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Sample records for 2000-2006 liikide kaupa

  1. Antimicrobial resistance in eight US hospitals along the US-Mexico border, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Benoit, S R; Ellingson, K D; Waterman, S H; Pearson, M L

    2014-11-01

    Antimicrobial resistance (AR) is a growing problem worldwide and international travel, cross-border migration, and antimicrobial use may contribute to the introduction or emergence of AR. We examined AR rates and trends along the US-Mexico border by analysing microbiology data from eight US hospitals in three states bordering Mexico. Microbiology data were ascertained for the years 2000-2006 and for select healthcare and community pathogens including, three Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae) and three Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae) pathogens and 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations. Resistance was highest in S. aureus (oxacillin resistance 45·7%), P. aeruginosa (quinolone resistance 22·3%), and E. coli (quinolone resistance 15·6%); six (60%) of the 10 antimicrobial-pathogen combinations studied had a significantly increasing trend in resistance over the study period. Potential contributing factors in the hospital and community such as infection control practices and antimicrobial use (prescription and non-prescription) should be explored further in the US-Mexico border region.

  2. Assessing clinical and life sciences performance of research institutions in Split, Croatia, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Puljak, Livia; Vukojević, Katarina; Lovrić Kojundzić, Sanja; Sapunar, Damir

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate publications of clinical and life scientists from research institutions in Split, Croatia, and the publication output from government-funded research projects of the University of Split School of Medicine. We analyzed the number of publications from research institutions in Split, Croatia, in the 2000-2006 period, relative impact factors, predominant research fields, output of researchers from the University of Split School of Medicine receiving government research grants, and the average price of published article. From 2000 to 2006, clinical and life scientists published 350 articles indexed in Thomson Scientific database Current Contents. The number of articles increased from 30 in 2000 to 76 in 2006, and the average impact factor of journals where these articles were published increased from 2.03 in 2000 to 2.89 in 2006. Twenty percent of articles (72/350) were published in the Croatian Medical Journal. Principal investigators of the 12 research projects receiving government grants published 0 to 8 articles related to the project topic in the 2002-2006 research grant cycle. The research grantees published 78 original research articles, with an average price per article of euro 29.210 euros. Although the number and impact factor of research articles published by clinical and life scientists from Split, Croatia, is increasing, it is still low when the number of scientists is taken into account. There should be better mechanisms of control and evaluation of research performance of government-funded research projects.

  3. Assessing Clinical and Life Sciences Performance of Research Institutions in Split, Croatia, 2000-2006

    PubMed Central

    Puljak, Livia; Vukojević, Katarina; Lovrić Kojundžić, Sanja; Sapunar, Damir

    2008-01-01

    Aim To evaluate publications of clinical and life scientists from research institutions in Split, Croatia, and the publication output from government-funded research projects of the University of Split School of Medicine. Methods We analyzed the number of publications from research institutions in Split, Croatia, in the 2000-2006 period, relative impact factors, predominant research fields, output of researchers from the University of Split School of Medicine receiving government research grants, and the average price of published article. Results From 2000 to 2006, clinical and life scientists published 350 articles indexed in Thomson Scientific database Current Contents. The number of articles increased from 30 in 2000 to 76 in 2006, and the average impact factor of journals where these articles were published increased from 2.03 in 2000 to 2.89 in 2006. Twenty percent of articles (72/350) were published in the Croatian Medical Journal. Principal investigators of the 12 research projects receiving government grants published 0 to 8 articles related to the project topic in the 2002-2006 research grant cycle. The research grantees published 78 original research articles, with an average price per article of € 29.210. Conclusion Although the number and impact factor of research articles published by clinical and life scientists from Split, Croatia, is increasing, it is still low when the number of scientists is taken into account. There should be better mechanisms of control and evaluation of research performance of government-funded research projects. PMID:18461671

  4. Elemental mercury releases attributed to antiques--New York, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    2007-06-15

    Metallic (i.e., elemental) mercury, a heavy, silvery odorless liquid, is in common household products such as thermostats and thermometers. Lesser-known household sources of elemental mercury include certain antique or vintage items such as clocks, barometers, mirrors, and lamps. Over time, the mercury in these items can leak, particularly as seals age or when the items are damaged, dropped, or moved improperly. Vacuuming a mercury spill or vaporization from spill-contaminated surfaces such as carpets, floors, furniture, mops, or brooms can increase levels of mercury in the air, especially in enclosed spaces. Environmental sampling conducted after releases of elemental mercury have indicated substantial air concentrations that were associated with increases in blood and urine mercury levels among exposed persons. In 1990, the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) created the Hazardous Substances Emergency Events Surveillance (HSEES) system, a multistate health department surveillance system designed to help reduce morbidity and mortality associated with hazardous substance events. This report describes antique-related mercury releases reported to HSEES, all of which occurred in New York state during 2000-2006. Although none of these spills resulted in symptoms or acute health effects, they required remediation to prevent future mercury exposure. The findings underscore the need for caution when handling antiques containing elemental mercury and the need for proper remediation of spills.

  5. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reiner, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000-2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  6. Dispensing with marriage: Marital and partnership trends in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa 2000-2006

    PubMed Central

    Hosegood, Victoria; McGrath, Nuala; Moultrie, Tom

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes marriage and partnership patterns and trends in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa from 2000-2006. The study is based on longitudinal, population-based data collected by the Africa Centre demographic surveillance system. We consider whether the high rates of non-marriage among Africans in South Africa reported in the 1980s were reversed following the political transformation underway by the 1990s. Our findings show that marriage has continued to decline with a small increase in cohabitation among unmarried couples, particularly in more urbanised areas. Comparing surveillance and census data, we highlight problems with the use of the ‘living together’ marital status category in a highly mobile population. PMID:25729322

  7. [Monitoring of inequality in financial protection and healthcare in Mexico: an analysis of health surveys 2000, 2006 and 2012].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Espinosa-de la Peña, Rodrigo; Balandrán, Dulce Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    To analyze trends in inequality in financial protection and healthcare in Mexico between 2000 and 2012, using simple and complex measures. Analysis of national health surveys 2000, 2006 and 2012, generating estimates of absolute and relative gaps and the slope index of inequality using imputated income as socioeconomic measure, and differences by sex, rural/urban residence, and ethnic background. Between 2000 and 2012, socioeconomic inequality in financial protection vanished, while it remains in healthcare access, with larger barriers to access healthcare among those in the lowest socioeconomic condition. These results are consistent with the differences by urban/rural residence and ethnic background. The health reform in 2003, aiming to increase health insurance, resulted in the virtual elimination of socioeconomic inequality in financial protection, but there is still inequality in access to healthcare. Actions to eliminate access barriers related to quality of health services are urgent to promote effective access to healthcare.

  8. A messy reality: an analysis of New Zealand's elective surgery scoring system via media sources, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Derrett, Sarah; Cousins, Kim; Gauld, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Waiting lists for elective procedures are a characteristic feature of tax-funded universal health systems. New Zealand has gained a reputation for its 'booking system' for waiting list management, introduced in the early-1990s. The New Zealand system uses criteria to 'score' and then 'book' qualifying patients for surgery. This article aims to (i) describe key issues focused on by the media, (ii) identify local strategies and (iii) present evidence of variation. Newspaper sources were searched (2000-2006). A total of 1199 booking system stories were identified. Findings demonstrate, from a national system perspective, the extraordinarily difficult nature of maintaining overall control and coordination. Equity and national consistency are affected when hospitals respond to local pressure by reducing access to elective treatment. Findings suggest that central government probably needs to be closely involved in local-level management and policy adjustments; that through the study period, the New Zealand system appears to have been largely out of the control of government; and that governments elsewhere may need to be cautious when considering developing similar systems. Developing and implementing scoring and booking systems may always be a 'messy reality' with unintended consequences and throwing regional differences in service management and access into stark relief. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. [Retrospective assessment of laboratory surveillance for invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from adults of the Metropolitan Region (Chile): 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Aurora; Seoane, Mabel; San Martín, Oriana; Hormazábal, Juan C; Lagos, Rosanna

    2007-12-01

    This study assessed the performance of the national norm for laboratory surveillance of invasive Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults of the Metropolitan Region (Chile). Material and Methods. We reviewed all notifications of isolates from patients > 15 years of age received by the Institute of Public Health of Chile during the period 2000-2006, submitted by health care facilities of the study region. We also reviewed the original records of sterile fluid cultures, in 14 public adult hospitals. Results. We found documentation of 1429 invasive S. pneumoniae isolates recovered from adult patients, including 1095 reported and 334 not-reported isolates. A 33% under-reporting rate was estimated for the 14 hospitals where local laboratory records were inspected. Age and clinical diagnosis were omitted in 23% and 78% of the notifications, respectively. Among 303 isolates from patients > 65 years of age that were investigated with Quellung reaction, 235 (78%) had capsular serotypes represented in the 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine. Conclusions. The Ministry of Health of Chile announced implementation of 23-valent vaccine immunization program for the elderly. In the perspective of future evaluations of the impact of this intervention, the results of this study indicate the need of reinforcing adherence and improving the quality of notifications of invasive S. pneumoniae.

  10. [Evolution and scientific impact of research grants from the spanish society of cardiology and spanish heart foundation (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Aleixandre Benavent, Rafael; Alonso Arroyo, Adolfo; Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Bolaños Pizarro, Máxima; Heras, Magda; González Alcalde, Gregorio; Macaya Miguel, Carlos; Navarro Molina, Carolina; Castelló Cogollos, Lourdes; Valderrama Zurián, Juan Carlos; Chorro Gascó, Francisco Javier; Bertomeu Martínez, Vicente; Salvador Taboada, María Jesús; Plaza Celemín, Leandro; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Cequier Fillat, Angel; Varela Román, Alfonso; Laraudogoitia Zaldumbide, Eva; Morell Cabedo, Salvador

    2011-10-01

    The Sociedad Española de Cardiología (Spanish Society of Cardiology) every year awards grants to finance research in the field of cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study is to identify the impact of these investments during the period 2000-2006 from the subsequently published articles in scientific journals. Using the identifying data of each project as search terms, all articles that resulted from these grants were located in the Spanish Índice Médico Español and Índice Bibliográfico Español en Ciencias de la Salud databases, and in Science Citation Index-Expanded and Scopus. Descriptive statistical analysis of these articles included type of grant, number and amount awarded per year, and the recipient's sex and institutional affiliation. The Sociedad Española de Cardiología awarded €3,270,877 to 207 recipients, an average annual total of €467,268. We identified 231 publications that resulted from 123 (59.42%) of these grants. The average number of articles per grant awarded was 1.12, and 1.9 when taking into account only the awards that led to publication. During the period 2000 to 2006, the Sociedad Española de Cardiología/ Fundación Española del Corazón (Spanish Heart Foundation) provided about €500,000 per year to fund research grants, thereby contributing to the fight against cardiovascular diseases. Almost 60% of grants have led to publications, 73% of which were published in international journals, and 91.34% in national or international journals with an impact factor in the Journal Citation Reports. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Multiple vulnerabilities and maternal healthcare in Vietnam: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011

    PubMed Central

    Van Minh, Hoang; Oh, Juhwan; Giang, Kim Bao; Kien, Vu Duy; Nam, You-Seon; Lee, Chul Ou; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background Knowledge of the aggregate effects of multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities is important for shedding light on the determinants of growing health inequalities and inequities in maternal healthcare. Objective This paper describes patterns of inequity in maternal healthcare utilization and analyzes associations between inequity and multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities among women in Vietnam. Design This is a repeated cross-sectional study using data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys 2000, 2006, and 2011. Two maternal healthcare indicators were selected: (1) skilled antenatal care and (2) skilled delivery care. Four types of socioeconomic vulnerabilities – low education, ethnic minority, poverty, and rural location – were assessed both as separate explanatory variables and as composite indicators (combinations of three and four vulnerabilities). Pairwise comparisons and adjusted odds ratios were used to assess socioeconomic inequities in maternal healthcare. Results In all three surveys, there were increases across the survey years in both the proportions of women who received antenatal care by skilled staff (68.6% in 2000, 90.8% in 2006, and 93.7% in 2011) and the proportions of women who gave birth with assistance from skilled staff (69.9% in 2000, 87.7% in 2006, and 92.9% in 2011). The receipt of antenatal care by skilled staff and birth assistance from skilled health personnel were less common among vulnerable women, especially those with multiple vulnerabilities. Conclusions Even though Vietnam has improved its coverage of maternal healthcare on average, policies should target maternal healthcare utilization among women with multiple socioeconomic vulnerabilities. Both multisectoral social policies and health policies are needed to tackle multiple vulnerabilities more effectively by identifying those who are poor, less educated, live in rural areas, and belong to ethnic minority groups. PMID:26950561

  12. Drug company advertising in medical journals about the health-economic advantages of their products for 2000-2006 versus 1990-1999.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jennifer A; Timm, Alison R; Neumann, Peter J

    2008-10-01

    Section 114 of the 1997 Food and Drug Administration Modernization Act (FDAMA) effective February 19, 1998, permitted some additional flexibility for drug companies to provide "health care economic information" to "a formulary committee or other similar entity" and may have caused a decline in economic messages used in print advertisements in medical journals. We previously investigated the promotional claims made by pharmaceutical companies about the economic advantages of their prescription products in print advertisements in 6 leading medical journals from 1990-1999. To examine the hypotheses that (1) economic promotion in journals declined after the effective date of Section 114 of the FDAMA, and (2) increased calls for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) scrutiny of health-economic information was associated with an increase in the reporting of supporting information for economic advertisements in 2000- 2006 compared with the 1990s. Two researchers independently reviewed all pharmaceutical print advertisements in 3 issues each year of 3 general medical and 3 specialty journals (totaling 18 issues each year) from 2000 through 2006. The type of economic claim (e.g., advertisements using the words "price," "costs less," "value") as well as the presence of supporting information for an advertisement's claims (e.g., published studies) were tabulated using a standardized data collection form. The research method was similar to that used in previous research of economic claims in advertisements in the same 6 medical journals from 1990-1999, and we compared the results from previous research for 1990-1999 with the new findings for 2000-2006. The list of health economic terms was expanded in the 2000-2006 research to include "less hospitalization"/"less treatment," "formulary"/"coverage," "co-pay"/"cost-sharing," and "in community longer." Our results are derived from 2,144 pharmaceutical advertisements from the 10-year period 1990-1999 and 1,372 from the 7-year

  13. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry.

  14. Childhood cancer incidence patterns by race, sex and age for 2000-2006: a report from the South African National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Friederike; Kielkowski, Danuta; Schonfeld, Sara J; Kellett, Patricia; Stanulla, Martin; Dickens, Caroline; Kaatsch, Peter; Singh, Elvira; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-06-01

    Higher childhood cancer incidence rates are generally reported for high income countries although high quality information on descriptive patterns of childhood cancer incidence for low or middle income countries is limited, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa. There is a need to quantify global differences by cancer types, and to investigate whether they reflect true incidence differences or can be attributed to under-diagnosis or under-reporting. For the first time, we describe childhood cancer data reported to the pathology report-based National Cancer Registry of South Africa in 2000-2006 and compare our results to incidence data from Germany, a high income country. The overall age-standardized incidence rate (ASR) for South Africa in 2000-2006 was 45.7 per million children. We observed substantial differences by cancer types within South Africa by racial group; ASRs tended to be 3-4-fold higher in South African Whites compared to Blacks. ASRs among both Black and White South Africans were generally lower than those from Germany with the greatest differences observed between the Black population in South Africa and Germany, although there was marked variation between cancer types. Age-specific rates were particularly low comparing South African Whites and Blacks with German infants. Overall, patterns across South African population groups and in comparison to Germans were similar for boys and girls. Genetic and environmental reasons may probably explain rather a small proportion of the observed differences. More research is needed to understand the extent to which under-ascertainment and under-diagnosis of childhood cancers drives differences in observed rates. © 2014 UICC.

  15. Trophic structure of the Peruvian marine ecosystem in 2000-2006: Insights on the effects of management scenarios for the hake fishery using the IBM trophic model Osmose

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzloff, Martin; Shin, Yunne-Jai; Tam, Jorge; Travers, Morgane; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2009-01-01

    The individual-based trophic model Osmose is applied to the upwelling marine ecosystem off the coast of Peru. The dynamics and life cycle of eight major species of the Peruvian marine ecosystem are explicitly considered in the model. Reference simulations provide an overview of the trophic structure of the Peruvian ecosystem during the period 2000-2006. Results of model calibration and simulations are discussed in the light of current empirical knowledge on the trophic functioning of the Peruvian ecosystem and are compared to outputs obtained recently using the trophic model Ecopath. The impacts on the ecosystem of restoration plans for the depleted hake ( Merluccius gayi peruanus) population are explored through two management scenarios: a) a long term reduction of fishing effort targeting hake and b) a moratorium on the hake fishery. The simulations help better understand the recent failure of a 20 month hake moratorium and provide long-term strategic support to ecosystem-based management. Limits of our approach are discussed and recommendations are detailed for future developments of the Osmose model and ecosystem approach to fishery management in the Peruvian context.

  16. School-Level Practices to Increase Availability of Fruits, Vegetables, and Whole Grains, and Reduce Sodium in School Meals - United States, 2000, 2006, and 2014.

    PubMed

    Merlo, Caitlin; Brener, Nancy; Kann, Laura; McManus, Tim; Harris, Diane; Mugavero, Kristy

    2015-08-28

    Students consume up to half of their daily calories at school, often through the federal school meal programs (e.g., National School Lunch Program) administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2012, USDA published new required nutrition standards for school meals.* These standards were the first major revision to the school meal programs in >15 years and reflect current national dietary guidance and Institute of Medicine recommendations to meet students' nutrition needs. The standards require serving more fruits, vegetables, and whole grains and gradually reducing sodium content over 10 years. To examine the prevalence of school-level practices related to implementation of the nutrition standards, CDC analyzed data from the 2000, 2006, and 2014 School Health Policies and Practices Study (SHPPS) on school nutrition services practices related to fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and sodium. Almost all schools offered whole grain foods each day for breakfast and lunch, and most offered two or more vegetables and two or more fruits each day for lunch. The percentage of schools implementing practices to increase availability of fruits and vegetables and decrease sodium content in school meals increased from 2000-2014. However, opportunities exist to increase the percentage of schools nationwide implementing these practices.

  17. Urban Growth in a Fragmented Landscape: Estimating the Relationship between Landscape Pattern and Urban Land Use Change in Germany, 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the highest priorities in the conservation and management of biodiversity, natural resources and other vital ecosystem services is the assessment of the mechanisms that drive urban land use change. Using key landscape indicators, this study addresses why urban land increased 6 percent overall in Germany from 2000-2006. Building on regional science and economic geography research, I develop a model of landscape change that integrates remotely sensed and other geospatial data, and socioeconomic data in a spatial autoregressive model to explain the variance in urban land use change observed in German kreise (counties) over the past decade. The results reveal three key landscape mechanisms that drive urban land use change across Germany, aligning with those observed in US studies: (1) the level of fragmentation, (2) the share of designated protected areas, and (3) the share of prime soil. First, as fragmentation of once continuous habitats in the landscape increases, extensive urban growth follows. Second, designated protected areas have the perverse effect of hastening urbanization in surrounding areas. Third, greater shares of prime, productive soil experienced less urban land take over the 6 year period, an effect that is stronger in the former East Germany, where the agricultural sector remains large. The results suggest that policy makers concentrate their conservation efforts on preexisting fragmented land with high shares of protected areas in Germany to effectively stem urban land take. Given that comparative studies of land use change are vital for the scientific community to grasp the wider global process of urbanization and coincident ecological impacts, the methodology employed here is easily exportable to land cover and land use research programs in other fields and geographic areas. Key words: Urban land use change, Ecosystem services, Landscape fragmentation, Remote sensing, Spatial regression models, GermanyOLS and Spatial Autoregressive Model

  18. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    PubMed

    Van Huy, Nguyen; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Van Tien, Nguyen; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011) were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively). Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively). This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control policies and practices in other developing countries.

  19. Secular trends in HIV knowledge and attitudes among Vietnamese women based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000, 2006, and 2011: what do we know and what should we do to protect them?

    PubMed Central

    Van Huy, Nguyen; Lee, Hwa-Young; Nam, You-Seon; Van Tien, Nguyen; Huong, Tran Thi Giang; Hoat, Luu Ngoc

    2016-01-01

    Background In Vietnam, women are at risk of HIV infection due to many factors. However, there is limited evidence about what women know and how they behave to protect themselves from HIV. Objective The objective of this study was to investigate the trends in comprehensive HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitude, and associated factors among Vietnamese women from 2000 to 2011. Design Data from three waves of the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (years 2000, 2006, and 2011) were used. Logistic regression methods examined factors associated with each of two dependent variables, HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitude toward HIV/AIDS. Results Although there was an increasing trend in basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward the disease, in Vietnamese women in the general population over the survey years, the prevalence of women with basic HIV/AIDS knowledge and positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS was low. Multivariable models indicated that women who had higher levels of education, lived in urban areas, had higher economic status, and knew about places of HIV-related services were more likely to have good HIV/AIDS knowledge (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=3.01; 1.27; 1.88; 2.03, respectively). Women with higher educational attainment, knew about HIV services, and had better HIV knowledge were more likely to report positive attitude toward HIV/AIDS (e.g. in 2011, AOR's=2.50; 1.72; 2.23, respectively). Conclusions This study recommends that public health programs for the control of HIV, such as behavioral change communication campaigns or social policies for women, should focus not only in improving the quality of existing HIV/AIDS counseling and testing services but also on expanding coverage to increase accessibility to these services for women in rural areas. In addition, efforts to raise the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS and improve attitude toward the disease should be undertaken simultaneously. The results of this study can help inform HIV control policies and practices

  20. Geodesy, a Bibliometric Approach for 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vazquez, G.; Landeros, C. F.

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, bibliometric science has been frequently applied in the development and evaluation of scientific research. This work presents a bibliometric analysis for the research work performed in the field of geodesy "science of the measurement and mapping of the earth surface including its external gravity field". The objective of this work is to present a complete overview of the generated research on this field to assemble and study the most important publications occurred during the past seven years. The analysis was performed including the SCOPUS and WEB OF SCIENCE databases for all the geodetic scientific articles published between 2000 and 2006. The search profile was designed considering a strategy to seek for titles and article descriptors using the terms geodesy and geodetic and some other terms associated with the topics: geodetic surfaces, vertical measurements, reference systems and frames, modern space-geodetic techniques and satellite missions. Some preliminary results had been achieved specifically Bradford law of distribution for journals and education institutes, and Lotka's law for authors that also includes the cooperation between countries in terms of writing together scientific articles. In the particular case of distributions, the model suggested by Egghe (2002) was adopted for determining the cores.

  1. The Carolina Bay Restoration Project - Final Report 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Barton, Christopher

    2007-12-15

    A Wetlands Mitigation Bank was established at SRS in 1997 as a compensatory alternative for unavoidable wetland losses. Prior to restoration activities, 16 sites included in the project were surveyed for the SRS Site Use system to serve as a protective covenant. Pre-restoration monitoring ended in Fall 2000, and post restoration monitoring began in the Winter/Spring of 2001. The total interior harvest in the 16 bays after harvesting the trees was 19.6 ha. The margins in the opencanopy, pine savanna margin treatments were thinned. Margins containing areas with immature forested stands (bay 5184 and portions of bay 5011) were thinned using a mechanical shredder in November 2001. Over 126 hectares were included in the study areas (interior + margin). Planting of two tree species and the transplanting of wetland grass species was successful. From field surveys, it was estimated that approximately 2700 Nyssa sylvatica and 1900 Taxodium distichum seedlings were planted in the eight forested bays resulting in an average planting density of ≈ 490 stems ha-1. One hundred seedlings of each species per bay (where available) were marked to evaluate survivability and growth. Wetland grass species were transplanted from donor sites on SRS to plots that ranged in size from 100 – 300 m2, depending on wetland size. On 0.75 and 0.6 meter centers, respectively, 2198 plugs of Panicum hemitomon and 3021 plugs Leersia hexandra were transplanted. New shoots originating from the stumps were treated with a foliar herbicide (Garlon® 4) during the summer of 2001 using backpack sprayers. Preliminary information from 2000-2004 regarding the hydrologic, vegetation and faunal response to restoration is presented in this status report.

  2. Husbands' labour migration and wives' autonomy, Mozambique 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Yabiku, Scott T; Agadjanian, Victor; Sevoyan, Arusyak

    2010-11-01

    The separation of migrants from the family unit, as a result of labour migration, can have profound effects on family organization and the lives of family members. Using data from a 2006 survey of 1,680 married women from 56 villages in southern Mozambique, we examined the relationship between men's labour migration and the decision-making autonomy of women who stayed behind. The results show that both men's cumulative migration history and current migration status are positively associated with women's autonomy, and that the effects on autonomy may persist even after the man's return. Three intervening factors-women's employment outside the home, lower fertility, and residential independence from extended family members-did not fully mediate the effects of men's labour migration. This is consistent with the assumption that the migrant's absence has a 'direct' effect on his wife's autonomy.

  3. Optimizing Surface Winds using QuikSCAT Measurements in the Mediterranean Sea During 2000-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-28

    to have accurate wind speed and direction at the sea surface (i.e., at 10-m height) over the Mediterranean Sea. High- temporal -resolution winds are...and the resolution 1.0° prior to 2003. While temporal resolution of the winds from NWP products has great advantages, their coarse resolution has some...at high (3 h) temporal resolution on its “computational” 0.5° grid. This is an improvement over the commonpractise among NWP products of distributing

  4. A Review of HR Practices in Knowledge-Intensive Firms and MNEs: 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeed, Zahid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the association which exists among the wide range of knowledge management, knowledge sharing and HRM practices in the knowledge-intensive firms. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed literature review includes the systematic process of research in the following manner; after identifying the main area…

  5. [Incidence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in Belgium: trends 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Defraye, A; Crucitti, T; Ducoffre, G; Mak, R; Sasse, A

    2009-01-01

    In Belgium, three registration systems collect epidemiological information on N. gonorrhoeae infections. The descriptive analysis of the data presented in this article allows describing the epidemiology of N. gonorrhoeae infections in Belgium in terms of trends in time, describing the characteristics of the patients, and providing information on resistance to antibiotics. The results on the incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections show an important increase since the year 2000, and this increase is even more pronounced between 2005 and 2006. The majority of the patients reside in big cities, mainly in the district of Antwerp and in the Brussels-Capital region. Among the N. gonorrhoeae specimens that were sent to the reference laboratory, the proportion of specimens resistant to ciprofloxacine increases each year; this proportion reaches 61.4% in 2006. The increase in the incidence of N. gonorrhoeae infections and in antimicrobial resistance is also observed in other European countries. The increase in incidence may be partly related to the important increase of resistance to ciprofloxacine. It is very important to continue the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance, to adapt treatment in function of the recent evolutions and to inform physicians at a regular basis. The results show that homo- and bisexual men are most at risk for N. gonorrhoeae infections. The prevention campaigns for sexually transmitted infections and screening policy have to be reinforced, particularly among homo- and bisexual men.

  6. Social inequalities and the rise in violent deaths in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Viana, Luiz Antonio Chaves; Costa, Maria da Conceição Nascimento; Paim, Jairnilson Silva; Vieira-da-Silva, Ligia Maria

    2011-01-01

    An ecological study was carried out using information zones as units of analysis in order to assess the evolution of socio-spatial inequalities in mortality due to external causes and homicides in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil, in 2000 and 2006. The Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística--IBGE) and the City Health Department (Secretaria Municipal de Saúde) provided the data sources, and causes of death were reviewed and reclassified based on reports from the Institute of Legal Medicine (Instituto Médico Legal). The information zones were classified into four social strata according to income and schooling. The ratio between mortality rates (inequality ratio) was calculated and confirmed a rise of 98.5% in the homicide rate. In 2000, the risk of death due to external causes and murders in the stratum with the worst living conditions was respectively 1.40 and 1.94 times greater than in the reference stratum. In 2006 these figures were 2.02 and 2.24. The authors discuss the implications for inter-sectoral public policies, based on evidence from the study's findings.

  7. Association of climate variability and childhood diarrhoeal disease in rural Bangladesh, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Yunus, M; Streatfield, P K; Emch, M

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the effects of meteorological factors, particularly, extreme weather events, on the prevalence of childhood diarrhoeal disease in Matlab, Bangladesh. Logistic regression models were used to examine impacts of temperature, rainfall and the extreme weather factors (the number of hot days and days with heavy rainfall) on childhood diarrhoea from 2000 to 2006 at the bari (cluster of dwellings) level. The results showed that the increases in the number of hot days and days with heavy rainfall were associated with an increase in daily diarrhoea cases by 0·8-3·8% and 1-6·2%, respectively. The results from multivariable stepwise models showed that the extreme weather factors were still positively associated with childhood diarrhoea, while the associations for average temperature and rainfall could be negative after other variables were controlled. The findings showed that not only the intensity, but also the frequency of extreme weather events had significant effects on childhood diarrhoea.

  8. Hospitalization Associated with Traumatic Brain Injury in the Active Duty US Army: 2000-2006

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    ered mild because the most common TBI diagnoses in this analysis, concussions (ICD-9 category 850), were almost always mapped to AIS diagnoses with a...severity score of 2. This was the case for concussions with brief loss of consciousness (LOC) (ICD-9 code 850.1), LOC of unspecified duration (ICD-9 code...that mapped to AIS diagnoses with a severity score of 1. These were concussions that did not result in LOC (ICD-9 code 850.0). Since TBIs resulting in

  9. A Review of HR Practices in Knowledge-Intensive Firms and MNEs: 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Majeed, Zahid

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to show the association which exists among the wide range of knowledge management, knowledge sharing and HRM practices in the knowledge-intensive firms. Design/methodology/approach: The proposed literature review includes the systematic process of research in the following manner; after identifying the main area…

  10. Comparison of outcome measures in head and neck cancer--literature review 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Tschiesner, Uta M; Rogers, Simon N; Harreus, Ulrich; Berghaus, Alexander; Cieza, Alarcos

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically analyze outcome measures in head and neck cancer trials using the International Classification of Functioning. Disability, and Health (ICF) as reference. Clinical trials 2000 to 2006 in MEDLINE were selected according to predefined criteria. Outcome measures were extracted, and concepts contained in the outcome measures were translated into ICF. A total of 254 publications showed 4203 concepts that translate into 117 different, second-level ICF-categories. Just 2 of 117 outcome measures apply regularly: e580 (health_services) in 58% publications and b510 (ingestion_function) in 46% publications. Any other outcome measure applies to < 33% publications. In the differentiation of outcome measures among tumor locations, staging, or treatment options, no systematic use of specific outcome measures was identified in any subgroup. The ICF provides a useful reference to identify and quantify outcome measures in head and neck cancertrials. Applying the ICF classification reveals little standardization in the use of outcome-measures by different authors. However, this is not related to the heterogeneity of head and neck cancer in terms of tumor locations, staging, or treatment options. Systematic use of the ICF might increases comparability of study results and decrease data silos.

  11. Income-related inequalities and inequities in health and health care utilization in Mexico, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Barraza-Lloréns, Mariana; Panopoulou, Giota; Díaz, Beatriz Yadira

    2013-02-01

    To measure income-related inequalities and inequities in the distribution of health and health care utilization in Mexico. The National Health Survey (NHS) 2000 and the National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS) 2006 were used to estimate concentration indices for health outcomes and health care utilization variables before and after standardization. The study analyzed 110 460 individuals 18 years or older for NHS 2000 and 124 149 individuals for NHNS 2006. Health status variables were self-assessed health, physical limitations, and chronic illness. Health care utilization included curative visits and dental, hospital, and preventive care. Individuals were ranked by three standard-of-living measures: household income, wealth, and expenditure. Other independent variables were area of residence, geographic region, education, employment, ethnicity, and health insurance. Decomposition analysis allowed for assessing the contributions of independent variables to the distribution of health care among individuals. The worse-off population reports less good self-assessed health and more physical limitations, whereas better-off individuals report more chronic illnesses. Utilization of curative visits and hospitalization is more concentrated among the better-off population. No significant changes in these results can be established between 2000 and 2006. According to available evidence, standard of living, health insurance, and education largely contribute to the inequitable distribution of health care. Despite improvements in health care utilization patterns, income-related health and health care inequities prevail. Equity remains a challenge for Mexico.

  12. Rapid identification of herd effects with the introduction of serogroup C meningococcal conjugate vaccine in Ontario, Canada, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Kinlin, Laura M; Jamieson, Frances; Brown, Elizabeth M; Brown, Shirley; Rawte, Prasad; Dolman, Sharon; Drews, Steven J; Fisman, David N

    2009-03-10

    In 2001, Canada's National Advisory Committee on Immunization endorsed a meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccine, which appears to provide durable serogroup-specific immunity while reducing nasopharyngeal carriage. With reference to direct and indirect effects on case occurrence, we sought to evaluate recent trends in the incidence of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Ontario. Analyses included all IMD cases reported between 2000 and 2006 to the Ontario Central Public Health Laboratory. Poisson models incorporating terms for age, sex and seasonal oscillation identified a significant downward trend in disease occurrence, which was strongest in serogroup C cases and not evident when serogroup C strains were excluded from the analysis. Among age groups not targeted by the vaccine program serogroup C, IMD displayed a pattern of decreasing incidence that was not present in non-serogroup C disease. These apparent dramatic effects of conjugate C vaccine (both direct and indirect) may be important in the implementation and evaluation of vaccine policy in other jurisdictions.

  13. Inspiring the Next Generation: Student Experiments and Educational Activities on the International Space Station, 2000-2006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Donald A.; Robinson, Julie A.; Tate, Judy; Thumm, Tracy

    2006-01-01

    One important objective of NASA has always been to inspire the next generation. NASA and human space flight have a unique ability to capture the imaginations of both students and teachers. The presence of humans onboard the International Space Station (ISS) for more than five years now has provided a foundation for numerous educational activities aimed at capturing the interest and motivating study in the sciences, technology, engineering, and mathematics. Yet even before the Expedition 1 crew arrived at station in November 2000, experiments with student participation were being conducted onboard ISS in support of NASA missions. One of NASA's protein crystal growth experiments had been delivered to station by the shuttle Atlantis during STS-106 in September 2000 and was returned to Earth six weeks later aboard the shuttle Discovery during the STS-92 mission. From very early on it was recognized that students would have a strong interest in the ISS, and that this would provide a unique opportunity for them to get involved and participate in science and engineering projects on ISS. It should be noted that participation is not limited to U.S. students but involves the 16 International Partner countries and various other countries under special commercial agree

  14. Contributions of sandy lands and stony deserts to long-distance dust emission in China and Mongolia during 2000 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Baolin; Tsunekawa, Atsushi; Tsubo, Mitsuru

    2008-02-01

    More than 400 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images of dust storm events were collected and analyzed, and individual events were tracked back to their origins. Dust tracks were determined from color composite images, brightness temperature difference (BTD) and the NOAA Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory model. The results showed that five regions (sandy lands in central Inner Mongolia and the adjacent area of Mongolia; the Gobi Desert in Xinjiang and Gansu provinces, western Inner Mongolia, and the adjacent southwestern area of Mongolia; the Gobi Desert in southern Mongolia and the adjoining area of northern Inner Mongolia; sandy lands and deserts around the middle reaches of the Yellow River; and the area rimming the Taklimakan Desert) were the main contributors to long-lived mineral dusts in northern China and Mongolia. Of these dust production areas, sandy lands and stony deserts, rather than the sandy deserts of Inner Mongolia and Mongolia, were found to be the dominant dust sources, accounting for more than 75% of regional dust emission events. Dust events in the Taklimakan Desert were often local phenomena, although they could also be transported eastward if they were uplifted high enough to escape the enclosing topographic highs. Dust sources in northwestern China are mainly alluvial fans and dry lake and river beds. Success in identifying the sources and trajectories of Asian dust storms would guide future ground-based research and steppe degradation countermeasures and help reduce the uncertainties in modern modeling of Asian dust.

  15. Hematologic malignancies in South Africa 2000-2006: analysis of data reported to the National Cancer Registry.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, Sara J; Erdmann, Friederike; Wiggill, Tracey; Singh, Elvira; Kellett, Patricia; Babb, Chantal; Schüz, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Little is known about the incidence patterns of hematologic malignancies in Sub-Saharan Africa, including South Africa. We estimated incidence rates of pathology-confirmed adult cases of leukemia, myeloma and related diseases (myeloma), Hodgkin lymphoma (HL), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) reported to the National Cancer Registry of South Africa (NCR) between 2000 and 2006, by age, gender, and population group (Black, White, Coloured, Asian/Indian). Gender-specific age-standardized rates were calculated overall and by population group and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were estimated using Poisson regression models. Between 2000 and 2006, there were 14662 cases of leukemia, myeloma, HL, and NHL reported to the registry. Incidence rates of reported hematologic malignancies were generally 20-50% higher among males than females. Our analyses suggested marked differences in the rates of reported hematologic malignancies by population group which were most pronounced when comparing the White versus Black population groups (IRRs ranging from 1.6 for myeloma to 3.8 for HL for males and females combined). Challenges related to diagnosis and reporting of cancers may play a role in the patterns observed by population group while the set-up of the NCR (pathology-based) could lead to some degree of under-ascertainment in all groups. This is the first country-wide report of the incidence of hematologic malignancies in South Africa. Despite challenges, it is important to analyze and report available national cancer incidence data to raise awareness of the cancer burden and to characterize patterns by demographic characteristics so as ultimately to improve the provision of cancer-related health care. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Variability of Springtime Transpacific Pollution Transport During 2000-2006: The INTEX-5 Mission in the Context of Previous Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Edwards, D. P.; Arellano, A.; Sachse, G.; Campos, T.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the transport of pollution across the Pacific during the NASA INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Part 8) campaign in spring 2006 and examine how this year compares to the time period for 2000 through 2006. In addition to aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) collected during INTEX-B, we include in this study multi-year satellite retrievals of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and simulations from the chemistry transport model MOZART-4. Model tracers are used to examine the contributions of different source regions and source types to pollution levels over the Pacific. Additional modeling studies are performed to separate the impacts of inter-annual variability in meteorology and .dynamics from changes in source strength. interannual variability in the tropospheric CO burden over the Pacific and the US as estimated from the MOPITT data range up to 7% and a somewhat smaller estimate (5%) is derived from the model. When keeping the emissions in the model constant between years, the year-to-year changes are reduced (2%), but show that in addition to changes in emissions, variable meteorological conditions also impact transpacific pollution transport. We estimate that about 113 of the variability in the tropospheric CO loading over the contiguous US is explained by changes in emissions and about 213 by changes in meteorology and transport. Biomass burning sources are found to be a larger driver for inter-annual variability in the CO loading compared to fossil and biofuel sources or photochemical CO production even though their absolute contributions are smaller. Source contribution analysis shows that the aircraft sampling during INTEX-B was fairly representative of the larger scale region, but with a slight bias towards higher influence from Asian contributions.

  17. [Frequency of benign tumors at the Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea Gonzalez". Record review between 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Káram-Orantes, Marcia; Fonte-Avalos, Verónica; Zuloaga-Salcedo, Soraya; Domínguez-Cherit, Judith

    2007-01-01

    Benign skin neoplasms are defined as autonomous growing tissue unrelated to normal growing of the skin, that persist even after the originating stimulus dissapears. Almost all human beings have a certain number of benign cutaneous neoplasms and many never seek medical attention. There is a dearth of information regarding the frequency of these tumors. The aim of this study was to record the number of benign tumors studied at the Dermatology Department of a medical facility. A retrospective study analyzed medical records between 2000 and 2006. We included year of admission, number of biopsies, sex, age, tumor location, histological and clinical diagnoses. We analyzed 9,436 biopsies of which 3,765 constituted benign neoplasms; 595 were not included and our total sample was 3,170 tumors. The most frequent tumors according to histopathological diagnoses in descending order were: melanocytic, cutaneous cysts, fibrous tumors, vascular tumors, epidermal tumors, fat tumors, tumors with hair differentiation, neural tumors, glandular tumors, tumors with sebaceous differentiation, cartilage and bone tumors, and smooth muscle tumors. The most common benign tumors were: Melanocytic nevi, epidermal cysts, seborrheic keratoses, pyogenic granulomas, lipomas and dermatofibromas. Melanocytes represented by melanocytic nevi (junctional, intradermic and compound) were the most frequent benign neoplasms, followed by epidermoid cysts. Our results illustrate the most common benign tumors observed in a dermatology department.

  18. Association between PM2.5 and PM2.5 Constituents and Preterm Delivery in California, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Basu, Rupa; Pearson, Dharshani; Ebisu, Keita; Malig, Brian

    2017-09-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been documented to contribute to preterm delivery. However, few studies have investigated the relationships between individual constituents of fine PM (PM2.5 ) and preterm delivery, and factors that may modify their associations. In this study, we examined the associations between several prenatal exposure metrics to PM2.5 and 23 constituents of PM2.5 and preterm delivery in California from 2000 to 2006. In a retrospective cohort study including 231 637 births, we conducted logistic regression analyses adjusting for maternal, infant, temporal, geographic, and neighbourhood characteristics. We observed increased risk for preterm delivery with full-gestational exposure for several PM2.5 constituents. Per interquartile range increase, ammonium (21.2%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 17.1, 25.4), nitrate (18.1%, 95% CI 14.9, 21.4) and bromine (16.7%, 95% CI 13.2, 20.3) had some of the largest increased risks. Alternatively, some PM2.5 constituents were inversely associated with preterm delivery, including chlorine (-8.2%, 95% CI -10.3, -6.0), sodium (-13.2%, 95% CI -15.2, -11.3), sodium ion (-11.9%, 95% CI -14.1, -9.6) and vanadium (-19.2%, 95% CI -25.3, -12.6). Greater associations between PM2.5 constituents and preterm delivery were observed for Blacks and Asians, older mothers, and those with some college education compared to their reference groups, as well as for births with gestational ages from 32 to 34 weeks. PM2.5 constituents ammonium, nitrate and bromine, often linked to traffic and biomass combustion, were most associated with increased risk of preterm delivery in California. Certain demographic subgroups may be particularly impacted. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Variability of Springtime Transpacific Pollution Transport During 2000-2006: The INTEX-5 Mission in the Context of Previous Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, G. G.; Emmons, L. K.; Edwards, D. P.; Arellano, A.; Sachse, G.; Campos, T.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the transport of pollution across the Pacific during the NASA INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Part 8) campaign in spring 2006 and examine how this year compares to the time period for 2000 through 2006. In addition to aircraft measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) collected during INTEX-B, we include in this study multi-year satellite retrievals of CO from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) instrument and simulations from the chemistry transport model MOZART-4. Model tracers are used to examine the contributions of different source regions and source types to pollution levels over the Pacific. Additional modeling studies are performed to separate the impacts of inter-annual variability in meteorology and .dynamics from changes in source strength. interannual variability in the tropospheric CO burden over the Pacific and the US as estimated from the MOPITT data range up to 7% and a somewhat smaller estimate (5%) is derived from the model. When keeping the emissions in the model constant between years, the year-to-year changes are reduced (2%), but show that in addition to changes in emissions, variable meteorological conditions also impact transpacific pollution transport. We estimate that about 113 of the variability in the tropospheric CO loading over the contiguous US is explained by changes in emissions and about 213 by changes in meteorology and transport. Biomass burning sources are found to be a larger driver for inter-annual variability in the CO loading compared to fossil and biofuel sources or photochemical CO production even though their absolute contributions are smaller. Source contribution analysis shows that the aircraft sampling during INTEX-B was fairly representative of the larger scale region, but with a slight bias towards higher influence from Asian contributions.

  20. "Death by a Thousand Cuts": The Failings of the Tasmanian Essential Learnings Curriculum (2000-2006)--The Political Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodwell, G. W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2000, Paula Wriedt, the Tasmanian Minister for Education, gave instructions for her department to begin the development of a K to 10 statewide curriculum, soon to become known as the Essential Learnings Framework, or simply, ELs. The curriculum was an integrated one, doing away with traditional subjects, or disciplines, such as mathematics,…

  1. Ground-Water Temperature Data, Nevada Test Site and Vicinity, Nye, Clark, and Lincoln Counties, Nevada, 2000-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Steven R. Reiner

    2007-08-07

    Ground-water temperature data were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in wells at and in the vicinity of the Nevada Test Site during the years 2000–2006. Periodic ground-water temperatures were collected in 166 wells. In general, periodic ground-water temperatures were measured annually in each well at 5 and 55 feet below the water surface. Ground-water temperature profiles were collected in 73 wells. Temperatures were measured at multiple depths below the water surface to produce these profiles. Databases were constructed to present the ground-water temperature data.

  2. The Recruitment and Retention of Hispanic Undergraduate Students in Public Universities in the United States, 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalvo, Edris J.

    2013-01-01

    In many public U.S. universities, Hispanic undergraduates are underrepresented in terms of enrollment and graduation. This mixed-method geographical study investigated whether some public universities outperform others in recruiting and retaining Hispanic undergraduates. The quantitative findings showed that the effect of financial aid and…

  3. Changes in Jupiter’s Great Red Spot (1979-2006) and Oval BA (2000-2006)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Sushil; Marcus, Philip S.

    2010-11-01

    We analyze velocity fields of the Great Red Spot (GRS) and Oval BA that were previously extracted from Cassini, Galileo, and Hubble Space Telescope images (Asay-Davis, X.S., Marcus, P.S., Wong, M., de Pater, I. [2009]. Icarus 203, 164-188). Our analyses use reduced-parameter models in which the GRS, Oval BA, and surrounding zonal (east-west) flows are assumed to have piece-wise-constant potential vorticity (PV), but with finite-sized transition regions between the pieces of constant PV rather than sharp steps. The shapes of the regions of constant PV are computed such that the flow is a steady, equilibrium solution of the 2D quasigeostrophic equations when viewed in a frame translating uniformly in the east-west direction. All parameter values of the models, including the magnitudes of the PV, areas of the regions with constant PV, locations of the transition regions, widths of the transition regions, and the value of the Rossby deformation radius, are found with a genetic algorithm such that the velocity produced by the equilibrium solution is a "best-fit" to the observed velocity fields. A Monte Carlo method is used to estimate the uncertainties in the best-fit parameter values. The best-fit results show that there were significant changes (greater than the uncertainties) in the PV of the GRS between Galileo in 1996 and Hubble in 2006. In particular, the shape of the PV anomaly of the GRS became rounder, and the area of the PV anomaly of the GRS decreased by 18%, although the magnitudes of PV in the anomaly remained constant. In contrast, neither the area nor the magnitude of the PV anomaly of the Oval BA changed from 2000, when its cloud cover was white, to 2006, when its cloud cover was red. The best-fit results also show that the areas of the PV anomalies of the GRS and of the Oval BA are smaller than the areas of their corresponding cloud covers at all times. Using the best-fit values of the Rossby deformation radius, we show that the Brunt-Väisälä frequency is 15% larger at 33°S than at 23°S. As expected ( Marcus, 1993), the best-fit results show that the PV of the zonal flow has "jumps" at the latitudes of the maxima of the eastward-going jet streams. However, a surprising result is that a large "jump" in the PV of the zonal flow occurs at the location of a maximum of the westward going jet stream neighboring the GRS. Another surprise is that the jumps in the PV of the zonal flow do not all have the same sign, which implies that there is not a monotonic "staircase" of zonal PV from north to south as was anticipated ( Marcus, 1993; McIntyre, 2008).

  4. Characteristics of Twenty-Nine Aerosol Samplers Tested at U.S. Army Edgewood Chemical Biological Center (2000-2006)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    and biological particles in the size range of 0.5 - 13 urn. None of the samplers were tested with all particle sizes . A comparative ranking...dependent on particle aerodynamic size and wind speed. Inlets intended for use either in calm air or indoors can be characterized in an aerosol...on particle size , density, charge, composition, and biofactors. There has been ambiguity in the use of these efficiency terms in the literature. In

  5. Selected Metals in Sediments and Streams in the Oklahoma Part of the Tri-State Mining District, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, William J.; Becker, Mark F.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Smith, S. Jerrod

    2009-01-01

    The abandoned Tri-State mining district includes 1,188 square miles in northeastern Oklahoma, southeastern Kansas, and southwestern Missouri. The most productive part of the Tri-State mining district was the 40-square mile part in Oklahoma, commonly referred to as 'the Picher mining district' in north-central Ottawa County, Oklahoma. The Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district was a primary producing area of lead and zinc in the United States during the first half of the 20th century. Sulfide minerals of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc that remained in flooded underground mine workings and in mine tailings on the land surface oxidized and dissolved with time, forming a variety of oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate metallic minerals on the land surface and in streams that drain the district. Metals in water and sediments in streams draining the mining district can potentially impair the habitat and health of many forms of aquatic and terrestrial life. Lakebed, streambed and floodplain sediments and/or stream water were sampled at 30 sites in the Oklahoma part of the Tri-State mining district by the U.S. Geological Survey and the Oklahoma Department of Environmental Quality from 2000 to 2006 in cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Quapaw and Seneca-Cayuga Tribes of Oklahoma. Aluminum and iron concentrations of several thousand milligrams per kilogram were measured in sediments collected from the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. Manganese and zinc concentrations in those sediments were several hundred milligrams per kilogram. Lead and cadmium concentrations in those sediments were about 10 percent and 0.1 percent of zinc concentrations, respectively. Sediment cores collected in a transect across the floodplain of Tar Creek near Miami, Oklahoma, in 2004 had similar or greater concentrations of those metals than sediment cores collected at the upstream end of Grand Lake O' the Cherokees. The greatest concentrations of cadmium, iron, lead, and zinc were detected in sediments beneath an intermittent tributary to Tar Creek, a slough which drains mined areas near Commerce, Oklahoma. In surface water, aluminum and iron concentrations were greatest in the Neosho River, perhaps a result of runoff from areas underlain by shales. The greatest aqueous concentrations of cadmium, lead, manganese, and zinc were measured in water from Tar Creek, the primary small stream draining the Picher mining district with the largest proportion of mined area. Water from the Spring River had greater zinc concentrations than water from the Neosho River, perhaps as a result of a greater proportion of mined area in the Spring River Basin. Dissolved metals concentrations were generally much less than total metals concentrations, except for manganese and zinc at sites on Tar Creek, where seepage of ground water from the mine workings, saturated mine tailings, and/or metalliferous streambed sediments may be sources of these dissolved metals. Iron and lead concentrations generally decreased with increasing streamflow in upstream reaches of Tar Creek, indicating dilution of metals-rich ground water by runoff. Farther downstream in Tar Creek, and in the Neosho and Spring Rivers, metals concentrations tended to increase with increasing streamflow, indicating that most metals in these parts of these streams were associated with runoff and re-suspension of metals precipitated as oxide, hydroxide, and hydroxycarbonate minerals on land surface and streambeds. Estimated total aluminum, cadmium, iron, manganese, and zinc loads generally were greatest in water from the Neosho and Spring Rivers, primarily because of comparatively large streamflows in those rivers. Slight increases in metal loads in the downstream directions on those rivers indicated contributions of metals from inflows of small tributaries such as Tar Creek and from runoff.

  6. First Cycle of PISA (2000-2006)--International Perspectives on Successes and Challenges: Research and Policy Directions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, John O.; Chiu, Mei-Hung; Yore, Larry D.

    2010-01-01

    This special edition of IJMSE focuses on the Programme of International Student Assessment (PISA) project now that it has completed a full cycle of administration--reading, mathematics, and science--to look at ways in which PISA has been used in participating countries and with what consequences, and to identify potential research and policy…

  7. The Recruitment and Retention of Hispanic Undergraduate Students in Public Universities in the United States, 2000-2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montalvo, Edris J.

    2013-01-01

    In many public U.S. universities, Hispanic undergraduates are underrepresented in terms of enrollment and graduation. This mixed-method geographical study investigated whether some public universities outperform others in recruiting and retaining Hispanic undergraduates. The quantitative findings showed that the effect of financial aid and…

  8. Trends in exhaust emissions from in-use Mexico City vehicles, 2000-2006. A remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Schifter, I; Díaz, L; Rodríguez, R; Durán, J; Chávez, O

    2008-02-01

    A remote sensing study was conducted in year 2006 in four locations of the Metropolitan Area of Mexico City (MAMC). Two of the sites were the same studied back by us in year 2000 and by others in year 1994. A database was compiled containing 11,289 valid measurements for the carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC), and nitric oxide (NO) exhaust vehicles emissions. Valid measurements were binned for each pollutant by the vehicle specific power (between -5 and 20 kW tonne(-1)) for the 2000 and 2006 databases. The mean average CO, THC, and NO emissions for year 2006 were determined to be 1.10 +/- 0.18 vol.%, 299 +/- 88.4 ppm, and 610 +/- 115.0 ppm, respectively. Matching the vehicle driving patterns of the fleet measured in year 2000 with the emissions factors obtained in this work, allows estimating the trends in the exhaust emissions of vehicles in the MAMC. The adjusted results of the remote sensing study performed in year 2006 shows that the fleet has decrease 22% in CO and 17% in NO emissions, with small change in total hydrocarbons emissions. The improvements could be related with the introduction in year 2001 of vehicles that met tighter emissions standards, particularly for nitrogen oxides.

  9. Gender differences in relation to suicides committed in the capital of Montenegro (Podgorica) in the period 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Stevović, Lidija Injac; Jašović-Gašić, Miroslava; Vuković, Olivera; Peković, Mirko; Terzić, Nataša

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the study was to research gender differences in suicides committed in Podgorica between 2000 and 2006, including sociodemographic variables (e.g. age, marital status, education etc.), methods of and motives for committing suicide. Data were taken from the Police Directorate of Montenegro. We used data on 220 males and 83 females who committed suicide. Statistical analysis was done by using the crude specific rate. Significance between two independent crude rates is constructed around their 95% confidence intervals and it utilizes the difference between the two rates (D) to determine significance. The incidence of suicide in males was found to be higher than in females (the male to female suicide ratio is 2.6 to 1). Females were older than males. Females had completed elementary education more frequently , and they were single or divorced or widows. Males had completed secondary education more frequently and they were married. The most frequent employment status of both gender groups implied pensioner and unemployment statuses. There was a significant difference in suicide rates between the genders during the reporting period. Suicide rates increase with age in both genders. Males chose firearms, hanging, strangulation and suffocation and jumping. Females chose hanging, strangulation and suffocation, jumping and drowning as the most frequent methods of suicide. The most frequent motive for suicide in both gender groups was physical illness. The second most frequent motive was mental illness. Emotional and financial difficulties were motives which were more common in males, whereas family problems appeared to be motives two times more frequent in females. The complex multifactorial etiology of suicide suggests the need to consider gender differences when developing effective strategies for the therapy and the prevention of suicide.

  10. Decline in perfluorooctanesulfonate and other polyfluoroalkyl chemicals in American Red Cross adult blood donors, 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Geary W; Mair, David C; Church, Timothy R; Ellefson, Mark E; Reagen, William K; Boyd, Theresa M; Herron, Ross M; Medhdizadehkashi, Zahra; Nobiletti, John B; Rios, Jorge A; Butenhoff, John L; Zobel, Larry R

    2008-07-01

    In 2000, 3M Company, the primary global manufacturer, announced a phase-out of perfluorooctanesulfonyl fluoride (POSF, C8F17SO2F)-based materials after perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS, C8F17SO3-) was reported in human populations and wildlife. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PFOS and other polyfluoroalkyl concentrations in plasma samples, collected in 2006 from six American Red Cross adult blood donor centers, have declined compared to nonpaired serum samples from the same locations in 2000-2001. For each location, 100 samples were obtained evenly distributed by age (20-69 years) and sex. Analytes measured, using tandem mass spectrometry, were PFOS, perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), N-methyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Me-PFOSA-AcOH), and N-ethyl perfluorooctanesulfonamidoacetate (Et-PFOSA-AcOH). The geometric mean plasma concentrations were for PFOS 14.5 ng/mL (95% CI 13.9-15.2), PFOA 3.4 ng/ mL (95% CI 3.3-3.6), and PFHxS 1.5 ng/mL (95% CI 1.4-1.6). The majority of PFBS, Me-PFOSA-AcOH, and Et-PFOSA-AcOH concentrations were less than the lower limit of quantitation. Age- and sex-adjusted geometric means were lower in 2006 (approximately 60% for PFOS, 25% for PFOA, and 30% for PFHxS) than those in 2000-2001. The declines for PFOS and PFHxS are consistent with their serum elimination half-lives and the time since the phase-out of POSF-based materials. The shorter serum elimination half-life for PFOA and its smaller percentage decline than PFOS suggests PFOA concentrations measured in the general population are unlikely to be solely attributed to POSF-based materials. Direct and indirect exposure sources of PFOA could include historic and ongoing electrochemical cell fluorination (ECF) of PFOA, telomer production of PFOA, fluorotelomer-based precursors, and other fluoropoly-mer production.

  11. Strong leadership and teamwork drive culture and performance change: Ohio State University Medical Center 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Sanfilippo, Fred; Bendapudi, Neeli; Rucci, Anthony; Schlesinger, Leonard

    2008-09-01

    Several characteristics of academic health centers have the potential to create high levels of internal conflict and misalignment that can pose significant leadership challenges. In September 2000, the positions of Ohio State University (OSU) senior vice president for health sciences, dean of the medical school, and the newly created position of chief executive officer of the OSU Medical Center (OSUMC) were combined under a single leader to oversee the OSUMC. This mandate from the president and trustees was modeled after top institutions with similar structures. The leader who assumed the role was tasked with improving OSUMC's academic, clinical, and financial performance. To achieve this goal, the senior vice president and his team employed the service value chain model of improving performance, based on the premise that leadership behavior/culture drives employee engagement/satisfaction, leading to customer satisfaction and improved organizational performance. Implementing this approach was a seven-step process: (1) selecting the right leadership team, (2) assessing the challenges and opportunities, (3) setting expectations for performance and leadership behavior, (4) aligning structures and functions, (5) engaging constituents, (6) developing leadership skills, and (7) defining strategies and tracking goals. The OSUMC setting during this period provides an observational case study to examine how these stepwise changes, instituted by strong leadership and teamwork, were able to make and implement sound decisions that drove substantial and measurable improvements in the engagement and satisfaction of faculty and staff; the satisfaction of students and patients; and academic, clinical, and financial performance.

