: dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, communication, prompt attention, social support, quality of basic amenities and choice. The literature advocates for adjusting responsiveness measures for reporting behaviour heterogeneity, which refers to differential use of the response scale by survey respondents. Reporting behaviour heterogeneity between individual respondents compromises comparability between countries and population subgroups. It can be studied through analysing responses to pre-defined vignettes - hypothetical scenarios recounting a third person's experience in a health care setting. This paper describes the first comprehensive approach to studying reporting behaviour heterogeneity using vignettes. Individual-level variables affecting reporting behaviour are grouped into three categories: (1) sociodemographic, (2) health-related and (3) health value system. We use cross-sectional data from 150,000 respondents in 64 countries from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (2002-03). Our approach classifies effect patterns for the scale as a whole, in terms of strength and in relation to the domains. For the final eight variables selected (sex; age; education; marital status; use of inpatient services; perceived health (own); caring for close family or friends with a chronic illness; the importance of responsiveness), the strongest effects were present for education, health, caring for friends or relatives with chronic health conditions, and the importance of responsiveness. Patterns of scale elongation or contraction were more common than uniform scale shifts and were usually constant for a particular factor across domains. The dependency of individual-level reporting behaviour heterogeneity on country is greatest for prompt attention, quality of basic amenities and confidentiality domains

  12. Monitoring of Structural Components and Water Balance as AN Aid to Wetland Management Using Geospatial Techniques - a Case Study for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. V. R.; Panigrahy, S.

    2011-09-01

    The hydrologic variability greatly influences the structural components of wetlands that have a great bearing on habitats for avifauna, aquatic fauna including fish etc. This paper highlights the results of a study carried out to derive changes in open-water and vegetation, and also water balance for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat. MODIS 8-day composite data for three consecutive years viz 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 were used to study the seasonal and inter annual dynamics of water regime in the lake. Digital elevation model derived using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data with interpolated bottom topography was used to generate elevation contours and compute water volume from water spread data. The reference data of 2002 (drought year) shows the maximum extent of wetland to be 8.06 km2 with emergent vegetation of recorded as 2.36 km2 and open-water as 5.70 km2. The rainfall has an impact on the preferred habitat availability for various species of avifauna and it is noted that emergent vegetation present in the lake completely dried up by summer 2002, a rainfall deficit year but revived again in the preceding year i.e. 2003 which was a good rainfall year with 46.68 km2 under emergent vegetation and 61.96 km2 under open-water. The 2002 being a drought year has shown very low reference storage (0.256 MCM), which has shown a gradual decrease in the storage to 0.00019 MCM in March 2003. The reference storage also registered a steep increase to 18.165 MCM in October 2003 and decreased 1.264 MCM in March 2004. From this study it is evident that water level of about 9 m elevation at the end of the rainy season is found to be optimal for maintaining various habitats that in turn support the avifauna for the rest of the lean period.

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infection and Disease in Infants and Young Children Studied from Birth in Kilifi District, Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Nokes, D James; Okiro, Emelda A; Ngama, Mwanajuma; Ochola, Rachel; White, Lisa J; Scott, Paul D; English, Michael; Cane, Patricia A; Medley, Graham F

    2008-01-01

    Background Within the developing country setting data are few that characterise the disease burden due to RSV and which clearly define the age group to target vaccine intervention. Methods Children numbering 635, recruited 2002-03, were intensively monitored until each experienced three RSV epidemics. RSV was diagnosed by use of immunofluorescence on nasal washings collected on occurence of acute respiratory infection. Incidence estimates were adjusted for seasonality in RSV exposure. Results From 1187 child years of observation (cyo) a total of 409 RSV episodes were identifed; 365 primary and 82 repeat. Adjusted incidence estimates (per 1000cyo) of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), severe LRTI and hospital admission were 90, 43, and 10, respectively, and corresponding estimates in infants were 104, 66 and 13. The proportion of all-cause LRTI, severe-LRTI and hospitalizations in the cohort due to RSV was 13%, 19% and 5%, respectively. 55-65% of RSV LRTI and severe-LRTI occured in children over 6 months old. The risk of RSV disease following primary symptomatic infection remained significant beyond the first year of life and a quarter of all re-infections were associated with LRTI. Conclusions RSV accounts for a substantial proportion of the total respiratory disease in this rural population: we estimate 85,000 infant cases of severe LRTI annually in Kenya. The majority of this morbidity occurs in late infancy and early childhood; ages at which the risk of disease following infection remains significant. Disease from re-infection is common. Our results inform the debate on vaccine target age group and effectiveness. PMID:18171213

  14. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple as small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization-improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accomodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  15. Expanding Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple at small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization- improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accommodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  16. The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ronveaux, O.; Rickert, D.; Hadler, S.; Groom, H.; Lloyd, J.; Bchir, A.; Birmingham, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. METHODS: The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanuspertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). FINDINGS: The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks, injection supplies and adverse events; unsafe computer practices; and poor monitoring of completeness and timeliness of reporting. CONCLUSION: Inconsistencies in immunization data occur in many countries, hampering their ability to manage their immunization programmes. Countries should use these findings to strengthen monitoring systems so that data can reliably guide programme activities. The DQA is an innovative tool that provides a way to independently assess the quality of immunization monitoring systems at all levels of a health service and serves as a point of entry to make improvements. It provides a useful example for other global health initiatives. PMID:16175824

  17. Trophic and environmental drivers of the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Vadas, Flora; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Interannual environmental variability in Peru is dominated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The most dramatic changes are associated with the warm El Niño (EN) phase (opposite the cold La Niña phase), which disrupts the normal coastal upwelling and affects the dynamics of many coastal marine and terrestrial resources. This study presents a trophic model for Sechura Bay, located at the northern extension of the Peruvian upwelling system, where ENSO-induced environmental variability is most extreme. Using an initial steady-state model for the year 1996, we explore the dynamics of the ecosystem through the year 2003 (including the strong EN of 1997/98 and the weaker EN of 2002/03). Based on support from literature, we force biomass of several non-trophically-mediated ‘drivers’ (e.g. Scallops, Benthic detritivores, Octopus, and Littoral fish) to observe whether the fit between historical and simulated changes (by the trophic model) is improved. The results indicate that the Sechura Bay Ecosystem is a relatively inefficient system from a community energetics point of view, likely due to the periodic perturbations of ENSO. A combination of high system productivity and low trophic level target species of invertebrates (i.e. scallops) and fish (i.e. anchoveta) results in high catches and an efficient fishery. The importance of environmental drivers is suggested, given the relatively small improvements in the fit of the simulation with the addition of trophic drivers on remaining functional groups’ dynamics. An additional multivariate regression model is presented for the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, which demonstrates a significant correlation between both spawning stock size and riverine discharge-mediated mortality on catch levels. These results are discussed in the context of the appropriateness of trophodynamic modeling in relatively open systems, and how management strategies may be focused given the highly environmentally influenced marine

  18. The genetic study of three population microisolates in South Tyrol (MICROS): study design and epidemiological perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pattaro, Cristian; Marroni, Fabio; Riegler, Alice; Mascalzoni, Deborah; Pichler, Irene; Volpato, Claudia B; Dal Cero, Umberta; De Grandi, Alessandro; Egger, Clemens; Eisendle, Agatha; Fuchsberger, Christian; Gögele, Martin; Pedrotti, Sara; Pinggera, Gerd K; Stefanov, Stefan A; Vogl, Florian D; Wiedermann, Christian J; Meitinger, Thomas; Pramstaller, Peter P

    2007-01-01

    Background There is increasing evidence of the important role that small, isolated populations could play in finding genes involved in the etiology of diseases. For historical and political reasons, South Tyrol, the northern most Italian region, includes several villages of small dimensions which remained isolated over the centuries. Methods The MICROS study is a population-based survey on three small, isolated villages, characterized by: old settlement; small number of founders; high endogamy rates; slow/null population expansion. During the stage-1 (2002/03) genealogical data, screening questionnaires, clinical measurements, blood and urine samples, and DNA were collected for 1175 adult volunteers. Stage-2, concerning trait diagnoses, linkage analysis and association studies, is ongoing. The selection of the traits is being driven by expert clinicians. Preliminary, descriptive statistics were obtained. Power simulations for finding linkage on a quantitative trait locus (QTL) were undertaken. Results Starting from participants, genealogies were reconstructed for 50,037 subjects, going back to the early 1600s. Within the last five generations, subjects were clustered in one pedigree of 7049 subjects plus 178 smaller pedigrees (3 to 85 subjects each). A significant probability of familial clustering was assessed for many traits, especially among the cardiovascular, neurological and respiratory traits. Simulations showed that the MICROS pedigree has a substantial power to detect a LOD score ≥ 3 when the QTL specific heritability is ≥ 20%. Conclusion The MICROS study is an extensive, ongoing, two-stage survey aimed at characterizing the genetic epidemiology of Mendelian and complex diseases. Our approach, involving different scientific disciplines, is an advantageous strategy to define and to study population isolates. The isolation of the Alpine populations, together with the extensive data collected so far, make the MICROS study a powerful resource for the study

  19. Mineral deficiencies in tule elk, Owens Valley, California.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Heather E; Bleich, Vernon C; Krausman, Paul R

    2007-01-01

    Male tule elk (Cervus elaphus nannodes) are susceptible to high rates of antler breakage in Owens Valley, California. We hypothesized that a mineral deficiency in the diet predisposed male elk to antler breakage. We analyzed elk antler, liver, and forage samples to identify mineral imbalances. We compared the mineral content of livers and antlers from elk in Owens Valley to samples taken from tule elk at Grizzly Island Wildlife Area, a population experiencing normal rates (<5%) of antler breakage. Antler and liver samples were collected from 1989 to 1993, and in 2002, and were tested for calcium (Ca), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), phosphorus (P), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). Mineral levels from antler and liver samples were compared to reference values established for elk and deer. We also compared the mineral content of elk forage in Owens Valley, collected in 2002-03, to dietary reference values established for cattle. In antlers, Ca, Fe, and Mg levels were higher in Owens Valley elk than in Grizzly Island elk, although all mineral levels were lower than reference values established for deer antlers. In liver samples, Cu levels from elk in Owens Valley were lower than those from Grizzly Island and lower than minimum reference values; liver Ca and Mo levels were higher in elk from Owens Valley than in those from Grizzly Island. Compared to reference values, elk forage in Owens Valley had high levels of Ca and Mo, and low levels of Cu, P, and Zn. Mineral analyses from antlers, livers, and forage suggest that tule elk in the Owens Valley are Cu and/or P deficient. High levels of Mo and Ca may exacerbate Cu and P deficiencies, respectively. Bone fragility is a symptom of both deficiencies, and an imbalance in Cu, P, or a combination of both, may predispose male tule elk in the Owens Valley to antler breakage. PMID:17347394

  20. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  1. Socioeconomic status and children's health: evidence from a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam. PMID:25658625

  2. Success with Web-based image access.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean W

    2003-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Miss., is the only medical school in the state. We performed 235,000 procedures in the 2001-02 fiscal year. All imaging services within the radiology department are networked to a PACS and are filmless. The elimination of film required that we decentralize our traditional file room to allow easy access to our radiology network across the campus. In our facility, there are three levels of image access: Diagnostic Quality, Review Quality and Web Access. Diagnostic Quality requires top-of-the-line workstations and monitors and is the most expensive. Review Quality workstations represent some savings over Diagnostic and are used in the ICU, orthopedics and surgery. Web Access appears to satisfy most areas outside the main diagnostic department. The account set-up procedure is simple because it uses our intranet email system. Images are easily pasted into presentation applications for articles and conferences. However, the main advantage of Web Access is the low cost. The downside of Web Access is that the images are for review only and are limited by the quality of the monitor in use. It is also somewhat cumbersome to retrieve old or comparison images via this method. The Web only holds approximately 45 days of the most recent images, therefore older studies may not be available. The deployment of this Web-based service has aided in our efforts to reduce the amount of film we print and has also been beneficial in improving patient care through faster service. PMID:12800563

  3. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems responding to climatic events that enhance hydrologic transport acress the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Fountain, A. G.; Gooseff, M. N.; Doran, P. T.; Wall, D. H.; Virginia, R. A.; Priscu, J. C.; Adams, B.; Vesbach-Takacs, C.; Barrett, J. E.; Howkins, A.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is comprised of alpine and terminal glaciers, large expanses of patterned ground, and permanently ice-covered lakes in the valley floors, which are linked by glacial meltwater streams that flow during the austral summer. These valleys were first explored by Robert Scott and his party in 1903. In 1968 the New Zealand Antarctic Program began a gauging network on the Onyx River, a 32 km river in Wright Valley which is the longest river in Antarctica. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological research project our research group has monitored meteorological conditions, glacial mass balance, lake level and streamflow in the adjacent Taylor Valley. The extent of liquid water throughout the landscape is strongly controlled by summer climate, and the availability of liquid water in turn is a limitation to the microscopic life that is present in the diverse habitats in the valleys. We have studied the responses of soil, lake, stream and cryoconite ecosystems through a sustained cooling period that has been driven by atmospheric changes associated with the ozone hole. In the past decade, this cooling period appears to have ceased and summer conditions have become more variable. Three warm sunny summers have occurred since 2001/02. These conditions have created weeks long "flood events" in the valleys, causing wet areas to emerge in the soils, thermokarsting in some stream channels and increases in lake level. These flood events can be considered as pulse events that drive an increase in ecosystem connectivity, changing rates of biogeochemical processes and the distribution of biota. Collectively the ecosystems of the McMurdo Dry Valleys are highly responsive to dynamic climatic influences associated with the ozone hole and global warming.

  4. Compliance with Sunscreen Advice in a Survey of Adults Engaged in Outdoor Winter Recreation at High Elevation Ski Areas

    PubMed Central

    Buller, David B.; Andersen, Peter A.; Walkosz, Barbara J.; Scott, Michael D.; Maloy, Julie A.; Dignan, Mark B.; Cutter, Gary R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Adults are advised to wear sunscreen with a sun protection factor of 15+, apply it up to 30 minutes prior to sun exposure, and reapply it after two hours to reduce exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation in sunlight for the prevention of skin cancer. Objective This study investigated the extent to which adults comply with sunscreen advice. Methods A survey was conducted with 4,837 adult skiers and snowboarders at 28 high-altitude ski areas in Western North America in January – April 2001-02. Respondents self reported use of sunscreen, its SPF, time of first application, and reapplication. Results Only 4.4% (95% CI=±0.6) of adults were in full compliance with all sunscreen advice. Half (49.8% [95% CI=±1.4]) complied with SPF 15+ advice. Of those wearing sunscreen, 73.2% (95% CI=±1.8) applied the sunscreen 30 minutes before beginning skiing/snowboarding, but only 20.4% (95% CI=±2.0) complied with advice to reapply it after 2 hours. Total compliance was lowest during inclement weather, on low-UV days, by males, and among respondents who believed skin cancer was unimportant and with low sun sensitive skin. It was positively associated with wearing lip balm and hats with a brim. Limitations The sample was predominantly male and of high socio-economic status; the results apply most to winter recreation when UV radiation levels are low, and sunscreen use was assessed by self-report. Conclusion While the recommendation to use SPF 15+ sunscreen has reached many adults, the reapplication advice is heeded by few adults and needs to be highlighted in future sun safety promotions. PMID:21742410

  5. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  6. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners. PMID:17046966

  7. Is Workplace Smoking Policy Equally Prevalent and Equally Effective Among Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined whether immigrants were less likely to be covered by a smokefree workplace policy, as well as whether workplace smoking policies garnered comparable associations with smoking for immigrants and the US-born, in the US. Methods We applied the 2001/02 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement among US indoor workers (n=85,784) using multiple logistic regression analyses. First, we examined whether nativity (immigrants vs. US-born) was independently associated with smokefree policy coverage. Second, we examined whether the smokefree policy association with current smoking was differential by nativity (effect modification). Results Immigrants were less likely to work in smokefree workplaces than the US-born; however occupation and industry accounted for these disparities. Employment in a workplace that was not smokefree was associated with higher odds of smoking (vs. smokefree workplaces), both before (OR=1.83, 95% CI:1.74–1.92) and after (OR=1.36, (1.29–1.44)) covariate adjustment among the US-born, but associations were weaker among immigrants (OR=1.39(1.20–1.61) unadjusted, OR=1.15(0.97–1.35) adjusted). Worker industry partly explained (16% of) the weaker policy-smoking association among immigrants, while other socioeconomic variables reduced the policy-smoking association without explaining the disparity. Conclusions The patchwork of US workplace smoking restriction policy at different governmental levels, combined with a voluntary regime among some employers, generates coverage inequalities. Workplace smokefree policies may be less effective for immigrants, and this is related to differential coverage by such policies due to occupational segregation. Understanding the complex patterns of the social context of smoking is important for understanding how policy interventions might have heterogeneous effects for different demographic groups. PMID:19359272

  8. Lithospheric Structure of East Antarctica: Results From the First Year of the SSCUA Broadband Seismic Deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reading, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    Recent geological and geochronological work has changed our concept of the former Gondwana continents surrounding a central Archaean craton, East Antarctica. The revised tectonic framework shows mobile belts and tectonic province boundaries which correlate well with East Antarctica's former neighbours in the supercontinent and trend perpendicular to the present day Antarctic coastline. Constraints are however restricted to those areas where the rock is exposed above the ice. Indirect, geophysical methods are required to map the extent of tectonic provinces in the continental interior and provide information on the deep structure. Following a pilot deployment in 2001/02, a set of 6 remote broadband earthquake recording stations were deployed in the Lambert Glacier region, East Antarctica, from the coast at 65°S deep into the interior to a latitude of 75°S. The aim was to determine the Seismic Structure of the Continent Under Antarctica (SSCUA) using a variety of seismological techniques. The stations were solar-powered and hence shut down during the Antarctic winter to re-commence recording after the return of daylight in the austral spring. After one year, 3 stations were relocated to further test contemporary terrane models of the lithosphere in this region. At the present time (December 2004) recording continues across the deployment with most stations due to be uplifted at the end of the 2004/05 summer season. Results of receiver function inversions for seismic structure beneath the recording stations of the first main deployment are presented. To the west of the Lambert Glacier, the Rayner province extends from Mawson Station to Beaver Lake with a fairly deep Moho at 42 km. To the east, seismic velocity profiles have a different character, showing slower crustal velocities. A province boundary exists between the Reinbolt Hills and the northern Mawson Escarpment where the crust is shallower at 34 km. These results are the first determinations of the seismic

  9. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  10. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension. PMID:24658452

  11. Case study on industrial hazmat response teams.

    PubMed

    Stephens, Shelly J

    2009-11-01

    In 1991, Amway formed an industrial hazardous materials (hazmat) team in order to respond quickly and efficiently to potential chemical spills. The company's goals were, and still are today, to protect employees, the environment and the local community, and to reduce the amount of resulting downtime. In 1991, the hazmat team was very well funded, enabling it to become a discrete department with its own management staff and nearly 100 hazmat volunteers. Due to changes in the business climate, Amway reorganised in 2000/01, and the hazmat team became part of a company that incorporated contract work into its scope. When this reorganisation occurred, the hazmat team was thoroughly re-evaluated. Its response function was maintained, but was systematically reinvented in the most lean way practicable while still meeting corporate goals. This case study represents Amway's hazmat team's journey through the evaluation process and subsequent reorganisation. PMID:20378491

  12. Football goal distributions and extremal statistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenhough, J.; Birch, P. C.; Chapman, S. C.; Rowlands, G.

