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Sample records for 2000-2006 liikide kaupa

  1. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills.

  2. Automatic snow extent extraction in alpine environments: short and medium term 2000-2006 analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, P.; Lisini, G.; Merlin, E.; Riva, F.

    2007-10-01

    Water resources in Northern Italy has dramatically shortened in the past 10 to 20 years, and recent phenomena connected to the climate change have further sharpened the trend. To match the observable and collected information with this experience and find methodologies to improve the water management cycle in the Lombardy Region, University of Milan Bicocca, Fondazione Lombardia per l'Ambiente and ARPA Lombardia are currently funding a project, named "Regional Impact of Climatic Change in Lombardy Water Resources: Modelling and Applications" (RICLIC-WARM). In the framework of this project, the analysis of the fraction of water available and provided to the whole regional network by the snow cover of the Alps will be investigated by means of remotely sensed data. While there are already a number of algorithms devoted to this task for data coming from various and different sensors in the visible and infrared regions, no operative comparison and analytical analysis of the advantages and drawbacks of using different data has been attempted. This idea will pave the way for a fusion of the available information as well as a multi-source mapping procedure which will be able to exploit successfully the huge quantity of data available for the past and the even larger amount that may be accessed in the future. To this aim, a comparison on selected dates for the whole 2000/2006 period was performed.

  3. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills. PMID:17568369

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in eight US hospitals along the US-Mexico border, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Benoit, S R; Ellingson, K D; Waterman, S H; Pearson, M L

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a growing problem worldwide and international travel, cross-border migration, and antimicrobial use may contribute to the introduction or emergence of AR. We examined AR rates and trends along the US-Mexico border by analysing microbiology data from eight US hospitals in three states bordering Mexico. Microbiology data were ascertained for the years 2000-2006 and for select healthcare and community pathogens including, three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) pathogens and 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Resistance was highest in S. aureus (oxacillin resistance 45·7%), P. aeruginosa (quinolone resistance 22·3%), and E. coli (quinolone resistance 15·6%); six (60%) of the 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations studied had a significantly increasing trend in resistance over the study period. Potential contributing factors in the hospital and community such as infection control practices and antimicrobial use (prescription and non-prescription) should be explored further in the US-Mexico border region.

  5. Map presentation of changes in Europe's artificial surfaces for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feranec, Jan; Soukup, Tomas

    2013-06-01

    The landscapes of the world are constantly changing under the influence of human activities leading to the growth of artificial surfaces. The covering of soil by artificial surfaces is referred to as soil sealing. Aerial and satellite images or data derived from them (for instance CORINE land cover — CLC data used here) provide important information that makes it possible to assess the occurrence, area and rate of soil sealing. As the term sealed soil cannot be wholly identified with the content of the appropriate CLC classes, the term land cover flow urbanization (LCFU) will be used here. The essence of this study is the demonstration and documentation of the trends of the LCFU in Europe for the periods 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 on a single map. This may contribute to a better spatial awareness of the ongoing transformation of landscape under the effects of human activities in an pan-European context. Changes in the LCFU can be seen on a map, compiled from 3 × 3 km squares at an all-European scale, using colours and their hues, to fulfil the role both of identification and classification. The colour method employed makes it possible to perceive three groups of LCFU changes on two time horizons, that is, whether the rate of LCFU in 2000-2006 increased or remained the same (hues of red); or dropped compared to the 1990-2000 period (hues of light to dark blue). The third group represents the LCFU with rates higher or lower than the average (countries with changes recorded in only one time horizon are presented in dark and light magenta colours).

  6. A messy reality: an analysis of New Zealand's elective surgery scoring system via media sources, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Derrett, Sarah; Cousins, Kim; Gauld, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for elective procedures are a characteristic feature of tax-funded universal health systems. New Zealand has gained a reputation for its 'booking system' for waiting list management, introduced in the early-1990s. The New Zealand system uses criteria to 'score' and then 'book' qualifying patients for surgery. This article aims to (i) describe key issues focused on by the media, (ii) identify local strategies and (iii) present evidence of variation. Newspaper sources were searched (2000-2006). A total of 1199 booking system stories were identified. Findings demonstrate, from a national system perspective, the extraordinarily difficult nature of maintaining overall control and coordination. Equity and national consistency are affected when hospitals respond to local pressure by reducing access to elective treatment. Findings suggest that central government probably needs to be closely involved in local-level management and policy adjustments; that through the study period, the New Zealand system appears to have been largely out of the control of government; and that governments elsewhere may need to be cautious when considering developing similar systems. Developing and implementing scoring and booking systems may always be a 'messy reality' with unintended consequences and throwing regional differences in service management and access into stark relief. PMID:22815091

  7. Rates of ankle and foot injuries in active-duty U.S. Army soldiers, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Robert F; Wahi, Monika M; Hill, Owen T; Kay, Ashley B

    2011-03-01

    Ankle and foot injuries (AFI) are a major cause of Active-Duty Army (ADA) soldiers' time lost from training and combat operations. We used the Total Army Injury and Health Outcomes Database to compute the rates of AFI to identify high-risk ADA groups for the years 2000-2006. During this time, 16% of soldiers were clinically seen at least once for an AFI. Yearly, 60% to 70% of ADA soldiers with AFI had an ankle sprain/strain, and ankle sprain/strain had the highest 7-year rate of all AFIs (103 per 1,000). From 2000 to 2006, all AFI rates declined; however, enlisted male soldiers < or = 30 years of age without an advanced degree were at highest risk. A history of an AFI in the previous 2 years increased AFI rates by 93% to 160%. Our findings provide preliminary evidence for identifying specific ADA groups at high risk of AFI; these groups should be targeted for preventive interventions. PMID:21456354

  8. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry. PMID:27550460

  9. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry.

  10. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates.

  11. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices.

  12. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices. PMID:26313472

  13. Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model

  14. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    PubMed Central

    Van Huy, Nguyen; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Van Tien, Nguyen; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011) were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively). Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively). Conclusions This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control policies and practices

  15. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  16. Geodesy, a Bibliometric Approach for 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Landeros, C. F.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, bibliometric science has been frequently applied in the development and evaluation of scientific research. This work presents a bibliometric analysis for the research work performed in the field of geodesy "science of the measurement and mapping of the earth surface including its external gravity field". The objective of this work is to present a complete overview of the generated research on this field to assemble and study the most important publications occurred during the past seven years. The analysis was performed including the SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases for all the geodetic scientific articles published between 2000 and 2006. The search profile was designed considering a strategy to seek for titles and article descriptors using the terms geodesy and geodetic and some other terms associated with the topics: geodetic surfaces, vertical measurements, reference systems and frames, modern space-geodetic techniques and satellite missions. Some preliminary results had been achieved specifically Bradford law of distribution for journals and education institutes, and Lotka's law for authors that also includes the cooperation between countries in terms of writing together scientific articles. In the particular case of distributions, the model suggested by Egghe (2002) was adopted for determining the cores.

  17. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  18. A Review of HR Practices in Knowledge-Intensive Firms and MNEs: 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeed, Zahid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the association which exists among the wide range of knowledge management, knowledge sharing and HRM practices in the knowledge-intensive firms. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed literature review includes the systematic process of research in the following manner; after identifying the main area…

  19. The IAU 2000/2006 Changes to Celestial Reference Systems: a Bluffer's Guide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, P.

    2008-08-01

    No sooner had we all learnt to write ``FK5 J2000'' next to RA,Decs than the IAU went and changed everything. What are ICRS, BCRS, GCRS, CIRS, TIRS and ITRS? And the CIP and CIO? And the mysterious ``quantity s''? There have even been rumours that sidereal time no longer exists. What is going on, and what difference does any of this make to data analysis?

  20. [Profile of care delivered to children and adolescents victims of external causes of morbimortality, 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Silva, Marta Angélica Iossi; Pan, Raquel; Melo, Ludimila; de Bortoli, Paula Saud; Nascimento, Lucila Castanheira

    2010-06-01

    External causes are important factors of infant morbimortality and permanent impairments around the world. This quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to characterize emergency care for children and adolescents, aged from zero to 19 years old, victims of external causes of morbimortality in a university hospital in the countryside of São Paulo, Brazil, between the years of 2000 and 2006. By the end of the study, researchers found 6302 emergency attendances and most of the reported cases occurred among 15 to 19-year-old males adolescents, between Saturday and Monday, and from 7 to 12 pm. The main diagnoses of external causes were transport accidents, followed by assault. As a conclusion, it was found that the nurses' role in caring for patients who are recovering from accidents, violence and aggression is of fundamental importance for the families and community. It is essential in order to contribute to the planning and development of preventive and assisting actions.

  1. Inspiring the Next Generation: Student Experiments and Educational Activities on the International Space Station, 2000-2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Donald A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew arrived at station in November 2000, experiments with student participation were being conducted onboard ISS in support of NASA missions. One of NASA's protein crystal growth experiments had been delivered to station by the shuttle Atlantis during STS-106 in September 2000 and was returned to Earth six weeks later aboard the shuttle Discovery during the STS-92 mission. From very early on it was recognized that students would have a strong interest in the ISS, and that this would provide a unique opportunity for them to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects on ISS. It should be noted that participation is not limited to U.S. students but involves the 16 International Partner countries and various other countries under special commercial agree

  2. Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Geary W; Mair, David C; Church, Timothy R; Ellefson, Mark E; Reagen, William K; Boyd, Theresa M; Herron, Ross M; Medhdizadehkashi, Zahra; Nobiletti, John B; Rios, Jorge A; Butenhoff, John L; Zobel, Larry R

    2008-07-01

    In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials after perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) was reported in human populations and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFOS and other polyfluoroalkyl concentrations in plasma samples, collected in 2006 from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers, have declined compared to nonpaired serum samples from the same locations in 2000-2001. For each location, 100 samples were obtained evenly distributed by age (20-69 years) and sex. Analytes measured, using tandem mass spectrometry, were PFOS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH). The geometric mean plasma concentrations were for PFOS 14.5 ng/mL (95% CI 13.9-15.2), PFOA 3.4 ng/ mL (95% CI 3.3-3.6), and PFHxS 1.5 ng/mL (95% CI 1.4-1.6). The majority of PFBS, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and Et-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations were less than the lower limit of quantitation. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric means were lower in 2006 (approximately 60% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, and 30% for PFHxS) than those in 2000-2001. The declines for PFOS and PFHxS are consistent with their serum elimination half-lives and the time since the phase-out of POSF-based materials. The shorter serum elimination half-life for PFOA and its smaller percentage decline than PFOS suggests PFOA concentrations measured in the general population are unlikely to be solely attributed to POSF-based materials. Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production. PMID:18678038

  3. Selected Metals in Sediments and Streams in the Oklahoma Part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2009-01-01

    The abandoned Tri-State mining district includes 1,188 square miles in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri. The most productive part of the Tri-State mining district was the 40-square mile part in Oklahoma, commonly referred to as 'the Picher mining district' in north-central Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district was a primary producing area of lead and zinc in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sulfide minerals of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that remained in flooded underground mine workings and in mine tailings on the land surface oxidized and dissolved with time, forming a variety of oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate metallic minerals on the land surface and in streams that drain the district. Metals in water and sediments in streams draining the mining district can potentially impair the habitat and health of many forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Lakebed, streambed and floodplain sediments and/or stream water were sampled at 30 sites in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality from 2000 to 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Quapaw and Seneca-Cayuga Tribes of Oklahoma. Aluminum and iron concentrations of several thousand milligrams per kilogram were measured in sediments collected from the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. Manganese and zinc concentrations in those sediments were several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Lead and cadmium concentrations in those sediments were about 10 percent and 0.1 percent of zinc concentrations, respectively. Sediment cores collected in a transect across the floodplain of Tar Creek near Miami, Oklahoma, in 2004 had similar or greater concentrations of those metals than sediment cores collected at the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. The greatest concentrations of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc were detected in sediments beneath an intermittent tributary to Tar Creek, a slough which drains mined areas near Commerce, Oklahoma. In surface water, aluminum and iron concentrations were greatest in the Neosho River, perhaps a result of runoff from areas underlain by shales. The greatest aqueous concentrations of cadmium, lead, manganese, and zinc were measured in water from Tar Creek, the primary small stream draining the Picher mining district with the largest proportion of mined area. Water from the Spring River had greater zinc concentrations than water from the Neosho River, perhaps as a result of a greater proportion of mined area in the Spring River Basin. Dissolved metals concentrations were generally much less than total metals concentrations, except for manganese and zinc at sites on Tar Creek, where seepage of ground water from the mine workings, saturated mine tailings, and/or metalliferous streambed sediments may be sources of these dissolved metals. Iron and lead concentrations generally decreased with increasing streamflow in upstream reaches of Tar Creek, indicating dilution of metals-rich ground water by runoff. Farther downstream in Tar Creek, and in the Neosho and Spring Rivers, metals concentrations tended to increase with increasing streamflow, indicating that most metals in these parts of these streams were associated with runoff and re-suspension of metals precipitated as oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate minerals on land surface and streambeds. Estimated total aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and zinc loads generally were greatest in water from the Neosho and Spring Rivers, primarily because of comparatively large streamflows in those rivers. Slight increases in metal loads in the downstream directions on those rivers indicated contributions of metals from inflows of small tributaries such as Tar Creek and from runoff.

  4. Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

    2008-02-01

    A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides.

  5. Variability of Springtime Transpacific Pollution Transport During 2000-2006: The INTEX-5 Mission in the Context of Previous Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Edwards, D. P.; Arellano, A.; Sachse, G.; Campos, T.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the transport of pollution across the Pacific during the NASA INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Part 8) campaign in spring 2006 and examine how this year compares to the time period for 2000 through 2006. In addition to aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) collected during INTEX-B, we include in this study multi-year satellite retrievals of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and simulations from the chemistry transport model MOZART-4. Model tracers are used to examine the contributions of different source regions and source types to pollution levels over the Pacific. Additional modeling studies are performed to separate the impacts of inter-annual variability in meteorology and .dynamics from changes in source strength. interannual variability in the tropospheric CO burden over the Pacific and the US as estimated from the MOPITT data range up to 7% and a somewhat smaller estimate (5%) is derived from the model. When keeping the emissions in the model constant between years, the year-to-year changes are reduced (2%), but show that in addition to changes in emissions, variable meteorological conditions also impact transpacific pollution transport. We estimate that about 113 of the variability in the tropospheric CO loading over the contiguous US is explained by changes in emissions and about 213 by changes in meteorology and transport. Biomass burning sources are found to be a larger driver for inter-annual variability in the CO loading compared to fossil and biofuel sources or photochemical CO production even though their absolute contributions are smaller. Source contribution analysis shows that the aircraft sampling during INTEX-B was fairly representative of the larger scale region, but with a slight bias towards higher influence from Asian contributions.

  6. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Reiner

    2007-08-07

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  7. Changes in Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (1979-2006) and Oval BA (2000-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sushil; Marcus, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    We analyze velocity fields of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA that were previously extracted from Cassini, Galileo, and Hubble Space Telescope images (Asay-Davis, X.S., Marcus, P.S., Wong, M., de Pater, I. [2009]. Icarus 203, 164-188). Our analyses use reduced-parameter models in which the GRS, Oval BA, and surrounding zonal (east-west) flows are assumed to have piece-wise-constant potential vorticity (PV), but with finite-sized transition regions between the pieces of constant PV rather than sharp steps. The shapes of the regions of constant PV are computed such that the flow is a steady, equilibrium solution of the 2D quasigeostrophic equations when viewed in a frame translating uniformly in the east-west direction. All parameter values of the models, including the magnitudes of the PV, areas of the regions with constant PV, locations of the transition regions, widths of the transition regions, and the value of the Rossby deformation radius, are found with a genetic algorithm such that the velocity produced by the equilibrium solution is a "best-fit" to the observed velocity fields. A Monte Carlo method is used to estimate the uncertainties in the best-fit parameter values. The best-fit results show that there were significant changes (greater than the uncertainties) in the PV of the GRS between Galileo in 1996 and Hubble in 2006. In particular, the shape of the PV anomaly of the GRS became rounder, and the area of the PV anomaly of the GRS decreased by 18%, although the magnitudes of PV in the anomaly remained constant. In contrast, neither the area nor the magnitude of the PV anomaly of the Oval BA changed from 2000, when its cloud cover was white, to 2006, when its cloud cover was red. The best-fit results also show that the areas of the PV anomalies of the GRS and of the Oval BA are smaller than the areas of their corresponding cloud covers at all times. Using the best-fit values of the Rossby deformation radius, we show that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency is 15% larger at 33°S than at 23°S. As expected ( Marcus, 1993), the best-fit results show that the PV of the zonal flow has "jumps" at the latitudes of the maxima of the eastward-going jet streams. However, a surprising result is that a large "jump" in the PV of the zonal flow occurs at the location of a maximum of the westward going jet stream neighboring the GRS. Another surprise is that the jumps in the PV of the zonal flow do not all have the same sign, which implies that there is not a monotonic "staircase" of zonal PV from north to south as was anticipated ( Marcus, 1993; McIntyre, 2008).

  8. The Recruitment and Retention of Hispanic Undergraduate Students in Public Universities in the United States, 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalvo, Edris J.

    2013-01-01

    In many public U.S. universities, Hispanic undergraduates are underrepresented in terms of enrollment and graduation. This mixed-method geographical study investigated whether some public universities outperform others in recruiting and retaining Hispanic undergraduates. The quantitative findings showed that the effect of financial aid and…

  9. Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension (hindcasts) included periods beyond the range of the data used to train the artificial neural network models. The comparison of the hindcasts with long-term water-level data proximal to the new EDEN gaging stations indicated that the water-level estimates were reasonable. The percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) was less than 6 percent, and for the majority of stations (20 of 25), the percent model error was less than 1 percent.

  10. Physical and Vegetative Characteristics of a Newly Constructed Wetland and Modified Stream Reach, Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Olson, Leif E.

    2009-01-01

    To compensate for authorized disturbance of naturally occurring wetlands and streams during roadway improvements to U.S. Highway 202 in Chester and Montgomery Counties, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) constructed 0.42 acre of emergent wetland and 0.94 acre of scrub-shrub/forested wetland and modified sections of a 1,600-foot reach of Valley Creek with woody riparian plantings and streambank-stabilization structures (including rock deflectors). In accordance with project permits and additional guidance issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PennDOT, collected data from 2000 through 2006 to quantify changes in 1) the vegetation, soils, and extent of emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland, 2) the profile, dimension, and substrate in the vicinity of rock deflectors placed at two locations within the modified stream reach, and 3) the woody vegetation within the planted riparian buffer. The data for this investigation were collected using an approach adapted from previous investigations so that technology and findings may be more easily transferred among projects with similar objectives. Areal cover by planted and non-planted vegetation growing within the emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 85 percent at the end of each growing season, a criterion in special condition 25c in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project permit. Areal cover of vegetation in emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 100 percent in all but one growing season. Frequent and long-lasting soil saturation favored obligate-wetland species like Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) and Scirpus validus (great bulrush), both of which maintained dominance in the emergent wetland throughout the study (percent cover was 20 and 78 percent, respectively, in 2006). Echinocloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), an annual invasive from Eurasia, initially established in the newly disturbed soils of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland (areal cover was 56 percent in 2000), but by 2002, E. crusgalli was not growing in any sample plots and other species including Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bent grass), Festuca rubra (red fescue), Cornus spp. (dogwood species), and Salix nigra (black willow) were becoming more common. Sal. nigra contributed 30-percent cover in the scrub-shrub/forested wetland part by fall 2003. Rapid colonization of this species in subsequent years increased annual cover through 2006, when 15- to 25-foot tall Sal. nigra trees dominated the tree/shrub stratum (48 percent of the areal cover in 2006). The understory of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland was mostly shaded because of the canopy of Sal. nigra trees. Herbaceous species growing under and near the margins of the canopy included Ag. stolonifera and Ty. latifolia (29- and 23-percent areal cover, respectively). Flows in Valley Creek are responsible for transporting sediment and shaping the channel. Annual mean streamflow during the period the modified stream reach was monitored ranged from 15.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the 2002 water year to 53.0 ft3/s in the 2004 water year. This is a range of about 55 percent lower to 58 percent higher than the annual mean streamflow for the period of record. Despite the variability in streamflow, longitudinal profiles surveyed near rock deflectors in two short (100-foot) reaches within the modified stream reach maintained a constant slope throughout the monitoring period, most likely because of the presence of bedrock control. Cross-section geometry in the upstream reach was virtually unchanged during the monitoring period but 10 feet of bank migration was measured downstream, leaving the rock deflectors in mid-stream. As indicated by the change in channel morphology at the downstream reach, it is apparent that the rock deflectors were ineffective at adequately protecting the bank

  11. An Expansion of a Scholar's Social Justice Perspective: A Meeting at the Crossroads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Latish C.