  12. Free nicotine content and strategic marketing of moist snuff tobacco products in the United States: 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Alpert, H R; Koh, H; Connolly, G N

    2008-10-01

    From 2000 to 2006, moist snuff sales have increased and now account for 71% of the smokeless tobacco market. Previous research has shown that major manufacturers of smokeless tobacco products manipulated free nicotine, the form most readily absorbed, to promote tolerance and addiction. This study examines the possibility that company-specific and brand-specific strategies of the major moist snuff manufacturers involve controlling free nicotine content and ease of dosing with products that are designed and targeted to specific groups. This study looks at the current total US moist snuff market with product design data from the Massachusetts Department of Public Health; moist snuff use from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health; market data from ACNielsen; and magazine advertising expenditures from TNS Media Intelligence. (1) The levels of free nicotine of moist snuff products have increased over time for several major manufacturers; (2) the number and variety of sub-brands have increased over time; (3) changes in design, as reflected by variation in free nicotine associated with pH or tobacco leaf, or both, have enhanced the ease and uniformity of dosing; (4) marketing through price and advertising has increased; and (5) youth use has increased. A combination of factors including brand proliferation, control of free nicotine and product design has most likely resulted in the expanded consumption of moist snuff, particularly among young people.

  13. Physical and Vegetative Characteristics of a Newly Constructed Wetland and Modified Stream Reach, Tredyffrin Township, Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaplin, Jeffrey J.; White, Kirk E.; Olson, Leif E.

    2009-01-01

    To compensate for authorized disturbance of naturally occurring wetlands and streams during roadway improvements to U.S. Highway 202 in Chester and Montgomery Counties, Pa., the Pennsylvania Department of Transportation (PennDOT) constructed 0.42 acre of emergent wetland and 0.94 acre of scrub-shrub/forested wetland and modified sections of a 1,600-foot reach of Valley Creek with woody riparian plantings and streambank-stabilization structures (including rock deflectors). In accordance with project permits and additional guidance issued by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with PennDOT, collected data from 2000 through 2006 to quantify changes in 1) the vegetation, soils, and extent of emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland, 2) the profile, dimension, and substrate in the vicinity of rock deflectors placed at two locations within the modified stream reach, and 3) the woody vegetation within the planted riparian buffer. The data for this investigation were collected using an approach adapted from previous investigations so that technology and findings may be more easily transferred among projects with similar objectives. Areal cover by planted and non-planted vegetation growing within the emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 85 percent at the end of each growing season, a criterion in special condition 25c in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers project permit. Areal cover of vegetation in emergent and scrub-shrub/forested parts of the constructed wetland exceeded 100 percent in all but one growing season. Frequent and long-lasting soil saturation favored obligate-wetland species like Typha latifolia (broadleaf cattail) and Scirpus validus (great bulrush), both of which maintained dominance in the emergent wetland throughout the study (percent cover was 20 and 78 percent, respectively, in 2006). Echinocloa crusgalli (barnyard grass), an annual invasive from Eurasia, initially established in the newly disturbed soils of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland (areal cover was 56 percent in 2000), but by 2002, E. crusgalli was not growing in any sample plots and other species including Agrostis stolonifera (creeping bent grass), Festuca rubra (red fescue), Cornus spp. (dogwood species), and Salix nigra (black willow) were becoming more common. Sal. nigra contributed 30-percent cover in the scrub-shrub/forested wetland part by fall 2003. Rapid colonization of this species in subsequent years increased annual cover through 2006, when 15- to 25-foot tall Sal. nigra trees dominated the tree/shrub stratum (48 percent of the areal cover in 2006). The understory of the scrub-shrub/forested wetland was mostly shaded because of the canopy of Sal. nigra trees. Herbaceous species growing under and near the margins of the canopy included Ag. stolonifera and Ty. latifolia (29- and 23-percent areal cover, respectively). Flows in Valley Creek are responsible for transporting sediment and shaping the channel. Annual mean streamflow during the period the modified stream reach was monitored ranged from 15.2 cubic feet per second (ft3/s) in the 2002 water year to 53.0 ft3/s in the 2004 water year. This is a range of about 55 percent lower to 58 percent higher than the annual mean streamflow for the period of record. Despite the variability in streamflow, longitudinal profiles surveyed near rock deflectors in two short (100-foot) reaches within the modified stream reach maintained a constant slope throughout the monitoring period, most likely because of the presence of bedrock control. Cross-section geometry in the upstream reach was virtually unchanged during the monitoring period but 10 feet of bank migration was measured downstream, leaving the rock deflectors in mid-stream. As indicated by the change in channel morphology at the downstream reach, it is apparent that the rock deflectors were ineffective at adequately protecting the bank

  14. Microbial contamination of the drinking water distribution system and its impact on human health in Khan Yunis Governorate, Gaza Strip: seven years of monitoring (2000-2006).

    PubMed

    Abu Amr, S S; Yassin, M M

    2008-11-01

    To assess total and faecal coliform contamination in water wells and distribution networks over the past 7 years, and their association with human health in Khan Yunis Governorate, Gaza Strip. Historical data and interview questionnaire. Data were obtained from the Palestinian Ministry of Health on total and faecal coliform contamination in water wells and distribution networks, and on the incidence of water-related diseases in Khan Yunis Governorate. An interview questionnaire was conducted with 210 residents of Khan Yunis Governorate. Total and faecal coliform contamination exceeded the World Health Organization's limit for water wells and networks. However, the contamination percentages were higher in networks than in wells. Diarrhoeal diseases were strongly correlated with faecal coliform contamination in water networks (r=0.98). This is consistent with the finding that diarrhoeal diseases were the most common self-reported diseases among the interviewees. Such diseases were more prevalent among subjects who drank municipal water than subjects who drank desalinated or home-filtered water (odds ratio=2.03). Intermittent water supply, insufficient chlorination and sewage flooding seem to be associated with self-reported diseases. Residents in the Gaza Strip have a good level of knowledge about drinking water contamination, and this is reflected in good practice. Water quality has deteriorated in the Gaza Strip, and this may contribute to the prevalence of water-related diseases. Self-reported diseases among interviewees in Khan Yunis Governorate were associated with source of drinking water, intermittent water supply, insufficient chlorination, sewage flooding and age of water networks.

  15. Policy and practice impacts of applied research: a case study analysis of the New South Wales Health Promotion Demonstration Research Grants Scheme 2000-2006.

    PubMed

    Milat, Andrew J; Laws, Rachel; King, Lesley; Newson, Robyn; Rychetnik, Lucie; Rissel, Chris; Bauman, Adrian E; Redman, Sally; Bennie, Jason

    2013-02-02

    Intervention research provides important information regarding feasible and effective interventions for health policy makers, but few empirical studies have explored the mechanisms by which these studies influence policy and practice. This study provides an exploratory case series analysis of the policy, practice and other related impacts of the 15 research projects funded through the New South Wales Health Promotion Demonstration Research Grants Scheme during the period 2000 to 2006, and explored the factors mediating impacts. Data collection included semi-structured interviews with the chief investigators (n = 17) and end-users (n = 29) of each of the 15 projects to explore if, how and under what circumstances the findings had been used, as well as bibliometric analysis and verification using documentary evidence. Data analysis involved thematic coding of interview data and triangulation with other data sources to produce case summaries of impacts for each project. Case summaries were then individually assessed against four impact criteria and discussed at a verification panel meeting where final group assessments of the impact of research projects were made and key influences of research impact identified. Funded projects had variable impacts on policy and practice. Project findings were used for agenda setting (raising awareness of issues), identifying areas and target groups for interventions, informing new policies, and supporting and justifying existing policies and programs across sectors. Reported factors influencing the use of findings were: i) nature of the intervention; ii) leadership and champions; iii) research quality; iv) effective partnerships; v) dissemination strategies used; and, vi) contextual factors. The case series analysis provides new insights into how and under what circumstances intervention research is used to influence real world policy and practice. The findings highlight that intervention research projects can achieve the greatest policy and practice impacts if they address proximal needs of the policy context by engaging end-users from the inception of projects and utilizing existing policy networks and structures, and using a range of strategies to disseminate findings that go beyond traditional peer review publications.

  16. Hydrologic Record Extension of Water-Level Data in the Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) Using Artificial Neural Network Models, 2000-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conrads, Paul A.; Roehl, Edwin A.

    2007-01-01

    The Everglades Depth Estimation Network (EDEN) is an integrated network of real-time water-level gaging stations, ground-elevation models, and water-surface models designed to provide scientists, engineers, and water-resource managers with current (2000-present) water-depth information for the entire freshwater portion of the greater Everglades. The U.S. Geological Survey Greater Everglades Priority Ecosystem Science provides support for EDEN and the goal of providing quality assured monitoring data for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan. To increase the accuracy of the water-surface models, 25 real-time water-level gaging stations were added to the network of 253 established water-level gaging stations. To incorporate the data from the newly added stations to the 7-year EDEN database in the greater Everglades, the short-term water-level records (generally less than 1 year) needed to be simulated back in time (hindcasted) to be concurrent with data from the established gaging stations in the database. A three-step modeling approach using artificial neural network models was used to estimate the water levels at the new stations. The artificial neural network models used static variables that represent the gaging station location and percent vegetation in addition to dynamic variables that represent water-level data from the established EDEN gaging stations. The final step of the modeling approach was to simulate the computed error of the initial estimate to increase the accuracy of the final water-level estimate. The three-step modeling approach for estimating water levels at the new EDEN gaging stations produced satisfactory results. The coefficients of determination (R2) for 21 of the 25 estimates were greater than 0.95, and all of the estimates (25 of 25) were greater than 0.82. The model estimates showed good agreement with the measured data. For some new EDEN stations with limited measured data, the record extension (hindcasts) included periods beyond the range of the data used to train the artificial neural network models. The comparison of the hindcasts with long-term water-level data proximal to the new EDEN gaging stations indicated that the water-level estimates were reasonable. The percent model error (root mean square error divided by the range of the measured data) was less than 6 percent, and for the majority of stations (20 of 25), the percent model error was less than 1 percent.

  17. [How to decrease smoking among people? The experience of international anti-tobacco campaign Quit&Win in Poland in 2000-2006].

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Pikala, Małgorzata; Drygas, Wojciech

    2006-01-01

    Findings imply the importance of smoking cessation at all ages, including those over the age of 65. Quitting reduces risks of dying from cardiovascular disease and several smoking-related cancers, improves mobility and quality of life among the elderly. Since 1994 all adult smokers over the world have been encouraged to quit by attending the Quit&Win contest, supported by WHO CINDI Program. The aim of our study was to analyze participation and effectiveness of quitting smoking among elderly (> or = 65 years) men and women in Poland. Data of Quit&Win contests from 2000 to 2006 in Poland among the elderly participants. One-year follow up survey of a random sample (640 respondents, response rate = 66%) in 2001. In Poland 508 elderly smokers have participated in Quit&Win from 2000 to 2006 (3.4% of 14.465 total number of participants). The oldest participants were more likely to be men than women (72% and 28% respectively), inhabitants of big cities than small towns or villages (66% and 34% respectively). Participants' history of smoking before the contest was as following: mean = 21 cigarettes/ day, higher consumption rates among elderly men than among elderly women (p < 0.05) and more years of smoking among men than among women (p < 0.001). The participants attended the contests sending press entry forms or printing entries mostly, but only 3% via the Internet. In one-year follow up the oldest participants were more likely than the younger participants: being the complete continuos abstains (p < 0.01), choosing the contest as a way of quitting (p < 0.001), having the support from family during their attempt to quit (p < 0.05). Attendance of the oldest smokers in Quit&Win is unsatisfied for organizers in Poland. To improve an access for the elderly the organizers, sponsors and media should maintain the traditional ways of entries distribution by newspapers and magazines. The Internet hasn't been popular so far among elderly people in Poland as a source of information and communication. Given the projected increase in the elderly population the medical and economic consequences of smoking will become a greater burden in the next decades. Therefore, focusing attention on cessation among the elderly is an immediate and urgent priority for public health professionals and physicians.

  18. Characteristics and outcomes among heart failure patients with anemia and renal insufficiency with and without blood transfusions (public discharge data from California 2000-2006).

    PubMed

    Kao, David P; Kreso, Elma; Fonarow, Gregg C; Krantz, Mori J

    2011-01-01

    Renal insufficiency and anemia are increasingly recognized as predictors of adverse events in heart failure. The impact of blood transfusion on mortality in patients with heart failure has not been previously characterized. We examined temporal changes in admissions and in-hospital mortality using public discharge data from California (2000 to 2006) and then evaluated the impact of renal insufficiency, anemia, and transfusion on in-hospital mortality in univariate and multivariate analyses. In total 596,456 unique patient admissions for heart failure were recorded. Renal insufficiency and anemia were common co-morbidities (27.4% and 27.1%, respectively) and 6.2% of patients received a transfusion of red blood cells. Renal insufficiency and anemia were associated with increased mortality (unadjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.45, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.39 to 2.52, and 1.27, 95% CI 1.24 to 1.30, respectively). After adjustment, renal insufficiency (OR 2.54, 95% CI 2.46 to 2.62) and anemia (OR 1.12 95% CI 1.07 to 1.17) remained significant; however, transfusion emerged as the strongest single predictor (OR 3.81, 95% CI 3.51 to 4.13) of mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that anemia and renal insufficiency are independently associated with mortality in an unselected heart failure population. This is the first study to demonstrate that transfusion magnifies this effect and is associated with a particularly poor prognosis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Changing epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus in Queensland, Australia, 2000-2006: use of passive surveillance of susceptibility phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Nimmo, G R; Fong, J; Paterson, D L; McLaws, M-L

    2008-12-01

    The epidemiology of meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) infection has changed remarkably in recent years with the appearance of new MRSA strains causing infections in the community. These strains have now begun to cause healthcare-associated infections. The ability to track such changes is necessary to guide clinical and public health action. Here we report passive surveillance of all public laboratory susceptibility data in Queensland to track changes in MRSA phenotypes corresponding to the major epidemic strains from 2000 to 2006. The inpatient rate of MRSA isolation from pus, tissue and fluid (PTF) and blood culture (BC) specimens declined by 26% and 35%, respectively. The rate of isolation of the AUS-2/3-like phenotype (corresponding to ST239-MRSA-III) decreased from 651 to 242 isolates per million accrued patient days in inpatient PTF and BC, whereas that for non-multiresistant MRSA (nmMRSA, corresponding to community MRSA strains) increased from 71 to 315. The overall outpatient rate of MRSA isolation from PTF and BC increased by 224% and 31%, respectively. The rate of AUS-2/3-like isolates in outpatient PTF decreased from 131 to 60 per million outpatient occasions of service while the nmMRSA rate increased from 52 to 490. Surveillance of phenotypes derived from routine susceptibility data is a useful tool for tracking changes in the epidemiology of MRSA over large geographical regions.

  20. Girls and Mathematics--A "Hopeless" Issue? A Control-Value Approach to Gender Differences in Emotions towards Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frenzel, Anne C.; Pekrun, Reinhard; Goetz, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This study analyzed gender differences in achievement emotions in the domain of mathematics. Based on Pekrun's (2000, 2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we hypothesized that there are gender differences in mathematics emotions due to the students' different levels of control and value beliefs in mathematics, even when controlling…

  1. Religion and Attitudes toward Divorce Laws among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Charles E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines religious differences in attitudes toward divorce laws among U.S. adults. Using pooled data from the 2000-2006 NORC General Social Surveys (N = 5,683), we find that frequency of religious attendance and belief that the Bible is the Word of God are strong predictors of support for stricter laws governing divorce. Indeed, these…

  2. The Shadows of Reading: Reasons for the Bad Results of Bulgarians in PISA Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsvetkova, Milena I.

    2016-01-01

    The subject of this article are the factors and reasons for the bad results in reading of the Bulgarian 15-year-old students in PISA's international studies. The reference points of the analysis are the critical results from the last four studies--2000, 2006, 2009 and 2012. The aim of this analysis is to bring up for discussion unformulated topics…

  3. Growth, activity, and survivorship from three sympatric parthenogenic whiptails (family Teiidae)

    Treesearch

    Heather L. Bateman; Howard L. Snell; Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Deborah M. Finch

    2010-01-01

    We surveyed whiptail lizard populations for seven summers (2000-2006) in riparian forests along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. We captured 5,382 individuals from three parthenogenic species (Aspidoscelis exsanguis, Aspidoscelis neomexicana, and Aspidoscelis uniparens) including 129 hatchlings (young-of-the-year) that were later recaptured as adults. Growth data...

  4. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  5. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  6. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  7. Characterizing Candidate Oncogenes at 8q21 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    nutritional facts with ballroom dance inspired creative movement. Currently developing teacher training curriculum. Stanford University...2001 - 2005 Designed and taught social and competitive ballroom dance classes including: waltz, tango, and salsa. Leadership Experience...Team Captain, Dance Competition Organizer 2000 - 2006 Stanford Ballroom Dance Team, Stanford University Created and organized the implementation

  8. Characterizing Candidate Oncogenes at 8q21 in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    and childhood diabetes by integrating nutritional facts with ballroom dance inspired creative movement. Currently developing teacher training...curriculum. Stanford University 2001 - 2005 Designed and taught social and competitive ballroom dance classes including: waltz, tango, and...salsa. Leadership Experience Team Captain, Dance Competition Organizer 2000 - 2006 Stanford Ballroom Dance Team, Stanford University

  9. Flax Fiber Quality and Influence on Interfacial Properties of Composites.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Measured flax physical and chemical properties could potentially impact binding and thus the stress transfer between the matrix and fiber. The study included 14 linseed samples with 12 samples ranging in cleanliness and retting produced using hammer mill technology from 2000, 2006 and 2007 with 2 sa...

  10. A comparison of Fibre Characteristics between Linseed Flax, Canadian Grown Linen Flax and European Linen Flax with Respect to Performance as a Composite Reinforcement

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This paper describes the fibre character differences that may influence the fibre’s potential as a composite reinforcement. Fourteen linseed samples were tested. Twelve of the sample groups were produced using hammer mill technology and straw from the years 2000, 2006 and 2007 with ranges in cleanli...

  11. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  12. Religion and Attitudes toward Divorce Laws among U.S. Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stokes, Charles E.; Ellison, Christopher G.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines religious differences in attitudes toward divorce laws among U.S. adults. Using pooled data from the 2000-2006 NORC General Social Surveys (N = 5,683), we find that frequency of religious attendance and belief that the Bible is the Word of God are strong predictors of support for stricter laws governing divorce. Indeed, these…

  13. Mexico-U.S. Relations: Issues for Congress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-13

    known as Progresa). The program began under President Ernest Zedillo (1994-2000) and expanded under President Vicente Fox (2000-2006) to benefit 5...dramatically under President Carlos Salinas de Gortari (1988-1994) and President Ernesto Zedillo (1994-2000), Mexico adopted a series of economic

  14. Stress in Harmonic Serialism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pruitt, Kathryn Ringler

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation proposes a model of word stress in a derivational version of Optimality Theory (OT) called Harmonic Serialism (HS; Prince and Smolensky 1993/2004, McCarthy 2000, 2006, 2010a). In this model, the metrical structure of a word is derived through a series of optimizations in which the "best" metrical foot is chosen…

  15. Do Sources of Cigarettes among Adolescents Vary by Age over Time?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenk, Kathleen M.; Toomey, Traci L.; Shi, Qun; Erickson, Darin J.; Forster, Jean L.

    2014-01-01

    Trends in sources of cigarettes among adolescents were assessed using data from a teen cohort (2000-2006). Five sources--bought from store, got from other teen, stole from others, bought from others, and got from an adult--were measured over time by age. The most common source among all ages was other teens. Fewer teens bought cigarettes from…

  16. Pre-Service Teacher Efficacy Development within Clinically-Based Practice: Examining the Structures and Strategies in the Collaborative Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will-Dubyak, Kathryn Deeanne

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that teachers benefit from education coursework in their preparation that provides opportunities to develop and practice pedagogical understandings (Darling-Hammond, 2000, 2006). Research also indicates that opportunities to enact learning from coursework are beneficial in teacher efficacy development within teacher preparation…

  17. Changing English? The Impact of Technology and Policy on a School Subject in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewitt, Carey; Bezemer, Jeff; Jones, Ken; Kress, Gunther

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers a historically comparative picture of the latest waves of policy and technological changes that have occurred between 2000-2006 and discusses their impact on the practices of secondary school English in the UK. It draws on data from two previous research projects to explore significant moments of micro-interaction in a classroom…

  18. Pre-Service Teacher Efficacy Development within Clinically-Based Practice: Examining the Structures and Strategies in the Collaborative Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Will-Dubyak, Kathryn Deeanne

    2016-01-01

    Research indicates that teachers benefit from education coursework in their preparation that provides opportunities to develop and practice pedagogical understandings (Darling-Hammond, 2000, 2006). Research also indicates that opportunities to enact learning from coursework are beneficial in teacher efficacy development within teacher preparation…

  19. A Review of Parental Involvement in Sex Education: The Role for Effective Communication in British Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turnbull, Triece; van Wersch, Anna; van Schaik, Paul

    2008-01-01

    A review of recent literature (2000--2006) has been undertaken to investigate the role of sex education within the family context, in order to engage with the problems of sexual health in British society. The findings which emerged were categorized under the following five themes: (1) Parental roles regarding sex education; (2) The importance of…

  20. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions, and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    Treesearch

    Daniel J. Hayes; David P. Turner; Graham Stinson; A. David Mcguire; Yaxing Wei; Tristram O. West; Linda S. Heath; Bernardus Dejong; Brian G. McConkey; Richard A. Birdsey; Werner A. Kurz; Andrew R. Jacobson; Deborah N. Huntzinger; Yude Pan; W. Mac Post; Robert B. Cook

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000-2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2,...

  1. A Computational Evaluation of Sentence Processing Deficits in Aphasia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patil, Umesh; Hanne, Sandra; Burchert, Frank; De Bleser, Ria; Vasishth, Shravan

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with agrammatic Broca's aphasia experience difficulty when processing reversible non-canonical sentences. Different accounts have been proposed to explain this phenomenon. The Trace Deletion account (Grodzinsky, 1995, 2000, 2006) attributes this deficit to an impairment in syntactic representations, whereas others (e.g., Caplan,…

  2. Development and Maintenance of Choice in a Dynamic Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodewald, Andrew M.; Hughes, Christine E.; Pitts, Raymond C.

    2010-01-01

    Four pigeons were exposed to a concurrent procedure similar to that used by Davison, Baum, and colleagues (e.g., Davison & Baum, 2000, 2006) in which seven components were arranged in a mixed schedule, and each programmed a different left:right reinforcer ratio (1:27, 1:9, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1, 9:1, 27:1). Components within each session were presented…

  3. Chapter 15: Economic analysis of federal wildfire management programs

    Treesearch

    Krista M. Gebert; David E. Calkin; Robert J. Huggett; Karen L. Abt

    2008-01-01

    In the past two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of acres burned by wildland fires and in the amount of money being spent to suppress these fires (Calkin et al. 2005a). With expenditures on suppression alone climbing to more than a billion dollars in four of the past seven years (2000-2006), the federal land management agencies are coming...

  4. Climate regulation of fire emissions and deforestation in equatorial Asia.

    PubMed

    van der Werf, G R; Dempewolf, J; Trigg, S N; Randerson, J T; Kasibhatla, P S; Giglio, L; Murdiyarso, D; Peters, W; Morton, D C; Collatz, G J; Dolman, A J; DeFries, R S

    2008-12-23

    Drainage of peatlands and deforestation have led to large-scale fires in equatorial Asia, affecting regional air quality and global concentrations of greenhouse gases. Here we used several sources of satellite data with biogeochemical and atmospheric modeling to better understand and constrain fire emissions from Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea during 2000-2006. We found that average fire emissions from this region [128 +/- 51 (1sigma) Tg carbon (C) year(-1), T = 10(12)] were comparable to fossil fuel emissions. In Borneo, carbon emissions from fires were highly variable, fluxes during the moderate 2006 El Niño more than 30 times greater than those during the 2000 La Niña (and with a 2000-2006 mean of 74 +/- 33 Tg C yr(-1)). Higher rates of forest loss and larger areas of peatland becoming vulnerable to fire in drought years caused a strong nonlinear relation between drought and fire emissions in southern Borneo. Fire emissions from Sumatra showed a positive linear trend, increasing at a rate of 8 Tg C year(-2) (approximately doubling during 2000-2006). These results highlight the importance of including deforestation in future climate agreements. They also imply that land manager responses to expected shifts in tropical precipitation may critically determine the strength of climate-carbon cycle feedbacks during the 21st century.

  5. Satellite data based estimation of methane emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain in northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minmin; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Jing; Yuan, Wenping; Li, Xianglan; Cheng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain (SJP), one of the major rice producing regions in China, is an important source of methane (CH4) emissions. However, there have been large uncertainties in the estimates of CH4 emissions from this area during the past few years. In this study, we estimated CH4 emissions using a process-based model derived by rice area, CH4 flux, land surface temperature (LST), and the ratio of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET) in rice paddies in the SJP during the rice growing seasons in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The results showed that the total area of rice fields was 1.64 million ha in 2010, which was approximately 35 and 13% higher than in 2000 and 2006, respectively. The average LST was 22.1°C in 2000 which was higher than in 2006 (21.6°C) and 2010 (21.5°C). Monthly ET and P displayed similar seasonal and annual variability. The monthly ET was 61.7, 66.5, and 63.0 mm month-1 and P was 85.1, 80.6 and 85.9 mm month-1 during the rice growing seasons in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The averaged CH4 flux rates were 24.83, 24.63, and 24.59 ton km-2, and the estimated mean annual CH4 emissions from rice paddies were 0.30, 0.36, and 0. 40 Tg yr-1 in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The CH4 emissions displayed obvious spatial variations that decreased from east to west in the SJP, and were mainly affected by temperature. The results will improve our understanding of the inter-annual and spatial variations of CH4 emissions and provide a more accurate regional budget of CH4 emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain. PMID:28586357

  6. Satellite data based estimation of methane emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain in northeast China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Minmin; Zhang, Yuan; Ma, Jing; Yuan, Wenping; Li, Xianglan; Cheng, Xiao

    2017-01-01

    The Sanjiang Plain (SJP), one of the major rice producing regions in China, is an important source of methane (CH4) emissions. However, there have been large uncertainties in the estimates of CH4 emissions from this area during the past few years. In this study, we estimated CH4 emissions using a process-based model derived by rice area, CH4 flux, land surface temperature (LST), and the ratio of precipitation (P) and evapotranspiration (ET) in rice paddies in the SJP during the rice growing seasons in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The results showed that the total area of rice fields was 1.64 million ha in 2010, which was approximately 35 and 13% higher than in 2000 and 2006, respectively. The average LST was 22.1°C in 2000 which was higher than in 2006 (21.6°C) and 2010 (21.5°C). Monthly ET and P displayed similar seasonal and annual variability. The monthly ET was 61.7, 66.5, and 63.0 mm month-1 and P was 85.1, 80.6 and 85.9 mm month-1 during the rice growing seasons in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The averaged CH4 flux rates were 24.83, 24.63, and 24.59 ton km-2, and the estimated mean annual CH4 emissions from rice paddies were 0.30, 0.36, and 0. 40 Tg yr-1 in 2000, 2006, and 2010, respectively. The CH4 emissions displayed obvious spatial variations that decreased from east to west in the SJP, and were mainly affected by temperature. The results will improve our understanding of the inter-annual and spatial variations of CH4 emissions and provide a more accurate regional budget of CH4 emissions from rice paddies in the Sanjiang Plain.

  7. [Detection of arbovirus antigens in the mosquitoes and ticks inhabiting the Saratov Region].

    PubMed

    Shcherbakova, S A; Bil'ko, E A; Naĭdenova, E V; Kutyrev, I V; Krasovskaia, T Iu; Sludskiĭ, A a; Kniazeva, T V; Matrosov, A N; Chekashov, V N; Sharova, I N; Samoĭlova, L V

    2009-01-01

    The paper gives the results of a study dealing with the detection of the antigens of arboviruses of West Nile, Sindbis, Batai, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, a serocomplex of Californian encephalitis in the field material gathered in the Saratov Region in 2000-2006. The bloodsucking arthropods inhabiting the region were shown to be actively involved in the circulation of arboviruses in natural biotopes. The conclusion that it is expedient to organize an annual monitoring of arbovirus-induced infections in the areas where positive findings have been notified is justified.

  8. Mortality, causes of death and risk factors for death among primary amphetamine users in the Swedish criminal justice system.

    PubMed

    Ericsson, Emmy; Bradvik, Louise; Hakansson, Anders

    2014-02-01

    This study examined mortality and predictors of death in 1,396 primary amphetamine users (85% males) who were interviewed with the Addiction Severity Index in the Swedish criminal justice system during 2000-2006 and followed through 2008. Forty-nine clients deceased (standardized mortality ratio 4.1 [3.0-5.4]), at least 84% of deaths were violent or drug-related (12% suicides), and Cox regression analysis indicated that death was associated with frequent use of sedatives and less frequent use of amphetamine. No female deaths were observed; death and male gender were associated in binary analysis. Implications for diagnostics and treatment are discussed.

  9. From local development policies to strategic planning-Assessing continuity in institutional coalitions.

    PubMed

    Mazzeo Rinaldi, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    In the last two decades, EU policies have had a fundamental role in orienting regional/local development. The objective of this work is set in this context as it intends to analyze the local development programs activated in Sicily in the last three programming periods. The main aim is to explore whether the EU partnership principle influenced cooperation among local actors, assessing the continuity of local institutional coalition in managing different local development programs within the regional development policy system. We focus, in particular, on Strategic Plans (SP) promoted in Sicily in the transition phase between the 2000-2006 and the 2007-2013 periods.

  10. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water in the Northeast United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Public water systems in Connecticut, Maine, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, and Rhode Island sampled treated drinking water from 1993-2006 and analyzed the samples for MTBE. The US Geological Survey examined trends in the occurrence of MTBE in drinking water derived from ground water in these States for two near-decadal time steps; 1993-1999 and 2000-2006. MTBE was detected in 14% of drinking water samples collected in all States from 1993-1999 and in 19% of drinking water samples collected from the same systems from 2000-2006 and this difference was statistically significant. Trends in the occurrence of MTBE in each State by individual year indicated significant positive trends in Maryland and New Hampshire. Significant, increasing trends in MTBE concentrations were observed in Maryland and Rhode Island by individual year. This is an abstract of a paper presented at the 2007 Petroleum Hydrocarbons and Organic Chemicals in Ground Water: Prevention, Assessment and Remediation Conference (Houston, TX 11/5-6/2007).

  11. Monitoring aeolian desertification process in Hulunbir grassland during 1975-2006, Northern China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jian; Wang, Tao; Xue, Xian; Ma, Shaoxiu; Peng, Fei

    2010-07-01

    The Hulunbir grassland experienced aeolian desertification expansion during 1975-2000, but local rehabilitation during 2000-2006. Northern China suffered severe aeolian desertification during the past 50 years. Hulunbir grassland, the best stockbreeding base in Northern China, was also affected by aeolian desertification. To evaluate the evolution and status of aeolian desertification, as well as its causes, satellite images (acquired in 1975, 1984, 2000, and 2006) and meteorological and socioeconomic data were interpreted and analyzed. The results show there was 2,345.7, 2,899.8, 4,053.9, and 3,859.6 km(2) of aeolian desertified land in 1975, 1984, 2000, and 2006, respectively. The spatial pattern dynamic had three stages: stability during 1975-1984, fast expansion during 1984-2000, and spatial transfer during 2000-2006. The dynamic degree of aeolian desertification is negatively related to its severity. Comprehensive analysis shows that the human factor is the primary cause of aeolian desertification in Hulunbir grassland. Although aeolian desertified land got partly rehabilitated, constant increase of extremely severe aeolian desertified land implied that current measures were not effective enough on aeolian desertification control. Alleviation of grassland pressure may be an effective method.

  12. Prenylated isoflavonoids: Botanical distribution, structures, biological activities and biotechnological studies. An update (1995-2006).

    PubMed

    Botta, Bruno; Menendez, Pilar; Zappia, Giovanni; de Lima, Roberto Alves; Torge, Roberta; Monachea, Giuliano Delle

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with the parent class of flavonoids, the distribution of the isoflavonoid class in the plant kingdom is relatively limited, probably owing to the sporadic occurrence of isoflavone synthase. Isoflavonoids have been mostly found in the subfamily Fabaceae/Papilionoideae of the Leguminosae family. Isoprenoid-substituted (also called complex) isoflavonoids are expressed from a smaller number of plants, as a result of the similarly restricted distribution of prenyltransferases (PT-ase). After the reviews of Tanara & Ibrahim (1995), Boland & Donnelly (1997), the Handbook of Flavonoids by Harborne & C ( Handbook of Flavonoids, 1999), and the paper by Harborne and Williams (2000) few other reports concern the distribution and the biological activity of complex isoflavonoids, except a list of isoflavonoids produced from non leguminous plants. This review deals with an update of the literature on isoprenylated isoflavonoids in the years 1995-2006 and is focused on the following highlights. 1. Natural sources of complex isoflavonoids (2000-2006); 2. Chemical structure variety: new entries (2000-2006) 3. Biological activities and a possible structure-activity relationship (1995-2006) 4. In vitro production and microbial metabolism (1995-2006).

  13. Trends in Pesticide Concentrations in Corn-Belt Streams, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Daniel J.; Vecchia, Aldo V.; Lorenz, David L.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations of commonly occurring pesticides in the Corn Belt of the United States were assessed, and the performance and application of several statistical methods for trend analysis were evaluated. Trends in the concentrations of 11 pesticides with sufficient data for trend assessment were assessed at up to 31 stream sites for two time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Pesticides included in the trend analyses were atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, alachlor, cyanazine, EPTC, simazine, metribuzin, prometon, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon. The statistical methods applied and compared were (1) a modified version of the nonparametric seasonal Kendall test (SEAKEN), (2) a modified version of the Regional Kendall test, (3) a parametric regression model with seasonal wave (SEAWAVE), and (4) a version of SEAWAVE with adjustment for streamflow (SEAWAVE-Q). The SEAKEN test is a statistical hypothesis test for detecting monotonic trends in seasonal time-series data such as pesticide concentrations at a particular site. Trends across a region, represented by multiple sites, were evaluated using the regional seasonal Kendall test, which computes a test for an overall trend within a region by computing a score for each season at each site and adding the scores to compute the total for the region. The SEAWAVE model is a parametric regression model specifically designed for analyzing seasonal variability and trends in pesticide concentrations. The SEAWAVE-Q model accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic trends from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. There was broad, general agreement between unadjusted trends (no adjustment for streamflow effects) identified by the SEAKEN and SEAWAVE methods, including the regional seasonal Kendall test. Only about 10 percent of the paired comparisons between SEAKEN and SEAWAVE indicated a difference in the direction of trend, and none of these had

  14. Variability of adenoidectomy/tonsillectomy rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy.

    PubMed

    Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Avossa, Francesco; Zambon, Francesco; Andretta, Marilisa; Baussano, Iacopo; Spolaore, Paolo

    2009-02-07

    Despite national guidelines in 2003 aimed at limiting the recourse to tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (A/T), the latter are among the most frequent pediatric surgeries performed in Italy. Aim of the study is to investigate variability of A/T rates among children of the Veneto Region, Italy. All discharges of Veneto residents with Diagnosis-Related Groups 57-60 and ICD9-CM intervention codes 28.2 (tonsillectomy), 28.3 (adenotonsillectomy), 28.6 (adenoidectomy) were selected in the period 2000-2006 for a descriptive analysis. A multilevel Poisson regression model was applied to estimate Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) with 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) for A/T surgery among children aged 2-9 years in 2004-2006, while taking into account clustering of interventions within the 21 Local Health Units. Through 2000-2006, the overall number of A/T surgeries decreased (-8%); there was a decline of adenoidectomies (-20%) and tonsillectomies (-8%), whereas adenotonsillectomies raised (+18%). Analyses on children aged 2-9 resulted in an overall rate of 14.4 surgeries per 1000 person-years (16.1 among males and 12.5 among females), with a wide heterogeneity across Local Health Units (range 8.1-27.6). At random intercept Poisson regression, while adjusting for sex and age, intervention rates were markedly lower among foreign than among Italian children (IRR = 0.57, CI 0.53-0.61). A/T rates in the 10-40 age group (mainly tonsillectomies) computed for each Local Health Unit and introduced in the regression model accounted for 40% of the variance at Local Health Unit level of pediatric rates (mainly adenoidectomies and adenotonsillectomies). A/T rates in the Veneto Region, especially adenoidectomies among children aged 2-9 years, remain high notwithstanding a decrease through 2000-2006. A wide heterogeneity according to nationality and Local Health Units is evident. The propensity to A/T surgery of each Local Health Unit is similar in different age groups and for different surgical

  15. Primary varicella and herpes zoster among HIV-infected children from 1989 to 2006.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sarah M; Shah, Samir S; Steenhoff, Andrew P; Rutstein, Richard M

    2008-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the incidence of herpes zoster in perinatally HIV-infected children. Secondary objectives included assessing the impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy and varicella zoster virus immunization on primary varicella and herpes zoster incidence and identifying risk factors for herpes zoster. We hypothesized that the incidence of herpes zoster has decreased in this population as a result of highly active antiretroviral therapy and routine varicella zoster virus immunization. This retrospective cohort study included HIV-infected children at a pediatric HIV clinic from 1989 to 2006. Incidence rates for 3 intervals (1989-1996, 1997-1999, and 2000-2006) were compared on the basis of introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (1996) and varicella zoster virus vaccination (1999). A Cox proportional-hazards regression model was developed for the time to herpes zoster among the subset of patients with primary varicella infection. In 356 patients followed for 1721 person-years, the incidence of herpes zoster according to period was 30.0 per 1000 person-years in 1989-1996, 31.9 per 1000 person-years in 1997-1999, and 6.5 per 1000 person-years in 2000-2006. There was no difference in incidence-rate ratio between 1989-1996 and 1997-1999. However, there was a significant difference in herpes zoster incidence when comparing 1989-1999 with 2000-2006. The incidence of primary varicella zoster virus infection and herpes zoster in the 57 patients who received the varicella zoster virus vaccine was 22.3 per 1000 and 4.5 per 1000 person-years, respectively. Highly active antiretroviral therapy at the time of primary varicella zoster virus infection was protective against herpes zoster and increased herpes zoster-free survival. The incidence of herpes zoster has decreased since 1989. The decline occurred after 2000, likely representing the combined effect of immunization and highly active antiretroviral therapy. The use

  16. [Relationships between horqin meadow NDVI and meteorological factors].

    PubMed

    Qu, Cui-ping; Guan, De-xin; Wang, An-zhi; Jin, Chang-jie; Wu, Jia-bing; Wang, Ji-jun; Ni, Pan; Yuan, Feng-hui

    2009-01-01

    Based on the 2000-2006 MODIS 8-day composite NDVI and day-by-day meteorological data, the seasonal and inter-annual variations of Horqin meadow NDVI as well as the relationships between the NDVI and relevant meteorological factors were studied. The results showed that as for the seasonal variation, Horqin meadow NDVI was more related to water vapor pressure than to precipitation. Cumulated temperature and cumulated precipitation together affected the inter-annual turning-green period significantly, and the precipitation in growth season (June and July), compared with that in whole year, had more obvious effects on the annual maximal NDVI. The analysis of time lag effect indicated that water vapor pressure had a persistent (about 12 days) prominent effect on the NDVI. The time lag effect of mean air temperature was 11-15 days, and the cumulated dual effect of the temperature and precipitation was 36-52 days.

  17. [Health protection coverage in Mexico, and profile of unprotected population 2000-2012].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; Hernández-Ávila, Mauricio

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the coverage of health protection in Mexico, as well as its trends from 2000 to 2012. Descriptive analysis using household informant report about health protection in the national health surveys 2000, 2006 & 2012, profiling unprotected population in 2012, and demographic differences by scheme of health protection. From 2000 to 2012, Mexican population that reported to be without health protection decreased from 57.6 to 21.4%. This reduction is mainly due to the increase in coverage of Seguro Popular, which by 2012 is the main insurer in Mexico, covering 38.5 of the population. Unprotected population is concentrated between 15 and 30 years of age. These results present a huge increase in health protection in Mexico in the past 12 years. Nevertheless, they also highlight the complexity of reaching universal health protection in a fragmented health system.

  18. Association between wearing a personal floatation device and death by drowning among recreational boaters: a matched cohort analysis of United States Coast Guard data.

    PubMed

    Cummings, P; Mueller, B A; Quan, L

    2011-06-01

    To estimate the association between wearing a personal floatation device (PFD) and death by drowning among recreational boaters. Matched cohort study analysis of Coast Guard data. United States. Recreational boaters during 2000-2006. Risk ratio (RR) for drowning death comparing boaters wearing a PFD with boaters not wearing a PFD. Approximately 4915 boater records from 1809 vessels may have been eligible for our study, but because of missing records and other problems, the analysis was restricted to 1597 boaters in 625 vessels with 878 drowning deaths. The adjusted RR was 0.51 (95% CI 0.35 to 0.74). If the estimated association is causal, wearing a PFD may potentially prevent one in two drowning deaths among recreational boaters. However, this estimate may be biased because many vessels had to be excluded from the analysis.

  19. Endless urban growth? On the mismatch of population, household and urban land area growth and its effects on the urban debate.

    PubMed

    Haase, Dagmar; Kabisch, Nadja; Haase, Annegret

    2013-01-01

    In European cities, the rate of population growth has declined significantly, while the number of households has increased. This increase in the number of households is associated with an increase in space for housing. To date, the effects of both a declining population and decreasing household numbers remain unclear. In this paper, we analyse the relationship between population and household number development in 188 European cities from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006 to the growth of urban land area and per capita living space. Our results support a trend toward decreasing population with simultaneously increasing household number. However, we also found cites facing both a declining population and a decreasing household number. Nevertheless, the urban land area of these "double-declining" cities has continued to spread because the increasing per capita living space counteracts a reduction in land consumption. We conclude that neither a decline in population nor in household number "automatically" solve the global problem of land consumption.

  20. Strategic environmental assessment of hydrological and irrigation plans in Castilla y Leon, Spain

    SciTech Connect

    Hedo, D.; Bina, O. )

    1999-05-01

    The study illustrates how strategic environmental assessment (SEA) can promote sustainable development plans. It defines and applies an SEA methodology to two draft plans: the hydrological plan for the Duero basin in Spain and the irrigation plan for the region of Castilla y Leon. Although prepared by national and regional authorities, respectively, both draft plans refer to the management and use of water as a resource for economic development and refer roughly to the same area. The SEA addresses the environmental, economic, and social impacts of the combined draft plans, using relevant indicators and objectives. The analysis shows that the proposals would lead to high financial costs and significant negative impacts on the environment for each job created; it develops and assesses a number of alternatives that would address these impacts. The results are used to define SEA procedures for the new Structural Funds period (2000--2006) and will provide a useful lesson for plans at all levels of government within Spain.

  1. Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glebova, N.; Lukashova, M.; Netsvetaeva, G.; Sveshnikov, M.; Skripnichenko, V.

    2015-08-01

    Institute of Applied Astronomy has published "The Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Yearbook", "The Nautical Astronomical Almanac" biennial. Ephemerides are calculated according to resolutions of GA IAU of 2000-2006. The EPM domestic theory of movement of the Solar system bodies is used in Russian astronomical ephemeris editions and software since 2009 according to the recommendations of the conference CTNS-2007. Along with printing the astronomical software are elaborated. "The Personal Astronomical Yearbook" (PersAY) allows the user to solve tasks of calculation of ephemerides for any moment in various time scales, and for any position of the observer on a terrestrial surface. System of the removed access the "Scturman" is developed also intended to solve some the navigating tasks.

  2. Human hydatidosis granulosus in greater Cairo, Egypt: with general review.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Badawyia B; Haridy, Fouad M; Hegazi, Mamdoud M; Morsy, Tosson A

    2007-08-01

    In this study, human cases (41) of proved hydatidosis granulosus were obtained from Al Kasr Al Aini University Hospitals from 2000-2006. They were 22 females with ages from 8 to 70 years and 19 males with ages from 5 to 75 years. The highly infected organ was the liver. Infection in other organs as lung, spleen, brain, eye, pelvic and bones of upper and lower limbs were reported. Most of the hydatidosis patients were from governorates of Giza (24 cases), Qalyobia (7 cases), Cairo (5 cases), Bani-Swef (3 cases), Sharkia (1 case) and Demiatta (1 case). Biopsies of infected liver and lung were processed for the histopathological studies and photographed. The results were discussed on the light of work done before Egypt.

  3. Preview of Hawaii Cancer Facts and Figures 2010.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Green, Michael D; Cassel, Kevin D; Pobutsky, Ann M; Vu, Vyvy; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2010-09-01

    Each year, nearly 6,700 Hawaii residents are diagnosed with cancer and more than 2,000 die from the disease. Detailed data on the burden of cancer in Hawaii, including cancer incidence and mortality rates, are available in Hawaii Cancer Facts & Figures 2010 (CF&F). A collaborative effort of the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, the American Cancer Society and the Hawaii Department of Health, this update of the original version published in 2003 is intended as a tool for public health education, research, and planning. The following are highlights of years 2000-2006 (a 6-year period) data as featured in Hawaii Cancer Facts & Figures 2010. Hawaii Medical Journal Copyright 2010.

  4. Body image trends among Icelandic adolescents: a cross-sectional national study from 1997 to 2010.

    PubMed

    Asgeirsdottir, Bryndis Bjork; Ingolfsdottir, Gudrun; Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate trends in body image among Icelandic adolescents from 1997 to 2010. Data from five cross-sectional surveys conducted among national samples of 9th and 10th graders in Iceland using five time points (1997, 2000, 2006, 2009, and 2010) were compared to examine changes in body image. In total, 32,397 adolescents participated in the study. Body image among 14-15-year-old adolescents in Iceland improved significantly over the 13-year period. Girls reported more negative body image than boys at all time points. However, the positive change in body image from 1997 to 2010 was more pronounced for girls than boys, resulting in a narrower gap between the genders. The current results are encouraging and indicate that in an age of increased overweight and obesity, the body image of Icelandic adolescents is becoming more positive. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is global climate change influencing the overwintering distribution of weakfish Cynoscion regalis?

    PubMed

    Weinstein, M P; Litvin, S Y; Guida, V G; Chambers, R C

    2009-08-01

    The pattern of stable isotope signatures in a sub-sample of 67 juvenile weakfish Cynoscion regalis, captured at the mouth of the Christina River, 113 km upstream of the mouth of Delaware Bay (U.S.A) in the autumn of 2000, suggested that they resided at the location since recruitment. The possibility that young C. regalis departed from the generally characteristic life-history pattern of marine migrants at this latitude, i.e. emigrating offshore with the adults in autumn was bolstered by the collection of 69 individuals during the winters of 2000-2006 from the travelling screens of a power plant located at river kilometre 88 including an 118 mm total length juvenile captured in mid-February 2006.

  6. [Hypertension: prevalence, early diagnosis, control and trends in Mexican adults].

    PubMed

    Campos-Nonato, Ismael; Hernández-Barrera, Lucía; Rojas-Martínez, Rosalba; Pedroza, Adolfo; Medina-García, Catalina; Barquera-Cervera, Simón

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to describe the prevalence, distribution and trends of hypertension (HT) in Mexican adults ≥20 years, and to describe the prevalence of early diagnosis and treatment of HT. A total of 10 898 adults were considered. The measurement of blood pressure was performed following the procedures recommended by the American Heart Association. An adult was considered, hypertensive when he met the diagnostic criteria of JNC-7. The prevalence of HT was 31.5%, of which 47.3% were unaware of their condition. Pharmacological treatment was not associated with a higher percentage of subjects under control. Prevalences from 2000, 2006 and 2012 suggest that there is a stabilization. A health problem of this magnitude requires better diagnosis, care and training of the medical sector so that appropriate treatments are prescribed and HT control can be enhanced.

  7. Inter-university cooperation for establishing an M.Sc. course in health informatics aims at contributing to users' acceptance of health telematics applications.

    PubMed

    Mantas, J

    2000-01-01

    Health informatics is a recently established and important multi-disciplinary and inter-disciplinary field that not only involves informatics but also medicine, nursing, engineering, biology and other-related subjects. A coordination of this field at a postgraduate level becomes important now in Europe where other European Community programs such as the Telematics for Health Care will require at the Fourth Framework Programme (1994-1999) and the Fifth Framework Programme (2000-2006) adequate human resources of higher potential and knowledge. A European M.Sc. course met all the above objectives. The curriculum was developed according to previous experiences in similar programmes. Recently the course has been organised on the basis of an Inter-University nature with the participation of 5 Greek Universities. The paper aims at providing a description of the new academic programme and a brief evaluation of the implementation phase.

  8. Immigrant children's access to health care: differences by global region of birth.

    PubMed

    Blewett, Lynn A; Johnson, Pamela Jo; Mach, Annie L

    2010-05-01

    We use data from the National Health Interview Survey (2000-2006) to examine the social determinants of health insurance coverage and access to care for immigrant children by 10 global regions of birth. We find dramatic differences in the social and economic characteristics of immigrant children by region of birth. Children from Mexico and Latin America fare worse than immigrant children born in the U.S. with significantly lower incomes and little or no education. These social determinants, along with U.S. public health policies regarding new immigrants, create significant barriers to access to health insurance coverage, and increase delayed or foregone care. Uninsured immigrant children had 6.5 times higher odds of delayed care compared with insured immigrant children.

  9. Predicting length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome in methadone-exposed neonates.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Neil S; Salva, Nicole; Hayes, Edward J; Dysart, Kevin C; Pequignot, Edward C; Baxter, Jason K

    2008-10-01

    The objective of the study was to identify maternal variables predicting length of treatment for neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS). This was a retrospective cohort study of infants treated for NAS during 2000-2006 whose mothers were on methadone maintenance at delivery. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to examine the interaction of maternal and neonatal variables with length of treatment. Of 204 neonates born to methadone exposed mothers, the average dose at delivery was 127 mg daily (25-340 mg) with median length of treatment 32 days (1-122 days). Trimester of initial exposure (P = .33), methadone dose at delivery (P = .198), body mass index (P = .31), antidepressant use (P = .40), cigarette use (P = .76), race (P = .78), and maternal age (P = .84) did not predict length of treatment. In the multivariate analysis, gestational age at delivery and benzodiazepine use were significant predictors of length of treatment. Later gestational age and concomitant benzodiazepine use were associated with longer treatment.

  10. Effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Martie; Heath, Claudia J

    2017-01-01

    Labor force participation of women has declined since 1999; however, labor force participation of women 62+ has increased. The 2000-2006 waves of Health and Retirement Study (HRS) data, the initial years of the continuing upward trajectory, were used to test the effects of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on older women's employment. The models tested: (a) the effect of receipt of Social Security retirement benefits on whether employed; and (b) for women receiving Social Security retirement benefits, the effect of age elected receipt of benefits on whether employed. Both models included the effects of human capital characteristics and income sources. Receipt of Social Security benefits, pension income, and current age reduced the likelihood of employment; while educational level, good to excellent health, and nonmarried marital status increased the likelihood of employment. The older the woman was when she elected Social Security benefits, the more likely she was to be employed.

  11. How a North Carolina program boosted preventive oral health services for low-income children.

    PubMed

    Rozier, R Gary; Stearns, Sally C; Pahel, Bhavna T; Quinonez, Rocio B; Park, Jeongyoung

    2010-12-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay), the most common chronic disease affecting young children, is exacerbated by limited access to preventive dental services for low-income children. To address this problem, North Carolina implemented a program to reimburse physicians for up to six preventive oral health visits for Medicaid-enrolled children younger than age three. Analysis of physician and dentist Medicaid claims from the period 2000-2006 shows that the program greatly increased preventive oral health services. By 2006 approximately 30 percent of well-child visits for children ages six months up to three years included these services. However, additional strategies are needed to ensure preventive oral health care for more low-income children.

  12. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African Buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: Evidence of interepidemic transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaBeaud, A.D.; Cross, P.C.; Getz, W.M.; Glinka, A.; King, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk. Copyright ?? 2011 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  13. [Nontraumatic spinal cord injury: etiology, demography and clinics].

    PubMed

    Quintana-Gonzales, Asencio; Sotomayor-Espichan, Rosa; Martínez-Romero, María; Kuroki-García, César

    2011-12-01

    We performed a retrospective and descriptive cross-sectional; study in 210 hospitalized patients with spinal cord injury at the National Institute of Rehabilitation (INR), Callao, Peru from 2000-2006. The goal was to describe etiology, and clinical and socio-demographic characteristics of non traumatic spinal cord injuries (LMNT). We found a prevalence of 27 % for LMNT, average age at onset of 32.0 years, male gender 50.5 %, and secondary education completed in 41.9 %, poverty 90.5 %. The infectious etiology (viral and bacterial) was predominant in 37.6 %, with 11.9 infected with HTLVI. Although the INR is a reference center, the findings can't be generalized because it isn't a representative sample of the Peruvian population, further studies are necessary to propose strategies for prevention and control, considering the high cost of integral rehabilitation treatment in these patients.

  14. Internal tidal currents in the Gaoping (Kaoping) Submarine Canyon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, I.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Liu, J.T.; Chuang, W.-S.; Xu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    Data from five separate field experiments during 2000-2006 were used to study the internal tidal flow patterns in the Gaoping (formerly spelled Kaoping) Submarine Canyon. The internal tides are large with maximum interface displacements of about 200??m and maximum velocities of over 100cm/s. They are characterized by a first-mode velocity and density structure with zero crossing at about 100??m depth. In the lower layer, the currents increase with increasing depth. The density interface and the along-channel velocity are approximately 90?? out-of-phase, suggesting a predominant standing wave pattern. However, partial reflection is indicated as there is a consistent phase advance between sea level and density interface along the canyon axis. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Brief Report: Prevalence of Self-injurious Behaviors among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder-A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Soke, Gnakub N; Rosenberg, Steven A; Hamman, Richard F; Fingerlin, Tasha; Robinson, Cordelia; Carpenter, Laura; Giarelli, Ellen; Lee, Li-Ching; Wiggins, Lisa D; Durkin, Maureen S; DiGuiseppi, Carolyn

    2016-11-01

    Self-injurious behaviors (SIB) have been reported in more than 30 % of children with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in clinic-based studies. This study estimated the prevalence of SIB in a large population-based sample of children with ASD in the United States. A total of 8065 children who met the surveillance case definition for ASD in the Autism and Developmental Disabilities Monitoring (ADDM) Network during the 2000, 2006, and 2008 surveillance years were included. The presence of SIB was reported from available health and/or educational records by an expert clinician in ADDM Network. SIB prevalence averaged 27.7 % across all sites and surveillance years, with some variation between sites. Clinicians should inquire about SIB during assessments of children with ASD.

  16. Rift Valley fever virus infection in African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) herds in rural South Africa: evidence of interepidemic transmission.

    PubMed

    LaBeaud, A Desirée; Cross, Paul C; Getz, Wayne M; Glinka, Allison; King, Charles H

    2011-04-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is an emerging biodefense pathogen that poses significant threats to human and livestock health. To date, the interepidemic reservoirs of RVFV are not well defined. In a longitudinal survey of infectious diseases among African buffalo during 2000-2006, 550 buffalo were tested for antibodies against RVFV in 820 capture events in 302 georeferenced locations in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Overall, 115 buffalo (21%) were seropositive. Seroprevalence of RVFV was highest (32%) in the first study year, and decreased progressively in subsequent years, but had no detectable impact on survival. Nine (7%) of 126 resampled, initially seronegative animals seroconverted during periods outside any reported regional RVFV outbreaks. Seroconversions for RVFV were detected in significant temporal clusters during 2001-2003 and in 2004. These findings highlight the potential importance of wildlife as reservoirs for RVFV and interepidemic RVFV transmission in perpetuating regional RVFV transmission risk.

  17. Oval BA (and the Great Red Spot) extend down to a supersolar water cloud layer in Jupiter's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, M. H.; Marcus, P. S.; Asay-Davis, X.; de Pater, I.; Go, C. Y.; Shetty, S.

    2011-10-01

    To constrain the properties of Oval BA before and after it reddened, we extract velocity fields from Cassini and Hubble data, showing that there were no significant changes in the horizontal velocity field of Oval BA in 2000, 2006, and 2009. Based on models of the oval's dynamics, the static stability of the oval's surroundings was also unchanged. The vertical extent of the oval did not change, based on our measurements of unchanged haze reflectivity and unchanged stratification. Published vortex models require Brunt-Väisälä frequencies of about 0.08 s-1 at the base of the vortex, and we combine this value with a review of prior constraints on the vertically variable static stability in Jupiter's troposphere to show that the vortex must extend down to the condensation level of water in supersolar abundance.

  18. [Inequalities on indicators of chronic conditions among adults in Mexico: analysis of three health surveys].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Espinosa-de la Peña, Rodrigo; Balandrán, Dulce Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    To analyze trends from 2000 to 2012 in socioeconomic inequalities in health related to diabetes and hypertension indicators in Mexico. Cross-sectional analysis of three national health surveys (2000, 2006 and 2012), measuring inequality using absolute and relative gaps as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for diabetes and hypertension indicators. From 2000 to 2012, there is a reduction in the gap related to the prevalence of diagnosed diabetes and hypertension, with a parallel reduction in the inequality related to care for those conditions, while an inequality gradient on diabetes care remains. While there is an evident progress in the reduction of inequalities for diabetes and hypertension diagnostic and care in Mexico, some inequalities remain. Given the contribution of these conditions to the burden of disease in the country, there is a need to strength the quality of health services that will promote effective access.