    2002-12-01

    We analyse the distributions of the number of goals scored by home teams, away teams, and the total scored in the match, in domestic football games from 169 countries between 1999 and 2001. The probability density functions (PDFs) of goals scored are too heavy-tailed to be fitted over their entire ranges by Poisson or negative binomial distributions which would be expected for uncorrelated processes. Log-normal distributions cannot include zero scores and here we find that the PDFs are consistent with those arising from extremal statistics. In addition, we show that it is sufficient to model English top division and FA Cup matches in the seasons of 1970/71-2000/01 on Poisson or negative binomial distributions, as reported in analyses of earlier seasons, and that these are not consistent with extremal statistics.

  13. CAISO flicks switch on nodal scheme and lights stay on

    SciTech Connect

    2009-06-15

    In 2000-01, two years after introducing a competitive wholesale power auction in California - with a separate day-ahead zonal market operated by the California Power Exchange and a zonal market for ancillary services and balancing energy operated by the California Independent System Operator (CAISO) - the California market collapsed from exorbitant prices, flagrant gaming, and abuse of market power. Nine years later, CAISO introduced a nodal pricing auction for the wholesale market in April, replacing the zonal scheme, which was among many causes of the original market's demise. With nearly 3,000 nodes on the network, high prices in one region do not affect prices everywhere on the system. After investing some $200 million to upgrade the software, countless delays, and 18 months of market simulation and testing, the new auction was introduced and nothing unusual happened.

  14. Factors associated with spousal physical violence against women in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Naved, Ruchira Tabassum; Persson, Lars Ake

    2005-12-01

    Using data from a population-based survey of 2,702 women of reproductive age and from 28 in-depth interviews of abused women conducted during 2000-01, this study explores factors associated with domestic violence in urban and rural Bangladesh. Multilevel analysis revealed that in both residential areas, dowry or other demands in marriage and a history of abuse of the husband's mother by his father increased the risk of violence. Better spousal communication and husband's education beyond the tenth grade decreased the risk of violence. In the urban area, women's being younger than their husband and participating in savings and credit groups increased the risk of abuse, whereas husband's education beyond the sixth grade had a protective effect. In the rural area, women's earning an income increased the risk. These factors are important to consider when designing interventions. PMID:16395946

  15. Relationship between sea-level pressure and sea-level height in the Camargue (French Mediterranean coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moron, V.; Ullmann, A.

    2005-09-01

    A statistical study of daily maximum sea-level height at one station (Grau de la Dent) in the Camargue (Rhône delta, French Mediterranean coast) and daily sea-level pressure (SLP) at 12 h UTC over the eastern North Atlantic is used to identify the meteorological conditions associated with sea-level variations in the Camargue for the winters 1974-75 to 2000-01. Mean SLP composites during and 5 days before major surge events (defined as those with a daily maximum sea-level height >80 cm) suggest the dominant influence of storms, moving northwest to southeast across the North Atlantic and strengthening as they approach the Bay of Biscay. During such storms, strong onshore winds may persist for up to 4-5 days. These winds tend to strengthen from 3 days to 1 day before the surge events. The mean October-March correlation between daily maximum sea-level height in the Camargue and SLP averaged over the Bay of Biscay (10°W-0°, 40-50°N) is strong (r = 0.69). A methodology is developed for assessing the low-frequency SLP variability impact on sea-level height in the Camargue. A cross-validated linear regression is used to hindcast the interannual and intraseasonal variability of the monthly 75th and 90th percentiles of the daily maximum sea-level height from the monthly mean SLP over the Bay of Biscay. The linear correlation between the cross-validated hindcast and observed time series is 0.83 (0.77) for the 75th (90th) percentile on the 1974-75 to 2000-01 period. The mean bias error, reflecting systematic errors in predicting the monthly percentiles, is close to zero.

  16. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists. PMID:26410715

  17. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected.

    A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue.

    Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise.

    NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy.

    Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.

    The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State

  18. Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

  19. Lightning-driven electric and magnetic fields measured in the stratosphere: Implications for sprites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Jeremy Norman

    A well accepted model for sprite production involves quasi-electrostatic fields (QSF) driven by large positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) strokes that can cause electrical breakdown in the middle atmosphere. A new high voltage, high impedance, double Langmuir probe instrument is designed specifically for measuring these large lightning-driven electric field changes at altitudes above 30 km. This High Voltage (HV) Electric Field Detector measured 200 nearby (<75 km) lightning-driven electric field changes, up to 140 V/m in magnitude, during the Brazil Sprite Balloon Campaign 2002--03. A numerical QSF model is developed and compared to the in situ measurements. It is found that the amplitudes and relaxation times of the electric fields driven by these nearby lightning events generally agree with the numerical QSF model, which suggests that the QSF approach is valid for modeling lightning-driven fields. Using the best fit parameters of this comparison, it is predicted that the electric fields at sprite altitudes (60--90 km) never surpass conventional breakdown in the mesosphere for each of these 200 nearby lightning events. Lightning-driven ELF to VLF (25 Hz--8 kHz) electric field changes were measured for each of the 2467 cloud-to-ground lightning (CGs) detected by the Brazilian Integrated Lightning Network (BIN) at distances of 75--600 km, and magnetic field changes (300 Hz--8 kHz) above the background noise were measured for about 35% (858) of these CGs. ELF pulses that occur 4--12 ms after the retarded time of the lightning sferic, which have been previously attributed to sprites, were found for 1.4% of 934 CGs examined with a strong bias towards +CGs (4.9% or 9/184) compared to -CGs (0.5% or 4/750). These results disagree with results from the Sprites99 Balloon Campaign [Bering et al., 2004b], in which the lightning-driven electric and magnetic field changes were rare, while the CG delayed ELF pulses were frequent. The Brazil Campaign results thus suggest that

  20. A multidisciplinary system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, Mauro; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spata, Gaetano; Scollo, Simona; Andronico, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most active volcanoes in the world is Mt. Etna, in Italy, characterized by frequent explosive activity from the central craters and from fractures opened along the volcano flanks which, during the last years, caused several damages to aviation and forced the closure of the Catania International Airport. To give precise warning to the aviation authorities and air traffic controller and to assist the work of VAACs, a novel system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, was developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, the managing institution for the surveillance of Etna volcano. Monitoring is carried out using multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite able to track the volcanic plume with a high time resolution, visual and thermal cameras used to monitor the explosive activity, three continuous wave X-band disdrometers which detect ash dispersal and fallout, sounding balloons used to evaluate the atmospheric fields, and finally field data collected after the end of the eruptive event needed to extrapolate important features of explosive activity. Forecasting is carried out daily using automatic procedures which download weather forecast data obtained by meteorological mesoscale models from the Italian Air Force national Meteorological Office and from the hydrometeorological service of ARPA-SIM; run four different tephra dispersal models using input parameters obtained by the analysis of the deposits collected after few hours since the eruptive event similar to 22 July 1998, 21-24 July 2001 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions; plot hazard maps on ground and in air and finally publish them on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. The system has been already tested successfully during several explosive events occurring at Etna in 2006, 2007 and 2008. These events produced eruption

  1. Comparison and Relative Utility of Inequality Measurements: As Applied to Scotland’s Child Dental Health

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Yvonne I.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared and assessed the utility of tests of inequality on a series of very large population caries datasets. National cross-sectional caries datasets for Scotland’s 5-year-olds in 1993/94 (n = 5,078); 1995/96 (n = 6,240); 1997/98 (n = 6,584); 1999/00 (n = 6,781); 2002/03 (n = 9,747); 2003/04 (n = 10,956); 2005/06 (n = 10,945) and 2007/08 (n = 12,067) were obtained. Outcomes were based on the d3mft metric (i.e. the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth). An area-based deprivation category (DepCat) measured the subjects’ socioeconomic status (SES). Simple absolute and relative inequality, Odds Ratios and the Significant Caries Index (SIC) as advocated by the World Health Organization were calculated. The measures of complex inequality applied to data were: the Slope Index of Inequality (absolute) and a variety of relative inequality tests i.e. Gini coefficient; Relative Index of Inequality; concentration curve; Koolman & Doorslaer’s transformed Concentration Index; Receiver Operator Curve and Population Attributable Risk (PAR). Additional tests used were plots of SIC deciles (SIC10) and a Scottish Caries Inequality Metric (SCIM10). Over the period, mean d3mft improved from 3.1(95%CI 3.0–3.2) to 1.9(95%CI 1.8–1.9) and d3mft = 0% from 41.1(95%CI 39.8–42.3) to 58.3(95%CI 57.8–59.7). Absolute simple and complex inequality decreased. Relative simple and complex inequality remained comparatively stable. Our results support the use of the SII and RII to measure complex absolute and relative SES inequalities alongside additional tests of complex relative inequality such as PAR and Koolman and Doorslaer’s transformed CI. The latter two have clear interpretations which may influence policy makers. Specialised dental metrics (i.e. SIC, SIC10 and SCIM10) permit the exploration of other important inequalities not determined by SES, and could be applied to many other types of disease where ranking of morbidity

  2. Health system performance at the district level in Indonesia after decentralization

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Assessments over the last two decades have showed an overall low level of performance of the health system in Indonesia with wide variation between districts. The reasons advanced for these low levels of performance include the low level of public funding for health and the lack of discretion for health system managers at the district level. When, in 2001, Indonesia implemented a radical decentralization and significantly increased the central transfer of funds to district governments it was widely expected that the performance of the health system would improve. This paper assesses the extent to which the performance of the health system has improved since decentralization. Methods We measured a set of indicators relevant to assessing changes in performance of the health system between two surveys in three areas: utilization of maternal antenatal and delivery care; immunization coverage; and contraceptive source and use. We also measured respondents' demographic characteristics and their living circumstances. These measurements were made in population-based surveys in 10 districts in 2002-03 and repeated in 2007 in the same 10 districts using the same instruments and sampling methods. Results The dominant providers of maternal and child health in these 10 districts are in the private sector. There was a significant decrease in birth deliveries at home, and a corresponding increase in deliveries in health facilities in 5 of the 10 districts, largely due to increased use of private facilities with little change in the already low use of public facilities. Overall, there was no improvement in vaccination of mothers and their children. Of those using modern contraceptive methods, the majority obtained them from the private sector in all districts. Conclusions There has been little improvement in the performance of the health system since decentralization occurred in 2001 even though there have also been significant increases in public funding for health. In

  3. Hydrographic structure and zooplankton abundance and diversity off Paita, northern Peru (1994 to 2004) — ENSO effects, trends and changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronés, Katia; Ayón, Patricia; Hirche, Hans-Jürgen; Schwamborn, Ralf

    2009-11-01

    The objective of the present study was to verify possible spatial, seasonal, and inter-annual changes in the zooplankton off Paita (northern Peru), an upwelling area located closely to the limits of cold Humboldt Current and warm Equatorial Surface Waters. Zooplankton was sampled at subsurface on 53 occasions from August 1994 to December 2004 at four stations located 2 to 30 km offshore with a WP-2 net (300 µm). Extremely high surface water temperatures combined with low salinities were observed during the 1997/98 El Niño up to 29.0 °C) and in April 2002 (up to 25.0 °C). Temperatures more than 2 °C above monthly average were also observed in October 1994, in April 2000, and in November 2004. Significant trends were observed for oxygen concentration (increase) and several horizontal and vertical gradients. Among the copepods (72% of all individuals), the most abundant species were Paracalanus parvus (28%), Acartia tonsa (26%), and Calanus sp. (10%). The strong 1997-98 El Niño (EN) event led to drastic changes in species composition that were reversed during the 1998-99 La Niña (LN) event. Community parameters such as total abundance, diversity, equitability and species richness displayed marked variations associated with the 1997-98 EN and long-term trends. Long-term trends were significant for several vertical and horizontal temperature and oxygen gradients, indicating an increase in upwelling intensity at the shelf during the study period. 10-year-trends were also significant for total zooplankton abundance (increase) and community evenness ( J, decline). Our data confirmed the importance of the weak EN in 2002/03 for the study region. Within the trend of increasing zooplankton abundance, a sharp step or shift was observed from 1999 to 2000. When using sequential t-tests to detect shifts in ( x + 1) transformed abundance data, a significant rupture was found between the last sampling in 1999 and the first sampling in 2000. Also, a substantial decrease in

  4. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners

  5. Habitat and hydrology: assessing biological resources of the Suwannee River Estuarine System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Edwards, Randy E.; McIvor, Carole C.; Grubbs, Jack W.; Dennis, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot integrated-science study during 2002 and 2003 to map, describe, and evaluate benthic and emergent habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Categories of aquatic, emergent, and terrestrial habitats were determined from hyperspectral imagery and integrated with hydrologic data to identify estuarine fish habitats. Maps of intertidal and benthic habitat were derived from 12-band, 4-m resolution hyperspectral imagery acquired in September 2002. Hydrologic data were collected from tidal creeks during the winter of 2002-03 and the summer-fall of 2003. Fish were sampled from tidal creeks during March 2003 using rivulet nets, throw traps, and seine nets. Habitat characteristics, hydrologic data, and fish assemblages were compared for tidal creeks north and south of the Suwannee River. Tidal creeks north of the river had more shoreline edge and shallow habitat than creeks to the south. Tidal creeks south of the river were generally of lower salinity (fresher) and supported more freshwater marsh and submerged aquatic vegetation. The southern creeks tended to be deeper but less sinuous than the northern creeks. Water quality and inundation were evaluated with hydrologic monitoring in the creeks. In-situ gauges, recording pressure and temperature, documented a net discharge of brackish to saline groundwater into the tidal creeks with pronounced flow during low tide. Groundwater flow into the creeks was most prominent north of the river. Combined fish-sampling results showed an overall greater abundance of organisms and greater species richness in the southern creeks, nominally attributed a greater range in water quality. Fish samples were dominated by juvenile spot, grass shrimp, bay anchovy, and silverside. The short time frame for hydrologic monitoring and the one-time fish-sampling effort were insufficient for forming definitive conclusions. However, the combination of hyperspectral imagery and

  6. Spectroscopic monitoring of the luminous blue variable Westerlund1-243 from 2002 to 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, B. W.; Clark, J. S.; Negueruela, I.; Najarro, F.

    2009-12-01

    Context: The massive post-main sequence star W243 in the galactic starburst cluster Westerlund 1 has undergone a spectral transformation from a B2Ia supergiant devoid of emission features in 1981 to an A-type supergiant with a rich emission-line spectrum by 2002/03. Aims: We examine the continued evolution of W243 from 2002 to 2009 to understand its evolutionary state, current physical properties and the origin of its peculiar emission line spectrum. Methods: We used VLT/UVES and VLT/FLAMES to obtain high resolution, high signal-to-noise spectra on six epochs in 2003/04 (UVES) and ten epochs in 2008/09 (FLAMES). These spectra are used alongside other lower-resolution VLT/FLAMES and NTT/EMMI spectra to follow the evolution of W243 from 2002 to 2009. Non-LTE models are used to determine the physical properties of W243. Results: W243 displays a complex, time-varying spectrum with emission lines of hydrogen, helium and Lyman-α pumped metals, forbidden lines of nitrogen and iron, and a large number of absorption lines from neutral and singly-ionized metals. Many lines are complex emission/absorption blends, with significant spectral evolution occurring on timescales of just a few days. The LBV has a temperature of ~8500 K (spectral type A3Ia+), and displays signs of photospheric pulsations and weak episodic mass loss. Nitrogen is highly overabundant, with carbon and oxygen depleted, indicative of surface CNO-processed material and considerable previous mass-loss, although current time-averaged mass-loss rates are low. The emission-line spectrum forms at large radii, when material lost by the LBV in a previous mass-loss event is ionized by an unseen hot companion. Monitoring of the near-infrared spectrum suggests that the star has not changed significantly since it finished evolving to the cool state, close to the Humphreys-Davidson limit, in early 2003. This work is based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, under programme IDs ESO 69

  7. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Wind Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Voulgaris, G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) wave and current data were collected offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC for 2 months in 2001-02. This field measurement campaign was the second of a three-part experiment series. While the overall objective of the study is to describe the processes governing the circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport along the northern South Carolina coast, this presentation focuses on the wave energy dissipation over a heterogeneous seafloor over a distance of 6 km. The data were collected between November 9, 2001 and January 17, 2002. The instruments were placed along a transect crossing a large sand shoal in an area otherwise largely deprived of sand, at depths of 8 to 12 meters. The four instruments used, in order of decreasing distance from shore, were 600 and1200 KHz RDI ADCP's, a Nortek Aquadopp and a Sontek Argonaut-XR. Bathymetry and bottom characteristics such as depth and thickness of sand layer are available through USGS's coastal relief model and side scan surveys. Wind data are supplied by a large-scale numerical wind model. Its output is compared with wind data collected at Frying Pan Shoals buoy and at an anemometer placed at Spring Maid pier after the experiment. The SWAN wave model (Booij et al. 1999) was used to model the spectral wave transformation from the offshore buoy to the inner stations and to compare the observed wave energy dissipation to the available models. There was no extreme storm event during the deployment period. The maximum significant wave height observed was 1.6 meters at the offshore wave station, and the mean wave height was 0.8 meters. The mean period was between 5 and 7 seconds most of the time. Significant wave energy dissipation (up to 40% decrease in wave energy flux) across 6 km was observed. A shift of the spectral peak and a change in the spectral shape was observed in many events, which were not generally reproduced by the model. Sand and rock bottom

  8. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  9. Identifying Watershed Sediment Sources In The Chesapeake Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gellis, A. C.; Pavich, M. J.; Landwehr, J. M.; Banks, W. S.; Bierman, P. R.; Reuter, J. M.

    2004-12-01

    physical and chemical properties. Results from the Pocomoke River Basin near Willards, MD (USGS ID 01485000)(157 km 2) for 7 storms during 2001-02 showed that the channel corridor (bed and banks) was the major source of suspended sediment, contributing between 61-100%. Cropland contributed between 0 and 39%. Significant fingerprints used in this analysis included 137Cs, 13C, and 15N. Erosion mass balance using 137Cs also confirms that cropland erosion was low.

  10. Groundwater seeps in Taylor Valley Antarctica: an example of a subsurface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Welch, Kathleen A.; Carey, Anne E.; Doran, Peter T.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Csathó, Bea M.; Tremper, Catherine M.

    The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (˜78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named 'Wormherder Creek' (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ˜6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in 'rinsing' the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota

  11. Hydroecological Connections: Hyporheic Zone Weathering of Silicate Minerals Controls Diatom Biodiversity in Microbial Mats in Glacial Meltwater Streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Dyson, I.; Esposito, R. M.; Gooseff, M. N.; Lyons, W. B.; Welch, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is comprised of alpine and terminal glaciers, large expanses of patterned ground, and ice-covered lakes in the valley floors, which are linked by glacial meltwater streams that flow during the austral summer. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological research project, we have observed stream ecosystem response to a sustained 18 year cool period with low flows, which has been recently interrupted by three "flood events" during sunny, warm summers. Many of these streams contain thriving microbial mats comprised of cyanobacteria and endemic diatoms, the most diverse group of eukaryotic organisms in the valleys. Of the 45 diatom taxa, some common taxa are heavily silicified, Hantzschia amphioxys f. muelleri, while others are only lightly silicified. By comparing diatom communities in streams which flow every summer with those in streams that only flow during flood events, we found that hydrologic flow regime acts as a strong environmental filter on diatom community composition. Following the first flood event in 2001/02, mat biomass was two-fold lower due to scouring and recovered over several years, with lesser declines following the subsequent floods. In the longer streams, the diatom community composition remained stable through the flood events, whereas in two of the shorter streams, Green and Bowles Creeks, the diatom community shifted after the first flood event to a greater abundance of lightly silicified taxa. Water quality monitoring and reactive transport modeling have shown that rapid weathering of silicate minerals in the hyporheic zone accounts for the downstream increases in Si concentration which are observed in the longer streams. One mechanism driving this greater abundance of lightly silicified diatoms in shorter streams could be the greater dilution of the Si supply from hyporheic weathering in shorter streams under high flows. Given that the stream diatom community is well preserved in the 40

  12. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  13. Continuing acidification of organic soils across the northeastern U.S.A.: 1984 - 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warby, R. A.; Johnson, C. E.; Driscoll, C. T.