    2008-01-01

    Using a life notes methodology (Bell-Scott, 1994; Dillard, 2000, 2006; Simmons, 2007), I use personal narratives to describe my epistemological influences on my approach to educational practice, research, and the preparation of school leaders. Second, I share personal accounts of how my social justice lens expanded to be inclusive of lesbian, gay,…

  12. A comparison of Fibre Characteristics between Linseed Flax, Canadian Grown Linen Flax and European Linen Flax with Respect to Performance as a Composite Reinforcement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper describes the fibre character differences that may influence the fibre’s potential as a composite reinforcement. Fourteen linseed samples were tested. Twelve of the sample groups were produced using hammer mill technology and straw from the years 2000, 2006 and 2007 with ranges in cleanli...

  13. Occurrence and distribution of nematodes in Idaho crops

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Surveys were conducted in Idaho during the 2000-2006 cropping seasons to study the occurrence, population density, host association and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with major crops, grasses and weeds. Eighty-four species and 43 genera of plant-parasitic nematodes were record...

  14. The Shadows of Reading: Reasons for the Bad Results of Bulgarians in PISA Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Milena I.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article are the factors and reasons for the bad results in reading of the Bulgarian 15-year-old students in PISA's international studies. The reference points of the analysis are the critical results from the last four studies--2000, 2006, 2009 and 2012. The aim of this analysis is to bring up for discussion unformulated topics…

  15. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  16. Mysterious Subtractions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hillen, Amy F.; Watanabe, Tad

    2013-01-01

    Recent documents suggest that all students, even young children, should have opportunities to engage in reasoning and proof (CCSSI 2010; NCTM 2000, 2006, 2009). One mathematical practice that is central to reasoning and proof is making conjectures (CCSSI 2010; NCTM 2000; Stylianides 2008). In the elementary grades, "formulating conjectures…

  17. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  18. Religion and Attitudes toward Divorce Laws among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Charles E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines religious differences in attitudes toward divorce laws among U.S. adults. Using pooled data from the 2000-2006 NORC General Social Surveys (N = 5,683), we find that frequency of religious attendance and belief that the Bible is the Word of God are strong predictors of support for stricter laws governing divorce. Indeed, these…

  19. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  20. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  1. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  2. Improved Parallaxes and Near-Infrared Photometry of L- and T-Dwarfs From the U.S. Naval Observatory Infrared Astrometry Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrba, F. J.; Munn, J. A.; Luginbuhl, C. B.; Henden, A. A.; Tilleman, T. M.; Guetter, H. H.; Canzian, B.

    2015-01-01

    We present an update on the status of the USNO infrared astrometry program for low mass stars and brown dwarfs. Selected results from the 2000-2006 program and its accompanying infrared photometry are presented along with an overview of the current astrometry program. Listings of the objects on both infrared programs are given along with a discussion of when the final results from these programs should become available.

  3. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  4. Concise CIO based precession-nutation formulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.; Wallace, P. T.

    2008-01-01

    Context: The IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation models have precision goals measured in microarcseconds. To reach this level of performance has required series containing terms at over 1300 frequencies and involving several thousand amplitude coefficients. There are many astronomical applications for which such precision is not required and the associated heavy computations are wasteful. This justifies developing smaller models that achieve adequate precision with greatly reduced computing costs. Aims: We discuss strategies for developing simplified IAU 2000/2006 precession-nutation procedures that offer a range of compromises between accuracy and computing costs. Methods: The chain of transformations linking celestial and terrestrial coordinates comprises frame bias, precession-nutation, Earth rotation and polar motion. We address the bias and precession-nutation (NPB) portion of the chain, linking the Geocentric Celestial Reference System (GCRS) with the Celestial Intermediate Reference System (CIRS), the latter based on the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) and Celestial Intermediate Origin (CIO). Starting from direct series that deliver the CIP coordinates X,Y and (via the quantity s + XY/2) the CIO locator s, we look at the opportunities for simplification. Results: The biggest reductions come from truncating the series, but some additional gains can be made in the areas of the matrix formulation, the expressions for the nutation arguments and by subsuming long period effects into the bias quantities. Three example models are demonstrated that approximate the IAU 2000/2006 CIP to accuracies of 1 mas, 16 mas and 0.4 arcsec throughout 1995-2050 but with computation costs reduced by 1, 2 and 3 orders of magnitude compared with the full model. Appendices A to G are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant. PMID:18288340

  6. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  7. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods. PMID:27065045

  8. Mortality, causes of death and risk factors for death among primary amphetamine users in the Swedish criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emmy; Bradvik, Louise; Hakansson, Anders

    2014-02-01

    This study examined mortality and predictors of death in 1,396 primary amphetamine users (85% males) who were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index in the Swedish criminal justice system during 2000-2006 and followed through 2008. Forty-nine clients deceased (standardized mortality ratio 4.1 [3.0-5.4]), at least 84% of deaths were violent or drug-related (12% suicides), and Cox regression analysis indicated that death was associated with frequent use of sedatives and less frequent use of amphetamine. No female deaths were observed; death and male gender were associated in binary analysis. Implications for diagnostics and treatment are discussed.

  9. Prevalence of hip dysplasia according to official radiographic screening, among 31 breeds of dogs in France.

    PubMed

    Genevois, J-P; Remy, D; Viguier, E; Carozzo, C; Collard, F; Cachon, T; Maitre, P; Fau, D

    2008-01-01

    In order to determine the prevalence of hip dysplasia (HD) from radiographs that were submitted for authorative grading, and its changes over the time in 31 breeds of dogs in France, a 14 year-retrospective study was conducted. Significant differences were observed between breeds, with HD prevalence ranging from 59.7% (Cane Corso) to 3.9% (Siberian Husky). When comparing the 1993-1999 with the 2000-2006 period in 15 breeds, a significant decrease in HD prevalence was detected in Berger Picard, Bernese Mountain dog, Briard, Gordon Setter, White Swiss Sheepdog and Rottweiler. Modifications observed in the other breeds were not statistically significant.

  10. An 80m Coastal Wind Power Assessment Using QuikSCAT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capps, S.; Zender, C.

    2008-12-01

    Steadier and faster offshore winds provide a potentially higher and more continuous source of energy. Companies are actively pursuing technology which allows for wind turbines to be placed in deeper waters (>100 m) farther away from the coast. Typical hub heights of modern wind turbines are near 80 m. We use wind profile correction methods and bathymetric contours to highlight coastal regions where extraction of wind power at 80 m is feasible. Observed (2000--2006) 10 m surface winds from NASA's SeaWinds scatterometer measurements onboard QuikSCAT are extrapolated to 80 m using Monin- Obukhov similarity theory. A Weibull probability distribution function (PDF) is fitted to these twice-daily wind speed observations. 80 m wind power density is calculated using the full and truncated (between cut-in and cut-out speeds of typical wind turbines) PDF. Mean 2000--2006 80-10 m wind speed differences range from <2 m s-1 for unstable boundary layers to >3 m s-1 for stably stratified boundary layers over coastal waters near Nova Scotia and east of Argentina. Near Japan, climatological 80 m wind power densities are double 10 m wind power densities. Boreal wintertime wind power densities calculated for usable wind speeds are 15% and 17% lower than full PDF wind power densities for gap wind regions near Vladivostok and Japan, respectively.

  11. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water in the Northeast United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Public water systems in Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island sampled treated drinking water from 1993-2006 and analyzed the samples for MTBE. The US Geological Survey examined trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water derived from ground water in these States for two near-decadal time steps; 1993-1999 and 2000-2006. MTBE was detected in 14% of drinking water samples collected in all States from 1993-1999 and in 19% of drinking water samples collected from the same systems from 2000-2006 and this difference was statistically significant. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in each State by individual year indicated significant positive trends in Maryland and New Hampshire. Significant, increasing trends in MTBE concentrations were observed in Maryland and Rhode Island by individual year. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Assessment and Remediation Conference (Houston, TX 11/5-6/2007).

  12. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Corn-Belt Streams, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Daniel J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations of commonly occurring pesticides in the Corn Belt of the United States were assessed, and the performance and application of several statistical methods for trend analysis were evaluated. Trends in the concentrations of 11 pesticides with sufficient data for trend assessment were assessed at up to 31 stream sites for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin, prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. The statistical methods applied and compared were (1) a modified version of the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test (SEAKEN), (2) a modified version of the Regional Kendall test, (3) a parametric regression model with seasonal wave (SEAWAVE), and (4) a version of SEAWAVE with adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q). The SEAKEN test is a statistical hypothesis test for detecting monotonic trends in seasonal time-series data such as pesticide concentrations at a particular site. Trends across a region, represented by multiple sites, were evaluated using the regional seasonal Kendall test, which computes a test for an overall trend within a region by computing a score for each season at each site and adding the scores to compute the total for the region. The SEAWAVE model is a parametric regression model specifically designed for analyzing seasonal variability and trends in pesticide concentrations. The SEAWAVE-Q model accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic trends from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. There was broad, general agreement between unadjusted trends (no adjustment for streamflow effects) identified by the SEAKEN and SEAWAVE methods, including the regional seasonal Kendall test. Only about 10 percent of the paired comparisons between SEAKEN and SEAWAVE indicated a difference in the direction of trend, and none of these had

  13. Anisakids of seals found on the southern coast of Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Michał; Rokicki, Jerzy; Pawliczka, Iwona; Najda, Katarzyna; Dzido, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    In the present study 5 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), 3 common seals (Phoca vitulina) and 1 ringed seal (Pusa hispida) bycaught or stranded on the Polish Baltic Sea coast in years 2000-2006 were investigated for the infestation of parasitic anisakid nematodes. 749 of anisakids were found. The most common were: Contracaecum osculatum (59.3%) and Pseudoterranova decipiens (31.0%). There were also small numbers of Anisakis simplex (0.8%). After performing RFLP three sibling species were found. C. osculatum was identified as C. osculatum C, P decipiens was identified as P. decipiens sensu stricto and A. simplex - A. simplex sensu stricto. Nematodes found in seals were mostly in L4 and adult life stage - both of them were equal with some minor variations among the specimens. Sex ratio was also equal, but there was slight excess of males in some cases. There was a minority of L3 larvae belonging to A. simplex species (0.8%).

  14. Factors affecting treatment efficacy in social phobia: the use of video feedback and individual vs. group formats.

    PubMed

    Aderka, Idan M

    2009-01-01

    This meta-analysis assessed two potential moderators of treatment efficacy in social phobia: video feedback, and treatment format (i.e., individual vs. group). Eighteen recent (2000-2006) trials including a total of 511 participants were sampled. Effect sizes (Cohen's d's) were calculated for each trial while correcting for measurement error. The Q statistic was used to test (a) heterogeneity across trials and (b) potential moderators. Results indicated that use of video feedback was not a moderator of treatment efficacy and did not significantly affect effect sizes. In contrast, treatment format was a moderator of treatment efficacy such that individual treatments reported larger effect sizes and lower attrition rates compared with group treatments. The results suggest that individual treatments in social phobia may be superior to group treatments irrespective of treatment type. PMID:18599263

  15. [Nontraumatic spinal cord injury: etiology, demography and clinics].

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gonzales, Asencio; Sotomayor-Espichan, Rosa; Martínez-Romero, María; Kuroki-García, César

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective and descriptive cross-sectional; study in 210 hospitalized patients with spinal cord injury at the National Institute of Rehabilitation (INR), Callao, Peru from 2000-2006. The goal was to describe etiology, and clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of non traumatic spinal cord injuries (LMNT). We found a prevalence of 27 % for LMNT, average age at onset of 32.0 years, male gender 50.5 %, and secondary education completed in 41.9 %, poverty 90.5 %. The infectious etiology (viral and bacterial) was predominant in 37.6 %, with 11.9 infected with HTLVI. Although the INR is a reference center, the findings can't be generalized because it isn't a representative sample of the Peruvian population, further studies are necessary to propose strategies for prevention and control, considering the high cost of integral rehabilitation treatment in these patients. PMID:22241260

  16. Poynting Flux Deposition in the Northern Hemisphere Near-Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knipp, D. J.; Crowley, G.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed a seven-year data base (2000-2006) of Poynting flux observations from the DMSP F-15 satellite. The satellite orbits in 09-21 LT meridian and often cuts through the cusp on the northern hemisphere dayside. In the vicinity of the cusp the Poynting flux values are often enhanced by a factor of 2-10 compared to surrounding regions. The enhanced energy deposition in this region is consistent with recent reports of enhanced neutral density in the vicinity of the cusp and with data assimilation results that show heating in a longitudinal swath across the high-latitude dayside region [Crowley et al., 2010]. We find particular enhancements during intervals of large IMF By and high speed flow in the solar wind. We provide a statistical view of the cusp region energization based on distributions of magnetic field perturbations and ion drift measurements.

  17. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.

  18. Effects of reduced nitrogen and sulphur deposition on the water chemistry of moorland pools.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Hein H; Brouwer, Emiel; Leuven, Rob S E W; van Dam, Herman; de Vries-Brock, Ankie; van der Velde, Gerard; Esselink, Hans

    2010-08-01

    To assess changes as a result of reduced acidifying deposition, water chemistry data from 68 Dutch moorland pools were collected during the periods 1983-1984 and 2000-2006. Partial recovery was observed: nitrate- and ammonium-N, sulphur and aluminium concentrations decreased, while pH and alkalinity increased. Calcium and magnesium concentrations decreased. These trends were supported by long term monitoring data (1978-2006) of four pools. Increased pH correlated with increases in orthophosphate and turbidity, the latter due to stronger coloration by organic acids. Increased ortho-phosphate and turbidity are probably the result of stronger decomposition of organic sediments due to decreased acidification and may hamper full recovery of moorland pool communities. In addition to meeting emission targets for NO(x), NH(x) and SO(x), restoration measures are still required to facilitate and accelerate recovery of acidified moorland pools.

  19. Infused Therapy and Survival in Older Patients Diagnosed with Metastatic Breast Cancer who Received Trastuzumab

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Robert I; Lalla, Deepa; Herbert, Robert J; Doan, Justin F; Brammer, Melissa G; Danese, Mark D

    2011-01-01

    We used Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare data (2000-2006) to describe treatment and survival in women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who received trastuzumab. There were 610 patients with a mean age of 74 years. Overall, 32% received trastuzumab alone and 47% received trastuzumab plus a taxane. In multivariate analysis, trastuzumab plus chemotherapy was associated with a lower adjusted cancer mortality rate (Hazard Ratio [HR] 0.54; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 0.39-0.74; p < .001) than trastuzumab alone among patients who received trastuzumab as part of first-line therapy. Adding chemotherapy to first-line trastuzumab for metastatic breast cancer is associated with improved cancer survival. PMID:21929325

  20. Strategic environmental assessment of hydrological and irrigation plans in Castilla y Leon, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedo, D.; Bina, O. )

    1999-05-01

    The study illustrates how strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can promote sustainable development plans. It defines and applies an SEA methodology to two draft plans: the hydrological plan for the Duero basin in Spain and the irrigation plan for the region of Castilla y Leon. Although prepared by national and regional authorities, respectively, both draft plans refer to the management and use of water as a resource for economic development and refer roughly to the same area. The SEA addresses the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the combined draft plans, using relevant indicators and objectives. The analysis shows that the proposals would lead to high financial costs and significant negative impacts on the environment for each job created; it develops and assesses a number of alternatives that would address these impacts. The results are used to define SEA procedures for the new Structural Funds period (2000--2006) and will provide a useful lesson for plans at all levels of government within Spain.

  1. Acceleration and spatial rheology of Larsen C Ice Shelf, Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khazendar, A.; Rignot, E.; Larour, E.

    2011-05-01

    The disintegration of several Antarctic Peninsula ice shelves has focused attention on the state of the Larsen C Ice Shelf. Here, we use satellite observations to map ice shelf speed from the years 2000, 2006 and 2008 and apply inverse modeling to examine the spatial pattern of ice-shelf stiffness. Results show that the northern half of the ice shelf has been accelerating since 2000, speeding up by 15% between 2000 and 2006 alone. The distribution of ice stiffness exhibits large spatial variations that we link to tributary glacier flow and fractures. Our results reveal that ice down-flow from promontories is consistently softer, with the exception of Churchill Peninsula where we infer a stabilizing role for marine ice. We conclude that although Larsen C is not facing imminent collapse, it is undergoing significant change in the form of flow acceleration that is spatially related to thinning and fracture.

  2. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Internal tidal currents in the Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, I.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Liu, J.T.; Chuang, W.-S.; Xu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Data from five separate field experiments during 2000-2006 were used to study the internal tidal flow patterns in the Gaoping (formerly spelled Kaoping) Submarine Canyon. The internal tides are large with maximum interface displacements of about 200??m and maximum velocities of over 100cm/s. They are characterized by a first-mode velocity and density structure with zero crossing at about 100??m depth. In the lower layer, the currents increase with increasing depth. The density interface and the along-channel velocity are approximately 90?? out-of-phase, suggesting a predominant standing wave pattern. However, partial reflection is indicated as there is a consistent phase advance between sea level and density interface along the canyon axis. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Land Ecological Security Evaluation of Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-01-01

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to −0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail. PMID:25321873

  5. Land ecological security evaluation of Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-10-15

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to -0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail.

  6. Land ecological security evaluation of Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-01-01

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to -0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail. PMID:25321873

  7. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  8. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  9. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  10. OH Column Abundance Apparent Response to Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, C. R.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 33-year series of high spectral resolution measurements of absorption of sunlight by OH at 308 nm has exhibited temporary decreases of column abundances in 1986, 1997, and 2008 near the times of minimum solar activity. These observations and analyses are of significance as they encompass three complete solar cycles for comparison. During solar cycle 23, the annual average abundances increased approximately 20% from the minimum abundance in 1997 to high-sun enhanced values in 2000-2006, then dropped approximately 15% in 2008. The abundances exhibited a pronounced reduction at solar minimum in August-October 2008, similar to that seen in fall 1986 and fall 1997. The average morning abundances on those occasions were 13% smaller than the 1980-88 corresponding average, about 0.9 x 1013 cm-2, with minimum values broadly consistent with model results. In contrast, high-sun OH abundances observed during periods of solar maximum are approximately 33% larger than modeled abundances. This discrepancy cannot be explained by reasonable adjustments of reaction rates or modeled constituent concentrations in the stratosphere or mesosphere. However, the observed responses to a tropopause fold event in 1988 and to the Pinatubo aerosol in 1991 do suggest an important contribution to the total OH column from the lower stratosphere. In addition to the apparent variations with solar activity, this OH column database contains a number of other effects such as diurnal and seasonal patterns, and geographic differences between observations from Colorado, Florida, Alaska, Micronesia, New Zealand, and New Mexico.