  19. Anisakids of seals found on the southern coast of Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Skrzypczak, Michał; Rokicki, Jerzy; Pawliczka, Iwona; Najda, Katarzyna; Dzido, Joanna

    2014-03-01

    In the present study 5 grey seals (Halichoerus grypus), 3 common seals (Phoca vitulina) and 1 ringed seal (Pusa hispida) bycaught or stranded on the Polish Baltic Sea coast in years 2000-2006 were investigated for the infestation of parasitic anisakid nematodes. 749 of anisakids were found. The most common were: Contracaecum osculatum (59.3%) and Pseudoterranova decipiens (31.0%). There were also small numbers of Anisakis simplex (0.8%). After performing RFLP three sibling species were found. C. osculatum was identified as C. osculatum C, P decipiens was identified as P. decipiens sensu stricto and A. simplex - A. simplex sensu stricto. Nematodes found in seals were mostly in L4 and adult life stage - both of them were equal with some minor variations among the specimens. Sex ratio was also equal, but there was slight excess of males in some cases. There was a minority of L3 larvae belonging to A. simplex species (0.8%).

  20. Land ecological security evaluation of Guangzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-10-15

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to -0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail.

  1. Impact of Hepatitis A vaccination with a two-dose schedule in Panama: Results of epidemiological surveillance and time trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Estripeaut, Dora; Contreras, Rodolfo; Tinajeros, Olga; Castrejón, Maria Mercedes; Shafi, Fakrudeen; Ortega-Barria, Eduardo; DeAntonio, Rodrigo

    2015-06-22

    In April 2007, Panama introduced Hepatitis A universal vaccination using a two-dose schedule (Havrix(®)junior; GSK Vaccines, Belgium). We assessed the impact of this hepatitis A vaccine three years after it was recommended for universal mass vaccination in Panama. Hepatitis A vaccination impact was assessed using two different approaches. The first approach used retrospective data (incidence and number of cases for all age groups), collected from the passive surveillance of the Epidemiologic Surveillance System of the Ministry of Health of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis before (2000-2006) and after (2008-2010) introduction of hepatitis A vaccine. The second approach was a prospective hospital-based active surveillance for hepatitis cases conducted in subjects (0-14 years) during 2009-2011 at three sentinel hospitals in Panama. Overall, the annual incidence of hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis in 2008, 2009 and 2010 were 13.1, 7.9 and 3.7 per 100,000 subjects, lower than the baseline incidence of 51.1 per 100,000 subjects. In comparison to the mean baseline period (2000-2006), there was an 82% mean reduction in the overall hepatitis-related outcomes (hepatitis A and unspecified hepatitis) after vaccine introduction (2008-2010) in all age groups. In the hospital-based surveillance (2009-2011), of the 42 probable viral hepatitis A cases, nine cases were confirmed as acute hepatitis A (8 in 2009, 1 in 2010). Of these confirmed cases, two belonged to the targeted vaccine group (1-4 years) but were not vaccinated. Our study suggests that the introduction of two-dose hepatitis A vaccines in Panama has contributed to the reduction in the incidence of overall hepatitis-related outcomes for all age groups, suggesting herd protection. Additional monitoring is required to document a sustained long-term effect. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Pregnancy among HIV-infected refugees in Rhode Island.

    PubMed

    Blood, Erica; Beckwith, Curt; Bazerman, Lauri; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Mitty, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    In 1999, immigration laws lifted previous barriers, allowing more HIV-infected refugees entrance to the US. Many of these refugees are women of reproductive age. At our center in Providence, RI, a significant number of HIV-infected refugees have become pregnant since resettling in the US. We describe the pregnancies seen among these predominantly West African HIV-infected refugees. A retrospective chart review was conducted on all HIV-infected female refugees who established care from 2000-2006. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the population at this site. We found that between 2000 and 2006, 28 HIV-infected female refugees established care. Liberia was the country of origin of 79% (22) of the women. There were 20 pregnancies among 14 women between 2000-2006. The median time from resettlement in the US to first pregnancy was 16 (<1-69) months. The median age at time of first pregnancy was 29 years (19-39). At time of pregnancy, the median CD4 count was 506 cells/mL and the median plasma viral load (PVL) was 3.36 log10 copies/ml. There were nine deliveries, one current pregnancy and one loss to follow-up. Other pregnancy outcomes included five terminations and three spontaneous abortions. All women received antiretroviral therapy during their pregnancy. At the time of delivery the median PVL was <1.88 log. There was one HIV transmission from mother to child. Two women became pregnant while on efavirenz, which was subsequently discontinued. One of the women delivered a normal term infant; the other relocated and transferred her care. Among this cohort of HIV-infected refugees, there is a high rate of pregnancy, highlighting the need for timely initiation of medical care, including comprehensive preconception counseling, upon resettlement in the US. It is important to gain a better understanding of this unique and growing population in order to provide the best possible care for these women.

  3. Trends in Incidence of Disability in Activities of Daily Living in Chinese Older Adults: 1993-2006.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Wang, Rui; Song, Aiqin; Fratiglioni, Laura; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2017-02-01

    To investigate time trends in incidence of activity of daily living (ADL) disability of Chinese older adults and to explore factors potentially contributing to trends. Population-based prospective study using a multistage, randomized, cluster sampling process. Nine provinces of China. Three consecutive cohorts of people aged 60 and older from the China Health and Nutrition Survey: cohort 1993-2000 (n = 831), cohort 1997-2004 (n = 1,091), cohort 2000-2006 (n = 1,152). Disability in ADLs was defined as inability to perform at least one of five self-care activities (transferring, dressing, toileting, bathing, feeding). Data were analyzed using Cox and generalized estimating equation models. The incidence (per 1,000 person-years) of ADL disability decreased significantly from 35.3 in 1993-2000 and 28.9 in 1997-2004 to 24.3 in 2000-2006 in Chinese older adults (Ptrend < .001). The incidence of ADL disability decreased significantly in men and women, in young-old adults (aged 60-74), and in those living in rural areas (all Ptrend ≤ .02) after controlling for multiple potential influential factors. Of the five ADL items, decline in incidence of disability was significant in transferring (Ptrend < .001) and bathing (Ptrend = .002) and marginally significant in toileting (Ptrend = .06) but stable in dressing (Ptrend = .38) and feeding (Ptrend = .26). The incidence of ADL disability decreased from 1993 to 2006 in older adults in China, especially in transferring and bathing, independent of sociodemographic, lifestyle, and chronic health conditions. © 2016, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2016, The American Geriatrics Society.

  4. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo GB; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. METHODS: PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise. PMID:24829866

  5. Land Ecological Security Evaluation of Guangzhou, China

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Linyu; Yin, Hao; Li, Zhaoxue; Li, Shun

    2014-01-01

    As the land ecosystem provides the necessary basic material resources for human development, land ecological security (LES) plays an increasingly important role in sustainable development. Given the degradation of land ecological security under rapid urbanization and the urgent LES requirements of urban populations, a comprehensive evaluation method, named Double Land Ecological Security (DLES), has been introduced with the city of Guangzhou, China, as a case study, which evaluates the LES in regional and unit scales for reasonable and specific urban planning. In the evaluation process with this method, we have combined the material security with the spiritual security that is inevitably associated with LES. Some new coefficients of land-security supply/demand distribution and technology contribution for LES evaluation have also been introduced for different spatial scales, including the regional and the unit scales. The results for Guangzhou indicated that, temporally, the LES supply indices were 0.77, 0.84 and 0.77 in 2000, 2006 and 2009 respectively, while LES demand indices for the city increased in 2000, 2006 and 2009 from 0.57 to 0.95, which made the LES level decreased slowly in this period. Spatially, at the regional scale, the urban land ecological security (ULES) level decreased from 0.2 (marginal security) to −0.18 (marginal insecurity) as a whole; in unit scale, areas in the north and in parts of the east were relatively secure and the security area was shrinking with time, but the central and southern areas turned to be marginal insecurity, especially in 2006 and 2009. This study proposes that DLES evaluation should be conducted for targeted and efficient urban planning and management, which can reflect the LES level of study area in general and in detail. PMID:25321873

  6. Air pollution and meteorological processes in the growing dryland city of Urumqi (Xinjiang, China).

    PubMed

    Mamtimin, Buhalqem; Meixner, Franz X

    2011-03-01

    Seven years (2000-2006) of monthly PM₁₀ (particulate matter, d ≤ 10 μm), SO₂, and NO₂ concentrations are reported for Urumqi, the capital of Xinjiang in NW China. Considerably high mean annual concentrations have been observed, which ranged between 150 and 240 μg m⁻³ (PM₁₀, 31 and 50 μg m⁻³ (NO₂), and 49 and 160 μg m⁻³ (SO₂). The shapes of seasonal variation of all pollutants were remarkably similar; however, winter/summer ratios of concentrations were quite different for PM₁₀ (2-3) and NO₂ (≈4) compared to SO₂ (up to 30). Very high consumption rates of fossil fuels for energy generation and domestic heating are mainly responsible for high annual pollution levels, as well as the (very) high winter/summer ratios. Detailed analysis of the 2000-2006 records of Urumqi's meteorological data resulted in inter-annual and seasonal frequency distributions of (a) (surface) inversion events, (b) heights of surface inversions, (c) stability classes of Urumqi's boundary layer, and (d) the "Air Stagnation Index (ASI)". Urumqi's boundary layer is shown to be characterized by high mean annual and seasonal frequencies of (surface) inversions and by the dominance of stable dispersion classes. A further outcome of the meteorological analysis is the proof of Urumqi's strong diurnal wind system, which might have particularly contributed to the stabilization of the nocturnal boundary layer. Annual and seasonal variations of pollutant's concentrations are discussed in the context of occurrences of inversions, boundary layer, stability classes, and ASI. The trend of Urumqi's air pollution indicates a strong increase of mean annual concentrations 2000-2003, followed by a slight increase during 2003-2006. These are in strong contrast to (a) the growth of Urumqi's fleet of motor vehicles and (b) to the growing number of stable regimes of Urumqi's boundary layer climate during same period. It is concluded that the (regional and) local administrative

  7. The Houston Urban Heat Island: Surface Temperature, Aerosol Mixing Layer Height, and Surface Wind Field Relationships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, L. S.; Senff, C. J.

    2007-12-01

    Both Dallas and Houston, Texas have comprehensive networks of surface meteorology and chemistry sensors. The similarities of the networks and lack of terrain in Dallas and Houston allow for the comparison of their urban heat islands (UHI). The Dallas UHI, unperturbed by thermal flows driven by the land/sea temperature difference, is a well-defined phenomenon over the summers of 2000-2006. Including all weather conditions, the average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature difference was between 1.5° and 2.0° C and the average daytime difference was ~ 1.0° C. Analysis of Houston temperature data, however, revealed a different picture due to the bay and gulf breezes. While the Houston UHI was a distinct phenomenon, even when including all weather conditions, the bay or gulf breeze modified the Houston UHI by cooling the city. Average nighttime T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences in Houston were between 1.75° and 2.75° C. However, during the day, the rural areas to the north and west of the city were often warmer than the downtown area during afternoon hours as a result of the sea breeze. Averaging the Houston T(urban) - T(rural) temperature differences over the summers of 2000-2006 indicated a very small urban-rural temperature difference between 1400 to 1600 LST. In some individual years, such as 2000, 2003, 2005 and 2006, the urban areas were actually cooler than the rural areas, on average, in the mid-afternoon. These years had more bay breeze/gulf breeze activity to cool the urban area. We will also look at how land use, the UHI, and boundary-layer winds impact the horizontal distribution of boundary layer heights over the Houston area, as calculated from backscatter measurements from TOPAZ, an ozone and aerosol profiling lidar deployed on a NOAA Twin Otter in the summer of 2006 during the Texas Air Quality Study II.

  8. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). Conclusions More efforts

  9. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8-60.0). More efforts are required to increase household access to

  10. Cervical cancer assessment in Romania under EUROCHIP-2.

    PubMed

    Apostol, Iuliana; Baban, Adriana; Nicula, Florian; Suteu, Ofelia; Coza, Daniela; Amati, Camilla; Baili, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Inside the European project EUROCHIP-2, the Romania team has ruled out an assessment study regarding cervical cancer screening programs (CCS) in Romania, in Nov 2006-March 2007. The general purpose was to be aliened to European Council recommendations that states that an organized cervical screening program should be offered in all member states, in order to reduce the specific incidence and mortality. The aim of the study was to assess cervical cancer burden and current cervical cancer screening status in Romania and in various sub-regions (DR), and also to identify problems and barriers and to propose solutions for implementing an organized cervical cancer screening program at national level. The study was based on a statistical survey and a comprehensive literature review of the most important European, national and regional papers or studies completed in this field. Over 2000-2006, a total number of 22,830 new cases and 12,763 deaths from cervical cancer was registered in Romania. In 2005, the crude rate of incidence varied largely in the 8 DR between 17.8-31.3 and mortality varied between 12.3-21.5. The proportion of women tested by DRs on total female population varied between 3.2%-0.6%; the highest screening activity was observed in region VI, where run the only organized CCS in Romania. In 2005, there were one GP per 578 female population aged 25-65; regarding the specialists in 2007 per country we had: 3,012 women aged 25-65 per one gynecologist, 21,195 women per one oncologist and 13,258 women per one histopathologist. There were no major changes in policy screening over 2000-2006 correlated with no major difference in specific mortality in Romania. Significant differences in incidence and mortality between DRs were observed in 2005, which impose deeper analyzes of local conditions and resources and local strategies to be adopted. The burden of cervical cancer is particularly high in Romania and is related to the absence of an organized CCS program or the

  11. Impact of the global financial crisis on low birth weight in Portugal: a time-trend analysis.

    PubMed

    Kana, Musa Abubakar; Correia, Sofia; Peleteiro, Barbara; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2017-03-01

    The 2007-2008 global financial crisis had adverse consequences on population health of affected European countries. Few contemporary studies have studied its effect on perinatal indicators with long-lasting influence on adult health. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the impact of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on low birth weight (LBW) in Portugal. Data on 2 045 155 singleton births of 1995-2014 were obtained from Statistics Portugal. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to identify the years in which changes in LBW trends occurred, and to estimate the annual per cent changes (APC). LBW risk by time period expressed as prevalence ratios were computed using the Poisson regression. Contextual changes in sociodemographic and economic factors were provided by their trends. The joinpoint analysis identified 3 distinct periods (2 jointpoints) with different APC in LBW, corresponding to 1995-1999 (APC=4.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 5.6), 2000-2006 (APC=0.1; 95% CI -050 to 0.7) and 2007-2014 (APC=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). For non-Portuguese, it was, respectively, 1995-1999 (APC=1.4; 95% CI -3.9 to 7.0%), 2000-2007 (APC=-4.2; 95% CI -6.4 to -2.0) and 2008-2014 (APC=3.1; 95% CI 0.8 to 5.5). Compared with 1995-1999, all specific maternal characteristics had a 10-15% increase in LBW risk in 2000-2006 and a 20-25% increase in 2007-2014, except among migrants, for which LBW risk remained lower than in 1995-1999 but increased after the crisis. The increasing LBW risk coincides with a deceleration in gross domestic product growth rate, reduction in health expenditure, social protection allocation on family/children support and sickness. The 2007-2008 global financial crisis was associated with a significant increase in LBW, particularly among infants of non-Portuguese mothers. We recommend strengthening social policies aimed at maternity protection for vulnerable mothers and health system maintenance of social equity in perinatal healthcare.

  12. Household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in Vietnam and associated factors: findings from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000–2011

    PubMed Central

    Tuyet-Hanh, Tran Thi; Lee, Jong-Koo; Oh, Juhwan; Van Minh, Hoang; Ou Lee, Chul; Hoan, Le Thi; Nam, You-Seon; Long, Tran Khanh

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite progress made by the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) number 7.C, Vietnam still faces challenges with regard to the provision of access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. Objective This paper describes household trends in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities separately, and analyses factors associated with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities in combination. Design Secondary data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were analyzed. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance describe trends over time in access to water and sanitation by location, demographic and socio-economic factors. Binary logistic regressions (2000, 2006, and 2011) describe associations between access to water and sanitation, and geographic, demographic, and socio-economic factors. Results There have been some outstanding developments in access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities from 2000 to 2011. In 2011, the proportion of households with access to improved water sources and sanitation facilities reached 90% and 77%, respectively, meeting the 2015 MDG targets for safe drinking water and basic sanitation set at 88% and 75%, respectively. However, despite these achievements, in 2011, only 74% of households overall had access to combined improved drinking water and sanitation facilities. There were also stark differences between regions. In 2011, only 47% of households had access to both improved water and sanitation facilities in the Mekong River Delta compared with 94% in the Red River Delta. In 2011, households in urban compared to rural areas were more than twice as likely (odds ratio [OR]: 2.2; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9–2.5) to have access to improved water and sanitation facilities in combination, and households in the highest compared with the lowest wealth quintile were over 40 times more likely (OR: 42.3; 95% CI: 29.8–60.0). Conclusions More

  13. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  14. Functional tension nose as a cause of nasal airway obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kantas, Ilias V; Papadakis, Chariton E; Balatsouras, Dimitrios G; Vafiadis, Marinos; Korres, Stavros G; Panagiotakopoulou, Aggeliki; Danielidis, Vassilios

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the influence of functional tension nose in nasal obstruction and to discuss its frequency and management. Over the years 2000-2006, 153 patients underwent revision operation for nasal obstruction in our rhinoplastic center. Twenty-two of them (14.37%) suffered from functional tension nose. All 22 patients refused rhinoplasty during primary septoplasty. Sixteen of them had a kyphotic nose and the rest six cases suffered from hanging columella (drooped nose). Eighteen of them underwent primary rhinoplasty in combination with caudal diminution under general anesthesia. The other four patients refused rhinoplasty, and under local anesthesia their tip was deprojected and reprojected. Marked improvement in nasal airflow was noted at the most recent follow-up evaluation in 20 patients out of 22 (90.91%). The mean length of follow-up was 8 months (ranging from 4 to 12 months). All follow-up results were based on office examination and pre- and post-operative computer-assisted rhinomanometry evaluation. In only two cases results were not efficient enough. Our study strongly suggests that tension nose is a usual misdiagnosed cause of nasal obstruction. This problem is concealed under a "kyphotic", "big", or "pinocchio" nose. Usually the functional defect is spontaneously corrected during conventional rhinoplasty. However, tip should be deprojected and reprojected in cases where the patient refuses cosmetic intervention and surgeon tries to resolve his functional problem.

  15. The new face of terrorism in Turkey: actor unknown political murders.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Sadik

    2009-11-01

    In this study, we have analyzed the temporal and spatial trends in actor unknown political murders in Turkey. A total of 1852 cases, defined as actor unknown political murders, occurred in Turkey between 1975 and 2006, with the peak years being 1980 and 1994. Three different time frames could be defined: 1975-1993, 1994-1999, and 2000-2006. During the first period, cases were common all over Turkey, but during the second and third periods, they were more frequent in metropolitan areas and in the southeast. Incidents occurring during the first period could be attributed to the struggle between right- and left-wing supporters, while most murders occurring during the second and third periods seem to have been related to Kurdish separatism. Although the most crucial factor in preventing actor unknown political murders is a politically stable atmosphere, forensics can also play an important role. Turkey needs to improve its forensic services to bring them in line with international standards, namely the Minnesota Protocol.

  16. Alterations in the breeding habitats for two endangered raptor species along the Sava River basin, Croatia.

    PubMed

    Radović, Andreja; Jelaska, Sven D

    2012-07-01

    Changes in habitat suitable for breeding of two sympatric raptor species (Haliaeetus albicilla and Aquila pomarina) were analysed along one of the most important breeding sites in Croatia for both species. The habitat suitability modelling was used to assess the influence of forestry practice during 2000-2006 using the known data on nesting places along research area. The four most important variables for lesser spotted eagle were elevation, distance from the nearest pasture, vertical distance to the nearest channel network and broadleaved forest placement (second axis from the principal component analysis of the enhanced vegetation index (EVI) index of MODIS images; November-March). The variables where white-tailed eagles showed greatest shift from overall habitat characteristics in the research area were broadleaved forest (second axis from the principal component analysis of the EVI index), height above the sea level, distance from the small settlements, vertical distance to channel network - all with negative loadings. The results clearly reveal the disproportion of suitable forests for raptors that were cut down in comparison to maturation of suitable forests.

  17. [Clinical and epidemiological changes of candidemia among adult patients from 2000 to 2013].

    PubMed

    Siri, Leonardo; Legarraga, Paulette; García, Patricia; González, Tamara; Rabagliati, Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Invasive Candida spp. infections have been described more frequently. To characterize the epidemiological data of candidemia in recent years. A retrospective study of adult patients in a University Hospital in Santiago, Chile, with 1 or more documented episodes of candidemia, from January 2000 to December 2013. One hundred and twenty episodes of candidemia were identified in 120 patients, annual incidence of 0.4 cases per 1000 discharges, 53.3% were male patients, 58.3% > 60 years, 77,5% had at least one co-morbidity. Candida albicans was the species most frequently identified 55%, followed by C. glabrata 18.3%, C. tropicalis 11.7% and C. parapsilosis 9.2%. Comparing 2000-2006 vs 2007-2013, increased the frequency of C. parapsilosis among non-albicans and echinocandins prescription. Patients with C. albicans showed higher APACHE-II, more requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation, greater association with CVC, and shorter incubation time compared with non-albicans species. The 30-day mortality was 31.7%. During this 14-years period we observed that C. albicans was the predominant specie and more recently a change among C. non-albicans increasing C. parapsilosis and decreasing C. glabrata 30-days and attributable mortality decreased together with more echinocandins prescription.

  18. A Comparison of Transjugular and Plugged-Percutaneous Liver Biopsy in Patients with Contraindications to Ordinary Percutaneous Liver Biopsy and an 'In-House' Protocol for Selecting the Procedure of Choice

    SciTech Connect

    Atar, Eli; Ben Ari, Ziv; Bachar, Gil N.; Amlinski, Yelena; Neyman, Chaim; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Shapiro, Riki; Bruckhaimer, Elchanan; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Belenky, Alexander

    2010-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy (PB) in consecutive patients with severe liver disease associated with impaired coagulation, ascites, or both and to verify the in-house protocol used to select the appropriate procedure. In 2000-2006, 329 patients (208 male [62.8%] and 121 female [37.2%]), aged 1 month to 81 years (mean, 46.8 years), underwent 150 TJLBs (39.1%) or 233 PBs (60.9%) procedures at a major tertiary center, as determined by an in-house protocol. The groups were compared for specimen characteristics, technical success, and complications. Technical success rates were 97.4% for TJLB (146/150) and 99.1% for PB (231/233). TJLB was associated with a lower average core length (1.29 vs. 1.43 cm) and lower average number of specimens obtained (2.44 vs. 2.8), but both methods yielded sufficient tissue for a definitive diagnosis. There were no major complications in either group. TJLB and PB can be safely and effectively performed for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in patients with contraindications for standard percutaneous liver biopsy. When both are technically available, we suggest PB as the procedure of choice, especially in transplanted livers.

  19. A comparison of transjugular and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy in patients with contraindications to ordinary percutaneous liver biopsy and an "in-house" protocol for selecting the procedure of choice.

    PubMed

    Atar, Eli; Ben Ari, Ziv; Bachar, Gil N; Amlinski, Yelena; Neyman, Chaim; Knizhnik, Michael; Litvin, Sergey; Schmilovitz-Weiss, Hemda; Shapiro, Riki; Bruckhaimer, Elchanan; Tur-Kaspa, Ran; Belenky, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of transjugular liver biopsy (TJLB) and plugged-percutaneous liver biopsy (PB) in consecutive patients with severe liver disease associated with impaired coagulation, ascites, or both and to verify the in-house protocol used to select the appropriate procedure. In 2000-2006, 329 patients (208 male [62.8%] and 121 female [37.2%]), aged 1 month to 81 years (mean, 46.8 years), underwent 150 TJLBs (39.1%) or 233 PBs (60.9%) procedures at a major tertiary center, as determined by an in-house protocol. The groups were compared for specimen characteristics, technical success, and complications. Technical success rates were 97.4% for TJLB (146/150) and 99.1% for PB (231/233). TJLB was associated with a lower average core length (1.29 vs. 1.43 cm) and lower average number of specimens obtained (2.44 vs. 2.8), but both methods yielded sufficient tissue for a definitive diagnosis. There were no major complications in either group. TJLB and PB can be safely and effectively performed for the diagnosis of hepatic disease in patients with contraindications for standard percutaneous liver biopsy. When both are technically available, we suggest PB as the procedure of choice, especially in transplanted livers.

  20. Evaluate Status of Pacific Lamprey in the Clearwater River and Salmon River Drainages, Idaho, 2009 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochnauer, Tim; Claire, Christopher

    2009-05-07

    Pacific lamprey Lampetra tridentata have received little attention in fishery science until recently, even though abundance has declined significantly along with other anadromous fish species in Idaho. Pacific lamprey in Idaho have to navigate over eight lower Snake River and Columbia River hydroelectric facilities for migration downstream as juveniles to the Pacific Ocean and again as adults migrating upstream to their freshwater spawning grounds in Idaho. The number of adult Pacific lamprey annually entering the Snake River basin at Ice Harbor Dam has declined from an average of over 18,000 during 1962-1969 to fewer than 600 during 1998-2006. Based on potential accessible streams and adult escapement over Lower Granite Dam on the lower Snake River, we estimate that no more than 200 Pacific lamprey adult spawners annually utilize the Clearwater River drainage in Idaho for spawning. We utilized electrofishing in 2000-2006 to capture, enumerate, and obtain biological information regarding rearing Pacific lamprey ammocoetes and macropthalmia to determine the distribution and status of the species in the Clearwater River drainage, Idaho. Present distribution in the Clearwater River drainage is limited to the lower sections of the Lochsa and Selway rivers, the Middle Fork Clearwater River, the mainstem Clearwater River, the South Fork Clearwater River, and the lower 7.5 km of the Red River. In 2006, younger age classes were absent from the Red River.

  1. Distributions of (137)Cs and (210)Pb in moss collected from Belarus and Slovakia.

    PubMed

    Aleksiayenak, Yu V; Frontasyeva, M V; Florek, M; Sykora, I; Holy, K; Masarik, J; Brestakova, L; Jeskovsky, M; Steinnes, E; Faanhof, A; Ramatlhape, K I

    2013-03-01

    In the present work, moss samples collected in Slovakia and Belarus were assayed with respect to gamma-emitting radionuclides. The results for (137)Cs and (210)Pb are discussed. Moss was used for the first time in Belarus, as a biological indicator of radioactive environmental pollution in consequence of the Chernobyl accident in 1986. In Belarus, the maximum activity of (137)Cs was observed in the Gomel region near Mazyr (6830 Bq/kg) and the minimum activity in the Vitebsyevsk Region near Luzhki-Yazno (5 Bq/kg). "Hot spots" were also observed near the towns Borisow and Yuratsishki. The results of measurements of (137)Cs in moss samples collected in 2000, 2006 and 2009 in the same localities of Slovakia are presented and compared with the results of air monitoring of (137)Cs carried out in Slovakia from 1977 until 2010. Measurements of the (210)Pb concentration in moss samples collected over the territory of Slovakia showed, that the median value exceed 2.3 times median value of (210)Pb obtained for Belarus moss. For that reason, the inhalation dose for man from (210)Pb and (137)Cs in Slovakia is more than twice as high as in Belarus, in spite of the initially very high (137)Cs exposure in the latter country.

  2. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution during pregnancy and term low birth weight: estimation of causal associations in a semiparametric model.

    PubMed

    Padula, Amy M; Mortimer, Kathleen; Hubbard, Alan; Lurmann, Frederick; Jerrett, Michael; Tager, Ira B

    2012-11-01

    Traffic-related air pollution is recognized as an important contributor to health problems. Epidemiologic analyses suggest that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollutants may be associated with adverse birth outcomes; however, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the relation is causal. The Study of Air Pollution, Genetics and Early Life Events comprises all births to women living in 4 counties in California's San Joaquin Valley during the years 2000-2006. The probability of low birth weight among full-term infants in the population was estimated using machine learning and targeted maximum likelihood estimation for each quartile of traffic exposure during pregnancy. If everyone lived near high-volume freeways (approximated as the fourth quartile of traffic density), the estimated probability of term low birth weight would be 2.27% (95% confidence interval: 2.16, 2.38) as compared with 2.02% (95% confidence interval: 1.90, 2.12) if everyone lived near smaller local roads (first quartile of traffic density). Assessment of potentially causal associations, in the absence of arbitrary model assumptions applied to the data, should result in relatively unbiased estimates. The current results support findings from previous studies that prenatal exposure to traffic-related air pollution may adversely affect birth weight among full-term infants.

  3. Search for Point Sources of High Energy Neutrinos with Final Data from AMANDA-II

    SciTech Connect

    IceCube Collaboration; Klein, Spencer

    2009-03-06

    We present a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos using 3.8 years of data recorded by AMANDA-II during 2000-2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria designed to optimally retain neutrino-induced events originating in the Northern Sky, we arrive at a sample of 6595 candidate events, predominantly from atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. Our search of this sample reveals no indications of a neutrino point source. We place the most stringent limits to date on E{sup -2} neutrino fluxes from points in the Northern Sky, with an average upper limit of E{sup 2}{Phi}{sub {nu}{sub {mu}}+{nu}{sub {tau}}} {le} 5.2 x 10{sup -11} TeV cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} on the sum of {nu}{sub {mu}} and {nu}{sub {tau}} fluxes, assumed equal, over the energy range from 1.9 TeV to 2.5 PeV.

  4. Charging systems and PAYT experiences for waste management in Spain.

    PubMed

    Puig-Ventosa, I

    2008-12-01

    Municipal waste charges in Spain are very widespread, although their application varies significantly among different municipalities. Most commonly, waste charges are implemented as a flat rate, but some of them depend on indicators such as household water consumption, the land area of the property or the value of the real estate. Only one residential pay-as-you-throw scheme has been applied so far. It was a pay-per-bag scheme implemented in Torrelles de Llobregat, Barcelona. A number of other systems focussing only on commercial waste have been implemented in Spain. Several factors suggest that new pay-as-you-throw schemes will be adopted in the near future. In 2000 no municipalities had door-to-door collection schemes; since then over 70 municipalities have implemented them. In addition to this, some regions encourage the separate collection of commercial waste, by means of doorstep schemes. In all of these areas, variable charging systems could be easily adopted. Additionally, regarding waste charges, the National Waste Plan (2000-2006) advocated for the implementation of "pilot experiences for the quantitative application of the polluter-pays-principle". The tendency towards these variable charging systems in Europe will also favour their introduction in Spain.

  5. Gaps in brucellosis eradication campaign in sheep and goats in Republic of Macedonia: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Naletoski, Ivanco; Kirandziski, Toni; Mitrov, Dine; Krstevski, Kiril; Dzadzovski, Igor; Acevski, Sinisa

    2010-08-01

    To identify why "test and slaughter policy" for eradication of brucellosis did not significantly reduce the prevalence in sheep and goats in Macedonia. Coverage of sampled vs expected number of sheep and goats, absolute number of positive animals, prevalence, frequency distribution, and classes of disease prevalence were retrospectively analyzed at the village level for 2004-2006. A comparative analysis of the disease prevalence in the investigated villages was also performed. The percentage of slaughtered animals was analyzed for 2000-2006. We found differences between the expected and actual number of sampled animals, which were related to the type of livestock breeding. Traditionally maintained flocks and migratory flocks were considered to be responsible for the transmission of the disease. The absolute number of positive animals and the number of infected vs non-infected holdings did not decrease over the study period. Most of the villages had between 1 and 10 positive animals. Between 2000 and 2006, 55% of the positive animals were slaughtered, 41% in 2001 and up to 79% in 2002. Moreover, in 2005 and 2006, 34% and 53% of sheep and goats were found to be positive at the slaughter line, respectively, demonstrating that only 21%-23% of the infected animals were correctly removed from the herds. Based on the findings of this study, Macedonia changed its control strategy from "test and slaughter" to a vaccination policy for sheep and goats in 2008.

  6. Gender, Race/Ethnicity, and National Institutes of Health R01 Research Awards: Is There Evidence of a Double Bind for Women of Color?

    PubMed

    Ginther, Donna K; Kahn, Shulamit; Schaffer, Walter T

    2016-08-01

    To analyze the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, and the probability of being awarded an R01 grant from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The authors used data from the NIH Information for Management, Planning, Analysis, and Coordination grants management database for the years 2000-2006 to examine gender differences and race/ethnicity-specific gender differences in the probability of receiving an R01 Type 1 award. The authors used descriptive statistics and probit models to determine the relationship between gender, race/ethnicity, degree, investigator experience, and R01 award probability, controlling for a large set of observable characteristics. White women PhDs and MDs were as likely as white men to receive an R01 award. Compared with white women, Asian and black women PhDs and black women MDs were significantly less likely to receive funding. Women submitted fewer grant applications, and blacks and women who were new investigators were more likely to submit only one application between 2000 and 2006. Differences by race/ethnicity explain the NIH funding gap for women of color, as white women have a slight advantage over men in receiving Type 1 awards. Findings of a lower submission rate for women and an increased likelihood that they will submit only one proposal are consistent with research showing that women avoid competition. Policies designed to address the racial and ethnic diversity of the biomedical workforce have the potential to improve funding outcomes for women of color.

  7. The relationship between Baylisascaris procyonis prevalence and raccoon population structure.

    PubMed

    Page, L Kristen; Gehrt, Stanley D; Cascione, Andrea; Kellner, Kenneth F

    2009-12-01

    Parasite transmission is a dynamic process that can be affected by factors including host and parasite population dynamics. Raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) are the definitive host of Baylisascaris procyonis , an intestinal roundworm. Transmission of this parasite has been linked to raccoon behavior and human land-use patterns; however, we do not know the importance of host population structure. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the relationship between raccoon population attributes and prevalence of B. procyonis. We necropsied 307 trapped or road-killed raccoons collected during 2000-2006 from the Chicago area. In addition, we examined, via fecal samples (n  =  433), the patterns of B. procyonis prevalence as they relate to population dynamics among 3 subpopulations within the larger study. Baylisascaris procyonis was seen in 39% of 307 necropsied raccoons. There were differences in prevalence as a function of host age and sex. Baylisascaris procyonis was observed in 18% of 433 fecal samples obtained from live-trapped raccoons, and there were differences according to age, but not by sex. We found that the host populations consistently differed in density across study areas, but were similar regarding sex and age structure. Differences in host density were associated with differences in prevalence, suggesting that possible differences between populations, as well as ecological differences in sites and raccoon behavior, may have influenced parasite prevalence.

  8. The Effects of Workplace Clean Indoor Air Law Coverage on Workers' Smoking-Related Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Kai-Wen; Liu, Feng; Gonzalez, MariaElena; Glantz, Stanton

    2017-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of workplace clean indoor air law (CIAL) coverage on worksite compliance with CIALs, smoking participation among indoor workers, and secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure among nonsmoker indoor workers. This study improved on previous research by using the probability of a resident in a county covered by workplace CIALs, taking into account the state, county, and city legislation. The county-level probability of being covered by a CIAL is merged into two large nationally representative US surveys on smoking behaviors: Tobacco Use Supplement of the Current Population Survey (2001-2010) and Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2000-2006) based on the year of the survey and respondent's geographic location to identify respondents' CIAL coverage. This study estimated several model specifications of including and not including state or county fixed effects, and the effects of workplace CIALs are consistent across models. Increased coverage by workplace CIALs significantly increased likelihood of reporting a complete smoking restriction by 8% and 10% for the two different datasets, decreased smoking participation among indoor workers by 12%, and decreased SHS exposure among nonsmokers by 28%. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Association of long-term PM2.5 exposure with mortality using different air pollution exposure models: impacts in rural and urban California.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Cynthia A; Yap, Poh-Sin; Park, Hye-Youn; Weller, Barbara L

    2016-01-01

    Most PM2.5-associated mortality studies are not conducted in rural areas where mortality rates may differ when population characteristics, health care access, and PM2.5 composition differ. PM2.5-associated mortality was investigated in the elderly residing in rural-urban zip codes. Exposure (2000-2006) was estimated using different models and Poisson regression was performed using 2006 mortality data. PM2.5 models estimated comparable exposures, although subtle differences were observed in rate ratios (RR) within areas by health outcomes. Cardiovascular disease (CVD), ischemic heart disease (IHD), and cardiopulmonary disease (CPD), mortality was significantly associated with rural, urban, and statewide chronic PM2.5 exposures. We observed larger effect sizes in RRs for CVD, CPD, and all-cause (AC) with similar sizes for IHD mortality in rural areas compared to urban areas. PM2.5 was significantly associated with AC mortality in rural areas and statewide; however, in urban areas, only the most restrictive exposure model showed an association. Given the results seen, future mortality studies should consider adjusting for differences with rural-urban variables.

  10. Differential survival benefit of universal HAART access in Brazil: A Nation-wide Comparison of Injecting Drug Users versus Men who Have Sex with Men

    PubMed Central

    Malta, Monica; Bastos, Francisco I.; da Silva, Cosme MFP; Pereira, Gerson Fernando Mendes; Lucena, Francisca FA; Fonseca, Maria GP; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Brazil accounts for ∼70% of injection drug users (IDU) receiving HAART in low/middle income countries. We evaluated the impact of HAART availability/access on AIDS-related mortality among IDU versus men who have sex with men (MSM). Design Nationwide analysis on Brazilian IDU and MSM diagnosed with AIDS in 2000-2006. Methods Four national information systems were linked and Cox regression was used to assess impact of HAART availability/access on differential AIDS-related mortality. Results Among 28,426 patients, 6,777 died during 87,792 person-years of follow-up. Compared to MSM, IDU were significantly less likely to be receiving HAART, to have ever had determinations for CD4 or viral load. After controlling for confounders, IDU had a significantly higher risk of death (AHR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.84-2.05). Among the subset that had at least one CD4 and viral load determination, higher risk of death among IDU persisted (HR: 1.82; 95% CI: 1.58-2.11). Non-white ethnicity significantly increased this risk, while prompt HAART uptake after AIDS diagnosis reduced the risk of death. After controlling for spatially-correlated survival data, AIDS-related mortality remained higher in IDU than in MSM. Conclusions Despite free/universal HAART access, differential AIDS-related mortality exists in Brazil. Efforts are needed to identify and eliminate these health disparities. PMID:19675464

  11. ``Polar'' and ``high-latitude'' substorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Despirak, Irina; Lubchich, Andris; Kleimenova, Natalia

    All substorms observed at high latitudes can be divided into 2 types - "polar" (observed only at > 70º latitudes in the absence of substorms at <70º latitudes during the day) and "high-latitude" substorms (propagating from auroral (<70º) to polar (> 70º) geomagnetic latitudes). The aim of this study was to compare solar wind conditions during these two types of substorms. For this purpose, we used the data of IMAGE magnetometers and OMNI solar wind data for 1995, 2000, 2006-2011 periods. There were selected 105 "polar" and 55 "high-latitude" substorms. It is shown that "polar" substorms observed during the late recovery phase of a geomagnetic storm, after passing of the high speed stream of the solar wind (when the velocity is reduced from high to low values). "High-latitude" substorms, on the contrary, are observed during passing of the recurrent high-speed stream of the solar wind, increased values of the southward B _{Z }component of the IMF and E _{Y} component of the electric field, increased temperature and pressure of the solar wind. Also, it is noted that variability of these solar wind parameters for the “high-latitude” substorms is stronger than for “polar” substorms.

  12. Change detection of runoff-urban growth relationship in urbanised watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizah Abas, Aisya; Hashim, Mazlan

    2014-02-01

    Urban growth has negative environmental impacts that create water-based disasters such as flash floods and storm runoff causing billions of dollars worth of damage each year. Due to serious flash floods in urbanised areas of Malaysia, water resource management is a vital issue. This paper reports on a study that has been carried out using remote sensing techniques and hydrological modelling for examining the spatial patterns changes of urban areas and its impacts on surface runoff. The estimation of surface runoff based on the Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS CN) method was performed by integrating both remote sensing and Geographic Information System (GIS) techniques. Remote sensing is a data sources for monitoring urban growth by quantifying the changes of urban area and its environmental impact are then analysed by using a GIS-based hydrological model. By linking the integrated approach of remote sensing and GIS, the relationship of runoff with urban expansion are further examined. Hence, the changes in runoff due to urbanisation are analysed. This methodology is applied to the central region of Malaysia in Kuala Lumpur, where rapid urban growth has occurred over the last decade. The results showed that there was a significant between spatial patterns of urban growth and estimated runoff depth. The increase in runoff from year 2000, 2006 and 2010 are estimated about five percent.

  13. Forb, insect, and soil response to burning and mowing Wyoming big sagebrush in greater sage-grouse breeding habitat.

    PubMed

    Hess, Jennifer E; Beck, Jeffrey L

    2014-04-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.

  14. Brain death epidemiology in Uruguay and utilization of the Glasgow coma score in acute brain injured patients as a predictor of brain death.

    PubMed

    Mizraji, R; Perez-Protto, S; Etchegaray, A; Castro, A; Lander, M; Buccino, E; Severo, L; Alvarez, I

    2009-10-01

    The knowledge of brain death (BD) epidemiology and the acute brain injury (ABI) progression profile are relevant to improve public health programs, organ procurement strategies, as well as intensive care unit (ICU) protocols aiming to increase the detection of potential donors. The aim of this study was to analyze the BD epidemiology and the ABI progression profile among subjects admitted to ICUs with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) < or = 8. This was a prospective, observational study of BD reported to the National Institute of Donation and Transplantation from 2000-2006. The patients with ABI and GCS < or = 8 who were admitted to 5 ICUs with In-hospital Transplant Coordination were analyzed over the period of 2005-2007. The BD detection increased from 28.7 in 2000 to 58.5 BD pmp in 2006. The real donor global rate increased from 10 to 24.6 pmp from 2000 to 2006. The ABI patients with GCS < or = 8 had a global mortality rate of 56%, including 23.4% who evolved to BD. This study showed a 200% increment of detected BD and 150% of real donors, although these results are still below the international figures. GCS follow-up appeared to be a good tool to predict the BD outcome. The follow-up of patients with ABI allowed us to improve our BD detection strategy.

  15. A maximum-likelihood search for neutrino point sources with the AMANDA-II detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, James R.

    Neutrino astronomy offers a new window to study the high energy universe. The AMANDA-II detector records neutrino-induced muon events in the ice sheet beneath the geographic South Pole, and has accumulated 3.8 years of livetime from 2000 - 2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria, we arrive at a sample of 6595 events originating from the Northern Sky, predominantly atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. We search these events for evidence of astrophysical neutrino point sources using a maximum-likelihood method. No excess above the atmospheric neutrino background is found, and we set upper limits on neutrino fluxes. Finally, a well-known potential dark matter signature is emission of high energy neutrinos from annihilation of WIMPs gravitationally bound to the Sun. We search for high energy neutrinos from the Sun and find no excess. Our limits on WIMP-nucleon cross section set new constraints on MSSM parameter space.

  16. DOES EXPOSURE TO STRESSORS PREDICT CHANGES IN PHYSIOLOGICAL DYSREGULATION?

    PubMed Central

    Glei, Dana A.; Goldman, Noreen; Wu, Chih-Hsun; Weinstein, Maxine

    2013-01-01

    Background The allostatic load framework implies that cumulative exposure to stressors results in multi-system physiological dysregulation. Purpose To investigate the effect of stress burden on subsequent changes (2000-2006) in physiological dysregulation. Methods Data came from a population-based cohort study in Taiwan (n=521, aged 54+ in 2000, re-examined in 2006). Measures of stressful events and chronic strain were based on questions asked in 1996, 1999, and 2000. A measure of trauma was based on exposure to the 1999 earthquake. Dysregulation was based on 17 biomarkers (e.g., metabolic, inflammatory, neuroendocrine). Results There were some small effects among men: chronic strain was associated with subsequent increases in dysregulation (standardized β=0.08, 95% CI = 0.01 to 0.20), particularly inflammation; life events were also associated with increased inflammation (β=0.10, CI = 0.01 to 0.26). There were no significant effects in women. Conclusions We found weak evidence that stress burden is associated with changes in dysregulation. PMID:23526059

  17. African CO emissions between years 2000 and 2006 as estimated from MOPITT observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chevallier, F.; Fortems, A.; Bousquet, P.; Pison, I.; Szopa, S.; Devaux, M.; Hauglustaine, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The space-time variations of the carbon budget at the Earth's surface are highly variable and quantifying them represents a major scientific challenge. One strategy consists in inferring the carbon surface fluxes from the atmospheric concentrations. An inversion scheme for the hydrocarbon oxidation chain, that includes CO and CH4, is presented here with a focus on the African continent. It is based on a variational principle. The multi-tracer system has been built as an extension of a system initially developed for CO2 and includes a new simplified non-linear chemistry module. Individual in situ measurements of methyl-chloroform and individual retrievals of CO concentrations from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) space-born instrument have been processed by the new system for the period 2000-2006 to infer the time series of CO emissions at the resolution of 2.5°×3.75° (latitude, longitude). It is shown that the analysed concentrations improve the fit to five independent surface measurement stations located in or near Africa by up to 28% compared to standard inventories, which confirms that significant information about CO emissions can be obtained from MOPITT data. In practice, the inversion reduces the amplitude and the interannual variability of the seasonal cycle in the northern part of Africa, with a longer burning season. In the southern part, the inversion mainly shifts the emission peak by one month later in the season, consistent with previously-published inversion results.

  18. Food allergy: a practical update from the gastroenterological viewpoint.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Cristina Targa; Seidman, Ernest

    2007-01-01

    To present an up-to-date and critical review regarding food allergies, focusing mainly on treatment and prevention. Review of published literature searched on MEDLINE database; those data which were the most up-to-date and representative were selected (2000-2006). The search included the European Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) and the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). The prevalence of allergic diseases has increased over the last decades, and food allergy seems to be part of this increase. Food allergy is much more common in pediatrics and has a significant medical, financial and social impact on young children and their families. Treatment and prevention of food allergy is a major challenge for public health, scientific and medical communities. There is a lot of misinformation and the medical management of this condition is still discussable. We present and discuss the guidelines regarding criteria for the prevention of food allergy and atopic diseases published by the Nutrition Committees of ESPGHAN jointly with the European Society for Pediatric Allergy and Clinical Immunology (ESPACI) and AAP. The overdiagnosis of food allergy is quite prevalent. There is a need for standardization of definitions and diagnostic procedures. The primary goal of therapy should be to first establish effective means of preventing food allergies. There is a need for accurate diagnostic methods to confirm or rule out the diagnosis. Patients need appropriate treatment by eliminating foods that cause symptoms, while avoiding the nutritional side effects and the cost of inappropriate diets.

  19. [Urban sustainability assessment based on eco-efficiency and its application].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Lin, Jian-yi; Cui, Sheng-hui; Cao, Bin; Shi, Long-yu

    2010-04-01

    Comprehensive assessment on urban ecological system is one of important issues for regional sustainable development research. Urban eco-efficiency is the effective tool to integrate sustainabable strategies into the development planning and management initiatives, which expresses the relationship of inputs of ecological impact and outputs of social welfare. An evaluation model of urban sustainability based on eco-efficiency was proposed by integrating Ecological Footprint model and Human Development Index. Using this model, a case study of Xiamen City was carried out using the statistical data from 2000 to 2006. There is a fluctuation of ecoefficiency which showed a steady increase first, then a sharp decline and a marginal increase towards the end. During 2000-2006, the per-capita ecological footprint increases from 4.279 hm2 to 5.462 hm2; and the Human Development Index increases from 0.831 to 0.896; thus the eco-efficiency, resource efficiency and environmental efficiency declines by 15.5%, 15.7% and 15.3% respectively. Xiamen experiences sustainability hypo-increasing phase first, sustainability increasing phase secondly, then sustainability decreasing phase, and sustainability increasing phase in the end. On the whole, the urban sustainability shows a decreasing trend.

  20. Evaluation of INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Jesús, Iría; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; García-Martos, Pedro

    2011-07-01

    A total of 54 rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from patients attended in the two hospitals of Cádiz Bay (Spain) were selected during a seven-year-period (2000-2006) in order to evaluate the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay for mycobacterial identification, based on the reverse hybridization principle. The strains were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 media and identified to the species level by sequencing of the 16S rRNA, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene, conventional tests and INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. By the molecular methods we identified a total of 12 different species: 23 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae, 10 M. abscessus, 2 M. senegalense, 1 M. alvei, 1 M. brumae, 1 M. mageritense, 1 M. mucogenicum, 1 M. neoaurum, 1 M. peregrinum, 1 M. septicum and 1 M. smegmatis. Fifty two strains (96.3%) were correctly identified by conventional techniques and 47 strains (87.0%) by INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. We find INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay simple to perform but it provides few advantages in comparison with conventional methods and sometimes needs complementary tests to identify Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, M. chelonae complex and specific species due to the great heterogeneity in the RGM group.

  1. Estimates of disturbances of space vehicle orbits in the upper ionosphere prior to strong earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tertyshnikov, A. V.; Skripachev, V. O.

    2009-10-01

    Estimates of drag characteristics of the space vehicles with orbit heights of 450-540 and 700-900 km before and after strong (with a magnitude M ≥ 6.5) crust earthquakes of 2000-2006 are presented. The method of estimation of seismic orbital effects is presented using as an example the small Mozhaets-4 spacecraft. Two weeks prior to earthquakes, variations in the drag of low-orbital spacecraft increase. 3-6 days prior to strong crust earthquakes with epicenters on the land, the drag of low-orbit spacecraft in the upper atmosphere increases. The effect of increased viscosity of the neutral component of the atmosphere at spacecraft heights 3-6 days prior to strong crust earthquakes is consistent with the results of studies of disturbances in the ionization density variations in the ionospheric F region prior to earthquakes. No anomalies are found in the day of the earthquake. In the future, it is proposed to use elements of space debris for diagnostics of seismic orbital effects and disturbances of the upper atmosphere.

  2. [Life expectancy at birth in Colombia, 2000-2009: inequalities by region and gender].

    PubMed

    Eslava-Schmalbach, Javier H; Rincón, Carlos Javier; Guarnizo-Herreño, Carol Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Life expectancy is one of the measurements that have been used to monitor socioeconomic development within and among countries. During the last 30 years, life expectancy has increased worldwide mainly due to medical and technological developments. However, access to health care, new technologies and social determinants remain unevenly distributed among regions and countries in the world. To assess inequalities in life expectancy by gender and regions (departments) in Colombia between 2000 and 2009. Ecological study. Life expectancy was estimated for each Colombian department using yearly life tables from 2000 to 2009. We used data from the death registries and the estimated population series, provided by the Departamento Administrativo Nacional de Estadística (DANE). For the study period, estimates of life expectancy by departments were compared with those from Japan for the years 2000, 2006 and 2009, which is the country with the highest life expectancy in the world, and with the Colombian department with the highest life expectancy from 2000 to 2009. Compared with the highest life expectancy in the world, Colombian departments showed differences ranged between 5.7 and 21 years. We found significant differences between departments, with the largest difference being 15.3 years. Additionally, in some departments life expectancy decreased during the analyzed period. This study identified differences in life expectancy in Colombian departments suggesting inequalities in health and living conditions among them. These differences increased in some departments during the period 2000-2009.

  3. Caffeine intake, smoking, and risk of Parkinson disease in men and women.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Guo, Xuguang; Park, Yikyung; Huang, Xuemei; Sinha, Rashmi; Freedman, Neal D; Hollenbeck, Albert R; Blair, Aaron; Chen, Honglei

    2012-06-01

    The authors prospectively examined whether caffeine intake was associated with lower risk of Parkinson disease (PD) in both men and women among 304,980 participants in the National Institutes of Health-AARP Diet and Health Study and whether smoking affected this relation. Multivariate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were derived from logistic regression models. Higher caffeine intake as assessed in 1995-1996 was monotonically associated with lower PD risk (diagnosed in 2000-2006) in both men and women. After adjustment for age, race, and physical activity, the odds ratio comparing the highest quintile of caffeine intake with the lowest was 0.75 (95% confidence interval: 0.60, 0.94; P(trend) = 0.005) for men and 0.60 (95% confidence interval: 0.39, 0.91; P(trend) = 0.005) for women. Further adjustment for duration of smoking and analyses carried out among never smokers showed similar results. A joint analysis with smoking suggested that smoking and caffeine may act independently in relation to PD risk. Finally, the authors conducted a meta-analysis of prospective studies and confirmed that caffeine intake was inversely associated with PD risk in both men and women. These findings suggest no gender difference in the relation between caffeine and PD.

  4. [Experience about more than 2000 renal transplantations at the university of Brussels].

    PubMed

    Madhoun, P; Wissing, M; Broeders, N; Ghisdal, L; Hoang, A; Loi, P; Michalsky, D; Bollens, R; Donckier, V; Hooghe, L; Janssen, F; Hall, M; Depierreux, M; Kinnaert, P; Vereerstraeten, P; Abramowicz, D

    2008-01-01

    Since 1965, more than 2000 renal transplantations (including more than 100 living-donor transplantations) have been performed at the University of Brussels. An end-stage renal disease patient candidate to renal transplantation will be therefore followed from his enrolment on the waiting list to the long-term post-transplant period. Improvement in the outcome of renal transplantation is achieved due to better knowledge in many fields of medicine, such as immunology, infectious disease, metabolic diseases (hyperlipemia, diabetes mellitus), pharmacology, use of immunosuppressive regimen, a more adequate cardiovascular prevention and treatment. If the best results were achieved with kidneys from living donors, the graft survival rate at the University of Brussels was nearly 80% for the last period (2000-2006). Unfortunately, renal transplantation cannot cure certain comorbid conditions and even may promote them: infectious diseases, neoplasia, metabolic disorders (e.a diabetes mellitus, hyperlipemia). Many efforts have to be done to develop less toxic and more immune selective therapeutic strategies. Living donation and extension of the pool of cadaveric donors will reduce the length of time spent on the waiting list and will significantly impact on mortality and morbidity after kidney transplantation.

  5. Potential clinical applications of epothilones: a review of phase II studies.

    PubMed

    Larkin, J M G; Kaye, S B

    2007-07-01

    Epothilones are cytotoxic macrolides that share a similar mechanism of action with the taxanes but demonstrate antitumor activity in taxane-resistant settings. Six epothilones are in early clinical trials for cancer treatment. This review summarizes data from phase II clinical studies of the epothilones ixabepilone (BMS-247550), patupilone (EPO906), and KOS-862. Data were identified by searches of PubMed and of the proceedings of the American Society of Clinical Oncology annual meetings and the Federation of European Cancer Societies biennial conference for the period 2000-2006. Studies were included if safety and efficacy data were available for at least 10 patients with a given tumor type in a standard phase II design. Epothilones have demonstrated activity in lung, ovarian, breast, prostate, and renal carcinomas and in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in phase II studies. Little or no evidence of clinical activity has been reported in studies of epothilones in other tumor types. Preliminary data indicate that epothilones can be combined safely with other cytotoxic agents such as carboplatin. The epothilones may play a role as an alternative to taxanes if activity in resistant settings can be confirmed together with an acceptable toxicity profile. Randomized studies are awaited to investigate the utility of epothilones in single-agent and combination regimens.

  6. Cumulative expenditures under the DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid programs for a cohort of disabled working-age adults.

    PubMed

    Riley, Gerald F; Rupp, Kalman

    2015-04-01

    To estimate cumulative DI, SSI, Medicare, and Medicaid expenditures from initial disability benefit award to death or age 65. Administrative records for a cohort of new CY2000 DI and SSI awardees aged 18-64. Actual expenditures were obtained for 2000-2006/7. Subsequent expenditures were simulated using a regression-adjusted Markov process to assign individuals to annual disability benefit coverage states. Program expenditures were simulated conditional on assigned benefit coverage status. Estimates reflect present value of expenditures at initial award in 2000 and are expressed in constant 2012 dollars. Expenditure estimates were also updated to reflect benefit levels and characteristics of new awardees in 2012. We matched records for a 10 percent nationally representative sample. Overall average cumulative expenditures are $292,401 through death or age 65, with 51.4 percent for cash benefits and 48.6 percent for health care. Expenditures are about twice the average for individuals first awarded benefits at age 18-30. Overall average expenditures increased by 10 percent when updated for a simulated 2012 cohort. Data on cumulative expenditures, especially combined across programs, are useful for evaluating the long-term payoff of investments designed to modify entry to and exit from the disability rolls. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Surface Ozone in Kiev

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shavrina, A. V.; Mikulskaya, I. A.; Kiforenko, S. I.; Blum, O. B.; Sheminova, V. A.; Veles, A. A.

    The study of total ozone over Kiev and its concentration changes with height in the troposphere has been made on the base of ground-based observations with the infrared Fourier-spectrometer in the Main Astronomical Observatory of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (MAO NASU) as part of ESA-NIVR-KNMI project no 2907 "OMI validation by ground based remote sensing: ozone columns and atmospheric profiles "(2005-2008) [1,2,4]. Ground-level ozone in Kiev for an episode of its high concentrations in August 2000 was also simulated with the model of urban air pollution UAM-V [5,6]. In 2008 the satellite data Aura-OMI on profiles of ozone in the atmosphere OMO3PR became available (http://disc.sci.gsfc.nasa.gov/ Aura/data-holdings/OMI/ omo3pr_v003.shtml). They include ozone content in the lower layer of the atmosphere, beginning from 2005, which can be used to evaluate the ground-level ozone in all cities of Ukraine. The comparison of the data of ozone air pollution in Kiev (ozone - the pollutant of the first class of danger) and medical statistics data of of respiratory system (RS) diseases of the city population was carried out with the package "Statistica". A regression analysis, prognostic regression modelling, and retrospective prognosis of the epidemiological situation with respect to RS pathologies in Kiev in 2000-2006 were performed.