    2008-05-01

    The passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1970 and 1990 have resulted in ubiquitous decreases in acidic deposition across the northeastern United States. While there is some evidence that surface waters are beginning to show some chemical recovery (increases in acid neutralizing capacity and pH) following lower acid inputs, the rate of surface-water recovery is much less than expected. Our study focused on changes in the chemistry of Oa soil horizons across the northeastern USA, comparing samples collected in 2001-02 with samples collected in 1984 under the Direct/Delayed Response Program. Base saturation in these organic soils declined across the region by about 40%, from 56.2% in 1984 to 33.0% in 2001, while effective cation exchange capacity, normalized to soil carbon concentration, showed no significant change. This was the result of almost equivalent changes in carbon-normalized exchangeable calcium (CaN) and exchangeable aluminum (AlN), with median CaN declining by more than 50%, from 23.5 to 10.6 cmolc/kgC, and median AlN more than doubling, from 8.8 to 21.3 cmolc/kgC. Surprisingly, the soils in the Central New England and Maine subregion (CNE/Maine), a subregion that historically received less acidic deposition than the Adirondacks and Catkills/Poconos subregions, experienced the greatest declines in base status. We hypothesize that the other subregions were so extensively acidified prior to the DDRP sampling in 1984 that a decline of the same magnitude as observed in CNE/Maine was not possible. A second, related hypothesis is that the acidification of soils in the CNE/Maine subregion was delayed relative to the other regions because of the strong regional gradient in acidic inputs from west to east. The continuing acidification of soils that we observed helps to explain the lower-than-expected recovery of surface waters in the region. It also poses a serious threat to the health of forests, with additional declines in base status likely to increase

  14. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2012-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. Cassini carries a set of three "fixed" reaction wheels and a backup reaction wheel (reaction wheel #4) is mounted on top of an articulable platform. If necessary, this platform could be articulated to orient the backup reaction wheel with the degraded wheel. The reaction wheels are used primarily for attitude control when precise and stable pointing of a science instrument such as the narrow angle camera is required. In 2001-02, reaction wheel #3 exhibited signs of bearing cage instability. As a result, reaction wheel #4 was articulated to align with reaction wheel #3. Beginning in July 2003, Cassini was controlled using wheel #1, #2, and #4. From their first use in the spring of 2000 until today, reaction wheels #1 and #2 have accumulated more than3.5 billions revolutions each. As such, in spite of very carefully management of the wheel spin rates by the mission operation team, there are some observed increases in the drag torque of the wheels' bearings. Hence, the mission operations team must prepare for the contingency scenario in which the reaction wheel #1 (in addition to wheel #3) had degraded. In this hypothetical fault scenario, the two remaining reaction wheels (#2 and #4) will not be able to provide precise and stable three-axis control of the spacecraft. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of controlling Cassini using the two remaining reaction wheels and four thrusters to meet the science pointing requirements for two key science operational modes: the Optical Remote Sensing and Downlink, Fields, Particles, & Waves operation modes. The performance (e.g., pointing control error, pointing stability, hydrazine consumption rate, etc.) of the hybrid controllers in both operations scenarios will be compared with those achieved

  15. Residential self-selection bias in the estimation of built environment effects on physical activity between adolescence and young adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Built environment research is dominated by cross-sectional designs, which are particularly vulnerable to residential self-selection bias resulting from health-related attitudes, neighborhood preferences, or other unmeasured characteristics related to both neighborhood choice and health-related outcomes. Methods We used cohort data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (United States; Wave I, 1994-95; Wave III, 2001-02; n = 12,701) and a time-varying geographic information system. Longitudinal relationships between moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) bouts and built and socioeconomic environment measures (landcover diversity, pay and public physical activity facilities per 10,000 population, street connectivity, median household income, and crime rate) from adolescence to young adulthood were estimated using random effects models (biased by unmeasured confounders) and fixed effects models (within-person estimator, which adjusts for unmeasured confounders that are stable over time). Results Random effects models yielded null associations except for negative crime-MVPA associations [coefficient (95% CI): -0.056 (-0.083, -0.029) in males, -0.061 (-0.090, -0.033) in females]. After controlling for measured and time invariant unmeasured characteristics using within-person estimators, MVPA was higher with greater physical activity pay facilities in males [coefficient (95% CI): 0.024 (0.006, 0.042)], and lower with higher crime rates in males [coefficient (95% CI): -0.107 (-0.140, -0.075)] and females [coefficient (95% CI): -0.046 (-0.083, -0.009)]. Other associations were null or in the counter-intuitive direction. Conclusions Comparison of within-person estimates to estimates unadjusted for unmeasured characteristics suggest that residential self-selection can bias associations toward the null, as opposed to its typical characterization as a positive confounder. Differential environment-MVPA associations by residential relocation

  16. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  17. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff From Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001?02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the possibility that PAHs from seal-coated parking lots might be transported to urban creeks, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, sampled runoff and scrapings from four test plots and 13 urban parking lots. The surfaces sampled comprise coal-tar-emulsion-sealed, asphalt-emulsion-sealed, unsealed asphalt, and unsealed concrete. Particulates and filtered water in runoff and surface scrapings were analyzed for PAHs. In addition, particulates in runoff were analyzed for major and trace elements. Samples of all three media from coal-tar-sealed parking lots had concentrations of PAHs higher than those from any other types of surface. The average total PAH concentrations in particulates in runoff from parking lots in use were 3,500,000, 620,000, and 54,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed (asphalt and concrete combined) lots, respectively. The probable effect concentration sediment quality guideline is 22,800 micrograms per kilogram. The average total PAH (sum of detected PAHs) concentration in filtered water from parking lots in use was 8.6 micrograms per liter for coal-tar-sealed lots; the one sample analyzed from an asphalt-sealed lot had a concentration of 5.1 micrograms per liter and the one sample analyzed from an unsealed asphalt lot was 0.24 microgram per liter. The average total PAH concentration in scrapings was 23,000,000, 820,000, and 14,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed asphalt lots, respectively. Concentrations were similar for runoff and scrapings from the test plots. Concentrations of lead and zinc in particulates in runoff frequently exceeded the probable effect concentrations, but trace element concentrations showed no

  18. Influenza vaccination coverage rates in five European countries during season 2006/07 and trends over six consecutive seasons

    PubMed Central

    Blank, Patricia R; Schwenkglenks, Matthias; Szucs, Thomas D

    2008-01-01

    Background The objectives of the survey were to identify the level of influenza vaccination coverage in five European countries between 2001 and 2007, to understand the drivers and barriers to vaccination, to assess vaccination intentions for the winter 2007/08 as well as major encouraging factors for vaccination. Methods Between 2001 and 2007, representative household surveys were performed with telephone or mailed (France) interviews of individuals aged 14 and above. The questionnaire used in the UK, Germany, Italy, France and Spain was essentially the same in all seasons. The data were subsequently pooled. Four target groups were defined for the analysis: 1) persons aged 65 years and over; 2) persons working in the medical field; 3) chronically ill persons and 4) combined target group composed of individuals belonging to one or more of the previous groups 1, 2 or 3. Results In 2006/07, vaccination coverage was, 25.0% in UK, 27.4% in Germany, 21.8% in Spain, 24.2% in France and 24.4% in Italy. During six influenza seasons (2001–2007), vaccination coverage showed a slight positive trend in the five countries (p ≤ 0.0001). In the elderly (≥ 65 years), across all countries, no significant trend was seen; the vaccination rate decreased non-significantly from a peak of 64.2% in season 2005/06 to 61.1% in season 2006/07. The most frequent reason for getting vaccinated was a recommendation by the family doctor or nurse (51%), and this was also perceived as the major encouraging factor for vaccination (61%). The main reason for not getting vaccinated was feeling unlikely to catch the flu (36%). Conclusion In the UK, Germany and Spain, influenza vaccination coverage rates in season 2006/07 dropped slightly compared to the previous season. However, a trend of increasing vaccination coverage was observed from 2001/02 to 2006/07 across Europe. The family doctor is the major source of encouragement for individuals getting vaccinated. Efforts to overcome the barriers to

  19. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  20. HbA1c overtesting and overtreatment among US adults with controlled type 2 diabetes, 2001-13: observational population based study

    PubMed Central

    Van Houten, Holly K; Ross, Joseph S; Montori, Victor M; Shah, Nilay D

    2015-01-01

    Study question What is the extent and effect of excessive testing for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) among adults with controlled type 2 diabetes? Methods A retrospective analysis of data from a national administrative claims database included commercially insured individuals in the USA, 2001-13. Study patients were aged 18 years or older, had type 2 diabetes with stable glycemic control (two consecutive tests showing HbA1c<7.0% within 24 months), did not use insulin, had no history of severe hypoglycemia or hyperglycemia, and were not pregnant. HbA1c testing frequency was measured within 24 months after the second (index) HbA1c test, and classified as guideline recommended (≤2 times/year), frequent (3-4 times/year), and excessive (≥5 times/year). Changes in treatment regimen were ascertained within three months of the index test. Study answer and limitations Of 31 545 patients in the study cohort (mean age 58 years; mean index HbA1c 6.2%), HbA1c testing frequency was excessive in 6% and frequent in 55%. Despite good glycemic control at baseline, treatment was further intensified by addition of glucose lowering drugs or insulin in 8.4% of patients (comprising 13%, 9%, and 7% of those tested excessively, frequently, and per guidelines, respectively; P<0.001). Compared with guideline recommended testing, excessive testing was associated with treatment intensification (odds ratio 1.35 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.50)). Excessive testing rates remained unchanged in 2001-08, but fell significantly after 2009. The odds of excessive testing was 46% lower in 2011 than in 2001-02. The study population is not representative of all US patients with type 2 diabetes because it was restricted to commercially insured adults with stable and controlled diabetes not receiving insulin treatment. The study design did not capture the underuse of HbA1c testing. What this study adds In this US cohort of adults with stable and controlled type 2 diabetes, more than 60% received

  1. The impact of variable building height on drag, flow and turbulence over a realistic suburban surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giometto, M. G.; Christen, A.; Calaf, M.; Parlange, M. B.

    2014-12-01

    In urban environments, where buildings have variable configurations and heights, the tallest structures have a disproportional impact on drag, mean flow and turbulence. Although wind-engineering studies document well the effects of individual high-rise buildings on the immediate surrounding, the impact of varying building heights on the larger horizontally averaged flow has not been quantified systematically for realistic urban configurations. We use Large Eddy Simulation (LES) as a means to study the fully developed turbulent flow over and within a 512 x 512 m2 subset of the true urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland. A periodic LES domain is centered on the location of a tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed in 2001/02, which allows a direct validation of the LES at a specific location in the domain. The Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid stresses in the bulk of the flow and buildings are taken into account adopting a discrete-forcing-approach immersed boundary method (IBM), with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. A series of high-resolution LES runs are performed for various directions of the approaching flow, and with all buildings included and then buildings above a certain height threshold progressively removed, to isolate the impact of tall structures. Results show how the presence of isolated tall buildings strongly modifies the roughness properties of the entire urban roughness sublayer, causing an increase in resolved pressure forces, which contributes to the overall surface induced drag. In the presence of tall buildings the local structure of the roughness sublayer is partitioned into two regimes: fine scale wake turbulence and elongated, high speed streak-like motions, locked between the position of isolated structures, with their axis aligned in the stream wise direction. For arrays with differing building heights statistics significantly differ from

  2. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2006-01-01

    Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more

  3. Hydrostratigraphy, soil/sediment chemistry, and water quality, Potomac-Raritan-Magothy aquifer system, Puchack Well Field Superfund site and vicinity, Pennsauken Township, Camden County, New Jersey, 1997-2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barringer, Julia L.; Walker, Richard L.; Jacobsen, Eric; Jankowski, Pamela

    2010-01-01

    -2001) water levels near the site of the former pumping center with data from previous investigations indicates that, since pumping at the Puchack well field ceased, the dominant local ground-water flow direction is to the southeast, aligned with regional flow. Chromium concentrations were highest (8,010 micrograms per liter in 2000-01) in water from the Middle aquifer immediately downgradient from a possible source; the extent of this chromium plume is unknown but appears to be small. A second, unrelated, localized chromium plume also was identified in the Middle aquifer. The Intermediate Sand was found to contain an areally extensive plume of chromium-contaminated water, with concentrations up to 6,310 micrograms per liter in 2000-01, and another plume of about the same size, with concentrations up to 4,810 micrograms per liter in 2000-01, was identified in the Lower aquifer. The previous USGS investigation indicated the approximate extent of the combined plumes; the current delineation indicates that their locations have shifted slightly to the southeast since 1998. Concentrations of chromium in ground water decreased at some well locations by as much as 60 percent between sampling rounds in 1997-98 and 1999-2001. The decrease in chromium concentration at a given well could be the result of the chemical reduction of hexavalent chromium and precipitation of the resulting trivalent chromium, the sorption of hexavalent chromium to aquifer materials, or the physical movement of the plumes. Available data indicate that all three processes likely have affected concentrations. The distribution of hexavalent and total chromium in the soils and sediments of a possible source area indicates that some hexavalent chromium has undergone chemical reduction in the soils, but the degree to which this process takes place in the aquifer currently is not known. Nor is it known whether contaminated soils continue to contribute chromium to the aquifer system. Contamination by vola

  4. Risk Factors and Predictors Of Subsequent ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction: Prospective Analysis Of 2801 Primary ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Christopher C.; Pedroza, Angela; Reinke, Emily; Huston, Laura J.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Retear of an ACL after an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is devastating for all involved. Understanding risk factors and predictors of subsequent ACL tear after an ACLR is vital for patient education of subsequent risk of injury and if a predictor is modifiable, to make adjustments to minimize the risk of repeat ACL tear. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the risk factors and predictors for ispilateral and contralateral ACL tears after primary ACLR and 2) to compare retear risk between the 2002/03 and 2007/08 cohorts. This is the largest and most comprehensive prospective analysis of this kind in the literature. Methods: Data from the 2002-2008 MOON database was used to identify risk factors for ACL retear. Subjects who had a primary ACLR with no history of contralateral knee surgery and had 2 year follow-up data were included. Subjects who had multiligament surgery were excluded. Graft type (auto-BTB, auto-hamstring, allograft), age, Marx score at time of index surgery, sport played post ACLR, sex, smoking status, lateral meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, medial meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, BMI, and MOON site were evaluated to determine their contribution to both ipsilateral retear and contralateral ACL tear. The analysis was repeated using the 2002/3 and 2007/8 cohort and included age, graft, sex, and Marx. An ANOVA with post-hoc analysis was performed to detect significant differences in age and Marx score by graft type over time. Results: A total of 2801 subjects met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. There were 165/2801 (5.89%) ipsilateral and 177/2801 (6.32%) contralateral ACL tears identified in the cohort at the two year follow-up. The odds of ipsilateral retear are 1.68 times greater for hamstring autograft (p=0.04) and 4.67 times greater for an allograft (p<0.001) compared to auto-BTB. The odds of ipsilateral retear decrease by 8% for every yearly increase in age (p < 0.001) and increases by 6% for every increased point on the

  5. Seasonal variations in N and O isotopes of nitrate in snow at Summit, Greenland: Implications for the study of nitrate in snow and ice cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hastings, Meredith G.; Steig, E. J.; Sigman, D. M.

    2004-10-01

    Nitrogen and oxygen isotopes of NO3- have been measured in snow and firn from Summit, Greenland. The 15N/14N and 18O/16O ratios of NO3- in recently fallen snow are similar to those of surface snow. Diurnal variation is observed in 15N/14N of NO3-, and possibly 18O/16O, suggesting fractionating loss of NO3- from snow during the day, which is subsequently recovered at night. A larger seasonal variation is observed, with higher 15N/14N and lower 18O/16O of NO3- in summer than winter, which cannot be explained by postdepositional fractionation. The generally high 18O/16O of NO3- in Greenland snow (δ18O versus VSMOW = 65.2 to 79.6‰) indicates that oxygen atoms from ozone have been incorporated into NOx that was subsequently deposited as HNO3. The lower mean δ18O of NO3- in summer snow relative to winter (68.9‰ in summer 2000 and 70.5‰ in summer 2001 versus 77.5‰ in winter 2000-01) is a result of summertime HNO3 production via NO2 reaction with hydroxyl radical (OH), which dilutes the high δ18O imparted on NO2 from ozone. The higher mean 15N/14N of NO3- observed in snow from spring (δ15N versus air N2 = +5.9‰ in 2000 and -1.4‰ in 2001) and summer (+0.1‰ in 2000 and -0.8‰ in 2001) than fall (-9.2‰ in 2000) and winter (-10.0‰ in 2000-01) is more difficult to explain with seasonal photochemistry, given current knowledge. The seasonal 15N/14N change may reflect NOx sources, with a greater fall and wintertime contribution from fossil fuel emissions relative to other inputs of NOx (i.e., biogenic soil emissions, biomass burning, and lightning).

  6. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Planetary candidates from 1st yr K2 mission (Vanderburg+, 2016)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanderburg, A.; Latham, D. W.; Buchhave, L. A.; Bieryla, A.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. L.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Welsh, S.; Johnson, J. A.

    2016-02-01

    During Campaign 0, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=06:33:11.14,DEJ2000=+21:35:16.40, for a period of 80 days between March and May of 2014. During Campaign 1, K2 observed a field centered at RAJ2000=11:35:45.51,DEJ2000=+01:25:02.28 for 83 days between June and August of 2014. Field 2 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=16:24:30.34,DEJ2000=-22:26:50.28, and was observed for 79 days between 2014 August and November. Field 3 of the K2 mission is centered at RAJ2000=22:26:39.68,DEJ2000=-11:05:47.99, and was observed for 69 days between 2014 November and 2015 February. We observed 68 stars with the high-resolution Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES; on the 1.5m telescope at Fred L. Whipple Observatory (FLWO) on Mt. Hopkins, Arizona; R=44000) at least once, collecting a total of 101 spectra, and extracted the spectra using the procedure described in Buchhave et al. (2010, J/ApJ/720/1118). See tables 3 and 4. (4 data files).

  7. U.S. Department of Energy University Reactor Sharing Program at the University of Florida. Final report for period August 15, 2000 - May 31, 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Vernetson, William G.

    2002-01-01

    Department of Energy Grant Number DE-FG02-96NE38152 was supplied to the University of Florida Training Reactor (UFTR) facility through the U.S. Department of Energy's University Reactor Sharing Program. The renewal proposal submitted in January 2000 originally requested over $73,000 to support various external educational institutions using the UFTR facilities in academic year 2000-01. The actual Reactor Sharing Grant was only in the amount of $40,000, all of which has been well used by the University of Florida as host institution to support various educational institutions in the use of our reactor and associated facilities as indicated in the proposal. These various educational institutions are located primarily within the State of Florida. However, when the 600-mile distance from Pensacola to Miami is considered, it is obvious that this Grant provides access to reactor utilization for a broad geographical region and a diverse set of user institutions serving over fourteen million inhabitants throughout the State of Florida and still others throughout the Southeast.