  11. Change detection of runoff-urban growth relationship in urbanised watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah Abas, Aisya; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-02-01

    Urban growth has negative environmental impacts that create water-based disasters such as flash floods and storm runoff causing billions of dollars worth of damage each year. Due to serious flash floods in urbanised areas of Malaysia, water resource management is a vital issue. This paper reports on a study that has been carried out using remote sensing techniques and hydrological modelling for examining the spatial patterns changes of urban areas and its impacts on surface runoff. The estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS CN) method was performed by integrating both remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing is a data sources for monitoring urban growth by quantifying the changes of urban area and its environmental impact are then analysed by using a GIS-based hydrological model. By linking the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS, the relationship of runoff with urban expansion are further examined. Hence, the changes in runoff due to urbanisation are analysed. This methodology is applied to the central region of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, where rapid urban growth has occurred over the last decade. The results showed that there was a significant between spatial patterns of urban growth and estimated runoff depth. The increase in runoff from year 2000, 2006 and 2010 are estimated about five percent.

  12. 'Ye Olde Hot Aire': reporting on human contributions to climate change in the UK tabloid press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boykoff, Maxwell T.; Mansfield, Maria

    2008-04-01

    This letter explores daily print media coverage of climate change in four United Kingdom (UK) tabloid newspapers: The Sun (and News of the World), Daily Mail (and Mail on Sunday), the Daily Express (and Sunday Express), and the Mirror (and Sunday Mirror). Through examinations of content in articles over the last seven years (2000 2006), triangulated with semi-structured interviews of journalists and editors, the study finds that UK tabloid coverage significantly diverged from the scientific consensus that humans contribute to climate change. Moreover, there was no consistent increase in the percentage of accurate coverage throughout the period of analysis and across all tabloid newspapers, and these findings are not consistent with recent trends documented in United States and UK 'prestige press' or broadsheet newspaper reporting. Findings from interviews indicate that inaccurate reporting may be linked to the lack of specialist journalists in the tabloid press. This study therefore contributes to wider discussions of socio-economic inequality, media and the environment. Looking to newspapers that are consumed by typically working class readership, this article contributes to ongoing investigations related to what media representations mean for ongoing science policy interactions as well as potentialities for public engagement. Headline from a Daily Mail article analyzed during this study, which claimed to 'debunk the myth of global warming' (Hanlon 2003 Ye olde hot aire Daily Mail London (8 April) p 17).

  13. Forb, Insect, and Soil Response to Burning and Mowing Wyoming Big Sagebrush in Greater Sage-Grouse Breeding Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Jennifer E.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-04-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.

  14. Traffic accidents in Crete (1996-2006): the role of the emergency coordination center.

    PubMed

    Vourvahakis, Dimitris; Chronaki, Catherine E; Kontoyiannis, Vasilis; Panagopoulos, Demosthenis; Stergiopoulos, Spyros

    2010-01-01

    The general decline in traffic accidents throughout Europe is not the case for Crete, a favorite holiday destination. The extent of problem and reflections on the significant impact of the interplay of organizational, educational, & technological interventions by the Emergency Coordination Center of Crete (ECC-Crete) are presented. 10-year data from 1996-2006 have been analyzed revealing demographic, topological, and qualitative issues of traffic accidents in Grete. Primary source of data is 315000 emergency calls answered by ECC-Crete. Over this 10 year period, ECC-Crete gradually employed advanced medical technologies and electronic protocol-based handling in all phases of an emergency episode contributing to its timely and effective management. GIS/GPS technology and telemetry for biosignals in ambulances, up-to-date triage protocols combined with incidence analysis provide vital information for continuous process improvement. In 2000-2006, process improvement due to technological and organizational changes has led to increased efficiency. The mean reduction was ~75% in dispatch time, ~50% in the time at accident scene for metropolitan areas, and ~75% in time at the emergency ward, mainly due to medical interventions on site.

  15. The effect of fishing the anguillid elver ( Anguilla japonica) on the fishery of the Yangtze estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Heng; He, Wenshan; Tong, Chunfu; Lu, Jianjian

    2008-03-01

    Based on the fishing net surveying data about anguillid elver of the Yangtze estuary collected in 2006 and historical data from previous research of the region, this study was focused on analyzing the fishing effort and catch variations of the elver, revealing the effects on fishery resources caused by elver fishing activities. It was found that the elver fishing activities took place in the tidal area of the Yangtze estuary from January to April. The yearly elver catch in 2000-2006 was 3 times greater than that in the 1970s-1980s. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) (ind./net/day) of the elver had some characteristics of temporal variation. It was higher in spring tide periods than that in neap tide periods, and the CPUE in February and March was 3-4 times greater than that in January. Twenty-eight fish species, 6 shrimp species, 2 crab species and 8 other invertebrates were found in the by-catch of the eel nets. Among the fishes, shrimps and crabs, the individual proportion of fishes is the highest, and they are mostly juveniles or small-size fishes, while the shrimps and crabs also make up a certain proportion. Most of the individuals in the by-catch were juveniles and were dead when they were harvested. It was proven that the activity of elver fishing has a great negative effect on regional fishery resources, though it has brought great commercial benefit. Relevant management and conversation should be reinforced.

  16. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  17. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  18. Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A Nation-wide Comparison of Injecting Drug Users versus Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; da Silva, Cosme MFP; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lucena, Francisca FA; Fonseca, Maria GP; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brazil accounts for ∼70% of injection drug users (IDU) receiving HAART in low/middle income countries. We evaluated the impact of HAART availability/access on AIDS-related mortality among IDU versus men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Nationwide analysis on Brazilian IDU and MSM diagnosed with AIDS in 2000-2006. Methods Four national information systems were linked and Cox regression was used to assess impact of HAART availability/access on differential AIDS-related mortality. Results Among 28,426 patients, 6,777 died during 87,792 person-years of follow-up. Compared to MSM, IDU were significantly less likely to be receiving HAART, to have ever had determinations for CD4 or viral load. After controlling for confounders, IDU had a significantly higher risk of death (AHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.84-2.05). Among the subset that had at least one CD4 and viral load determination, higher risk of death among IDU persisted (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58-2.11). Non-white ethnicity significantly increased this risk, while prompt HAART uptake after AIDS diagnosis reduced the risk of death. After controlling for spatially-correlated survival data, AIDS-related mortality remained higher in IDU than in MSM. Conclusions Despite free/universal HAART access, differential AIDS-related mortality exists in Brazil. Efforts are needed to identify and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:19675464

  19. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  20. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  1. A Comparison of Transjugular and Plugged-Percutaneous Liver Biopsy in Patients with Contraindications to Ordinary Percutaneous Liver Biopsy and an 'In-House' Protocol for Selecting the Procedure of Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Eli; Ben Ari, Ziv; Bachar, Gil N.; Amlinski, Yelena; Neyman, Chaim; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Shapiro, Riki; Bruckhaimer, Elchanan; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Belenky, Alexander

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy (PB) in consecutive patients with severe liver disease associated with impaired coagulation, ascites, or both and to verify the in-house protocol used to select the appropriate procedure. In 2000-2006, 329 patients (208 male [62.8%] and 121 female [37.2%]), aged 1 month to 81 years (mean, 46.8 years), underwent 150 TJLBs (39.1%) or 233 PBs (60.9%) procedures at a major tertiary center, as determined by an in-house protocol. The groups were compared for specimen characteristics, technical success, and complications. Technical success rates were 97.4% for TJLB (146/150) and 99.1% for PB (231/233). TJLB was associated with a lower average core length (1.29 vs. 1.43 cm) and lower average number of specimens obtained (2.44 vs. 2.8), but both methods yielded sufficient tissue for a definitive diagnosis. There were no major complications in either group. TJLB and PB can be safely and effectively performed for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in patients with contraindications for standard percutaneous liver biopsy. When both are technically available, we suggest PB as the procedure of choice, especially in transplanted livers.

  2. Forb, insect, and soil response to burning and mowing Wyoming big sagebrush in greater sage-grouse breeding habitat.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jennifer E; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2014-04-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.

  3. Smoking status, changes in smoking status and health-related quality of life: findings from the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") cohort.

    PubMed

    Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  4. Wind relaxations and poleward flow events in a coastal upwelling system on the central California coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melton, Christopher; Washburn, Libe; Gotschalk, Chris

    2009-11-01

    When upwelling favorable winds weaken or relax in coastal upwelling systems, prevailing equatorward currents often weaken and then reverse to form propagating poleward currents. Here the statistics of wind relaxations and poleward flow events along the south central California coast are derived using meteorological and oceanographic times series during 2000-2006. Over the 7-year record, 169 wind relaxations were observed (about 1 every 2 weeks) and 127 of these were followed by poleward flow events. Thermistor moorings and current profilers along the 15 m isobath at Alegria, Point Arguello, Point Purisima, and Point Sal recorded the poleward flows. The poleward flows propagate northward at 10-30 km d-1 and appear as sequential temperature increases at the moorings. Wind relaxations occur throughout the year but are most frequent in September and least frequent in April when upwelling winds are strong and persistent. Poleward flows follow wind relaxations frequently during May through November and rarely in December and January. Sea level differences between Santa Monica and Port San Luis, California, decreased as winds relaxed, consistent with forcing by alongshore pressure gradients. Temperature distributions at Point Arguello, Point Purisima, and Point Sal were skewed toward higher values because of the poleward flows. The alongshore distance traveled by the poleward flows increased with duration of the wind relaxations and magnitudes of alongshore temperature and sea level differences prior to the relaxations.

  5. Association between Lower Extremity Performance and Health-Related Quality of Life in Elderly Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    Bindawas, Saad M.; Al Snih, Soham; Ottenbacher, Allison J.; Graham, James; Protas, Elizabeth E.; Markides, Kyriakos S.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the longitudinal association between levels of lower extremity performance (LEP) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older Mexican Americans aged 72 years or older participating in the Hispanic Established Population for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly (2000-2006). Method LEP was measured in 621 non-institutionalized participants with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Participants were divided into high (SPPB score 10-12), intermediate (SPPB score 7-9), and low (SPPB score 0-6) groups based on LEP. HRQoL was assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF-36), which includes a Physical Composite Scale (PCS) and a Mental Composite Scale (MCS). Results Participants in the high LEP group had slower rates of decline in the PCS, and those in the intermediate LEP group had slower rates of decline in the MCS score over time. Discussion Increased LEP was associated with slower rates of decline in physical and mental HRQoL in older Mexican Americans. PMID:25804900

  6. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  7. Surface Ozone in Kiev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Mikulskaya, I. A.; Kiforenko, S. I.; Blum, O. B.; Sheminova, V. A.; Veles, A. A.

    The study of total ozone over Kiev and its concentration changes with height in the troposphere has been made on the base of ground-based observations with the infrared Fourier-spectrometer in the Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (MAO NASU) as part of ESA-NIVR-KNMI project no 2907 "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and atmospheric profiles "(2005-2008) [1,2,4]. Ground-level ozone in Kiev for an episode of its high concentrations in August 2000 was also simulated with the model of urban air pollution UAM-V [5,6]. In 2008 the satellite data Aura-OMI on profiles of ozone in the atmosphere OMO3PR became available (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Aura/data-holdings/OMI/ omo3pr_v003.shtml). They include ozone content in the lower layer of the atmosphere, beginning from 2005, which can be used to evaluate the ground-level ozone in all cities of Ukraine. The comparison of the data of ozone air pollution in Kiev (ozone - the pollutant of the first class of danger) and medical statistics data of of respiratory system (RS) diseases of the city population was carried out with the package "Statistica". A regression analysis, prognostic regression modelling, and retrospective prognosis of the epidemiological situation with respect to RS pathologies in Kiev in 2000-2006 were performed.

  8. Proposal for territorial distribution of the 2010 EU road safety target.

    PubMed

    Tolón-Becerra, A; Lastra-Bravo, X; Bienvenido-Bárcena, F

    2009-09-01

    European Union (EU) road safety policies include reduction in road fatalities by 50% during 2000-2010. The original territorial distribution of this target is uniform, as all the territories have to halve the number of fatalities regardless of their previous record. We propose a simple method of distributing the total effort required to reach the EU target of halving fatalities in a territory in such a way that those areas with a higher proportion of fatalities (relative to their populations) have the highest targets and the sum of all of the areas is the 50% reduction. The distribution function we use here is based on an inverse logarithmic function selected from among several alternative functions analyzed in an initial study. This use of weighted distribution functions has been applied since 2000 by the EU in other policies, such as the use of renewable energies. We applied the proposed distribution function to two territorial aggregation levels in the EUROSTAT Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS): NUTS0 for EU-15 and EU-25 Member States, and NUTS3 for the 50 Spanish provinces, comparing the new and old targets with the real achievements for the 2000-2006 period, and new and old targets for the 2000-2010 period. This is a simple proposal for modification of target distribution that can be further improved using other parameters, such as road or weather conditions.

  9. Application of radium isotopes to determine crustal residence times of hydrothermal fluids from two sites on the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David; Gronvold, Karl; Butterfield, David

    2007-12-01

    Radium isotopes were used to determine the crustal residence times of hydrothermal fluids from two geothermal wells (Svartsengi and Reykjanes) from the Reykjanes Peninsula, Iceland. The availability of rock samples from the subsurface (to depths of 2400 m) allowed direct comparison of the radium isotopic characteristics of the fluids with those of the rocks within the high temperature and pressure reaction zone. The 226Ra activity of the Svartsengi fluid was ˜one-fourth of the Reykjanes fluid and the 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio of the Svartsengi fluid was ˜twice that of Reykjanes. The fluid isotopic characteristics were relatively stable for both sites over the 6 years (2000-2006) of the study. It was determined, using a model that predicts the evolution of the fluid 228Ra/ 226Ra ratio with time, that both sites had fluid residence times, from the onset of high temperature water-rock reaction, of less than 5 years. Measurement of the short-lived 224Ra and 223Ra allowed estimation of the recoil input parameter used in the model. The derived timescale is consistent with results from similar studies of fluids from submarine systems, and has implications for the use of terrestrial systems in Iceland as an exploited energy resource.

  10. Historical and contemporary evidence of a mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis Cuvier, 1828) spawning aggregation fishery in decline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, R. T.; Carcamo, R.; Rhodes, K. L.; Roberts, C. M.; Requena, N.

    2008-06-01

    Scientific information on reef fish spawning aggregation fisheries is sparse in light of numerous regional declines and extirpations from overexploitation. Fisher interviews of the small-scale commercial mutton snapper ( Lutjanus analis) spawning aggregation fishery at Gladden Spit, Belize, suggests a historic decadal decline. The reported trend is supported by analysis of inter-seasonal catch and effort and yield (2000 2002) that reveals a 59% decline in catch per unit effort (CPUE) and a 22% decrease in mean landings per boat. Declining population-level trends are also supported by a significant decrease in inter-annual median lengths of mutton snappers (2000 2006). These findings demonstrate the need for additional life history information that includes length-associated age and details on growth to provide clearer support of the effects on, and responses by, populations following fishing. In view of the historical changes to mutton snapper CPUE and landings at Gladden Spit and the fishery-associated declines in fish spawning aggregations observed globally, a precautionary approach to spawning aggregation management is warranted that provides full protection from fishing to enhance population persistence. The findings also highlight the need for substantially greater enforcement and long-term fisheries monitoring under a comprehensive regional management strategy.

  11. Modern space/time geostatistics using river distances: data integration of turbidity and E. coli measurements to assess fecal contamination along the Raritan River in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Money, Eric S; Carter, Gail P; Serre, Marc L

    2009-05-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a widely used indicator of fecal contamination in water bodies. External contact and subsequent ingestion of bacteria coming from fecal contamination can lead to harmful health effects. Since E. coli data are sometimes limited, the objective of this study is to use secondary information in the form of turbidity to improve the assessment of E. coli at unmonitored locations. We obtained all E. coli and turbidity monitoring data available from existing monitoring networks for the 2000-2006 time period for the Raritan River Basin, New Jersey. Using collocated measurements, we developed a predictive model of E. coli from turbidity data. Using this model, soft data are constructed for E. coli given turbidity measurements at 739 space/time locations where only turbidity was measured. Finally, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) method of modern space/time geostatistics was used for the data integration of monitored and predicted E. coli data to produce maps showing E. coli concentration estimated daily across the river basin. The addition of soft data in conjunction with the use of river distances reduced estimation error by about 30%. Furthermore, based on these maps, up to 35% of river miles in the Raritan Basin had a probability of E coli impairment greater than 90% on the most polluted day of the study period. PMID:19544881

  12. Wildfire seasonality and land use: when do wildfires prefer to burn?

    PubMed

    Bajocco, Sofia; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Ricotta, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increasing anthropogenic fire activity, understanding the role of land-use in shaping wildfire regimes has become a major concern. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have been carried out on the relationship between land-use and wildfire patterns, in order to identify land-use types where fire behaves selectively, showing a marked preference (or avoidance) in terms of fire incidence. By contrast, the temporal aspects of the relationship between landuse types and wildfire occurrence have received far less attention. The aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2006 to identify land-use types where wildfires occur earlier or later than expected from a random null model. The study highlighted a close relationship between the timing of fire occurrence and land-cover that is primarily governed by two complementary processes: climatic factors that act indirectly on the timing of wildfires determining the spatial distribution of land-use types, and human population and human pressure that directly influence fire ignition. From a practical viewpoint, understanding the temporal trends of wildfires within the different land-use classes can be an effective decision-support tool for fire agencies in managing fire risk and for producing provisional models of fire behavior under changing climatic scenarios and evolving landscapes.

  13. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  14. Vacuolar protein sorting protein 13A, TtVPS13A, localizes to the tetrahymena thermophila phagosome membrane and is required for efficient phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Haresha S; Cowan, Ann E; Klobutcher, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 13 (VPS13) proteins have been studied in a number of organisms, and mutations in VPS13 genes have been implicated in two human genetic disorders, but the function of these proteins is poorly understood. The TtVPS13A protein was previously identified in a mass spectrometry analysis of the Tetrahymena thermophila phagosome proteome (M. E. Jacobs et al., Eukaryot. Cell 5:1990-2000, 2006), suggesting that it is involved in phagocytosis. In this study, we analyzed the structure of the macronuclear TtVPS13A gene, which was found to be composed of 17 exons spanning 12.5 kb and was predicted to encode a protein of 3,475 amino acids (aa). A strain expressing a TtVPS13A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was constructed, and the protein was found to associate with the phagosome membrane during the entire cycle of phagocytosis. In addition, Tetrahymena cells with a TtVPS13A knockout mutation displayed impaired phagocytosis. Specifically, they grew slowly under conditions where phagocytosis is essential, they formed few phagosomes, and the digestion of phagosomal contents was delayed compared to wild-type cells. Overall, these results provide evidence that the TtVPS13A protein is required for efficient phagocytosis.