  8. Forb, Insect, and Soil Response to Burning and Mowing Wyoming Big Sagebrush in Greater Sage-Grouse Breeding Habitat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, Jennifer E.; Beck, Jeffrey L.

    2014-04-01

    Wyoming big sagebrush ( Artemisia tridentata wyomingensis A. t. Nutt. ssp. wyomingensis Beetle and Young) communities provide structure and forbs and insects needed by greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus) for growth and survival. We evaluated forb, insect, and soil responses at six mowed and 19 prescribed burned sites compared to 25, paired and untreated reference sites. Sites were classified by treatment type, soil type, season, and decade of treatment (sites burned during 1990-1999 and sites burned or mowed during 2000-2006). Our objective was to evaluate differences in ten habitat attributes known to influence sage-grouse nesting and brood rearing to compare responses among treatment scenarios. Contrary to desired outcomes, treating Wyoming big sagebrush through prescribed burning or mowing may not stimulate cover or increase nutrition in food forbs, or increase insect abundance or indicators of soil quality compared with reference sites. In some cases, prescribed burning showed positive results compared with mowing such as greater forb crude protein content (%), ant (Hymenoptera; no./trap), beetle (Coleoptera/no./trap), and grasshopper abundance (Orthoptera; no./sweep), and total (%) soil carbon and nitrogen, but of these attributes, only grasshopper abundance was enhanced at burned sites compared with reference sites in 2008. Mowing did not promote a statistically significant increase in sage-grouse nesting or early brood-rearing habitat attributes such as cover or nutritional quality of food forbs, or counts of ants, beetles, or grasshoppers compared with reference sites.

  9. Chinese traffic fatalities and injuries in police reports, hospital records, and in-depth records from one city.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Jun; Zhou, Jihong; Zhang, Liang; Yao, Yuan; Yuan, Danfeng; Shi, Jianguo; Gao, Zhiming; Zhou, Lin; Wang, Zhengguo; Evans, Leonard

    2015-01-01

    Claims of sharp reductions in Chinese traffic casualties after 2002 based on police-reported data have been questioned in the literature. The objective of this study is to determine whether a decline in casualties occurred and to better understand the police data. The first of 2 unrelated studies analyzed data from 210 military hospitals throughout China providing records for inpatients injured in traffic accidents (2001-2007). The second compared in-depth crash records (2000-2006) from one city to officially released data. Hospital data showed that casualties increased from 2002 to 2007. The city investigation showed consistently far more fatalities and injuries in the in-depth data than officially released. For example, in-depth data showed 1,720 fatalities. Only 557 of these were reported officially (data loss = 68%). Disaggregating into 3 regions showed a data loss of 41% in urban areas, 63% in rural areas, and 90% in rural-urban fringe zones. For injuries, data losses were even greater. Traffic fatalities and injuries did not decrease from 2002 to 2006. The in-depth city data contained 3 times as many fatalities and 5 times as many injuries as reported by police. Reasons why this occurred and suggestions to improve data collection and reduce casualties are given.

  10. Water and Soil Salinity Mapping for Southern Everglades Using Remote Sensing Techniques and In Situ Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadim, Fahad Khan

    Everglades National Park is a hydro-ecologically significant wetland experiencing salinity ingress over the years. This motivated our study to map water salinity using a spatially weighted optimization model (SWOM); and soil salinity using land cover classes and EC thresholds. SWOM was calibrated and validated at 3-km grids with actual salinity for 1998-2001, and yielded acceptable R2 (0.89-0.92) and RMSE (1.73-1.92 ppt). Afterwards, seasonal water salinity mapping for 1996-97, 2004-05, and 2016 was carried out. For soil salinity mapping, supervised land cover classification was firstly carried out for 1996, 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2015; with the first four providing average accuracies of 82%-94% against existing NLCD classifications. The land cover classes and EC thresholds helped mapping four soil salinity classes namely, the non saline (EC = 0˜2 dS/m), low saline (EC = 2˜4 dS/m), moderate saline (EC = 4˜8 dS/m) and high saline (EC >8 dS/m) areas.

  11. Modern space/time geostatistics using river distances: data integration of turbidity and E. coli measurements to assess fecal contamination along the Raritan River in New Jersey.

    PubMed

    Money, Eric S; Carter, Gail P; Serre, Marc L

    2009-05-15

    Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a widely used indicator of fecal contamination in water bodies. External contact and subsequent ingestion of bacteria coming from fecal contamination can lead to harmful health effects. Since E. coli data are sometimes limited, the objective of this study is to use secondary information in the form of turbidity to improve the assessment of E. coli at unmonitored locations. We obtained all E. coli and turbidity monitoring data available from existing monitoring networks for the 2000-2006 time period for the Raritan River Basin, New Jersey. Using collocated measurements, we developed a predictive model of E. coli from turbidity data. Using this model, soft data are constructed for E. coli given turbidity measurements at 739 space/time locations where only turbidity was measured. Finally, the Bayesian Maximum Entropy (BME) method of modern space/time geostatistics was used for the data integration of monitored and predicted E. coli data to produce maps showing E. coli concentration estimated daily across the river basin. The addition of soft data in conjunction with the use of river distances reduced estimation error by about 30%. Furthermore, based on these maps, up to 35% of river miles in the Raritan Basin had a probability of E coli impairment greater than 90% on the most polluted day of the study period.

  12. Assessing shoreline response to three submerged breakwaters at Kerteh Bay, Terengganu, Malaysia using Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qayoom Tunji, Lawal Abdul; Yusof, Khamaruzaman Wan; Mustafa Hashim, Ahmad; Sapari, Nasiman

    2014-06-01

    As part of a project to determine the exact structural and environmental parameters governing the mode and magnitude of salient formation behind a submerged breakwater, a remote sensing technique is being adopted to assess the extent of erosion/accretion at Kerteh Bay, T errengganu, Malaysia. Multi-temporal Landsat satellite images of coarse resolution for the years of 1994, 2000, 2006, 2009 and 2012 were acquired for this purpose. The images were subsets divided into smaller areas of interest and classified using supervised classification of support vector machine. The classified image is then vectorized to extract shoreline based on waterline in each of the subset rasters images. Tidal correction were adopted to correct the waterline/shoreline to the mean sea level (MSL) datum. Comparison of corrected shorelines was carried to obtain the extent of erosion/accretion at the Kerteh Bay, Terrenganu, Malaysia. It was observed that substantial accretion was observed between the years 1994-2006 at the upper part of the study area, the part between northern part and the southern part also experienced accretion but not as much as compared to northern part for the same year. Erosion was noted between the years 2006-2012 for all of the areas of the study area but the rate slowed down between the years 2009-2012 for all the areas. Slope estimated from the imageries were compared with in situ slope of the same area, this served as a validation for the method used.

  13. Measuring Returns to Hospital Care: Evidence from Ambulance Referral Patterns.

    PubMed

    Doyle, Joseph; Graves, John; Gruber, Jonathan; Kleiner, Samuel

    2015-02-01

    Medicare spending exceeds 4% of GDP in the US each year, and there are concerns that moral hazard problems have led to overspending. This paper considers whether hospitals that treat patients more aggressively and receive higher payments from Medicare improve health outcomes for their patients. An innovation is a new lens to compare hospital performance for emergency patients: plausibly exogenous variation in ambulance-company assignment among patients who live near one another. Using Medicare data from 2002-2010, we show that ambulance company assignment importantly affects hospital choice for patients in the same ZIP code. Using data for New York State from 2000-2006 that matches exact patient addresses to hospital discharge records, we show that patients who live very near each other but on either side of ambulance service area boundaries go to different types of hospitals. Both identification strategies show that higher-cost hospitals achieve better patient outcomes for a variety of emergency conditions. Using our Medicare sample, the estimates imply that a one standard deviation increase in Medicare reimbursement leads to a 4 percentage point reduction in mortality (10% compared to the mean). Taking into account one-year spending after the health shock, the implied cost per at least one year of life saved is approximately $80,000. These results are found across different types of hospitals and patients, as well across both identification strategies.

  14. OH Column Abundance Apparent Response to Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnett, C. R.; Minschwaner, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    The 33-year series of high spectral resolution measurements of absorption of sunlight by OH at 308 nm has exhibited temporary decreases of column abundances in 1986, 1997, and 2008 near the times of minimum solar activity. These observations and analyses are of significance as they encompass three complete solar cycles for comparison. During solar cycle 23, the annual average abundances increased approximately 20% from the minimum abundance in 1997 to high-sun enhanced values in 2000-2006, then dropped approximately 15% in 2008. The abundances exhibited a pronounced reduction at solar minimum in August-October 2008, similar to that seen in fall 1986 and fall 1997. The average morning abundances on those occasions were 13% smaller than the 1980-88 corresponding average, about 0.9 x 1013 cm-2, with minimum values broadly consistent with model results. In contrast, high-sun OH abundances observed during periods of solar maximum are approximately 33% larger than modeled abundances. This discrepancy cannot be explained by reasonable adjustments of reaction rates or modeled constituent concentrations in the stratosphere or mesosphere. However, the observed responses to a tropopause fold event in 1988 and to the Pinatubo aerosol in 1991 do suggest an important contribution to the total OH column from the lower stratosphere. In addition to the apparent variations with solar activity, this OH column database contains a number of other effects such as diurnal and seasonal patterns, and geographic differences between observations from Colorado, Florida, Alaska, Micronesia, New Zealand, and New Mexico.

  15. How does the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR) product relate to regionally developed land cover and vegetation products in a semi-arid Australian savanna?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoettker, Birte; Phinn, Stuart; Schmidt, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Spatio-temporally variable information on total vegetation cover is highly relevant to water quality and land management in river catchments adjacent to the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. A time series of the global Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Fraction of Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FPAR; 2000-2006) and its underlying biome classification (MOD12Q1) were compared to national land cover and regional, remotely sensed products in the dry-tropical Burdekin River. The MOD12Q1 showed reasonable agreement with a classification of major vegetation groups for 94% of the study area. We then compared dry-seasonal, quality controlled MODIS FPAR observations to (i) Landsat-based woody foliage projective cover (wFPC) (2004) and (ii) MODIS bare ground index (BGI) observations (2001-2003). Statistical analysis of the MODIS FPAR revealed a significant sensitivity to Landsat wFPC-based Vegetation Structural Categories (VSC) and VSC-specific temporal variability over the 2004 dry season. The MODIS FPAR relation to 20 coinciding MODIS BGI dry-seasonal observations was significant (ρ < 0.001) for homogeneous areas of low wFPC. Our results show that the global MODIS FPAR can be used to identify VSC, represent VSC-specific variability of PAR absorption, and indicate that the amount, structure, and optical properties of green and non-green vegetation components contribute to the MODIS FPAR signal.

  16. Magnetic Source Region Characteristics Influencing the Velocity of Solar Eruptions in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kliem, B.; Chintzoglou, G.; Torok, T.; Zhang, J.; Downs, C.

    2016-12-01

    The velocity of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) is one of the primary parameters determining their potential geoeffectiveness. The great majority of very fast CMEs receive their main acceleration already in the corona. We study the magnetic source region structure for a complete sample of 15 very fast CMEs (v > 1500 km/s) during 2000-2006, originating within 30 deg from central meridian and find a correlation between CME speed and the decay index profile of the coronal field estimated by a PFSS extrapolation. Such a correlation is not found for a comparison sample of slower CMEs. We also study how the decay index profile is related to the structure of the photospheric field distribution. This is complemented by a parametric simulation study of flux rope eruptions using the analytic Titov-Demoulin active-region model for simple bipolar and quadrupolar source regions, which provide simple relationships between the photospheric field distribution and the coronal decay index profile. Very fast, moderate-velocity, and even confined eruptions are found. Detailed, data-constrained MHD modeling of a very fast and a relatively slow CME, including a comparison of their source region characteristics, will also be presented. Support by NSF and NASA's LWS program is acknowledged.

  17. Extending remote sensing estimates of Greenland ice sheet melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heavner, M.; Loveland, R.

    2010-12-01

    The Melt Area Detection Index (MADI), a remote sensing algorithm to discriminate between dry and wet snow, has been previously developed and applied to the western portion of the Greenland ice sheet for the years 2000-2006, using Moderate Resolution Imaging Radiospectrometer (MODIS) data (Chylek et al, 2007). We extend that work both spatially and temporally by taking advantage of newly available data, and developing algorithms that facilitate the sensing of cloud cover and the automated inference of wet snow regions. The automated methods allow the development of a composite melt area data product with 0.25 km^2 spatial resolution and approximately two week temporal resolution. We discuss melt area dynamics that are inferred from this high resolution composite melt area. Chylek, P., M. McCabe, M. K. Dubey, and J. Dozier (2007), Remote sensing of Greenland ice sheet using multispectral near-infrared and visible radiances, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D24S20, doi:10.1029/2007JD008742.

  18. Search for point sources of high energy neutrinos with final data from AMANDA-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.; Adams, J.; Ahlers, M.; Ahrens, J.; Andeen, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bai, X.; Baker, M.; Baret, B.; Barwick, S. W.; Bay, R.; Bazo Alba, J. L.; Beattie, K.; Becka, T.; Becker, J. K.; Becker, K.-H.; Berdermann, J.; Berghaus, P.; Berley, D.; Bernardini, E.; Bertrand, D.; Besson, D. Z.; Blaufuss, E.; Boersma, D. J.; Bohm, C.; Bolmont, J.; Böser, S.; Botner, O.; Braun, J.; Breder, D.; Burgess, T.; Castermans, T.; Chirkin, D.; Christy, B.; Clem, J.; Cowen, D. F.; D'Agostino, M. V.; Danninger, M.; Davour, A.; Day, C. T.; Depaepe, O.; de Clercq, C.; Demirörs, L.; Descamps, F.; Desiati, P.; de Vries-Uiterweerd, G.; De Young, T.; Diaz-Velez, J. C.; Dreyer, J.; Dumm, J. P.; Duvoort, M. R.; Edwards, W. R.; Ehrlich, R.; Eisch, J.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Engdegård, O.; Euler, S.; Evenson, P. A.; Fadiran, O.; Fazely, A. R.; Filimonov, K.; Finley, C.; Foerster, M. M.; Fox, B. D.; Franckowiak, A.; Franke, R.; Gaisser, T. K.; Gallagher, J.; Ganugapati, R.; Gerhardt, L.; Gladstone, L.; Goldschmidt, A.; Goodman, J. A.; Gozzini, R.; Grant, D.; Griesel, T.; Groß, A.; Grullon, S.; Gunasingha, R. M.; Gurtner, M.; Ha, C.; Hallgren, A.; Halzen, F.; Han, K.; Hanson, K.; Hardtke, R.; Hasegawa, Y.; Heise, J.; Helbing, K.; Hellwig, M.; Herquet, P.; Hickford, S.; Hill, G. C.; Hodges, J.; Hoffman, K. D.; Hoshina, K.; Hubert, D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Hughey, B.; Hülß, J.-P.; Hulth, P. O.; Hultqvist, K.; Hundertmark, S.; Hussain, S.; Imlay, R. L.; Inaba, M.; Ishihara, A.; Jacobsen, J.; Japaridze, G. S.; Johansson, H.; Joseph, J. M.; Kampert, K.-H.; Kappes, A.; Karg, T.; Karle, A.; Kawai, H.; Kelley, J. L.; Kiryluk, J.; Kislat, F.; Klein, S. R.; Klepser, S.; Kohnen, G.; Kolanoski, H.; Köpke, L.; Kowalski, M.; Kowarik, T.; Krasberg, M.; Kuehn, K.; Kuwabara, T.; Labare, M.; Laihem, K.; Landsman, H.; Lauer, R.; Leich, H.; Leier, D.; Lewis, C.; Lucke, A.; Lundberg, J.; Lünemann, J.; Madsen, J.; Maruyama, R.; Mase, K.; Matis, H. S.; McParland, C. P.; Meagher, K.; Meli, A.; Merck, M.; Messarius, T.; Mészáros, P.; Miyamoto, H.; Mohr, A.; Montaruli, T.; Morse, R.; Movit, S. M.; Münich, K.; Nahnhauer, R.; Nam, J. W.; Nießen, P.; Nygren, D. R.; Odrowski, S.; Olivas, A.; Olivo, M.; Ono, M.; Panknin, S.; Patton, S.; Pérez de Los Heros, C.; Petrovic, J.; Piegsa, A.; Pieloth, D.; Pohl, A. C.; Porrata, R.; Potthoff, N.; Pretz, J.; Price, P. B.; Przybylski, G. T.; Rawlins, K.; Razzaque, S.; Redl, P.; Resconi, E.; Rhode, W.; Ribordy, M.; Rizzo, A.; Robbins, W. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Roth, P.; Rothmaier, F.; Rott, C.; Roucelle, C.; Rutledge, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Sander, H.-G.; Sarkar, S.; Satalecka, K.; Schlenstedt, S.; Schmidt, T.; Schneider, D.; Schultz, O.; Seckel, D.; Semburg, B.; Seo, S. H.; Sestayo, Y.; Seunarine, S.; Silvestri, A.; Smith, A. J.; Song, C.; Spiczak, G. M.; Spiering, C.; Stamatikos, M.; Stanev, T.; Stezelberger, T.; Stokstad, R. G.; Stoufer, M. C.; Stoyanov, S.; Strahler, E. A.; Straszheim, T.; Sulanke, K.-H.; Sullivan, G. W.; Swillens, Q.; Taboada, I.; Tarasova, O.; Tepe, A.; Ter-Antonyan, S.; Tilav, S.; Tluczykont, M.; Toale, P. A.; Tosi, D.; Turčan, D.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vandenbroucke, J.; van Overloop, A.; Viscomi, V.; Vogt, C.; Voigt, B.; Walck, C.; Waldenmaier, T.; Walter, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Wiebusch, C. H.; Wiedemann, C.; Wikström, G.; Williams, D. R.; Wischnewski, R.; Wissing, H.; Woschnagg, K.; Xu, X. W.; Yodh, G.; Yoshida, S.

    2009-03-01

    We present a search for point sources of high energy neutrinos using 3.8 yr of data recorded by AMANDA-II during 2000-2006. After reconstructing muon tracks and applying selection criteria designed to optimally retain neutrino-induced events originating in the northern sky, we arrive at a sample of 6595 candidate events, predominantly from atmospheric neutrinos with primary energy 100 GeV to 8 TeV. Our search of this sample reveals no indications of a neutrino point source. We place the most stringent limits to date on E-2 neutrino fluxes from points in the northern sky, with an average upper limit of E2Φνμ+ντ≤5.2×10-11TeVcm-2s-1 on the sum of νμ and ντ fluxes, assumed equal, over the energy range from 1.9 TeV to 2.5 PeV.

  19. Trends in Ocean Irradiance using a Radiative Model Forced with Terra Aerosols and Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy; Romanou, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    Aerosol and cloud information from MODIS on Terra provide enhanced capability to understand surface irradiance over the oceans and its variability. These relationships can be important for ocean biology and carbon cycles. An established radiative transfer model, the Ocean-Atmosphere Spectral Irradiance Model (OASIM) is used to describe ocean irradiance variability on seasonal to decadal time scales. The model is forced with information on aerosols and clouds from the MODIS sensor on Terra and Aqua. A 7-year record (2000-2006) showed no trends in global ocean surface irradiance or photosynthetic available irradiance (PAR). There were significant (P<0.05) negative trends in the Mediterranean Sea, tropical Pacific) and tropical Indian Oceans, of -7.0, -5.0 and -2.7 W/sq m respectively. Global interannual variability was also modest. Regional interannual variability was quite large in some ocean basins, where monthly excursions from climatology were often >20 W/sq m. The trends using MODIS data contrast with results from OASIM using liquid water path estimates from the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP). Here, a global trend of -2 W/sq m was observed, largely dues to a large negative trend in the Antarctic -12 W/sq m. These results suggest the importance of the choice of liquid water path data sets in assessments of medium-length trends in ocean surface irradiance. The choices also impact the evaluation of changes in ocean biogeochemistry.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Adenovirus Type 21 Respiratory Strains Isolated From US Military Trainees (1996-2014).

    PubMed

    Kajon, Adriana E; Hang, Jun; Hawksworth, Anthony; Metzgar, David; Hage, Elias; Hansen, Christian J; Kuschner, Robert A; Blair, Patrick; Russell, Kevin L; Jarman, Richard G

    2015-09-15

    The circulation of human adenovirus type 21 (HAdV21) in the United States has been documented since the 1960s in association with outbreaks of febrile respiratory illness (FRI) in military boot camps and civilian cases of respiratory disease. To describe the molecular epidemiology of HAdV21 respiratory infections across the country, 150 clinical respiratory isolates obtained from continuous surveillance of military recruit FRI, and 23 respiratory isolates recovered from pediatric and adult civilian cases of acute respiratory infection were characterized to compile molecular typing data spanning 37 years (1978-2014). Restriction enzyme analysis and genomic sequencing identified 2 clusters of closely related genomic variants readily distinguishable from the prototype and designated 21a-like and 21b-like. A-like variants predominated until 1999. A shift to b-like variants was noticeable by 2007 after a 7-year period (2000-2006) of cocirculation of the 2 genome types. US strains are phylogenetically more closely related to European and Asian strains isolated over the last 4 decades than to the Saudi Arabian prototype strain AV-1645 isolated in 1956. Knowledge of circulating HAdV21 variants and their epidemic behavior will be of significant value to local and global FRI surveillance efforts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. The actual citation impact of European oncological research.

    PubMed

    López-Illescas, Carmen; de Moya-Anegón, Félix; Moed, Henk F

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an overview of the research performance of major European countries in the field Oncology, the most important journals in which they published their research articles, and the most important academic institutions publishing them. The analysis was based on Thomson Scientific's Web of Science (WoS) and calculated bibliometric indicators of publication activity and actual citation impact. Studying the time period 2000-2006, it gives an update of earlier studies, but at the same time it expands their methodologies, using a broader definition of the field, calculating indicators of actual citation impact, and analysing new and policy relevant aspects. Findings suggest that the emergence of Asian countries in the field Oncology has displaced European articles more strongly than articles from the USA; that oncologists who have published their articles in important, more general journals or in journals covering other specialties, rather than in their own specialist journals, have generated a relatively high actual citation impact; and that universities from Germany, and--to a lesser extent--those from Italy, the Netherlands, UK, and Sweden, dominate a ranking of European universities based on number of articles in oncology. The outcomes illustrate that different bibliometric methodologies may lead to different outcomes, and that outcomes should be interpreted with care.

  2. Search prefilters to assist in library searching of infrared spectra of automotive clear coats.

    PubMed

    Lavine, Barry K; Fasasi, Ayuba; Mirjankar, Nikhil; White, Collin; Sandercock, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Clear coat searches of the infrared (IR) spectral library of the paint data query (PDQ) forensic database often generate an unusable number of hits that span multiple manufacturers, assembly plants, and years. To improve the accuracy of the hit list, pattern recognition methods have been used to develop search prefilters (i.e., principal component models) that differentiate between similar but non-identical IR spectra of clear coats on the basis of manufacturer (e.g., General Motors, Ford, Chrysler) or assembly plant. A two step procedure to develop these search prefilters was employed. First, the discrete wavelet transform was used to decompose each IR spectrum into wavelet coefficients to enhance subtle but significant features in the spectral data. Second, a genetic algorithm for IR spectral pattern recognition was employed to identify wavelet coefficients characteristic of the manufacturer or assembly plant of the vehicle. Even in challenging trials where the paint samples evaluated were all from the same manufacturer (General Motors) within a limited production year range (2000-2006), the respective assembly plant of the vehicle was correctly identified. Search prefilters to identify assembly plants were successfully validated using 10 blind samples provided by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) as part of a study to populate PDQ to current production years, whereas the search prefilter to discriminate among automobile manufacturers was successfully validated using IR spectra obtained directly from the PDQ database.

  3. Haemophilia care in China: achievements of a decade of World Federation of Hemophilia treatment centre twinning activities.

    PubMed

    Poon, M-C; Luke, K-H

    2008-09-01

    The World Federation of Hemophilia (WFH) began its involvement in China in 1993, supporting Chinese haemophilia centre twinning programmes in 1997. Although only three Chinese centres were in a twinning relationship (Tianjin/Calgary 1997-2004, Guangzhou/Ottawa 2000-2006, Shanghai/Ottawa, Calgary 2002-2007), WFH helped establish a collaborative network of six Chinese centres (Tianjin, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Beijing, Hefei, Jinan) in 2004. These network centres, in collaboration with haemophilia patients, shared and coordinated several successful ongoing priority projects (Registry, Nursing, Laboratory Diagnosis, Physiotherapy and Prophylaxis). A number of physicians, nurses and technologists have received WFH fellowships for training internationally. They are becoming haemophilia-care leaders and are key personnel working towards comprehensive care in China. National and regional workshops/conferences in addition to educational material development have been successful in reaching out to healthcare professionals and persons with haemophilia across the country. Key elements of success include the enthusiasm and commitment of the Chinese professionals and patient leaders in their desire to advance haemophilia care and their commitment to work collaboratively in a coordinated manner. They are beginning to gain national and international recognition and are launching outreach education and care programmes to cover other parts of China. WFH is now transitioning support in China from a twinning program to country programme (Global Alliance for Progress). Haemophilia work in China is still in the beginning, but there is now a solid foundation for future progress.

  4. Changing patterns and widening of antibiotic resistance in Shigella spp. over a decade (2000-2011), Andaman Islands, India.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, D; Bhattacharya, H; Sayi, D S; Bharadwaj, A P; Singhania, M; Sugunan, A P; Roy, S

    2015-02-01

    This study is a part of the surveillance study on childhood diarrhoea in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands; here we report the drug resistance pattern of recent isolates of Shigella spp. (2006-2011) obtained as part of that study and compare it with that of Shigella isolates obtained earlier during 2000-2005. During 2006-2011, stool samples from paediatric diarrhoea patients were collected and processed for isolation and identification of Shigella spp. Susceptibility to 22 antimicrobial drugs was tested and minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined for third-generation cephalosporins, quinolones, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid combinations and gentamicin. A wide spectrum of antibiotic resistance was observed in the Shigella strains obtained during 2006-2011. The proportions of resistant strains showed an increase from 2000-2005 to 2006-2011 in 20/22 antibiotics tested. The number of drug resistance patterns increased from 13 in 2000-2005 to 43 in 2006-2011. Resistance to newer generation fluoroquinolones, third-generation cephalosporins and augmentin, which was not observed during 2000-2005, appeared during 2006-2011. The frequency of resistance in Shigella isolates has increased substantially between 2000-2006 and 2006-2011, with a wide spectrum of resistance. At present, the option for antimicrobial therapy in shigellosis in Andaman is limited to a small number of drugs.

  5. [Evaluation of imported pediatric malaria management in northern France].

    PubMed

    Elmansouf, L; Dubos, F; Dauriac, A; Courouble, C; Pruvost, I; Dervaux, B; Martinot, A

    2011-03-01

    The study's objective was to evaluate the adequacy of treatment to recommendations, for the management of pediatric malaria. A descriptive, retrospective, multicentre cohort study was conducted over a 7-year period (2000-2006) in 18 pediatric and infectious diseases units in northern France. All children, under 18 years of age, having consulted in one of these hospitals and for whom the diagnosis of malaria has been made by blood smear and/or thick drop examination, were included. One hundred and thirty-three cases of imported malaria were reported. Among the 120 available files, 23 documented severe malaria. Treatment documentation was available for 115 patients. This treatment was initiated orally in 47 cases and intravenously in 68 cases. Intravenous quinine was the first-line treatment in 58% of cases. Halofantrine was the first-line oral treatment. No change was observed along the 6 years. Only 32% of management was in adequacy with recommendations. Five therapeutic failures were recorded. The optimal application of recommendations would have saved 117 days in terms of hospital stay, corresponding to 54,000 €. The French Infectious Disease Society (SPILF) recommendations were not well observed. This inappropriate management was responsible for treatment failures and increased costs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Recent decreases in observed atmospheric concentrations of SO 2 in the Netherlands in line with emission reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Snijder, André; Hoogerbrugge, Ronald

    2011-10-01

    Concentrations of sulphur dioxide (SO 2) have been decreasing in the Netherlands since the beginning of the 1980s, as a result of national and international emission control measures. Since 2007, concentrations observed at the Rotterdam port and industrial areas have shown a large decrease that is in line with recent emission control measures. The average annual SO 2 concentration in 2010 was about 50% below 2000-2006 levels. This drop in concentration level corresponds with recent decreases in emissions of SO 2 from Dutch refineries and international sea shipping, on top of the gradual decreases in emissions from sources outside the Netherlands. The reduction in the emissions from refineries was initiated by a ceiling on the total amount of emissions from this sector, effective since 2010. Emission reductions from sea shipping result from two types of regulations to reduce the sulphur content in marine fuel, by 2010; regulation by the International Maritime Organization for sea ships on the North Sea, and by the EU directive for ships at berth in ports.

  7. Motor vehicle injuries in Qatar: time trends in a rapidly developing Middle Eastern nation.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Ravinder; Al-Thani, Mohammed H; Al-Thani, Al-Anoud Mohammed; Sheikh, Javaid I; Lowenfels, Albert B

    2012-04-01

    Despite their wealth and modern road systems, traffic injury rates in Middle Eastern countries are generally higher than those in Western countries. The authors examined traffic injuries in Qatar during 2000-2010, a period of rapid population growth, focusing on the impact of speed control cameras installed in 2007 on overall injury rates and mortality. During the period 2000-2006, prior to camera installation, the mean (SD) vehicular injury death rate per 100,000 was 19.9±4.1. From 2007 to 2010, the mean (SD) vehicular death rates were significantly lower: 14.7±1.5 (p=0.028). Non-fatal severe injury rates also declined, but mild injury rates increased, perhaps because of increased traffic congestion and improved notification. It is possible that speed cameras decreased speeding enough to affect the death rate, without affecting overall injury rates. These data suggest that in a rapidly growing Middle Eastern country, photo enforcement (speed) cameras can be an important component of traffic control, but other measures will be required for maximum impact.

  8. Vacuolar protein sorting protein 13A, TtVPS13A, localizes to the tetrahymena thermophila phagosome membrane and is required for efficient phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Samaranayake, Haresha S; Cowan, Ann E; Klobutcher, Lawrence A

    2011-09-01

    Vacuolar protein sorting 13 (VPS13) proteins have been studied in a number of organisms, and mutations in VPS13 genes have been implicated in two human genetic disorders, but the function of these proteins is poorly understood. The TtVPS13A protein was previously identified in a mass spectrometry analysis of the Tetrahymena thermophila phagosome proteome (M. E. Jacobs et al., Eukaryot. Cell 5:1990-2000, 2006), suggesting that it is involved in phagocytosis. In this study, we analyzed the structure of the macronuclear TtVPS13A gene, which was found to be composed of 17 exons spanning 12.5 kb and was predicted to encode a protein of 3,475 amino acids (aa). A strain expressing a TtVPS13A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was constructed, and the protein was found to associate with the phagosome membrane during the entire cycle of phagocytosis. In addition, Tetrahymena cells with a TtVPS13A knockout mutation displayed impaired phagocytosis. Specifically, they grew slowly under conditions where phagocytosis is essential, they formed few phagosomes, and the digestion of phagosomal contents was delayed compared to wild-type cells. Overall, these results provide evidence that the TtVPS13A protein is required for efficient phagocytosis.

  9. Stroke mortality disparities in the population of the Appalachian Mountain region.

    PubMed

    Sergeev, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    Racial and rural-urban differences in stroke were previously reported in demographically and socioeconomically heterogeneous populations. However, it is not clear whether they exist in more homogeneous populations. Compared to the rest of the United States, the Appalachian region is highly rural and more homogeneous, with a predominantly White and socioeconomically disadvantaged population. The goal of our study was to investigate whether racial disparities in stroke mortality exist among the Appalachian population. Patterns of stroke mortality for a seven-year period (2000-2006) were investigated in the Appalachian adult population of > or = 25 years. Data on stroke deaths were obtained from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Health Statistics. Multivariable Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted relative risks (RR), adjusting for confounding factors. Stroke death rates. Stroke mortality in Appalachia was 20.5% higher than outside Appalachia (96.67 and 80.25 per 100,000 person-years, P < .001). Stroke mortality was statistically significantly higher in African Americans than in other racial groups: Caucasians (adjusted RR = 1.428, P < .001), Asians (adjusted RR = 2.821, P < .001), and Native American Indians (adjusted RR = 3.571, P < 0.001). Rural-urban stroke mortality disparities were statistically significant outside Appalachia but not within Appalachia. Racial disparities in stroke mortality exist in the Appalachian region. Further studies are warranted to investigate the rationale for possible health policy interventions and socioeconomic measures.

  10. Smoking status, changes in smoking status and health-related quality of life: findings from the SUN ("Seguimiento Universidad de Navarra") cohort.

    PubMed

    Guitérrez-Bedmar, Mario; Seguí-Gómez, María; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Bes-Rastrollo, Maira; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2009-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the association between smoking, changes in smoking, and quality of life in a cohort of Spanish university graduates. Smoking habits were self-reported at baseline and four years later. Quality of life was assessed using the Short Form-36 (SF-36) at year 4. Statistical differences in SF-36 scores between groups were determined using ANCOVA with age and sex as covariates. Out of 5,234 eligible participants over 2000-2006, there were 2,639 non-smoker participants, 1,419 ex-smokers, and 1,048 smokers. Within the previous four years, 435 participants became recent quitters and 205 starters. Comparing smoking and health status in year 4, non-smokers showed better scores than the other categories of ever smoking in all dimensions except in the vitality scale value, which was similar in non-smokers and in those smoking less than 15 cigarettes/day. Comparing changes in smoking and health in year 4, continuing smokers had statistically significant worse scores than non-smokers in general health, social functioning, role-emotional and mental health, whereas recent quitters showed statistically significant improvements in role-emotional and mental health over those who had continued smoking or those who became smokers. Our findings support a dose-response relationship between cigarette consumption and a worse quality of life in general and mental health in particular. They also support that changes in smoking have an impact on health.

  11. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia.

    PubMed

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. [Health inequality on results and access indicators for children in Mexico: analysis of national health surveys].

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Juan Pablo; García-Saisó, Sebastián; Espinosa-de la Peña, Rodrigo; Balandrán, Dulce Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    To analyze inequalities in health care indicators of children 0 to 9 years old in Mexico reporting gap and gradient measures. Cross-sectional analysis of national health surveys in 2000, 2006 and 2012, measuring absolute and relative gap measures as well as the Slope Index of Inequality for four health care indicators (vaccination, care for acute respiratory infections, care for acute diarrheal diseases, and care for accidents) with socioeconomic stratification, as well as absolute gaps by sex, urbanicity and ethnic background. Between 2000 and 2012, immunological equity was reached in Mexico, as well as elimination in the socioeconomic gap related to care for accidents; nevertheless, there is a persistent socioeconomic gap of care for acute respiratory infections that is also there regarding rural residence and indigenous population. In Mexico, there is a trend to the elimination of socioeconomic differences in the probability of receiving adequate health care among children, although some socioeconomic gaps remain in particular related to provision of services that require more participation of health personnel. There is a need to ensure homogenous access to effective services for all.

  13. State policies targeting junk food in schools: racial/ethnic differences in the effect of policy change on soda consumption.

    PubMed

    Taber, Daniel R; Stevens, June; Evenson, Kelly R; Ward, Dianne S; Poole, Charles; Maciejewski, Matthew L; Murray, David M; Brownson, Ross C

    2011-09-01

    We estimated the association between state policy changes and adolescent soda consumption and body mass index (BMI) percentile, overall and by race/ethnicity. We obtained data on whether states required or recommended that schools prohibit junk food in vending machines, snack bars, concession stands, and parties from the 2000 and 2006 School Health Policies and Programs Study. We used linear mixed models to estimate the association between 2000-2006 policy changes and 2007 soda consumption and BMI percentile, as reported by 90 730 students in 33 states and the District of Columbia in the Youth Risk Behavior Survey, and to test for racial/ethnic differences in the associations. Policy changes targeting concession stands were associated with 0.09 fewer servings of soda per day among students (95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.17, -0.01); the association was more pronounced among non-Hispanic Blacks (0.19 fewer servings per day). Policy changes targeting parties were associated with 0.07 fewer servings per day (95% CI = -0.13, 0.00). Policy changes were not associated with BMI percentile in any group. State policies targeting junk food in schools may reduce racial/ethnic disparities in adolescent soda consumption, but their impact appears to be too weak to reduce adolescent BMI percentile.

  14. Cancer in working-age is not associated with childhood adversities.

    PubMed

    Korpimäki, Sonja K; Sumanen, Markku P T; Sillanmäki, Lauri H; Mattila, Kari J

    2010-05-01

    Early life events are studied as potential causes of cancer. The objective here was to study childhood adversities in the etiology of cancer. The material comprised a population based random sample of 25 898 individuals among the Finnish working-aged population. In 1998 they were requested through six questions in a postal questionnaire to recall their childhood adversities. The cases consisted of people with cancer diagnosed 2000-2006 and registered in the Finnish Cancer Registry (n = 384). The rest of the sample consisted of cancer-free controls. The most common adversities were prolonged financial difficulties, serious conflicts in the family and someone in the family having been seriously or chronically ill. The cancer patients reported more prolonged financial difficulties and someone seriously or chronically ill in the family. They reported less parental divorce than the controls. The associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for age, sex, education, and health behaviour. Nor was there a significant difference in the total number of childhood adversities between the study group and the controls. On the whole, these cancer patients had not experienced more childhood adversities than the controls. According to our findings, there is no cause to attribute development of cancer in working age to childhood adversities. This information may also give relief to other family members.

  15. Pesticide use practices in rural Armenia.

    PubMed

    Tadevosyan, Artashes; Tadevosyan, Natalya; Kelly, Kevin; Gibbs, Shawn G; Rautiainen, Risto H

    2013-01-01

    Pesticide use can have adverse effects on both human health and the environment. Inappropriate use of pesticides increases the health risk to those who work with or live around pesticides. Educational programs for agricultural workers on the proper use of pesticides and personal protective equipment coupled with pesticide regulations are important tools to reduce the associated health risks. The authors conducted a survey (N = 2336) on pesticide use practices in the Ararat Valley of Armenia in 2000-2006. This study was a cross-sectional design. A multistage sampling method was implemented in the selection of the study population. The authors developed a questionnaire containing 173 questions to evaluate demographic characteristics, health conditions, and details of pesticides use practices. The intensity of pesticide use was high; 82.8% of respondents used them. More than 150 brand names of pesticides were in use. Unregistered, obsolete, expired, and banned compounds were found in active use. Poor compliance with the basic rules of pesticide safety was found throughout the study population, with 21.3% using gloves and only 11% using respirators. The agricultural workers' knowledge of the toxic properties of these pesticides as well as basic hygienic norms was very low. In some instances, the number of agrichemical applications to crops, particularly cucumbers and melons, reached 40 applications during the growing season. Better protection and training of pesticide users in Armenia is needed.

  16. Current status of prophylactic surgical treatment for familial adenomatous polyposis in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamadera, Masato; Ueno, Hideki; Kobayashi, Hirotoshi; Konishi, Tsuyoshi; Ishida, Fumio; Yamaguchi, Tatsuro; Hinoi, Takao; Inoue, Yasuhiro; Kanemitsu, Yukihide; Tomita, Naohiro; Ishida, Hideyuki; Sugihara, Kenichi

    2017-06-01

    We conducted this study to clarify the current clinical practice of prophylactic colectomy for patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) in Japan. This retrospective multi-center cohort study involved 23 specialized institutions for colorectal disease in Japan. We analyzed the records of 147 patients who underwent prophylactic surgical treatment between 2000 and 2012. Patients were divided into Group 1 (2000-2006) and Group 2 (2007-2012) based on their date of surgery. Age at the time of prophylactic surgery was 27 and 31 years in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. The proportion of attenuated FAP was significantly lower in Group 2 than in Group 1 (1.0 vs. 13 %, respectively). Pathological examination revealed an increased incidence of malignant polyps in the resected specimens from Group 2 patients (10 vs. 23 %, respectively; P = 0.034). Laparoscopic surgery was more frequent in Group 2 than in Group 1 (61 vs. 40 %, respectively). There was no surgical mortality in either group. Prophylactic surgery for FAP results in good short-term surgical outcomes in Japan. The current surgical approach is characterized by limited surgical indications for patients with attenuated FAP, delayed timing of colectomy, and the increasing standardization of laparoscopic surgery.

  17. Wildfire seasonality and land use: when do wildfires prefer to burn?

    PubMed

    Bajocco, Sofia; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris; Mazzoleni, Stefano; Ricotta, Carlo

    2010-05-01

    Because of the increasing anthropogenic fire activity, understanding the role of land-use in shaping wildfire regimes has become a major concern. In the last decade, an increasing number of studies have been carried out on the relationship between land-use and wildfire patterns, in order to identify land-use types where fire behaves selectively, showing a marked preference (or avoidance) in terms of fire incidence. By contrast, the temporal aspects of the relationship between landuse types and wildfire occurrence have received far less attention. The aim of this paper is, thus, to analyze the temporal patterns of fire occurrence in Sardinia (Italy) during the period 2000-2006 to identify land-use types where wildfires occur earlier or later than expected from a random null model. The study highlighted a close relationship between the timing of fire occurrence and land-cover that is primarily governed by two complementary processes: climatic factors that act indirectly on the timing of wildfires determining the spatial distribution of land-use types, and human population and human pressure that directly influence fire ignition. From a practical viewpoint, understanding the temporal trends of wildfires within the different land-use classes can be an effective decision-support tool for fire agencies in managing fire risk and for producing provisional models of fire behavior under changing climatic scenarios and evolving landscapes.

  18. “Skill of Generalized Additive Model to Detect PM2.5 Health ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Summary. Measures of health outcomes are collinear with meteorology and air quality, making analysis of connections between human health and air quality difficult. The purpose of this analysis was to determine time scales and periods shared by the variables of interest (and by implication scales and periods that are not shared). Hospital admissions, meteorology (temperature and relative humidity), and air quality (PM2.5 and daily maximum ozone) for New York City during the period 2000-2006 were decomposed into temporal scales ranging from 2 days to greater than two years using a complex wavelet transform. Health effects were modeled as functions of the wavelet components of meteorology and air quality using the generalized additive model (GAM) framework. This simulation study showed that GAM is extremely successful at extracting and estimating a health effect embedded in a dataset. It also shows that, if the objective in mind is to estimate the health signal but not to fully explain this signal, a simple GAM model with a single confounder (calendar time) whose smooth representation includes a sufficient number of constraints is as good as a more complex model.Introduction. In the context of wavelet regression, confounding occurs when two or more independent variables interact with the dependent variable at the same frequency. Confounding also acts on a variety of time scales, changing the PM2.5 coefficient (magnitude and sign) and its significance ac

  19. [Sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics associated with the increase of cesarean section practice in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Suárez-López, Leticia; Campero, Lourdes; De la Vara-Salazar, Elvia; Rivera-Rivera, Leonor; Hernández-Serrato, María Isidra; Walker, Dilys; Lazcano-Ponce, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    To describe the trend of cesarean section practice in Mexico, and its association with women's sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics. Based on the 2000, 2006 and 2012 National Health Surveys, information on c-section was analyzed. A multivariate logistic regression model was used in 2012. A 50.3% increase in the use of c-section was observed nationally from 2000 to 2012. Women more likely to undergo a c-section include those whose delivery care takes place in the private sector (OR=2.84, 95%CI:2.15-3.74). When associating women's age and parity, the greatest risks are observed among primiparous women between 12 and 19 years of age, and those aged 35 years and more (OR=6.02, 95%CI:1.24-29.26 and OR=5.20, 95%CI:2.41-11.21, respectively). Some recommendations to revert the increase of this clinical practice, especially when there is no full justification for its realization, are proposed.

  20. Modeling of Particle Acceleration at Multiple Shocks Via Diffusive Shock Acceleration: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard; Zank, Gary P.

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a model that diffusively accelerates particles at multiple shocks. Our basic approach is related to box models (Protheroe and Stanev, 1998; Moraal and Axford, 1983; Ball and Kirk, 1992; Drury et al., 1999) in which a distribution of particles is diffusively accelerated inside the box while simultaneously experiencing decompression through adiabatic expansion and losses from the convection and diffusion of particles outside the box (Melrose and Pope, 1993; Zank et al., 2000). We adiabatically decompress the accelerated particle distribution between each shock by either the method explored in Melrose and Pope (1993) and Pope and Melrose (1994) or by the approach set forth in Zank et al. (2000) where we solve the transport equation by a method analogous to operator splitting. The second method incorporates the additional loss terms of convection and diffusion and allows for the use of a variable time between shocks. We use a maximum injection energy (Emax) appropriate for quasi-parallel and quasi-perpendicular shocks (Zank et al., 2000, 2006; Dosch and Shalchi, 2010) and provide a preliminary application of the diffusive acceleration of particles by multiple shocks with frequencies appropriate for solar maximum (i.e., a non-Markovian process).

  1. Mental health trajectories and their embeddedness in work and family circumstances: a latent state-trait approach to life-course trajectories.

    PubMed

    Cullati, Stéphane; Courvoisier, Delphine S; Burton-Jeangros, Claudine

    2014-09-01

    Mental health trajectories are known to be influenced by work and family circumstances. However, few studies have examined both of these influences simultaneously in a longitudinal manner. The life-course perspective stresses the importance of examining trajectories in terms of both stable and dynamic components. In this article we use structural equation models (latent state-trait, LST) to distinguish the stable and situational components of mental health trajectories and hypothesise that situational mental health is influenced by satisfaction with work and family, and this effect differs by gender. An analysis of data from a nationally representative sample of 1616 working Swiss residents (2000-2006) shows that mental health trajectories are mostly stable and only slightly sensitive to situational influences. However, situational influences in a given wave do predict situational influences in the next wave. Satisfaction with work and family influences situational mental health in both genders, but the impact is greater for men. In conclusion, the LST approach allows for the examination of mental health trajectories from a life-course perspective by distinguishing stable and situational components. Mental health trajectories are more stable and constant than they are dependent on work and family circumstances, and men are more sensitive to family circumstances than women.

  2. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Hamdan, Mohammad; Crosson, William; Estes, Maurice, Jr.; Estes, Sue; Quattrochi, Dale; Johnson, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heatrelated mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with estimates of land surface temperature (LST) derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the consideration of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we also developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. In this paper, we will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  3. Downscaling MODIS Land Surface Temperature for Urban Public Health Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hamdan, M. Z.; Crosson, W. L.; Estes, M. G., Jr.; Estes, S. M.; Quattrochi, D. A.; Johnson, D.

    2013-12-01

    This study is part of a project funded by the NASA Applied Sciences Public Health Program, which focuses on Earth science applications of remote sensing data for enhancing public health decision-making. Heat related death is currently the number one weather-related killer in the United States. Mortality from these events is expected to increase as a function of climate change. This activity sought to augment current Heat Watch/Warning Systems (HWWS) with NASA remotely sensed data, and models used in conjunction with socioeconomic and heat-related mortality data. The current HWWS do not take into account intra-urban spatial variations in risk assessment. The purpose of this effort is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban environments by integrating sociodemographic risk factors with land surface temperature (LST) estimates derived from thermal remote sensing data. In order to further improve the assessment of intra-urban variations in risk from extreme heat, we developed and evaluated a number of spatial statistical techniques for downscaling the 1-km daily MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) LST data to 60 m using Landsat-derived LST data, which have finer spatial but coarser temporal resolution than MODIS. We will present these techniques, which have been demonstrated and validated for Phoenix, AZ using data from the summers of 2000-2006.

  4. Ecosystems response and restitution time across the K/Pg boundary transition at high-latitudes, Southern Hemisphere, New Zealand - a palynological approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willumsen, Pi; Vajda, Vivi

    2010-05-01

    terrestrial record e.g. "Fern-spike" interval (Vajda et al. 2001; Vajda and Raine 2003; Vajda and McLoughlin 2004). Interestingly, the dinocyst Trithyrodinium evittii has first occurrence immediately above the K/Pg boundary horizon in the southwest Pacific (Helby et al., 1987; Wilson 1987, 1988; Williams et al. 2004; Willumsen 2000, 2006). This dinocyst pattern is interpreted to reflect an invasion of this species into the southwest Pacific, in the aftermath of the Chicxulub impact. In the New Zealand sections, two earliest Paleocene intervals with dominance of T. evittii are separated by an acme interval of Paleoperidinium pyrophorum (Willumsen 2000, 2006; Willumsen et al., 2004a; 2004b). The sudden acme of P. pyrophorum ca. 0.5 Ma after the K/Pg boundary event is interpreted to reflect a regional cold water pulse taking place after a period with relatively warmer sea-surface e.g. T. evittii dominated dinocyst assemblages. A second period with warm-surface water is observed c. 0.8-1.5 Ma after the event. The end of the main marine recovery period is marked by a gradual arrival of new suite of dinocyst species and oligotrophic conditions. The timing of these early Paleocene events in New Zealand aligns well with D'Hondt et al. (1998, 2005) who propose that the marine ecosystem was radically altered due to the K/Pg boundary event and that the post-K/Pg boundary is divided into several recovery steps before the open-ocean ecosystem was fully recovered c. 3 Ma after the event.

  5. The long range transport of birch (Betula) pollen from Poland and Germany causes significant pre-season concentrations in Denmark

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambelas Skjoth, C.; Sommer, J.; Stach, A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Christensen, J. H.; Frohn, L. M.; Geels, C.; Hansen, K. M.; Hedegaard, G. B.

    2009-04-01

    In Denmark, where birch pollen is considered to be among the most important allergenic pollen, about one million people suffer from seasonal allergic rhinitis. In Denmark, the official reported pollen forecast is based on the daily weather forecast, the pollen calendar and local 24-h measurements. Birch pollen has the potential for long-range transport but the present Danish pollen forecast does not account for birch pollen being transported into the country from distant sources.. Long-range transport episodes are intermittent and often out of the main pollen season, where individuals in general will be medically unprotected. Here we use an integrated approach to investigate whether or not Denmark receives significant quantities of birch pollen from Poland and Germany before local trees start to flower. In 2006 we used a combination of phenological observations and pollen measurements in Poland (Poznań) and Denmark (Copenhagen). Seasonal and diurnal variations in birch pollen measurement from Copenhagen (2000-2006) were examined with the aim of identifying pre-seasonal episodes originating from long-range transport. The 2.5% accumulation method was used for identifying start of season. If daily pollen counts exceeded 30 grains/m3 either before the local flowering season began or on the actual start day, the episode was chosen for investigation with back trajectory analysis. A birch forest inventory for Northern Europe was produced and implemented in DEHM-Pollen along with a simple unified pollen release model SUPREME to investigate the 2006 campaign in detail. In 2006, full flowering took place in Poznan between 20th and 28th of April and daily concentrations varied between 739 and 2169 grains/m3. In Copenhagen phenological observations showed that local flowering was initiated the 2nd of May. In Copenhagen several episodes with pollen concentrations at 108, 244 and 41 grains/m3 were recorded the 23rd, 26th and 27th of April, respectively. Back-trajectory analysis

  6. Towards better-constrained assessments of the carbon balance of North America in the 21st Century: a comparison of recent model and inventory-based estimates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, D. J.; McGuire, D.; Post, W. M.; Heath, L. S.; Kurz, W.; Stinson, G.; Thornton, M.; Wei, Y.; West, T. O.

    2009-12-01

    The North American C sink is generally considered to account for a large, but highly uncertain, portion of the northern extra-tropical land based sink, with estimates ranging from 15% to 100%. This uncertainty is owing to a number of sources, including the limitations of the methodologies used to develop estimates of C stocks and flux, the lack of comprehensive and accurate data on key driving forces (particularly disturbance, land management and land-use change), and the incomplete knowledge of long-term ecosystem responses to these driving forces and their interactions. Here, we examine the ability of various modeling approaches to identify sources and sinks of carbon across the North American continent by comparing model estimates with those based on analysis of available national forest and agricultural inventories for Canada, the U.S. and Mexico. For North America, inventory-based estimates of C stocks and flux in the early 21st Century (2000 - 2006) are being collected by either political state units in the case of the United States and Mexico, or the Kyoto Protocol reporting units for Canada. Flux estimates from more than 20 forward- and inverse- based models have been collected for the Regional / Continental Interim Synthesis activity under the North American Carbon Program, and these estimates have been processed to allow comparison at the spatial and temporal scales of the inventories. Preliminary analysis of the inventory data suggest that Canada’s Managed Forest Area acted as a net sink of atmospheric CO2 on the order of 46 TgC yr-1 from 2000 to 2006. This estimate includes the release of 26 TgC yr-1 from forest fires, while an additional 50 TgC yr-1 was removed from the forest as harvested products over this time period. In the U.S., inventory data indicate net C stock gains of 167 TgC yr-1 in the forest sector and 17 TgC yr-1 in croplands from 2000 to 2005. Model estimates of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) for the continent range from -78 to -645 Tg

  7. Global spatial assessment of WUI and related land cover in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, Marj; Parente, Joana; Pereira, Mário G.

    2017-04-01

    Forest fires as hazardous events are assuming an increasing importance all around the world, especially in relation to climate changes and to urban sprawl, which makes it difficult to outline a border between human infrastructures and wildland areas. This zone, known as the Wildland Urban Interface (WUI), is defined as the area where structures and other human development meet or intermingle with undeveloped wildland (USDA 2001). Its extension is influenced by anthropogenic features, since, as it was proved, the distance to roads and houses negatively influence the probability of forest fires ignitions, while the population density positively affects it. Land use is also a crucial feature to be considered in the analyses of the impact of forest fires, and each natural, semi-natural and artificial land cover can be affected in a different proportion. The aim of the present study is to investigate and mapping the wildland urban interface and its temporal dynamic in Portugal at global scale. Secondly, it aims at providing a quantitative characterization of forest fires occurred in the last few decades (1990 - 2012) in relation to the burned area and the land covers evolution. The National mapping burnt area dataset (by the Institute for the Conservation of Nature and Forests) provided the information allowing to precisely localize forest fires. The land cover classes were derived from the Corinne Land Cover, available for four periods (1990-2000-2006-2012). The following two classes were retained to outline the WUI: 1) artificial surfaces, as representative of the human development; 2) forest and semi-natural area, as representative of undeveloped wildland. First, we investigated the distribution of the burned areas among the different detailed land covers classes. Then, to map the WUI, we considered a buffer distance around artificial surfaces located in proximity of forests and semi-natural areas. The descriptive statistic carried out individually within each

  8. Factors associated with the use of antihypertensives among seniors.

    PubMed

    Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira; Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto

    2016-12-22

    Analyze the use of antihypertensives among seniors and the association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. In this seriate cross-sectional study, we used data from the Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento study (SABE - Health, Well-being, and Aging), conducted in 2000, 2006, and 2010 in the city of São Paulo. Association between the use of antihypertensives and the demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic characteristics and risk factors was analyzed by using multilevel logistic regression models. We observed increased proportion of use of antihypertensive, from 48.7% in 2000 to 61.3% in 2006, reaching 65.7% in 2010. Among the seniors who made use of this type of medicine, we also observed increased adoption of combined therapy in the period, from 69.9% to 82.6% from 2000 to 2006 and reaching 91.6% in 2010. Multilevel analysis indicated statistically significant increase in use of antihypertensives, even after control by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, both in 2006 and in 2010 (OR = 1.90; 95%CI 1.60-2.24 and OR = 1.94; 95%CI 1.62-2.33, respectively). Use of antihypertensives showed positive association with females, higher age group, black skin color, overweight, and smoking history. High use of antihypertensives and its association with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics can help guide the discussion of strategies to improve the epidemiological situation, the quality of life, and the distribution of medicines to the elderly population. Analisar o uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos em idosos e a associação com características socioeconômicas e comportamentais. Neste estudo transversal seriado, foram utilizados dados do estudo SABE (Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento), realizado em 2000, 2006 e 2010 no município de São Paulo. A associação entre o uso de medicamentos anti-hipertensivos e as características demográficas, socioeconômicas comportamentais e fatores de risco foi analisada por meio de modelos de

  9. Air pollution and congenital heart defects.

    PubMed

    Agay-Shay, Keren; Friger, Michael; Linn, Shai; Peled, Ammatzia; Amitai, Yona; Peretz, Chava

    2013-07-01

    Environmental factors such as ambient air pollution have been associated with congenital heart defects. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational exposure to air pollution and the risk of congenital heart defects. We conducted a registry-based cohort study with a total of 135,527 live- and still-births in the Tel-Aviv region during 2000-2006. We used a Geographic Information System-based spatiotemporal approach with weekly inverse distance weighting modeling to evaluate associations between gestational exposure to ambient air pollution during weeks 3-8 of pregnancy and the risk for congenital heart defects. The following pollutants were studied: carbon monoxide, nitrogen-dioxide, ozone, sulfur-dioxide and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 10 μm and 2.5 μm (PM10, PM2.5 respectively). Logistic models, adjusted for socio-demographic covariates were used to evaluate the associations. We found that maternal exposure to increased concentrations of PM10 was associated with multiple congenital heart defects (adjusted OR 1.05, 95% CI: 1.01 to 1.10 for 10 μg/m(3) increment). An inverse association was observed between concentrations of PM2.5 and isolated patent ductus arteriosus (adjusted OR 0.78, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.91 for 5 µg/m(3) increment). Sensitivity analyses showed that results were consistent. Generally there were no evidence for an association between gaseous air pollutants and congenital heart defects.Our results for PM10 and congenital heart defects confirm results from previous studies. The results for PM2.5 need further investigations.