  8. Epizootiologic studies of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Rocke, Tonie E; Thomas, Nancy J; Augspurger, Tom; Miller, Kimberli

    2002-10-01

    Epizootic avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a neurologic disease in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana) in Arkansas, USA in 1994 and 1996, respectively, but attempts to identify the etiology of the disease have been unsuccessful to date. Between 1998 and 2001, wing clipped sentinel birds (wild American coots and game farm mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) were released at Lake Surf, North Carolina, a lake with recurrent outbreaks of AVM, in order to gain a better understanding of the epizootiology of the disease. As early as 5-7 days post-release, sentinel coots and mallards showed neurologic signs of disease and were confirmed with AVM upon histologic examination of their brains. Serial releases of sentinel mallards during the summer, fall, and winter of 2000-01 demonstrated that exposure to the causative agent at a threshold sufficient to manifest disease was seasonal and occurred over about a 2 mo period, during November and December. Our findings that disease onset can be very rapid (5-7 days) and that exposure to the causative agent of AVM is site-specific, seasonal (late fall to early winter), and occurs over a relatively short duration (several months) supports the hypothesis that the disease is caused by a chemical substance, most likely of natural origin. PMID:12528432

  9. Interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in the pack-ice zone off Lützow-Holm Bay, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Fuko; Tamura, Takeshi; Shimoda, Haruhito; Uto, Shotaro; Simizu, Daisuke; Tateyama, Kazutaka; Hoshino, Seita; Ozeki, Toshihiro; Fukamachi, Yasushi; Ushio, Shuki; Ohshima, Kay I.

    2016-03-01

    Under the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) program, sea-ice thickness has been routinely monitored off Lützow-Holm Bay (East Antarctica) during the summer (mid-December to early January) since 2000/01, using an electromagnetic induction (EM) instrument onboard the icebreaker Shirase. Analysis of these data over a 10-year period, combined with visual observations using a simplified form of the ASPeCt (Antarctic Sea ice Processes and Climate) protocol, suggests a strong interannual variability in sea-ice thickness in this region. For the repeat pack-ice observation area, where the sea-ice thickness averaged over the nine seasons is ∼1.9 m, mean thicknesses of observed sea-ice in 2010/11 and 2011/12 are exceptionally large, at ∼3.3 and ∼5.8 m, respectively. This result is strongly related to regional patterns of sea ice dynamics. Ice convergence caused by anomalous northerly winds was particularly high in 2011/12, suggesting that the extremely thick ice observed in that season resulted largely from sea-ice deformation processes (including pressure ridging). Longer-term analysis of data from the past 34 years confirms that sea-ice conditions and thickness off Lützow-Holm Bay in summer are determined mainly by the large-scale pattern of atmospheric pressure in December.

  10. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  11. Case III: Managing conflict--the case of the faculty stuck in the middle.

    PubMed

    Trombly, Robert M; Comer, Robert W; Villamil, Juanita E

    2002-04-01

    The need for administrative faculty members to have superior leadership and management skills to handle their increasingly complex responsibilities is well established. As a part of the 2000-01 ADEA Leadership Institute curriculum, fellows were responsible for developing situational case studies for a faculty development workshop to develop participants' leadership and management skills. The case presented here involved managing conflicts in the dental academic setting. The foundation of conflict management centers on communication techniques including transparent communication, open discussion, open confrontation, and active listening. Management options such as avoidance, accommodation, competition, negotiation, and collaboration are potential strategies for the faculty leader. This case study involves a fictitious public dental school, New Horizons University, which has embarked on solutions to address limited resources, but unwittingly has created conflicts between individuals and groups of faculty members. The case discussion analyzes the cause of conflicts, presents the positive and negative potential of the conflicts, reviews techniques of conflict management, and discusses specific management concepts regarding resource allocation and equity theory. PMID:12014569

  12. The Energy Spectra of Heavy Nuclei Measured by the ATIC Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panov, A. D.; Adams, J. H.; Ahn, H. S.; Bashindzhagyan, G. L.; Batkov, K. E.; Chang, J.; Christl, M.; Fazley, A. R.; Ganel, O.; Gunasingha, R. M.

    2004-01-01

    ATIC (Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter) is a balloon-borne experiment to measure the spectra and composition of primary cosmic rays in the region of total energy from 100 GeV to near 100 TeV for Z from 1 to 26. ATIC consists of a pixelated silicon matrix detector to measure charge plus a fully active BGO calorimeter, to measure energy, located below a carbon target interleaved with three layers of scintillator hodoscope. The ATIC instrument had a second (scientific) flight from McMurdo, Antarctica from 12/29/02 to 1/18/03, yielding 20 days of good data. The GEANT 3.21 Monte Carlo code with the QGSM event generator and the FLUKA code with the DPMJET-II event generator were used to convert energy deposition measurements to primary energy. We present the preliminary energy spectra for the abundant elements C, O, Ne, Mg, Si and Fe and compare them with the results of the first (test) flight of ATIC in 2000-01 and with results from the HEAO-3 and CRN experiments.

  13. Mount Shasta Snowpack

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Full-size images June 17, 2001 (2.0 MB JPEG) June 14, 2000 (2.1 MB JPEG) Light snowfall in the winter of 2000-01 led to a dry summer in the Pacific Northwest. The drought led to a conflict between farmers and fishing communities in the Klamath River Basin over water rights, and a series of forest fires in Washington, Oregon, and Northern California. The pair of images above, both acquired by the Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) aboard the Landsat 7 satellite, show the snowpack on Mt. Shasta in June 2000 and 2001. On June 14, 2000, the snow extends to the lower slopes of the 4,317-meter (14,162-foot) volcano. At nearly the same time this year (June 17, 2001) the snow had retreated well above the tree-line. The drought in the region was categorized as moderate to severe by the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and the United States Geological Survey (USGS) reported that streamflow during June was only about 25 percent of the average. Above and to the left of Mt. Shasta is Lake Shastina, a reservoir which is noticeably lower in the 2001 image than the 2000 image. Images courtesy USGS EROS Data Center and the Landsat 7 Science Team

  14. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Cristina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L.; Nemani, Ramakrishna

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the new product reports the estimated density of ISA on a one-km2 grid based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA – the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The model was calibrated using 30-meter resolution ISA of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. The distribution of ISA in the world's primary drainage basins indicates that watersheds damaged by ISA are primarily concentrated in the USA, Europe, Japan, China and India. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  15. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  16. Coccidial infections in commercial broilers: epidemiological aspects and comparison of Eimeria species identification by morphometric and polymerase chain reaction techniques.

    PubMed

    Haug, Anita; Gjevre, Anne-Gerd; Thebo, Per; Mattsson, Jens G; Kaldhusdal, Magne

    2008-04-01

    The objective of this study was to add to existing knowledge of the epidemiology and the aetiology of coccidial infections in commercial broiler flocks. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and morphometric identification of the Eimeria species were compared as means of differentiation in the field samples of faeces and litter. For morphometry, the Eimeria species were categorized into three groups based on lengths of the oocysts. Two random samples of commercial broilers were studied, one during 2000/01 and the other during 2003/04. The prophylactic regime (in-feed narasin), husbandry and methods applied were broadly the same for both subpopulations. Coccidial infection prevalence increased from approximately 45% to approximately 75% during this period, but infection levels (oocysts per gram of faeces) did not significantly change. There were substantial geographical differences in both prevalence and infection levels. A change in Eimeria species profile occurred during the study period. Five Eimeria species were identified at slaughter, by PCR targeting the ITS-1 region of the genome; Eimeria acervulina (100%), Eimeria tenella (77%), Eimeria maxima (25%), Eimeria praecox (10%) and Eimeria necatrix (2%). PCR and morphometric tentative identification were in complete agreement in only 49% of the cases. PMID:18393094

  17. Use of Web 2.0 Technologies for Public Outreach on a Simulated Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrone, Kristine; Shiro, Brian; Palaia, Joseph E., IV

    2009-01-01

    Recent advances in social media and internet communications have revolutionized the ways people interact and disseminate information. Astronauts are already taking advantage of these tools by blogging and tweeting from space, and almost all NASA missions now have presences on the major social networking sites. One priotity for future human explorers on Mars will be communicating their experiences to the people back on Earth. During July 2009, a 6-member crew of volunteers carried out a simulated Mars mission at the Flashline Mars Arctic Research Station (FMARS). The Mars Society built the mock Mars habitat in 2000-01 to help develop key knowledge and inspire the public for human Mars exploration. It is located on Devon island about 1600 km from the North Pole within the Arctic Circle. The structure is situated on the rim of Haughton Crater in an environment geologically and biologically analogous to Mars. Living in a habitat, conducting EVAs wearing spacesuits, and observing communication delays with "Earth,"the crew endured restrictions similar to those that will be faced by future human Mars explorers. Throughout the expedition, crewmembers posted daily blog entries, reports, photos, videos, and updates to their website and social media outlets Twitter, Facebook, YouTube, and Picasa Web Albums. During the sixteen EVAs of thier field science research campaign, FMARS crewmembers collected GPS track information and took geotagged photos using GPS-enabled cameras. They combined their traverse GPS tracks with photo location information into KML/KMZ files that website visitors can view in Google Earth.

  18. Gamma-ray spectra of individual components of decay series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, Henry

    2001-04-01

    In order to obtain high quality spectra to update the ``Heath Catalog" of spectra with Ge detectors, we (I and a group of Univ. of Michigan undergraduates*) have investigated the neutron activation and decay products related to natural thorium and natural uranium. We have used the UM Ford Nuclear Reactor for irradiations and the UM Phoenix Memorial Lab for the remaining work. Spectra have been obtained with a variety of detectors, some suitable for low energies (>5 keV) and others efficient (70%) for high energies. Sources have been obtained in a variety of forms, each of which has been characterized in comparison with a thin, point source. We will report on A=233 (Th, Pa, and U, and the Np-237 parent of Pa-233), A=234 (Th and the Pa isomers), and A=239 (U, Np, and the Am-243 parent of Np-239). *The 2000-01 undergrad research group consists of Jason Banker, Adam Berro, Adam Cole, Amelia Deschamps, Erik Epp, Ralph Pierre, and Emma Wong.

  19. Epizootiologic studies of avian vacuolar myelinopathy in waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocke, T.E.; Thomas, N.J.; Augspurger, T.; Miller, K.

    2002-01-01

    Epizootic avian vacuolar myelinopathy (AVM) was first recognized as a neurologic disease in bald eagles (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) and American coots (Fulica americana) in Arkansas, USA in 1994 and 1996, respectively, but attempts to identify the etiology of the disease have been unsuccessful to date. Between 1998 and 2001, wing clipped sentinel birds (wild American coots and game farm mallards [Anas platyrhynchos]) were released at Lake Surf, North Carolina, a lake with recurrent outbreaks of AVM, in order to gain a better understanding of the epizootiology of the disease. As early as 5-7 days post-release, sentinel coots and mallards showed neurologic signs of disease and were confirmed with AVM upon histologic examination of their brains. Serial releases of sentinel mallards during the summer, fall, and winter of 2000-01 demonstrated that exposure to the causative agent at a threshold sufficient to manifest disease was seasonal and occurred over about a 2 mo period, during November and December. Our findings that disease onset can be very rapid (5-7 days) and that exposure to the causative agent of AVM is site-specific, seasonal (late fall to early winter), and occurs over a relatively short duration (several months) supports the hypothesis that the disease is caused by a chemical substance, most likely of natural origin.

  20. Can adherence to dietary guidelines address excess caloric intake? An empirical assessment for the UK.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, C S

    2013-12-01

    The facilitation of healthier dietary choices by consumers is a key element of government strategies to combat the rising incidence of obesity in developed and developing countries. Public health campaigns to promote healthier eating often target compliance with recommended dietary guidelines for consumption of individual nutrients such as fats and added sugars. This paper examines the association between improved compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients and excess calorie intake, the most proximate determinant of obesity risk. We apply quantile regressions and counterfactual decompositions to cross-sectional data from the National Diet and Nutrition Survey (2000-01) to assess how excess calorie consumption patterns in the UK are likely to change with improved compliance with dietary guidelines. We find that the effects of compliance vary significantly across different quantiles of calorie consumption. Our results show that compliance with dietary guidelines for individual nutrients, even if successfully achieved, is likely to be associated with only modest shifts in excess calorie consumption patterns. Consequently, public health campaigns that target compliance with dietary guidelines for specific nutrients in isolation are unlikely to have a significant effect on the obesity risk faced by the population. PMID:23665354

  1. Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in a low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso.

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Kouyaté, Bocar; Flessa, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent of catastrophic household health care expenditure and determine the factors responsible for it in Nouna District, Burkina Faso. METHODS: We used the Nouna Health District Household Survey to collect data on 800 households during 2000-01 for our analysis. The determinants of household catastrophic expenditure were identified by multivariate logistic regression method. FINDINGS: Even at very low levels of health care utilization and modest amount of health expenditure, 6-15% of total households in Nouna District incurred catastrophic health expenditure. The key determinants of catastrophic health expenditure were economic status, household health care utilization especially for modern medical care, illness episodes in an adult household member and presence of a member with chronic illness. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the poorest members of the community incurred catastrophic health expenses. Setting only one threshold/cut-off value to determine catastrophic health expenses may result in inaccurate estimation leading to misinterpretation of important factors. Our findings have important policy implications and can be used to ensure better access to health services and a higher degree of financial protection for low-income groups against the economic impact of illness. PMID:16501711

  2. Emitted Power of Jupiter Based on Cassini CIRS and VIMS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Baines, Kevin H.; Smith, Mark A.; West, Robert A.; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Trammel, Harold J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Nixon, Conor A.; Filachionne, Gianrico; Fry, Patrick M.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The emitted power of Jupiter and its meridional distribution are determined from observations by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) and Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during its flyby en route to Saturn in late 2000 and early 2001. Jupiter's global- average emitted power and effective temperature are measured to be 14.10+/-0.03 W/sq m and 125.57+/-0.07 K, respectively. On a global scale, Jupiter's 5-micron thermal emission contributes approx. 0.7+/-0.1 % to the total emitted power at the global scale, but it can reach approx. 1.9+/-0.6% at 15degN. The meridional distribution of emitted power shows a significant asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the emitted power in the northern hemisphere 3.0+/-0.3% larger than that in the southern hemisphere. Such an asymmetry shown in the Cassini epoch (2000-01) is not present during the Voyager epoch (1979). In addition, the global-average emitted power increased approx. 3.8+/-1.0% between the two epochs. The temporal variation of Jupiter's total emitted power is mainly due to the warming of atmospheric layers around the pressure level of 200 mbar. The temporal variation of emitted power was also discovered on Saturn (Li et al., 2010). Therefore, we suggest that the varying emitted power is a common phenomenon on the giant planets.

  3. Emitted Power Of Jupiter Based On Cassini CIRS And VIMS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Liming; Baines, Kevin H.; Smith, Mark A.; West, Robert A.; Perez-Hoyos, Santiago; Trammel, Harold J.; Simon-Miller, Amy A.; Conrath, Barney J.; Gierasch, Peter J.; Orton, Glenn S.; Nixon, Conor A.; Filacchione, Gianrico; Fry, Patrick M.; Momary, Thomas W.

    2012-01-01

    The emitted power of Jupiter and its meridional distribution are determined from observations by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) and Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini during its flyby en route to Saturn in late 2000 and early 2001. Jupiter's global- average emitted power and effective temperature are measured to be 14.10+/-0.03 W/sq m and 125.57+/-0.07 K, respectively. On a global scale, Jupiter's 5-micron thermal emission contributes approx. 0.7+/-0.1 % to the total emitted power at the global scale, but it can reach approx. 1.9+/-0.6% at 15degN. The meridional distribution of emitted power shows a significant asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the emitted power in the northern hemisphere 3.0+/-0.3% larger than that in the southern hemisphere. Such an asymmetry shown in the Cassini epoch (2000-01) is not present during the Voyager epoch (1979). In addition, the global-average emitted power increased approx. 3.8+/-1.0% between the two epochs. The temporal variation of Jupiter's total emitted power is mainly due to the warming of atmospheric layers around the pressure level of 200 mbar. The temporal variation of emitted power was also discovered on Saturn (Li et al., 2010). Therefore, we suggest that the varying emitted power is a common phenomenon on the giant planets.

  4. Large-eddy simulation of urban dispersion during the Urban 2000 Field Program IOP-10, 25-26 October 2000

    SciTech Connect

    DeCroix, D. S.

    2002-01-01

    In October 2000, the US Department of Energy, along with NOAA and several other government labs and universities, conducted the Vertical Transport and Mixing Experiment (VTMX) and URBAN2000 field programs in Salt Lake City, Utah (Alwine et al., 2002). The VTMX program focused on the basin-scale flow regime, where the URBAN2000 component focused on transport and dispersion in the downtown Salt Lake City area. In this paper, we will focus on a specific Intensive Operations Period, IOP-10, which occurred on October 25-26, 2000. IOP-16 was chosen because the winds in the downtown area were fairly weak and variable early in the experiment, and became more windy in the later part of the IOP. The local conditions were influenced by a shortwave ridge, and were cloudy, with a weak and very shallow surface inversion, and light mean southerly flow over the area. An inert tracer gas, SF6, was released downtown Salt Lake City for a duration of one hour at three separate times on 26 October 2000, 01:00-02:00, 03:00-04:00, and 05:00-06:00 MDT. This paper will focus on the first release time, from 01:00-02:00 MDT.