  15. Changes in timing, duration, and symmetry of molt of Hawaiian forest birds.

    PubMed

    Freed, Leonard A; Cann, Rebecca L

    2012-01-01

    Food limitation greatly affects bird breeding performance, but the effect of nutritive stress on molt has barely been investigated outside of laboratory settings. Here we show changes in molting patterns for an entire native Hawaiian bird community at 1650-1900 m elevation on the Island of Hawaii between 1989-1999 and 2000-2006, associated with severe food limitation throughout the year beginning in 2000. Young birds and adults of all species took longer to complete their molt, including months never or rarely used during the 1989-1999 decade. These included the cold winter months and even the early months of the following breeding season. In addition, more adults of most species initiated their molt one to two months earlier, during the breeding season. Suspended molt, indicated by birds temporarily not molting primary flight feathers during the months of peak primary molt, increased in prevalence. Food limitation reached the point where individuals of all species had asymmetric molt, with different primary flight feathers molted on each wing. These multiple changes in molt, unprecedented in birds, had survival consequences. Adult birds captured during January to March, 2000-2004, had lower survival in four of five species with little effect of extended molt. Extended molt may be adaptive for a nutrient stressed bird to survive warm temperatures but not cool winter temperatures that may obliterate the energy savings. The changing molt of Hawaiian birds has many implications for conservation and for understanding life history aspects of molt of tropical birds.

  16. Modeling of Particle Acceleration at Multiple Shocks Via Diffusive Shock Acceleration: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Zank, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a model that diffusively accelerates particles at multiple shocks. Our basic approach is related to box models (Protheroe and Stanev, 1998; Moraal and Axford, 1983; Ball and Kirk, 1992; Drury et al., 1999) in which a distribution of particles is diffusively accelerated inside the box while simultaneously experiencing decompression through adiabatic expansion and losses from the convection and diffusion of particles outside the box (Melrose and Pope, 1993; Zank et al., 2000). We adiabatically decompress the accelerated particle distribution between each shock by either the method explored in Melrose and Pope (1993) and Pope and Melrose (1994) or by the approach set forth in Zank et al. (2000) where we solve the transport equation by a method analogous to operator splitting. The second method incorporates the additional loss terms of convection and diffusion and allows for the use of a variable time between shocks. We use a maximum injection energy (Emax) appropriate for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks (Zank et al., 2000, 2006; Dosch and Shalchi, 2010) and provide a preliminary application of the diffusive acceleration of particles by multiple shocks with frequencies appropriate for solar maximum (i.e., a non-Markovian process).

  17. The Level of Evidence in Two Leading Endodontic Journals

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Leila; Shahravan, Arash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The successful practice of dentistry, including endodontics, relies on a wide spectrum of dental research. The quantity and quality of research evidence in endodontics have seldom been evaluated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of evidence in current leading endodontic journals. Materials and Methods All the articles published in 2000, 2006 and 2010 in two major endodontic journals (Journal of Endodontics and International Endodontic Journal) were evaluated. These articles were classified according to the level of evidence (LOE) using Oxford Scale from 0 to 5 and type of the study. Results Of the articles assessed, 3.2% were clinical trials, 47.8% were experimental, 5.6% were animal studies and 43.4% were of other types. Subdivisions according to LOE were 4.3% as level 1, 0.9 % level 2, 7.3% level 3, 0.4% level 4 and 3.5% level 5. Overall, 83.6% of the articles were classified as “non-evidence-based”. There was a marginally significant increase in the percentage of articles with high level of evidence in recent years. Conclusion There is a substantial shortage of articles with high level of evidence in clinical endodontics. However, there was a gradual increase in the number of high LOE articles published in both journals. PMID:23411681

  18. Connectivity and colluvial sediment dynamics in the Saldur River basin, Eastern Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brardinoni, Francesco; Scotti, Riccardo; Cavalli, Marco; Mair, Volkmar

    2015-04-01

    We present an integrated approach that aims to: (i) document the spatial distribution of mass-wasting activity and sediment production in the Saldur River basin (97 km2); (ii) detect causal linkages between mass-wasting intensity and the potential spatial distribution of discontinuous permafrost; (iii) identify source-to-sink colluvial sedimentary pathways as modulated by the spatial organization of active and relict glacial and periglacial depositional landforms; and (iv) test the reliability of a geomorphometry-based index of sediment connectivity. In so doing we compare spatial patterns of process-based and structural geomorphic connectivity. To these ends, we map rock glaciers, protalus ramparts and moraines, and compile a field- and air photo-based multi-temporal (1959-1969-1982-1997-2000-2006-2008-2011) inventory of colluvial sediment sources. We then combine these data with two historical datasets of debris flow and landslide events (both implemented and maintained by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano) and analyse mass-wasting spatial distribution and intensity in relation to proximity to glacier fronts, intact and relict periglacial landforms, and a permafrost index map (i.e., PermaNET; http://www.permanet-alpinespace.eu/). This work is part of SedAlp (www.sedalp.eu), a project funded through the Alpine Space Programme.

  19. Modeling of Particle Acceleration at Multiple Shocks Via Diffusive Shock Acceleration: Preliminary Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, L. N.; Zank, G. P.

    2013-12-01

    Successful forecasting of energetic particle events in space weather models require algorithms for correctly predicting the spectrum of ions accelerated from a background population of charged particles. We present preliminary results from a model that diffusively accelerates particles at multiple shocks. Our basic approach is related to box models (Protheroe and Stanev, 1998; Moraal and Axford, 1983; Ball and Kirk, 1992; Drury et al., 1999) in which a distribution of particles is diffusively accelerated inside the box while simultaneously experiencing decompression through adiabatic expansion and losses from the convection and diffusion of particles outside the box (Melrose and Pope, 1993; Zank et al., 2000). We adiabatically decompress the accelerated particle distribution between each shock by either the method explored in Melrose and Pope (1993) and Pope and Melrose (1994) or by the approach set forth in Zank et al. (2000) where we solve the transport equation by a method analogous to operator splitting. The second method incorporates the additional loss terms of convection and diffusion and allows for the use of a variable time between shocks. We use a maximum injection energy (Emax) appropriate for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks (Zank et al., 2000, 2006; Dosch and Shalchi, 2010) and provide a preliminary application of the diffusive acceleration of particles by multiple shocks with frequencies appropriate for solar maximum (i.e., a non-Markovian process).

  20. Geochemical haloes as an indication of over oil and gas fields in the Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    Hydrocarbon deposits at the Arctic shelf of Russia are a source of jet dispersion of heavy metals that forms haloes in sediments and in the bottom layer of sea water. The intensity of the haloes and their spatial position are jointly determined by geological structure of their source and the environment, i.e., hydrocarbon deposits in host rocks, seafloor lithodynamics and oceanographic factors. Based on theoretical works of Kholmyansky and Putikov (2000; 2006; 2008), an application of electrochemical modification of electric prospecting for offshore hydrocarbon exploration and detailed survey of the morphology of deposits was developed. Specialized equipment was developed for studies of electrochemical features of bottom water layer. With this equipment one can detect ion anomalies in water and determine the type of deposit as gas, gas hydrate, gas condensate or oil. At operation, the unit with equipment is towed underwater off the stern of research vessel. Type and configuration of deposits are determined based on occurrence of trace heavy metals detected by ion-selective electrodes. The proposed method was applied to study a few hydrocarbon fields in Barents and Kara seas in 2001 -2012 including Shtokman, Medyn, Polyarnoe, Prirazlomnoye and others. The results allowed us to trace the margins of the deposits in more detail, and geochemical data, in addition, showed the type of deposits. In general, the method has proven efficient and applicable to a wide range of hydrocarbon deposits.

  1. Distribution of serotypes and evaluation of antimicrobial susceptibility among human and bovine Streptococcus agalactiae strains isolated in Brazil between 1980 and 2006.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Tatiana Castro Abreu; Costa, Natália Silva; Vianna Souza, Aline Rosa; Silva, Ligia Guedes da; Corrêa, Ana Beatriz de Almeida; Fernandes, Flavio Gimenis; Oliveira, Ivi Cristina Menezes; Mattos, Marcos Corrêa de; Rosado, Alexandre Soares; Benchetrit, Leslie Claude

    2013-01-01

    Streptococcus agalactiae is a common agent of clinical and subclinical bovine mastitis and an important cause of human infections, mainly among pregnant women, neonates and nonpregnant adults with underlying diseases. The present study describes the genetic and phenotypic diversity among 392 S. agalactiae human and bovine strains isolated between 1980 and 2006 in Brazil. The most prevalent serotypes were Ia, II, III and V and all the strains were susceptible to penicillin, vancomycin and levofloxacin. Resistance to clindamycin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, rifampicin and tetracycline was observed. Among the erythromycin resistant strains, mefA/E, ermA and, mainly, ermB gene were detected, and a shift of prevalence from the macrolide resistance phenotype to the macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin B resistance phenotype over the years was observed. The 23 macrolide-resistant strains showed 19 different pulsed-field gel electrophoresis profiles. Regarding macrolide resistance, a major concern in S. agalactiae epidemiology, the present study describes an increase in erythromycin resistance from the 80s to the 90s followed by a decrease in the 2000-2006 period. Also, the genetic heterogeneity described points out that erythromycin resistance in Brazil is rather due to horizontal gene transmission than to spreading of specific macrolide-resistant clones. PMID:23453948

  2. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  3. [Urban sustainability assessment based on eco-efficiency and its application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Jian-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui; Cao, Bin; Shi, Long-yu

    2010-04-01

    Comprehensive assessment on urban ecological system is one of important issues for regional sustainable development research. Urban eco-efficiency is the effective tool to integrate sustainabable strategies into the development planning and management initiatives, which expresses the relationship of inputs of ecological impact and outputs of social welfare. An evaluation model of urban sustainability based on eco-efficiency was proposed by integrating Ecological Footprint model and Human Development Index. Using this model, a case study of Xiamen City was carried out using the statistical data from 2000 to 2006. There is a fluctuation of ecoefficiency which showed a steady increase first, then a sharp decline and a marginal increase towards the end. During 2000-2006, the per-capita ecological footprint increases from 4.279 hm2 to 5.462 hm2; and the Human Development Index increases from 0.831 to 0.896; thus the eco-efficiency, resource efficiency and environmental efficiency declines by 15.5%, 15.7% and 15.3% respectively. Xiamen experiences sustainability hypo-increasing phase first, sustainability increasing phase secondly, then sustainability decreasing phase, and sustainability increasing phase in the end. On the whole, the urban sustainability shows a decreasing trend.

  4. Mental health trajectories and their embeddedness in work and family circumstances: a latent state-trait approach to life-course trajectories.

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine

    2014-09-01

    Mental health trajectories are known to be influenced by work and family circumstances. However, few studies have examined both of these influences simultaneously in a longitudinal manner. The life-course perspective stresses the importance of examining trajectories in terms of both stable and dynamic components. In this article we use structural equation models (latent state-trait, LST) to distinguish the stable and situational components of mental health trajectories and hypothesise that situational mental health is influenced by satisfaction with work and family, and this effect differs by gender. An analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of 1616 working Swiss residents (2000-2006) shows that mental health trajectories are mostly stable and only slightly sensitive to situational influences. However, situational influences in a given wave do predict situational influences in the next wave. Satisfaction with work and family influences situational mental health in both genders, but the impact is greater for men. In conclusion, the LST approach allows for the examination of mental health trajectories from a life-course perspective by distinguishing stable and situational components. Mental health trajectories are more stable and constant than they are dependent on work and family circumstances, and men are more sensitive to family circumstances than women.

  5. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  6. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.

  7. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  8. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  9. Global-scale external magnetic fields at Mars from Mars Global Surveyor data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.

    2015-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among those of the terrestrial planets. It is the net result of the interaction of the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) with crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere. Internal fields of crustal origin have been the subject of extensive studies; the focus of our work is identification and characterization of contributions from external magnetic fields using the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data. We investigate the magnitude, average spatial structure and temporal variability of the external magnetic field at the MGS mapping altitude of 400 km by first subtracting expected contributions from crustal fields using existing global crustal field models. We identify contributions to the residual dayside fields from two sources: the draped IMF and a source that we interpret to be of ionospheric origin. As observed in previous work, nightside external fields are minimal at mapping orbit altitudes. The IMF contribution changes polarity every 13 days due to the geometry of the heliospheric magnetic field and Mars' orbit. This allows us to calculate the amplitude of the IMF at mapping orbit altitudes. The ionospheric contribution results in a quasi-steady dayside signal in the MGS observations because of the limited local time sampling of the MGS mapping orbit. The ionospheric contribution can be isolated by averaging the external fields over timescales longer than several Carrington rotations, to average out the IMF contribution. We present a global average of the ionopsheric field for the duration of the mapping orbit (2000-2006) and analyze daytime and nightime fields separately. We show that some structure in the time-averaged ionospheric field is organized in the Mars body-fixed frame, due for example, to the influence of crustal fields. We also show that the ionospheric fields vary in amplitude and geometry with martian season. Broader local time coverage over a restricted latitude

  10. Retrospective cohort evaluation on risk of pneumonia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsui-Ming; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Shen, Te-Chun; Yang, Chien-Lung; Yang, Min-Hui; Wu, Fang-Yang; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTb) and pneumonia are diseases that may exist concomitantly. Population study investigating the subsequent pneumonia development in PTb patients is limited. This study compares the risk of pneumonia between cohorts with and without PTb.We used the claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance to identify a cohort with PTb (N = 3417) newly diagnosed in 2000-2006 without pneumonia history, and a randomly selected comparison cohort (N = 6834) free of PTb and pneumonia, frequency matched by propensity score. Incidence rates and hazard ratios of pneumonia were calculated by sex, age, and comorbidity starting in the 7th month after the cohorts being established until the end of 2011.We found the incidence of pneumonia to be 1.9-fold higher in the PTb cohort than in the PTb free cohort (51.6 vs 27.0 per 1000 person-years). The PTb cohort had a Cox method estimated adjusted hazard ratio of 2.14 (95% confidence interval = 1.96-2.32). We also found that the risk was greater for men than for women, but lower for young adults aged 20-39 years. Comorbidity interacted with PTb by aggravating the pneumonia risk, particularly for those with asthma. For PTb patients comorbid with asthma, the pneumonia incidence was 2.5-fold higher than for PTb patients free of comorbidities (75.9 vs 29.3 per 1000 person-years).Our results display that PTb patients have an elevated risk of developing pneumonia. Adequate follow-up should be provided to the PTb patients, especially those with comorbidity. PMID:27368009

  11. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  12. Storm to Seasonal Nitrate Flushing and Relationship to Hydroclimatic Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barco, J.; Wessel, C.; Gunawan, S.; Hogue, T. S.

    2009-05-01

    Coupled hydrological and geochemical cycles have historically been used to understand the mechanisms controlling chemical export at the watershed scale. Numerous studies have focused on stream geochemistry dynamics and particularly on the effects of nitrogen deposition on catchments and ecosystems. However, few studies have evaluated the variability in nitrate behavior in watersheds with different climate and hydrologic characteristics. Furthermore, storm nitrate dynamics (flushing) and corresponding relationship to discharge patterns, precipitation intensity, atmospheric deposition, and watershed properties is an area with few published studies. In the current study, we utilize hydrologic, geochemical and atmospheric data to better understand the primary processes controlling nitrate dynamics at monthly and seasonal time scales in ten watersheds located in the U.S. Stream data (discharge and nitrate concentrations) was obtained from the United States Geological Survey (USGS). Atmospheric deposition data was gathered from regional National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) sites. Collected data were assessed to evaluate nitrate dynamics for the period 2000-2006. Intra-storm nitrate variability was also evaluated in a watershed in Southern California (Arroyo Seco) where estimates of dry deposition are considered some of the highest in North America. Results from our analyses show that nitrate concentration appears to respond differently in the studied watersheds, exhibiting dilution effects in some watersheds and concentration effects in others. Discharge and nitrate concentrations during the 2009 winter reveal that the Arroyo Seco watershed is characterized by distinctive flushing of nitrates within storms. The role of specific hydrological events (size, intensity and duration) on the nitrate mobilization proved to be important as well as the accumulated nitrate pool available for mobilization. In general, results show a strong linkage between hydrological and

  13. Monitoring the Urban Growth on Vitosha Northeast Slope by Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo

    2015-04-01

    In last decades satellites are routinely used in solving large amount of Earth observation (EO) tasks. One of the phenomena that can be easily noted from EO images is the urban sprawl caused by urbanization process and formation of megacities. Two concurrent processes are observed in urban area enlargement - the loss of vegetation cover by soil sealing and the increase of impervious surfaces. The area for this specific study was selected due to its economic attractiveness and closeness to one of the biggest national parks - mountain Vitosha. Better identification of the ongoing changes in this particular area is considered to be of public interest. The basic task of this research was to trace the city growth by means of multispectral data and spectral indices and list possible reasons for the changes occurred. Important advantage in case instruments onboard satellites are used in such scenarios are the global coverage, repeatability, provision of historical data sets, and data consistency from one instrument to its successor. Other goal set in this study is establish method for better delineation of built/nobuilt areas as trade off between widely used spectral indices used for change detection in urban areas and the density of the buildings in the selected area derived by means of subpixel mixture analysis. These tasks were achieved by creating several new vector layers corresponding to shape and area of the land use change in the studied area. In the framework of this study used are the freely provided by USGS multispectral data from the series of TM/ETM+ instruments onboard Landsat satellites. The product used for tasks aforementioned is level L1T(G) radiometrically corrected and orthotransformed images that has been verified in large number of experiments and cited in numerous publications. For ground truthing several sources have been used - orthophoto images for visual inspection and CLC vector layers for years 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012.

  14. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan, Waters, Dede, Michaud, & Reddy, 2007; Haarmann, Just, & Carpenter, 1997) propose that the underlying structural representations are unimpaired, but sentence comprehension is affected by processing deficits, such as slow lexical activation, reduction in memory resources, slowed processing and/or intermittent deficiency, among others. We test the claims of two processing accounts, slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, and two versions of the Trace Deletion Hypothesis (TDH), in a computational framework for sentence processing (Lewis & Vasishth, 2005) implemented in ACT-R (Anderson, Byrne, Douglass, Lebiere, & Qin, 2004). The assumption of slowed processing is operationalized as slow procedural memory, so that each processing action is performed slower than normal, and intermittent deficiency as extra noise in the procedural memory, so that the parsing steps are more noisy than normal. We operationalize the TDH as an absence of trace information in the parse tree. To test the predictions of the models implementing these theories, we use the data from a German sentence-picture matching study reported in Hanne, Sekerina, Vasishth, Burchert, and De Bleser (2011). The data consist of offline (sentence-picture matching accuracies and response times) and online (eye fixation proportions) measures. From among the models considered, the model assuming that both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency are present emerges as the best model of sentence processing difficulty in aphasia. The modeling of individual differences suggests that, if we assume that patients have both slowed processing and intermittent deficiency, they

  15. Real-time source deformation modeling through GNSS permanent stations at Merapi volcano (Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauducel, F.; Nurnaning, A.; Iguchi, M.; Fahmi, A. A.; Nandaka, M. A.; Sumarti, S.; Subandriyo, S.; Metaxian, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Merapi (Java, Indonesia) is one of the most active and dangerous volcano in the world. A first GPS repetition network was setup and periodically measured since 1993, allowing detecting a deep magma reservoir, quantifying magma flux in conduit and identifying shallow discontinuities around the former crater (Beauducel and Cornet, 1999;Beauducel et al., 2000, 2006). After the 2010 centennial eruption, when this network was almost completely destroyed, Indonesian and Japanese teams installed a new continuous GPS network for monitoring purpose (Iguchi et al., 2011), consisting of 3 stations located at the volcano flanks, plus a reference station at the Yogyakarta Observatory (BPPTKG).In the framework of DOMERAPI project (2013-2016) we have completed this network with 5 additional stations, which are located on the summit area and volcano surrounding. The new stations are 1-Hz sampling, GNSS (GPS + GLONASS) receivers, and near real-time data streaming to the Observatory. An automatic processing has been developed and included in the WEBOBS system (Beauducel et al., 2010) based on GIPSY software computing precise daily moving solutions every hour, and for different time scales (2 months, 1 and 5 years), time series and velocity vectors. A real-time source modeling estimation has also been implemented. It uses the depth-varying point source solution (Mogi, 1958; Williams and Wadge, 1998) in a systematic inverse problem model exploration that displays location, volume variation and 3-D probability map.The operational system should be able to better detect and estimate the location and volume variations of possible magma sources, and to follow magma transfer towards the surface. This should help monitoring and contribute to decision making during future unrest or eruption.