  10. The decline in dental caries among Korean children aged 8 and 12 years from 2000 to 2012 focusing SiC Index and DMFT.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Na; Han, Dong-Hun; Jun, Eun-Joo; Kim, Se-Yeon; Jeong, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Jin-Bom

    2016-03-22

    The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and severity of dental caries among Korean children aged 8 and 12 years over a period of 12 years by determining the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) and the Significant Caries index (SiC index). Stratified cluster-sampled data from the National Oral Health Survey conducted from 2000 to 2012 were analysed. In 2000, 2006, and 2012, a total of 2397, 2650, and 9601 children aged 8 and 12 years were examined, respectively. The children's oral health status, including the number of DMFT and fissures sealed teeth, was examined and recorded. The SiC index was calculated according to the child's residential district. Over the 12-year period, the percentages of caries-free children aged 8 and 12 years increased from 26.0 to 42.7 % and from 53.4 to 69.6 %, respectively. The percentages of children aged 8 and 12 years with sealed teeth in 2012 were 62.1 and 62.5 %, respectively, more than triple the rates in 2000. The mean DMFT values of children aged 8 and 12 years decreased from1.04 to 0.67 and from 2.86 to 1.84, respectively. The SiC index of children aged 8 and 12 years also decreased from 2.73 to 1.97 and from 6.13 to 4.51, respectively. The rate of reduction in DMFT among 8- and 12-year-old children in the second 6 years of the observation period was lower than that in the first 6 years. A remarkable decline in dental caries of 8- and 12-year-old Korean children was observed over the 12-year study period. The mean DMFT values and SiC index of children aged 8 and 12 years decreased. The reduction rate between 2000 and 2006 was higher than that between 2006 and 2012.

  11. Seasonal effect of PM(10) concentrations on mortality and morbidity in Seoul, Korea: a temperature-matched case-crossover analysis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Okhee; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Ho

    2010-01-01

    Explorations of interactions between air pollution and seasonal changes have represented one approach in examining the consequences of global warming. However, only a few studies have focused on evaluating the effects of seasonal air pollution using data on both morbidity and mortality in Asia. We examined the associations between PM(10) concentrations and mortality and hospital admissions in Seoul, Korea for the periods 2000-2006 and 2001-2006. We employed a temperature-matched case-crossover design, where reference periods matched case days in regard to temperature (same rounded to degrees celsius ( degrees C)), month, and year. A total of 238,826 deaths were identified, along with 98,570 and 93,553 inpatient admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, respectively. We found that the association with PM(10) and mortality/morbidity increased during the summer. During the study period, 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was associated with the increase in mortality by 0.28% (95% confidence interval: 0.12, 0.44), 0.51% (0.19, 0.83), and 0.59% (-0.08, 1.26) for non-accidental, cardiovascular, and respiratory causes. 10microg/m(3) increase in PM(10) was also associated with increase in hospitalization from cardiovascular and respiratory causes by 0.77% (0.53, 1.01) and 1.19% (0.94, 1.44). In the summer, the increase in mortality and hospitalization was 0.57% (0.20, 0.93), 0.64% (-0.10, 1.38), 0.50% (-1.02, 2.05), 1.52% (0.89, 2.16), and 1.55% (0.87, 2.22). This study provides evidence that the effect of PM(10) on mortality and morbidity varies with season and increases during the summer season.

  12. InSAR measurement of the deformation around Siling Co Lake: Inferences on the lower crust viscosity in central Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, Marie-Pierre; Twardzik, Cédric; Ducret, Gabriel; Lasserre, Cécile; Guillaso, Stéphane; Jianbao, Sun

    2015-07-01

    The Siling Co Lake is the largest endorheic lake in Central Tibet. Altimetric measures, combined with lake contours, show that in 1972-1999 its water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0 m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increased rate gradually stepped down to 0.2 m/yr in 2007-2011. The ground motion associated with the water load increase is studied by interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) using 107 ERS and Envisat SAR images during the period 1992-2011. The deformation amplitude closely follows the lake level temporal evolution, except that subsidence continues in 2008-2011, while the lake level stagnated. This temporal evolution suggests a non elastic relaxation process taking place at a decade timescale. Phase delay maps are used to constrain possible layered viscoelastic rheological models. An elastic model could partly explain the observed subsidence rate if elastic moduli are about twice lower than those extracted from VP/VS profiles. The surface deformation pattern is also extracted by projecting the phase delay maps against the best fit model temporal behavior. It shows that deep relaxation in the asthenosphere is negligible at the decade timescale and favors the existence of a ductile channel in the deep crust above a more rigid mantle. Overall, the best fit model includes a ductile lower crust, with a viscosity of 1-3 × 1018 Pa s between 25 and 35 km and the Moho (at 65 km), overlying a rigid mantle.

  13. Validated Risk Score for Predicting 6-Month Mortality in Infective Endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Park, Lawrence P; Chu, Vivian H; Peterson, Gail; Skoutelis, Athanasios; Lejko-Zupa, Tatjana; Bouza, Emilio; Tattevin, Pierre; Habib, Gilbert; Tan, Ren; Gonzalez, Javier; Altclas, Javier; Edathodu, Jameela; Fortes, Claudio Querido; Siciliano, Rinaldo Focaccia; Pachirat, Orathai; Kanj, Souha; Wang, Andrew

    2016-04-18

    Host factors and complications have been associated with higher mortality in infective endocarditis (IE). We sought to develop and validate a model of clinical characteristics to predict 6-month mortality in IE. Using a large multinational prospective registry of definite IE (International Collaboration on Endocarditis [ICE]-Prospective Cohort Study [PCS], 2000-2006, n=4049), a model to predict 6-month survival was developed by Cox proportional hazards modeling with inverse probability weighting for surgery treatment and was internally validated by the bootstrapping method. This model was externally validated in an independent prospective registry (ICE-PLUS, 2008-2012, n=1197). The 6-month mortality was 971 of 4049 (24.0%) in the ICE-PCS cohort and 342 of 1197 (28.6%) in the ICE-PLUS cohort. Surgery during the index hospitalization was performed in 48.1% and 54.0% of the cohorts, respectively. In the derivation model, variables related to host factors (age, dialysis), IE characteristics (prosthetic or nosocomial IE, causative organism, left-sided valve vegetation), and IE complications (severe heart failure, stroke, paravalvular complication, and persistent bacteremia) were independently associated with 6-month mortality, and surgery was associated with a lower risk of mortality (Harrell's C statistic 0.715). In the validation model, these variables had similar hazard ratios (Harrell's C statistic 0.682), with a similar, independent benefit of surgery (hazard ratio 0.74, 95% CI 0.62-0.89). A simplified risk model was developed by weight adjustment of these variables. Six-month mortality after IE is ≈25% and is predicted by host factors, IE characteristics, and IE complications. Surgery during the index hospitalization is associated with lower mortality but is performed less frequently in the highest risk patients. A simplified risk model may be used to identify specific risk subgroups in IE. © 2016 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart

  14. Cactus, Riparian Habitat, and Turf Grass: Water Budget and Policy Implications of Vegetation Change Under Urban Heat Island and Effluent Irrigation in the Southwest U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    This paper assesses the impacts of two urban growth drivers--urban heat island (UHI) and effluent irrigation--on the landscaping vegetation component of water budgets in semi-arid southern Arizona, and has policy significance for other urbanizing regions facing water scarcity. Landscaping irrigation, accounting for up to half of the study area's urban water demand, is influenced by vegetation type, UHI temperature and evapotranspiration, and water type (potable or effluent). Conservation programs that have resulted in widespread adoption of low-flow indoor plumbing fixtures and appliances currently identify irrigation of lawns, trees, and other landscaping as targets to reduce water use. At the same time, however, high water-demand turf grass is expanding on golf courses, public parks, and campuses that are irrigated using effluent that historically has supported riparian corridor habitat. Tucson, Arizona's UHI over 1969-2006 is characterized by a 0.043 degC/yr increase in annual average differences between urban - nonurban minimum temperatures (Tmin). The most pronounced trends in urban Tmin increases are 0.097 degC/yr for the months of March, April, May, and June corresponding to the pre- monsoon period of highest outdoor water demand. The UHI Tmax and reference evapotranspiration trends are less marked but indicate increasing irrigation demand for both residential and public landscaping. Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) from Landsat Thematic Mapper for 1984-2005 shows that vegetation, particularly turf on golf courses, is increasing in Tucson's expanding urban fringe but has largely stabilized or is marginally decreasing in the urban core. Regression analysis of NDVI with water use (records only available for 2000-2006) shows mixed results. The tradeoff between water conservation for residential landscaping and expanding turf grass on public landscaping at the cost of riparian corridors is explored from dual water budget and policy perspectives.

  15. Measurements of long-term external and internal radiation exposure of inhabitants of some villages of the Bryansk region of Russia after the Chernobyl accident.

    PubMed

    Bernhardsson, C; Zvonova, I; Rääf, C; Mattsson, S

    2011-10-15

    A Nordic-Soviet programme was initiated in 1990 to evaluate the external and internal radiation exposure of the inhabitants of several villages in the Bryansk region of Russia. This area was one of the number of areas particularly affected by the nuclear accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant in 1986. Measurements were carried out yearly until 1998 and after that more irregularly; in 2000, 2006 and 2008 respectively. The effective dose estimates were based on individual thermoluminescent dosemeters and on in vivo measurements of the whole body content of (137)Cs (and (134)Cs during the first years of the programme). The decrease in total effective dose during the almost 2 decade follow-up was due to a continuous decrease in the dominating external exposure and a less decreasing but highly variable exposure from internal irradiation. In 2008, the observed average effective dose (i.e. the sum of external and internal exposure) from Chernobyl (137)Cs to the residents was estimated to be 0.3mSv y(-1). This corresponds to 8% of the estimated annual dose in 1990 and to 1% of the estimated annual dose in 1986. As a mean for the population group and for the period of the present study (2006-2008), the average yearly effective dose from Chernobyl cesium was comparable to the absorbed dose obtained annually from external exposure to cosmic radiation plus internal exposure to naturally occurring radionuclides in the human body. Our data indicate that the effective dose from internal exposure is becoming increasingly important as the body burdens of Chernobyl (137)Cs are decreasing more slowly than the external exposure. However, over the years there have been large individual variations in both the external and internal effective doses, as well as differences between the villages investigated. These variations and differences are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Climate-induced changes in high elevation stream nitrate dynamics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, J.S.; Schmidt, T.M.; Hartman, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    Mountain terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems are responsive to external drivers of change, especially climate change and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N). We explored the consequences of a temperature-warming trend on stream nitrate in an alpine and subalpine watershed in the Colorado Front Range that has long been the recipient of elevated atmospheric N deposition. Mean annual stream nitrate concentrations since 2000 are higher by 50% than an earlier monitoring period of 1991-1999. Mean annual N export increased by 28% from 2.03 kg N ha-1yr-1 before 2000 to 2.84 kg N ha-1yr-1 in Loch Vale watershed since 2000. The substantial increase in N export comes as a surprise, since mean wet atmospheric N deposition from 1991 to 2006 (3.06 kg N ha-1 yr-1) did not increase. There has been a period of below average precipitation from 2000 to 2006 and a steady increase in summer and fall temperatures of 0.12??C yr-1 in both seasons since 1991. Nitrate concentrations, as well as the weathering products calcium and sulfate, were higher for the period 2000-2006 in rock glacier meltwater at the top of the watershed above the influence of alpine and subalpine vegetation and soils. We conclude the observed recent N increases in Loch Vale are the result of warmer summer and fall mean temperatures that are melting ice in glaciers and rock glaciers. This, in turn, has exposed sediments from which N produced by nitrification can be flushed. We suggest a water quality threshold may have been crossed around 2000. The phenomenon observed in Loch Vale may be indicative of N release from ice features such as rock glaciers worldwide as mountain glaciers retreat. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Molecular characterization of p16-immunopositive but HPV DNA-negative oropharyngeal carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Rietbergen, Michelle M; Snijders, Peter J F; Beekzada, Derakshan; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Brink, Arjen; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Hesselink, Albertus T; Witte, Birgit I; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Baatenburg-De Jong, Robert J; Leemans, C René; Brakenhoff, Ruud H

    2014-05-15

    Recent studies have reported that p16 protein overexpression qualifies as a surrogate marker identifying an oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC). However, there is still a percentage of OPSCCs that are positive for p16 immunohistochemistry (p16 IHC) but lack HPV DNA. The objective of this study was to characterize this group at the molecular level by performing sensitive HPV DNA- and RNA-based PCR methods and genetic profiling. All patients diagnosed with an OPSCC in the period 2000-2006 in two Dutch university medical centers were included (n = 841). The presence of HPV in a tumor sample was tested by p16 IHC followed by an HPV DNA GP5+/6+ PCR. p16 IHC scored positive in 195 samples, of which 161 were HPV DNA-positive and 34 (17%) HPV DNA-negative. In the latter group, a SPF10-LiPA25 assay, an HPV16 type-specific E7 PCR and an E6 mRNA RT-PCR were performed. Next, ten of these cases were further analyzed for loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of 15 microsatellite markers at chromosome arms 3p, 9p and 17p. Of the 34 p16-positive but PCR-negative OPSCCs, two samples tested positive by SPF10 assay, HPV16 E7 PCR and HPV16 E6 mRNA RT-PCR. Three samples tested positive by SPF10 assay but negative by the HPV16-specific assays. Nine of ten cases that were tested for LOH showed a genetic pattern comparable to that of HPV-negative tumors. This study categorizes p16-positive but HPV DNA-negative OPSCCs as HPV-negative tumors based on genetic profiling. This study highlights the importance of performing HPV testing in addition to p16 IHC for proper identification of HPV-associated OPSCCs.

  18. Prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers longitudinal trends and predictors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kelvin; Forster, Jean L; Erickson, Darin J; Lazovich, Deann; Southwell, Brian G

    2011-08-01

    Smoking in movies is prevalent. However, use of content analysis to describe trends in smoking in movies has provided mixed results and has not tapped what adolescents actually perceive. To assess the prospective trends in the prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers and identify predictors associated with these trends. Using data from the Minnesota Adolescent Community Cohort Study collected during 2000-2006 when participants were aged between 12 and 18 years (N=4735), latent variable growth models were employed to describe the longitudinal trends in the perceived prevalence of smoking in movies using a four-level scale (never to most of the time) measured every 6 months, and examined associations between these trends and demographic, smoking-related attitudinal and socio-environmental predictors. Analysis was conducted in 2009. At baseline, about 50% of participants reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time, and another 36% reported most of the time. The prevalence of smoking in movies as perceived by teenagers declined over time, and the decline was steeper in those who were aged 14-16 years than those who were younger at baseline (p≤0.05). Despite the decline, teenagers still reported seeing smoking in movies some of the time. Teenagers who reported more close friends who smoked also reported a higher prevalence of smoking in movies at baseline (regression coefficients=0.04-0.18, p<0.01). Teenagers' perception of the prevalence of smoking in movies declined over time, which may be attributable to changes made by the movie industry. Despite the decline, teenagers were still exposed to a moderate amount of smoking imagery. Interventions that further reduce teenage exposure to smoking in movies may be needed to have an effect on adolescent smoking. Copyright © 2011 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Community-based pediatric palliative care for health related quality of life, hospital utilization and costs lessons learned from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Goldhagen, Jeffrey; Fafard, Mark; Komatz, Kelly; Eason, Terry; Livingood, William C

    2016-08-03

    Children with chronic complex-medical conditions comprise a small minority of children who require substantial healthcare with major implications for hospital utilization and costs in pediatrics. Community-Based Pediatric Palliative Care (CBPPC) provides a holistic approach to patient care that can improve their quality of life and lead to reduced costs of hospital care. This study's purpose was to analyze and report unpublished evaluation study results from 2007 that demonstrate the potential for CBPPC on Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and hospital utilization and costs in light of the increasing national focus on the care of children with complex-medical conditions, including the Affordable Care Act's emphasis on patient-centered outcomes. A multi-method research design used primary data collected from caregivers to determine the Program's potential impact on HRQoL, and administrative data to assess the Program's potential impact on hospital utilization and costs. Caregivers (n=53) of children enrolled in the Northeast Florida CBPPC program (Community PedsCare) through the years 2002-2007 were recruited for the Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) study. Children (n=48) enrolled in the Program through years 2000-2006 were included in the utilization and cost study. HRQoL was generally high, and hospital charges per child declined by $1203 for total hospital services (p=.34) and $1047 for diagnostic charges per quarter (p=0.13). Hospital length of stay decreased from 2.92 days per quarter to 1.22 days per quarter (p<.05). The decrease in hospital utilization and costs and the high HRQoL results indicate that CBPPC has the potential to influence important outcomes for the quality of care available for children with complex-medical conditions and their caregivers.

  20. RealCalc : a real time Java calculation tool. Application to HVSR estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hloupis, G.; Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    Java computation platform is not a newcomer in the seismology field. It is mainly used for applications regarding collecting, requesting, spreading and visualizing seismological data because it is productive, safe and has low maintenance costs. Although it has very attractive characteristics for the engineers, Java didn't used frequently in real time applications where prediction and reliability required as a reaction to real world events. The main reasons for this are the absence of priority support (such as priority ceiling or priority inversion) and the use of an automated memory management (called garbage collector). To overcome these problems a number of extensions have been proposed with the Real Time Specification for Java (RTSJ) being the most promising and used one. In the current study we used the RTSJ to build an application that receives data continuously and provides estimations in real time. The application consists of four main modules: incoming data, preprocessing, estimation and publication. As an application example we present real time HVSR estimation. Microtremors recordings are collected continuously from the incoming data module. The preprocessing module consists of a window selector tool based on wavelets which is applied on the incoming data stream in order derive the most stationary parts. The estimation module provides all the necessary calculations according to user specifications. Finally the publication module except the results presentation it also calculates attributes and relevant statistics for each site (temporal variations, HVSR stability). Acknowledgements This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP7 (KP_7).

  1. Prenatal ultrasound screening of congenital heart disease in an unselected national population: a 21-year experience.

    PubMed

    Marek, Jan; Tomek, Viktor; Skovránek, Jan; Povysilová, Viera; Samánek, Milan

    2011-01-01

    To determine the prevalence and spectrum of congenital heart disease (CHD) and the impact of a national prenatal ultrasound screening programme on outcome in a well-characterised population. A comprehensive registry was created of all paediatric and fetal patients with CHD over a 21-year period (1986-2006) in the Czech Republic. The centralised healthcare system enabled confirmation of prenatal and postnatal findings clinically and by post mortem. In the entire cohort of 9475 fetuses referred for detailed cardiac evaluation, 1604 (16.9%) had CHD, of which 501 (31.2%) had additional extracardiac anomalies. In the pregnancies which continued, 59 (8.6%) of 685 fetuses died in utero, and 626 (91.4%) babies were born alive. Prenatal detection rate was highest in double outlet right ventricle (77.3%) and hypoplastic left heart (50.6%). Detection rate increased significantly (p<0.001) for 12/17 lesions comparing 1986-1999 and 2000-2006. In recent years, detection of hypoplastic left heart reached 95.8% while transposition of the great arteries was diagnosed antenatally in only 25.6%. The nationwide prenatal ultrasound screening programme enabled detection of major cardiac abnormalities in 1/3 of patients born with any CHD and 80% of those with critical forms. Nevertheless, owing to the severity of lesions and associated extracardiac anomalies, the overall mortality of antenatally diagnosed CHD remains high. These findings are important for the understanding natural history of CHD for the establishing of screening programmes in Europe.

  2. Characteristics of methadone-related fatalities in Norway.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Jean-Paul; Khiabani, Hassan Z; Hilberg, Thor; Karinen, Ritva; Slørdal, Lars; Waal, Helge; Mørland, Jørg

    2015-11-01

    There are currently over 7000 patients enrolled in opioid maintenance treatment (OMT) programs in Norway. A rise in methadone-related deaths proportional to increasing methadone sales over the period 2000-2006 has been observed, but the causative factors for these fatalities have been elusive. In the present study, individual characteristics, methadone concentrations and additional toxicological findings were analyzed. Methadone intoxication deaths (n = 264) were divided into 3 groups according to toxicological findings in whole blood: group 1 - methadone detected alone, or together with one additional drug at low or therapeutic levels, or a low concentration of ethanol (<1 g/L) (n = 21); group 2 - multiple additional drugs/substances detected below lethal levels (n = 175); group 3 - one or more additional drugs/substances detected at lethal levels, or ethanol >3 g/L (n = 55). Methadone blood concentrations in decedents who had been enrolled in OMT were higher than for decedents not in treatment, in all groups. Blood methadone concentrations around 1 mg/L were present in fatal multi-drug intoxications in OMT patients. Results suggest that some patients may be at risk of dying when combining therapeutic concentrations of methadone with other psychoactive substances. Somatic disease was a common finding among deceased OMT patients. Concentrations in methadone users not enrolled in OMT were predominantly between 0.3 and 0.4 mg/L and were not related to the presence of other drugs. However, methadone concentrations below 0.1 mg/L may be associated with intoxication following methadone use, both alone and in combination with other drugs. Younger male users (mean age 34 years) seemed to have a higher susceptibility to methadone intoxication.

  3. Rare chromosome abnormalities, prevalence and prenatal diagnosis rates from population-based congenital anomaly registers in Europe.

    PubMed

    Wellesley, Diana; Dolk, Helen; Boyd, Patricia A; Greenlees, Ruth; Haeusler, Martin; Nelen, Vera; Garne, Ester; Khoshnood, Babak; Doray, Berenice; Rissmann, Anke; Mullaney, Carmel; Calzolari, Elisa; Bakker, Marian; Salvador, Joaquin; Addor, Marie-Claude; Draper, Elizabeth; Rankin, Judith; Tucker, David

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study is to quantify the prevalence and types of rare chromosome abnormalities (RCAs) in Europe for 2000-2006 inclusive, and to describe prenatal diagnosis rates and pregnancy outcome. Data held by the European Surveillance of Congenital Anomalies database were analysed on all the cases from 16 population-based registries in 11 European countries diagnosed prenatally or before 1 year of age, and delivered between 2000 and 2006. Cases were all unbalanced chromosome abnormalities and included live births, fetal deaths from 20 weeks gestation and terminations of pregnancy for fetal anomaly. There were 10,323 cases with a chromosome abnormality, giving a total birth prevalence rate of 43.8/10,000 births. Of these, 7335 cases had trisomy 21,18 or 13, giving individual prevalence rates of 23.0, 5.9 and 2.3/10,000 births, respectively (53, 13 and 5% of all reported chromosome errors, respectively). In all, 473 cases (5%) had a sex chromosome trisomy, and 778 (8%) had 45,X, giving prevalence rates of 2.0 and 3.3/10,000 births, respectively. There were 1,737 RCA cases (17%), giving a prevalence of 7.4/10,000 births. These included triploidy, other trisomies, marker chromosomes, unbalanced translocations, deletions and duplications. There was a wide variation between the registers in both the overall prenatal diagnosis rate of RCA, an average of 65% (range 5-92%) and the prevalence of RCA (range 2.4-12.9/10,000 births). In all, 49% were liveborn. The data provide the prevalence of families currently requiring specialised genetic counselling services in the perinatal period for these conditions and, for some, long-term care.

  4. A National Study of Live Hospice Discharges between 2000 and 2012.

    PubMed

    Prsic, Elizabeth; Plotzke, Mike; Christian, Thomas J; Gozalo, Pedro; Teno, Joan M

    2016-09-01

    Live hospice discharges represent a potential vulnerability in the Medicare hospice benefit. Little is known about how live discharges have varied over time. To identify trends in live hospice discharges between 2000 and 2012. Retrospective cohort study of Medicare hospice discharges. In this study, we examined live discharges in the first six months of 2000, 2006, 2008, 2010, and 2012. A live discharge was classified as a burdensome transition if hospice discharge was followed by hospital admission, and then there was a hospice readmission within 2 days of hospital discharge. The adjusted rate of overall live discharges and burdensome transitions was examined with a multivariate mixed-effects logistic model that adjusted for age, gender, race, and hospice primary diagnosis. The model contained an interaction term for year and hospice tax status. The unadjusted overall rate of live discharges increased from 13.7% in 2000 to 18.1% in 2012. For-profit hospice programs had an adjusted live discharge rate of 17.7% in 2000 and 22.7% in 2012. During the same period, the adjusted live discharge rate for nonprofit hospice programs increased from 15.2% to 16.3%. The overall rate of burdensome transitions increased from 2.9% in 2000 to 5.3% in 2012. Similar to the overall rate of live discharge, for-profit hospices had a higher rate of burdensome transitions (6.4%) than nonprofit hospices (4.0%) in 2012. Live hospice discharges and burdensome transitions increased between 2000 and 2012. For-profit hospice programs demonstrated larger increases than nonprofit hospice programs.

  5. Distribution of sea-air CO2 fluxes in the Patagonian Sea: Seasonal, biological and thermal effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, Lucía C.; Bianchi, Alejandro A.; Osiroff, Ana Paula; Pino, Diana Ruiz; Piola, Alberto R.

    2017-07-01

    Sea-air CO2 fluxes (FCO2) in the Patagonian Sea (PS) were studied using observations collected in 2000-2006. Based on the PS frontal structures and the thermal and biological contributions to FCO2 we present a regional subdivision between distinct regimes that provide new insights on the processes that control these fluxes. The coastal regime (CR) is a net source of atmospheric CO2 (4.9 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1) while the open shelf regime (SHR) is a net CO2 sink (-6.0 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1). The interface between these two regions closely follows the location of along-shore fronts. In addition, based on the nature of the processes that drive the FCO2, the PS is subdivided between northern (NR) and southern (SR) regions. Both, NR and SR are CO2 sinks, but the CO2 uptake is significantly higher in NR (-6.4 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1) than in SR (-0.5 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1). The data reveal a strong seasonality in FCO2. The mean CO2 capture throughout the PS in austral spring is -5.8 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1, reaching values lower than -50 × 10-3 mol m-2 d-1 in NR, while in winter FCO2 is close to equilibrium in SR. The analysis of the biological and thermal effects (BE and TE, respectively) on seasonal pCO2 variability indicates that regions of CO2 emission are dominated by the TE while regions of CO2 uptake are dominated by the BE. Our results indicate that the biological pump is the dominant process determining the sea-air CO2 flux in the PS.

  6. Trends in concentrations and use of agricultural herbicides for Corn Belt rivers, 1996-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vecchia, A.V.; Gilliom, R.J.; Sullivan, D.J.; Lorenz, D.L.; Martin, Jeffrey D.

    2009-01-01

    Trends in the concentrations and agricultural use of four herbicides (atrazine, acetochlor, metolachlor, and alachlor) were evaluated for major rivers of the Corn Belt for two partially overlapping time periods: 1996-2002 and 2000-2006. Trends were analyzed for 11 sites on the mainstems and selected tributaries in the Ohio, Upper Mississippi, and Missouri River Basins. Concentration trends were determined using a parametric regression model designed for analyzing seasonal variability, flow-related variability, and trends in pesticide concentrations(SEAWAVE-Q).TheSEAWAVE-Qmodel accounts for the effect of changing flow conditions in order to separate changes caused by hydrologic conditions from changes caused by other factors, such as pesticide use. Most of the trends in atrazine and acetochlor concentrations for both time periods were relatively small and nonsignificant, but metolachlor and alachlor were dominated by varying magnitudes of concentration downtrends. Overall, with trends expressed as a percent change per year, trends in herbicide concentrations were consistent with trends in agricultural use; 84 of 88 comparisons for different sites, herbicides, and time periods showed no significant difference between concentration trends and agricultural use trends. Results indicate that decreasing use appears to have been the primary cause for the concentration downtrends during 1996-2006 and that, while there is some evidence that nonuse management factors may have reduced concentrations in some rivers, reliably evaluating the influence of these factors on pesticides in large streams and rivers will require improved, basin-specific information on both management practices and use over time. ?? 2009 American Chemical Society.

  7. Evidence of incipient forest transition in Southern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vaca, Raúl Abel; Golicher, Duncan John; Cayuela, Luis; Hewson, Jenny; Steininger, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Case studies of land use change have suggested that deforestation across Southern Mexico is accelerating. However, forest transition theory predicts that trajectories of change can be modified by economic factors, leading to spatial and temporal heterogeneity in rates of change that may take the form of the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC). This study aimed to assess the evidence regarding potential forest transition in Southern Mexico by classifying regional forest cover change using Landsat imagery from 1990 through to 2006. Patterns of forest cover change were found to be complex and non-linear. When rates of forest loss were averaged over 342 municipalities using mixed-effects modelling the results showed a significant (p<0.001) overall reduction of the mean rate of forest loss from 0.85% per year in the 1990-2000 period to 0.67% in the 2000-2006 period. The overall regional annual rate of deforestation has fallen from 0.33% to 0.28% from the 1990s to 2000s. A high proportion of the spatial variability in forest cover change cannot be explained statistically. However analysis using spline based general additive models detected underlying relationships between forest cover and income or population density of a form consistent with the EKC. The incipient forest transition has not, as yet, resulted in widespread reforestation. Forest recovery remains below 0.20% per year. Reforestation is mostly the result of passive processes associated with reductions in the intensity of land use. Deforestation continues to occur at high rates in some focal areas. A transition could be accelerated if there were a broader recognition among policy makers that the regional rate of forest loss has now begun to fall. The changing trajectory provides an opportunity to actively restore forest cover through stimulating afforestation and stimulating more sustainable land use practices. The results have clear implications for policy aimed at carbon sequestration through reducing

  8. Short-term effects of daily air pollution on mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan Mahiyuddin, Wan Rozita; Sahani, Mazrura; Aripin, Rasimah; Latif, Mohd Talib; Thach, Thuan-Quoc; Wong, Chit-Ming

    2013-02-01

    The daily variations of air pollutants in the Klang Valley, Malaysia, which includes Kuala Lumpur were investigated for its association with mortality counts using time series analysis. This study located in the tropic with much less seasonal variation than typically seen in more temperate climates. Data on daily mortality for the Klang Valley (2000-2006), daily mean concentrations of air pollutants of PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, O3, daily maximum O3 and meteorological conditions were obtained from Malaysian Department of Environment. We examined the association between pollutants and daily mortality using Poisson regression while controlling for time trends and meteorological factors. Effects of the pollutants (Relative Risk, RR) on current-day (lag 0) mortality to seven previous days (lag 7) and the effects of the pollutants from the first two days (lag 01) to the first eight days (lag 07) were determined. We found significant associations in the single-pollutant model for PM10 and the daily mean O3 with natural mortality. For the daily mean O3, the highest association was at lag 05 (RR = 1.0215, 95% CI = 1.0013-1.0202). CO was found not significantly associated with natural mortality, however the RR's of CO were found to be consistently higher than PM10. In spite of significant results of PM10, the magnitude of RR's of PM10 was not important for natural mortality in comparison with either daily mean O3 or CO. There is an association between daily mean O3 and natural mortality in a two-pollutants model after adjusting for PM10. Most pollutants except SO2, were significantly associated with respiratory mortality in a single pollutant model. Daily mean O3 is also important for respiratory mortality, with over 10% of mortality associated with every IQR increased. These findings are noteworthy because seasonal confounding is unlikely in this relatively stable climate, by contrast with more temperate regions.

  9. Real-time source deformation modeling through GNSS permanent stations at Merapi volcano (Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauducel, F.; Nurnaning, A.; Iguchi, M.; Fahmi, A. A.; Nandaka, M. A.; Sumarti, S.; Subandriyo, S.; Metaxian, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    Mt. Merapi (Java, Indonesia) is one of the most active and dangerous volcano in the world. A first GPS repetition network was setup and periodically measured since 1993, allowing detecting a deep magma reservoir, quantifying magma flux in conduit and identifying shallow discontinuities around the former crater (Beauducel and Cornet, 1999;Beauducel et al., 2000, 2006). After the 2010 centennial eruption, when this network was almost completely destroyed, Indonesian and Japanese teams installed a new continuous GPS network for monitoring purpose (Iguchi et al., 2011), consisting of 3 stations located at the volcano flanks, plus a reference station at the Yogyakarta Observatory (BPPTKG).In the framework of DOMERAPI project (2013-2016) we have completed this network with 5 additional stations, which are located on the summit area and volcano surrounding. The new stations are 1-Hz sampling, GNSS (GPS + GLONASS) receivers, and near real-time data streaming to the Observatory. An automatic processing has been developed and included in the WEBOBS system (Beauducel et al., 2010) based on GIPSY software computing precise daily moving solutions every hour, and for different time scales (2 months, 1 and 5 years), time series and velocity vectors. A real-time source modeling estimation has also been implemented. It uses the depth-varying point source solution (Mogi, 1958; Williams and Wadge, 1998) in a systematic inverse problem model exploration that displays location, volume variation and 3-D probability map.The operational system should be able to better detect and estimate the location and volume variations of possible magma sources, and to follow magma transfer towards the surface. This should help monitoring and contribute to decision making during future unrest or eruption.

  10. Medication among patients with type 1 diabetes and predialytic renal disease.

    PubMed

    Helve, Jaakko; Sund, Reijo; Haapio, Mikko; Groop, Per-Henrik; Grönhagen-Riska, Carola; Finne, Patrik

    2014-03-01

    To examine use and changes of medication in the three years before start of chronic renal replacement therapy (RRT) among patients with type 1 diabetes, and the association between predialytic medication and survival on RRT. We recorded medication of 496 patients with type 1 diabetes before and after start of RRT in 2000-2006 and followed up until death or end of 2009. Data were retrieved from the Finnish Registry for Kidney Diseases and from the FinDM diabetes database. We evaluated the use of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockers, calcium channel blockers, β-blockers, statins, vitamin D, erythropoiesis-stimulating agents, and phosphate binders over three years. The association between predialytic medication and survival was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Medication increased markedly with progressing renal insufficiency. Almost 70% of the patients used calcium channel blockers and β-blockers before initiating RRT. Use of calcium channel blockers (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.53-0.95) and vitamin D (RR 0.70, 95% CI 0.52-0.94) at start of RRT were associated with better survival when adjusted for age and sex, but after further adjustment the association lost statistical significance. Among type 1 diabetes patients in the predialysis phase, use of medication is abundant. Use of medication appears to keep patients at an equal survival level to those without the same medication. However, due to the observational nature of our study, conclusions regarding the effect of medication on survival must be made with caution. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Studying variability in human brain aging in a population-based German cohort—rationale and design of 1000BRAINS

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Svenja; Moebus, Susanne; Lux, Silke; Pundt, Noreen; Schütz, Holger; Mühleisen, Thomas W.; Gras, Vincent; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Romanzetti, Sandro; Stöcker, Tony; Stirnberg, Rüdiger; Kirlangic, Mehmet E.; Minnerop, Martina; Pieperhoff, Peter; Mödder, Ulrich; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C.; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Erbel, Raimund; Cichon, Sven; Nöthen, Markus M.; Sturma, Dieter; Bauer, Andreas; Jon Shah, N.; Zilles, Karl; Amunts, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    The ongoing 1000 brains study (1000BRAINS) is an epidemiological and neuroscientific investigation of structural and functional variability in the human brain during aging. The two recruitment sources are the 10-year follow-up cohort of the German Heinz Nixdorf Recall (HNR) Study, and the HNR MultiGeneration Study cohort, which comprises spouses and offspring of HNR subjects. The HNR is a longitudinal epidemiological investigation of cardiovascular risk factors, with a comprehensive collection of clinical, laboratory, socioeconomic, and environmental data from population-based subjects aged 45–75 years on inclusion. HNR subjects underwent detailed assessments in 2000, 2006, and 2011, and completed annual postal questionnaires on health status. 1000BRAINS accesses these HNR data and applies a separate protocol comprising: neuropsychological tests of attention, memory, executive functions and language; examination of motor skills; ratings of personality, life quality, mood and daily activities; analysis of laboratory and genetic data; and state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, 3 Tesla) of the brain. The latter includes (i) 3D-T1- and 3D-T2-weighted scans for structural analyses and myelin mapping; (ii) three diffusion imaging sequences optimized for diffusion tensor imaging, high-angular resolution diffusion imaging for detailed fiber tracking and for diffusion kurtosis imaging; (iii) resting-state and task-based functional MRI; and (iv) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery and MR angiography for the detection of vascular lesions and the mapping of white matter lesions. The unique design of 1000BRAINS allows: (i) comprehensive investigation of various influences including genetics, environment and health status on variability in brain structure and function during aging; and (ii) identification of the impact of selected influencing factors on specific cognitive subsystems and their anatomical correlates. PMID:25071558

  12. Effect of ceramic industrial particulate emission control on key components of ambient PM10.

    PubMed

    Minguillón, María Cruz; Monfort, Eliseo; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Celades, Irina; Miró, José Vicente

    2009-06-01

    The relationship between specific particulate emission control and ambient levels of some PM(10) components (Zn, As, Pb, Cs, Tl) was evaluated. To this end, the industrial area of Castellón (Eastern Spain) was selected, where around 40% of the EU glazed ceramic tiles and a high proportion of EU ceramic frits are produced. The PM(10) emissions from the ceramic processes were calculated over the period 2000-2006, taking into account the degree of implementation of corrective measures throughout the study period. Abatement systems were implemented in the majority of the fusion kilns for frit manufacture in the area as a result of the application of the Directive 1996/61/EC, leading to a marked decrease in PM(10) emissions. By contrast, emissions from tile manufacture remained relatively constant because of the few changes in the implementation of corrective measures. On the other hand, ambient PM(10) levels and composition measurements were carried out from 2002 to 2006. A high correlation between PM(10) emissions from frit manufacture and ambient levels of Zn, As, Pb and Cs (R(2) from 0.61 to 0.98) was observed. On the basis of these results, the potential impact of the implementation of corrective measures to reduce emissions from tile manufacture was quantified, resulting in a possible decrease of 3-5 microg/m(3) and 2 microg/m(3) in ambient mineral PM(10) (on an annual basis) in urban and suburban areas, respectively. This relatively simple methodology allows us to estimate the direct effect of a reduction in primary particulate emissions on ambient levels of key particulate components, and to make a preliminary quantification of the possibilities of air quality improvement by means of further emission reduction. Therefore, it is a useful tool for developing future air quality plans in the study area and in other industrialised areas.

  13. Time trends in medication use and expenditures in older patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Harrold, Leslie R; Peterson, Daniel; Beard, Ashley J; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Briesacher, Becky A

    2012-09-01

    We sought to examine how expansions in insurance coverage of nonbiologic and biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs affected the access, costs, and health status of older patients with rheumatoid arthritis. We identified a nationally representative sample of older adults with rheumatoid arthritis in the 2000-2006 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (unweighted n=1051). We examined changes in disease-modifying antirheumatic drug use, self-reported health status, functional status (activities of daily living), and total costs and out-of-pocket costs for medical care and prescription drugs. Tests for time trends were conducted using weighted regressions. Between 2000 and 2006, the proportion of older adults with rheumatoid arthritis who received biologics tripled (4.6% vs 13.2%, P=.01), whereas the proportion of people who used a nonbiologic did not change. During the same period, the proportion of older patients with rheumatoid arthritis rating their health as excellent/good significantly increased (43.0% in 2000 to 55.6% in 2006; P=.015). Significant improvements occurred in activities of daily living measures of functional status. Total prescription drug costs (in 2006 US dollars) increased from $2645 in 2000 to $4685 in 2006, P=.0001, whereas out-of-pocket prescription costs remained constant ($842 in 2000 vs $832 in 2006; P=.68). Total medical costs did not significantly increase ($16,563 in 2000 vs $19,510 in 2006; P=.07). Receipt of biologics in older adults with rheumatoid arthritis increased over a period of time when insurance coverage was expanded without increasing patients' out-of-pocket costs. During this time period, concurrent improvements in self-reported health status and functional status suggest improved arthritis care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Reconciling estimates of the contemporary North American carbon balance among terrestrial biosphere models, atmospheric inversions and a new approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange from inventory-based data

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, Daniel J; Turner, David P; Stinson, Graham; Mcguire, David; Wei, Yaxing; West, Tristram O.; Heath, Linda S.; De Jong, Bernardus; McConkey, Brian G.; Birdsey, Richard A.; Kurz, Werner; Jacobson, Andrew; Huntzinger, Deborah; Pan, Yude; Post, Wilfred M; Cook, Robert B

    2012-01-01

    We develop an approach for estimating net ecosystem exchange (NEE) using inventory-based information over North America (NA) for a recent 7-year period (ca. 2000 2006). The approach notably retains information on the spatial distribution of NEE, or the vertical exchange between land and atmosphere of all non-fossil fuel sources and sinks of CO2, while accounting for lateral transfers of forest and crop products as well as their eventual emissions. The total NEE estimate of a 327 252 TgC yr1 sink for NA was driven primarily by CO2 uptake in the Forest Lands sector (248 TgC yr1), largely in the Northwest and Southeast regions of the US, and in the Crop Lands sector (297 TgC yr1), predominantly in the Midwest US states. These sinks are counteracted by the carbon source estimated for the Other Lands sector (+218 TgC yr1), where much of the forest and crop products are assumed to be returned to the atmosphere (through livestock and human consumption). The ecosystems of Mexico are estimated tobe a small net source (+18 TgC yr1) due to land use change between 1993 and 2002. We compare these inventorybased estimates with results from a suite of terrestrial biosphere and atmospheric inversion models, where the mean continental-scale NEE estimate for each ensemble is 511 TgC yr1 and 931 TgC yr1, respectively. In the modeling approaches, all sectors, including Other Lands, were generally estimated to be a carbon sink, driven in part by assumed CO2 fertilization and/or lack of consideration of carbon sources from disturbances and product emissions. Additional fluxes not measured by the inventories, although highly uncertain, could add an additional 239 TgC yr1 to the inventory-based NA sink estimate, thus suggesting some convergence with the modeling approaches.

  15. Understanding worldwide youth attitudes towards smoke-free policies: an analysis of the Global Youth Tobacco Survey.

    PubMed

    Koh, Howard K; Alpert, Hillel R; Judge, Christine M; Caughey, Robert W; Elqura, Loris J; Connolly, Gregory N; Warren, Charles W

    2011-05-01

    Smoke-free policies (SFPs) in public places are increasing globally, but developing countries are lagging behind. Understanding youth attitudes towards SFPs can inform SFP initiatives. A multilevel logistic regression analysis of data collected from youth aged 13-15 years (2000-2006) who completed the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) in 115 countries, primarily in the developing world, was conducted. The analysis examined relationships between support for SFPs and individual-level measures related to smoking status, and exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS), controlling for demographic and environmental factors of interest and country-level policy factors. In all, 77.3% of 356,395 youth in 115 countries favoured SFPs, including majorities of non-smokers (78.7%) and smokers (63.6%). In the multivariable analysis knowledge of smoke harm was the strongest predictor of favouring SFPs (OR 2.42, 95% CI 2.27 to 2.67). Exposure to countermarketing (OR 1.40, 95% CI 1.25 to 1.57) and school anti-smoking education (OR 1.22, 95% CI 1.13 to 1.31) were also positively associated. Current smoking (OR 0.48, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.53), susceptibility to smoking (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.40 to 0.52) and exposure to tobacco promotion were negatively associated. Significant country-level variation was observed. The presence of any national smoke-free legislation in a country was positively associated with youth favouring such policies. The majority of youth worldwide support, yet lack, smoke-free policies in public places, while being regularly exposed to SHS. Youth support of SFPs is most positively associated with knowledge of the harmful effects of tobacco smoke. Redoubling education efforts represents an opportunity to establish smoke-free environments and improve health of children in developing countries.

  16. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2010-10-08

    Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single measure of supermarket accessibility

  17. University Photovoltaic Research, Education, and Collaboration. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rohatgi, Ajeet; Ebong, Abasifreke; Kim, Dong Seop; Yelundur, Vijay; Hilali, Mohamed M.; Rounsaville, Brian; Nakayashiki, Kenta; Meemongkolkiat, Vichai

    2007-03-30

    This report summarizes the progress made by Georgia Tech in the 2000-2006 period towards high-efficiency low-cost crystalline silicon solar cells. The overall goal of the program is to advance the current state of crystalline silicon solar cell technology in order to make photovoltaics more competitive with the conventional energy sources. A combination of material characterization, device modeling, low-cost technology development, cell fabrication and analysis have been used to achieve the goals of this program. Quality enhancement techniques have been developed to achieve high lifetime in commercial substrates. At the same time, advanced concepts and cell designs were developed to achieve high-efficiency cells on low-cost substrates. Low-cost in-line processing, novel diffusion techniques, and improved and screen-printed contacts were used to incorporate advanced design features in commercial cells. The program has also focused on the development of screen-printing pastes and contact firing to obtain high fill factors on high sheet resistance emitters with narrow grid lines. This report is divided into seven sections that summarize our work on i) high-efficiency monocrystalline cells through the achievement of ohmic contacts to high sheet resistance emitters by screen printing (Sections 1 and 2); ii) process and material factors that limit the potential of the Al-doped back surface field (Sections 3 and 4); iii) high-efficiency cells on low-cost multicrystalline wafers through defect gettering and passivation (Section 5); iv) low-cost phosphorus emitter diffusion in a novel in-line furnace (Section 6); and iv) the development of a 2D model to determine the effects of physical cell parameters on the performance of IBC (interdigitated back contact) solar cells (Section 7).

  18. Melanoma Metastases to the Neck Nodes: Role of Adjuvant Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Strojan, Primoz; Jancar, Boris; Cemazar, Maja; Perme, Maja Pohar; Hocevar, Marko

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: To review experiences in the treatment of regionally advanced melanoma to the neck and/or parotid with emphasis on the role of adjuvant radiotherapy. Patients and Methods: Clinical and histopathologic data, treatment details, and outcomes in patients treated during the period 2000-2006 at the Institute of Oncology, Ljubljana, Slovenia, were reviewed. Results: A total of 40 patients with 42 dissections underwent surgery, and 43 patients with 45 dissections received irradiation postoperatively to a median equivalent dose (eqTD{sub 2}: 2 Gy/fraction, 1 fraction/day, 5 fractions/week) of 60 Gy (range, 47.8-78.8). Regional control 2 years after surgery was 56% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40-72%) and after postoperative radiotherapy 78% (CI 63-92%) (p = 0.015). On multivariate analysis, postoperative radiotherapy (yes vs. no: hazard ratio [HR] 6.3, CI 2.0-20.6) and sum of the risk factors present (i.e., risk factor score; HR 1.7 per score point, CI 1.2-2.6) were predictive for regional control. On logistic regression testing, the number of involved nodes was associated with the probability of distant metastases (p = 0.021). The incidence of late toxicity did not correlate with the mode of therapy, eqTD{sub 2}, or fractionation pattern. Conclusions: Adjuvant radiotherapy has the potential to compensate effectively for the negative impact of adverse histopatologic features to disease control in a dissected nodal basin. More conventionally fractionated radiotherapy regimens using fraction doses of 2-2.5 Gy, with cumulative eqTD{sub 2{>=}}60 Gy, are recommended. The number of involved lymph nodes is proposed as an additional criterion for limiting the implementation of adjuvant irradiation.

  19. Risks of developing psychiatric disorders in pediatric patients with psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Alexa B; Wu, Eric Q; Guérin, Annie; Yu, Andrew P; Tsaneva, Magda; Gupta, Shiraz R; Bao, Yanjun; Mulani, Parvez M

    2012-10-01

    Symptoms of psoriasis can be embarrassing and distressing, and may increase risk of developing psychiatric disorders in young people. We sought to compare incidences of psychiatric disorders between pediatric patients with psoriasis and psoriasis-free control subjects. Patients (<18 years) with continuous health plan enrollment 6 months before and after first psoriasis diagnosis (index date) were selected (Thomson Reuters MarketScan database, 2000-2006 [Thomson Reuters, New York, NY]). Patients with psoriasis (N = 7404) were matched 1:5 on age and sex to psoriasis-free control subjects (N = 37,020). Patients were followed from index date to first diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder (ie, alcohol/drug abuse, depression, anxiety disorder, bipolar disorder, suicidal ideation, eating disorder), end of data availability, or disenrollment. Patients with psychiatric diagnoses or psychotropic medication use before the index date were excluded. Cox proportional hazard models controlling for age, sex, and comorbidities were used to estimate the effect of psoriasis on risks of developing psychiatric disorders. Patients with psoriasis were significantly more at risk of developing psychiatric disorders versus control subjects (5.13% vs 4.07%; P = .0001; hazard ratio = 1.25; P = .0001), especially depression (3.01% vs 2.42%; P = .0036; hazard ratio = 1.25; P = .0053) and anxiety (1.81% vs 1.35%; P = .0048; hazard ratio = 1.32; P = .0045). Retrospective, observational studies of medical claims data are typically limited by overall quality and completeness of data and accuracy of coding for diagnoses and procedures. Pediatric patients with psoriasis had an increased risk of developing psychiatric disorders, including depression and anxiety, compared with psoriasis-free control subjects. Copyright © 2011 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Medical and surgical management for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension: a single center experience.

    PubMed

    Coronel, María Lorena; Chamorro, Núria; Blanco, Isabel; Amado, Verónica; Del Pozo, Roberto; Pomar, José Luis; Badia, Joan Ramón; Rovira, Irene; Matute, Purificación; Argemí, Gemma; Castellà, Manuel; Barberà, Joan Albert

    2014-12-01

    Pulmonary endarterectomy (PE) is the treatment of choice for chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The aim of this study was to analyze our experience in the medical and surgical management of CTEPH. We included 80 patients diagnosed with CTEPH between January 2000 and July 2012. Thirty two patients underwent PE and 48 received medical treatment (MT). We analyzed functional class (FC), six-minute walking distance (6MWD) and pulmonary hemodynamics. Mortality in both groups and periods were analyzed. Patients who underwent PE were younger, mostly men, and had longer 6MWD. No differences were observed in pulmonary hemodynamics or FC at diagnosis. One year after treatment, all PE patients versus 41% in MT group were at FCI-II. At follow-up, the PE group showed greater increase in 6MWD, and greater reduction in mean pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance than the MT group (P<.05). Overall survival in the MT group at 1 and 5years was 83% and 69%, respectively. Conditional survival in patients alive 100days post-PE at 1 and 5years was 95% and 88%, respectively. Surgical mortality in operated patients in the first period (2000-2006) was 31,3%, and 6,3% in the second (2007-2012). PE provides good clinical results, and improves pulmonary hemodynamics in patients who successfully overcome the immediate postoperative period. After a learning period, the current operatory mortality in our center is similar to international standards. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  1. Retrospective analysis of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis in 87 Japanese patients--Treatment and outcome.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Yumiko; Matsukura, Setsuko; Watanabe, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Yukie; Nakamura, Kazuko; Kambara, Takeshi; Ikezawa, Zenro; Aihara, Michiko

    2016-01-01

    Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare but severe adverse drug reactions with high mortality. To present the clinical characteristics of SJS and TEN in Japan and evaluate the efficacy of treatments, we retrospectively analyzed cases of SJS and TEN treated in 2 university hospitals during 2000-2013. Fifty-two cases of SJS (21 males and 31 females; average age, 55.1 years) and 35 cases of TEN (17 males and 18 females; average age, 56.6 years) were included in this study. Twenty-eight cases of SJS (53.8%) and all cases of TEN were caused by drugs. Hepatitis was the most common organ involvement in both SJS and TEN. Renal dysfunction, intestinal disorder, and respiratory disorder were also involved in some cases. The major complication was pneumonia and sepsis. All cases except for 3 cases were treated systemically with corticosteroids. Steroid pulse therapy was performed in 88.6% of TEN. Plasmapheresis and/or immunoglobulin therapy was combined with steroid therapy mainly in TEN after 2007. The mortality rate was 6.9% and the rates for SJS and TEN were 1.9% and 14.3%, respectively. These were much lower than predicted mortality according to a severity-of-illness scoring system for TEN prognosis (SCORTEN) score. When comparing the mortality rate between 2000-2006 and 2007-2013, it was decreased from 4.5% to 0.0% in SJS and from 22.2% to 5.3% in TEN. Treatment with steroid pulse therapy in combination with plasmapheresis and/or immunoglobulin therapy seems to have contributed to prognostic improvement in SJS/TEN. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of Urban-Rural Land-Use Change during 1995-2006 and Its Policy Dimensional Driving Forces in Chongqing, China

    PubMed Central

    Long, Hualou; Wu, Xiuqin; Wang, Wenjie; Dong, Guihua

    2008-01-01

    This paper analyzes the urban-rural land-use change of Chongqing and its policy dimensional driving forces from 1995 to 2006, using high-resolution Landsat TM (Thematic Mapper) data of 1995, 2000 and 2006, and socio-economic data from both research institutes and government departments. The outcomes indicated that urban-rural land-use change in Chongqing can be characterized by two major trends: First, the non-agricultural land increased substantially from 1995 to 2006, thus causing agricultural land especially farmland to decrease continuously. Second, the aggregation index of urban settlements and rural settlements shows that local urban-rural development experienced a process of changing from aggregation (1995-2000) to decentralization (2000-2006). Chongqing is a special area getting immersed in many important policies, which include the establishment of the municipality directly under the Central Government, the building of Three Gorges Dam Project, the Western China Development Program and the Grain-for-Green Programme, and bring about tremendous influences on its land-use change. By analyzing Chongqing's land-use change and its policy driving forces, some implications for its new policy of ‘Urban-rural Integrated Reform’ are obtained. That is more attentions need to be paid to curbing excessive and idle rural housing and consolidating rural construction land, and to laying out a scientific land-use plan for its rural areas taking such rural land-use issues as farmland occupation and rural housing land management into accounts, so as to coordinate and balance the urban-rural development. PMID:27879729

  3. Abundances and variability of tropospheric volatile organic compounds at the South Pole and other Antarctic locations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, Andreas J.; Blake, Donald R.; Swanson, Aaron; Meinardi, Simone; Rowland, F. S.; Davis, Douglas

    2010-11-01

    Multiyear (2000-2006) seasonal measurements of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, halogenated species, dimethyl sulfide, carbonyl sulfide and C 1-C 4 alkyl nitrates at the South Pole are presented for the first time. At the South Pole, short-lived species (such as the alkenes) typically were not observed above their limits of detection because of long transit times from source regions. Peak mixing ratios of the longer lived species with anthropogenic sources were measured in late winter (August and September) with decreasing mixing ratios throughout the spring. In comparison, compounds with a strong oceanic source, such as bromoform and methyl iodide, had peak mixing ratios earlier in the winter (June and July) because of decreased oceanic production during the winter months. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS), which is also oceanically emitted but has a short lifetime, was rarely measured above 5 pptv. This is in contrast to high DMS mixing ratios at coastal locations and shows the importance of photochemical removal during transport to the pole. Alkyl nitrate mixing ratios peaked during April and then decreased throughout the winter. The dominant source of the alkyl nitrates in the region is believed to be oceanic emissions rather than photochemical production due to low alkane levels. Sampling of other tropospheric environments via a Twin Otter aircraft included the west coast of the Ross Sea and large stretches of the Antarctic Plateau. In the coastal atmosphere, a vertical gradient was found with the highest mixing ratios of marine emitted compounds at low altitudes. Conversely, for anthropogenically produced species the highest mixing ratios were measured at the highest altitudes, suggesting long-range transport to the continent. Flights flown through the plume of Mount Erebus, an active volcano, revealed that both carbon monoxide and carbonyl sulfide are emitted with an OCS/CO molar ratio of 3.3 × 10 -3 consistent with direct observations by other investigators within the

  4. Natural environments, obesity, and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States.

    PubMed

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C

    2012-01-01

    To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years for obesity and physical activity, respectively, from the 2000-2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. The OAP indices were (1) a recreational opportunity index based on 24 variables related to outdoor physical activity, such as the number of facilities available for walking, biking, hiking, and swimming derived from the 1997 National Outdoor Recreation Supply Information System; and (2) a natural amenities index which was based on physical and social environmental characteristics, such as climate, topographic relief, land cover, and tourism. We fitted logistic regression models using generalized estimating equations to control for county level intracorrelation and tested each index separately to assess its relationship with obesity and physical activity. Recreational opportunities were higher in areas with greater natural amenities. After controlling for individual-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, the prevalence of obesity decreased and propensity for physical activity increased with increasing levels of both recreational opportunities and natural amenities. Multiple indices of OAP based on characteristics of the built, natural and social environments were associated with decreased obesity and increased physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas. Public health interventions should consider the opportunities and limitations offered by the natural environment for promoting physical activity and reducing obesity in rural areas. © 2012 National Rural Health Association.

  5. Gender differences in life expectancy and disability-free life expectancy among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Drumond Andrade, Flávia Cristina; Guevara, Pilar Egüez; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; de Oliveira Duarte, Yeda Aparecida; Santos, Jair Lício Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    research on life expectancy has demonstrated the negative impact of disability on the health of older adults and its differential effects on women as evidenced by their higher disabled life expectancy (DLE). The goal of the present study was to investigate gender differences in total life expectancy (TLE), disability-free life expectancy (DFLE), and DLE; examine gender differences on personal care assistance among older adults in São Paulo, Brazil; and discuss the implications for public policies. the sample was drawn from two waves (2000, 2006) of the dataset of Salud, Bienestar, y Envejecimiento, a large longitudinal study conducted in São Paulo (n = 2,143). The study assessed disability using the activities of daily living (ADL). The interpolation of Markov Chain method was used to estimate gender differences in TLE, DLE, and DFLE. TLE at age 60 years was approximately 5 years longer for women than men. Women aged 60 years were expected to live 28% of their remaining lives-twice the percentage for men-with at least one ADL disability. These women also lived more years (M = 0.71, SE = 0.42) with three or more ADL disabilities than men (M = 0.82, SE = 0.16). In terms of personal care assistance, women received more years of assistance than men. among older adults in São Paulo, women lived longer lives but experienced a higher and more severe disability burden than men. In addition, although women received more years of personal assistance than men, women experienced more unmet care assistance needs.