  5. Physical functioning among mid-life women: associations with trajectory of depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sowers, MaryFran R; Harlow, Sioban; Jannausch, Mary; Zheng, Huiyong; Bromberger, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    During midlife, physical functioning limitations emerge and depressive symptoms are highly prevalent. We examined the relationship between physical functioning and depressive symptoms in the Michigan Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) cohort of midlife women (n=377). Seven performance-based physical functioning measures quantifying strength, balance, coordination, flexibility and range of motion and perceived physical functioning, assessed with the SF-36 physical functioning sub-score, were included. The Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) identified concurrent depressive symptom trajectory from 2000/01 through 2005/06 and history of depressive symptoms from 1996/7 through 1999/00. Longitudinal mixed-effects regression modeling was used to evaluate relationships. Median age of participants was 50 years. As age increased, higher CES-D scores were associated with performance-based functions including slower timed walk sit-to-stand, and stair climb after adjusting for five-year history of depressive symptoms and relevant covariates. As age increased, those with higher CES-D scores were more likely to have perceived limitations in physical functioning, though the association was weak. History of depressive symptoms was not significant in any model. These findings suggest that higher concurrent depressive symptoms are modestly associated with slower movement and a perception of poorer functioning. In contrast, history of depressive symptoms played little or no role in current physical functioning of mid-life women. When evaluating physical function, women's current mental health status should be considered. PMID:20692082

  6. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Mass cultivation of the prairie and shrubland-steppe on the Columbia Plateau began in the 1880's. This region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss; lower cropland productivity, fouled in-stream habitat for andronomous and non-andronomous salmonids and eels, and deposition of sediment in first, second, and third order channels that continues to migrate down stream during storm runoff events. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields. Presently much of the sediment moved during stormflow originates from stream bank erosion, although the annual development of rills in many fields is still observed. To quantify the continuing contribution of sediment to streams, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct seed farming practices to soil and water conservation, four first order drainages, and one hillslope were instrumented with flumes, weirs, and storm sediment samplers. The area of instrumented drainages and hillslope were, respectfully, 25.0, 18.1, 10.0, and 6.1 ha, and a 25 percent hillslope of 1.6 ha. The 6.1 ha drainage was managed using fallow and inversion tillage practices. In October 2002, the crop stubble was fall burned and the soil was inverted using a moldboard plow; the following spring and summer the drainage was field cultivated and rod-weeded three times to control weeds and prepare the seed bed for winter wheat in October 2003. All other drainages, and the hillslope site, were farmed using direct seed technology consisting of one pass using a direct seed drill to seed and fertilize the crop, one pass to harvest the crop, one pass to break-up crop stubble, and multiple passes to spray herbicides for weed control. Total crop year precipitation for 2002-03 and 2003-04 was 10 percent lower and 15 percent higher, respectively, than the long-term average, representing typical winter

  7. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  8. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  9. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    eventually built up before the ALS acquisition, is corrected. As snow cover biases are particular uncertain, a statistical approach has been applied to assess combined DTM errors by using the population of DTM differences over stable terrain. This method incorporates all known and unknown error sources from the surface difference in stable areas and uses its median thickness for correction in all altitudinal belts. In addition, intensity data of the ALS surveys are used to classify the optical surface properties into ice and firn zones. The resulting grids with according conversion factors (900 and 700 kg/m³ for ice and firn, respectively) are combined to calculate mass changes. In a last step, the survey dates are adjusted, using numerous field observations. On an annual time scale, the geodetic mass balances of HEF corrected using this approach, correlate well with the results from the homogenized direct glaciological method. Significant deviations occur in years with few measurements in the uppermost areas applying the direct glaciological method, due to strong melt in areas not equipped with ablation stakes (cf. Figure 2 for 2002/03) or inaccessibility due to weather conditions. On the basis of these results, the conventional error risk (e.g. confidence levels), was adopted in order to test the null hypothesis and to check if unexplained discrepancies suggest reanalyses of glaciological mass balances. Regarding the cumulative mass balance, the deviations between the two methods tend to become smaller the longer the period of comparison extends. Averaged between 2001 and 2011 the largest sources of differences are snow cover and density assumptions having high uncertainties in their estimates and/or leading to higher error ranges in the geodetic mass balances. Some errors were found to have a minor impact and are not treated explicitly, such as uncertainties in different glacier outlines used in both methods or the influence of snow covered and snow free crevasses in

  10. The last frontier? High-resolution, near-bottom measurements of the Hawaiian Jurassic magnetic anomaly sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tivey, M.; Tominaga, M.; Sager, W. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic sequence of marine magnetic anomalies i.e. older than M29 remain the last part of the marine magnetic anomaly sequence of the geomagnetic polarity timescale (GPTS) that can be gleaned from the ocean crustal record. While Jurassic crust is present in several areas of the world's ocean basins, the oldest and arguably best preserved sequence is in the western Pacific where three lineations sets (Japanese, Hawaiian and Phoenix) converge on the oldest remaining ocean crust on the planet (i.e. crust that has not been subducted). The magnetic anomalies in these 3 lineation sets are marked by low amplitude, relatively indistinct anomalies (tiny wiggles) that collectively have been called the Jurassic quiet Zone (JQZ). Over the past 20 years we have been working on resolving the character and origin of these anomalies with various technologies to improve our resolution of this period. Following an aeromagnetic survey that revealed the possible presence of lineated anomalies older than M29 in the Japanese lineations, we conducted a deeptow magnetometer survey of the Japanese sequence in 1992. In 2002/03 we extended and confirmed this deeptow record with a deeptowed sidescan and magnetometer survey of the Japanese lineation sequence by tying in ODP Hole 801C and extending the anomaly sequence between M29 and M44. These surveys reveal remarkably fast reversals that are lineated and decrease in intensity back in time until M38, prior to which the sequence becomes somewhat confused (the LAZ or low amplitude zone) before recovering in both amplitude and lineated character around Hole 801C (M42). These results are partially supported by recently reported terrestrial magnetostratigraphy records that show the existence of reversals back to M38. A Jurassic GPTS was constructed from this Japanese anomaly sequence, but the overall global significance of the reversal sequence and systematic field intensity changes require confirmation from crustal records created at

  11. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    the collector bucket. Field-audit results for 2004 indicate dissolved analyte loss in more than one-half of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples for all analytes except chloride. Concentrations of contaminants also were estimated from field-audit data. On the basis of 2004 field-audit results, at least 25 percent of the 2004 NADP/NTN concentrations for sodium, potassium, and chloride were lower than the maximum sodium, potassium, and chloride contamination likely to be found in 90 percent of the samples with 90-percent confidence. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data attributed to chemical analysis by the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) were comparable to the variability and bias estimated for other laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program for all analytes. Variability in NADP/NTN ammonium data evident in 2002-03 was reduced substantially during 2004. Sulfate, hydrogen-ion, and specific conductance data reported by CAL during 2004 were positively biased. A significant (a = 0.05) bias was identified for CAL sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate data, but the absolute values of the median differences for these analytes were less than the method detection limits. No detections were reported for CAL analyses of deionized-water samples, indicating that contamination was not a problem for CAL. Control charts show that CAL data were within statistical control during at least 90 percent of 2004. Most 2004 CAL interlaboratory-comparison results for synthetic wet-deposition solutions were within ?10 percent of the most probable values (MPVs) for solution concentrations except for chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance results from one sample in November and one specific conductance result in December. Overall variability of NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements was estimated during water year 2004 by the median absolute errors for weekly wet-deposition sample concentrations and precipitation measurements for tw

  12. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  13. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) for the ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Millar, Pamela S.; Riris, Haris

    2002-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is a new generation lidar and is the primary science payload for NASA's ICESat Mission. The GLAS design combines a 10 cm precision surface lidar with a sensitive dual wavelength cloud and aerosol lidar. GLAS will precisely measure the heights of the Earth's polar ice sheets, establish a grid of accurate height profiles of the Earth's land topography, and profile the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols on a global scale. GLAS will be integrated onto a small spacecraft built by Ball Aerospace, and will be launched into a polar orbit with a 590-630 km altitude at an inclination of 94 degrees. ICESat is is currently planned to launch in winter 2002/03 and GLAS is designed to operate continuously in space for a minimum of 3 years. GLAS will measure the vertical distance from orbit to the Earth's surface with pulses from a ND:YAG laser at a 40 Hz rate. Each 6 nsec wide 1064 nm laser pulse is used to produce a single range measurement. On the surface, the laser footprints have 66 m diameter and approx. 170 m center-center spacings. The GLAS receiver uses a I m diameter telescope to detect laser backscatter and a Si APD to detect the 1064 nm signals. The detector's output is sampled by a digital ranging receiver, which records each transmitted pulse and surface echo waveform with 1 nsec (15 cm) resolution. Each echo pulse is digitized and is reported to ground with a record length of from 200 to 544 samples, depending on the spacecraft's location . The GLAS location and epoch times are measured by a precision GPS receiver carried on the ICESat spacecraft. Initial processing of the echo waveforms within GLAS permits discrimination between cloud and surface echoes for selecting appropriate waveform samples. This selection is guided by an on-board DEM which is used to set the boundaries for the echo pulse search algorithm. Subsequent ground-based echo pulse analysis, along with GPS-based clock frequency estimates, permit

  14. Earth Science Pipeline: Enhancing Diversity in the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGill, S.; Smith, A.; Fryxell, J.; Leatham, W.; Brunkhorst, B. J.

    2002-12-01

    /field trips/other activities with students were conducted during 2001-02, resulting in over 4300 contact hours with more than 2300 pre-college students. The majority (66%) of the students at these events were from under-represented groups. Responses on evaluation forms indicate that presentations that provided hands-on experiences for students were more likely to influence students to consider majoring in the geosciences than were more traditional presentations, such as slide shows. We have also engaged in teacher development, to better prepare teachers to provide more exposure to the Earth Sciences for pre-college students. We conducted a week-long field trip to Owens Valley for local high school and middle school teachers, as well as various one-day workshops. To address students' perception that they are not "science-type" people, we recruited and hired 15 student research assistants, many of whom were students from under-represented ethnic groups from our introductory geology courses. We trained these students to help us begin monitoring deformation across the San Andreas and San Jacinto faults near our campus, using the Global Positioning System. To address the difficulty with science that many students expressed, we hired students who had done well in our introductory geology courses to serve as tutors for those courses during subsequent quarters. The presence of these tutors (some of whom were from under-represented ethnic groups) in the laboratory session made it easier for students currently taking the class to get their questions answered promptly, thus making their experience with geology more pleasant and effective.

  15. Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

    2002-01-01

    conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team

  16. Comparing large eddy simulations and measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy budget in an urban canopy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Meneveau, C. V.; Fang, J.; Christen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) is highly dependent on the actual configuration of obstacles relative to mean wind and stability. For many applications, building-resolving information is neither required nor feasible, and simply beyond the numerical capabilities of operational systems. Common urban canopy parameterizations (UCP) used in dispersion and mesoscale forecasting models hence rely on a horizontally averaged approach, where the UCL is represented as a 1D column, often for simplified geometries such as infinite street canyons. We use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the airflow over and within a realistic urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland to determine all terms of the TKE budget in order to guide and validate current approaches used in UCPs. A series of high-resolution LES runs of the fully developed flow are performed in order to characterize the TKE budget terms in a horizontally averaged frame of view for various directions of the approaching flow under neutral conditions. Equations are solved on a regular domain with a horizontal resolution of 2 m. A Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid-scale stresses and buildings are taken into account adopting an immersed boundary approach with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. The modeled (periodic) domain is centered on the location of a 32 m tall tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed, during the BUBBLE program in 2001/02 (Rotach et al., Theor. Appl. Clim., 82, 231-261, 2005). Selected terms of the TKE budget were inferred from six levels of ultrasonic anemometer measurements operated over nearly a full year between ground level and two times the mean building height. This contribution answers the questions: (1) How well do TKE budget terms calculated by the LES at the exact tower location match the single point measurements on the tower under comparable conditions? (2) How

  17. Nutrient Response of the Ventura River to Drought Conditions in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydecker, A.; Alstatt, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Ventura River drains 580 sq. km of mountainous coastal watershed 100 km northwest of Los Angles, Ca. The climate is Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and extreme seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff; more than 90 % of the rain falls between Nov. and April and most of the annual flow (range: 0 to 11 cu.m/sec) occurs over a few days. Monthly synoptic sampling of nutrients at 15 locations (from Nov. 2000) shows nitrate peaking in early winter, presumably from mineralization and mobilization after the advent of the rainy season, with concentrations decreasing to a minimum by late summer. Phosphate follows a similar pattern. Variation in nitrate (0 to 550 microM) and phosphate (0 to 35 microM) on the river and its tributaries is considerable. During winter stormflow, nitrate concentrations in the lower, urbanized portion of the catchment are decreased by dilution from surface runoff, while phosphate concentrations increase throughout the basin coincident with sediment mobilization. Rainfall in the winter of 2001-02 was only 40 % of the annual mean, insufficient to meet end-of-dry-season soil moisture deficits and generate runoff from upland areas; subsequent groundwater inflows to rivers and creeks were severely diminished. Average flow this past winter was 0.15 cu.m/sec, in contrast with a 72 yr mean of 4.6. In the absence of stormflows, which usually scour the channel, exuberant plant growth overwhelmed the lower river and macrophytes have replaced algae as dominant primary producers. Phosphate concentrations following the drought winter have remained similar to those measured during the previous, normal rainfall, year of 2000-2001 (1-5 microM), except below km 9, where treated sewage effluent is discharged. With lower flows, effluent has become the dominant source of water below the treatment plant, increasing the relative nutrient loading; 3 km below the plant, phosphate and nitrate concentrations increased by late summer to ~ 30

  18. Investing in acute health services: is it time to change the paradigm?

    PubMed

    Kerr, Rhonda; Hendrie, Delia V; Moorin, Rachael

    2014-11-01

    Objective Capital is an essential enabler of contemporary public hospital services funding hospital buildings, medical equipment, information technology and communications. Capital investment is best understood within the context of the services it is designed and funded to facilitate. The aim of the present study was to explore the information on capital investment in Australian public hospitals and the relationship between investment and acute care service delivery in the context of efficient pricing for hospital services. Methods This paper examines the investment in Australian public hospitals relative to the growth in recurrent hospital costs since 2000-01 drawing from the available data, the grey literature and the reports of six major reviews of hospital services in Australia since 2004. Results Although the average annual capital investment over the decade from 2000-01 represents 7.1% of recurrent expenditure on hospitals, the most recent estimate of the cost of capital consumed delivering services is 9% per annum. Five of six major inquiries into health care delivery required increased capital funding to bring clinical service delivery to an acceptable standard. The sixth inquiry lamented the quality of information on capital for public hospitals. In 2012-13, capital investment was equivalent to 6.2% of recurrent expenditure, 31% lower than the cost of capital consumed in that year. Conclusions Capital is a vital enabler of hospital service delivery and innovation, but there is a poor alignment between the available information on the capital investment in public hospitals and contemporary clinical requirements. The policy to have capital included in activity-based payments for hospital services necessitates an accurate value for capital at the diagnosis-related group (DRG) level relevant to contemporary clinical care, rather than the replacement value of the asset stock. What is known about the topic? Deeble's comprehensive hospital-based review of

  19. 1999 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1999-12-01

    and/or capacity, which BPA may use or market to increase revenues. Conversely, if Federal system firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity and BPA would add conservation or contract purchases as needed to meet its firm loads. The load forecast is derived by using econometric models and analysis to predict the loads that will be placed on electric utilities in the region. This study incorporates information on contract obligations and contract resources, combined with the resource capabilities obtained from public utility and investor-owned utility (IOU) customers through their annual data submittals to the PNUCC, from BPA's Firm Resource Exhibit (FRE Exhibit I) submittals, and through analysis of the Federal hydroelectric power system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. The PNCA defines the planning and operation of the regional hydrosystem. The 1999 White Book is presented in two documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; and (2) a technical appendix (available electronically only) detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. This analysis updates the December 1998 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 2000-01 through 2009-10. The study shows the Federal system's and the region's monthly estimated maximum electricity demand, monthly energy demand, monthly energy generation, and monthly maximum generating capability--capacity--for OY 2000-01, 2004-05, and 2009-10. The Federal system and regional monthly capacity surplus/deficit projections are summarized for 10 operating years. This document analyzes the Pacific Northwest's projected loads and

  20. Leadership strategies for department chairs and program directors: a case study approach.

    PubMed

    Comer, Robert W; Haden, N Karl; Taylor, Robert L; Thomas, D Denee

    2002-04-01

    As a part of the 2000-01 American Dental Education Association (ADEA) Leadership Institute, the Leadership Institute Fellows conducted a faculty development workshop for department chairpersons and program directors during the 2001 ADEA Annual Session. A central premise of the workshop was that successful chairpersons and program directors are both effective leaders and effective managers and that leadership and management involve complementary activities. The workshop was case-based. The ADEA Leadership Institute Fellows developed the cases and led roundtable discussions of each case. A group facilitator led large group debriefings to apply management and leadership theory to each case. The purpose of this paper is to review leadership challenges and management concepts as they were applied in a case-based faculty development workshop. The program was structured to address leadership challenges relating to managing people, mission management, conflict recognition, and conflict management. The cases were developed to relate management theories to situations in academic administration. The situations were designed to encourage debate from numerous perspectives. Each case presented general dilemmas that could be addressed from the vantage point of the dean, chair, or individual faculty member. Reinforcing discussion followed and included identification of central issues, key management concepts, and action alternatives. Because of the breadth of possible discussion, group case analyses at the workshop and in the appended case reviews explore only one perspective. This overview article introduces concepts of leadership and management that provide the foundation for analysis of three case studies that follow. These cases address common leadership and management issues in academic dentistry through three typical cases: the frustrated faculty member (case 1), the misdirected faculty member (case 2), and the faculty member stuck in the middle (case 3). PMID:12014566

  1. Minimizing uncertainty of daily rainfall interpolation over large catchments through realistic sampling of anisotropic correlogram parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyasi-Agyei, Yeboah

    2016-04-01

    It has been established that daily rainfall gauged network density is not adequate for the level of hydrological modelling required of large catchments involving pollutant and sediment transport, such as the catchments draining the coastal regions of Queensland, Australia, to the sensitive Great Barrier Reef. This paper seeks to establish a link between the spatial structure of radar and gauge rainfall for improved interpolation of the limited gauged data over a grid or functional units of catchments in regions with or without radar records. The study area is within Mt. Stapylton weather radar station range, a 128 km square region for calibration and validation, and the Brisbane river catchment for validation only. Two time periods (2000-01-01 to 2008-12-31 and 2009-01-01 to 2015-06-30) were considered, the later period for calibration when radar records were available and both time periods for validation without regard to radar information. Anisotropic correlograms of both the gauged and radar data were developed and used to establish the linkage required for areas without radar records. The maximum daily temperature significantly influenced the distributional parameters of the linkage. While the gauged, radar and sampled correlogram parameters reproduced the mean estimates similarly using leave-one-out cross-validation of Ordinary Kriging, the gauged parameters overestimated the standard deviation (SD) which reflects uncertainty by over 91% of cases compared with the radar or the sampled parameter sets. However, the distribution of the SD generated by the radar and the sampled correlogram parameters could not be distinguished, with a Kolmogorov-Smirnov test p-value of 0.52. For the validation case with the catchment, the percentage overestimation of SD by the gauged parameter sets decreased to 81.2% and 87.1% for the earlier and later time periods, respectively. It is observed that the extreme wet days' parameters and statistics were fairly widely distributed

  2. Application of Remote Sensing to Assess the Impact of Short Term Climate Variability on Coastal Sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Huh, Oscar K.; Walker, Nan D.; Rouse, Lawrence J.; Frey, Herbert V. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin and Louisiana State University have teamed to study the forcing of winter season cold frontal wind systems on sediment distribution patterns and geomorphology in the Louisiana coastal zone. Wind systems associated with cold fronts have been shown to modify coastal circulation and resuspend sediments along the microtidal Louisiana coast. The assessment includes quantifying the influence of cumulative winter season atmospheric forcing (through surface wind observations) from year to year in response to short term climate variability, such as El Nino events. A correlation between winter cyclone frequency and the strength of El Nino events has been suggested. The atmospheric forcing data are being correlated to geomorphic measurements along western Louisiana's prograding muddy coast. Remote sensing data is being used to map and track sediment distribution patterns for various wind conditions. Transferring a suspended sediment concentration (SSC) algorithm to EOS MODIS observations will enable estimates of SSC in case 2 waters over the global domain. Progress in Year 1 of this study has included data collection and analysis of wind observations for atmospheric forcing characterization, a field activity (TX-2001) to collect in situ water samples with co-incident remote sensing measurements from the NASA ER-2 based MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) and the EOS Terra based MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments, aerial photography and of sediment burial pipe field measurements along the prograding muddy Chenier Plain coast of western Louisiana for documenting coastal change in that dynamic region, and routine collection of MODIS 250 in resolution data for monitoring coastal sediment patterns. The data sets are being used in a process to transfer an SSC estimation algorithm to the MODIS platform. Work is underway on assessing coastal transport for the winter 2000-01 season. Water level data for use in a Geomorphic Impact

  3. Decadal-scale land cover change detection for the Carpathian Basin using remotely sensed data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartholy, J.; Pongracz, R.; Dezso, Zs.; Barcza, Z.; Bogardi, I.

    After a 20-30-year-long dry period in the last few years several serious flood events (Autumn, 1998; Springs, 1999, 2000, and 2001) occurred at the watershed of the Ukrainian and Hungarian parts of the river Tisza. Because of severe social, economical consequences of recent floods, enhanced public interest appeared to analyse and clarify the complex relationships between flood events and their possible reasons. In order to fulfil this demand several aspects of recently increased flood frequency and intensity must be scientifically investigated. They include recent very intense clear cutting of forest at headwaters (on steep slopes of the Eastern Carpathian Mountains), increased frequency of storms with intense precipitation, change in annual precipitation distribution over subcatchments, longer and colder winter with considerable snow accumulation, regional effect of global warming, etc. In this paper one of the potential effects is analysed, namely, the land-cover change of the upper part of the Tisza river basin. This area is shared by four countries (i.e., Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Hungary), the analysis presented here is accomplished on a subcatchment basis. For the separation of the watershed areas of tributary streams of the river Tisza the HYDRO1k Elevation Derivative Database has been used. Remotely sensed satellite information are considered, which guarantee appropriate spatial coverage for the seven selected subcatchments. In order to compare land-cover features between 1992-93 and 2000-01 the NOAA Global Land Cover Characteristics Data Base and the MODIS Land Cover Product have been applied. The aim of the analysis presented here is to answer whether or not the forest area at the headwaters of the river Tisza noticeably decreased during the last decade. Based on the results forest area decreased by 3-4% on average in the watershed of the Upper-Tisza river outside of Hungary.