  16. Timely immunization completion among children in Vietnam from 2000 to 2011: a multilevel analysis of individual and contextual factors

    PubMed Central

    Minh An, Dao Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Van Minh, Hoang; Trang, Nguyen Thi Huyen; Thu Huong, Nguyen Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Van Dung, Do

    2016-01-01

    Background Since the beginning of 2014, there have been nearly 6,000 confirmed measles cases in northern Vietnam. Of these, more than 86% had neither been immunized nor was their vaccination status confirmed. Objective To establish the likelihood that children under five in Vietnam had ‘timely immunization completion’ (2000–2011) and identify factors that account for variations in timely immunization completion. Design Secondary data from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), which sampled women aged 15–49 from the 1999 Vietnamese Population and Housing Census frame, were analyzed. Multilevel analysis using Poisson regression was undertaken. Results Proportions of children under five who had timely immunization completion were low, especially for HBV dose 2 and HBV dose 3, which decreased between 2000 and 2011. Among seven vaccines used in the National Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 2000, 2006, and 2011, measles dose 1 had the highest timely immunization completion at 65.3%, 66.7%, and 73.6%, respectively, and hepatitis B dose 1 had the lowest at 17.5%, 19.3%, and 45.5%, respectively. Timely immunization completion was less common among children whose mothers had relatively less household wealth, were from ethnic minorities, lived in rural areas, and had less education. At the community level, the child's region of residence was the main predictor of timely immunization completion, and the availability of hospital delivery and community prenatal care in the local community were also determinants. Conclusion The EPI should include ‘timely immunization completion’ as a quality indicator. There should also be greater focus and targeting in rural areas, and among women who have relatively low education, belong to minority groups, and have less household wealth. Further research on this topic using multilevel analysis is needed to better understand how these factors interact. PMID:26950555

  17. Abundances and variability of tropospheric volatile organic compounds at the South Pole and other Antarctic locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, Donald R.; Swanson, Aaron; Meinardi, Simone; Rowland, F. S.; Davis, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Multiyear (2000-2006) seasonal measurements of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, halogenated species, dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide and C 1-C 4 alkyl nitrates at the South Pole are presented for the first time. At the South Pole, short-lived species (such as the alkenes) typically were not observed above their limits of detection because of long transit times from source regions. Peak mixing ratios of the longer lived species with anthropogenic sources were measured in late winter (August and September) with decreasing mixing ratios throughout the spring. In comparison, compounds with a strong oceanic source, such as bromoform and methyl iodide, had peak mixing ratios earlier in the winter (June and July) because of decreased oceanic production during the winter months. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is also oceanically emitted but has a short lifetime, was rarely measured above 5 pptv. This is in contrast to high DMS mixing ratios at coastal locations and shows the importance of photochemical removal during transport to the pole. Alkyl nitrate mixing ratios peaked during April and then decreased throughout the winter. The dominant source of the alkyl nitrates in the region is believed to be oceanic emissions rather than photochemical production due to low alkane levels. Sampling of other tropospheric environments via a Twin Otter aircraft included the west coast of the Ross Sea and large stretches of the Antarctic Plateau. In the coastal atmosphere, a vertical gradient was found with the highest mixing ratios of marine emitted compounds at low altitudes. Conversely, for anthropogenically produced species the highest mixing ratios were measured at the highest altitudes, suggesting long-range transport to the continent. Flights flown through the plume of Mount Erebus, an active volcano, revealed that both carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide are emitted with an OCS/CO molar ratio of 3.3 × 10 -3 consistent with direct observations by other investigators within the

  18. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Daniel J; Turner, David P; Stinson, Graham; Mcguire, David; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; De Jong, Bernardus; McConkey, Brian G.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Kurz, Werner; Jacobson, Andrew; Huntzinger, Deborah; Pan, Yude; Post, Wilfred M; Cook, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  19. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  20. RealCalc : a real time Java calculation tool. Application to HVSR estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloupis, G.; Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    Java computation platform is not a newcomer in the seismology field. It is mainly used for applications regarding collecting, requesting, spreading and visualizing seismological data because it is productive, safe and has low maintenance costs. Although it has very attractive characteristics for the engineers, Java didn't used frequently in real time applications where prediction and reliability required as a reaction to real world events. The main reasons for this are the absence of priority support (such as priority ceiling or priority inversion) and the use of an automated memory management (called garbage collector). To overcome these problems a number of extensions have been proposed with the Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) being the most promising and used one. In the current study we used the RTSJ to build an application that receives data continuously and provides estimations in real time. The application consists of four main modules: incoming data, preprocessing, estimation and publication. As an application example we present real time HVSR estimation. Microtremors recordings are collected continuously from the incoming data module. The preprocessing module consists of a window selector tool based on wavelets which is applied on the incoming data stream in order derive the most stationary parts. The estimation module provides all the necessary calculations according to user specifications. Finally the publication module except the results presentation it also calculates attributes and relevant statistics for each site (temporal variations, HVSR stability). Acknowledgements This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP7 (KP_7).

  1. Wavelet Epicentral Estimation (WEpE) : a real time location estimation using two station subarray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloupis, G.; Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    Traditional approaches to standard earthquake location performed when all the phase arrival times (P and S mainly) for an event are available. The goal for an Earthquake Early Warning System (EEWS) is the use of a reliable method which can extract result as early is possible. For this reason the majority of the modern epicentral location methods focus on a solution that can be derived using only the P arrivals and if possible without waiting for triggering from three stations. A typical example is the application of Equal Differential Time formulation (EDT) among with the information from not yet arrived data to constrain hyperbolic surfaces on which the event can be located. The aforementioned methods showed that it is possible to estimate epicentral location with accepted accuracy for an EEWS by using two stations and waiting the third in order to refine the result. Two problems that still are under investigation from the above methods are: (a) what is the time difference that the EEWS surcharged when one or more stations of the seismological network are not operational and (b) is it possible to increase the accuracy of the estimated by two stations epicentral ? For answering these problems we propose the use of WEpE which is a new method based on the combination of wavelet azimuth estimation and two stations subarray method. Acknowledgements This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP7 (KP_7).

  2. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  3. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Gilliom, R.J.; Sullivan, D.J.; Lorenz, D.L.; Martin, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations and agricultural use of four herbicides (atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and alachlor) were evaluated for major rivers of the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Trends were analyzed for 11 sites on the mainstems and selected tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Missouri River Basins. Concentration trends were determined using a parametric regression model designed for analyzing seasonal variability, flow-related variability, and trends in pesticide concentrations(SEAWAVE-Q).TheSEAWAVE-Qmodel accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic conditions from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. Most of the trends in atrazine and acetochlor concentrations for both time periods were relatively small and nonsignificant, but metolachlor and alachlor were dominated by varying magnitudes of concentration downtrends. Overall, with trends expressed as a percent change per year, trends in herbicide concentrations were consistent with trends in agricultural use; 84 of 88 comparisons for different sites, herbicides, and time periods showed no significant difference between concentration trends and agricultural use trends. Results indicate that decreasing use appears to have been the primary cause for the concentration downtrends during 1996-2006 and that, while there is some evidence that nonuse management factors may have reduced concentrations in some rivers, reliably evaluating the influence of these factors on pesticides in large streams and rivers will require improved, basin-specific information on both management practices and use over time. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  4. The impact of the New IAU Resolutions on ICRF Definition and Realization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    2013-03-01

    Following the adoption of the International Celestial Reference System and Frame (ICRS and ICRF) by the IAU in 1997, several resolutions on reference systems have been passed by the IAU in 2000 and 2006 and endorsed by the IUGG in 2003 and 2007, respectively. These resolutions concern especially the transformation between the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and the Geocentric Celestial Reference system (GCRS) that is essential for realizing the ICRS from directions of extragalactic radio sources observed from the Earth by VLBI. First, the IAU 2000 resolutions have refined the concepts and definition of the astronomical reference systems and parameters for Earth's rotation, and adopted the IAU 2000 precession-nutation. Then, the IAU 2006 resolutions have adopted a new precession model that is consistent with dynamical theories and have addressed definition, terminology or orientation issues relative to reference systems and time scales that needed to be specified after the adoption of the IAU 2000 resolutions. These in particular provide a refined definition of the pole and the origin on the equator as well as a rigorous definition of sidereal rotation of the Earth. These also allow an accurate realization of the celestial intermediate system that replaces the classical celestial system based on the true equator and equinox of date. There was an additional IUGG 2007 resolution for the terrestrial reference system. Finally, the IAU 2009 resolutions have adopted a new system of astronomical constants - including conventional values of the IAU 2000/2006 resolutions - and adopted the Second Realization, ICRF2, of the International Celestial Reference Frame. This paper recalls the main aspects of these recent IAU resolutions as well as their consequences on the concepts, definitions, nomenclature and models that are suitable for modern realizations of reference systems. The impact of these resolutions on the definition and realization of the

  5. Risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiun-Nong; Chen, Hsuan-Ju; Lin, Ming-Chia; Lai, Chung-Hsu; Lin, Hsi-Hsun; Yang, Chih-Hui; Kao, Chia-Hung

    2016-01-01

    The spleen is a crucial organ in humans. However, little is known about the association of venous thromboembolism (VTE) with splenic injury and splenectomy in trauma patients. The aim of this study was to determine the subsequent risk of VTE following splenic injury and splenectomy. A nationwide retrospective cohort study was conducted by analysing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. We included 6,162 splenic injury patients (3,033 splenectomised and 3,129 nonsplenectomised patients) and 24,648 comparison patients who were selected by frequency match based on sex, age, and the index year during 2000-2006. All patients were followed until the occurrence of VTE, 31 December, 2011, death, or withdrawal from the insurance program. The age of patients with splenic injury was 41.93 ± 16.44 years. The incidence rates of VTE were 11.81, 8.46, and 5.21 per 10,000 person-years in the splenic injury patients with splenectomy, splenic injury patients without splenectomy, and comparison patients, respectively. Compared with the comparison cohort, splenic injury patients with splenectomy exhibited a 2.21-fold risk of VTE (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.43-3.43), whereas those without splenectomy exhibited a 1.71-fold risk of VTE (95% CI, 1.05-2.80). The overall incidence rate of VTE was 1.97-fold higher in the splenic injury cohort than the comparison cohort (95% CI, 1.38-2.81). Although splenectomy increased the risk of VTE 1.35-fold compared with no splenectomy, the difference was not statistically significant (95% CI, 0.74-2.45). These results may alert physicians and patients to the complications of splenic injury and splenectomy.

  6. Melanoma Metastases to the Neck Nodes: Role of Adjuvant Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, Primoz; Jancar, Boris; Cemazar, Maja; Perme, Maja Pohar; Hocevar, Marko

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review experiences in the treatment of regionally advanced melanoma to the neck and/or parotid with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and histopathologic data, treatment details, and outcomes in patients treated during the period 2000-2006 at the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were reviewed. Results: A total of 40 patients with 42 dissections underwent surgery, and 43 patients with 45 dissections received irradiation postoperatively to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}: 2 Gy/fraction, 1 fraction/day, 5 fractions/week) of 60 Gy (range, 47.8-78.8). Regional control 2 years after surgery was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40-72%) and after postoperative radiotherapy 78% (CI 63-92%) (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, postoperative radiotherapy (yes vs. no: hazard ratio [HR] 6.3, CI 2.0-20.6) and sum of the risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score; HR 1.7 per score point, CI 1.2-2.6) were predictive for regional control. On logistic regression testing, the number of involved nodes was associated with the probability of distant metastases (p = 0.021). The incidence of late toxicity did not correlate with the mode of therapy, eqTD{sub 2}, or fractionation pattern. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to compensate effectively for the negative impact of adverse histopatologic features to disease control in a dissected nodal basin. More conventionally fractionated radiotherapy regimens using fraction doses of 2-2.5 Gy, with cumulative eqTD{sub 2{>=}}60 Gy, are recommended. The number of involved lymph nodes is proposed as an additional criterion for limiting the implementation of adjuvant irradiation.

  7. Temporal variability and drivers of net ecosystem production of a Turkey oak forest in Italy under coppice management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belelli Marchesini, Luca; Rey, Ana; Papale, Dario; Valentini, Riccardo

    2010-05-01

    The progress in the understanding of the carbon exchange between forests and the atmosphere has been dramatic over the last few years, yet largely based on observations of middle-aged or mature stands in the temperate and boreal region while quite a few studies report on the temporal dynamics of carbon balance in forest stand chronosequences taking into account the effect of forest management (Law et al., 2003; Kowalski et al., 2003; Kolari et al, 2004; Zha et al., 2009). In order to quantify the temporal variability of CO2 fluxes at ecosystem level following coppicing, we analyze eddy covariance data of a deciduous oak (Quercus cerris L.) coppice forest in central Italy (Roccarespampani, VT) collected over two differently aged forest stands in the period 2000-2006 and covering most of the rotation period (0-6; 11-15 years). Data processing was performed evenly for whole data-set according to the CarboEurope database standard (Papale et al., 2006). The inter-annual variability and seasonal dynamics of net ecosystem exchange (NEE), partitioned into ecosystem respiration (Reco) and gross primary production (GPP), were analyzed looking at the relationships with the main structural (biomass) and environmental drivers (air and soil temperature, precipitation, soil water content, vapour pressure deficit, global radiation) to understand which factors control the carbon dynamics of these intensively managed forests After harvesting the forest acted as a carbon source of 69 gC m-2, while in the following years NEE ranged from -18.9 (stand age: 2 years) to -1077.9 g C m-2yr-1 (stand age: 15 years). Evidently the ecosystem promptly recovers its carbon sink capacity already in the years shortly after the harvest and increases its carbon sequestration capacity with stand age (R2= 0.75, P

  8. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  9. Seismic Site Conditions of China Based on Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Magistrale, H.; Rong, Y.; Cheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Site conditions are essential parameters for assessing seismic hazards related to strong ground motion. Due to generally limited availability of measured Vs30 data, regional scale site condition classification is usually based on surface geology, terrain, or topographic slope. As a step to develop a seismic hazard map of China, we make a 1:1,000,000 scale site condition map, which is also the scale of the active fault database of China. Based on the geological database compiled by Li et al. (2006), we classify each geological unit by age and petrological description. Following Wills and others (2000, 2006), the geological units are assigned to NEHRP classes. A 1:250,000 scale Quaternary geological map, compiled by Zhang (1990) is also used to augment the classification of Quaternary sediments. About half of the currently available Vs30 data, which were surveyed at the Strong Motion Network stations mostly in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, do not match our results. We attribute the mismatches to poor location control and the downward extrapolation of shallow boreholes. The preliminary results show a pattern characterized by regional tectonics and climate settings. The subsiding basins of the Jianghan Plain in central China, Hetao Basin in north China, Ruoergai Basin and the Yangtze River Delta have large patches of class E soil. South China is mostly class B and C due to stable tectonics and removal of sediments by heavy rainfall. Tectonically active southwest China is also mostly class B and C because of strong erosion and little local sedimentation. North and northwest China are dominated by class D and B, with some class C due to Early Pleistocene rocks. Inside the Tibetan Plateau, low relief and active compression of young rocks produce stripes of class B, C and D, with small patches of class E for lacustrine sediments.

  10. [Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

    2012-09-01

    Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species.

  11. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    PubMed

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates. PMID:21516883

  12. Millennial precipitation reconstruction for the Jemez Mountains, New Mexico, reveals changingb drought signal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Touchan, R.; Woodhouse, C.A.; Meko, D.M.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    Drought is a recurring phenomenon in the American Southwest. Since the frequency and severity of hydrologic droughts and other hydroclimatic events are of critical importance to the ecology and rapidly growing human population of this region, knowledge of long-term natural hydroclimatic variability is valuable for resource managers and policy-makers. An October-June precipitation reconstruction for the period AD 824-2007 was developed from multi-century tree-ring records of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Pinus strobiformis (Southwestern white pine) and Pinus ponderosa (Ponderosa pine) for the Jemez Mountains in Northern New Mexico. Calibration and verification statistics for the period 1896-2007 show a high level of skill, and account for a significant portion of the observed variance (>50%) irrespective of which period is used to develop or verify the regression model. Split-sample validation supports our use of a reconstruction model based on the full period of reliable observational data (1896-2007). A recent segment of the reconstruction (2000-2006) emerges as the driest 7-year period sensed by the trees in the entire record. That this period was only moderately dry in precipitation anomaly likely indicates accentuated stress from other factors, such as warmer temperatures. Correlation field maps of actual and reconstructed October-June total precipitation, sea surface temperatures and 500-mb geopotential heights show characteristics that are similar to those indicative of El Ni??o-Southern Oscillation patterns, particularly with regard to ocean and atmospheric conditions in the equatorial and north Pacific. Our 1184-year reconstruction of hydroclimatic variability provides long-term perspective on current and 20th century wet and dry events in Northern New Mexico, is useful to guide expectations of future variability, aids sustainable water management, provides scenarios for drought planning and as inputs for hydrologic models under a broader range of

  13. Climate-induced changes in high elevation stream nitrate dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Schmidt, T.M.; Hartman, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mountain terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are responsive to external drivers of change, especially climate change and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N). We explored the consequences of a temperature-warming trend on stream nitrate in an alpine and subalpine watershed in the Colorado Front Range that has long been the recipient of elevated atmospheric N deposition. Mean annual stream nitrate concentrations since 2000 are higher by 50% than an earlier monitoring period of 1991-1999. Mean annual N export increased by 28% from 2.03 kg N ha-1yr-1 before 2000 to 2.84 kg N ha-1yr-1 in Loch Vale watershed since 2000. The substantial increase in N export comes as a surprise, since mean wet atmospheric N deposition from 1991 to 2006 (3.06 kg N ha-1 yr-1) did not increase. There has been a period of below average precipitation from 2000 to 2006 and a steady increase in summer and fall temperatures of 0.12??C yr-1 in both seasons since 1991. Nitrate concentrations, as well as the weathering products calcium and sulfate, were higher for the period 2000-2006 in rock glacier meltwater at the top of the watershed above the influence of alpine and subalpine vegetation and soils. We conclude the observed recent N increases in Loch Vale are the result of warmer summer and fall mean temperatures that are melting ice in glaciers and rock glaciers. This, in turn, has exposed sediments from which N produced by nitrification can be flushed. We suggest a water quality threshold may have been crossed around 2000. The phenomenon observed in Loch Vale may be indicative of N release from ice features such as rock glaciers worldwide as mountain glaciers retreat. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  15. Plant community structure regulates responses of prairie soil respiration to decadal experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zheng; Li, Dejun; Zhou, Xuhui; Sherry, Rebecca A; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-10-01

    Soil respiration is recognized to be influenced by temperature, moisture, and ecosystem production. However, little is known about how plant community structure regulates responses of soil respiration to climate change. Here, we used a 13-year field warming experiment to explore the mechanisms underlying plant community regulation on feedbacks of soil respiration to climate change in a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. Infrared heaters were used to elevate temperature about 2 °C since November 1999. Annual clipping was used to mimic hay harvest. Our results showed that experimental warming significantly increased soil respiration approximately from 10% in the first 7 years (2000-2006) to 30% in the next 6 years (2007-2012). The two-stage warming stimulation of soil respiration was closely related to warming-induced increases in ecosystem production over the years. Moreover, we found that across the 13 years, warming-induced increases in soil respiration were positively affected by the proportion of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) contributed by C3 forbs. Functional composition of the plant community regulated warming-induced increases in soil respiration through the quantity and quality of organic matter inputs to soil and the amount of photosynthetic carbon (C) allocated belowground. Clipping, the interaction of clipping with warming, and warming-induced changes in soil temperature and moisture all had little effect on soil respiration over the years (all P > 0.05). Our results suggest that climate warming may drive an increase in soil respiration through altering composition of plant communities in grassland ecosystems. PMID:25846478

  16. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hualou; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenjie; Dong, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agricultural land especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urban settlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced a process of changing from aggregation (1995-2000) to decentralization (2000-2006). Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which include the establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the building of Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and the Grain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-use change. By analyzing Chongqing's land-use change and its policy driving forces, some implications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That is more attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing and consolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing land management into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development.