  6. Association between airborne PM2.5 chemical constituents and birth weight—implication of buffer exposure assignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebisu, Keita; Belanger, Kathleen; Bell, Michelle L.

    2014-08-01

    Several papers reported associations between airborne fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and birth weight, though findings are inconsistent across studies. Conflicting results might be due to (1) different PM2.5 chemical structure across locations, and (2) various exposure assignment methods across studies even among the studies that use ambient monitors to assess exposure. We investigated associations between birth weight and PM2.5 chemical constituents, considering issues arising from choice of buffer size (i.e. distance between residence and pollution monitor). We estimated the association between each pollutant and term birth weight applying buffers of 5 to 30 km in Connecticut (2000-2006), in the New England region of the USA. We also investigated the implication of the choice of buffer size in relation to population characteristics, such as socioeconomic status. Results indicate that some PM2.5 chemical constituents, such as nitrate, are associated with lower birth weight and appear more harmful than other constituents. However, associations vary with buffer size and the implications of different buffer sizes may differ by pollutant. A homogeneous pollutant level within a certain distance is a common assumption in many environmental epidemiology studies, but the validity of this assumption may vary by pollutant. Furthermore, we found that areas close to monitors reflect more minority and lower socio-economic populations, which implies that different exposure approaches may result in different types of study populations. Our findings demonstrate that choosing an exposure method involves key tradeoffs of the impacts of exposure misclassification, sample size, and population characteristics.

  7. [Temporal and spatial variation of shorebirds in Barra de Navidad lagoon, Jalisco, during three non-breeding seasons].

    PubMed

    Hernández, Salvador; Serrano, Sergio; Hernández, Xóchitl A; Robles, María Isabel

    2012-09-01

    Resident and migratory shorebirds inhabit different kinds of wetlands such as lagoons, rivers and seashores among others. In recent years, these areas have been importantly affected by urban, agriculture and touristic activities, such as the Barra de Navidad lagoon, for which little information is available to support conservation programs. The aim of this work was to describe shorebirds temporal and spatial distribution in Barra de Navidad lagoon during three non-breeding seasons (1999-2000, 2006-2007 and 2008-2009). For this, monthly censuses were performed from November-April with the purpose of registering all the shorebirds species. We were able to identify 19 shorebirds species (three residents and 16 winter visitors), of which Charadrius wilsonia, Limosa fedoa and Tringa semipalmata were the most abundant. The greater number of species was registered for November, December and March of the first and third seasons. The greater number of individuals was registered when birds were feeding during low tides, mainly in December, January and February of the first and third seasons. At low tide, there was a great number of species and individuals in zone C. This area had muddy substrates that were exposed during low tides and were used to feed. Barra de Navidad lagoon provided suitable habitats for feeding and resting for resident and migratory birds. Twelve of the 19 species were considered as priority within the Mexican bird conservation strategy. However, these habitats are threatened by human activities performed in the nearby areas of the lagoon that may have negative consequences for the distribution, abundance and conservation of these species.

  8. Incidence of human papillomavirus positive tonsillar and base of tongue carcinoma: a stabilisation of an epidemic of viral induced carcinoma?

    PubMed

    Näsman, Anders; Nordfors, Cecilia; Holzhauser, Stefan; Vlastos, Andrea; Tertipis, Nikolaos; Hammar, Ulf; Hammarstedt-Nordenvall, Lalle; Marklund, Linda; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Ramqvist, Torbjörn; Bottai, Matteo; Dalianis, Tina

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether the rise during the past decades in the incidence of tonsillar and base of tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC and BOTSCC) and the proportion of human papillomavirus (HPV) positive cancer has continued in Stockholm. Pre-treatment biopsies (n=252) available from 280 patients diagnosed with TSCC and BOTSCC during 2008-2012 in the County of Stockholm were tested for HPV DNA by a multiplex bead-based assay. Incidence records were acquired from the Swedish Cancer Registry. The data obtained were evaluated together with previous figures from 1970 to 2007. HPV DNA was present in 186/252 (74%) of TSCC and BOTSCC biopsies obtained during 2008-2012 in Stockholm. In this region the age-standardised incidence, including the prevalence of HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC stabilised 2007-2012 compared to 2000-2006, while for BOTSCC throughout 1998-2012 the same parameters increased moderately (p<0.05, for all). In parallel, from 2000 to 2006 through 2007-2012 in Sweden, the age-standardised incidence of both TSCC and BOTSCC continued to rise (p=0.012 and p=0.001 respectively). During 2000-2012 the age-standardised incidence and the proportion of HPV-positive TSCC have stabilised at a high level, while the proportion of HPV-negative cancer has remained at a low level in Stockholm, whereas for BOTSCC all parameters are increasing moderately. In contrast, in Sweden the incidence of both TSCC and BOTSCC is still increasing. We hypothesise that the HPV epidemic could be stabilising, first for TSCC, but so far not for BOTSCC, in e.g. some urban areas, while previous trends for both tumours persist at other geographic locations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Rear-seat motor vehicle travel in the U.S.: using national data to define a population at risk.

    PubMed

    Trowbridge, Matthew J; Kent, Richard

    2009-10-01

    Recent studies suggest that the relative protection offered by rear seating in motor vehicle crashes has decreased, potentially reflecting disproportionate advancements in front-seat safety technology. Safe adaptation of advanced front-seat restraint systems for the rear-seat environment will require exposure data that are currently unavailable. This study uses national data to quantify rear-seat occupancy patterns, restraint use, and annual travel exposure in the U.S. in order to support the development of advanced crash protection systems for rear-seat motor vehicle occupants. Data from the 2000-2006 National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System and 2001 National Household Transportation Survey were analyzed in 2008 to quantify occupancy patterns (e.g., seat position, restraint use) and annual person-trips for rear-seat passengers in the U.S. The overall proportion of person-trips by rear-seat occupants is relatively low (12.9%); however national at-risk exposure remains significant (approximately 39 billion annual person-trips). Annual rear-seat travel exposure is similar among children < or = 12 years and adults (18.9 vs 19.1 billion person-trips) despite the fact that children are proportionally much more likely to ride in rear positions (79.3% vs 7.4%). Restraint use among adult rear-seat occupants was also much lower than among front-seat occupants (50.4% vs 82.2%). While rear-seat occupancy is relatively low compared with front-seat occupancy at-risk rear-seat travel by both child and adult passengers in the U.S. remains significant. Restraint use by rear-seat occupants is much lower than that among front-seat passengers, particularly among adults and older children, substantially increasing injury risk. Development of future crash protection systems for rear-seat passengers must account for these exposure patterns to ensure safe and effective integration into production vehicles.

  10. Trends in incidence of hypertension in Chinese adults, 1991-2009: the China Health and Nutrition Survey.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Liu, Ruijuan; Du, Shufa; Qiu, Chengxuan

    2014-07-15

    Previous studies have shown an upward trend in the prevalence of hypertension, but data on trend of incidence of hypertension are lacking. We seek to investigate the trends in incidence of hypertension and control of incident hypertension among Chinese adults during 1991-1997 and 2004-2009. Within the China Health and Nutrition Survey (1991-2009), we identified five cohorts of adults (age ≥ 18 years) who were free of hypertension at baseline of each cohort: cohorts 1991-1997 (n=4107), 1993-2000 (n=4068), 1997-2004 (n=4141), 2000-2006 (n=4695), and 2004-2009 (n=4523). Data on demographics, smoking, alcohol intake, physical activity, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were collected through interviews and clinical examination. Hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg or currently using antihypertensive drugs. Multiple generalized estimation equations and Coxregression models were used to test the trends in blood pressure, incidence of hypertension, use of antihypertensive drugs, and control status of incident hypertension. After controlling for potential confounders, incidence of hypertension (per 100 person-years) significantly increased from 2.9 in 1991-1997 to 5.3 in 2004-2009 (ptrend=0.024); the linear trend was statistically or marginally significant in the age group of 18-39 years, in women, in rural residents, and in adults with normal BMI. The overall rates of antihypertensive treatment and control of incident hypertension increased significantly from 5.7% and 1.7% in 1991-1997 to 19.9% and 7.6% in 2004-2009, respectively (ptrend<0.001). The incidence of hypertension has increased in Chinese adults since early 1990s. The treatment and control status of incident hypertension, while improved, remain very poor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physicians charged with opioid analgesic-prescribing offenses.

    PubMed

    Goldenbaum, Donald M; Christopher, Myra; Gallagher, Rollin M; Fishman, Scott; Payne, Richard; Joranson, David; Edmondson, Drew; McKee, Judith; Thexton, Arthur

    2008-09-01

    To provide a "big picture" overview of the characteristics and outcomes of recent criminal and administrative cases in which physicians have been criminally prosecuted or charged by medical boards with offenses related to inappropriate prescribing of opioid analgesics. We identified as many criminal and administrative cases of these types as possible that occurred between 1998 and 2006. Cases were identified using a wide variety of sources, including organizational and government agency databases, published news accounts, and Web sites. Factual characteristics of these cases and their outcomes, and of the physicians involved, were then further researched using additional sources and methods. Study findings are intended to apply to practicing U.S. patient care physicians as a whole. There were no patients or participants in this study. Outcome Measures. We analyzed the numbers and types of cases and physicians involved, criminal and administrative charges brought, case outcomes and sanctions, specialties, and other characteristics of the physicians involved. The study identified 725 doctors, representing an estimated 0.1% of practicing patient care physicians, who were charged between 1998 and 2006 with criminal and/or administrative offenses related to prescribing opioid analgesics. A plurality of these (39.3%) were General Practice/Family Medicine physicians, compared with 3.5% who were self-identified or board-certified pain specialists. Physicians in this sample were more likely to be male, older, and not board certified (P < 0.001). Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) criminal and complaint investigations averaged 658 per year (2003-2006) and "for cause" surrenders of DEA registrations averaged 369.7 (2000-2006). Criminal or administrative charges and sanctions for prescribing opioid analgesics are rare. In addition, there appears to be little objective basis for concern that pain specialists have been "singled out" for prosecution or administrative

  12. Radiometric modeling and calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) ground based measurement experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-12-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere's thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  13. Rift Valley fever risk map model and seroprevalence in selected wild ungulates and camels from Kenya.

    PubMed

    Britch, Seth C; Binepal, Yatinder S; Ruder, Mark G; Kariithi, Henry M; Linthicum, Kenneth J; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L; Tucker, Compton J; Ateya, Leonard O; Oriko, Abuu A; Gacheru, Stephen; Wilson, William C

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  14. Factors associated with the use of antihypertensives among seniors

    PubMed Central

    Massa, Kaio Henrique Correa; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Lebrão, Maria Lúcia; Duarte, Yeda Aparecida Oliveira; Chiavegatto, Alexandre Dias Porto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE Analyze the use of antihypertensives among seniors and the association with socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics. METHODS In this seriate cross-sectional study, we used data from the Saúde, Bem Estar e Envelhecimento study (SABE – Health, Well-being, and Aging), conducted in 2000, 2006, and 2010 in the city of São Paulo. Association between the use of antihypertensives and the demographic, behavioral, and socioeconomic characteristics and risk factors was analyzed by using multilevel logistic regression models. RESULTS We observed increased proportion of use of antihypertensive, from 48.7% in 2000 to 61.3% in 2006, reaching 65.7% in 2010. Among the seniors who made use of this type of medicine, we also observed increased adoption of combined therapy in the period, from 69.9% to 82.6% from 2000 to 2006 and reaching 91.6% in 2010. Multilevel analysis indicated statistically significant increase in use of antihypertensives, even after control by socioeconomic and behavioral characteristics, both in 2006 and in 2010 (OR = 1.90; 95%CI 1.60–2.24 and OR = 1.94; 95%CI 1.62–2.33, respectively). Use of antihypertensives showed positive association with females, higher age group, black skin color, overweight, and smoking history. CONCLUSIONS High use of antihypertensives and its association with sociodemographic and behavioral characteristics can help guide the discussion of strategies to improve the epidemiological situation, the quality of life, and the distribution of medicines to the elderly population. PMID:28099659

  15. The incidence of caesarean sections in the university clinical center of kosovo.

    PubMed

    Elshani, Brikene; Daci, Armond; Gashi, Sanije; Lulaj, Shefqet

    2012-12-01

    As in most countries of the world also at Kosovo the rate of Cesarean section from year to year is increasing. The main purpose of this paper was to present the incidence of births completed by Caesarean section at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Prishtinë. This study is retrospective, namely its made by collecting epidemiological data from patients' histories that completed birth by Caesarean section for the period 2000-2006 in this clinic. During this period, 14 maternal deaths were recorded during or after Caesarean section. Besides this, 14 lethal outcomes, the object of our study was 84 mothers which completed birth by Caesarean section and which are best used as a control group. The average age of mothers who died during or after Caesarean section was 32.1 years (SD ± 4.9). Youngest in this group was 24 years old and oldest 42 years. While the average age of mothers from the control group was 30.6 years (SD ± 5.9). Youngest was 19 and oldest 43 years, without significant difference. Most mothers included in the survey had more than one indication for Caesarean section. The most frequent indication was PIH syndrome with 33.7% and previous Caesarean section in 32.7%. Then with the participation of 12.2% were abruption of the placenta and disproportio feto pelvinea, 11.2% pelvinea and placenta praevia presentation, 10.2% parturiens while other indications were much rarer with less than 10% participation. Based on this we can conclude that the risk of the Caesarean section is high.

  16. Global bioenergy capacity as constrained by observed biospheric productivity rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. K.; Zhao, M.; Running, S. W.

    2011-12-01

    Virtually all global energy forecasts include an expectation that bioenergy will be a substantial energy source for the future. Multiple current estimates of global bioenergy potential (GBP) range from 500-1,500 EJ yr-1 or 100-300% of 2009 global primary energy consumption (GPEC09), suggesting bioenergy could conceivably replace fossil fuels entirely. However, these estimates are based on extrapolation of plot-level production rates which largely neglect complex global climatic and land-use constraints. We estimated GBP using satellite-derived, observed global primary productivity data from 2000-2006, which integrates global climate data and detects seasonal vegetation dynamics. Land-use constraints were then applied to account for current crop and forestry harvest requirements, human-controlled pasturelands, remote regions, and nature conservation areas. We show GBP is limited to 52-248 EJ yr-1 or 10-49% of GPEC09, a range lower than many current GBP estimates by a factor of four. Even attaining the low-end of this range requires utilization of all harvest residues over 31 million km2 (Mkm2), while the high-end requires additional harvest over 41 Mkm2, an area roughly three times current global cropland extent. Although, exploitation of pasture and remote land could significantly contribute to GBP, the availability of these land areas remains controversial due to critical concerns regarding indirect land-use change and carbon debt. Future energy policy is of unparalleled importance to humanity, and our results are critical in estimating quantitative limitations on the overall potential for global bioenergy production.

  17. [Circadian rhythm of PCA-based opioid consumption in children with chemotherapy-related mucositis].

    PubMed

    Schiessl, C; Schestag, I; Griessinger, N; Sittl, R; Zernikow, B

    2009-02-01

    In order to match the interindividual and intraindividual differences in opioid requirements of pediatric oncology patients with mucositis, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) seems to be the optimal pain therapy option, but scientific data are lacking. A retrospective chart review of PCA-treated children with mucositis was carried out over a 6-year period (2000-2006) at the university hospital for children in Erlangen. The median age of the patients was 12.6 years and they mainly suffered from forms of acute leukemia. Daily morphine equivalent dose (MED) requirements increased with the start of the PCA therapy from 14.5 mg/day to 18.7 mg/day (p=0.021; Wilcoxon test). Children required more opioids by bolus request during the night (10:01 p.m. to 06:00 a.m.; 6.28 mg; 13%) than during the other 8-hour intervals (06:01 a.m. to 02:00 p.m. and 02:01 p.m. to 10:00 p.m.; both 21.3 mg (43.5%) during the whole 10-day study period. In 8 out of 10 days there was a significant diurnal variation in opioid requirement with significantly lower requirement during the night (p<0.05 Friedman test). The median count of delivered and un-delivered bolus requests during the night was 0-1 and 0, respectively. PCA seems to be an ideal, dependable and feasible mode of analgesic administration for the individual titration of dose in children with chemotherapy-induced mucositis. This is expressed through the increase in daily self-administered opioid doses after starting PCA, the huge interindividual variability in opioid consumption and the rare event of an un-delivered bolus request during lock-out time. With the use of a background infusion, additional bolus requests are rare during the night.

  18. Temporal and spatial variations in hydro-climatic extremes in the Lake Victoria basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbungu, W.; Ntegeka, V.; Kahimba, F. C.; Taye, M.; Willems, P.

    A study was carried out to investigate variability in long term hydro-climatic extremes in the Lake Victoria basin, East Africa. The study aimed at determining whether the long term historical changes in frequency and magnitude of hydro-climatic extremes are statistically significant, to give more light on the differentiation of climate variability from climate change. Long term extremes for 22 rainfall and 10 river flow gauge stations were examined. The hydro-climatic extremes were aggregated at levels from daily, decadal, to monthly scales defined for two wet seasons in the area, the long rainy season extending from March to May (MAM) and the short rainy season extending from October to December (OND), and time slices of 10 years using a sliding window approach. An empirical statistical technique based on Quantile Perturbation Method (QPM) was used. Quantile perturbations that represent empirical changes for precipitation and river flow extremes were derived. Significant decreasing trends in precipitation were observed in the 1930s, 1970s and 1980s, while significant increasing trends were common in the 1960s, late 1980s, and 1990s to the most recent years (2000-2006). In general, significant trends were dominant in the OND compared to MAM season for precipitation and river flow extremes. Results indicated further that there are differences in geographic location of significant trends in the hydro-climatic variables investigated implying that impacts are not spatially coherent. Areas with significant trends appeared to be concentrated in the North to North eastern parts compared to those in the southern parts of the basin.

  19. Hearing Impairment in Congenitally Hypothyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Hashemi, Mostafa; Amini, Massoud; Kelishadi, Roya; Sadeghi, Somaye

    2012-01-01

    Objective Thyroid hormone is necessary for normal development of the auditory system. The aim of this study was to investigate the rate of hearing impairment in congenitally hypothyroid (CH) patients, and its relation with factors such as CH severity and age at starting treatment, during CH screening program in Isfahan. Methods Hearing acuity was assessed in two groups of children with (94 patients aged 4 months – 3 years) and without CH (450), between 2000-2006. Otoacostic emission (OAE) was performed by a two step method. After two tests without OAE signals bilaterally, they were referred for auditory brainstem response (ABR) test. Subjects with both OAE and ABR abnormal test results were considered to have hearing problem. Obtained data was compared in case and control group and also CH patients with and without hearing impairment. Findings Three (3.2%) of patients and 1 of control group (0.2%) were diagnosed with sensorineural hearing loss. The rate of hearing loss was not different significantly in two studied groups (P>0.05). There was no difference between age of starting treatment and first T4 and TSH level in CH patients with and without hearing loss (P>0.05). CH neonates with hearing impairment had thyroid dyshormonogenesis according to the follow up results. Conclusion The rate of hearing loss was low among our studied CH patients. It may be due to proper management of CH patients. In view of the fact that all CH neonates were dyshormonogentic and considering the relation between certain gene mutations and hearing impairment in CH patients, further studies with larger sample size, with regard to different etiologies of CH should be investigated to indicate the possible gene mutations related to hearing loss in CH. PMID:23056865

  20. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Limited access to supermarkets may reduce consumption of healthy foods, resulting in poor nutrition and increased prevalence of obesity. Most studies have focused on accessibility of supermarkets in specific urban settings or localized rural communities. Less is known, however, about how supermarket accessibility is associated with obesity and healthy diet at the national level and how these associations differ in urban versus rural settings. We analyzed data on obesity and fruit and vegetable (F/V) consumption from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System for 2000-2006 at the county level. We used 2006 Census Zip Code Business Patterns data to compute population-weighted mean distance to supermarket at the county level for different sizes of supermarket. Multilevel logistic regression models were developed to test whether population-weighted mean distance to supermarket was associated with both obesity and F/V consumption and to determine whether these relationships varied for urban (metropolitan) versus rural (nonmetropolitan) areas. Results Distance to supermarket was greater in nonmetropolitan than in metropolitan areas. The odds of obesity increased and odds of consuming F/V five times or more per day decreased as distance to supermarket increased in metropolitan areas for most store size categories. In nonmetropolitan areas, however, distance to supermarket had no associations with obesity or F/V consumption for all supermarket size categories. Conclusions Obesity prevalence increased and F/V consumption decreased with increasing distance to supermarket in metropolitan areas, but not in nonmetropolitan areas. These results suggest that there may be a threshold distance in nonmetropolitan areas beyond which distance to supermarket no longer impacts obesity and F/V consumption. In addition, obesity and food environments in nonmetropolitan areas are likely driven by a more complex set of social, cultural, and physical factors than a single

  1. Estimates of emissions from open biomass burning in Tropical Asia during 2000-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, D.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass burning in tropical Asia emits large amounts of trace gases and particulate matters to atmosphere, which have significant influence in climate change and atmospheric chemistry. Emissions from open biomass burning in tropical Asia are estimated during seven fire years 2000-2006 (i.e., April 1st 2000-March 31st 2007), using newly released L3JRC burned area product and MODIS burned area product (MCD45A1). Over seven fire years, both burned areas and fire emissions showed clearly spatial and inter-annual variations. The L3JRC burned areas ranged from 31.3×103 km2 for fire year 2005 to 57.5×103 km2 for 2000, while the MODIS burned areas ranged from 64.9×103 km2 for fire year 2002 to 127.0×103 km2 for 2004. We compared the total burned areas and forest burned areas derived from the two separate products with publication data for several typical countries and found that the L3JRC results were comparable to previous studies and the MODIS results showed significant overestimation. The annual average L3JRC-based emissions were 29915, 1948, 90, 30, 12, 105, and 871 Gg yr-1 for CO2, CO, CH4, NOx, BC, OC, and PM2.5 respectively, while MODIS-based emissions were 86740, 5222, 230, 83, 33, 296, and 2188 Gg yr-1, 60.2%-65.5% higher than L3JRC. Forest fires were the largest contributor to fire emissions, though burned area within forest biomes only constituted a minority of total burned area. Fire emissions were mainly concentrated in Myanmar, Cambodia and India. Furthermore, the seasonal distribution of fire emissions was in good agreement with that of total burned areas.

  2. Seismic Site Conditions of China Based on Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, G.; Magistrale, H.; Rong, Y.; Cheng, J.

    2015-12-01

    Site conditions are essential parameters for assessing seismic hazards related to strong ground motion. Due to generally limited availability of measured Vs30 data, regional scale site condition classification is usually based on surface geology, terrain, or topographic slope. As a step to develop a seismic hazard map of China, we make a 1:1,000,000 scale site condition map, which is also the scale of the active fault database of China. Based on the geological database compiled by Li et al. (2006), we classify each geological unit by age and petrological description. Following Wills and others (2000, 2006), the geological units are assigned to NEHRP classes. A 1:250,000 scale Quaternary geological map, compiled by Zhang (1990) is also used to augment the classification of Quaternary sediments. About half of the currently available Vs30 data, which were surveyed at the Strong Motion Network stations mostly in Gansu, Sichuan and Yunnan Provinces, do not match our results. We attribute the mismatches to poor location control and the downward extrapolation of shallow boreholes. The preliminary results show a pattern characterized by regional tectonics and climate settings. The subsiding basins of the Jianghan Plain in central China, Hetao Basin in north China, Ruoergai Basin and the Yangtze River Delta have large patches of class E soil. South China is mostly class B and C due to stable tectonics and removal of sediments by heavy rainfall. Tectonically active southwest China is also mostly class B and C because of strong erosion and little local sedimentation. North and northwest China are dominated by class D and B, with some class C due to Early Pleistocene rocks. Inside the Tibetan Plateau, low relief and active compression of young rocks produce stripes of class B, C and D, with small patches of class E for lacustrine sediments.

  3. Time Profile of Three Semi-Arid Ecosystems in Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anyamba, A.; Damoah, R.; Small, J. L.; Tucker, C. J.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the spatio-temporal variability of rainfall and satellite derived-vegetation index of three endorheic semi-arid ecosystems in Africa: Lake Chad (in the Sahel region), Okavango and Etosha (Southern Africa) to infer the nature and trends of the variability during the satellite data instrumental record. We utilize African Rainfall Climatology Precipitation Estimates (1983-2014) and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) derived from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR: 1981-2014) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS: 2001:2014) to examine the aspects of the annual cycle and interannual variability using both time series plots and time-space diagrams. With respect to Lake Chad region, the first two decades of the series (1981-2000) show predominantly dryer than long-term average conditions with the periods 1989, 1992 and 1996/1997 as the signature drought periods coinciding with the desiccation of the Sahel region during the 1980s to early 1990s decades. The period 2000 to present is dominated by above average rainfall and NDVI with 2003, 2007 and 2012 being the most pronounced wet/greener years. The southern African ecosystems (Okavango and Etosha) show more or less a similar temporal pattern to that of Lake Chad basin, however, the wet periods are more amplified and persistent especially 2000, 2006, 2010 and 2014, with corresponding above average NDVI departures. The amplified nature of wet and dry periods present in the southern African ecosystem time series are consistent with the El Niño Southern Oscillation teleconnection patterns. Overall these three ecosystems serve as detectable fingerprints of changing climate conditions and ecosystems in these arid regions.

  4. Body condition and pregnancy in northern Yellowstone elk: evidence for predation risk effects?

    PubMed

    White, P J; Garrott, Robert A; Hamlin, Kenneth L; Cook, Rachel C; Cook, John G; Cunningham, Julie A

    2011-01-01

    S. Creel et al. reported a negative correlation between fecal progesterone concentrations and elk:wolf ratios in greater Yellowstone elk (Cervus elaphus) herds and interpreted this correlation as evidence that pregnancy rates of elk decreased substantially in the presence of wolves (Canis lupus). Apparently, the hypothesized mechanism is that decreased forage intake reduces body condition and either results in elk failing to conceive during the autumn rut or elk losing the fetus during winter. We tested this hypothesis by comparing age-specific body condition (percentage ingesta-free body fat) and pregnancy rates for northern Yellowstone elk, one of the herds sampled by Creel et al., before (1962-1968) and after (2000-2006) wolf restoration using indices developed and calibrated for Rocky Mountain elk. Mean age-adjusted percentage body fat of female elk was similarly high in both periods (9.0%-0.9% pre-wolf; 8.9%-0.8% post-wolf). Estimated pregnancy rates (proportion of females that were pregnant) were 0.91 pre-wolf and 0.87 post-wolf for 4-9 year-old elk (95% CI on difference = -0.15 to 0.03, P = 0.46) and 0.64 pre-wolf and 0.78 post-wolf for elk > 9 years old (95% CI on difference = -0.01 to 0.27, P = 0.06). Thus, there was little evidence in these data to support strong effects of wolf presence on elk pregnancy. We caution that multiple lines of evidence and/or strong validation should be brought to bear before relying on indirect measures of how predators affect pregnancy rates.

  5. Detailed reconstruction of the nervous and muscular system of Lobatocerebridae with an evaluation of its annelid affinity.

    PubMed

    Kerbl, Alexandra; Bekkouche, Nicolas; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Worsaae, Katrine

    2015-12-10

    The microscopic worm group Lobatocerebridae has been regarded a 'problematicum', with the systematic relationship being highly debated until a recent phylogenomic study placed them within annelids (Curr Biol 25: 2000-2006, 2015). To date, a morphological comparison with other spiralian taxa lacks detailed information on the nervous and muscular system, which is here presented for Lobatocerebrum riegeri n. sp. based on immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy, supported by TEM and live observations. The musculature is organized as a grid of longitudinal muscles and transverse muscular ring complexes in the trunk. The rostrum is supplied by longitudinal muscles and only a few transverse muscles. The intraepidermal central nervous system consists of a big, multi-lobed brain, nine major nerve bundles extending anteriorly into the rostrum and two lateral and one median cord extending posteriorly to the anus, connected by five commissures. The glandular epidermis has at least three types of mucus secreting glands and one type of adhesive unicellular glands. No exclusive "annelid characters" could be found in the neuromuscular system of Lobatocerebridae, except for perhaps the mid-ventral nerve. However, none of the observed structures disputes its position within this group. The neuromuscular and glandular system of L. riegeri n. sp. shows similarities to those of meiofaunal annelids such as Dinophilidae and Protodrilidae, yet likewise to Gnathostomulida and catenulid Platyhelminthes, all living in the restrictive interstitial environment among sand grains. It therefore suggests an extreme evolutionary plasticity of annelid nervous and muscular architecture, previously regarded as highly conservative organ systems throughout metazoan evolution.

  6. THE INCIDENCE OF CAESAREAN SECTIONS IN THE UNIVERSITY CLINICAL CENTER OF KOSOVO

    PubMed Central

    Elshani, Brikene; Daci, Armond; Gashi, Sanije; Lulaj, Shefqet

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: As in most countries of the world also at Kosovo the rate of Cesarean section from year to year is increasing. Aim: The main purpose of this paper was to present the incidence of births completed by Caesarean section at the Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics of University Clinical Center of Kosovo in Prishtinë. Material and methods: This study is retrospective, namely its made by collecting epidemiological data from patients’ histories that completed birth by Caesarean section for the period 2000-2006 in this clinic. Results and discussion: During this period, 14 maternal deaths were recorded during or after Caesarean section. Besides this, 14 lethal outcomes, the object of our study was 84 mothers which completed birth by Caesarean section and which are best used as a control group. The average age of mothers who died during or after Caesarean section was 32.1 years (SD ± 4.9). Youngest in this group was 24 years old and oldest 42 years. While the average age of mothers from the control group was 30.6 years (SD ± 5.9). Youngest was 19 and oldest 43 years, without significant difference. Most mothers included in the survey had more than one indication for Caesarean section. The most frequent indication was PIH syndrome with 33.7% and previous Caesarean section in 32.7%. Then with the participation of 12.2% were abruption of the placenta and disproportio feto pelvinea, 11.2% pelvinea and placenta praevia presentation, 10.2% parturiens while other indications were much rarer with less than 10% participation. Conclusion: Based on this we can conclude that the risk of the Caesarean section is high. PMID:23378692

  7. Laws of non-symmetric optimal flow structures, from the macro to the micro scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reis, A. Heitor

    2012-05-01

    Many natural systems and engineering processes occur in which a fluid invades a territory from one entry point (invasion), or conversely is expelled from the territory through an outlet (drainage). In any such situation an evolutionary flow structure develops that bridges the gap between the micro-scale (diffusion dominant) and the macro-scale (convection dominant). The respiratory and circulatory systems of animals are clear examples of complex flow trees in which both the invasion and drainage processes occur. These flow trees display successive bifurcations (almost always non-symmetric) which allow them to cover and serve the entire territory to be bathed. Although they are complex, it is possible to understand its internal structuring in the light of Constructal Law. A scaling law for optimal diameters of symmetric bifurcations was proposed by Murray (1926), while Bejan and co-workers (2000-2006) added a new scaling law for channel lengths, and based scaling laws of tree shaped structures on theoretical grounds. In this work we use the Constructal Law to study the internal structure and scaling laws of non-symmetric flow structures, and show how the results might help understand some flow patterns found in Nature. We show that the global flow resistances depend on the parameter ξ = D2/D1 = L2/L1 defining the degree of asymmetry between branches 1 and 2 in a bifurcation. We also present a more accurate and general form, of Murray's law, as a result of the application of the Constructal law to branching flow structures. We end with a brief analysis of the use of these results in the analysis of flow structures of the human respiratory and circulatory systems.

  8. Insurance status and health-related quality-of-life disparities after trauma: results from a nationally representative survey in the US.

    PubMed

    Alghnam, Suliman; Schneider, Eric B; Castillo, Renan C

    2016-04-01

    To determine whether insurance status modifies the association between injuries and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a nationally representative sample of US adults. This is a longitudinal, observational study using the pooled 2000-2006 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS). A total of 50,225 adults (age ≥ 18) with or without injuries were included in the study. HRQOL was evaluated using the EuroQoL Health Index (EQ-5D), visual analog scale (VAS), and the SF-12 physical component score (PCS) and mental component score (MCS). A categorical variable of injury-insurance combinations was created (not injured-privately insured, not injured-publically insured, not injured-uninsured, injured-privately insured, injured-publically insured, or injured-uninsured) and was included in the linear regression models. Adjustment covariates included age, gender, education, race, diabetes, hypertension, and baseline self-reported health. Healthcare utilization was also examined among the study population by injury status and across insurance groups. Seven hundred and ten individuals reported injuries. Adjusted analyses showed that injured individuals with public insurance had lower EQ-5D (-0.25), VAS (-11.4), PCS (-8.5), and MCS (-4.9) than the privately insured controls, while uninsured had EQ-5D, VAS, PCS and MCS that were, respectively, -0.12, -7.2, -2.6 and -4.1 relative to privately insured controls. With the exception of hospital discharges, healthcare utilization among uninsured individuals was lower than those with public or private insurance. We found injured individuals to have lower HRQOL than those without injuries, and this effect was exacerbated by insurance status. These findings call for interventions aimed to narrow the outcome disparity among injured in the US.

  9. Online Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions in the NASA GEOS-4 Model and Comparisons to Satellite and Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented a module for tropospheric aerosols (GO CART) online in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 model and simulated global aerosol distributions for the period 2000-2006. The new online system offers several advantages over the previous offline version, providing a platform for aerosol data assimilation, aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction studies, and short-range chemical weather forecasting and climate prediction. We introduce as well a methodology for sampling model output consistently with satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals to facilitate model-satellite comparison. Our results are similar to the offline GOCART model and to the models participating in the AeroCom intercomparison. The simulated AOT has similar seasonal and regional variability and magnitude to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations. The model AOT and Angstrom parameter are consistently low relative to AERONET in biomass-burning-dominated regions, where emissions appear to be underestimated, consistent with the results of the offline GOCART model. In contrast, the model AOT is biased high in sulfate-dominated regions of North America and Europe. Our model-satellite comparison methodology shows that diurnal variability in aerosol loading is unimportant compared to sampling the model where the satellite has cloud-free observations, particularly in sulfate-dominated regions. Simulated sea salt burden and optical thickness are high by a factor of 2-3 relative to other models, and agreement between model and satellite over-ocean AOT is improved by reducing the model sea salt burden by a factor of 2. The best agreement in both AOT magnitude and variability occurs immediately downwind of the Saharan dust plume.

  10. Sustainable Seas Student Intertidal Monitoring Project at Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soave, K.; Dean, A.; Weigel, S.; Redman, K.; Darakananda, D.; Fuller, C.; Gusman, V.; Hirschfeld, Z.; Kornfeld, H.; Picchi, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Sustainable Seas Student Monitoring Project at the Branson School in Ross, CA has monitored Duxbury Reef in Bolinas, CA since 1999, in cooperation with the Farallones Marine Sanctuary Association and the Gulf of Farallones National Marine Sanctuary. Goals of the project include: 1) To monitor the rocky intertidal habitat and develop a baseline database of invertebrates and algal density and abundance; 2) To contribute to the conservation of the rocky intertidal habitat through education of students and visitors about intertidal species and requirements for maintaining a healthy, diverse intertidal ecosystem; 3) To increase stewardship in the Gulf of the Farallones National Marine Sanctuary; and 4) To contribute abundance and population data on key algae and invertebrate species to the national database, LiMPETS (Long Term Monitoring Program & Experiential Training for Students). Student volunteers complete an intensive training course on the natural history of intertidal invertebrates and algae, identification of key species, rocky intertidal ecology, interpretation and monitoring techniques, and history of the sanctuary. Students conduct two baseline-monitoring surveys three times per year (fall, winter, and late spring) to identify and count key invertebrate and algae species. During six seasons of monitoring (2000-2006), the density of black turban snails, Tegula funebralis, showed seasonal abundance variation with respect to tidal zonation. Most algae species had consistently lower densities in the more accessible northern (A) transects than the southern (B) transects. To test the reliability of the student counts, replicate counts of all species are always performed. Replicate counts for invertebrate and algae species within the same quadrat along the permanent transects revealed a very small amount of variability, giving us confidence that our monitoring program is providing reliable data.

  11. Psychiatric comorbidity in illicit drug users: substance-induced versus independent disorders.

    PubMed

    Torrens, Marta; Gilchrist, Gail; Domingo-Salvany, Antonia

    2011-01-15

    Few studies have differentiated between independent and substance-induced psychiatric disorders. In this study we determine the risks associated with independent and substance-induced psychiatric disorders among a sample of 629 illicit drug users recruited from treatment and out of treatment settings. Secondary analysis of five cross-sectional studies conducted during 2000-2006. Independent and substance-induced DSM-IV psychiatric diagnoses were assessed using the Psychiatric Research Interview for Substance and Mental Disorders. Lifetime prevalence of Axis I disorders other than substance use disorder (SUD) was 41.8%, with independent major depression being the most prevalent (17%). Lifetime prevalence of antisocial or borderline personality disorders was 22.9%. In multinominal logistic regression analysis (SUD only as the reference group), being female (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.59, 3.77) and having lifetime borderline personality disorder (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.31, 4.59) remained significant variables in the group with independent disorders. In the group with substance-induced disorders, being recruited from an out of treatment setting (OR 3.50; 95% CI 1.54, 7.97), being female (OR 2.38; 95% CI 1.24, 4.59) and the number of SUD (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.10, 1.57) remained significant in the model. These variables were also significant in the group with both substance-induced and independent disorders, together with borderline personality disorder (OR 2.53; 95% CI 1.03, 6.27). Illicit drug users show high prevalence of co-occurrence of mainly independent mood and anxiety psychiatric disorders. Being female, recruited from an out of treatment setting and the number of SUD, are risk factors for substance-induced disorders. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Causes of accidents in pediatric patients: what has changed through ages.

    PubMed

    Falesi, M; Berni, S; Strambi, M

    2008-04-01

    Accidents are the main cause of death and disability in children and adolescents aged 1-15 years and cause more than one sixth of all infant admissions to hospital. In Italy, about 400 children and adolescents are involved in domestic accidents and more than 200 in road accidents. The aim of the study was to determine the number and type of accidents involving children and adolescents in the area of Siena and to compare present results with those obtained 20 years ago in order to assess the effectiveness of preventive measures evolving in the period. Two groups of patients were admitted to the hospital of Siena for accidents between 1980-1985 and 2000-2006; age, gender, type of accident, frequency distribution in the study period and age of highest frequency of accidents were analysed. The most frequent cause of admission to hospital in the earlier period was limb trauma with and without fracture, whereas in the later period it was head injury without fracture followed by limb trauma with and without fracture, and fracture of the skull, spine and trunk in boys and girls. Some variation in the course of the years was observed in both study period, however a constant, gradual reduction in admissions is evident. Comparison of these data with those collected 20 years earlier revealed a general reduction in the number of hospital admissions. This encouraging result suggests that what has been done so far is effective and should be continued, and that it is also worthwhile taking measures to further reduce the toll of accidents.

  13. No evidence for active human papillomavirus (HPV) in fields surrounding HPV-positive oropharyngeal tumors.

    PubMed

    Rietbergen, Michelle M; Braakhuis, Boudewijn J M; Moukhtari, Nadia; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Brink, Arjen; Sie, Daoud; Ylstra, Bauke; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Snijders, Peter J F; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Leemans, C René

    2014-02-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) have a better prognosis than patients with HPV-negative OPSCCs. Important factors contributing to this better prognosis are relatively low numbers of local/regional recurrences (LRRs) and second primary tumors (SPTs) in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. These low numbers may be explained in addition by the absence of a 'field cancerization' effect, which is a cause of LRRs and SPTs in patients with HPV-negative OPSCC. We aimed to detect a possible 'field effect' in patients with HPV-positive OPSCC. As HPV is involved in the early stage of carcinogenesis in OPSCCs, its presence is considered a reliable marker for the detection of such a field effect. Therefore, the presence of transcriptionally active HPV was analyzed in the mucosa surrounding HPV-positive OPSCCs. We included 20 patients who were surgically treated for an HPV-positive OPSCC in the period 2000-2006. Of each patient, the formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor sample and all available resection margins were collected. In total, 97 resection margins were investigated with an average of five resection margins per tumor. All samples were analyzed for the presence of tumor and the presence of transcriptionally active HPV by HPV16-E6-mRNA detection. All tumors were HPV16-E6-mRNA positive. HPV16-E6-mRNA could be detected in the resection margins that contained tumor (n = 6). All tumor-negative resection margins (n = 91) scored negative for HPV16-E6-mRNA. In conclusion, transcriptional active HPV could not be detected in the mucosa surrounding an HPV-positive OPSCC, which suggests the absence of field effect. This observation may explain the lower number of LRRs and SPTs in HPV-positive patients. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Vertical structure of Jupiter's Oval BA before and after it reddened: What changed?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Michael H.; de Pater, Imke; Asay-Davis, Xylar; Marcus, Philip S.; Go, Christopher Y.

    2011-09-01

    To constrain the properties of Oval BA before and after it reddened, we use Hubble methane band images from 1994 to 2009 to find that the distribution of upper tropospheric haze atop the oval and its progenitors remained unchanged, with reflectivity variations of less than 10% over this time span. We quantify measurement uncertainties and short-term fluctuations in velocity fields extracted from Cassini and Hubble data, and show that there were no significant changes in the horizontal velocity field of Oval BA in 2000, 2006, and 2009. Based on models of the oval's dynamics, the static stability of the oval's surroundings was also unchanged. The vertical extent of the oval did not change, based on the unchanged haze reflectivity and unchanged stratification. Published vortex models require Brunt-Väisälä frequencies of about 0.08 s -1 at the base of the vortex, and we combine this value with a review of prior constraints on the vertically variable static stability in Jupiter's troposphere to show that the vortex must extend down to the condensation level of water in supersolar abundance. The only observable change was an increase in short-wavelength optical absorption that appeared not at the core of the oval, but in a red annulus. The secondary circulation in the vortex keeps this red annulus warmer than the vortex core. Although the underlying cause of the color change cannot be proven, we explore the idea that the new chromophores in the red annulus may be related to a global or hemispheric temperature change.

  15. Association between Greenness, Urbanicity, and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ebisu, Keita; Holford, Theodore R.; Bell, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Background More than half of the world's population lives in urban environments. Due to urban related factors (e.g. higher air pollution), urban residents may face higher risk of adverse health outcomes, while access to green space could benefit health. Purpose We explored associations between urban and green land-use and birth weight. Methods Connecticut, U.S., birth certificate data (2000-2006) were acquired (n=239,811), and land-use data were obtained from the National Land Cover Database. We focused on three land-uses; urban space, urban open space, and green space (i.e. forest, shrub, herbaceous, and cultivated land). We estimated fractions of greenness and urbanicity within 250 m from residence. A linear mixed effects model was conducted for birth weight and a logistic mixed effects model for low birth weight (LBW) and small for gestational age (SGA). Results An interquartile range (IQR) increment in the fraction of green space within 250 m of residence was associated with 3.2g (95% Confidence Interval [0.4, 6.0]) higher birth weight. Similarly, an IQR increase in green space was associated with 7.6% [2.6, 12.4] decreased risk of LBW. Exposure to urban space was negatively correlated with green space (Pearson correlation = −0.88), and it showed negative association with birth outcomes. Results were generally robust with different buffer sizes and controlling for fine particles (PM2.5) and traffic. Conclusions We found protective associations by green space on birth outcomes. Increasing green space and/or reducing urban space (e.g. the greening of city environments) may reduce the risk of adverse birth outcomes such as LBW and SGA. Populations living in urban environments will grow in the next half century, and allocation of green space among urban areas may play a critical role for public health in urban planning. PMID:26546769

  16. [Digestive tract malignant neoplasms in patients of No. 11 area IMSS in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas.].

    PubMed

    Neri-Jiménez, U

    2008-01-01

    In the last years, mortality due to malignant neoplasms has shown a reduction in its growing tendencies in developed countries. However,the profile of cancer mortality in developing countries still presents a clear upward pattern, and Mexico is not the exception, for the mortality rate due to malignant tumors has shown an increase recently, which constitutes a great challenge for health institutions. To determine the frequency of malignant neoplasms in the digestive tract in patients treated in the General Hospital Area No. 11 of Mexican Institute of Social Security in Nuevo Laredo, Tamaulipas,Mexico. From 11,386 histopathologic reports carried out in the Department of Pathology of the General Hospital Area No. 11 IMSS in the year 2000-2006, 165 patients were reported,diagnosed with malignant neoplasms of the digestive tract (NMTD); patients age and gender were analyzed as well as affected areas and histological stock. Benign neoplasms and metastasis were excluded. From the study of 165 cases of patients with malignant neoplasms of digestive tract (NMTD),the most affected age was patients between 60-75 years old, predilection for male (63.78%) and female(36.21%) subjects. According to the Pathology report, 24.4% were diagnosed with hepatic cancer,23.03% were colon and rectum cancer, 20.00%were stomach cancer, 13.33% with pancreatic cancer,and 7.27% were cancer of esophagus. The rest was located in other levels. Malignant neoplasms of digestive tract in patients of General Hospital Area No. 11IMSS in Nuevo Laredo are relevant in relation with other Medial Centers may be regional factors contribute to this behavior.

  17. Decision support for the management of water resources at Sub-middle of the São Francisco river basin in Brazil using integrated hydro-economic modeling and scenarios for land use changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraes, M. G. A.; Souza da Silva, G.

    2016-12-01

    Hydro-economic models can measure the economic effects of different operating rules, environmental restrictions, ecosystems services, technical constraints and institutional constraints. Furthermore, water allocation can be improved by considering economical criteria's. Likewise, climate and land use change can be analyzed to provide resilience. We developed and applied a hydro-economic optimization model to determine the optimal water allocation of main users in the Lower-middle São Francisco River Basin in Northeast (NE) Brazil. The model uses demand curves for the irrigation projects, small farmers and human supply, rather than fixed requirements for water resources. This study analyzed various constraints and operating alternatives for the installed hydropower dams in economic terms. A seven-year period (2000-2006) with water scarcity in the past has been selected to analyze the water availability and the associated optimal economic water allocation. The used constraints are technical, socioeconomic and environmental. The economically impacts of scenarios like prioritizing human consumption, impacts of the implementation of the São Francisco river transposition, human supply without high distribution losses, environmental hydrographs, forced reservoir level control, forced reduced reservoir capacity, alteration of lower flow restriction were analyzed. The results in this period show that scarcity costs related ecosystem service and environmental constraints are significant, and have major impacts (increase of scarcity cost) for consumptive users like irrigation projects. In addition, institutional constraints such as prioritizing human supply, minimum release limits downstream of the reservoirs and the implementation of the transposition project impact the costs and benefits of the two main economic sectors (irrigation and power generation) in the region of the Lower-middle of the São Francisco river basin. Scarcity costs for irrigation users generally

  18. Temporal trends and outcomes associated with atrial fibrillation observed during acute coronary syndrome: Real-world data from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS), 2000-2013.

    PubMed

    Erez, Aharon; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sabbag, Avi; Nof, Eyal; Zahger, Doron; Atar, Shaul; Pollak, Arthur; Dobrecky-Merye, Idit; Beigel, Roy; Matetzky, Shlomi; Glikson, Michael; Beinart, Roy

    2017-05-01

    The past decade has brought major advances in therapy of patients presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The outcomes of ACS patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has improved over the years. We evaluated time-dependent changes in clinical characteristics, management strategies, and outcomes associated with AF observed during ACS hospitalization in patients enrolled in the biannual ACS Israeli Surveys (ACSIS) between 2000 and 2013. We divided the surveys into early (2000-2006) and late (2008-2013) time periods. The study population comprised 13 297 ACS patients, of whom 755 (5.7%) either presented with or developed AF during the index hospitalization. The incidence of AF observed during ACS hospitalization was lower during the later period (6.2% vs 4.9%; P < 0.01). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed that 1-year mortality rates were significantly lower among ACS patients with and without AF who were enrolled during the later vs early survey period (log-rank P < 0.01 for the overall difference). However, AF observed among ACS patients was still associated with increased risk for in-hospital complications and 30-day and 1-year mortality during both the early and late survey periods (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). In 10 years, rates of AF among ACS patients have declined significantly. Yet, despite improved overall 1-year survival for patients with AF, the development of AF in this population remains an independent predictor of mortality that has not changed appreciably over the years. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Plant community structure regulates responses of prairie soil respiration to decadal experimental warming.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xia; Shi, Zheng; Li, Dejun; Zhou, Xuhui; Sherry, Rebecca A; Luo, Yiqi

    2015-10-01

    Soil respiration is recognized to be influenced by temperature, moisture, and ecosystem production. However, little is known about how plant community structure regulates responses of soil respiration to climate change. Here, we used a 13-year field warming experiment to explore the mechanisms underlying plant community regulation on feedbacks of soil respiration to climate change in a tallgrass prairie in Oklahoma, USA. Infrared heaters were used to elevate temperature about 2 °C since November 1999. Annual clipping was used to mimic hay harvest. Our results showed that experimental warming significantly increased soil respiration approximately from 10% in the first 7 years (2000-2006) to 30% in the next 6 years (2007-2012). The two-stage warming stimulation of soil respiration was closely related to warming-induced increases in ecosystem production over the years. Moreover, we found that across the 13 years, warming-induced increases in soil respiration were positively affected by the proportion of aboveground net primary production (ANPP) contributed by C3 forbs. Functional composition of the plant community regulated warming-induced increases in soil respiration through the quantity and quality of organic matter inputs to soil and the amount of photosynthetic carbon (C) allocated belowground. Clipping, the interaction of clipping with warming, and warming-induced changes in soil temperature and moisture all had little effect on soil respiration over the years (all P > 0.05). Our results suggest that climate warming may drive an increase in soil respiration through altering composition of plant communities in grassland ecosystems.

  20. MHC class I expression in HPV positive and negative tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma in correlation to clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Näsman, Anders; Andersson, Emilia; Nordfors, Cecilia; Grün, Nathalie; Johansson, Hemming; Munck-Wikland, Eva; Massucci, Giuseppe; Dalianis, Tina; Ramqvist, Torbjörn

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is an important factor for the development of tonsillar squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). In addition, patients with HPV-positive TSCC have a better clinical outcome than patients with HPV-negative TSCC. Although, HPV is an important prognostic marker, additional biomarkers are needed to better predict clinical outcome to individualize treatment. Hence, we examined if classical HLA HLA-A,B,C and nonclassical HLA-E,G could serve as such marker. Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded TSCC from 150 patients diagnosed 2000-2006, earlier analyzed for HPV DNA and p16(INK4a), and treated with intention to cure were evaluated for the expression of HLA-A,B,C and HLA-E,G by immunohistochemistry. For HPV-positive TSCC a low expression of HLA-A,B,C, whereas for HPV-negative TSCC, a normal expression of HLA-A,B,C was significantly correlated to a favorable clinical outcome. These correlations were more pronounced for membrane staining of HLA-A,B,C when compared with cytoplasmatic staining. No significant correlation was found between HLA-E,G and HPV status or clinical outcome. The unexpected contrasting correlation between HLA-A,B,C expression, and clinical outcome depending on HPV, indicates essential differences between HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC. Furthermore, our data demonstrate that for both HPV-positive and HPV-negative TSCC, the expression of HLA-A,B,C together with HPV may serve as a useful biomarker for predicting clinical outcome. Copyright © 2012 UICC.

  1. Rift Valley Fever Risk Map Model and Seroprevalence in Selected Wild Ungulates and Camels from Kenya

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britch, Seth C.; Binepal, Yatinder S.; Ruder, Mark G.; Kariithi, Henry M.; Linthicum, Kenneth J.; Anyamba, Assaf; Small, Jennifer L.; Tucker, Compton J.; Ateya, Leonard O.; Oriko, Abuu A.; Gacheru, Stephen; Wilson, William C.

    2013-01-01

    Since the first isolation of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) in the 1930s, there have been multiple epizootics and epidemics in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa. Prospective climate-based models have recently been developed that flag areas at risk of RVFV transmission in endemic regions based on key environmental indicators that precede Rift Valley fever (RVF) epizootics and epidemics. Although the timing and locations of human case data from the 2006-2007 RVF outbreak in Kenya have been compared to risk zones flagged by the model, seroprevalence of RVF antibodies in wildlife has not yet been analyzed in light of temporal and spatial predictions of RVF activity. Primarily wild ungulate serum samples from periods before, during, and after the 2006-2007 RVF epizootic were analyzed for the presence of RVFV IgM and/or IgG antibody. Results show an increase in RVF seropositivity from samples collected in 2007 (31.8%), compared to antibody prevalence observed from 2000-2006 (3.3%). After the epizootic, average RVF seropositivity diminished to 5% in samples collected from 2008-2009. Overlaying maps of modeled RVF risk assessments with sampling locations indicated positive RVF serology in several species of wild ungulate in or near areas flagged as being at risk for RVF. Our results establish the need to continue and expand sero-surveillance of wildlife species Kenya and elsewhere in the Horn of Africa to further calibrate and improve the RVF risk model, and better understand the dynamics of RVFV transmission.

  2. Disability and decline in physical function associated with hospital use at end of life.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Amy S; Ettner, Susan L; Morrison, R Sean; Du, Qingling; Sarkisian, Catherine A

    2012-07-01

    Hospital use near the end of life is often undesirable to patients, represents considerable Medicare cost, and varies widely across regions. To concurrently examine regional and patient factors, including disability and functional decline, associated with end-of-life hospital use. We sampled decedents aged 65 and older (n = 2,493) from the Health and Retirement Study (2000-2006), and linked data from individual Medicare claims and the Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care. Two-part regression models estimated the relationship between total hospital days in the last 6 months and patient characteristics including physical function, while adjusting for regional resources and hospital care intensity (HCI). Median hospital days was 7 (range = 0-183). 53% of respondents had functional decline. Compared with decedents without functional decline, those with severe disability or decline had more regression-adjusted hospital days (range 3.47-9.05, depending on category). Dementia was associated with fewer days (-3.02); while chronic kidney disease (2.37), diabetes (2.40), stroke or transient ischemic attack (2.11), and congestive heart failure (1.74) were associated with more days. African Americans and Hispanics had more days (5.91 and 4.61, respectively). Those with family nearby had 1.62 fewer days and hospice enrollees had 1.88 fewer days. Additional hospital days were associated with urban residence (1.74) and residence in a region with more specialists (1.97) and higher HCI (2.27). Functional decline is significantly associated with end-of-life hospital use among older adults. To improve care and reduce costs, health care programs and policies should address specific needs of patients with functional decline and disability.

  3. The return of Pacific waters to the upper layers of the central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alkire, Matthew B.; Falkner, Kelly K.; Rigor, Ignatius; Steele, Michael; Morison, James

    2007-09-01

    Temperature, salinity, and chemical measurements, including the nutrients silicic acid (Si), nitrate (NO 3), nitrite (NO 2), ammonium (NH 4), and phosphate (PO 4 or P), the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater ( δ18O), and barium (Ba) concentrations were obtained from the central Arctic Ocean along transects radiating from the North Pole in early spring, 2000-2006. Stations that were reoccupied over this time period were grouped into five regions: from Ellesmere Island, (1) north along 70°W and (2) northwest along 90°W; near the North Pole, (3) on the Amundsen Basin flank and (4) directly over the Lomonosov Ridge; (5) through the Makarov Basin along 170-180°W. These regions had been shown by others to have undergone marked changes in water-mass assemblies in the early 1990s, but our time series tracer hydrographic data indicate a partial return of Pacific origin water within the mixed layer and the upper halocline layers beginning in 2003-2004. Back-trajectories derived from satellite-tracked ice buoys for these stations indicate that the upper levels of Pacific water in the central Arctic in 2004-2006 transited westward from the Bering Strait along the Siberian continental slope into the East Siberian Sea before entering the Transpolar Drift Stream (TPD). By 2004, the TPD shifted back from an alignment over the Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge toward the Lomonosov Ridge, as was characteristic prior to the early 1990s. At most stations occupied in 2006, a decrease in the Pacific influence was observed, both in the mixed layer and in the upper halocline, which suggests the Canadian branch of the TPD was shifting back toward North America. Clearly the system is more variable than has been previously appreciated.

  4. Pancreas cancer in Mississippi: present challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Helling, Thomas S

    2010-04-01

    Pancreatic cancer remains a deadly disease. Currently, the only hope for cure is surgical resection at an early stage of the disease. However, there is evidence that many individuals do not receive this treatment, perhaps because of health care disparities. Mississippi, because of its socioeconomic composition, has been the focus of concern for health care disparities. In order to determine whether such disparities exist in Mississippi for pancreatic cancer, a retrospective analysis was done from 2000 2006 of case diagnosis, treatment, and mortality from this disease. The Mississippi Cancer Registry, the American College of Surgeons (ACS) National Cancer Data Base (NCDB), and the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program were surveyed. Outcomes at all 12 ACS Commission on Cancer (CoC) accredited hospitals within the state were compared to the NCDB nationwide (n=1331 hospitals). In 2006 Mississippi had the highest death rate from pancreas cancer in the nation (12.7/100,000). Age-adjusted incidence by county ranged to a high of 26.91/100,000. Fifty-one percent of patients who died from pancreatic cancer in the state were treated at ACS CoC hospitals. The fate of the other 49% is not known. Of the patients tracked at CoC hospitals, there was essentially no significant difference with respect to age distribution, stage at diagnosis, or first treatment modalities when compared to NCDB nationwide CoC data. There were fewer patients surviving two years with locally advanced disease compared to national figures. Of concern was the large number of patients whose treatment for pancreatic cancer is unknown. It is incumbent on health care providers in the state to develop a system of care for pancreatic cancer that is accessible, inclusive, and comprehensive.