  4. Laryngeal cancer mortality trends in European countries.

    PubMed

    Chatenoud, Liliane; Garavello, Werner; Pagan, Eleonora; Bertuccio, Paola; Gallus, Silvano; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Bosetti, Cristina

    2016-02-15

    After a steady increase between the 1950s and the 1970s, laryngeal cancer mortality has been levelling off since the early 1980s in men from most western and southern European countries and since the early 1990s in central and eastern Europe. To update trends in laryngeal cancer mortality, we analyzed data provided by the World Health Organization over the last two decades for 34 European countries and the European Union (EU) as a whole. For major European countries, we also identified significant changes in trends between 1980 and 2012 using joinpoint regression analysis. Male mortality in the EU was approximately constant between 1980 and 1991 (annual percent change, APC=-0.5%) and declined by 3.3% per year in 1991-2012. EU age-standardized (world population) rates were 4.7/100,000 in 1990-91 and 2.5/100,000 in 2010-2011. Rates declined in most European countries, particularly over the last two decades. In 2010-11, the highest male rates were in Hungary, the Republic of Moldova, and Romania (over 6/100,000), and the lowest ones in Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Switzerland (below 1/100,000). In EU women, mortality was stable around 0.29/100,000 between 1980 and 1994 and slightly decreased thereafter (APC=-1.3%; 0.23/100,000 in 2000-01). We also considered male incidence trends for nine European countries or cancer registration areas. In most of them, declines were observed over recent decades. Laryngeal cancer mortality thus showed favourable trends over the last few decades in most Europe, following favourable changes in tobacco and, mostly for Mediterranean countries, alcohol consumption. PMID:26335030

  5. National Diet and Nutrition Survey: UK food consumption and nutrient intakes from the first year of the rolling programme and comparisons with previous surveys

    PubMed Central

    Whitton, Clare; Nicholson, Sonja K; Roberts, Caireen; Prynne, Celia J; Pot, Gerda; Olson, Ashley; Fitt, Emily; Cole, Darren; Teucher, Birgit; Bates, Beverley; Henderson, Helen; Pigott, Sarah; Deverill, Claire; Swan, Gillian; Stephen, Alison M

    2011-01-01

    The National Diet and Nutrition Survey (NDNS) is a cross-sectional survey designed to gather data representative of the UK population on food consumption, nutrient intakes and nutritional status. The objectives of this paper were to identify and describe food consumption and nutrient intakes in the UK from the first year of the NDNS Rolling Programme (2008-09) and compare these with the 2000-01 NDNS of adults aged 19-64y and the 1997 NDNS of young people aged 4-18y. Differences in median daily food consumption and nutrient intakes between the surveys were compared by sex and age group (4-10y, 11-18y and 19-64y). There were no changes in energy, total fat or carbohydrate intakes between the surveys. Children 4-10y had significantly lower consumption of soft drinks (not low calorie), crisps and savoury snacks and chocolate confectionery in 2008-09 than in 1997 (all P< 0.0001). The percentage contribution of non-milk extrinsic sugars (NMES) to food energy was also significantly lower than in 1997 in children 4-10y (P< 0.0001), contributing 13.7-14.6% in 2008-09 compared with 16.8% in 1997. These changes were not as marked in older children and there were no changes in these foods and nutrients in adults. There was still a substantial proportion (46%) of girls 11-18y and women 19-64y (21%) with mean daily iron intakes below the Lower Reference Nutrient Intake (LRNI). Since previous surveys there have been some positive changes in intakes especially in younger children. However, further attention is required in other groups, in particular adolescent girls. PMID:21736781

  6. Global Distribution and Density of Constructed Impervious Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Tuttle, Benjamin T.; Sutton, Paul S.; Baugh, Kimberly E.; Howard, Ara T.; Milesi, Christina; Bhaduri, Budhendra L; Nemani, Ramakrishna R

    2007-01-01

    We present the first global inventory of the spatial distribution and density of constructed impervious surface area (ISA). Examples of ISA include roads, parking lots, buildings, driveways, sidewalks and other manmade surfaces. While high spatial resolution is required to observe these features, the product we made is at one km2 resolution and is based on two coarse resolution indicators of ISA. Inputs into the product include the brightness of satellite observed nighttime lights and population count. The reference data used in the calibration were derived from 30 meter resolution ISA estimates of the USA from the U.S. Geological Survey. Nominally the product is for the years 2000-01 since both the nighttime lights and reference data are from those two years. We found that 1.05% of the United States land area is impervious surface (83,337 km2) and 0.43 % of the world's land surface (579,703 km2) is constructed impervious surface. China has more ISA than any other country (87,182 km2), but has only 67 m2 of ISA per person, compared to 297 m2 per person in the USA. Hyrdologic and environmental impacts of ISA begin to be exhibited when the density of ISA reaches 10% of the land surface. An examination of the areas with 10% or more ISA in watersheds finds that with the exception of Europe, the majority of watershed areas have less than 0.4% of their area at or above the 10% ISA threshold. The authors believe the next step for improving the product is to include reference ISA data from many more areas around the world.

  7. Management and conservation of San Francisco Bay salt ponds: Effects of pond salinity, area, tide, and season on pacific flyway waterbirds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warnock, N.; Page, G.W.; Ruhlen, T.D.; Nur, N.; Takekawa, J.Y.; Hanson, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Throughout the world, coastal salt ponds provide habitat for large numbers and diversities of waterbirds. San Francisco Bay contains the most important coastal salt pond complexes for waterbirds in the United States, supporting more than a million waterbirds through the year. As an initial step in attempting to understand how the anticipated conversion of salt ponds to tidal marsh might affect the Bay's bird populations, the number of birds using salt ponds on high and low tides was counted during the winter months of 1999/00 and 2000/01. Behavior and habitat use of birds in these ponds were assessed, and the effects of tide cycle, pond salinity, and pond area on bird use were examined. We recorded 75 species of waterbirds in surveys of salt ponds in the South Bay from September 1999 to February 2001, totaling over a million bird use days on high tide. Shorebirds and dabbling ducks were the most abundant groups of birds using the salt ponds. Waterbird numbers and diversity were significantly affected by the salinity of ponds in a non-linear fashion with lower numbers and diversity on the highest salinity ponds. With the exception of ducks and Eared Grebe (Podiceps nigricollis), tide height at the Bay significantly affected bird numbers in the salt ponds with ponds at high tides having higher numbers of birds than the same ponds on low tides. Considerable numbers of birds fed in the salt ponds on high and low tides, although this varied greatly by species. Habitat use varied by tide. Management recommendations include maintaining ponds of varying salinities and depths. Restoring salt ponds to tidal marsh should proceed with caution to avoid loss of waterbird diversity and numbers in San Francisco Bay.

  8. Determinants of patient adherence: a review of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Kardas, Przemyslaw; Lewek, Pawel; Matyjaszczyk, Michal

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: A number of potential determinants of medication non-adherence have been described so far. However, the heterogenic quality of existing publications poses the need for the use of a rigorous methodology in building a list of such determinants. The purpose of this study was a systematic review of current research on determinants of patient adherence on the basis of a recently agreed European consensus taxonomy and terminology. Methods: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, IPA, and PsycINFO were systematically searched for systematic reviews published between 2000/01/01 and 2009/12/31 that provided determinants on non-adherence to medication. The searches were limited to reviews having adherence to medication prescribed by health professionals for outpatient as a major topic. Results: Fifty-one reviews were included in this review, covering 19 different disease categories. In these reviews, exclusively assessing non-adherence to chronic therapies, 771 individual factor items were identified, of which most were determinants of implementation, and only 47—determinants of persistence with medication. Factors with an unambiguous effect on adherence were further grouped into 8 clusters of socio-economic-related factors, 6 of healthcare team- and system-related factors, 6 of condition-related factors, 6 of therapy-related factors, and 14 of patient-related factors. The lack of standardized definitions and use of poor measurement methods resulted in many inconsistencies. Conclusions: This study provides clear evidence that medication non-adherence is affected by multiple determinants. Therefore, the prediction of non-adherence of individual patients is difficult, and suitable measurement and multifaceted interventions may be the most effective answer toward unsatisfactory adherence. The limited number of publications assessing determinants of persistence with medication, and lack of those providing determinants of adherence to short-term treatment identify

  9. Does Parental Divorce Increase Risk Behaviors among 15/16 and 18/19 year-old Adolescents? A Study from Oslo, Norway

    PubMed Central

    Zeratsion, Henok; Bjertness, Cecilie B; Lien, Lars; Haavet, Ole R; Dalsklev, Madeleine; Halvorsen, Jon A; Bjertness, Espen; Claussen, Bjørgulf

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported an increase in risk behaviors among adolescents after experience of parental divorce. The aim of the study was to investigate whether parental divorce is associated with risk behavior among adolescents independent of mental health problems, first when early divorce was experienced, and second after experience of late parental divorce. Method: One prospective (n=1861) and one cross-sectional study (n=2422) were conducted using data from two Young-HUBRO surveys in Oslo, Norway. All 15/16 year-old 10th grade students who participated in the first survey in the school year 2000/01 were followed-up in 2004 when they were 18/19 year-olds. The follow-up rate was 68%. The prospective study investigated the influence of late parental divorce that occurred between the age of 15/16 and 18/19. In the cross-sectional study we focused on early parental divorce that occurred before the participants were 15/16 year-old. Results:In the prospective study we could not discern a significant association between experiencing late parental divorce and an increase in risk behaviors among 18/19 year-old adolescents. In the cross-sectional study parental divorce was significantly associated with cigarette smoking and using doping agents. Conclusion: Parental divorce that occurs when the children of divorced parents are 15/16 year-old or younger is associated with an increase in cigarette smoking and use of doping agents. However, no evidence of significant association is found between experience of late parental divorce and risk behaviors in late adolescence. PMID:25006342

  10. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  11. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

    PubMed Central

    Upadhyay, D.; Patel, B. H. M.; Sahu, S.; Gaur, G. K.; Singh, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly. Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.). Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study. Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality. PMID:27047020

  12. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, William S.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  13. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2008/09.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2012-08-01

    hospital services, there was an increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2008/09, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from inpatient to day patient care. 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43.1% in 2007/08, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. Compared with the preceding year, expenditure on hospitals increased by HK$2935 million in 2008/09, whereas the corresponding increase for providers of ambulatory health care was only HK$919 million. As a result, the hospital share rebounded a little to 44.0% of total health spending, whereas that of providers of ambulatory health care dropped to 29.1%. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$39 301 million (48.4% of total current expenditure) in 2008/09 with the remaining HK$41 885 million made up from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (76.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (48.9%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.8% of total current spending), the patterns of distribution among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (51.8%) and substantially less on out-patient care (25.1%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.6%), whereas in-patient care (23.4%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (22.5%) accounted for the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding (either general government revenue or social security funds) in Hong Kong was also lower than that in most economies

  14. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2009/10.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2013-04-01

    -patient curative care (27.3%), day patient hospital services (4.9%) and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding the small share of total spending for day patient hospital services, there was an increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2009/10, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped steadily to 43% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2009/10. This trend was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of epidemics that were of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last 2 decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$40,951 million (48.2% of total current expenditure) in 2009/10. The remaining HK$43,923 expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (50.9%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.0% of total current spending), the distribution patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (48.9%) and substantially less on out-patient care (26.0%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.4%), whereas in-patient care (23.3%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.5%) accounted for the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has

  15. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C

    2015-06-01

    increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 42% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2011/12, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. As a result of the epidemics which are of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and the expansion of private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$45,321 million (46.9% of total current expenditure) in 2011/12 with the remaining HK$51,251 million made up of private sources of funds. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.2%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.1% of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.3%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.4%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.7%), whereas in-patient care (24.7%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding

  16. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    /90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social

  17. Avian influenza in the Western Hemisphere including the Pacific Islands and Australia.

    PubMed

    Senne, D A

    2003-01-01

    Between 1997 and 2001, there was one report of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in the Western Hemisphere and Pacific Basin. In 1997, in New South Wales, Australia, an outbreak caused by avian influenza (AI) virus subtype H7N4 involved both chickens and emus. All other reports of infections in poultry and isolations from wild bird species in the region pertained to low pathogenicity (LP) AI virus. Animal Health Officials in Canada reported isolations of subtypes H1, H6, H7, and H10 from domestic poultry and subtypes H3 and H13 from imported and wild bird species. In Mexico, the H5N2 LPAI virus, the precursor of the HPAI outbreak in 1994-95, was isolated from poultry in each year from 1997 to 2001. Since 1997, Mexico has used approximately 708 million doses of a killed H5N2 vaccine and an additional 459 million doses of a recombinant fowlpox-H5 vaccine in their H5N2 control program. In Central America, avian influenza was diagnosed for the first time when H5N2 LPAI virus was isolated from chickens in Guatemala and El Salvador in 2000 and 2001, respectively. The H5N2 virus was genetically similar to the H5N2 virus found in Mexico. Surveillance activities in the United States resulted in the detection of AI virus or specific antibodies in domestic poultry from 24 states. Eleven of the fifteen hemagglutinin (H1, H2, H3, H4, H5, H6, H7, H9, H10, H11, and H13) and eight of the nine neuraminidase (N1, N2, N3, N4, N6, N7, N8, and N9) subtypes were identified. Two outbreaks of LPAI virus were reported in commercial table-egg producing chickens; one caused by H7N2 virus in Pennsylvania in 1996-98 and the other caused by H6N2 virus in California in 2000-01. In addition, isolations of H5 and H7 LPAI virus were recovered from the live-bird markets (LBMs) in the northeast United States. PMID:14575067

  18. A preliminary study on the relationship between Arctic Oscillation and daily SLP variance in the Northern Hemisphere during wintertime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Daoyi; Drange, Helge

    2005-06-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the relationship between the Arctic Oscillation (AO) and the high-frequency variability of daily sea level pressures in the Northern Hemisphere in winter (November through March), using NCEP/NCAR reanalysis datasets for the time period of 1948/49 2000/01. High-frequency signals are defined as those with timescales shorter than three weeks and measured in terms of variance, for each winter for each grid. The correlations between monthly mean AO index and high-frequency variance are conducted. A predominant feature is that several regional centers with high correlation show up in the middle to high latitudes. Significant areas include midto high-latitude Asia centered at Siberia, northern Europe and the middle-latitude North Atlantic east of northern Africa. Their strong correlations can also be confirmed by the singular value decomposition analysis of covariance between mean SLP and high-frequency variance. This indicates that the relationship of AO with daily Sea Level Pressure (SLP) is confined to some specific regions in association with the inherent atmospheric dynamics. In middle-latitude Asia, there is a significant (at the 95% level) trend of variance of -2.26% (10 yr)-1. Another region that displays a strong trend is the northwestern Pacific with a significant rate of change of 0.80% (10 yr)-1. If the winter of 1948/49, an apparent outlier, is excluded, a steady linear trend of +1.51% (10 yr)-1 shows up in northern Europe. The variance probability density functions (PDFs) are found to change in association with different AO phases. The changes corresponding to high and low AO phases, however, are asymmetric in these regions. Some regions such as northern Europe display much stronger changes in high AO years, whereas some other regions such as Siberia show a stronger connection to low AO conditions. These features are supported by ECMWF reanalysis data. However, the dynamical mechanisms involved in the AO

  19. Reconstruction of the West Pacific ENSO precipitation anomaly using the compound-specific hydrogen isotopic record of marine lake sediments of Palau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smittenberg, R. H.; Sachs, J. P.; Dawson, M. N.

    2004-12-01

    There is still much uncertainty whether the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) will become stronger or more frequent in a warming global climate. A principal reason for this uncertainty stems from a glaring lack of paleoclimate data in the equatorial Pacific, which hampers model validation. To partly resolve this data deficiency, sediments of three marine anoxic lakes were cored in Palau, an island group that lies in the heart of the West Pacific Warm Pool. The lakes contain seawater that seeps through fissures in the surrounding karst, and they are permanently stratified due to fresh water input provided by the year-round wet climate (map 1970-2000 = 3.7m). During ENSO events, however, the islands suffer from drought. The surface water hydrogen isotopic compositions in the lakes are sensitive to the relative proportions of D-depleted rainwater and D-enriched seawater, and are therefore sensitive to ENSO events. The lake surface water H/D values are recorded by algal and bacterial biomarkers that are preserved well in the highly organic and anoxic sediments, which accumulate relatively fast (mean 1 mm/yr). Ongoing down core measurement will eventually result in a precipitation proxy record of the islands. To obtain endmember D/H values, a comprehensive set of water samples from sea, lakes and rain water was obtained, as well as suspended particulate matter. Higher plant biomarker D/H values derived from the jungle vegetation surrounding the lakes may render supporting climatic proxy data, being influenced by evapotranspiration. Some lakes are inhabited by millions of jellyfish (Mastigias) that live in symbiosis with zooxanthellae. The jellyfish of one of the investigated lakes disappeared completely after the last large ENSO event in 1998 (returning in 2000-01), and a correlation is suggested. To reconstruct the history of jellyfish occurrence, jellyfish and sedimentary lipids were extracted and compared. In addition to a possible ENSO proxy record, this

  20. Data Mining of Modis Time-Series to Investigate Land Use Conversion to Sugarcane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mello, M. P.; Alves de Aguiar, D.; Rudorff, B.

    2011-12-01

    Human activities can cause land use and land cover changes (LULCC) that vary over space and time. Remote sensing satellite imagery provides a valuable tool to monitor global environmental changes. The MODIS sensors on board of Terra and Aqua satellites have provided high quality images that have been widely used in LULCC studies throughout the world. The MODIS sensors acquire images over the entire Earth on almost daily bases generating a huge amount of data that require powerful computational tools provided with adequate statistical methods for information extraction and analyses. Recently, metrics extracted from time-series of remotely sensed data have been used to describe the behavior of these time-series (mean, minimum and maximum values, and amplitude). These metrics are then used to define the input attributes in the process of data mining (classification) of the time-series. Within this context the objective of the present work is to apply data mining techniques to automatically classify time-series of MODIS vegetation index (EVI-2) in order to provide the history of land use conversion of sugarcane expansion in the South-Central region of Brazil, over a period of nine crop years from 2000 to 2009. Firstly, 1035 MODIS pixels were randomly selected over recent sugarcane expansion fields. The time-series for each of these pixels were visually interpreted assigning, to each crop year, one of the following classes: pasture, annual crop, citrus, forest and sugarcane. Multitemporal Landsat images were used to assist the visual interpretation procedure. After visual interpretation two thirds of the pixels were used to train the decision tree classifier implemented in WEKA software. The remaining third of pixels was used for accuracy assessment. Considering the crop year 2000/01, the classification result showed that about 70% and 25% of sugarcane expansion was over pasture and annual crop land, respectively. The overall accuracy index was greater than 80

  1. Upper gastrointestinal bleeding in Scotland 2000-2010: Improved outcomes but a significant weekend effect

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Asma; Armstrong, Matthew; Robertson, Ishbel; Morris, Allan John; Blatchford, Oliver; Stanley, Adrian J

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess numbers and case fatality of patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), effects of deprivation and whether weekend presentation affected outcomes. METHODS: Data was obtained from Information Services Division (ISD) Scotland and National Records of Scotland (NRS) death records for a ten year period between 2000-2001 and 2009-2010. We obtained data from the ISD Scottish Morbidity Records (SMR01) database which holds data on inpatient and day-case hospital discharges from non-obstetric and non-psychiatric hospitals in Scotland. The mortality data was obtained from NRS and linked with the ISD SMR01 database to obtain 30-d case fatality. We used 23 ICD-10 (International Classification of diseases) codes which identify UGIB to interrogate database. We analysed these data for trends in number of hospital admissions with UGIB, 30-d mortality over time and assessed effects of social deprivation. We compared weekend and weekday admissions for differences in 30-d mortality and length of hospital stay. We determined comorbidities for each admission to establish if comorbidities contributed to patient outcome. RESULTS: A total of 60643 Scottish residents were admitted with UGIH during January, 2000 and October, 2009. There was no significant change in annual number of admissions over time, but there was a statistically significant reduction in 30-d case fatality from 10.3% to 8.8% (P < 0.001) over these 10 years. Number of admissions with UGIB was higher for the patients from most deprived category (P < 0.05), although case fatality was higher for the patients from the least deprived category (P < 0.05). There was no statistically significant change in this trend between 2000/01-2009/10. Patients admitted with UGIB at weekends had higher 30-d case fatality compared with those admitted on weekdays (P < 0.001). Thirty day mortality remained significantly higher for patients admitted with UGIB at weekends after adjusting for comorbidities. Length of

  2. A view of annual water quality cycle and inter-annual variations in agricultural headwater catchment (Kervidy-Naizin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aubert, A.; Gascuel-odoux, C.; Merot, P.; Grimaldi, C.; Gruau, G.; Ruiz, L.