  17. Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  18. Estimates of emissions from open biomass burning in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass burning in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass burning in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC burned area product and MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both burned areas and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-annual variations. The L3JRC burned areas ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS burned areas ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total burned areas and forest burned areas derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The annual average L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though burned area within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total burned area. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total burned areas.

  19. InSAR measurement of the deformation around Siling Co Lake: Inferences on the lower crust viscosity in central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, Marie-Pierre; Twardzik, Cédric; Ducret, Gabriel; Lasserre, Cécile; Guillaso, Stéphane; Jianbao, Sun

    2015-07-01

    The Siling Co Lake is the largest endorheic lake in Central Tibet. Altimetric measures, combined with lake contours, show that in 1972-1999 its water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0 m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increased rate gradually stepped down to 0.2 m/yr in 2007-2011. The ground motion associated with the water load increase is studied by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) using 107 ERS and Envisat SAR images during the period 1992-2011. The deformation amplitude closely follows the lake level temporal evolution, except that subsidence continues in 2008-2011, while the lake level stagnated. This temporal evolution suggests a non elastic relaxation process taking place at a decade timescale. Phase delay maps are used to constrain possible layered viscoelastic rheological models. An elastic model could partly explain the observed subsidence rate if elastic moduli are about twice lower than those extracted from VP/VS profiles. The surface deformation pattern is also extracted by projecting the phase delay maps against the best fit model temporal behavior. It shows that deep relaxation in the asthenosphere is negligible at the decade timescale and favors the existence of a ductile channel in the deep crust above a more rigid mantle. Overall, the best fit model includes a ductile lower crust, with a viscosity of 1-3 × 1018 Pa s between 25 and 35 km and the Moho (at 65 km), overlying a rigid mantle.

  20. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication. PMID:26439870

  1. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  2. Radiometric modeling and calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  3. University Photovoltaic Research, Education, and Collaboration. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Ebong, Abasifreke; Kim, Dong Seop; Yelundur, Vijay; Hilali, Mohamed M.; Rounsaville, Brian; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Meemongkolkiat, Vichai

    2007-03-30

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2000-2006 period towards high-efficiency low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology in order to make photovoltaics more competitive with the conventional energy sources. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, low-cost technology development, cell fabrication and analysis have been used to achieve the goals of this program. Quality enhancement techniques have been developed to achieve high lifetime in commercial substrates. At the same time, advanced concepts and cell designs were developed to achieve high-efficiency cells on low-cost substrates. Low-cost in-line processing, novel diffusion techniques, and improved and screen-printed contacts were used to incorporate advanced design features in commercial cells. The program has also focused on the development of screen-printing pastes and contact firing to obtain high fill factors on high sheet resistance emitters with narrow grid lines. This report is divided into seven sections that summarize our work on i) high-efficiency monocrystalline cells through the achievement of ohmic contacts to high sheet resistance emitters by screen printing (Sections 1 and 2); ii) process and material factors that limit the potential of the Al-doped back surface field (Sections 3 and 4); iii) high-efficiency cells on low-cost multicrystalline wafers through defect gettering and passivation (Section 5); iv) low-cost phosphorus emitter diffusion in a novel in-line furnace (Section 6); and iv) the development of a 2D model to determine the effects of physical cell parameters on the performance of IBC (interdigitated back contact) solar cells (Section 7).

  4. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, C; Zvonova, I; Rääf, C; Mattsson, S

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of (137)Cs (and (134)Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl (137)Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3mSv y(-1). This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl (137)Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort—rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C.; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N.; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45–75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

  6. MHC class I expression in HPV positive and negative tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in correlation to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Näsman, Anders; Andersson, Emilia; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Johansson, Hemming; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Massucci, Giuseppe; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important factor for the development of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In addition, patients with HPV-positive TSCC have a better clinical outcome than patients with HPV-negative TSCC. Although, HPV is an important prognostic marker, additional biomarkers are needed to better predict clinical outcome to individualize treatment. Hence, we examined if classical HLA HLA-A,B,C and nonclassical HLA-E,G could serve as such marker. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded TSCC from 150 patients diagnosed 2000-2006, earlier analyzed for HPV DNA and p16(INK4a), and treated with intention to cure were evaluated for the expression of HLA-A,B,C and HLA-E,G by immunohistochemistry. For HPV-positive TSCC a low expression of HLA-A,B,C, whereas for HPV-negative TSCC, a normal expression of HLA-A,B,C was significantly correlated to a favorable clinical outcome. These correlations were more pronounced for membrane staining of HLA-A,B,C when compared with cytoplasmatic staining. No significant correlation was found between HLA-E,G and HPV status or clinical outcome. The unexpected contrasting correlation between HLA-A,B,C expression, and clinical outcome depending on HPV, indicates essential differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that for both HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC, the expression of HLA-A,B,C together with HPV may serve as a useful biomarker for predicting clinical outcome. PMID:22592660

  7. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; Gacheru, Stephen; Wilson, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  8. Definition and realization of the celestial intermediate reference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Capitaine, N.

    2008-07-01

    The transformation between the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and the Geocentric Celestial Reference system (GCRS) is an essential part of the models to be used when dealing with Earth's rotation or when computing directions of celestial objects in various systems. The 2000 and 2006 IAU resolutions on reference systems have modified the way the Earth orientation is expressed and adopted high accuracy models for expressing the relevant quantities for the transformation from terrestrial to celestial systems. First, the IAU 2000 Resolutions have refined the definition of the astronomical reference systems and transformations between them and adopted the IAU 2000 precession-nutation. Then, the IAU 2006 Resolutions have adopted a new precession model that is consistent with dynamical theories and have addressed definition, terminology or orientation issues relative to reference systems and time scales that needed to be specified after the adoption of the IAU 2000 resolutions. These in particular provide a refined definition of the pole (the Celestial intermediate pole, CIP) and the origin (the Celestial intermediate origin, CIO) on the CIP equator as well as a rigorous definition of sidereal rotation of the Earth. These also allow an accurate realization of the celestial intermediate system linked to the CIP and the CIO that replaces the classical celestial system based on the true equator and equinox of date. This talk explains the changes resulting from the joint IAU 2000/2006 resolutions and reviews the consequences on the concepts, nomenclature, models and conventions in fundamental astronomy that are suitable for modern and future realizations of reference systems. Realization of the celestial intermediate reference system ensuring a micro-arc-second accuracy is detailed.

  9. Sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer: short time results show appropriate regional control.

    PubMed

    Fait, V; Chrenko, V

    2007-01-01

    Sentinel node biopsy becomes a standard diagnostic and therapeutic tool in breast cancer in certain indications, while in other indications its validity is still reviewed. The authors present their experience with this method. In the years 2000-2006 700 patients underwent surgery. 704 sentinel node biopsies were performed (bilaterally in 4 cases), 7 times surgery was unsuccessful. In the unsuccessful cases immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. 985 sentinel nodes were found, the average was 1.4 nodes, maximum 6 nodes. In 7 patients contralateral ALND for node positive contralateral cancer was necessary along with sentinel node biopsy. A positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) was found in 188 (26.9%) patients. A strong correlation between tumor size and lymph node positivity was found, 5.3% in pT1a, and 40.4% in pT2, respectively. The sentinel node metastases could be divided according to their size. The number of affected further nodes did correlate with this size, yet with the exception of isolated tumor cell detection, small size metastases did not exclude the possibility of further affection. Our findings support the role of sentinel node biopsy in breast cancer. 332 patients reached at least 2 years of follow up by the time of statistic evaluation, 2.5% of SLN negative and 5.6% of SLN positive patients experienced a recurrence. All of these recurrences were distant with no regional (axillary) involvement to this date. We conclude that sentinel node biopsy is not only a safe and accurate diagnostic tool, but it also provides acceptable regional control of the disease. PMID:17447860

  10. Effectiveness and immunomodulation of chemotherapeutants against scuticociliate Philasterides dicentrarchi in olive flounder.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Man-Chul; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2010-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate causes fatal scuticociliatosis in farmed olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. The average monthly prevalence of scuticociliatosis due to P. dicentrarchi infections was increased from May to July (40+/-3.1% to 79.4+/-1.7%) and it decreased from August to November (63+/-2.3% to 30+/-2.6%) in olive flounder farms at Jeju Island, South Korea during 2000-2006. The prevalence of mixed infection along with Vibrio spp. bacterial infection was 49+/-7.2% than that of other mixed infection. At present no effective control measure for P. dicentrarchi infection has been described and large production losses continue. In the present study, formalin, hydrogen peroxide and Jenoclean chemotheraputants were used for bath treatment. Among Jenoclean at a low concentration of 50ppm proved effective. The results were confirmed with in vitro motility assessments and morphological changes scoring system in P. dicentrarchi. On the other hand, similar trend was noted following hydrogen peroxide treatment at this concentration, but formalin was only moderately effective. Either hydrogen peroxide or Jenoclean are the promising compounds effective at low concentrations with short application time for P. dicentrarchi. Therefore, these substances were evaluated on day 10, 20 and 30 for their ability to enhance innate immune response and disease resistance against P. dicentrarchi in olive flounder after chemotheraputants bath treatment with 100ppm for 30min per day. All the tested immune parameters were enhanced by treatment with Jenoclean, but not formalin and hydrogen peroxide. These findings suggest that Jenoclean bath treatment can be used for ensuring the heath of cultured marine fish against internal parasites such as P. dicentrarchi.

  11. Large-scale geometry and temporal variability of the Martian external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittelholz, A.; Johnson, C. L.; Langlais, B.

    2014-12-01

    The martian magnetic field is unique among the terrestrial planets, as it results from the interaction of fields caused by crustal remnant magnetization and a planetary ionosphere with the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. Internal fields of crustal origin have been subject to extensive studies, whereas the focus of our work deals with average spatial structure and time variability in the martian external magnetic field. We use the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) vector magnetic field data to investigate the large-scale geometry and magnitude of such external fields. We analyze the day-time and night-time magnetic signature for the duration of the MGS mission in mapping orbit (2000-2006). We use along-track vector field measurements to estimate the day-time and night-time external fields after the subtraction of predicted crustal magnetic fields at spacecraft altitudes. We also examine day/night differences (i.e., the daily variation) in external fields; these are independent of crustal fields. Because the external fields are modified by the crustal fields, we investigate their structure as a function of latitude in the local time frame and as a function of both latitude and longitude in the body-fixed frame. In the body-fixed-frame BΘis generally dominant in magnitude with a day/night variation described to first order by a zonal degree-2 spherical harmonic structure. Br is strongly correlated with the crustal magnetic field. BΦ shows variable spatial behaviour during both night and day. Seasonal variations are observed as stronger average magnetic fields in the hemisphere pointing towards the sun. Additional shorter time scale variations in the global external field structure are observed.

  12. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  13. Climatology of Extreme Winds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska Region Using the North American Regional Reanalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stegall, S. T.; Zhang, J.

    2009-12-01

    The high-resolution (32km, 3-hourly) North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) surface winds were used to examine the detailed structures of the distribution and evolution of the surface wind across the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas/Alaska region. First the NARR surface winds were verified against the station observations over the study area and the comparisons indicate that NARR essentially captures the distribution of the observed winds in summer. However, an obvious bias exists in winter, when the easterly component of the bimodal pattern is overestimated, while the westerly component is underestimated, particularly in January. Then we used the NARR surface wind data to examine the wind field climatological features, interannual variability and long-term change over the study area by analyzing the monthly maximums, 99th, 95th, 90th, and 50th percentile wind speeds (m/s) for each month of the year from 1979-2006. Decadal differences (i.e. the difference from 2000-2006 and 1990-1999 and 1990-1999 and 1980-1989) were also investigated to understand the long-term change in the area's surface winds. The results indicated that the maximum wind speeds in the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas have lower values from January through May. Then there is a progression northward of the higher wind speeds beginning in the Bering Strait in June and continuing into the Chukchi/Beaufort Seas during July-October; in November and December the maximum winds in the area start to decrease with a southward migration into the Chukchi Sea and eventually back through the Bering Strait into the Bering Sea, which is coincident with the sea ice retreat and advance in the area. The yearly variance of the wind speeds follow a similar northward and southward migration while the highest variance happened in October. The decadal differences mainly show a large increase in the maximum winds speeds in September and October in the Chukchi Sea.

  14. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    and Reflection Radiometer) data were used to assess the quality of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products derived from MODIS data and from simulated VIIRS data. The project focused on use of data from MODIS Terra as opposed to MODIS Aqua mainly because only MODIS Terra data was collected during 2000 and 2001-years with comparatively high amounts of gypsy moth defoliation within the study area. The project assessed the quality of VIIRS data simulation products. Hyperion data was employed to assess the quality of MODIS-based VIIRS simulation datasets using image correlation analysis techniques. The ART (Application Research Toolbox) software was used for data simulation. Correlation analysis between MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data for red, NIR (near-infrared), and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) image data products collectively indicate that useful, effective VIIRS simulations can be produced using Hyperion and MODIS data sources. The r(exp 2) for red, NIR, and NDVI products were 0.56, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively, indicating a moderately high correlation between the 2 data sources. Temporal decorrelation from different data acquisition times and image misregistration may have lowered correlation results. The RPC experiment also generated MODIS-based time series data products using the TSPT (Time Series Product Tool) software. Time series of simulated VIIRS NDVI products were produced at approximately 400-meter resolution GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) at nadir for comparison to MODIS NDVI products at either 250- or 500-meter GSD. The project also computed MODIS (MOD02) NDMI (Normalized Difference Moisture Index) products at 500-meter GSD for comparison to NDVI-based products. For each year during 2000-2006, MODIS and VIIRS (simulated from MOD02) time series were computed during the peak gypsy moth defoliation time frame in the study area (approximately June 10 through July 27). Gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from

  15. Freezing Level Height in the Western Equatorial Pacific over the Last 200 Years: Glacier Evidence from Mt. Jayawijaya, Papua Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, M. L.; Hope, G.; Susanto, R. D.

    2012-12-01

    The temperature and moisture history of the equatorial lower free troposphere over the last few hundred years is important for evaluating and predicting global warming. New evidence constrains the freezing level height (FLH) in the western equatorial Pacific over the last 200 years using the snow-line altitude (ELA) on glaciers at elevations of 4000 to 5000 m (600 hPa) on Mt. Jayawijaya, Papua Province, Indonesia (4oS, 136oE). The ELA of these wet tropical glaciers is closely coupled to the mean annual 0oC isotherm. The areal recession of the Jayawijaya glaciers continued to May 2011 by which time 95 percent of the ice cover that existed between 1936 and 1942 disappeared; 1 km2 remained. For the periods 2000-2006 and 2006-2011, the ELA was above 4950 m above sea level (asl). Revised reconstructions of the glaciers from 1936 to 1942 based on aerial photographs indicate that the concurrent ELA was at 4610 ± 10 m asl. The glaciers were interpreted to be in mass balance equilibrium between 1936 and 1942 because no appreciable areal change was detected and the glacier fronts had steep profiles. We assumed an accumulation area ratio of 0.8, typical of tropical glaciers. Extensive, fresh moraines downvalley from the 1936 ice margin indicate that the glaciers were more extensive and had lower ELAs in recent centuries. We define the most extensive, fresh moraine system of the Jayawijaya glaciers as representing the local Little Ice Age (LLIA) maximum and, following previous work, assign its age as ~1850. Our reconstruction of the Jayawijaya glaciers at the LLIA maximum based on moraines and current topographic divides indicates that they covered an area of 30 km2, considerably more than previous estimates. A concurrent ELA at ~4450 m asl was calculated assuming an accumulation area ratio of 0.8. The moraines indicate that the glaciers were in equilibrium. Taken together, glacier ELAs on Mt. Jayawijaya, approximating the FLH, have risen 500 m since the LLIA maximum. The

  16. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  17. Multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy using data from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejicek, L.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from remote sensing can provide information for multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy. Advanced land cover quantification makes it possible to search for suitable sites. Multicriteria analysis, together with other data, is used to determine the energy potential and socially acceptability of suggested locations. The described case study is focused on an area of surface coal mines in the northwestern region of the Czech Republic, where the impacts of surface mining and reclamation constitute a dominant force in land cover changes. High resolution satellite images represent the main input datasets for identification of suitable sites. Solar mapping, wind predictions, the location of weirs in watersheds, road maps and demographic information complement the data from remote sensing for multicriteria analysis, which is implemented in a geographic information system (GIS). The input spatial datasets for multicriteria analysis in GIS are reclassified to a common scale and processed with raster algebra tools to identify suitable sites for sources of renewable energy. The selection of suitable sites is limited by the CORINE land cover database to mining and agricultural areas. The case study is focused on long term land cover changes in the 1985-2015 period. Multicriteria analysis based on CORINE data shows moderate changes in mapping of suitable sites for utilization of selected sources of renewable energy in 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. The results represent map layers showing the energy potential on a scale of a few preference classes (1-7), where the first class is linked to minimum preference and the last class to maximum preference. The attached histograms show the moderate variability of preference classes due to land cover changes caused by mining activities. The results also show a slight increase in the more

  18. Estimates of biomass burning emissions in tropical Asia based on satellite-derived data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.; Song, Y.

    2009-09-01

    Biomass burning in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters into the atmosphere, which has significant implications for atmospheric chemistry and climatic change. In this study, emissions from open biomass burning over tropical Asia were evaluated during seven fire years from 2000-2006 (1 April 2000-31 March 2007). Burned areas were estimated from newly published 1-km L3JRC and 500-m MODIS burned area products (MCD45A1). Available fuel loads and emission factors were assigned for each vegetation type in a GlobCover characterisation map, and fuel moisture content was taken into account when calculating combustion factors. Over the whole period, both burned areas and fire emissions clearly showed spatial and seasonal variations. The L3JRC burned areas ranged from 31 165 km2 in fire year 2005 to 57 313 km2 in 2000, while the MCD45A1 burned areas ranged from 54 260 km2 in fire year 2001 to 127 068 km2 in 2004. Comparisons of L3JRC and MCD45A1 burned areas with ground-based measurements and other satellite information were constructed in several major burning regions, and results suggested that MCD45A1 performed better in most areas than L3JRC did although with a certain degree of underestimation of burned forest areas. The average annual L3JRC-based emissions were 125, 12, 0.98, 1.91, 0.11, 0.89, 0.044, 0.022, 0.42, 3.40, and 3.68 Tg yr

  19. Denoising seismic data using wavelet methods: a comparison study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloupis, G.; Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    approach. Acknowledgements This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP7 (KP_7).