  5. Monitoring the Urban Growth on Vitosha Northeast Slope by Time Series Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolov, Hristo

    2015-04-01

    In last decades satellites are routinely used in solving large amount of Earth observation (EO) tasks. One of the phenomena that can be easily noted from EO images is the urban sprawl caused by urbanization process and formation of megacities. Two concurrent processes are observed in urban area enlargement - the loss of vegetation cover by soil sealing and the increase of impervious surfaces. The area for this specific study was selected due to its economic attractiveness and closeness to one of the biggest national parks - mountain Vitosha. Better identification of the ongoing changes in this particular area is considered to be of public interest. The basic task of this research was to trace the city growth by means of multispectral data and spectral indices and list possible reasons for the changes occurred. Important advantage in case instruments onboard satellites are used in such scenarios are the global coverage, repeatability, provision of historical data sets, and data consistency from one instrument to its successor. Other goal set in this study is establish method for better delineation of built/nobuilt areas as trade off between widely used spectral indices used for change detection in urban areas and the density of the buildings in the selected area derived by means of subpixel mixture analysis. These tasks were achieved by creating several new vector layers corresponding to shape and area of the land use change in the studied area. In the framework of this study used are the freely provided by USGS multispectral data from the series of TM/ETM+ instruments onboard Landsat satellites. The product used for tasks aforementioned is level L1T(G) radiometrically corrected and orthotransformed images that has been verified in large number of experiments and cited in numerous publications. For ground truthing several sources have been used - orthophoto images for visual inspection and CLC vector layers for years 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012.

  6. Evaluation of aeolian desertification from 1975 to 2010 and its causes in northwest Shanxi Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhanjin; Qin, Zuodong; Li, Hongjian; Ding, Guangwei; Meng, Xianwen

    2013-08-01

    Efforts to control aeolian desertification in China have focused on the arid and semiarid regions. However, the direct dust emission rates, sediment characteristics and local-scale controls, as well as the measures needed to combat desertification, remain poorly understood in northwest Shanxi Province. Aeolian desertification is regarded as an obstacle to local sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper investigated changes in aeolian desertification between 1975 and 2010 on the northwestern Shanxi Plateau. In this study, remote sensing images were used to classify land suffering from aeolian desertification into four categories: light, moderate, severe, and extremely severe. To evaluate the evolution and status of aeolian desertification as well as its causes, we interpreted and analyzed Landsat multi-spectral scanner (MSS) image (acquired in 1975) and Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) images (acquired in 1991, 2000, 2006, and 2010) as well as meteorological and socioeconomic data. Results revealed 11,866 km2, 13,362 km2, 14,051 km2, 13,613 km2, and 12,318 km2 of aeolian desertified land (ADL) in the above 5 periods, respectively. The spatial dynamics and patterns showed two stages: expansion during 1975-2000 at a rate of 87.37 km2 a- 1, and spatial transfer of affected areas during 2000-2010 with a net decrease of 173.27 km2 a- 1. During the evolution of aeolian desertification, areas of moderate ADL had the greatest dynamic response (11.45%). The factors controlling ADL dynamics were analyzed from the perspectives of two groups of factors: natural factors and human activities. Our results indicated that the climate-dominated natural factors contribute greatly to the occurrence and development of ADL. However, they are not the fundamental causes of its development. The human factors are the primary and direct driving forces responsible for the increase in ADL area. More thorough quantitative analysis, with more frequent remotely sensed data is needed to assess

  7. Retrospective cohort evaluation on risk of pneumonia in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsui-Ming; Mou, Chih-Hsin; Shen, Te-Chun; Yang, Chien-Lung; Yang, Min-Hui; Wu, Fang-Yang; Sung, Fung-Chang

    2016-06-01

    Pulmonary tuberculosis (PTb) and pneumonia are diseases that may exist concomitantly. Population study investigating the subsequent pneumonia development in PTb patients is limited. This study compares the risk of pneumonia between cohorts with and without PTb.We used the claims data of the Taiwan National Health Insurance to identify a cohort with PTb (N = 3417) newly diagnosed in 2000-2006 without pneumonia history, and a randomly selected comparison cohort (N = 6834) free of PTb and pneumonia, frequency matched by propensity score. Incidence rates and hazard ratios of pneumonia were calculated by sex, age, and comorbidity starting in the 7th month after the cohorts being established until the end of 2011.We found the incidence of pneumonia to be 1.9-fold higher in the PTb cohort than in the PTb free cohort (51.6 vs 27.0 per 1000 person-years). The PTb cohort had a Cox method estimated adjusted hazard ratio of 2.14 (95% confidence interval = 1.96-2.32). We also found that the risk was greater for men than for women, but lower for young adults aged 20-39 years. Comorbidity interacted with PTb by aggravating the pneumonia risk, particularly for those with asthma. For PTb patients comorbid with asthma, the pneumonia incidence was 2.5-fold higher than for PTb patients free of comorbidities (75.9 vs 29.3 per 1000 person-years).Our results display that PTb patients have an elevated risk of developing pneumonia. Adequate follow-up should be provided to the PTb patients, especially those with comorbidity.

  8. Radiometric Modeling and Calibration of the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS)Ground Based Measurement Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tian, Jialin; Smith, William L.; Gazarik, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The ultimate remote sensing benefits of the high resolution Infrared radiance spectrometers will be realized with their geostationary satellite implementation in the form of imaging spectrometers. This will enable dynamic features of the atmosphere s thermodynamic fields and pollutant and greenhouse gas constituents to be observed for revolutionary improvements in weather forecasts and more accurate air quality and climate predictions. As an important step toward realizing this application objective, the Geostationary Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GIFTS) Engineering Demonstration Unit (EDU) was successfully developed under the NASA New Millennium Program, 2000-2006. The GIFTS-EDU instrument employs three focal plane arrays (FPAs), which gather measurements across the long-wave IR (LWIR), short/mid-wave IR (SMWIR), and visible spectral bands. The GIFTS calibration is achieved using internal blackbody calibration references at ambient (260 K) and hot (286 K) temperatures. In this paper, we introduce a refined calibration technique that utilizes Principle Component (PC) analysis to compensate for instrument distortions and artifacts, therefore, enhancing the absolute calibration accuracy. This method is applied to data collected during the GIFTS Ground Based Measurement (GBM) experiment, together with simultaneous observations by the accurately calibrated AERI (Atmospheric Emitted Radiance Interferometer), both simultaneously zenith viewing the sky through the same external scene mirror at ten-minute intervals throughout a cloudless day at Logan Utah on September 13, 2006. The accurately calibrated GIFTS radiances are produced using the first four PC scores in the GIFTS-AERI regression model. Temperature and moisture profiles retrieved from the PC-calibrated GIFTS radiances are verified against radiosonde measurements collected throughout the GIFTS sky measurement period. Using the GIFTS GBM calibration model, we compute the calibrated radiances from data

  9. [Differences in perinatal mortality between districts of Amsterdam].

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Anita C J; Steegers, Eric A P; Rijninks-van Driel, Greta C; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; Eskes, Martine; Verhoeff, Arnoud P; Buitendijk, Simone E; Stronks, Karien; van der Post, Joris A M

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of district on perinatal mortality in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, taking into account various risk factors including ethnicity and social economic status (SES). Cohort study. The investigation related to 73,661 singleton births in Amsterdam, Diemen and Ouder-Amstel recorded in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry over the years 2000-2006. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine if perinatal mortality differed by district, taking into account various risk factors. Each year in Amsterdam an average of 10,525 singleton children were born of whom 114 infants died (10.8 per 1,000 births (‰)). National perinatal mortality was 9.9 ‰. In three districts, perinatal mortality was 1.5-2 times higher than the national average: Zuidoost (21‰), Slotervaart (14‰) and Zeeburg (14‰). However, mortality in the districts of ZuiderAmstel (5‰), Oud-Zuid (7‰), Centrum and Osdorp (8‰) was 20-50% lower. The high risk of perinatal mortality in the Zuidoost district (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.9-2.6) was explained by the high prevalence of women with higher risk factors; African or South Asian Surinamese ethnicity, low SES and preterm birth. The effects of parity and ethnicity on perinatal mortality differed by district. In Zeeburg increased effect for higher parity and for Turkish/Moroccan ethnicity was seen. In Slotervaart the perinatal mortality risk was increased (odds ratio: 1.8; 95% CI: 1.3-2.5), but this was not explained by the risk factors studied. Amsterdam had districts with both highly elevated and reduced perinatal mortality rates. The prevalence of risk factors differed by district and the effects of ethnicity and parity were not homogenous. Therefore, tailored policy and research by district is necessary.

  10. ASTER Imaging and Analysis of Glacier Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargel, Jeffrey; Furfaro, Roberto; Kaser, Georg; Leonard, Gregory; Fink, Wolfgang; Huggel, Christian; Kääb, Andreas; Raup, Bruce; Reynolds, John; Wolfe, David; Zapata, Marco

    Most scientific attention to glaciers, including ASTER and other satellite-derived applications in glacier science, pertains to their roles in the following seven functions: (1) as signposts of climate change (Kaser et al. 1990; Williams and Ferrigno 1999, 2002; Williams et al. 2008; Kargel et al. 2005; Oerlemans 2005), (2) as natural reservoirs of fresh water (Yamada and Motoyama 1988; Yang and Hu 1992; Shiyin et al. 2003; Juen et al. 2007), (3) as contributors to sea-level change (Arendt et al. 2002), (4) as sources of hydropower (Reynolds 1993); much work also relates to the basic science of glaciology, especially (5) the physical phenomeno­logy of glacier flow processes and glacier change (DeAngelis and Skvarca 2003; Berthier et al. 2007; Rivera et al. 2007), (6) glacial geomorphology (Bishop et al. 1999, 2003), and (7) the technology required to acquire and analyze satellite images of glaciers (Bishop et al. 1999, 2000, 2003, 2004; Quincey et al. 2005, 2007; Raup et al. 2000, 2006ab; Khalsa et al. 2004; Paul et al. 2004a, b). These seven functions define the important areas of glaciological science and technology, yet a more pressing issue in parts of the world is the direct danger to people and infrastructure posed by some glaciers (Trask 2005; Morales 1969; Lliboutry et al. 1977; Evans and Clague 1988; Xu and Feng 1989; Reynolds 1993, 1998, 1999; Yamada and Sharma 1993; Hastenrath and Ames 1995; Mool 1995; Ames 1998; Chikita et al. 1999; Williams and Ferrigno 1999; Richardson and Reynolds 2000a, b; Zapata 2002; Huggel et al. 2002, 2004; Xiangsong 1992; Kääb et al. 2003, 2005, 2005c; Salzmann et al. 2004; Noetzli et al. 2006).

  11. Online Simulations of Global Aerosol Distributions in the NASA GEOS-4 Model and Comparisons to Satellite and Ground-Based Aerosol Optical Depth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colarco, Peter; daSilva, Arlindo; Chin, Mian; Diehl, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    We have implemented a module for tropospheric aerosols (GO CART) online in the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System version 4 model and simulated global aerosol distributions for the period 2000-2006. The new online system offers several advantages over the previous offline version, providing a platform for aerosol data assimilation, aerosol-chemistry-climate interaction studies, and short-range chemical weather forecasting and climate prediction. We introduce as well a methodology for sampling model output consistently with satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) retrievals to facilitate model-satellite comparison. Our results are similar to the offline GOCART model and to the models participating in the AeroCom intercomparison. The simulated AOT has similar seasonal and regional variability and magnitude to Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer, and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer observations. The model AOT and Angstrom parameter are consistently low relative to AERONET in biomass-burning-dominated regions, where emissions appear to be underestimated, consistent with the results of the offline GOCART model. In contrast, the model AOT is biased high in sulfate-dominated regions of North America and Europe. Our model-satellite comparison methodology shows that diurnal variability in aerosol loading is unimportant compared to sampling the model where the satellite has cloud-free observations, particularly in sulfate-dominated regions. Simulated sea salt burden and optical thickness are high by a factor of 2-3 relative to other models, and agreement between model and satellite over-ocean AOT is improved by reducing the model sea salt burden by a factor of 2. The best agreement in both AOT magnitude and variability occurs immediately downwind of the Saharan dust plume.

  12. Polyfluoroalkyl substance exposure in the Mid-Ohio River Valley, 1991-2012.

    PubMed

    Herrick, Robert L; Buckholz, Jeanette; Biro, Frank M; Calafat, Antonia M; Ye, Xiaoyun; Xie, Changchun; Pinney, Susan M

    2017-09-01

    Industrial discharges of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) to the Ohio River, contaminating water systems near Parkersburg, WV, were previously associated with nearby residents' serum PFOA concentrations above US general population medians. Ohio River PFOA concentrations downstream are elevated, suggesting Mid-Ohio River Valley residents are exposed through drinking water. Quantify PFOA and 10 other per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in Mid-Ohio River Valley resident sera collected between 1991 and 2013 and determine whether the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer are exposure sources. We measured eleven PFAS in 1608 sera from 931 participants. Serum PFOA concentration and water source associations were assessed using linear mixed-effects models. We estimated between-sample serum PFOA using one-compartment pharmacokinetics for participants with multiple samples. In serum samples collected as early as 1991, PFOA (median = 7.6 ng/mL) was detected in 99.9% of sera; 47% had concentrations greater than US population 95th percentiles. Five other PFAS were detected in greater than 82% of samples; median other PFAS concentrations were similar to the US general population. Serum PFOA was significantly associated with water source, sampling year, age at sampling, tap water consumption, pregnancy, gravidity and breastfeeding. Serum PFOA was 40-60% lower with granular activated carbon (GAC) use. Repeated measurements and pharmacokinetics suggest serum PFOA peaked 2000-2006 for participants using water without GAC treatment; where GAC was used, serum PFOA concentrations decreased from 1991 to 2012. Mid-Ohio River Valley residents appear to have PFOA, but not other PFAS, serum concentrations above US population levels. Drinking water from the Ohio River and Ohio River Aquifer, primarily contaminated by industrial discharges 209-666 km upstream, is likely the primary exposure source. GAC treatment of drinking water mitigates, but does not eliminate, PFOA exposure. Copyright

  13. Potential of VIIRS Time Series Data for Aiding the USDA Forest Service Early Warning System for Forest Health Threats: A Gypsy Moth Defoliation Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James; Kuper, Phillip; Prados, Donald; Russell, Jeffrey; Ross, Kenton; Gasser, Gerald; Sader, Steven; McKellip, Rodney

    2007-01-01

    and Reflection Radiometer) data were used to assess the quality of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products derived from MODIS data and from simulated VIIRS data. The project focused on use of data from MODIS Terra as opposed to MODIS Aqua mainly because only MODIS Terra data was collected during 2000 and 2001-years with comparatively high amounts of gypsy moth defoliation within the study area. The project assessed the quality of VIIRS data simulation products. Hyperion data was employed to assess the quality of MODIS-based VIIRS simulation datasets using image correlation analysis techniques. The ART (Application Research Toolbox) software was used for data simulation. Correlation analysis between MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data for red, NIR (near-infrared), and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) image data products collectively indicate that useful, effective VIIRS simulations can be produced using Hyperion and MODIS data sources. The r(exp 2) for red, NIR, and NDVI products were 0.56, 0.63, and 0.62, respectively, indicating a moderately high correlation between the 2 data sources. Temporal decorrelation from different data acquisition times and image misregistration may have lowered correlation results. The RPC experiment also generated MODIS-based time series data products using the TSPT (Time Series Product Tool) software. Time series of simulated VIIRS NDVI products were produced at approximately 400-meter resolution GSD (Ground Sampling Distance) at nadir for comparison to MODIS NDVI products at either 250- or 500-meter GSD. The project also computed MODIS (MOD02) NDMI (Normalized Difference Moisture Index) products at 500-meter GSD for comparison to NDVI-based products. For each year during 2000-2006, MODIS and VIIRS (simulated from MOD02) time series were computed during the peak gypsy moth defoliation time frame in the study area (approximately June 10 through July 27). Gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from

  14. Community pharmacy services for people with drug problems over two decades in Scotland: Implications for future development.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Catriona; Thiruvothiyur, Manimekalai; Robertson, Helen; Bond, Christine

    2016-01-01

    In Scotland community pharmacies are heavily involved in service delivery for people with drug problems (PWDP) as documented through surveys of all community pharmacies in 1995, 2000 and 2006. A further survey in 2014 enabled trends in service demand/provision to be analysed and provides insight into future development. The lead pharmacist in every Scottish pharmacy (n=1246) was invited to complete a postal questionnaire covering attitudes towards PWDP and service provision and level of involvement in services (needle exchange, dispensing for PWDP and methadone supervision). Additional questions covered new services of take-home naloxone (THN) and pharmacist prescribing for opioid dependence. Telephone follow-up of non-responders covered key variables. A comparative analysis of four cross-sectional population surveys of the community pharmacy workforce (1995, 2000, 2006 and 2014) was undertaken. Completed questionnaires were returned by 709 (57%) pharmacists in 2014. Key variables (questionnaire or telephone follow-up) were available from 873 (70%). The proportion of pharmacies providing needle exchange significantly increased from 1995 to 2014 (8.6%, 9.5%, 12.2%, 17.8%, p<0.001) as did the proportion of pharmacies dispensing for the treatment of drug misuse (58.9%, 73.4%, 82.6% and 88%, p<0.001). Methadone was dispensed to 16,406 individuals and buprenorphine to 1777 individuals (increased from 12,400 and 192 respectively in 2006). Attitudes improved significantly from 1995 to 2014 (p<0.001). Being male and past training in drug misuse significantly predicted higher attitude scores (p<0.05) in all four years. Attitude score was a consistently significant predictor in all four years for dispensing for the treatment of drug misuse [OR=1.1 (1995 and 2006, CI 1.1-1.3, and 2014 CI 1.1-1.4) and 1.2 (2000), CI 1.3-1.5] and providing needle exchange [OR=1.1 (1995 and 2006), CI 1.1-1.2, 1.1-1.3 and 1.2 (2000 and 2014), CI 1.1-1.3 and 1.1-1.5]. In 2014, 53% of pharmacists

  15. [Drop-out from a mental health centre after the first contact].

    PubMed

    Palmieri, Giovanni; D'Amore, Carlo; Cecchetti, Rita; Bonamoneta, Nadia; Gonnella, Maria Antonietta; Moio, Margherita; Paoletti, Stefania; Vendetti, Stefania; Schiavella, Rita; Picardi, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Many patients drop-out from treatment after a single contact; however, characteristics have only rarely been investigated. We aimed at estimating the frequency of early drop-out and identifying possible risk factors. The study was performed at the Palestrina Mental Health Centre, located near Rome, Italy. The clinical charts of all first-time attenders who did not come back during a 7-year index period (2000-2006) were reviewed and information was collected on sociodemographic factors, psychiatric history, clinical presentation, and process of care. During the index period, 97 of 1.001 first-time attenders dropped out after the first contact. We excluded patients with symptoms of organic (N = 9) or severe mental disorders (N = 3). Of the remaining 85 patients, 49 presented with symptoms related to life events or situations ("reactive symptoms", RS), while 36 had "non-reactive symptoms" (NRS). Eighty-five randomly selected patients with comparable conditions (psychogenic reaction; anxiety, dysthymic or somatoform disorder; ICD-9 code 300.x, 308.x, 309.x) who came back to visit were included as controls. First-only contact patients tended to present with RS more often (58% vs. 43%) than controls. Therefore, the analyses were stratified for reactivity of symptoms. Among patients with NRS, first-only contact patients tended to be younger than controls. Among patients with RS, time until the next appointment tended to be longer in first-only contact patients than in controls. No other differences were observed between first-only contact patients and controls on sociodemographic variables, source of referral, and previous treatment history. The occurrence of early drop-out was relatively low. The higher prevalence of RS among first-only contact patients may suggest a greater disposition towards conflict or ambivalence in interpersonal situations. Patient-perceived service availability, in the form of shorter appointment delay, seems to promote maintenance of contact

  16. Are the shells of Scrobicularia plana useful for monitoring trace metal pollution events?

    PubMed

    Pérez-Mayol, Sílvia; Blasco, Julián; Tornero, Victoria; Morales-Nin, Beatriz; Massanet, Ana; Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The rupture of a mine dam in Aznalcóllar (SW Spain) in April 1998 entailed the contamination of Guadalquivir River and its estuary. To study the ability of bivalve shells to monitor the temporal changes on metal composition in the area, two year old Scrobicularia plana were obtained from two different locations of the estuary (Pantalan highly influenced and Pantoca less influenced) during the year 2000 and 2007. Co, Hg, Mo, Ni and Zn content was measured in shell and soft tissue of S. plana. Metal composition in shells sampled by micromilling and corresponding to the years 1999, 2000, 2006 and 2007 was higher in Pantalan (Co: 5.88 +/- 2.7 microg g(-1); Hg: 0.04 +/- 0.03 microg g(-1); Mo: 0.41 +/- 7.90 microg g(-1); Ni: 37.66 +/- 25.56 microg g(-1) and Zn: 9.19 +/- 8.88 microg g(-1)) than in Pantoca (Co: 3.64 +/- 0.50 microg g(-1); Hg: 0.02 +/- 0.02 microg g(-1); Mo: 4.70 +/- 1.20 microg g(-1); Ni: 7.21 +/- 13.60 microg g(-1) and Zn: 3.90 +/- 1.89 microg g(-1)). A marked temporal decrease was observed for all metals in Pantalan station with concentrations of Co, Hg, Mo, Ni and Zn varying respectively from 7.35 +/- 3.02, 0.05 +/- 0.03, 19.90 +/- 2.40, 70.58 +/- 21.94 and 18.04 +/- 0.98 microg g(-1), in 1999 to 3.07 +/- 1.08, 0.009 +/- 0.001, 2.40 +/- 1.43, 10.11 +/- 3.80 and 1.11 +/- 0.33 microg g(-1) in 2007, indicating that the effect of the mine accident had diminished significantly. Metal content in soft tissues did not follow the same decreasing trend indicating that soft tissues present a different capacity to accumulate metals from the environment. Our results confirm that micromilling shells are a suitable tool to assess bioaccumulation ofcontaminants during the entire life-span of bivalves.

  17. Spatial variations in the levels and isomeric patterns of PBDEs and HBCDs in the European eel in Flanders.

    PubMed

    Roosens, Laurence; Geeraerts, Caroline; Belpaire, Claude; Van Pelt, Ina; Neels, Hugo; Covaci, Adrian

    2010-07-01

    Pooled yellow eel (Anguilla anguilla L.) samples, consisting of 3-10 eels, from 50 locations collected in the period 2000-2006 were used to assess the pollution with PBDEs and HBCDs in Flemish waters (Belgium). Results from this monitoring network are presented and the spatial aspect throughout Flanders is included, linking POP levels to the industrial characteristics of the different sampling locations. The following PBDE congeners were measured using GC/MS: 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209. Concentrations of summation sigmaPBDE ranged between 10 and 5811 ng/g lipid weight (lw) with a median value of 81 ng/glw. BDE 47 dominated the PBDE profile in the majority of the eel samples, except for six samples, in which BDE 209 was the dominating congener. These latter samples are probably associated with recent exposure to the Deca-BDE mixture. Three HBCD diastereoisomers (alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCD) were measured using LC/MS-MS. summation sigmaHBCDs ranged between 16 and 4397 ng/glw, with a median value of 73 ng/glw. alpha-HBCD was the dominant isomer in all eel samples. Sediment concentrations of PBDEs were available from four locations and were used to compare the PBDE profile with those in eel. An important shift in the profile was observed, especially for BDE 209. While BDE 209 was only found in 12 eel samples, it was the dominant congener in all sediment samples. This could be due to its metabolisation or degradation in biota combined with the poor uptake of BDE 209 from sediments and its very low water solubility. No HBCDs were detected in any of the sediment samples. No significant correlation could be found between concentrations of PBDEs in eel and sediment from the same location. Comparison with previous studies shows that PBDE and HBCD levels in Flemish eels have decreased rapidly between 2000 and 2006 at particular sites, but alarming concentrations can still be found at industrialized hot spots. This finding is reflected in the human

  18. Utilizing North American Regional Reanalysis for modeling soil moisture and evapotranspiration in reconstructed watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keshta, Nader; Elshorbagy, Amin

    Oil sands development in Canada presents overwhelming challenges for boreal forest conservation and reclamation due to the disturbance of watershed function. Modeling hydrological processes for reclaimed landscapes is essential for assessing the performance of different reclamation strategies and their evolution over time, and requires a reliable continuous source of input data. This study evaluated the utility of precipitation and temperature data from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) for the hydrological modeling of two reconstructed sites located north of Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. NARR precipitation and air temperature data were in good agreement with the observed onsite datasets. A generic system dynamics watershed (GSDW) model was initially calibrated using the onsite meteorological data, resulting in simulated soil moisture values that slightly overestimated observed values. The model was re-calibrated using the NARR temperature and precipitation data as inputs while the remaining data (e.g., net radiation, wind speed, and relative humidity) were obtained from the weather station. The re-calibrated model was a good alternative to onsite weather station data for simulating soil moisture patterns and evapotranspiration fluxes, particularly in cases of data scarcity. The re-calibrated model was used along with the NARR long term dataset (1979-2006) to evaluate the current/future hydrological performance of existing reconstructed watersheds with respect to soil moisture deficit using a probabilistic framework, and the results compared with long term performance estimates using the onsite-calibrated GSDW model. The study showed overall average correlation coefficients of 0.96 and 0.64 between the NARR and the onsite observed datasets for temperature and precipitation, respectively, and average root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 4.2 °C and 2.3 mm for the same datasets for the period of 2000-2006. The current study demonstrates and

  19. Crustal Rebound due to Lake Mass Changes Measured by InSAR: Constraints on Lithosphere Rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doin, M. P.; Twardzik, C.; Cavalié, O.; Lasserre, C.

    2015-12-01

    SAR interferometry has proven to be a reliable method for detecting small displacements due to ground subsidence. Here, we relate ground motion around the lake Mead (Nevada, USA) and lake Siling Co (Tibet, China) measured by InSAR to water loading in order to constrain the rheology of the lithosphere.Lake Mead, an artificial reservoir, has been filled with water in 1935. We analyzed ~500 interferograms based on 62 ERS images and on 40 ENVISAT images acquired between 1992 and 2010. Interferograms are inverted to solve for the time series of ground motion in the lake Mead area. Temporal smoothing allows to reduce the turbulent atmospheric delays. Spatio-temporal series of the deformation from 1992 to 2010 show a broad subsidence pattern correlated with lake level from 1992 to 2010. We model the deformation, taking into account the water and sediment loading history of the lake since 1935. The two-layer visco-elastic model proposed by Kaufmann and Amelung (2000), with a mantle viscosity of 1018 Pa s, adjusts well the data up to 2001, but overpredicts the deformation after 2001. We will discuss the models that could explain the deformation evolution. The Siling Co lake is the largest endorheic lake in Central Tibet. In 1972-1999 its water level remained stable, while it increased by about 1.0~m/yr in the period 2000-2006. The increased rate gradually stepped down to 0.2~m/yr in 2007-2011. We analysed 107 ERS and Envisat SAR images during the period 1992-2011. The deformation amplitude closely follows the lake level temporal evolution, except that subsidence continues in 2008-2011, while the lake level stagnated. This temporal evolution suggests a non elastic relaxation process taking place at a decade time-scale. Phase delay maps are used to constrain possible layered visco-elastic rheological models. An elastic model could partly explain the observed subsidence rate if elastic moduli are about twice lower than those extracted from Vp/Vs profiles. The surface

  20. From the end of a revolution to the beginning of an evolution: An interpretive investigation on the Mexican oil culture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez-Perez, Pedro Gabriel

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation is an interpretative investigation on the Mexican petroleum industry. It studies the social arrangement that allowed the development of Mexico's most important State-Owned Enterprise Petroleos Mexicanos and the current pressures to transform it. The need to modify its operations in Mexico is an issue of enormous significance for the current reforms undertaken by the Neo-liberal project initiated during the mid 1980's. It represents the abandonment of the development strategy that characterized the "Regime of the Revolution" and the establishment of a market-oriented economy in line with the development strategy selected by the President Fox for the period 2000--2006. Through an approximation of Habermas' ideal 'Public Sphere' this dissertation reveals relevant information about PEMEX's historical and present contexts, the basic elements that make up the Mexican petroleum culture, its major interest groups, their mutual perspectives and understandings, their interpretation of the present situation and their opinion as to the way PEMEX should be modified. The investigation into the ideas, beliefs and customs that justified PEMEX's hegemony over Mexico's petroleum resources followed the conceptual model provided by the Critical Theory Paradigm and an adaptation of a methodological approach previously employed for qualitative Critical Theory research. Throughout an ethnographic analysis of twenty-six representatives of PEMEX's major interest groups through in-depth, semi-structured interviews based on a combination of an interpretative research design and a case-study research method, the beliefs, ideals, mutual perceptions and future plans of these stakeholders were identified. This study advances the understanding of the symbols, beliefs and ideas that have framed Mexican petroleum culture, as well as describes how these beliefs and ideas have changed over time. Through an 'ethnography of rhetoric,' this project facilitated the absorption and

  1. Statistical evaluation of the impact of shale gas activities on ozone pollution in North Texas.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Mahdi; John, Kuruvilla

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, substantial growth in shale gas exploration and production across the US has changed the country's energy outlook. Beyond its economic benefits, the negative impacts of shale gas development on air and water are less well known. In this study the relationship between shale gas activities and ground-level ozone pollution was statistically evaluated. The Dallas-Fort Worth (DFW) area in north-central Texas was selected as the study region. The Barnett Shale, which is one the most productive and fastest growing shale gas fields in the US, is located in the western half of DFW. Hourly meteorological and ozone data were acquired for fourteen years from monitoring stations established and operated by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). The area was divided into two regions, the shale gas region (SGR) and the non-shale gas (NSGR) region, according to the number of gas wells in close proximity to each monitoring site. The study period was also divided into 2000-2006 and 2007-2013 because the western half of DFW has experienced significant growth in shale gas activities since 2007. An evaluation of the raw ozone data showed that, while the overall trend in the ozone concentration was down over the entire region, the monitoring sites in the NSGR showed an additional reduction of 4% in the annual number of ozone exceedance days than those in the SGR. Directional analysis of ozone showed that the winds blowing from areas with high shale gas activities contributed to higher ozone downwind. KZ-filtering method and linear regression techniques were used to remove the effects of meteorological variations on ozone and to construct long-term and short-term meteorologically adjusted (M.A.) ozone time series. The mean value of all M.A. ozone components was 8% higher in the sites located within the SGR than in the NSGR. These findings may be useful for understanding the overall impact of shale gas activities on the local and regional ozone

  2. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai National Park and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffens, Bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2014-01-01

    and rates of recession using datasets including 15 min USGS quadrangle maps(19501951), Landsat imagery (19861987, 2000,2006), and 2005 IKONOS imagery (KEFJ only).

  3. Alaska: Glaciers of Kenai Fjords National Park and Katmai and Lake Clark National Parks and Preserve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giffen, bruce A.; Hall, Dorothy K.; Chien, Janet Y. L.

    2011-01-01

    terminus positions and rates of recession using datasets including the 15-minute USGS quadrangle maps (1950/1951), Landsat imagery (1986/1987, 2000, 2006) and 2005 Ikonos imagery (KEFJ only).

  4. Multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy using data from remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matejicek, L.

    2015-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from remote sensing can provide information for multicriteria analysis for sources of renewable energy. Advanced land cover quantification makes it possible to search for suitable sites. Multicriteria analysis, together with other data, is used to determine the energy potential and socially acceptability of suggested locations. The described case study is focused on an area of surface coal mines in the northwestern region of the Czech Republic, where the impacts of surface mining and reclamation constitute a dominant force in land cover changes. High resolution satellite images represent the main input datasets for identification of suitable sites. Solar mapping, wind predictions, the location of weirs in watersheds, road maps and demographic information complement the data from remote sensing for multicriteria analysis, which is implemented in a geographic information system (GIS). The input spatial datasets for multicriteria analysis in GIS are reclassified to a common scale and processed with raster algebra tools to identify suitable sites for sources of renewable energy. The selection of suitable sites is limited by the CORINE land cover database to mining and agricultural areas. The case study is focused on long term land cover changes in the 1985-2015 period. Multicriteria analysis based on CORINE data shows moderate changes in mapping of suitable sites for utilization of selected sources of renewable energy in 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012. The results represent map layers showing the energy potential on a scale of a few preference classes (1-7), where the first class is linked to minimum preference and the last class to maximum preference. The attached histograms show the moderate variability of preference classes due to land cover changes caused by mining activities. The results also show a slight increase in the more

  5. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J. P.; Ryan, R. E.; Smoot, J. C.; Prados, D. L.; McKellip, R. D.; Sader, S. A.; Gasser, G.; May, G.; Hargrove, W.

    2007-12-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS, and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approx. 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion- simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same date showed moderately high correlation with Hyperion

  6. The MODIS Vegetation Canopy Water Content product

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Riano, D.; Trombetti, M.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation water stress drives wildfire behavior and risk, having important implications for biogeochemical cycling in natural ecosystems, agriculture, and forestry. Water stress limits plant transpiration and carbon gain. The regulation of photosynthesis creates close linkages between the carbon, water, and energy cycles and through metabolism to the nitrogen cycle. We generated systematic weekly CWC estimated for the USA from 2000-2006. MODIS measures the sunlit reflectance of the vegetation in the visible, near-infrared, and shortwave infrared. Radiative transfer models, such as PROSPECT-SAILH, determine how sunlight interacts with plant and soil materials. These models can be applied over a range of scales and ecosystem types. Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) were used to optimize the inversion of these models to determine vegetation water content. We carried out multi-scale validation of the product using field data, airborne and satellite cross-calibration. An Algorithm Theoretical Basis Document (ATBD) of the product is under evaluation by NASA. The CWC product inputs are 1) The MODIS Terra/Aqua surface reflectance product (MOD09A1/MYD09A1) 2) The MODIS land cover map product (MOD12Q1) reclassified to grassland, shrub-land and forest canopies; 3) An ANN trained with PROSPECT-SAILH; 4) A calibration file for each land cover type. The output is an ENVI file with the CWC values. The code is written in Matlab environment and is being adapted to read not only the 8 day MODIS composites, but also daily surface reflectance data. We plan to incorporate the cloud and snow mask and generate as output a geotiff file. Vegetation water content estimates will help predicting linkages between biogeochemical cycles, which will enable further understanding of feedbacks to atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases. It will also serve to estimate primary productivity of the biosphere; monitor/assess natural vegetation health related to drought, pollution or diseases

  7. Local natural electric fields - the electrochemical factor of formation of placers and the criterion of prospectings of oil and gas deposits on the Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholmiansky, Mikhail; Anokhin, Vladimir; Kholmianskaia, Galina

    2014-05-01

    On the basis litologo-facial, geo- and hydrochemical characteristics of a cross-section lito - and shelf hydrospheres, the estimation of structural features modern and paleostatic local electric fields and their influence on transportation of the suspended mineral material is made. The formula of dynamic carrying over of the ore material which is in a subcolloidal condition under the influence of natural electric field of a shelf is deduced. On a structure of a friable cover and its features on G.I. Teodorovicha's method position of oxidation-reduction border, sign Eh was reconstructed. On the basis of the established dependence between Eh and local substatic electric field of a shelf it was reconstructed paleostatic a field and its influence on the weighed mineral particles was estimated. Influence of local electric field on lithodynamic moving of ore minerals is estimated for a shelf of the Arctic seas of Russia. On the basis of this estimation and data on structure of a friable cover the map of influence of local electric field on sedimentation and transportation of ore minerals for water area of the East Arctic seas of Russia is constructed. For Laptev seas and East-Siberian the areas in which limits local electric field promoted are revealed and promotes formation Holocene placers of an ilmenite, a cassiterite and gold. For Chukchi and the Bering Seas such estimation is made for all friable cover. hydrocarbonic deposits located on water area of the Arctic shelf of the Russian Federation, initiate occurrence of jet auras of dispersion of heavy metals in ground deposits and in a layer of the sea water, blocking these deposits. Intensity of auras and their spatial position is caused by a geological structure of deposits of breeds containing them, lithodynamic and oceanologic factors. On the basis of the theoretical representations developed by M.A.Holmjansky and O.F.Putikova (Holmjansky, Putikov, 2000, 2006, 2008) application of electrochemical updating of

  8. [State of health of populations residing in geothermal areas of Tuscany].

    PubMed

    Minichilli, Fabrizio; Nuvolone, Daniela; Bustaffa, Elisa; Cipriani, Francesco; Vigotti, Maria Angela; Bianchi, Fabrizio

    2012-01-01

    The limited scientific knowledge on relationship between exposure and health effects in relation to geothermal activity motivated an epidemiologic investigation in Tuscan geothermal area. The study aims to describe the health status of populations living in Tuscany municipalities where concessions for exploitation of geothermal resources were granted. This is an ecological study, so it is not useful to produce evidence to sustain a judgment on the cause-effect link. The major limits of this type of study are the use of the residence at municipal level as a proxy of exposure to both environmental and socioeconomic factors and the use of aggregated data of health outcomes that can lead to the well-known ecological fallacy. Sixteen municipalities were included in the study area: eight are part of the so-called "traditional" geothermal area, defined as Northern Geothermal Area (NGA) and eight located in the Amiata Mountain defined as Southern Geothermal Area (SGA). In 2000-2006, the average resident population in the overall area was approximately 43,000 inhabitants. Thirty-one geothermal power plants were active, with a production capacity of 811 MW, 5 of them with 88 MW located in the SGA. Statistical analyses on the entire geothermal area, NGA and SGA subareas, and the sixteen municipalities were performed. Mortality data were obtained from Tuscany Regional Mortality Registry for the 1971-2006 period, analysing 60 causes of death, of interest for population health status or consistent with "Project SENTIERI" criteria. Hospital discharge records of residents in Tuscany Region in 2004-2006, anywhere admitted to hospital, were analyzed considering only the main diagnosis, excluding repeated admissions for the same cause. The causes taken into account are the same analysed for mortality were considered. Age-standardized mortality rates (TSDM) and the temporal trends of TSDM for four periods (1971-1979, 1980-1989, 1990-1999, 2000-2006) were computed. Age

  9. Radiotherapy patterns of care in gastric adenocarcinoma: a single institution experience

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jessica; Squires, Malcolm H.; Mikell, John L.; Fisher, Sarah B.; Staley, Charles A.; Kooby, David A.; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Curran, Walter J.; Hall, William A.; Colbert, Lauren E.; Shelton, Joseph W.; Maithel, Shishir K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC) is one of the most commonly diagnosed cancers worldwide. Two standard approaches for treatment of resectable GAC include adjuvant 5-fluorouracil-based chemoradiotherapy [per Intergroup 0116 (INT-0116) trial and perioperative epirubicin, cisplatin, fluorouracil (ECF) chemotherapy per Medical Research Council Adjuvant Gastric Infusional Chemotherapy (MAGIC) trial]. Controversy remains regarding the most appropriate treatment strategy to decrease recurrence rates and improve survival following surgery. The purpose of this study was to analyze how patterns of care for patients with GAC treated at Emory University Hospital changed following publication of the MAGIC trial in 2006. Methods We analyzed a prospectively maintained database of 150 patients who underwent resection for GAC between December 2000 and June 2013. Patients were divided into two cohorts, Early [2000-2006] and late [2007-2013]. The primary objective was to compare the number of patients assigned to adjuvant chemoradiotherapy (aCRT) vs. perioperative chemotherapy (PC) throughout the study period and secondarily assess for recurrence patterns and survival outcomes for patients assigned to those two strategies. Results Between 2000 and 2013, 124 patients received adjuvant therapy for GAC. Fifty-four patients were treated with PC and 70 patients with aCRT. The early cohort included 56 patients, and the late cohort included 94 patients. There was no statistical difference in the number of patients receiving aCRT between the Early and Late cohorts [n=23 (50%) vs. 35 (38%) respectively, P=0.21]. PC increased from 2 patients (3.6%) in the Early cohort to 32 patients (34%) in the Late cohort (P<0.001). Four-year overall survival (OS) was 32.6% for the Early cohort and 68.8% for the Late cohort (P=0.010). Overall recurrence rate was 25.3% with no significant difference in rates of recurrence seen between the Early and Late cohorts. Conclusions PC has become more prevalent

  10. Disability management outcomes in the Ontario long-term care sector.

    PubMed

    Mustard, C A; Kalcevich, C; Steenstra, I A; Smith, P; Amick, B

    2010-12-01

    Optimal disability management practices supporting early and safe return-to-work involve the workplace adoption of formal policies and procedures to ensure the quality of disability management outcomes. In the Canadian province of Ontario, there are approximately 60,000 health care workers in 600 licensed facilities providing long-term residential care to approximately 75,000 elderly residents. Workers in this sector are exposed to high biomechanical demands arising from care-giving tasks and have a substantial risk of work-related disability. Over the period 2000-2006, many long-term care facilities in Ontario adopted disability management practices that encourage modified work arrangements. The objective of this study was to describe differences in modified work arrangements and disability outcomes in long-term care facilities in Ontario. Measures of disability episode outcomes are described for a representative sample of 32 Ontario long-term care facilities for two consecutive years 2005 and 2006. Data were obtained from a questionnaire survey of facilities, a survey of a representative sample of caregivers and administrative records from the provincial workers' compensation agency. A total of 28,747 days of disability attributed to work-related conditions were experienced by 3,271 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 (28,034 days in 2006). Average total disability days were 922 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and 889 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. Disability compensation expenditures, measured as wage replacement benefits received by disabled workers, were estimated to be $72,332 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2005 and $64,619 per 100 full-time equivalent staff in 2006. On average, approximately 60% of all disability days were managed by modified duty arrangements and the proportion of total disability days managed by modified duty arrangements for each facility was correlated between the two observation years. Across facilities

  11. Treatment potential for dyslipidaemia management in patients with coronary heart disease across Europe: findings from the EUROASPIRE III survey.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Željko; De Bacquer, Dirk; Kotseva, Kornelia; Prugger, Christof; De Backer, Guy; Wood, David

    2013-12-01

    Dyslipidaemia is among the most important risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). The lowering of LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) yields significant reduction in both morbidity and mortality rates, particularly in patients with established CHD. The aim of this survey was to assess how dyslipidaemia is managed following a coronary event in different places in Europe. CHD patients' data from centres in 22 European countries were gathered using standardised methods. In total, 8467 CHD patients with lipid measurements in one central laboratory were included. Trends from 8 countries participating in all three EUROASPIRE surveys (1994-1995, 1999-2000, 2006-2007) were also investigated. 51.1% of CHD patients had elevated total cholesterol (≥4.5 mmol/L), 54.5% had raised LDL-C (≥2.5 mmol/L), 36.7% had low HDL-C (<1.0 mmol/L for men and <1.2 mmol/L for women), and 34.7% had increased triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L). The use of lipid lowering drugs was 79.8% but it varied considerably, ranging from only 41.6% (Lithuania) to 95.4% (Finland). Over the past decade, in 8 countries the prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (≥4.5 mmol/L) in CHD patients has decreased from 94.5% in the first to 76.7% in the second and 46.2% in the third survey (p < 0.0001). The use of lipid-lowering drugs increased from 32.3% in the first, to 62.7% in the second and 88.8% in the third survey (p < 0.0001). Although management of dyslipidaemia in CHD patients is improving, a large majority of CHD patients with dyslipidaemia is still inadequately treated and many patients on lipid-lowering therapy are not reaching the treatment goals. Therefore, a considerable potential still exists throughout Europe to reduce CHD mortality and morbidity rates through better treatment of dyslipidaemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.; Zender, C. S.; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, P. J.

    2010-04-01

    During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000-2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997) or low (La Niña, 2000) fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. We assessed the radiative and climate effects of anthropogenic fire by analyzing the differences between the high and low fire simulations. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August-October by 19.1±12.9 W m-2 (10%) in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E-120° E, 5° S-5° N). The reductions in net shortwave radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2 °C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC) absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m-2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d-1 (10%). The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  13. Do biomass burning aerosols intensify drought in equatorial Asia during El Niño?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, M. G.; Randerson, J. T.; Zender, C. S.; Flanner, M. G.; Rasch, P. J.

    2009-11-01

    During El Niño years, fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia create large regional smoke clouds. We characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought, and we investigated their effects on climate by using an atmospheric general circulation model. Satellite observations during 2000-2006 indicated that El Niño-induced regional drought led to increases in fire emissions and, consequently, increases in aerosol optical depths over Sumatra, Borneo and the surrounding ocean. Next, we used the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) to investigate how climate responded to this forcing. We conducted two 30 year simulations in which monthly fire emissions were prescribed for either a high (El Niño, 1997) or low (La Niña, 2000) fire year using a satellite-derived time series of fire emissions. Our simulations included the direct and semi-direct effects of aerosols on the radiation budget within the model. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August-October by 19.1±12.9 W m-2 (10%) in a region that encompassed most of Sumatra and Borneo (90° E-120° E, 5° S-5° N). The reductions in net radiation cooled sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and land surface temperatures by 0.5±0.3 and 0.4±0.2° C during these months. Tropospheric heating from black carbon (BC) absorption averaged 20.5±9.3 W m-2 and was balanced by a reduction in latent heating. The combination of decreased SSTs and increased atmospheric heating reduced regional precipitation by 0.9±0.6 mm d-1 (10%). The vulnerability of ecosystems to fire was enhanced because the decreases in precipitation exceeded those for evapotranspiration. Together, the satellite and modeling results imply a possible positive feedback loop in which anthropogenic burning in the region intensifies drought stress during El Niño.

  14. Infrasonic Monitoring Network on the Big Island of Hawaii

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thelen, Weston; Garces, Milton; Cooper, Jennifer; Badger, Nickles; Perttu, Anna; Williams, Brian

    2013-04-01

    The USGS Hawaiian Volcano Observatory (HVO) with the participation of the University of Hawaii Infrasound Lab (ISLA) installed three new permanent infrasound arrays on the south half of the Island of Hawaii. Together with three existing permanent arrays maintained by ISLA, the current infrasound network around Kīlauea and Mauna Loa volcanoes is one of the most advanced of any volcano in the world. Open-vent volcanoes such as Kīlauea are particularly good infrasound emitters as lava spattering and unsteady gas release is common. The network was designed with two main goals in mind: 1) to monitor and study the infrasound sources associated with the ongoing Pu`u `Ō`ō and Halema'u'mau eruption, and 2) to detect in near real-time new eruptions at Mauna Loa or Kīlauea volcanoes. Each HVO array consists of 4 sensors, which form an equilateral triangle ~100 m on a side surrounding a central sensor. Three other permanent arrays maintained by ISLA (I59US, MENE, KHLU) have been operational since 2000, 2006, and 2009, respectively, and consist of a combination of Chaparral 25 and 50 sensors. Each infrasound instrument within the HVO arrays is built around an low- cost AllSensor MEMS sensor, which has higher noise characteristics than a Chaparral 25, but similar frequency response. ISLA also operates stations on Maui and Kauai that provide --statewide coverage. Since the full network has been established, we have recorded several infrasound signals including infrasonic tremor from Halema`uma`u, collapses from the craters of Halema`uma`u and Pu`u `Ō`ō, and other natural and anthropogenic infrasound from diverse sources on- island, offshore, and aloft. Future developments will include real-time detection, location, and identification of infrasonic signals for eruption notification. We hope to increase public awareness of volcanic infrasound by posting real-time locations on an interactive display, similar to how seismicity is currently reported. MENE data is presently

  15. The role of the sodium current complex in a nonreferred nationwide cohort of sudden infant death syndrome.

    PubMed

    Winkel, Bo Gregers; Yuan, Lei; Olesen, Morten S; Sadjadieh, Golnaz; Wang, Yinman; Risgaard, Bjarke; Jabbari, Reza; Haunsø, Stig; Holst, Anders Gaarsdal; Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob; Jespersen, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most common cause of death in infants between the age of 1 month and 1 year. Rare variants in Nav1.5 encoded by SCN5A are known to play a role in SIDS; however, the combined role of the sodium current complex is unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the sodium current complex in a nonreferred nationwide cohort of SIDS cases. DNA was extracted from dried blood spot samples from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. In total, 66 non-referred SIDS cases born in Denmark in the period of 2000-2006 were screened for genetic variants in the 8 major genes involved in the regulation of the Nav1.5 channel complex: SCN5A, SCN1B, SCN2B, SCN3B, SCN4B, GPD1L, SNTA1, and CAV3. Patch-clamp analyses were performed on variants not previously characterized. In total, 8 patients (12%) had nonsynonymous rare variants in the sodium current genes. SCN5A harbored 6 rare variants (R458C, R535*, S1103Y, R1193Q, S1609L, and Q1909R); CAV3, 1 rare variant (T78M); GPD1L, 1 rare variant (R220H); and SCN3B, 1 rare variant (L10P). Four variants were considered likely pathogenic and 5 variants of unknown significance. SCN5A R1193Q and GPD1L R220H (both considered variants of unknown significance) were present in the same infant. Functional analysis of variants not previously characterized (R458C, S1609L, and Q1909R in SCN5A) predominantly revealed increased transient and sustained sodium current. In a nonreferred nationwide Danish cohort of SIDS cases, up to 5/66 (7.5%) of SIDS cases can be explained by genetic variants in the sodium channel complex genes. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Williams, M.

    2012-04-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, cultivar selection, and fertilisation application, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon (C) cycle studies. In this study, we present a data assimilation framework allowing for spatiotemporally resolved simulation of cropland C fluxes under observational constraints on sowing dates and canopy greenness. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both variationally (for sowing date estimation) and sequentially (for improved model state estimation, using the EnKF) into a crop C mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to accurately quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional C flux seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville (IL, US) Ameriflux EC site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area (32 km - 25 km). We find that MODIS-derived sowing dates allow for highly accurate simulations of growing season C cycling at locations for which ground-truth sowing dates are not available. Resulting simulations provide an envelope on upscaled cropland phenology, with significant deviations from plot-scale observations at Bondville: study area average growing season length is ~20 days longer than observed, primarily because of an earlier estimated start of season. Relative spatial variability of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) of C ranges from ~7% to ~10%, but variability in net biome productivity is considerably larger (~24% to ~32%). Differences between Bondville and upscaled NEE are especially large in years with non-optimal weather conditions for sowing. This shows

  17. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2013-04-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both in batch-calibration for sowing date estimation and sequentially for improved model state estimation, using the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF), into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) Validation at the Bondville site shows that growing season C cycling is simulated accurately with MODIS-derived sowing dates, and we expect that this framework allows for accurate simulations of C cycling at locations for which ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ∼7% to ∼18%. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon

  18. A data assimilation framework for constraining upscaled cropland carbon flux seasonality and biometry with MODIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sus, O.; Heuer, M. W.; Meyers, T. P.; Williams, M.

    2012-08-01

    Agroecosystem models are strongly dependent on information on land management patterns for regional applications. Land management practices play a major role in determining global yield variability, and add an anthropogenic signal to the observed seasonality of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, there is still little knowledge on spatial and temporal variability of important farmland activities such as crop sowing dates, and thus these remain rather crudely approximated within carbon cycle studies. In this study, we present a framework allowing for spatio-temporally resolved simulation of cropland carbon fluxes under observational constraints on land management and canopy greenness. We apply a data assimilation methodology in order to explicitly account for information on sowing dates and model leaf area index. MODIS 250 m vegetation index data were assimilated both variationally (for sowing date estimation) and sequentially (for improved model state estimation, using the Ensemble Kalman Filter) into a crop carbon mass balance model (SPAc). In doing so, we are able to accurately quantify the multiannual (2000-2006) regional carbon flux and biometry seasonality of maize-soybean crop rotations surrounding the Bondville Ameriflux eddy covariance site, averaged over 104 pixel locations within the wider area. (1) From Bondville site results we deduce that MODIS-derived sowing dates allow for accurate simulations of growing season carbon cycling at locations for which such ground-truth data are not available. Thus, this framework enables modellers to simulate current (i.e. last 10 yr) carbon cycling of major agricultural regions. Averaged over the 104 field patches analysed, relative spatial variability for biometry and net ecosystem exchange ranges from ~7 % to ~18 %. The annual sign of net biome productivity is not significantly different from carbon neutrality. (2) Moreover, observing carbon cycling at one single field with its individual sowing pattern is not

  19. Will the light truck bumper height-matching standard reduce deaths in cars?

    PubMed

    Ossiander, Eric M; Koepsell, Thomas D; McKnight, Barbara

    2013-03-01

    In a collision between a car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) or pickup truck, car occupants are more likely to be killed than if they crashed with another car. Some of the excess risk may be due to the propensity of SUVs and pickups with high bumpers to override the lower bumpers in cars. To reduce this incompatibility, particularly in head-on collisions, in 2003 automobile manufacturers voluntarily established a bumper height-matching standard for pickups and SUVs. To assess whether height-matching bumpers in pickups and SUVs were associated with the risk of death in either car occupants or pickup and SUV occupants. Case-control study of collisions between one car and one SUV or pickup in the US during 2000-2008, in which the SUV or pickup was model year 2000-2006. Cases were all decedents in fatal crashes; one control was selected from each crash in a national probability sample of crashes. Occupants of cars that crashed with SUVs or pickups with height-matching bumpers may be at slightly reduced risk of death compared to those that crashed with other SUVs or pickups (adjusted odds ratio: 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.61-1.13)). There was no evidence of a reduction in risk in head-on crashes (1.09 (0.66-1.79)). In crashes in which the SUV or pickup struck the car on the side, height-matched bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death (0.68 (0.48-0.97)). Occupants of SUVs and pickups with height-matching bumpers may also be at slightly reduced risk of death (0.91 (0.64-1.28)). Height-matching bumpers were associated with a reduced risk of death among car occupants in crashes in which SUVs or pickups struck cars in the side, but there was little evidence of an effect in head-on crashes. The new bumper height-matching standard may not achieve its primary goal of reducing deaths in head-on crashes, but may modestly reduce overall deaths in crashes between cars and SUVs or pickups because of unanticipated benefits to car occupants in side crashes, and a

  20. Determinants of early childhood morbidity and proper treatment responses in Vietnam: results from the Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys, 2000-2011.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwa-Young; Huy, Nguyen Van; Choi, Sugy

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite significant achievements in health indicators during previous decades, Vietnam lags behind other developing countries in reducing common early childhood illnesses, such as diarrhea and respiratory infections. To date, there has been little research into factors that contribute to the prevalence and treatment of childhood morbidity in Vietnam. Objective This study examines the determinants of diarrhea and 'illness with a cough' and treatments for each of the conditions among young children in Vietnam, and describes trends over time. Design Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. Multivariable logistic regressions were undertaken to investigate factors associated with these childhood illnesses and proper treatment patterns. Results Between 2000 and 2011, the prevalence of diarrhea among children under the age of five declined from 11 to 7%, while having illness with a cough increased to 40% in 2011 after falling from 69 to 28% between 2000 and 2006. During the same period, the prevalence of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) for treating diarrhea increased from 13 to 46%, whereas the rate of seeking formal treatment for illnesses with a cough fell from 24 to 7%. Multivariable models indicated that children who were older than 2 years (odds ration [OR]: 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.37-0.53, p<0.001), male (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.64-2.37, p<0.05), living in rural areas (OR: 1.28, 95% CI: 1.00-1.64, p<0.05), or of Kinh ethnicity (OR: 0.70, 95% CI: 0.56-0.87, p<0.01) were more likely to suffer from diarrhea. Ethnic differences and higher household wealth were factors significantly associated with having illness with a cough. In particular, the effect of level of wealth on illness with a cough varied in each wave. Mothers with higher levels of education had higher odds of seeking ORT compared with mothers with the lowest level of education. Seeking formal treatment for children who have illness with

  1. Fire, humans, and climate: modeling distribution dynamics of boreal forest waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Börger, Luca; Nudds, Thomas D

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of landscape change and environmental variability on ecological processes is important for evaluating resource management policies, such as the emulation of natural forest disturbances. We analyzed time series of detection/nondetection data using hierarchical models in a Bayesian multi-model inference framework to decompose the dynamics of species distributions into responses to environmental variability, spatial variation in habitat conditions, and population dynamics and interspecific interactions, while correcting for observation errors and variation in sampling regimes. We modeled distribution dynamics of 14 waterbird species (broadly defined, including wetland and riparian species) using data from two different breeding bird surveys collected in the Boreal Shield ecozone within Ontario, Canada. Temporal variation in species occupancy (2000-2006) was primarily driven by climatic variability. Only two species showed evidence of consistent temporal trends in distribution: Ring-necked Duck (Aythya collaris) decreased, and Red-winged Blackbird (Agelaius phoeniceus) increased. The models had good predictive ability on independent data over time (1997-1999). Spatial variation in species occupancy was strongly related to the distribution of specific land cover types and habitat disturbance: Fire and forest harvesting influenced occupancy more than did roads, settlements, or mines. Bioclimatic and habitat heterogeneity indices and geographic coordinates exerted negligible influence on most species distributions. Estimated habitat suitability indices had good predictive ability on spatially independent data (Hudson Bay Lowlands ecozone). Additionally, we detected effects of interspecific interactions. Species responses to fire and forest harvesting were similar for 13 of 14 species; thus, forest-harvesting practices in Ontario generally appeared to emulate the effects of fire for waterbirds over timescales of 10-20 years. Extrapolating to all

  2. ALL-PATHWAYS DOSE ANALYSIS FOR THE PORTSMOUTH ON-SITE WASTE DISPOSAL FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, F.; Phifer, M.