    2011-12-01

    Climatic conditions impact biotransformation and transfer of solutes. Therefore, they modify solute emissions in streams. Studying these modifications requires long term and detailed monitoring of both internal processes and river loads, which are rarely combined. The Kervidy-Naizin catchment, implemented in 1993, is part of the French network of catchment for environmental research (SOERE RBV, focused on the Critical Zone). It is an intensive agricultural catchment located in a temperate climate in Western France (Brittany) (Molenat et al., 2008; Morel et al., 2009). It presents shallow aquifers due to impervious bedrock. Both hydrology and water chemistry are monitored with a daily time step since 2000-01, as well as possible explanatory data (land use, meteorology, etc.). Concentrations in major anions in this catchment are extremely high, which make people call it a "saturated" catchment. We identified annual patterns for chloride, sulphate, dissolved organic and inorganic carbon and nitrate concentration variations. First, we considered the complete set of concentration data as function of the time. From that, we foresaw 3 cyclic temporal patterns. Then, from representing the concentrations as function of meteorological parameters, intra-annual hysteretic variations and their inter-annual variations were clearly identified. Our driving question is to know if and how climatic conditions are responsible for variations of the patterns in and between years. In winter, i.e. rainy and cold period, rainfall is closely linked to discharge because of a direct recharge to the shallow groundwater. Reversely, in transition periods (spring and fall) and hot periods, both rainfall and temperature influences discharge in relation to their range of variations. Moreover, biological processes, driven by temperature and wetness, also act during these periods. On the whole, we can emphasize the specificity of water chemistry patterns for each element. Noticeable differences

  3. Regional Variations in U.S. Diurnal Temperature Range for the 11 14 September 2001 Aircraft Groundings: Evidence of Jet Contrail Influence on Climate.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, David J.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Lauritsen, Ryan G.

    2004-03-01

    The grounding of all commercial aircraft within U.S. airspace for the 3-day period following the 11 September 2001 terrorist attacks provides a unique opportunity to study the potential role of jet aircraft contrails in climate. Contrails are most similar to natural cirrus clouds due to their high altitude and strong ability to efficiently reduce outgoing infrared radiation. However, they typically have a higher albedo than cirrus; thus, they are better at reducing the surface receipt of incoming solar radiation. These contrail characteristics potentially suppress the diurnal temperature range (DTR) when contrail coverage is both widespread and relatively long lasting over a specific region. During the 11 14 September 2001 grounding period natural clouds and contrails were noticeably absent on high-resolution satellite imagery across the regions that typically receive abundant contrail coverage. A previous analysis of temperature data for the grounding period reported an anomalous increase in the U.S.-averaged, 3-day DTR value. Here, the spatial variation of the DTR anomalies as well as the separate contributions from the maximum and minimum temperature departures are analyzed. These analyses are undertaken to better evaluate the role of jet contrail absence and synoptic weather patterns during the grounding period on the DTR anomalies.It is shown that the largest DTR increases occurred in regions where contrail coverage is typically most prevalent during the fall season (from satellite-based contrail observations for the 1977 79 and 2000 01 periods). These DTR increases occurred even in those areas reporting positive departures of tropospheric humidity, which may reduce DTR, during the grounding period. Also, there was an asymmetric departure from the normal maximum and minimum temperatures suggesting that daytime temperatures responded more to contrail absence than did nighttime temperatures, which responded more to synoptic conditions. The application of a

  4. Using Health Utility Index (HUI) for measuring the impact on health-related quality of Life (HRQL) among individuals with chronic diseases.

    PubMed

    Mo, Frank; Choi, Bernard C K; Li, Felix C K; Merrick, Joav

    2004-08-27

    Quality of life is an important indicator in assessing the burden of disease, especially for chronic conditions. The Health Utilities Index (HUI) is a recently developed system for measuring the overall health status and health-related quality of life (HRQL) of individuals, clinical groups, and general populations. Using the HUI (constructed based on eight attributes: vision, hearing, speech, mobility, dexterity, cognition, emotion, and pain/discomfort) to measure the HRQL for chronic disease patients and to detect possible associations between HUI system and various chronic conditions, this study provides information to improve the management of chronic diseases. This study is of interest to data analysts, policy makers, and public health practitioners involved in descriptive clinical studies, clinical trials, program evaluation, population health planning, and assessments. Based on the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) for 2000-01, the HUI was used to measure the quality of life for individuals living with various chronic conditions (Alzheimer/other dementia, effects of stroke, urinary incontinence, arthritis/rheumatism, bowel disorder, cataracts, back problems, stomach/intestinal ulcers, emphysema/COPD, chronic bronchitis, epilepsy, heart disease, diabetes, migraine headaches, glaucoma, asthma, fibromyalgia, cancers, high blood pressure, multiple sclerosis, thyroid condition, and other remaining chronic diseases). Logistic Regression Model was employed to estimate the associations between the overall HUI scores and various chronic conditions. The HUI scores ranged from 0.00 (corresponding to a state close to death) to 1.00 (corresponding to perfect health); negative scores reflect health states considered worse than death. The mean HUI score by sex and age group indicated the typical quality of life for persons with various chronic conditions. Logistic Regression results showed a strong relationship between low HUI scores (< or = 0.5 and 0.06-1.0) and

  5. An ENSO prediction approach based on ocean conditions and ocean-atmosphere coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-heng; Hu, Zeng-Zhen; Ding, Ruiqiang; Chen, Han-ching

    2016-05-01

    A simple statistical model for the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) prediction is derived based on the evolution of the ocean heat condition and the oceanic Kelvin wave propagation associated with westerly wind events (WWEs) and easterly wind surges (EWSs) in the tropical Pacific. The multivariate linear regression model solely relies on the pentad thermocline depth anomaly evolution in 25 days along with the zonal surface wind modulation. It successfully hindcasts all ENSOs except for the 2000/01 La Niña, using the pentad (or monthly) mean tropical atmosphere ocean array data since 1994 with an averaged skill (measured by anomaly correlation) of 0.62 (or 0.67) with a 6-month lead. The exception is mainly due to the long-lasting cold sea surface temperature anomalies in the subtropics resulting from the strong 1998/99 La Niña, even though the tropical warm water volume (WWV) had rebounded and turned phases after 2000. We also note that the hindcast skill is comparable using pentad or monthly mean NCEP global ocean data assimilation system data for the same time period. The hindcast skill of the proposed statistical model is better than that based on the WWV index in terms of the monthly correlation, normalized RMSEs and ENSO occurrences, which suggest that including the evolution of the subsurface ocean temperature anomaly and the WWEs/EWSs in the central tropical Pacific can enhance the ability to predict ENSO. The hindcast skill is also comparable to the predictions using other dynamical and statistical models, indicating that these processes are the keys to ENSO development. The dynamics behind the statistical model are consistent with the physical processes of ENSO development as follows: the tropical WWV resulting from the interannually-varying meridional subtropical cell transport provides a sufficient heat source. When the seasonal phase lock of ocean-atmosphere coupling triggers the positive (negative) zonal wind anomaly in boreal summer and fall, an

  6. Probabilistic rainfall anomalies over Amazonia associated with ENSO events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    sansigolo, clovis

    2014-05-01

    ENSO extreme events are associated with climatic extremes over many regions of the globe. Over Amazonia, El Niño and La Niña events are respectively associated with below and above normal rainfall anomalies in the wet season (Sept - May). Correlations and regressions are the methods commonly used for composite analyses. They assume linear interactions between SST anomalies and the expected climatic anomalies, no inter-events differences, symmetries between El Niño and La Niña climatic impacts, and normality of rainfall anomalies, assumptions not found in some regions. A simple and robust alternative method uses contingency tables to assess the influence of an independent variable (El Niño/La Niña) on the probability of a predefined climatic event (e.g. rainfall anomaly tercil). Monthly rainfall data in 30 stations distributed over the region (1950/51 - 2000/01) were used in this work. Seasonal rainfall anomalies were sorted and allocated in tercils corresponding to below, near and above normal categories. Standardized seasonal averages of Niño 3.4 indices were used to assess the phase impact of the 11 strongest El Niño and La Niña events observed in the period. The significance of the number of times that simultaneous and 1 to 3 months lagged rainfall anomalies during ENSO extreme events were in each considered tercil was calculated using 3x2 contingency tables. The significance of the results was assessed using a hypothesis test based on the hypergeometric distribution. Simultaneous and 1 to 3 months lagged below normal rainfall in the northern and central part of the region were significant associated with El Niño in the austral summer (mature phase). In their typical development (SON) phase they were significant associated with below normal rainfall in central Amazonia, simultaneously and 3 months lagged. La Niñas in their development phases (SON) were significantly associated with above normal rainfall in the beginning of the rainy season in eastern

  7. Delineating priority habitat areas for the conservation of Andean bears in northern Ecuador

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peralvo, M.F.; Cuesta, F.; Van Manen, F.

    2005-01-01

    We sought to identify priority areas for the conservation of Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) habitat in the northern portion of the eastern Andean cordillera in Ecuador. The study area included pa??ramo and montane forest habitats within the Antisana and Cayambe-Coca ecological reserves, and unprotected areas north of these reserves with elevations ranging from 1,800 to 4,300 m. We collected data on bear occurrence along 53 transects during 2000-01 in the Oyacachi River basin, an area of indigenous communities within the Cayambe-Coca Ecological Reserve. We used those data and a set of 7 environmental variables to predict suitability of Andean bear habitat using Mahalanobis distance, a multivariate measure of dissimilarity. The Mahalanobis distance values were classified into 5 classes of habitat suitability and generalized to a resolution of 1,650-m ?? 1,650-m grid cells. Clusters of grid cells with high suitability values were delineated from the generalized model and denned as important habitat areas (IHAs) for conservation. The IHAs were ranked using a weighted index that included factors of elevation range, influence from disturbed areas, and current conservation status. We identified 12 IHAs, which were mainly associated with pa??ramo and cloud forest habitats; 2 of these areas have high conservation priorities because they are outside existing reserves and close to areas of human pressure. The distribution of the IHAs highlighted the role of human land use as the main source of fragmentation of Andean bear habitat in this region, emphasizing the importance of preserving habitat connectivity to allow the seasonal movements among habitat types that we documented for this species. Furthermore, the existence of areas with high habitat suitability close to areas of intense human use indicates the importance of bear-human conflict management as a critical Andean bear conservation strategy. We suggest that a promising conservation opportunity for this species is

  8. Improving Approaches for Determining Ice Volume Change on the Greenland Ice Sheet Margin using ASTER and SPOT Digital Elevation Models and Spectral Masking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, K. N.; Rhodes, T.; Tulaczyk, S. M.; Finfrock, A.; Lajoie, L.

    2009-12-01

    The Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS) is the largest ice sheet in the Northern Hemisphere and understanding trends in its mass balance has important implications for predicting global sea level rise. High relief topography along the margin of the GIS makes it difficult to use low-resolution remote sensing to resolve ice elevations. These marginal regions however, tend to be more dynamic than the interior of the ice sheet and may show signs of ice volume loss earlier than the interior. In this study we difference georeferenced ASTER digital elevation models (DEMs) from 2000-01 (30 meter resolution) with SPOT DEMs from 2008-09 (40 meter resolution) made available through the SPIRIT IPY program. ASTER DEMs from 2006-07 are used where SPOT data is not available. The change in these DEMs is divided by the time elapsed between scenes giving change in km3 per year. The method used for DEM production is not accurate over low contrast surfaces such as water, and snow. High relief bedrock can also have more error than areas of glacial ice due to slope. Masking snow, water, and rock from scenes minimizes total error. Most methods of spectral masking available in the literature rely on establishing thresholds for a scene which separate snow from ice from water. In order to apply these methods to multiple scenes taken at different latitudes, seasons, and sun altitudes, a new set of thresholds need to be developed for each scene which proves to be a very time intensive process. When covering large areas with a mosaic of scenes, these methods have not proven applicable. We have developed a method of nesting masks which allows for faster and less subjective trial-and-error threshold setting. This method can be applied to a range of scenes with little to no individual manipulation giving a repeatable result. The first mask eliminates most bedrock with a negative NDSI and fjord water and sea ice with an elevation of about 0. A principal components analysis (PCA) is done under this mask for

  9. Climatological characterization of wind and snowfall in Minnesota and assessing the impacts of living snow fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shulski, Martha Elizabeth Durr

    Blowing and drifting snow on roadways is a common occurrence in Minnesota due to the topographic, vegetative, and winter climate characteristics of this area. Through proper road design and the use of snow fences this problem can be alleviated, however snowfall and wind climatological information must first be analyzed. Archived climatological records for locations in Minnesota were recently compiled. Snowfall time series data show a statistically significant increase of 28cm in the annual total since 1890. The increase is shown to occur for November--December while February and March show a decrease. This increase is largely due to an increase in the frequency of snow events less than 10cm. Wind data from federal observing sites in Minnesota show a correlation to landscape variability, with a high frequency of higher wind speeds in western and southern Minnesota. A snow relocation factor needed to quantify seasonal snow transport was calculated and shows a strong dependence on the wind speed distribution. A case study of the 2000--01 winter season allowed for examination of snow storage and agricultural implications of three living snow fence designs in southern Minnesota (two 8-row strips of corn, twin-row honeysuckle, single-row honeysuckle/red cedar). For a winter with high seasonal snowfall and spring rainfall, results of snow storage and modeled seasonal snow transport show good agreement for the two corn row strips. However, snow storage totaled approximately 50% of the modeled snow transport for the honeysuckle fence designs, which appeared to reach storage capacity prior to the end of the snow season. A key factor is the absence of a bottom gap, which promotes leeward displacement of the downwind drift and prevents snow deposition on the fence. Soil temperature and frost depth data show a moderation in temperatures and a decrease in freezing depth with an increase in associated snowpack depth. Post-season soil moisture shows no significant variability with

  10. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  11. Investigating the activity of the Campi Flegrei caldera (Italy) through remote and in situ sensors (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trasatti, E.; Polcari, M.; Bignami, C.; Bonafede, M.; Buongiorno, F.; Stramondo, S.

    2013-12-01

    Campi Flegrei is a nested caldera in Italy, whose structure includes submerged and continental parts at the western edge of the Bay of Naples. Together with Vesuvius and Etna, it is one of the Italian GeoHazard Supersites. The last eruption took place in 1538 A.D. and since then intense degassing, seismic swarms and several episodes of ground uplift have been observed. The area is characterized by one of the highest volcanic hazard in the world, due to the very high density of inhabitants. A major unrest episode took place in 1982-84, when the town of Pozzuoli, located at the caldera center, was uplifted by 1.80 m (~1 m/yr). During the following decades the area has been generally subsiding but minor uplift episodes of the order of few cm, seismic swarms and degassing episodes took place in 1989, 2000-01 and 2004-06, showing that the caldera is in a critical state on the verge of instability. Since March 1970 leveling surveys were regularly carried out to monitor the elevation changes. In the following decades many efforts have been done to monitor the different aspects of the activity of the area, and nowadays Campi Flegrei is subjected to intense geodetic, geophysical and geochemical monitoring. In the last 30 years a number of geophysical investigations has provided important constraints to the description of the subsurface structure and the historical volcanic activity. Surface deformation, microgravity changes and geochemical anomalies at Campi Flegrei have been interpreted either in terms of instabilities of the hydrothermal system or variations in the magmatic source. In particular, discerning between magmatic vs hydrothermal origin of the source responsible of the large uplift episode during 1982-84 (most probably due to deep magmatic source) and of the mini-uplifts (e.g. 2000 and 2004-06, most probably due to pressure variations in the shallow aquifer) may have important implications in terms of civil protection. In the last two decades, the precise and

  12. Impacts of Changing Climate on Agricultural Variability: Implications for Smallholder Farmers in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, P.; Jain, M.; DeFries, R. S.; Galford, G. L.; Small, C.

    2013-12-01

    Agriculture is the largest employment sector in India, where food productivity, and thus food security, is highly dependent on seasonal rainfall and temperature. Projected increase in temperature, along with less frequent but intense rainfall events, will have a negative impact on crop productivity in India in the coming decades. These changes, along with continued ground water depletion, could have serious implications for Indian smallholder farmers, who are among some of the most vulnerable communities to climatic and economic changes. Hence baseline information on agricultural sensitivity to climate variability is important for strategies and policies that promote adaptation to climate variability. This study examines how cropping patterns in different agro-ecological zones in India respond to variations in precipitation and temperature. We specifically examine: a) which climate variables most influence crop cover for monsoon and winter crops? and b) how does the sensitivity of crop cover to climate variability vary in different agro-ecological regions with diverse socio-economic factors? We use remote sensing data (2000-01 - 2012-13) for cropping patterns (developed using MODIS satellite data), climate parameters (derived from MODIS and TRMM satellite data) and agricultural census data. We initially assessed the importance of these climate variables in two agro-ecoregions: a predominantly groundwater irrigated, cash crop region in western India, and a region in central India primarily comprised of rain-fed or surface water irrigated subsistence crops. Seasonal crop cover anomaly varied between -25% and 25% of the 13-year mean in these two regions. Predominantly climate-dependent region in central India showed high anomalies up to 200% of the 13-year crop cover mean, especially during winter season. Winter daytime mean temperature is overwhelmingly the most important climate variable for winter crops irrespective of the varied biophysical and socio

  13. Airborne Radar Sounding and Ice Thickness Measurements over Lake Vostok, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, M. E.; Blankenship, D. D.; Morse, D. L.; Holt, J. W.; Kempf, S. D.; Richter, T. G.; Falola, B.; Oliason, S.