  20. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  1. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  2. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also

  3. Importance of Past Human and Natural Disturbance in Present-Day Net Ecosystem Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.; Phelps, P.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded datasets of Net Ecosystem Exchange derived from eddy covariance and remote sensing measurements provide a means of validating Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP, opposite of NEE) from terrestrial ecosystem models. While most forested regions in the U.S. are observed to be moderate to strong carbon sinks, models not including human or natural disturbances will tend to be more carbon neutral, which is expected of mature ecosystems. We have developed the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model Hydro version (TEM-Hydro) to include both human and natural disturbances to compare against gridded NEP datasets. Human disturbances are based on the Hurtt et al. (2006) land use transition dataset and include transient agricultural (crops and pasture) conversion and abandonment and timber harvest. We include natural disturbances of storms and fires based on stochastic return intervals. Tropical storms and hurricane return intervals are based on Zheng et al. (2009) and occur only along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Fire return intervals are based on LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models and vegetation types from the Hurtt dataset. We are running three experiments with TEM-Hydro from 1700-2011 for the conterminous U.S.: potential vegetation (POT), human disturbance only (agriculture and timber harvest, LULC), and human plus natural disturbance (agriculture, timber harvest, storms, and fire, DISTURB). The goal is to compare our NEP values to those obtained by FLUXNET-MTE (Jung et al. 2009) from 1982-2008 and ECMOD (Xiao et al., 2008) from 2000-2006 for different plant functional types (PFTs) within the conterminous U.S. Preliminary results show that, for the entire U.S., potential vegetation yields an NEP of 10.8 gCm-2yr-1 vs 128.1 gCm-2yr-1 for LULC and 89.8 gCm-2yr-1 for DISTURB from 1982-2008. The effect of regrowth following agricultural and timber harvest disturbance therefore contributes substantially to the present-day carbon sink, while stochastic storms and fires

  4. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai National Park and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffens, Bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    and rates of recession using datasets including 15 min USGS quadrangle maps(19501951), Landsat imagery (19861987, 2000,2006), and 2005 IKONOS imagery (KEFJ only).

  5. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  6. Local natural electric fields - the electrochemical factor of formation of placers and the criterion of prospectings of oil and gas deposits on the Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskaia, Galina

    2014-05-01

    On the basis litologo-facial, geo- and hydrochemical characteristics of a cross-section lito - and shelf hydrospheres, the estimation of structural features modern and paleostatic local electric fields and their influence on transportation of the suspended mineral material is made. The formula of dynamic carrying over of the ore material which is in a subcolloidal condition under the influence of natural electric field of a shelf is deduced. On a structure of a friable cover and its features on G.I. Teodorovicha's method position of oxidation-reduction border, sign Eh was reconstructed. On the basis of the established dependence between Eh and local substatic electric field of a shelf it was reconstructed paleostatic a field and its influence on the weighed mineral particles was estimated. Influence of local electric field on lithodynamic moving of ore minerals is estimated for a shelf of the Arctic seas of Russia. On the basis of this estimation and data on structure of a friable cover the map of influence of local electric field on sedimentation and transportation of ore minerals for water area of the East Arctic seas of Russia is constructed. For Laptev seas and East-Siberian the areas in which limits local electric field promoted are revealed and promotes formation Holocene placers of an ilmenite, a cassiterite and gold. For Chukchi and the Bering Seas such estimation is made for all friable cover. hydrocarbonic deposits located on water area of the Arctic shelf of the Russian Federation, initiate occurrence of jet auras of dispersion of heavy metals in ground deposits and in a layer of the sea water, blocking these deposits. Intensity of auras and their spatial position is caused by a geological structure of deposits of breeds containing them, lithodynamic and oceanologic factors. On the basis of the theoretical representations developed by M.A.Holmjansky and O.F.Putikova (Holmjansky, Putikov, 2000, 2006, 2008) application of electrochemical updating of

  7. Volcanism of Venus: Insights from the VMC data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazilevskiy, Alexander; Ignatiev, Nikolay; Markiewicz, Wojciech; Head, James; Titov, Dmitrij; Shalygin, Eugene V.

    The analysis of the Venera 15/16 and Magellan data led to an understanding of Venus geology which may be described as a time sequence of material and structural units and features [e.g., (Basilevsky and Head, 1995, 2000; Ivanov and Head, 2011]. Dominant among them are various volcanic plains and volcanic constructs whose morphologies indicate a low viscosity for the lavas composing them suggesting mostly basaltic composition [e.g., Head et al., 1992; Crumpler et al., 1997]. This is supported by the analyses of surface composition at the Venera-Vega sites [e.g., Surkov, 1986]. However, some volcanic features of Venus could be composed of nonbasaltic lavas [e.g., Pavri et al., 1992; Crumpler et al., 1997; Ivanov and Head, 1999] but this suggestion needs more study. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of impact crater populations on Venus [e.g., McKinnon et al., 1997] as well as on the analysis of the unit superposition/embayment relations [Basilevsky and Head, 1996, 2000, 2006; Collins et al., 1999] it was shown that the widespread regional volcanic plains formed close to the beginning of morphologically visible history of this planet that is 0.5-1 b.y. ago. Later in time, volcanic activity on Venus continued in different areas at different times, including very close to the present. No conclusive evidence of ongoing volcanic activity has yet been found, although some indications of very recent volcanic events have been published [Bondarenko et al., 2010; Smrekar et al., 2010]. Analysis of the data taken by the Venus Monitoring Camera (VMC) onboard of Venus Express, which has two NIR, one visible and one UV channels, allowed to revealed some promising results on the questions of nonbasaltic volcanism [e.g., Basilevsky et al., 2012] and the ongoing volcanic activity on Venus [e.g., Shalygin et al., 2014]. The VMC results presented in the context of characteristics of Venusi volcanism will be the main emphasis of the talk.

  8. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Results Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire

  9. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  10. From the end of a revolution to the beginning of an evolution: An interpretive investigation on the Mexican oil culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Perez, Pedro Gabriel

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is an interpretative investigation on the Mexican petroleum industry. It studies the social arrangement that allowed the development of Mexico's most important State-Owned Enterprise Petroleos Mexicanos and the current pressures to transform it. The need to modify its operations in Mexico is an issue of enormous significance for the current reforms undertaken by the Neo-liberal project initiated during the mid 1980's. It represents the abandonment of the development strategy that characterized the "Regime of the Revolution" and the establishment of a market-oriented economy in line with the development strategy selected by the President Fox for the period 2000--2006. Through an approximation of Habermas' ideal 'Public Sphere' this dissertation reveals relevant information about PEMEX's historical and present contexts, the basic elements that make up the Mexican petroleum culture, its major interest groups, their mutual perspectives and understandings, their interpretation of the present situation and their opinion as to the way PEMEX should be modified. The investigation into the ideas, beliefs and customs that justified PEMEX's hegemony over Mexico's petroleum resources followed the conceptual model provided by the Critical Theory Paradigm and an adaptation of a methodological approach previously employed for qualitative Critical Theory research. Throughout an ethnographic analysis of twenty-six representatives of PEMEX's major interest groups through in-depth, semi-structured interviews based on a combination of an interpretative research design and a case-study research method, the beliefs, ideals, mutual perceptions and future plans of these stakeholders were identified. This study advances the understanding of the symbols, beliefs and ideas that have framed Mexican petroleum culture, as well as describes how these beliefs and ideas have changed over time. Through an 'ethnography of rhetoric,' this project facilitated the absorption and

  11. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.; Zender, C. S.; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, P. J.

    2010-04-01

    During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000-2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997) or low (La Niña, 2000) fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. We assessed the radiative and climate effects of anthropogenic fire by analyzing the differences between the high and low fire simulations. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August-October by 19.1±12.9 W m-2 (10%) in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E-120° E, 5° S-5° N). The reductions in net shortwave radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2 °C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC) absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m-2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d-1 (10%). The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  12. Evidence for a Southern Pattern of Deglacial Surface Warming in the Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spero, H. J.; Schmidt, M. W.; Lea, D. W.; Lavagnino, L.

    2009-12-01

    The timing of both Southern and Northern hemisphere warming patterns has been used to explain tropical Pacific warming at the end of the last glacial period. Despite the importance of resolving this deglacial tropical-polar connection, the controversy is still ongoing (Koutavas & Sachs, 2008; Lea et al., 2000, 2006). For instance, the initiation of eastern equatorial Pacific (EEP) surface warming, derived from Mg/Ca analyses of the surface-dwelling foraminifera Globigerinoides ruber, shows a clear correlation with the Southern hemisphere. In contrast, alkenone-derived temperatures from the EEP indicate tropical warming occurred at least 3 kyr later than that implied from Mg/Ca data, thereby suggesting a Northern hemisphere link to initial SST rise. Here, we use a multispecies, multiproxy approach that is based on fundamental foraminifera biology to resolve this controversy. Laboratory experiments demonstrate the final shell size of symbiont-bearing foraminifera varies primarily as a function of the light level (=symbiont photosynthetic rate) that an individual grew under. Because light decreases exponentially in the water column, and the EEP is highly stratified with a shallow mixed layer and cold thermocline, we hypothesize that symbiotic foraminifera with a broad habitat range such as Globigerinoides sacculifer, should produce smaller shells in the more dimly lit cold thermocline than individuals growing in the more illuminated mixed layer. Moreover, these larger shells should contain a temperature signal that is similar to G. ruber, which is constrained to the shallow mixed layer. Mg/Ca and δ18O analyses conducted on 350-400 μm and >650 μm sized G. sacculifer from EEP core TR163-19 (2N, 91W, 2348) demonstrate large specimens yield Mg/Ca and δ18O that are similar to data published previously for mixed layer dwelling G. ruber. In contrast, small G. sacculifer record significantly higher δ18O and lower Mg/Ca temperatures that are consistent with a shallow

  13. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2012-08-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply a data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both variationally (for sowing date estimation) and sequentially (for improved model state estimation, using the Ensemble Kalman Filter) into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to accurately quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) From Bondville site results we deduce that MODIS-derived sowing dates allow for accurate simulations of growing season carbon cycling at locations for which such ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ~7 % to ~18 %. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon cycling at one single field with its individual sowing pattern is not

  14. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2013-04-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both in batch-calibration for sowing date estimation and sequentially for improved model state estimation, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) Validation at the Bondville site shows that growing season C cycling is simulated accurately with MODIS-derived sowing dates, and we expect that this framework allows for accurate simulations of C cycling at locations for which ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ∼7% to ∼18%. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon

  15. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Williams, M.

    2012-04-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, cultivar selection, and fertilisation application, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon (C) cycle studies. In this study, we present a data assimilation framework allowing for spatiotemporally resolved simulation of cropland C fluxes under observational constraints on sowing dates and canopy greenness. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both variationally (for sowing date estimation) and sequentially (for improved model state estimation, using the EnKF) into a crop C mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to accurately quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional C flux seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville (IL, US) Ameriflux EC site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area (32 km - 25 km). We find that MODIS-derived sowing dates allow for highly accurate simulations of growing season C cycling at locations for which ground-truth sowing dates are not available. Resulting simulations provide an envelope on upscaled cropland phenology, with significant deviations from plot-scale observations at Bondville: study area average growing season length is ~20 days longer than observed, primarily because of an earlier estimated start of season. Relative spatial variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of C ranges from ~7% to ~10%, but variability in net biome productivity is considerably larger (~24% to ~32%). Differences between Bondville and upscaled NEE are especially large in years with non-optimal weather conditions for sowing. This shows

  16. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  17. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  18. Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Kiema, J. B. K.; Omondi, P. A.; Heck, B.; Fleming, K.; Ohanya, S. O.; Gonçalves, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    It has been postulated that Lake Naivasha, Kenya, has experienced a rapid decrease (and fluctuations) in its spatial extent and level between the years 2002 to 2010. Many factors have been advanced to explain this, with horticultural and floricultural activities, as well as climatic change, featuring prominently. This study offers a multi-disciplinary approach based on several different types of space-borne observations to look at the problem bedeviling Lake Naivasha, which is a Ramsar listed wetland of international importance. The data includes: (1) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity field products to derive total water storage (TWS) variations within a region covering the Lakes Naivasha and Victoria basins; (2) precipitation records based on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products to evaluate the impact of climate change; (3) satellite remote sensing (Landsat) images to map shoreline changes and to correlate these changes over time with possible causes; and (4) satellite altimetry observations to assess fluctuations in the lake's level. In addition, data from an in situ tide gauge and rainfall stations as well as the output from the African Drought Monitor (ADM) model are used to evaluate the results. This study confirms that Lake Naivasha has been steadily declining with the situation being exacerbated from around the year 2000, with water levels falling at a rate of 10.2 cm/year and a shrinkage in area of 1.04 km2/year. GRACE indicates that the catchment area of 4°×4° that includes Lake Naivasha loses water at a rate of 1.6 cm/year for the period from August 2002 to May 2006, and 1.4 cm/year for the longer period of May 2002 to 2010. Examining the ADM outputs also supports our results of GRACE. Between the time periods 2000-2006 and 2006-2010, the lake surface area decreased by 14.43% and 10.85%, respectively, with a corresponding drop in the water level of 192 cm and 138 cm, respectively, over the same

  19. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffen, bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    terminus positions and rates of recession using datasets including the 15-minute USGS quadrangle maps (1950/1951), Landsat imagery (1986/1987, 2000, 2006) and 2005 Ikonos imagery (KEFJ only).

  20. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    data derived from the VegET model, which takes into account soil moisture and land surface phenology; 3) adding an additional flux tower from Brookings, SD, and additional years at other flux towers to the training data sets; and 4) considering the lag response of vegetation production to precipitation. We modeled and mapped 8-day and 500-m carbon fluxes for the years 2000-2006 in the northern Great Plains grasslands. These maps were then used to assess the regional and temporal trends of carbon fluxes in this region, identify carbon sink and source areas, and determine important transitions and environmental drivers of carbon sinks/sources. Cross-validation at sites showed that the improved model increases the estimation accuracies and reflects the variations in water stress that may not be monitored by vegetation indices alone because of the lag-response of vegetation indices to water deficits.

  1. Lessons Learned from 20 Years of Production in the Barnett Shale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, R.; Middleton, R. S.; Carey, J. W.; Currier, R.; Karra, S.; Viswanathan, H.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze a 22 years of shale gas production, from more than 18,000 wells, in the Barnett formation to better characterize and understand shale gas production. The Barnett Shale formation has a relatively long history of exploration and shale gas production using both hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. The original Barnett well, a vertical well that used a nitrogen foam working fluid, dates back to 1981, and the first horizontal wells were drilled in 1991. However, the first "successful" production wells were not drilled until around 1997-1998. Gas production data for the Barnett is publicly available dating back to 1993. Here, we analyze gas production from ~18,000 individual wells (data collected in July 2014) in order to understand and quantify how shale gas has been produced in the Barnett. This includes understanding how and when shale gas production techniques have improved resulting in enhanced gas production. Several key trends and hypotheses emerge from this analysis. For example, the data shows a distinct and strong pattern of "learning by doing", whereby per-well gas production rates have notably increased over time. For example, a typical well drilled in 2011 takes three years to produce 1,000 MMcf, whereas a typical 2007 well takes seven years to produce the same quantity. The data can also be differentiated by parameters such as depth and well type (principally vertical vs. horizontal); we show a clear link between drilling techniques and production. The analysis also reveals unexpected outcomes. For instance, wells drilled in the period 1994-1999 have greater cumulative production than wells drilled in the period 2000-2006. We hypothesize that the older wells often performed poorly when first drilled and were thus subsequently re-fractured one or more times, whereas the later wells were re-fractured much less frequently. Finally, we compare shale gas production from the Barnett formation with more recent production from the Hayneville

  2. Ecohydrological and Topographical Controls on Soil Moisture and Soil Temperature for a Snow-dominated Watershed in Pacific Northwest of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatanantavet, P.; Maneta, M. P.; Wilcox, A. C.; Silverman, N. L.

    2014-12-01

    In mountainous, snow-dominated watersheds, the relative influence of and interactions among factors controlling the spatio-temporal distributions of soil moisture and soil temperature, including slope, elevation, precipitation magnitude and type, incoming solar radiation, and vegetation, are poorly understood at the watershed scale. We investigated these processes by using the Weather Research and Forecasting model to dynamically downscale the Global Forecast System model to a 4 km resolution for western Montana for years 2000-2006. We used the resulting regional climate data to force a physics-based ecohydrologic model, ECH2O, over the Bitterroot River basin (6,500 km2). The model was run at daily time steps in a 250-m resolution grid and was calibrated against measured streamflow and snow water equivalent, as well as satellite-derived snow covered distribution, gross primary production, evapotranspiration, leaf area index, and land-surface temperature. Soil moisture, soil temperature, runoff, and other ecohydrologic variables were simulated. We focus on analyzing the sensitivity of soil moisture and soil temperature to elevation by studying soil moisture-temperature curves for six elevation intervals spanning the elevation range of ~ 2 km. Results show that as elevation increases, the ranges of variation for depth-averaged soil moisture and soil temperature throughout the year evolve differently. A negative correlation between soil temperature and soil moisture is apparent at all elevations, being stronger in the valley bottom and at low altitudes. The spatial variability of soil moisture and soil temperature increases from the valley bottom toward low and moderate elevations due to more transient and complex patterns of snow cover. A stronger hysteresis between these two variables was also detected as elevation increases with two loops, one corresponding to late summer and fall precipitation and the other to the onset of spring snowmelt. The soil moisture

  3. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  4. Crustal Rebound due to Lake Mass Changes Measured by InSAR: Constraints on Lithosphere Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M. P.; Twardzik, C.; Cavalié, O.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. Here, we relate ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) and lake Siling Co (Tibet, China) measured by InSAR to water loading in order to constrain the rheology of the lithosphere.Lake Mead, an artificial reservoir, has been filled with water in 1935. We analyzed ~500 interferograms based on 62 ERS images and on 40 ENVISAT images acquired between 1992 and 2010. Interferograms are inverted to solve for the time series of ground motion in the lake Mead area. Temporal smoothing allows to reduce the turbulent atmospheric delays. Spatio-temporal series of the deformation from 1992 to 2010 show a broad subsidence pattern correlated with lake level from 1992 to 2010. We model the deformation, taking into account the water and sediment loading history of the lake since 1935. The two-layer visco-elastic model proposed by Kaufmann and Amelung (2000), with a mantle viscosity of 1018 Pa s, adjusts well the data up to 2001, but overpredicts the deformation after 2001. We will discuss the models that could explain the deformation evolution. The Siling Co lake is the largest endorheic lake in Central Tibet. In 1972-1999 its water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0~m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increased rate gradually stepped down to 0.2~m/yr in 2007-2011. We analysed 107 ERS and Envisat SAR images during the period 1992-2011. The deformation amplitude closely follows the lake level temporal evolution, except that subsidence continues in 2008-2011, while the lake level stagnated. This temporal evolution suggests a non elastic relaxation process taking place at a decade time-scale. Phase delay maps are used to constrain possible layered visco-elastic rheological models. An elastic model could partly explain the observed subsidence rate if elastic moduli are about twice lower than those extracted from Vp/Vs profiles. The surface