    2002-05-01

    Lake Vostok was discovered using airborne ice-sounding radar in East Antarctica during the mid 1970's, but interest in this largest known subglacial lake has increased in recent years. Frozen microbial discoveries from ice cores taken just above Lake Vostok suggest its potential for being an isolated biological ecosystem. Also, the lake's unique combination of glaciologic, hydrologic and geological processes make it a possible terrestrial analogue for sub-ice water on other planetary bodies. Satellite radar has mapped the spatial extent of the lake from surface topography, and Russian ground traverses have gathered radar and seismic data along select profiles, but the full subglacial environment has remained uncharted. In response to a proposal by R.E. Bell and M. Studinger at Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory, the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) conducted an airborne geophysical survey over Lake Vostok and its surroundings during the 2000/01 field season. The survey included 21,000 line-km of geophysical observations with a line spacing of 7.5 km and a tie-line spacing of 11.25 or 22.5 km. The instrument suite included incoherent ice-sounding radar, laser altimetry, and precise GPS positioning and navigation, as well as airborne gravity and magnetics measurements. The radar system consisted of a 60 MHz, 8000 watt peak power transmitter operating in pulsed continuous-wave mode at 12.5 kHz (with 250 ns pulse width), a log-detection incoherent receiver (with 80 dB dynamic range), and a signal digitizer with a unique capability to average signals rapidly. Incoherent radar observations constructed from 2048 averaged transmissions occurred roughly every 12 m along-track. Ice thicknesses in excess of 4000 m were routinely sounded over Lake Vostok using this system. In addition to the incoherent radar, a new acquisition system was developed on an experimental basis to coherently integrate radar signals utilizing synthetic aperture radar techniques

  14. Synoptic climatological analyses on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability (Comparing with that in East Asia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kuranoshin; Hamaki, Tatsuya; Haga, Yuichi; Otani, Kazuo; Kato, Haruko

    2016-04-01

    There are many stages with rapid seasonal transitions in East Asia, greatly influenced by the considerable phase differences of seasonal cycle among the Asian monsoon subsystems, resulting in the variety of "seasonal feeling". The seasonal cycle has been an important background for generation of the many kinds of arts also in Europe around the western edge of the Eurasian Continent. Especially around Germany, there are so many music or literature works in which the "May" is treated as the special season. However, more detailed examination and its comparison with that in East Asia about the seasonal evolution from winter to spring including before May would be interesting. Deeper knowledge on the seasonal cycle would contribute greatly to the cultural understanding as mentioned above, as well as for considering the detailed response of the regional climate to the global-scale impacts such as the global warming. As such, the present study examined, based mainly on the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data during 1971-2010, the synoptic climatological features on the seasonal transition from winter to spring in Europe also with attention to the day-to-day variability, by comparing with those in East Asia (detailed analyses were made mainly for 2000/01 - 2010/11 winters). Around the region from Germany to Turkey, the surface air temperature (TS) showed rather larger day-to-day variation (including the interannual or intraseasonal variation) throughout a year than in the Japan Islands area in East Asia. Especially from December to March (the minimum period of the climatological TS in the European side), the day-to-day variation was extremely great around Germany and its northern region (to the north of around 45N/10E). Thus, the extremely low temperature events sometimes appeared around Germany till the end of March, although the seasonal mean TS was not so considerably low. The day-to-day variation of sea level pressure (SLP) was also very large where such large amplitude of TS

  15. Evaluation of wholesale electric power market rules and financial risk management by agent-based simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Nanpeng

    As U.S. regional electricity markets continue to refine their market structures, designs and rules of operation in various ways, two critical issues are emerging. First, although much experience has been gained and costly and valuable lessons have been learned, there is still a lack of a systematic platform for evaluation of the impact of a new market design from both engineering and economic points of view. Second, the transition from a monopoly paradigm characterized by a guaranteed rate of return to a competitive market created various unfamiliar financial risks for various market participants, especially for the Investor Owned Utilities (IOUs) and Independent Power Producers (IPPs). This dissertation uses agent-based simulation methods to tackle the market rules evaluation and financial risk management problems. The California energy crisis in 2000-01 showed what could happen to an electricity market if it did not go through a comprehensive and rigorous testing before its implementation. Due to the complexity of the market structure, strategic interaction between the participants, and the underlying physics, it is difficult to fully evaluate the implications of potential changes to market rules. This dissertation presents a flexible and integrative method to assess market designs through agent-based simulations. Realistic simulation scenarios on a 225-bus system are constructed for evaluation of the proposed PJM-like market power mitigation rules of the California electricity market. Simulation results show that in the absence of market power mitigation, generation company (GenCo) agents facilitated by Q-learning are able to exploit the market flaws and make significantly higher profits relative to the competitive benchmark. The incorporation of PJM-like local market power mitigation rules is shown to be effective in suppressing the exercise of market power. The importance of financial risk management is exemplified by the recent financial crisis. In this

  16. Examining Elementary Teachers' Identities through Analysis of Student Science Notebooks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madden, Lauren

    2011-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to understand how teacher identity influences elementary teachers' science practices from multiple perspectives---the teacher's self-reported identity, the researcher's perspective, and the students' perspectives. Two frameworks on identity were synthesized and used in this research. The first, developed by Gee (2000-01) examines who a teacher is with respect to four areas: nature, institution, discourse, and affinity group belonging. The second, developed by Beijaard, Verloop, and Vermunt (2000) examines factors that drive what a teacher does in his/her practice through examining teachers' expertise divided among three areas: content, pedagogy, and didactics. These frameworks were used to guide interpretation of the data sources in order to better understand how instruction unfolded. The science instruction of one class of second grade students receiving science instruction from three different teachers was studied over the course of one school year. The first manuscript of this study is a qualitative case study describing the three teachers' identities and practices from the perspective of the teacher, researcher, and students. Classroom observations, teacher interviews and questionnaires, and student interviews were coded thematically using identity markers as themes. These data sources were triangulated to reveal differences in both the identities and practices among the three teachers. For two of the three teachers, their self-described identities were different from how they were viewed by their students and the researcher. These findings highlight the importance of incorporating multiple perspectives, including those of students, when describing teachers' practices and identities. The study revealed that the three experienced teachers at the same grade level had vastly different science needs, underscoring the utility of identity theory for the design of professional development efforts. The second manuscript of this study is a

  17. Energy Efficiency in Western Utility Resource Plans: Impacts onRegional Resources Assessment and Support for WGA Policies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, Nicole; Goldman, Charles; Schlegal, Jeff

    2006-08-01

    In the aftermath of the consumer price shocks and short-term power shortages of the 2000-01 electricity crisis, policymakers and regulators in Western states are placing increased emphasis on integrated resource planning (IRP), resource adequacy and assessment and a diversified portfolio of resources to meet the needs of electricity consumers. In some states, this has led to a resurgence in state and utility commitments to energy efficiency. Increasing interest in acquiring energy efficiency as a power-system resource is also driven by the desire to dampen high growth rates in electricity demand in some Western states, rapid increases in natural gas prices, concerns about the environmental impacts of electricity generation (e.g. water consumption by power plants, air quality), and the potential of energy efficiency to provide utility bill savings for households and businesses (WGA CDEAC 2006). Recognizing the cost-competitiveness and environmental benefits of energy efficiency, the Western Governor's Association (WGA) has set a high priority for energy efficiency, establishing a goal of reducing projected electricity demand by 20% across the West by 2020 in a policy resolution on Clean and Diversified Energy for the West (WGA 2004). Nationally, the need for improved tracking of demand-side resources in load forecasting is formalized in the North American Electric Reliability Council (NERC)'s recently adopted reliability standards, which utilities and regional reliability organizations will need to comply with (NERC 2005a and 2005b). In this study, we examine the treatment of energy efficiency in recent resource plans issued by fourteen investor-owned utilities (IOUs) in the Western United States and Canada. The goals of this study are to: (1) summarize energy-efficiency resources as represented in a large sample of recent resource plans prepared by Western utilities and identify key issues; (2) evaluate the extent to which the information provided in current

  18. Airborne Gravimetry and Laser Altimetry over Lake Vostok, East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, T. G.; Kempf, S. D.; Holt, J. W.; Morse, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Peters, M. E.

    2002-05-01

    In response to an NSF-OPP proposal from Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory (R. Bell and M. Studinger) to study Lake Vostok, a team from the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics (UTIG) conducted the first comprehensive aerogeophysical survey of Lake Vostok during the 2000/01 austral summer. A Twin Otter was instrumented for measurements of gravity, magnetics, ice thickness, and surface elevation. The survey grid was 165 x 330 km (line spacing 7.5 km with 11.25 km and 22.5 km tie-lines), augmented by 12 regional lines extending 180 - 440 km from the primary grid. The remote polar location, high altitude, and extreme cold presented significant technical and physiological challenges, but the survey was completed successfully in 36 flights over 26 days, and has resulted in excellent geophysical data sets. We describe here the acquisition and reduction of the gravity field and ice-surface elevation data sets. Gravimetry and laser altimetry both require high-quality, precise positioning for use in data reduction. Three carrier-phase GPS receivers were operated in parallel aboard the aircraft, with an identical suite at the surface camp. All GPS data sets were reduced using two different software packages -- K&RS and GIPSY-OASIS. K&RS produced the most accurate positions but is inappropriate for long baselines. While GIPSY-OASIS yields positions in circumstances unfavorable to K&RS (i.e., long baselines and lines without closure), it was about half as accurate as K&RS and was insufficient for achieving the desired accuracy of 1-2 mGal in the reduced gravity data. Gravity was measured with a Bell Aerospace BGM-3 marine gravimeter provided by the Naval Oceanographic Office and modified for airborne use. GPS data are used to correct for inertial accelerations induced by aircraft movement. Up to 21 GPS solutions were available for each line. Selection was made through correlation of the high-frequency accelerations recorded by the gravity meter and those derived from the

  19. Intraannual and interannual chlorophyll variability in the Arabien Sea and Bay of Bengal as observed from SeaWiFS data: and its interrelationship with Sea Surface Temperature (SST) derived from NOAA/AVHRR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturvedi, N.

    by satellite sensors. In order to develop any model for biophysical coupling, the study of relationship of parameters, at temporal and spatial basis is a prerequisite. Launch of SeaWiFS in August 1997 made it possible to acquire the biological data on global basis from 1997 onward. The present study has made use of SeaWiFS data for the period 1997-98, 1998-99 and 1999-2000, and 2000-01, to understand the variability in chlorophyll pattern in the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal on intraannual and interannual basis. Eight days average, chlorophyll images have been analysed. This is level-3 global gridded product with 9 km resolution distributed by DAAC, NASA. The Standard Mapped Images (SMI) generated from SeaWiFS data (atmospherically, radiometrically and geometrically corrected) over the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal were used. In order to assess the satellite derived chlorophyll, a limited comparison was made with the cruise data for the Arabian Sea for different seasons and representative locations. This comparison was restricted to the cloud free period of the year (October to April). The chlorophyll concentration values and the overall distribution pattern was found to match reasonably well. Nine representative locations have been selected in the Arabian Sea, two nearshore, five open ocean and two offshore waters. Similarly 9 locations were selected for the Bay of Bengal. The range of chlorophyll concentration varies from as low as 0.06 mg m- 3 to as high as 5.5 mg m- 3. Variability is seen more in nearshore locations. Interannual comparison shows close similarity at most of the locations. Features are stable during certain period of the year, while at others rapid changes are observed. High concentration is observed in November December, in the Bay of Bengal, while Arabian Sea showed peak in February March, in general. This may be largely due to different circulation pattern in both the regions. Though it is considered that the Bay of Bengal is low

  20. Hydrology and water quality of lakes and streams in Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    German, Edward R.; Adamski, James C.

    2005-01-01

    increases. Low flows in the Econlockhatchee River at Chuluota have increased because of discharge of treated wastewater since 1982. However, trends in increasing 7-day low streamflow are evident before 1982, which cannot be attributed to wastewater discharge. Some of the increases in 7-day low flows may be related to drainage changes resulting from increased development in Orange County. Development for most purposes, including those as diverse as cattle grazing and residential construction, may involve modification of surface drainage through stream channelization and construction of canals. These changes in land drainage can lower the water table, resulting in reductions of regional evapotranspiration rates and increased streamflow. Another possible cause of increasing low flows in streams is use of water from the Floridan aquifer system for irrigation. Runoff of irrigation water or increased seepage from irrigated areas to streams could increase base streamflow compared to natural conditions. Water-level data were analyzed to determine temporal trends from 83 lakes that had more than 15 years of record. There were significant temporal trends in 33 of the 83 lakes (40 percent) over the entire period of record. Of these 33 lakes, 14 had increasing water levels and 19 lakes had decreasing water levels. The downward trends in long-term lake levels could in part be due to high rainfall accumulation in 1960-1961, which included precipitation from Hurricane Donna (September 1960). The high rainfall resulted in historical high-water levels in many lakes in 1960 or 1961. A large range of water-quality conditions exists in lakes and streams of Orange County (2000-01). Specific conductance in lake samples ranged from 57 to 1,185 microsiemens per centimeter. Values of pH ranged from 3.2 to 8.7 in stream samples and 4.6 to 9.6 in lake samples. Total nitrogen concentrations ranged from less than 0.2 to 7.1 milligrams per liter (mg/L) as nitrogen in stream samples, and

  1. Evaluation of factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Niehus, Colin A.

    2002-01-01

    During 1998-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the South Dakota Department of Transportation (SDDOT), conducted a study to evaluate factors affecting ice forces at selected bridges in South Dakota. The focus of this ice-force evaluation was on maximum ice thickness and ice-crushing strength, which are the most important variables in the SDDOT bridge-design equations for ice forces in South Dakota. Six sites, the James River at Huron, the James River near Scotland, the White River near Oacoma/Presho, the Grand River at Little Eagle, the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge, and the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge, were selected for collection of ice-thickness and ice-crushing-strength data. Ice thickness was measured at the six sites from February 1999 until April 2001. This period is representative of the climate extremes of record in South Dakota because it included both one of the warmest and one of the coldest winters on record. The 2000 and 2001 winters were the 8th warmest and 11th coldest winters, respectively, on record at Sioux Falls, South Dakota, which was used to represent the climate at all bridges in South Dakota. Ice thickness measured at the James River sites at Huron and Scotland during 1999-2001 ranged from 0.7 to 2.3 feet and 0 to 1.7 feet, respectively, and ice thickness measured at the White River near Oacoma/Presho site during 2000-01 ranged from 0.1 to 1.5 feet. At the Grand River at Little Eagle site, ice thickness was measured at 1.2 feet in 1999, ranged from 0.5 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and ranged from 0.2 to 1.4 feet in 2001. Ice thickness measured at the Oahe Reservoir near Mobridge site ranged from 1.7 to 1.8 feet in 1999, 0.9 to 1.2 feet in 2000, and 0 to 2.2 feet in 2001. At the Lake Francis Case at the Platte-Winner Bridge site, ice thickness ranged from 1.2 to 1.8 feet in 2001. Historical ice-thickness data measured by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) at eight selected streamflow-gaging stations in South Dakota

  2. Hydrogeology and trichloroethene contamination in the sea-level aquifer beneath the Logistics Center, Fort Lewis, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, Richard S.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Army disposed of waste trichloroethene (TCE) and other materials in the East Gate Disposal Yard near the Logistics Center on Fort Lewis, Washington, from the 1940s to the early 1970s. As a result, ground water contaminated with primarily TCE extends more than 3 miles downgradient from the East Gate Disposal Yard. The site is underlain by a complex and heterogeneous sequence of glacial and non-glacial deposits that have been broadly categorized into an upper and a lower aquifer (the latter referred to as the sea-level aquifer). TCE contamination was detected in both aquifers. This report describes an investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) of the source, migration, and attenuation of TCE in the sea-level aquifer. A refined conceptual model for ground-water flow and contaminant migration into and through the sea-level aquifer was developed in large part from interpretation of environmental tracer data. The tracers used included stable isotopes of oxygen (18O), hydrogen (2H), and carbon (13C); the radioactive hydrogen isotope tritium (3H); common ions and redox-related analytes; chlorofluorocarbons; and sulfur hexafluoride. Tracer and TCE concentrations were determined for samples collected by the USGS from 37 wells and two surface-water sites in American Lake during 1999-2000. Ground-water levels were measured by the USGS in more than 40 wells during 2000-01, and were combined with measurements by the U.S. Army and others to create potentiometric-surface maps. Localized ground-water flow features were identified that are of particular relevance to the migration of TCE in the study area. A ridge of ground water beneath American Lake diverts the flow of TCE-contaminated ground water in the sea-level aquifer to the west around the southern end of the lake. Tracer data provided clear evidence that American Lake is a significant source of recharge to the sea-level aquifer that has created that ridge of ground water. High ground-water altitudes at

  3. The Sun as you never saw it before

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1997-02-01

    to the minimum count of sunspots, LASCO observes so many outbursts large and small - roughly one a day - that scientists are having to think again about how to define a coronal mass ejection. SOHO's continuing success Later LASCO images, on 6 January 1997, revealed a large mass ejection directed towards the Earth. As it swelled it appeared as a halo around the Sun. The mass ejection reached SOHO itself less than four days later, and the solar-wind analyser CELIAS detected an acceleration in the solar wind, from 350 to more than 500 kilometres per second. Soon afterwards, American, Russian and Japanese satellites operating closer to the Earth registered the event, which caused a magnetic storm and bright auroras. The failure of an American TV satellite on 11 January may have been directly related to this event. Mass ejections and other upheavals on the Sun will become even commoner during the coming years, as the count of sunspots increases towards the expected maximum of solar activity in 2000-01. Meanwhile, SOHO is seeking the fundamental reason for the cycle of sunspot activity, which is essentially a magnetic phenomenon. One of the helioseismic instruments probing the solar interior, SOI/MDI, has detected a likely source for the Sun's puzzling magnetism. There may be a natural dynamo operating at the base of the turbulent outer region of the Sun, called the convective zone. This rotates about 7 per cent faster than the underlying and more cohesive region of dense gas, the radiative zone. With the spacecraft in excellent condition and their instruments performing beyond expectations, SOHO's scientists are urging ESA and NASA to allow them to continue their work beyond April 1998, when the initial year of their scientific operations will have been completed.

  4. Sharpest Ever VLT Images at NAOS-CONICA "First Light"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2001-12-01

    of only 0.50 arsec (FWHM), cf. PR Photo 33a/01 (left) . Then, by another command, the instrument operator switched on the NAOS adaptive optics system , thereby "closing the loop" for the first time on a sky field, by using that ordinary star as a reference light source to measure the atmospheric turbulence. Obediently, the deformable mirror in NAOS began to follow the "orders" that were issued 500 times per second by its powerful control computer.... As if by magics, that stellar image on the computer screen pulled itself together....! What seconds before had been a jumping, rather blurry patch of light suddenly became a rock-steady, razor-sharp and brilliant spot of light. The entire room burst into applause - there were happy faces and smiles all over, and then the operator announced the measured image diameter - a truly impressive 0.068 arcsec, already at this first try, cf. PR Photo 33a/01 (right) ! All the team members who were lucky to be there sent a special thought to those many others who had also put in over four years' hard and dedicated work to make this event a reality. The time of this historical moment was November 25, 2001, 23:00 Chilean time (November 26, 2001, 02:00 am UT) . During this and the following nights, more images were made of astronomcal objects, opening a new chapter of the long tradition of Adaptive Optics at ESO. More information about the NAOS-CONICA international collaboration , technical details about this instrument and its special advantages are available below. The first images The star-forming region around NGC 3603 ESO PR Photo 33c/01 ESO PR Photo 33c/01 [Preview - JPEG: 326 x 400 pix - 200k] [Normal - JPEG: 651 x 800 pix - 480k] ESO PR Photo 33d/01 ESO PR Photo 33d/01 [Preview - JPEG: 348 x 400 pix - 240k] [Normal - JPEG: 695 x 800 pix - 592k] Caption : PR Photo 33c/01 displays a NAOS-CONICA image of the starburst cluster NGC 3603, obtained during the second night of NAOS-CONICA operation. The sky region shown is some 20