  5. Research on Beijing human settlement in district level by GIS spatial analyzing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Yin, Weihong; Dong, Suocheng; Guo, Hongshi

    2009-08-01

    This paper mainly focuses on the human settlement of livable city appraisal system to research the evaluation criteria, using Spatial Analyzing in Arcinfo, to unify the objective evaluation system, to conduct the analysis research from the spatial angle to Beijing residential environment healthy, by the subjective and objective aspects, there has conducted the spatial analysis research on the urban residential environment. The research indicated that:1) Beijing urban district residential environment healthy satisfaction degree level still permissible, has the obvious spatial autocorrelation characteristic. The satisfaction degree of the spatial difference research to indicate that, the satisfaction degree overall existence by take the urban center as the zero point to the periphery emission, the section presents "the saddle" characteristic, has the satisfaction degree nearby the transportation node "concave" region, simultaneously, some islet existence, also causes to the spatial distribution of the livable city satisfaction degree to be more complex; 2) uses the Beijing Environmental protection Bureau issue 2000-2006 year correlation data, carries on the objective evaluation using the factor analysis method to Beijing environment healthy in recent years, discovered atmospheric and the noise pollution does not present the rule change tendency; 3) the residential environment healthy system will divide into atmospheric, the water, the noise and the solid reject four sub-systems, will carry on the subjective and objective appraisal to Beijing the synthesis contrast analysis, north city is higher than western city regarding the air pollution appraisal. In the central city Xicheng District and Chongwen district's inhabitant has the enhancement regarding the air pollution appraisal, but Xuanwu district and Dongcheng district's air pollution condition still had certain disparity from the public satisfaction; The noise appraisal aspect, east city is higher than western

  6. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Van Huy, Nguyen; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and ‘illness with a cough’ and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37–0.53, p<0.001), male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64–2.37, p<0.05), living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00–1.64, p<0.05), or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56–0.87, p<0.01) were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have

  7. Characterization of hydrology and salinity in the Dolores project area, McElmo Creek Region, southwest Colorado, 1978-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing salinity loading in the Colorado River has become a major concern for agricultural and municipal water supplies. The Colorado Salinity Control Act was implemented in 1974 to protect and enhance the quality of water in the Colorado River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum, summarized salinity reductions in the McElmo Creek basin in southwest Colorado as a result of salinity-control modifications and flow-regime changes that result from the Dolores Project, which consists of the construction of McPhee reservoir on the Dolores River and salinity control modifications along the irrigation water delivery system. Flow-adjusted salinity trends using S-LOADEST estimations for a streamgage on McElmo Creek (site 1), that represents outflow from the basin, indicates a decrease in salinity load by 39,800 tons from water year 1978 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 1,370 tons per year for the 29-year period. Annual-load calculations for a streamgage on Mud Creek (site 6), that represents outflow from a tributary basin, indicate a decrease of 7,300 tons from water year 1982 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 292 tons per year for the 25-year period. The streamgage Dolores River at Dolores, CO (site 17) was chosen to represent a background site that is not affected by the Dolores Project. Annual load calculations for site 17 estimated a decrease of about 8,600 tons from water year 1978 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 297 tons per year for the 29-year period. The trend in salinity load at site 17 was considered to be representative of a natural trend in the region. Typically, salinity concentrations at outflow sites decreased from the pre-Dolores Project period (water years 1978-1984) to the post-Dolores Project period (water years 2000-2006). The median salinity concentration for site 1 (main basin outflow

  8. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including

  9. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  10. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales

  11. Fracture and earthquake physics in a non extensive view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    connection with fracture phenomena at much larger scales implying that a basic general mechanism is "actively hidden" behind all this phenomena. Acknowledgements: This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP 7 (KP 7). [1] F. Vallianatos and A. Tzanis, Phys. Chem. Earth 23, 933 (1998). [2] A. Tzanis and F. Vallianatos, Natural Hazards and Earth Syst, Sciences 3 (2003). [3] F. Vallianatos, D. Triantis, A. Tzanis, C. Anastasiadis and I. Stavrakas, Phys. Chem. Earth 29, 339 (2004). [4] C. Anastasiadis, D. Triantis, I. Stavrakas and F. Vallianatos, Ann. Geophys. 47, 21 (2004). [5] F. Vallianatos Proc., 2nd WSEAS Int. Conference on Seismology, (Cambridge, UK, 2008). [6] F. Vallianatos, Natural Hazards and Earth Syst, Sciences (2009).

  12. Impact of fluctuation of hydro-physical regime in the North Atlantic on the climate of Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri

    2015-04-01

    experiment the results of 20 years adapting calculation with Levitus array data for the state on January 1958 were taken. The data of CORE array were also accepted as ocean surface boundary conditions. Calculations of mean temperature were made for the colder (January, February, March) and warmer (July, August, September) seasons within each of the 3 climate scenarios that occurred in the region during periods of 1958-1974, 1975-1999 and 2000-2006. After that there were calculated area-averaged temperature profiles in two 5-degrees squares: Labrador sea (57.5°-62.5°N, 57.5°-52.5°W) and a region of Gulf Stream (42.5°-47.5°N, 40°-30°W). As a result there have been observed quasi-antiphase of 700-m layer heat content variability in these squares. In the Labrador sea during the transition from I to II climate scenario it was followed a heat discharge - ocean lost heat, while the transition from II to III scenario was marked by accumulation of heat. In the area of the Gulf stream the transition from I to II scenario was characterized by heat accumulation by the ocean, whereas a transition from II to III scenario was distinguished by a relatively weak heat loss. In respect to prognostic targets it was supposed that the result could be essential for disclosure of relationships between climatic parameters of the Eurasian continent and the thermodynamic processes in the specific areas of the North Atlantic Ocean.

  13. Temperature climatology as a determinant of tropical savanna vegetation distribution in the cerrado biome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, R. L.; Toomey, M. P.; Still, C. J.

    2011-12-01

    One of the defining characteristics of savanna ecosystems is the coexistence of woody and herbaceous vegetation. While the relative abundance of these components strongly influences a number of ecosystem functional properties, including carbon and water cycling, land-cover maps rarely depict the tree:grass composition of savanna classes. As a fundamental component of climate, temperature has long been recognized to strongly influence vegetation distribution on continental scales. Here, we investigate the degree to which savanna vegetation classes in the cerrado biome of Brazil can be sorted using temperature climatologies. The definition and spatial boundaries of each savanna vegetation class were taken from the Cerrado Remnant Vegetation Map of the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment Biodiversity Program, PROBIO Project. Land-cover classes were grouped into five broad categories representing a range of woody through herbaceous vegetation cover: forestlands, shrublands, grasslands, cultivated pasture, and croplands; these vegetation polygons served as the unit of analysis. Temperature climatologies were derived from nearly ten years of daily Terra/Aqua MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST), as well as from two climate surface datasets based on interpolated air temperature station data (1961-1990) at two spatial resolutions: the Climatic Research Unit mean monthly terrestrial climatology (half-degree) and WorldClim (30 arc-seconds). Additionally, we investigate the relationships between these temperature climatologies, the relative composition of herbaceous and woody vegetation cover as represented by the MODIS Vegetation Continuous Fields (VCF) product, and MODIS-derived mean annual net primary productivity (2000-2006). Based on pair-wise comparison of means (t-tests), the variables that were most successful at distinguishing between vegetation classes were mean annual nighttime temperatures, particularly Terra nighttime LST (collected at approximately 21:30 local

  14. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  15. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS

  16. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation as the Result of Planetary Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retejum, Alexey

    QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATION AS THE RESULT OF PLANETARY MOTION A.Ju.Retejum Lomonosov Moscow State University, aretejum@yandex.ru A remarkable phenomenon of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) attracts a growing attention for its unclear origin and possible global impact. A comprehensive theory of this phenomenon should answer the following questions: 1. Why does the phase change of the atmospheric circulation on average occur every 800 days? 2. When does the cycle length decreases or increases? 3. Wherefore the regular wind shift is observed in the equatorial stratosphere only? 4. What could cause a sudden reverse in zonal wind direction? 5. Why the generating impulse travels from the border between the atmosphere and outer space downwards without significant loss of power? 6. What is the reason of known differences in behavior patterns between west and east winds? 7. How do middle and upper latitudes respond to the remote signal? Unfortunately all the explanation of QBO that have been given so far, unable to meet the above criteria. The author proposes an alternative idea of the external forcing due to motion of Mars, Jupiter and Venus. This study is based on the QBO Index data at the 30-hPa Height for the 1979-2013 period (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/qbo.u30.index). Having in mind that the oscillation is symmetric about the Equator, where the Earth rotation speed is highest, one examined on the first stage relationships between the QBO manifestation and the length of day. A ten-year comparison of slow and fast spinning periods (1979-1983, 1991-1995 and 2000-2006, 2009-2011 respectively) reveals a significant difference in west and east winds strengths. The same picture can be observed if mean monthly data for March-April (the length of day maximum) and July (the length of day minimum) are collated. This is the answer to the question # 3. The exact answers to questions # 1 and # 2 give an analysis of the dependence of the wind reverse time on the moments

  17. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.

    2008-05-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) is now generally recognized to correlate with the lower part of the Leupoldina cabri planktonic foraminifer Zone. Unfortunately, the calibration of this zone against the standard ammonite scale has remained uncertain. Our recent high-resolution geochemical study (Carbon-isotope) of Lower Aptian sequences in the Iberian Chain of eastern Spain (Moreno-Bedmar et al., in prep) was used as proxy to further characterize OAE 1a. The sequence provides additional ammonite biostratigraphic data that permit correlation of the ammonite zonation with the isotopic signature of OAE1a. That interval includes specimens we identified with affinity for species of Roloboceras and Megatyloceras in the same beds that contain species of Deshayesites forbesi Casey, and Deshayesites gr. euglyphus/spathi, which are characteristic of the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results also indicate that D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny), the nominate taxon which marks the base of the superjacent Zone, first occurs a few meters above the geochemical signature corresponding to OAE 1a. Our isotopic data correlated with the ammonite occurrences are in further agreement with Roloboceras beds in England (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998) that are correlational with the Boreal Deshayesites forbesi Zone, which is coeval with the Mediterranean Deshayesites weissi Zone. Similarly, in the Cassis-La Bédoule area (SE France) the OAE 1a interval also corresponds to the Roloboceras beds, but they have been assigned to the Deshayesites deshayesi biozone (Ropolo et al., 2000; 2006). Here we argue that specimens attributed to D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny) and D. dechyi (Papp) from the Roloboceras levels (Ropolo et al., 2006) can be reinterpreted as belonging to D. forbesi, characteristic species of Deshayesites weissi Zone. Stratigraphic data from Roloboceras beds in le Teil region (Ardech patform, SE France) also reveal the presence of Deshayesites consobrinus (d'Orbigny) and Deshayesites gr

  18. UAV survey of a Thyrrenian micro-tidal beach for shoreline evolution update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Pugliano, Giovanni; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Mucerino, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    shoreline change analysis was performed using the ArcGis 9.3 extension Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), v. 3.2 (Thieler et al., 2005). Transects orthogonal to the shoreline were generated at 100m intervals along the 1,4 km stretch of beach studied. The DSAS allowed the calculation of the rates of erosion/accretion between points, on the basis of the distance between them and the elapsed time, assuming changes to be linear processes. The rate of change of shoreline positions was evaluated at 14 points. The availability of shoreline data of the years 1954, 2000, 2006, 2008 and 2013 allowed to obtain the shoreline evolution trend in the last 60 years. Moreover, the UAV survey allowed to update the shoreline evolution and to obtain the volume of sediment lost by erosion, in order to suggest the locations and the amount of possible replenishments.

  19. Snow cover data records from satellite and conventional measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, C.; Brown, R.; Wang, L.

    2008-12-01

    coupled with lake ice model simulations have illustrated frequency dependent, seasonally evolving relationships between brightness temperature and lake fraction across tundra regions. A potential solution based on the temporal evolution of 37 GHz AMSR-E measurements shows some promise as this was found to be significantly correlated with field measurements of tundra SWE, and to be relatively insensitive to lake fraction. New pan-Arctic (N 60°N) snowmelt onset and end date records (2000-2006) were produced from enhanced resolution (4.45 km) QuikSCAT (QSCAT) Ku-band backscatter measurements. The goal is to merge this with melt onset information from other components of the cryosphere (e.g. glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, lake ice, sea ice) to provide an integrated circumpolar melt onset and duration dataset for climate monitoring and research on cryosphere-climate links and feedbacks. A major challenge is expanding the relatively short time period of Ku-band satellite measurements with historical C-band data (i.e. from ERS-1). Geostatistical methods and snow cover modeling were used to develop a 10-km gridded SWE dataset over Quebec from 1970-2005 for climate studies and evaluation of the performance of the Canadian Regional Climate Model.

  20. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  1. Dynamic distributions and population declines of Golden-winged Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Will, Tom; Buehler, David A.; Barker Swarthout, Sara; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Chandler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With an estimated breeding population in 2010 of 383,000 pairs, the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is among the most vulnerable and steeply declining of North American passerines. This species also has exhibited among the most dynamic breeding distributions, with populations expanding and then contracting over the past 150 years in response to regional habitat changes, interactions with closely related Blue-winged Warblers (V. cyanoptera), and possibly climate change. Since 1966, the rangewide population has declined by >70% (-2.3% per year; latest North American Breeding Bird Survey data), with much steeper declines in the Appalachian Mountains bird conservation region (-8.3% per year, 98% overall decline). Despite apparently stable or increasing populations in the northwestern part of the range (Minnesota, Manitoba), population estimates for Golden-winged Warbler have continued to decline by 18% from the decade of the 1990s to the 2000s. Population modeling predicts a further decline to roughly 37,000 individuals by 2100, with the species likely to persist only in Manitoba, Minnesota, and possibly Ontario. To delineate the present-day distribution and to identify population concentrations that could serve as conservation focus areas, we compiled rangewide survey data collected in 2000-2006 in 21 states and 3 Canadian provinces, as part of the Golden-winged Warbler Atlas Project (GOWAP), supplemented by state and provincial Breeding Bird Atlas data and more recent observations in eBird. Based on >8,000 GOWAP surveys for Golden-winged and Blue-winged warblers and their hybrids, we mapped occurrence of phenotypically pure and mixed populations in a roughly 0.5-degree grid across the species’ ranges. Hybrids and mixed Golden-winged-Blue-winged populations occurred in a relatively narrow zone across Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, and northern New York. Phenotypically pure Golden-winged Warbler populations occurred north of this

  2. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

  3. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change around Mobile Bay, Alabama from 1974-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jean; Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James C.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes the major findings of a Gulf of Mexico Application Pilot project led by NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) in conjunction with a regional collaboration network of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA). NASA researchers processed and analyzed multi-temporal Landsat data to assess land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes in the coastal counties of Mobile and Baldwin, AL between 1974 and 2008. Our goal was to create satellite-based LULC data products using methods that could be transferable to other coastal areas of concern within the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP) is the primary end-user, however, several other state and local groups may benefit from the project s data products that will be available through NOAA-NCDDC s Regional Ecosystem Data Management program. Mobile Bay is a critical ecologic and economic region in the Gulf of Mexico and to the entire country. Mobile Bay was designated as an estuary of national significance in 1996. This estuary receives the fourth largest freshwater inflow in the United States. It provides vital nursery habitat for commercially and recreationally important fish species. It has exceptional aquatic and terrestrial bio-diversity, however, its estuary health is influenced by changing LULC patterns, such as urbanization. Mobile and Baldwin counties have experienced a population growth of 1.1% and 20.5% from 2000-2006. Urban expansion and population growth are likely to accelerate with the construction and operation of the ThyssenKrupp steel mill in the northeast portion of Mobile County. Land-use and land-cover change can negatively impact Gulf coast water quality and ecological resources. The conversion of forest to urban cover types impacts the carbon cycle and increases the freshwater and sediment in coastal waters. Increased freshwater runoff decreases salinity and increases the turbidity of coastal waters, thus impacting the growth potential of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV

  4. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  5. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  6. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales

  7. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    initio within the relativistic framework presented in the other resolutions (in that regard, there still exist some difficult problems to solve), their relativistic terms are accurate enough for all the current and near-future observational techniques. At that level, the Earth rotation models are consistent with the general relativity framework recommended by the IAU and considered in this book. The chapter presents practical algorithms for implementing the recommended models. The appendices to the book contain a list of astronomical constants and the original text of the relevant IAU resolutions adopted by the IAU General Assemblies in 1997, 2000, 2006, and 2009. Numerous colleagues have contributed to this book in one way or or another. It is a pleasure for us to acknowledge the enlightening discussions which one or more of the authors had on different occasions with Victor A. Brumberg of the Institute of Applied Astronomy (St. Petersburg, Russia); Tianyi Huang and Yi Xie of Nanjing University (China); Edward B. Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (USA); Valeri V. Makarov, William J. Tangren, and James L. Hilton of the US Naval Observatory; Gerhard Schäfer of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Jena, Germany); Clifford M. Will of Washington University (St. Louis, USA); Ignazio Ciufolini of the Università del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); and Patrick Wallace, retired from Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). We also would like to thank Richard G. French of Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA); Michael Soffel and Sergei Klioner of the Technical University of Dresden; Bahram Mashhoon of the University of Missouri-Columbia; John D. Anderson, retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA); the late Giacomo Giampieri, also of JPL; Michael Kramer, Axel Jessner, and Norbert Wex of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany); Alexander F. Zakharov of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow

  8. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    decrease in land use emissions during the past decade (Harris et al 2012) could contribute to the decreasing airborne fraction in figure 3, although Malhi (2010) presents evidence that tropical forest deforestation and regrowth are approximately in balance, within uncertainties. Land use change can be only a partial explanation for the decrease of the airborne fraction; something more than land use change seems to be occurring. We suggest that the huge post-2000 increase of uptake by the carbon sinks implied by figure 3 is related to the simultaneous sharp increase in coal use (figure 1). Increased coal use occurred primarily in China and India (Boden et al 2012; BP 2012; see graphs at www.columbia.edu/~mhs119/Emissions/Emis_moreFigs/). Satellite radiance measurements for July-December, months when desert dust does not dominate aerosol amount, yield an increase of aerosol optical depth in East Asia of about 4% yr-1 during 2000-2006 (van Donkelaar et al 2008). Associated gaseous and particulate emissions increased rapidly after 2000 in China and India (Lu et al 2011, Tian et al 2010). Some decrease of the sulfur component of emissions occurred in China after 2006 as wide application of flue-gas desulfurization began to be initiated (Lu et al 2010), but this was largely offset by continuing emission increases from India (Lu et al 2011). We suggest that the surge of fossil fuel use, mainly coal, since 2000 is a basic cause of the large increase of carbon uptake by the combined terrestrial and ocean carbon sinks. One mechanism by which fossil fuel emissions increase carbon uptake is by fertilizing the biosphere via provision of nutrients essential for tissue building, especially nitrogen, which plays a critical role in controlling net primary productivity and is limited in many ecosystems (Gruber and Galloway 2008). Modeling (e.g., Thornton et al 2009) and field studies (Magnani et al 2007) confirm a major role of nitrogen deposition, working in concert with CO2 fertilization