    2014-04-10

    A Portsmouth On-Site Waste Disposal Facility (OSWDF) All-Pathways analysis has been conducted that considers the radiological impacts to a resident farmer. It is assumed that the resident farmer utilizes a farm pond contaminated by the OSWDF to irrigate a garden and pasture and water livestock from which food for the resident farmer is obtained, and that the farmer utilizes groundwater from the Berea sandstone aquifer for domestic purposes (i.e. drinking water and showering). As described by FBP 2014b the Hydrologic Evaluation of Landfill Performance (HELP) model (Schroeder et al. 1994) and the Surface Transport Over Multiple Phases (STOMP) model (White and Oostrom 2000, 2006) were used to model the flow and transport from the OSWDF to the Points of Assessment (POAs) associated with the 680-ft elevation sandstone layer (680 SSL) and the Berea sandstone aquifer. From this modeling the activity concentrations radionuclides were projected over time at the POAs. The activity concentrations were utilized as input to a GoldSimTM (GTG 2010) dose model, described herein, in order to project the dose to a resident farmer over time. A base case and five sensitivity cases were analyzed. The sensitivity cases included an evaluation of the impacts of using a conservative inventory, an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer, a low waste zone uranium distribution coefficient (Kd), different transfer factors, and reference person exposure parameters (i.e. at 95 percentile). The maximum base case dose within the 1,000 year assessment period was projected to be 1.5E-14 mrem/yr, and the maximum base case dose at any time less than 10,000 years was projected to be 0.002 mrem/yr. The maximum projected dose of any sensitivity case was approximately 2.6 mrem/yr associated with the use of an uncased well to the Berea sandstone aquifer. This sensitivity case is considered very unlikely because it assumes leakage from the location of greatest concentration in the 680 SSL in to the

  3. Spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes from 1962 to 2006 in the Kanchenjunga-Sikkim area, eastern Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racoviteanu, A. E.; Arnaud, Y.; Williams, M. W.; Manley, W. F.

    2015-03-01

    This study investigates spatial patterns in glacier characteristics and area changes at decadal scales in the eastern Himalaya - Nepal (Arun and Tamor basins), India (Teesta basin in Sikkim) and parts of China and Bhutan - based on various satellite imagery: Corona KH4 imagery, Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission Radiometer (ASTER), QuickBird (QB) and WorldView-2 (WV2). We compare and contrast glacier surface area changes over the period of 1962-2000/2006 and their dependency on glacier topography (elevation, slope, aspect, percent debris cover) and climate (solar radiation, precipitation) on the eastern side of the topographic barrier (Sikkim) versus the western side (Nepal). Glacier mapping from 2000 Landsat ASTER yielded 1463 ± 88 km2 total glacierized area, of which 569 ± 34 km2 was located in Sikkim and 488 ± 29 km2 in eastern Nepal. Supraglacial debris covered 11% of the total glacierized area, and supraglacial lakes covered about 5.8% of the debris-covered glacier area alone. Glacier area loss (1962 to 2000) was 0.50 ± 0.2% yr-1, with little difference between Nepal (0.53 ± 0.2% yr-1) and Sikkim (0.44 ± 0.2% yr-1. Glacier area change was controlled mostly by glacier area, elevation, altitudinal range and, to a smaller extent, slope and aspect. In the Kanchenjunga-Sikkim area, we estimated a glacier area loss of 0.23 ± 0.08% yr-1 from 1962 to 2006 based on high-resolution imagery. On a glacier-by-glacier basis, clean glaciers exhibit more area loss on average from 1962 to 2006 (34%) compared to debris-covered glaciers (22%). Glaciers in this region of the Himalaya are shrinking at similar rates to those reported for the last decades in other parts of the Himalaya, but individual glacier rates of change vary across the study area with respect to local topography, percent debris cover or glacier elevations.

  4. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Results Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire

  5. Carbon fluxes in ecosystems of Yellowstone National Park predicted from remote sensing data and simulation modeling.

    PubMed

    Potter, Christopher; Klooster, Steven; Crabtree, Robert; Huang, Shengli; Gross, Peggy; Genovese, Vanessa

    2011-08-11

    A simulation model based on remote sensing data for spatial vegetation properties has been used to estimate ecosystem carbon fluxes across Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The CASA (Carnegie Ames Stanford Approach) model was applied at a regional scale to estimate seasonal and annual carbon fluxes as net primary production (NPP) and soil respiration components. Predicted net ecosystem production (NEP) flux of CO2 is estimated from the model for carbon sinks and sources over multi-year periods that varied in climate and (wildfire) disturbance histories. Monthly Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) image coverages from the NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instrument (from 2000 to 2006) were direct inputs to the model. New map products have been added to CASA from airborne remote sensing of coarse woody debris (CWD) in areas burned by wildfires over the past two decades. Model results indicated that relatively cooler and wetter summer growing seasons were the most favorable for annual plant production and net ecosystem carbon gains in representative landscapes of YNP. When summed across vegetation class areas, the predominance of evergreen forest and shrubland (sagebrush) cover was evident, with these two classes together accounting for 88% of the total annual NPP flux of 2.5 Tg C yr-1 (1 Tg = 1012 g) for the entire Yellowstone study area from 2000-2006. Most vegetation classes were estimated as net ecosystem sinks of atmospheric CO2 on annual basis, making the entire study area a moderate net sink of about +0.13 Tg C yr-1. This average sink value for forested lands nonetheless masks the contribution of areas burned during the 1988 wildfires, which were estimated as net sources of CO2 to the atmosphere, totaling to a NEP flux of -0.04 Tg C yr-1 for the entire burned area. Several areas burned in the 1988 wildfires were estimated to be among the lowest in overall yearly NPP, namely the Hellroaring Fire, Mink Fire, and Falls Fire areas. Rates of

  6. Importance of Past Human and Natural Disturbance in Present-Day Net Ecosystem Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felzer, B. S.; Phelps, P.

    2014-12-01

    Gridded datasets of Net Ecosystem Exchange derived from eddy covariance and remote sensing measurements provide a means of validating Net Ecosystem Productivity (NEP, opposite of NEE) from terrestrial ecosystem models. While most forested regions in the U.S. are observed to be moderate to strong carbon sinks, models not including human or natural disturbances will tend to be more carbon neutral, which is expected of mature ecosystems. We have developed the Terrestrial Ecosystems Model Hydro version (TEM-Hydro) to include both human and natural disturbances to compare against gridded NEP datasets. Human disturbances are based on the Hurtt et al. (2006) land use transition dataset and include transient agricultural (crops and pasture) conversion and abandonment and timber harvest. We include natural disturbances of storms and fires based on stochastic return intervals. Tropical storms and hurricane return intervals are based on Zheng et al. (2009) and occur only along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf coasts. Fire return intervals are based on LANDFIRE Rapid Assessment Vegetation Models and vegetation types from the Hurtt dataset. We are running three experiments with TEM-Hydro from 1700-2011 for the conterminous U.S.: potential vegetation (POT), human disturbance only (agriculture and timber harvest, LULC), and human plus natural disturbance (agriculture, timber harvest, storms, and fire, DISTURB). The goal is to compare our NEP values to those obtained by FLUXNET-MTE (Jung et al. 2009) from 1982-2008 and ECMOD (Xiao et al., 2008) from 2000-2006 for different plant functional types (PFTs) within the conterminous U.S. Preliminary results show that, for the entire U.S., potential vegetation yields an NEP of 10.8 gCm-2yr-1 vs 128.1 gCm-2yr-1 for LULC and 89.8 gCm-2yr-1 for DISTURB from 1982-2008. The effect of regrowth following agricultural and timber harvest disturbance therefore contributes substantially to the present-day carbon sink, while stochastic storms and fires

  7. Understanding the decline of water storage across the Ramser-Lake Naivasha using satellite-based methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awange, J. L.; Forootan, E.; Kusche, J.; Kiema, J. B. K.; Omondi, P. A.; Heck, B.; Fleming, K.; Ohanya, S. O.; Gonçalves, R. M.

    2013-10-01

    It has been postulated that Lake Naivasha, Kenya, has experienced a rapid decrease (and fluctuations) in its spatial extent and level between the years 2002 to 2010. Many factors have been advanced to explain this, with horticultural and floricultural activities, as well as climatic change, featuring prominently. This study offers a multi-disciplinary approach based on several different types of space-borne observations to look at the problem bedeviling Lake Naivasha, which is a Ramsar listed wetland of international importance. The data includes: (1) Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) time-variable gravity field products to derive total water storage (TWS) variations within a region covering the Lakes Naivasha and Victoria basins; (2) precipitation records based on Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) products to evaluate the impact of climate change; (3) satellite remote sensing (Landsat) images to map shoreline changes and to correlate these changes over time with possible causes; and (4) satellite altimetry observations to assess fluctuations in the lake's level. In addition, data from an in situ tide gauge and rainfall stations as well as the output from the African Drought Monitor (ADM) model are used to evaluate the results. This study confirms that Lake Naivasha has been steadily declining with the situation being exacerbated from around the year 2000, with water levels falling at a rate of 10.2 cm/year and a shrinkage in area of 1.04 km2/year. GRACE indicates that the catchment area of 4°×4° that includes Lake Naivasha loses water at a rate of 1.6 cm/year for the period from August 2002 to May 2006, and 1.4 cm/year for the longer period of May 2002 to 2010. Examining the ADM outputs also supports our results of GRACE. Between the time periods 2000-2006 and 2006-2010, the lake surface area decreased by 14.43% and 10.85%, respectively, with a corresponding drop in the water level of 192 cm and 138 cm, respectively, over the same

  8. European survey on training objectives in disaster medicine.

    PubMed

    Delooz, Herman; Debacker, Michel; Moens, Guido; Johannik, Kristien

    2007-02-01

    As part of the I SEE (Interactive Simulation Exercise for Emergencies) project, financially supported by the Leonardo da Vinci Programme 2000-2006 of the European Commission, a study was planned to assess the type of disaster and to establish the tasks to be included in an emergency exercise to be developed, according to the possible target groups, physicians, nurses, ambulance personnel, dispatchers and first responders. A secondary objective was a description of the actual computer-based training situation in the training centres. A study involving different actors or target groups has not yet been conducted. A questionnaire was developed, validated and subsequently distributed to the training centres for the different target groups in the partner countries. Each partner had to contact and interview the person responsible for the training in disaster medicine in the training institution. Data entry and analysis was carried out using the SPSS software on Apple Macintosh. Apart from descriptive statistics of the variables, differences between groups were analysed using analysis of variance and the Kruskal-Wallis test. In 75 questionnaires out of a total of 206, the combination of a major road traffic accident and a chemical accident was indicated as the first choice (36.4%). These priorities were present for the different countries and all target groups. Concerning the medical procedures to be included in the training exercise, the highest priority was given to medical coordination, medical management on site, medical alert procedures, assessment of immediate needs, medical resources management, victim transport and protection and safety procedures. Only minor differences were noted between countries, different target groups and the institutions irrespective of whether they are involved in response in case of a major accident or disaster. With regard to the secondary objective, 27% of the institutions used computer-based training in disaster medicine and, of those

  9. Expansion and Variability in the Pulsar-Wind Nebula in Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3) with Chandra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Stephen P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.

    2017-08-01

    We report new Chandra X-ray observations of the shell supernova remnant (SNR) Kes 75 (G29.7-0.3), containing a pulsar and pulsar-wind nebula (PWN). Expansion of both shell and PWN is apparent across the three epochs, 2000, 2006, and 2016, but brightness and morphology changes of the PWN make a quantitative measurement difficult. One image comparison method gives an expansion rate between 2006 and 2016 of the NW edge of the PWN of about (0.2 -- 0.25)%/yr, for an expansion age R/(dR/dt) of 400 -- 500 yr. Consistent results are obtained between 2000 and 2016. Since 2008, the pulsar has had a period of 328 ms and a braking index n of 2.19 (Archibald et al. 2015), giving a spindown age tsd = P/ ((n - 1) dP/dt) of 1230 yr, an upper limit to the true age under the normal assumptions of magnetic-dipole energy loss with constant n (though n has changed from 2.65 to its current value for this pulsar). Our result indicates that the initial spindown time τ = tsd - t is of order t, the true age. For t < τ, simple models predict the PWN radius to grow as R6/5, so that the true age is 1.2 times the expansion age, or about 500 -- 600 yr. For the current braking index, the pulsar's initial luminosity was larger than the current value by a factor of 4 -- 6, while the initial period was within a factor of 2 of its current value. We confirm directly that Kes 75 contains the youngest known PWN in the Galaxy, independent of assumptions about the pulsar spindown. The PWN contains a jet whose structure and brightness have evolved significantly since 2000. The brighter northern part of the jet at the center of the PWN has faded by about 35%, while the southern part is roughly constant in brightness. Changes in morphology of the southern jet may be expansion; if so, a change in position of one feature indicates a velocity of ~0.03c, much faster than the PWN as a whole.

  10. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also

  11. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, N.; Mann, G. W.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Johnson, C.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dalvi, M.

    2013-03-01

    The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC), and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode). GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000-2006. HadGEM simulations of the aerosol optical depth using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. Because of differences in wet deposition rates, GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and abilities to affect cloud droplet number, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of -0.49 W m-2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This

  12. Impact of the modal aerosol scheme GLOMAP-mode on aerosol forcing in the Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellouin, N.; Mann, G. W.; Woodhouse, M. T.; Johnson, C.; Carslaw, K. S.; Dalvi, M.

    2012-08-01

    The Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model (HadGEM) includes two aerosol schemes: the Coupled Large-scale Aerosol Simulator for Studies in Climate (CLASSIC), and the new Global Model of Aerosol Processes (GLOMAP-mode). GLOMAP-mode is a modal aerosol microphysics scheme that simulates not only aerosol mass but also aerosol number, represents internally-mixed particles, and includes aerosol microphysical processes such as nucleation. In this study, both schemes provide hindcast simulations of natural and anthropogenic aerosol species for the period 2000-2006. HadGEM simulations using GLOMAP-mode compare better than CLASSIC against a data-assimilated aerosol re-analysis and aerosol ground-based observations. GLOMAP-mode sulphate aerosol residence time is two days longer than CLASSIC sulphate aerosols, whereas black carbon residence time is much shorter. As a result, CLASSIC underestimates aerosol optical depths in continental regions of the Northern Hemisphere and likely overestimates absorption in remote regions. Aerosol direct and first indirect radiative forcings are computed from simulations of aerosols with emissions for the year 1850 and 2000. In 1850, GLOMAP-mode predicts lower aerosol optical depths and higher cloud droplet number concentrations than CLASSIC. Consequently, simulated clouds are much less susceptible to natural and anthropogenic aerosol changes when the microphysical scheme is used. In particular, the response of cloud condensation nuclei to an increase in dimethyl sulphide emissions becomes a factor of four smaller. The combined effect of different 1850 baselines, residence times, and cloud susceptibilities, leads to substantial differences in the aerosol forcings simulated by the two schemes. GLOMAP-mode finds a present-day direct aerosol forcing of -0.49 W m-2 on a global average, 72% stronger than the corresponding forcing from CLASSIC. This difference is compensated by changes in first indirect aerosol forcing: the forcing of -1.17 W m-2

  13. The impact of review articles.

    PubMed

    Ketcham, Catherine M; Crawford, James M

    2007-12-01

    The expansion of the scientific literature has produced a concomitant increase in the number of review articles. One may posit that the sheer number of review articles belies their function. This study examines the growth of the review literature, what types of journals publish these papers, and provides data on the citation rate of the review literature. Focus is given to the pathology literature, defined as papers that have the word 'pathology' or its derivatives in the title, abstract or as a key word. The pathology literature is proliferating at a rapid rate; from 1991 to 2006, the total number of original articles increased 2.3-fold, while the number of reviews increased 5.6-fold. Furthermore, in that same time frame, approximately 90% of pathology articles and reviews were not published in pathology journals. An examination of the 538 review articles that were published in pathology journals in 2005 reveals that only 21% of them have been cited more than 10 times since their publication. The impact factors of 12 pathology journals were compared with and without review articles for the period 2000-2006, including The American Journal of Pathology (AJP), The Journal of Pathology (JP) and Laboratory Investigation (LI). Inclusion of reviews increased the impact factor for JP by 0.610+/-0.153 U (+/-s.d.), which was significantly greater than that for AJP (0.109+/-0.086) and LI (0.147+/-0.088). However, for all three journals the total impact factor was largely a reflection of the citations of original articles. The motivations of authors and editors who produce review articles are considered, such as career progress and increasing journal visibility, respectively. The fact that many review articles are poorly cited raises concern about the harm that poor review articles can cause, first by making it more difficult to find the good reviews, and in the worst case by propagating scientific error through lack of critical appraisal of original research. The attributes

  14. Estimating Global Natural Wetland Methane Emissions Using Process Modeling: The Spatiotemporal Patterns and the Contributions to Atmospheric Methane Fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Q.; Peng, C.; Liu, J.; Fang, X.; Jiang, H.

    2014-12-01

    Global wetland methane (CH4) emissions and its spatiotemporal patterns were evaluated using a new process-based model called TRIPLEX-GHG. The model was developed based on the Integrated Biosphere Simulator (IBIS), coupled with a new CH4 biogeochemistry module and a water table module to simulate CH4 emission processes in natural wetlands. The model has been validated using a number of field observations successfully. This study reported the initial results of global scale application, including total CH4 emissions, spatiotemporal patterns, and contributions to the atmospheric CH4 fluctuations. Global annual wetland CH4 emission ranged from 150 TgC yr-1 to 174 TgC yr-1 between 1901 and 2012 with the peak occurring in 1991 and 2012. Between 1990 and 2010, global CH4 emission decreased with a rate of approximately 0.38 TgC yr-1. It was largely due to the decrease of CH4 emissions from topical wetlands, which had a decreasing trend with a rate of 0.33 TgC yr-1 since the 1970s. CH4 emissions from tropical, temperate, and high latitude wetlands comprised 63%, 22% and 15% of global CH4 emission, respectively. Tropical wetlands are the primary contributor of the inter-annual variability of global wetland CH4 emissions as well as atmospheric CH4. The stable-to-decreasing wetland CH4 emissions owing to the balance of emissions between tropical and extratropical wetlands was a contributing factor to the slow-down atmospheric CH4 growth rate during 1990s. The rapid drop in tropical wetland CH4 emissions from 2000 onwards is supposed to offset the increases of the anthropogenic CH4 emissions, hence leading to a relatively stable level of atmospheric CH4 during 2000-2006. Increases of wetland CH4 emissions particularly after 2010 can be considered as an important contributor to the resumed growth of atmospheric CH4 since 2007 and for further increasing in the near future.

  15. Ambient seismic noise study in Taiwan for two different scale arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Yao, H.; Liang, W.; Huang, B.; Wen, K.; Huang, W.; van der Hilst, R. D.

    2008-12-01

    It has been demonstrated that Time Domain Empirical Green's Function (TDEGF) from ambient seismic noise cross-correlation can be used to investigate crustal velocity structure from many studies around the world. For surface wave tomographic studies from ambient noise, the maximum exploring depth depends on the aperture of receiver array and the lateral resolution relies on the density of station-pair paths. To decipher subsurface structures in various scales, researchers can utilize some existing continuous-recording seismic stations and/or deploy a newly dense receiver array in the study region. In this study, we perform tomographic applications of ambient seismic noise analysis in Taiwan region for two arrays with very different scales. Taiwan is located at a complex convergent plate boundary zone where the Philippine Sea plate interacts with the Eurasian plate. As a result, the lateral velocity variations show dramatic patterns among different geologic provinces. In the past decade, many continuous-recording broadband stations have already been set up to monitor earthquake activities in the Taiwan region. The BATS (Broadband Array in Taiwan for Seismology) network is being operated by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica (IESAS) since 1994. Currently, there are 20 permanent stations covering approximately 350 km by 400 km area around Taiwan, including some remote islets. In this study we selected 7 years data (2000-2006) from BATS to get the TDEGFs which were then used to measure inter-station phase velocities in the period band 5-30s. Finally we then constructed 2D phase velocity maps. At shorter periods (5-10s), phase velocity distribution can compare well with surface geology. At longer periods (14-22s), there is a saxophone shape low velocity zone beneath the Taiwan Island. Taipei Basin is a high-level artificial noise metropolis with a nearly triangular shape basin located close to northern tip of Taiwan with area just around 20 km by 20 km

  16. Long-term DOC-leaching from a temperate Scots pine forest (Brasschaat, Belgium).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, B.; Neirynck, J.; Janssens, I. A.

    2009-04-01

    The carbon and water balance of terrestrial ecosystems are tightly coupled. Part of the assimilated carbon is leached from the ecosystem as dissolved organic carbon (DOC). These DOC-fluxes from the ecosystem are highly uncertain and are not incorporated in most process-based models. Therefore the focus of this study is to determine the drivers of the interannual and seasonal variability of the DOC-leaching. The study site is located 20km NE of Antwerp, near Brasschaat (Belgium) and consists of an 80-year-old even aged Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stand, which belongs to a larger mixed coniferous/deciduous forest and it is part of the ICP-II and Fluxnet/CarboEurope-IP networks since 1997. We simulated the different components of the water balance (transpiration, soil evaporation canopy evaporation, soil water content, runoff and leaching) with a combination of field measurements (sap flow, eddy covariance, TDR's) and the ORCHIDEE model. DOC concentrations were measured monthly in the trough fall and at four depths in the soil from the year 2000 onwards. Here we report estimates of DOC-leaching for a six year period (2000-2006) and assess its importance in the total carbon balance of the ecosystem. Results indicate that on average 10% of yearly NEE (as measured with eddy covariance measurements) is lost as DOC in the soil. We further looked at the drivers responsible for seasonal and interannual variation of the DOC-leaching. Logically, water leaching is the main driver of the DOC-leaching, for both the seasonal and the interannual variability. The remaining variation in the DOC leaching is affected by soil temperature and pH. DOC concentrations are highest in the upper soil layer and gradually decrease with depth. This could be explained by part of the DOC being respired as CO2 and part being retained in the soil matrix by Al and Fe-oxides adsorption. Future climate scenarios predict drier summer periods and more precipitation during the winter for the north

  17. The association of long-term exposure to PM2.5 on all-cause mortality in the Nurses' Health Study and the impact of measurement-error correction.

    PubMed

    Hart, Jaime E; Liao, Xiaomei; Hong, Biling; Puett, Robin C; Yanosky, Jeff D; Suh, Helen; Kioumourtzoglou, Marianthi-Anna; Spiegelman, Donna; Laden, Francine

    2015-05-01

    Long-term exposure to particulate matter less than 2.5 μm in diameter (PM2.5) has been consistently associated with risk of all-cause mortality. The methods used to assess exposure, such as area averages, nearest monitor values, land use regressions, and spatio-temporal models in these studies are subject to measurement error. However, to date, no study has attempted to incorporate adjustment for measurement error into a long-term study of the effects of air pollution on mortality. We followed 108,767 members of the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) 2000-2006 and identified all deaths. Biennial mailed questionnaires provided a detailed residential address history and updated information on potential confounders. Time-varying average PM2.5 in the previous 12-months was assigned based on residential address and was predicted from either spatio-temporal prediction models or as concentrations measured at the nearest USEPA monitor. Information on the relationships of personal exposure to PM2.5 of ambient origin with spatio-temporal predicted and nearest monitor PM2.5 was available from five previous validation studies. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (95%CI) for each 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5. Risk-set regression calibration was used to adjust estimates for measurement error. Increasing exposure to PM2.5 was associated with an increased risk of mortality, and results were similar regardless of the method chosen for exposure assessment. Specifically, the multivariable adjusted HRs for each 10 μg/m(3) increase in 12-month average PM2.5 from spatio-temporal prediction models were 1.13 (95%CI:1.05, 1.22) and 1.12 (95%CI:1.05, 1.21) for concentrations at the nearest EPA monitoring location. Adjustment for measurement error increased the magnitude of the HRs 4-10% and led to wider CIs (HR = 1.18; 95%CI: 1.02, 1.36 for each 10 μg/m(3) increase in PM2.5 from the spatio-temporal models and

  18. Introducing Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapies for AMD Did Not Raise Risk of Myocardial Infarction, Stroke, and Death.

    PubMed

    Yashkin, Arseniy P; Hahn, Paul; Sloan, Frank A

    2016-10-01

    To assess the effect of availability of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy on mortality and hospitalizations for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and stroke over a 5-year follow-up period in United States Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 2006 compared with control groups consisting of beneficiaries (1) newly diagnosed with exudative AMD at a time when anti-VEGF therapy was not possible and (2) newly diagnosed with nonexudative AMD. Retrospective cohort study. Beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative and nonexudative AMD in 2000 and 2006 selected from a random longitudinal sample of Medicare 5% claims and enrollment files. Beneficiaries with a first diagnosis of exudative AMD in 2006 were the treatment group; beneficiaries newly diagnosed with exudative AMD in 2000 or nonexudative AMD in 2000 or 2006 were control groups. To deal with potential selection bias, we designed an intent-to-treat study, which controlled for nonadherence to prescribed regimens. The treatment group consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics to receive anti-VEGF injections given that the therapy is available, bypassing the need to monitor whether treatment was actually received. Control groups consisted of patients with clinically appropriate characteristics but first diagnosed at a time when the therapy was unavailable (2000) and similar patients but for whom the therapy was not clinically indicated (2000, 2006). We used a Cox proportional hazard model. All-cause mortality and hospitalization for AMI and stroke during follow-up. No statistically significant changes in probabilities of death and hospitalizations for AMI and stroke within a 5-year follow-up period were identified in exudative AMD beneficiaries newly diagnosed in 2006, the beginning of widespread anti-VEGF use, compared with 2000. As an alternative to our main analysis, which excluded beneficiaries from nonexudative

  19. Ionospheric Superstorms and Their Effects on Gnss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafyeva, Elvira; Tatarinov, Pavel; Demyanov, Vyacheslav; Mandea, Mioara; Lognonne, Philippe

    The most prominent ionospheric effects produced by intense geomagnetic storms at middle and low-latitudes, such as the dayside ionosphere uplift and anomalously strong TEC increase within the crests of the equatorial ionization anomaly (EIA), were recorded during only a few geomagnetic storms during 2000-2006. Based on observations of ionosphere TEC response to more than 15 geomagnetic storms, we found that combination of intensive dawn-to-dusk electric field and southward IMF Bz seems to be the decisive factor for development of the ionosphere super-storm effects. The main purpose of this study is to extend study of ionosphere superstorms 1995-2006 and to make comparative analysis of ionosphere effects of geomagnetic storms on the operation quality of GPS, since it is known that the Earth's ionosphere changes the phase and amplitude of propagating radio signals. These effects have negative influence on performance of satellite and navigation systems. The Global GPS Network is a set of precise GPS receivers, nowadays widely used for a variety of scientific and real-time applications. GPS measures the group and phase delays of signals, which are proportional to the ionosphere total electron content (TEC) along the path between a satellite and a receiver. The GPS frequency is high enough (more than 1 GHz) for signals not to be affected by the medium, so the system is considered as highly reliable and practi-cally invulnerable. However, recent studies showed that significant errors and failures in the performance of GPS system occur during geomagnetic storms and during large solar flares. For our analysis we selected events that occurred in 1995-2006 and with drop of IMF Bz below 12-15 nT that lasted no less than 3 hours and which consequently led to decrease of Dst index to 120-150 nT. We estimate the quality of GPS functioning from the following parameters: 1) counts omissions in the GPS RINEX files, 2) GPS phase slips estimated from L1 and L2 phase measurements

  20. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment (INTEX-B) to quantify long-range transport of East Asian sulfur to Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Leaitch, W. R.; MacDonald, A. M.; Walker, T. W.; Streets, D. G.; Zhang, Q.; Dunlea, E. J.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Huey, L. G.; Weber, R.; Andreae, M. O.

    2008-06-01

    We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April-May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant, contrary to expectations. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 2 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and use it to interpret the observations. Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS) for 2000-2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800-600 hPa), with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 56% of the measured sulfate between 500-900 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. We find evidence of a 72-85% increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden in spring off the northwest coast of the United States since 1985. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.31 μg/m3 (~30%) and account for 50% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by 0.32 μg/m3 per 10% increase in the simulated

  1. Analysis of aircraft and satellite measurements from the intercontinental chemical transport experiment (INTEX-B) to quantify long-range transport of East Asian Sulfur to Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Donkelaar, A.; Martin, R. V.; Leaitch, W. R.; MacDonald, A. M.; Walker, T. W.; Streets, D. G.; Zang, Q.; Dunlea, E.; Jimenez, J. L.; Dibb, J. E.; Huley, G.; Weber, R.; Andreae, M. O.

    2008-02-01

    We interpret a suite of satellite, aircraft, and ground-based measurements over the North Pacific Ocean and western North America during April-May 2006 as part of the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment Phase B (INTEX-B) campaign to understand the implications of long-range transport of East Asian emissions to North America. The Canadian component of INTEX-B included 33 vertical profiles from a Cessna 207 aircraft equipped with an aerosol mass spectrometer. Long-range transport of organic aerosols was insignificant. Measured sulfate plumes in the free troposphere over British Columbia exceeded 1 μg/m3. We update the global anthropogenic emission inventory in a chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem) and use it to interpret the observations. Trends in Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrieved from two satellite instruments (MISR and MODIS) for 2000-2006 are analyzed with GEOS-Chem to estimate an annual growth in Chinese sulfur emissions of 6.2% and 9.6%, respectively. Analysis of aircraft sulfate measurements from the NASA DC-8 over the central Pacific, the NSF C-130 over the east Pacific and the Cessna over British Columbia indicates most Asian sulfate over the ocean is in the lower free troposphere (800-600 hPa), with a decrease in pressure toward land due to orographic effects. We calculate that 63% of the measured sulfate at 600 hPa over British Columbia is due to East Asian sources. Simulation of INTEX-B and May 1985 aircraft measurements off the northwest coast of the United States reveals a 2.4-3.4 fold increase in the relative contribution of East Asian sulfate to the total burden. Campaign-average simulations indicate anthropogenic East Asian sulfur emissions increase mean springtime sulfate in Western Canada at the surface by 0.14-0.19 μg/m3 (~30%) and account for 40% of the overall regional sulfate burden between 1 and 5 km. Mean measured daily surface sulfate concentrations taken in the Vancouver area increase by 0.27 μg/m3 per 10% increase in the

  2. Novel use of three administrative datasets to establish a cohort for environmental health research.

    PubMed

    Telfar Barnard, Lucy F; Baker, Michael G; Hales, Simon; Howden-Chapman, Philippa

    2015-03-14

    In recent years publications have called for increased use of administrative data for research; predicted that use would rise; and discussed possible ethical parameters for that use. This paper describes the novel combination of three administrative datasets to create a population cohort for environmental health research, and investigates the potential use of a national health register as a total population denominator. We matched a national health register (the New Zealand national health index or NHI) to Quotable Value New Zealand Ltd (QV) nationwide residential dwelling data, and to hospital admissions data, to create a national matched cohort with health outcomes for the period 2000 - 2006. We then compared population distribution and hospitalisation rates by gender, age, ethnic group and Census Area Unit-based socio-economic deprivation index across the Census, NHI and matched cohort populations. The NHI population was 23% larger than the Census. Differences between the NHI and Census were most marked in those aged over 90 years; with ethnicity unknown or an unassigned Census area unit; and in Asian Peoples aged under 30 years. The match rate between QV and NHI data was 70%. There were further differences between the NHI and matched cohort populations, particularly for rural areas and older age groups. Compared to Census-based rates, NHI and cohort-based hospitalisation rates were higher in those aged 75 and over, differed by ethnicity, and had less socio-economic gradient. The NHI was larger than the Census due to record duplication and entries for people residing overseas remaining on file under New Zealand addresses. NHI and QV matching was incomplete due to NHI address data being poor quality or not suitable for matching. To better approximate true hospitalisation rates, studies using the NHI as a cohort should exclude those aged over 90 years; or with ethnic group or Census area unit unknown. Cohort hospitalisation rates should also be adjusted for

  3. [Differences between Dutch provinces in perinatal mortality and travel time to hospital].

    PubMed

    Ravelli, Anita C J; Rijninks-van Driel, Greta C; Erwich, Jan Jaap H M; Mol, Ben Willem J; Brouwers, Hens A A; Abu Hanna, Ameen; Eskes, Martine

    2011-01-01

    To investigate differences in perinatal mortality between Dutch provinces and to determine the significance of risk factors including travel time from home to the hospital during labour. Cohort study. The study was based on 1,242,725 singleton births in 2000-2006 as recorded in the Netherlands Perinatal Registry. The influence of province on perinatal mortality was estimated, with logistic regression analysis adjusting for risk factors (age, parity, ethnicity, socioeconomic status) and care factors such as start of antenatal care and travel time. The perinatal mortality rate in the Netherlands was 9.9 per 1000 births. The provinces with the highest mortality rates were Friesland (11.3‰), Groningen (11.1‰), Zeeland (10.6‰) and Flevoland (10.4‰). Noord-Brabant (9.2‰) and Limburg (9.2‰) had the lowest mortality rates. These differences were significantly higher for Friesland (odds ratio: 1.16; 95%-CI: 1.05-1.28) and Groningen (odds ratio: 1.13; 95%-CI: 1.02-1.26). Starting late with perinatal care, at 18 weeks of gestation or later was an important risk factor (adjusted odds ratio 1.8; 95%-CI: 1.7-1.8). Low socio-economic status could partly be associated with the higher mortality risk in Groningen. Longer travel time (≥ 20 minutes) was an independent risk factor associated with perinatal mortality. On average 19% of the women travelled ≥ 20 minutes to the hospital. In the provinces Groningen, Friesland, Flevoland and Zeeland these percentages ranged between 32 and 36%. The adjusted odds ratio of travel time was 1.7 (95%-CI 1.6-1.7). The perinatal mortality differs per province. This can be explained by longer travel time to the hospital during labour. Late start of perinatal care and low socio-economic status also affect the mortality rate. These risk factors need to be taken into account during registration, investigation, audit and obstetric policy.

  4. Trends in inequalities in utilization of reproductive health services from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam

    PubMed Central

    Duc, Nguyen Huu Chau; Nakamura, Keiko; Kizuki, Masashi; Seino, Kaoruko; Rahman, Mosiur

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to examine changes in utilization of reproductive health services by wealth status from 2000 to 2011 in Vietnam. Methods: Data from the Vietnam Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in 2000, 2006, and 2011 were used. The subjects were 550, 1023, and 1363 women, respectively, aged between 15 and 49 years who had given birth in the previous one or two years. The wealth index, a composite measure of a household’s ownership of selected assets, materials used for housing construction, and types of water access and sanitation facilities, was used as a measure of wealth status. Main utilization indicators were utilization of antenatal care services, receipt of a tetanus vaccine, receipt of blood pressure measurement, blood examination and urine examination during antenatal care, receipt of HIV testing, skilled birth attendance at delivery, health-facility-based delivery, and cesarean section delivery. Inequalities by wealth index were measured by prevalence ratios, concentration indices, and multivariable adjusted regression coefficients. Results: Significant increase in overall utilization was observed in all indicators (all p < 0.001). The concentration indices were 0.19 in 2000 and 0.06 in 2011 for antenatal care, 0.10 in 2000 and 0.06 in 2011 for tetanus vaccination, 0.23 in 2000 and 0.08 in 2011 for skilled birth attendance, 0.29 in 2006 and 0.12 in 2011 for blood examination, and 0.18 in 2006 and 0.09 in 2011 for health-facility-based delivery. The multivariable adjusted regression coefficients of reproductive health service utilization by wealth category were 0.06 in 2000 and 0.04 in 2011 for antenatal care, 0.07 in 2000 and 0.05 in 2011 for skilled birth attendance, and 0.07 in 2006 and 0.05 in 2011 for health-facility-based delivery. Conclusions: More women utilized reproductive health services in 2011 than in 2000. Inequality by wealth status in utilization of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and health-facility-based delivery

  5. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    data derived from the VegET model, which takes into account soil moisture and land surface phenology; 3) adding an additional flux tower from Brookings, SD, and additional years at other flux towers to the training data sets; and 4) considering the lag response of vegetation production to precipitation. We modeled and mapped 8-day and 500-m carbon fluxes for the years 2000-2006 in the northern Great Plains grasslands. These maps were then used to assess the regional and temporal trends of carbon fluxes in this region, identify carbon sink and source areas, and determine important transitions and environmental drivers of carbon sinks/sources. Cross-validation at sites showed that the improved model increases the estimation accuracies and reflects the variations in water stress that may not be monitored by vegetation indices alone because of the lag-response of vegetation indices to water deficits.

  6. Inverse Modeling of the Thermal Hydrodynamic and Chemical Processes During Exploitation of the Mutnovsky Geothermal Field (Kamchatka, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiryukhin, A. V.

    2012-12-01

    A TOUGH2-EOS1 3D rectangular numerical model of the Mutnovsky geothermal field (Kiryukhin, 1996) was re-calibrated using natural state and history exploitation data during the time period 1984-2006 years. Recalibration using iTOUGH2-EOS1+tracer inversion modeling capabilities, was useful to remove outliers from calibration data, identify sets of the estimated parameters of the model, and perform estimations. Chloride ion was used as a "tracer" in this modeling. Thermal hydrodynamic observational data which were used for model recalibration are as follows: 37 temperature and 1 pressure calibration points - for natural state, 13 production wells with monthly averaged enthalpies (650 values during the time period 1983-1987, 2000-2006 years) and 1 transient pressure monitoring wells (57 values during 2003-2006 years) - for exploitation history match. Chemical observational data includes transient mass chloride concentrations from 10 production wells and chloride hot spring sampling data (149 values during 1999-2006 years). The following features of Mutnovsky geothermal reservoir based on integrated inverse modeling analysis of natural state and exploitation data were estimated and better understood: 1. Reservoir permeability was found to be one order more comparable to model-1996, especially the lower part coinciding with intrusion contact zone (600-800 mD at -750 - -1250 masl); 2. Local meteoric inflow in the central part of the field accounting for 45 - 80 kg/s since year 2002; 3. Reinjection rates were estimated significantly lower, than officially reported as 100% of total fluid withdrawal; 4. Upflow fluid flows were estimated hotter (314oC) and the rates are larger (+50%), than assumed before; 5. Global double porosity parameters estimates are: fracture spacing - 5 - 10 m, void fraction N 10-3; 6. Main upflow zone chloride mass concentration estimate is 150 ppm. Conversion of the calibrated TOUGH2-EOS1+tracer model into electrical resistivity model using TOUGH2

  7. Characterization of hydrology and salinity in the Dolores project area, McElmo Creek Region, southwest Colorado, 1978-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richards, Rodney J.; Leib, Kenneth J.

    2011-01-01

    Increasing salinity loading in the Colorado River has become a major concern for agricultural and municipal water supplies. The Colorado Salinity Control Act was implemented in 1974 to protect and enhance the quality of water in the Colorado River Basin. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation and the Colorado River Salinity Control Forum, summarized salinity reductions in the McElmo Creek basin in southwest Colorado as a result of salinity-control modifications and flow-regime changes that result from the Dolores Project, which consists of the construction of McPhee reservoir on the Dolores River and salinity control modifications along the irrigation water delivery system. Flow-adjusted salinity trends using S-LOADEST estimations for a streamgage on McElmo Creek (site 1), that represents outflow from the basin, indicates a decrease in salinity load by 39,800 tons from water year 1978 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 1,370 tons per year for the 29-year period. Annual-load calculations for a streamgage on Mud Creek (site 6), that represents outflow from a tributary basin, indicate a decrease of 7,300 tons from water year 1982 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 292 tons per year for the 25-year period. The streamgage Dolores River at Dolores, CO (site 17) was chosen to represent a background site that is not affected by the Dolores Project. Annual load calculations for site 17 estimated a decrease of about 8,600 tons from water year 1978 through water year 2006, which is an average decrease of 297 tons per year for the 29-year period. The trend in salinity load at site 17 was considered to be representative of a natural trend in the region. Typically, salinity concentrations at outflow sites decreased from the pre-Dolores Project period (water years 1978-1984) to the post-Dolores Project period (water years 2000-2006). The median salinity concentration for site 1 (main basin outflow

  8. Variability and quasi-decadal changes in the methane budget over the period 2000-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunois, Marielle; Bousquet, Philippe; Poulter, Ben; Peregon, Anna; Ciais, Philippe; Canadell, Josep G.; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Etiope, Giuseppe; Bastviken, David; Houweling, Sander; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Tubiello, Francesco N.; Castaldi, Simona; Jackson, Robert B.; Alexe, Mihai; Arora, Vivek K.; Beerling, David J.; Bergamaschi, Peter; Blake, Donald R.; Brailsford, Gordon; Bruhwiler, Lori; Crevoisier, Cyril; Crill, Patrick; Covey, Kristofer; Frankenberg, Christian; Gedney, Nicola; Höglund-Isaksson, Lena; Ishizawa, Misa; Ito, Akihiko; Joos, Fortunat; Kim, Heon-Sook; Kleinen, Thomas; Krummel, Paul; Lamarque, Jean-François; Langenfelds, Ray; Locatelli, Robin; Machida, Toshinobu; Maksyutov, Shamil; Melton, Joe R.; Morino, Isamu; Naik, Vaishali; O'Doherty, Simon; Parmentier, Frans-Jan W.; Patra, Prabir K.; Peng, Changhui; Peng, Shushi; Peters, Glen P.; Pison, Isabelle; Prinn, Ronald; Ramonet, Michel; Riley, William J.; Saito, Makoto; Santini, Monia; Schroeder, Ronny; Simpson, Isobel J.; Spahni, Renato; Takizawa, Atsushi; Thornton, Brett F.; Tian, Hanqin; Tohjima, Yasunori; Viovy, Nicolas; Voulgarakis, Apostolos; Weiss, Ray; Wilton, David J.; Wiltshire, Andy; Worthy, Doug; Wunch, Debra; Xu, Xiyan; Yoshida, Yukio; Zhang, Bowen; Zhang, Zhen; Zhu, Qiuan

    2017-09-01

    Following the recent Global Carbon Project (GCP) synthesis of the decadal methane (CH4) budget over 2000-2012 (Saunois et al., 2016), we analyse here the same dataset with a focus on quasi-decadal and inter-annual variability in CH4 emissions. The GCP dataset integrates results from top-down studies (exploiting atmospheric observations within an atmospheric inverse-modelling framework) and bottom-up models (including process-based models for estimating land surface emissions and atmospheric chemistry), inventories of anthropogenic emissions, and data-driven approaches. The annual global methane emissions from top-down studies, which by construction match the observed methane growth rate within their uncertainties, all show an increase in total methane emissions over the period 2000-2012, but this increase is not linear over the 13 years. Despite differences between individual studies, the mean emission anomaly of the top-down ensemble shows no significant trend in total methane emissions over the period 2000-2006, during the plateau of atmospheric methane mole fractions, and also over the period 2008-2012, during the renewed atmospheric methane increase. However, the top-down ensemble mean produces an emission shift between 2006 and 2008, leading to 22 [16-32] Tg CH4 yr-1 higher methane emissions over the period 2008-2012 compared to 2002-2006. This emission increase mostly originated from the tropics, with a smaller contribution from mid-latitudes and no significant change from boreal regions. The regional contributions remain uncertain in top-down studies. Tropical South America and South and East Asia seem to contribute the most to the emission increase in the tropics. However, these two regions have only limited atmospheric measurements and remain therefore poorly constrained. The sectorial partitioning of this emission increase between the periods 2002-2006 and 2008-2012 differs from one atmospheric inversion study to another. However, all top-down studies

  9. UAV survey of a Thyrrenian micro-tidal beach for shoreline evolution update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benassai, Guido; Pugliano, Giovanni; Di Paola, Gianluigi; Mucerino, Luigi

    2015-04-01

    shoreline change analysis was performed using the ArcGis 9.3 extension Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS), v. 3.2 (Thieler et al., 2005). Transects orthogonal to the shoreline were generated at 100m intervals along the 1,4 km stretch of beach studied. The DSAS allowed the calculation of the rates of erosion/accretion between points, on the basis of the distance between them and the elapsed time, assuming changes to be linear processes. The rate of change of shoreline positions was evaluated at 14 points. The availability of shoreline data of the years 1954, 2000, 2006, 2008 and 2013 allowed to obtain the shoreline evolution trend in the last 60 years. Moreover, the UAV survey allowed to update the shoreline evolution and to obtain the volume of sediment lost by erosion, in order to suggest the locations and the amount of possible replenishments.

  10. Applications of remote sensing and GIS in surface hydrology: Snow cover, soil moisture and precipitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianwei

    Studies on surface hydrology can generally be classified into two categories, observation for different components of surface water, and modeling their dynamic movements. This study only focuses on observation part of surface water components: snow cover, soil moisture, and precipitation. Moreover, instead of discussion on the detailed algorithm and instrument technique behind each component, this dissertation pours efforts on analysis of the standard remotely sensed products and their applications under different settings. First in Chapter 2, validation of MODIS Terra 8-day maximum snow cover composite (MOD10A2) in the Northern Xinjiang, China, from 2000-2006, shows that the 8-day MODIS/Terra product has high agreements with in situ measurements as the in situ snow depth is larger or equal to 4 cm, while the agreement is low for the patchy snow as the in situ snow depth less than 4 cm. According to the in situ observation, this chapter develops an empirical algorithm to separate the cloud-covered pixels into snow and no snow. Continued long-term production of MODIS-type snow cover product is critical to assess water resources of the study area, as well as other larger scale global environment monitoring. Terra and Aqua satellites carry the same MODIS instrument and provide two parallel MODIS daily snow cover products at different time (local time 10:30 am and 1:30 pm, respectively). Chapter 3 develops an algorithm and automated scripts to combine the daily MODIS Terra (MOD10A1) and Aqua (MYD10A1) snow cover products, and to automatically generate multi-day Terra-Aqua snow cover image composites, with flexible starting and ending dates and a user-defined cloud cover threshold. Chapter 4 systematically compares the difference between MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products within a hydrologic year of 2003-2004, validates the MODIS Terra and Aqua snow cover products using in situ measurements in Northern Xinjiang, and compares the accuracy among the standard MODIS

  11. Global methane emission estimates for 2000-2012 from CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 v1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuruta, Aki; Aalto, Tuula; Backman, Leif; Hakkarainen, Janne; van der Laan-Luijkx, Ingrid T.; Krol, Maarten C.; Spahni, Renato; Houweling, Sander; Laine, Marko; Dlugokencky, Ed; Gomez-Pelaez, Angel J.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Langenfelds, Ray; Ellul, Raymond; Arduini, Jgor; Apadula, Francesco; Gerbig, Christoph; Feist, Dietrich G.; Kivi, Rigel; Yoshida, Yukio; Peters, Wouter

    2017-03-01

    We present a global distribution of surface methane (CH4) emission estimates for 2000-2012 derived using the CarbonTracker Europe-CH4 (CTE-CH4) data assimilation system. In CTE-CH4, anthropogenic and biospheric CH4 emissions are simultaneously estimated based on constraints of global atmospheric in situ CH4 observations. The system was configured to either estimate only anthropogenic or biospheric sources per region, or to estimate both categories simultaneously. The latter increased the number of optimizable parameters from 62 to 78. In addition, the differences between two numerical schemes available to perform turbulent vertical mixing in the atmospheric transport model TM5 were examined. Together, the system configurations encompass important axes of uncertainty in inversions and allow us to examine the robustness of the flux estimates. The posterior emission estimates are further evaluated by comparing simulated atmospheric CH4 to surface in situ observations, vertical profiles of CH4 made by aircraft, remotely sensed dry-air total column-averaged mole fraction (XCH4) from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON), and XCH4 from the Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT). The evaluation with non-assimilated observations shows that posterior XCH4 is better matched with the retrievals when the vertical mixing scheme with faster interhemispheric exchange is used. Estimated posterior mean total global emissions during 2000-2012 are 516 ± 51 Tg CH4 yr-1, with an increase of 18 Tg CH4 yr-1 from 2000-2006 to 2007-2012. The increase is mainly driven by an increase in emissions from South American temperate, Asian temperate and Asian tropical TransCom regions. In addition, the increase is hardly sensitive to different model configurations ( < 2 Tg CH4 yr-1 difference), and much smaller than suggested by EDGAR v4.2 FT2010 inventory (33 Tg CH4 yr-1), which was used for prior anthropogenic emission estimates. The result is in good agreement with other

  12. Dynamic distributions and population declines of Golden-winged Warblers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberg, Kenneth V.; Will, Tom; Buehler, David A.; Barker Swarthout, Sara; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Chandler, Richard

    2016-01-01

    With an estimated breeding population in 2010 of 383,000 pairs, the Golden-winged Warbler (Vermivora chrysoptera) is among the most vulnerable and steeply declining of North American passerines. This species also has exhibited among the most dynamic breeding distributions, with populations expanding and then contracting over the past 150 years in response to regional habitat changes, interactions with closely related Blue-winged Warblers (V. cyanoptera), and possibly climate change. Since 1966, the rangewide population has declined by >70% (-2.3% per year; latest North American Breeding Bird Survey data), with much steeper declines in the Appalachian Mountains bird conservation region (-8.3% per year, 98% overall decline). Despite apparently stable or increasing populations in the northwestern part of the range (Minnesota, Manitoba), population estimates for Golden-winged Warbler have continued to decline by 18% from the decade of the 1990s to the 2000s. Population modeling predicts a further decline to roughly 37,000 individuals by 2100, with the species likely to persist only in Manitoba, Minnesota, and possibly Ontario. To delineate the present-day distribution and to identify population concentrations that could serve as conservation focus areas, we compiled rangewide survey data collected in 2000-2006 in 21 states and 3 Canadian provinces, as part of the Golden-winged Warbler Atlas Project (GOWAP), supplemented by state and provincial Breeding Bird Atlas data and more recent observations in eBird. Based on >8,000 GOWAP surveys for Golden-winged and Blue-winged warblers and their hybrids, we mapped occurrence of phenotypically pure and mixed populations in a roughly 0.5-degree grid across the species’ ranges. Hybrids and mixed Golden-winged-Blue-winged populations occurred in a relatively narrow zone across Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, southern Ontario, and northern New York. Phenotypically pure Golden-winged Warbler populations occurred north of this

  13. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

  14. Simulation of land use change impacts on hydrological processes in a tropical catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marhaento, Hero; Booij, Martijn J.; Rientjes, Tom H. M.; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2017-04-01

    Impacts of land use change on the water balance of a catchment are still not fully understood due to climatic interferences. For tropical regions, only few studies have attempted to attribute changes in the water balance to land use change, where some of the results are contradictory and inconsistent, in particular for large catchments (> 100 km2). In this study, we assessed the impacts of land use change on the water balance of the Samin catchment (277.9 km2) on Java, Indonesia using the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model and the baseline-altered method. We divided the simulation period 1990 - 2013 into four equal periods to represent baseline conditions (1990 - 1995) and altered land use conditions (1996 - 2001, 2002 - 2007, and 2008 - 2013). Land use maps for 1994, 2000, 2006 and 2013 were acquired from LANDSAT and ASTER satellite imageries to represent land use cover for each period. A SWAT model was calibrated for the baseline period using land use of the year 1994 and then applied to the altered periods with and without land use change to investigate the contribution of land use change to changes in stream flow. The results show that incorporating land use change in the model simulations resulted in a Nash Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) of 0.7 compared to 0.6 when land use change is ignored. In addition, the error in the simulations without land use change was increasing with time and thus resulted in a deteriorating model performance. Land use change appeared to be the important driver for changes in stream flow and thus allowed to attribute changes in the water balance to land use change. The main land use changes during 1994 - 2013 are a decrease in forest area from 48.7% to 16.9%, an increase in agriculture area from 39.2% to 45.4% and an increase in settlement area from 9.8% to 34.3%. For the catchment, this resulted in an increase of the runoff coefficient from 35.7% to 44.6% and a decrease in the ratio of evapotranspiration to rainfall from 60% to 54

  15. Status and trends of adult Lost River (Deltistes luxatus) and shortnose (Chasmistes brevirostris) sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hewitt, David A.; Janney, Eric C.; Hayes, Brian S.; Harris, Alta C.

    2017-07-21

    in 2000, 2006, and 2012. Survival probabilities were lower for males from the shoreline areas in 2002. Between 2001 and 2014, the abundance of males in the lakeshore spawning subpopulation decreased by at least 59 percent and the abundance of females decreased by at least 53 percent. By combining information from capture-recapture models and size composition data, we concluded that the abundance of both sexes in the river spawning subpopulation of LRS likely has decreased at rates similar to the rates for the lakeshore spawning subpopulation between 2002 and 2014. Capture-recapture analyses for SNS included encounter histories for 20,981 individuals. Most annual survival estimates between 2005 and 2009 were high (greater than 0.88), but both sexes of SNS experienced lower and more variable survival in 2001–04 and 2010–13. The best-case scenario for SNS, based on capture-recapture recruitment modeling, indicates that the abundance of males in the spawning population decreased by 77 percent and the abundance of females decreased by 74 percent between 2001 and 2014. Decreases in abundance for both sexes likely are greater than these estimates indicate. Despite relatively high survival in most years, we conclude that both species have experienced substantial decreases in the abundance of spawning adults because losses from mortality have not been balanced by recruitment of new individuals. The status of the endangered sucker populations in Upper Klamath Lake remains worrisome, especially for SNS.

  16. Phase Variability of the Recent Climate in the North Atlantic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri; Sidorova, Alexandra

    2014-05-01

    2000-2012. The results shown that during the 1980-2000 period the heat content in the region (50º-60ºN; 60º-30ºW) was lower than in the 1955-1970, but higher in (30º-40ºN; 60º-30ºW) region. The data on sea water temperature, obtained as a result of numerical calculations based on the Ocean General Circulation Model (INM RAS), were used for estimate of ocean specific heat. The model is based on a complete system of nonlinear (primitive) equations describing ocean hydro- and thermodynamics in the Boussinesq approximation and written in a spherical σ-coordinate system. Numerical calculations were carried out with horizontal resolution (0.25ºx0.25º) and time step 1 hour. Boundary conditions on surface were taken from data array of CORE. Anomalies of specific heat relative to the mean annual variation in the layer from ocean surface up to 700m depth in North Atlantic region, calculated on model data and averaged for each period of (1959-1974), (1975-1999), (2000-2006), are in very close accordance with the results based on the accepted Levitus' data.

  17. ATV (quad bike) injuries in New Zealand children: their extent and severity.

    PubMed

    Anson, Kate; Segedin, Elizabeth; Jones, Peter

    2009-09-11

    Primary: To ascertain how many New Zealand (NZ) children are being injured or killed as the result of all-terrain vehicle (ATV) injuries and to define the nature and severity of their injuries. Secondary: to examine the effect of age, weight, helmet use, and ATV size on injury severity and to compare the demographics of injury in NZ to other countries. A retrospective review was undertaken of 643 cases of children less than 16 years old hospitalised between 2000-2006 due to possible ATV-related injury. New Zealand Health Information Statistics (NZHIS) identified the cases through discharge information, supplemented by a search of Auckland's Paediatric Intensive Care trauma database. Only confirmed ATV injuries were included. Records were unavailable for 150 cases (26%). There were 218 confirmed cases of ATV injury. Mechanisms of injury were: a fall from the ATV, 105 cases (48%), a collision, 59 cases (31%), rolling 31 cases (14%). Mean age was 9.9 years (SD 3.9) with 133 (61%) under 12 years, and 32 (15%) 5 years and under. The child was the driver in 116 cases (53%) and the passenger in 61 cases (28%). Male to female ratio was 2:1. Mean injury severity score was 7.9 (SD 5.2). Median (IQR) length of stay was 2 days (1-4). Helmet use not stated in 62%, with only 30 cases (14%) identified as wearing helmets. The majority of injuries were orthopaedic, soft tissue injuries and head injuries. Multiple injuries occurred in 74 cases (34%). One hundred and eleven children (51%) required a general anaesthetic. Seventeen (7.8%) children required admission to intensive care. Six (2.8%) children were left with a permanent disability. Sixteen children died. There was no correlation between ISS and age or weight (Rho=-0.089, p=0.08 and Rho=0.49, p=0.79 respectively). The observed differences in ISS between helmet users and non-users, ATV drivers and passengers and size of ATV were not statistically significant. There was a trend towards reduced risk of head injury with helmet

  18. MODIS-Derived Surface Temperatures of the Greenland Ice Sheet, 2000 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, D. K.; Williams, R. S.; Digirolamo, N. E.

    2006-12-01

    Ground and satellite measurements have shown increasing melt in recent years on the Greenland Ice Sheet (GIS). However, many questions remain about the magnitude, timing, and characteristics of the melt. Is the ice sheet melting earlier? Is the melt season lengthening? Is the average surface temperature of the ice sheet changing? Has the ice-sheet surface temperature increased in eastern, western, and/or northern Greenland? These questions can be addressed through analysis of satellite-derived, ice-sheet surface temperatures using the Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flown on-board NASA's Terra and Aqua satellites. A standard, 1-km resolution, land-surface temperature (LST) daily product, MOD11A1 (Wan et al., 2002), is available from February 2000 to the present. Previous work using MOD11C2, a 5-km resolution, 8- day composite LST product, showed that the years 2002 and 2005 experienced the highest average ice-sheet temperatures during the peak of the 2000 2005 melt seasons when mean, clear-sky LSTs were studied for the entire ice sheet (Hall et al., 2006). This was in agreement with other studies showing extensive melt in 2002 and 2005 from passive-microwave and gound data (Steffen et al., 2004 and Steffen and Huff, 2005). Mean LSTs of the GIS were recalculated with the finer-resolution, 1-km daily data and results still show that the warmest mean LSTs of the 6-year period, 8.1 deg C and 8.2 deg C, occurred in 2002 and 2005, respectively. Other results using the MOD11A1 dataset show that the dates of first melt for seven years of MODIS data (2000 2006) are variable; for example unusually-large areas of the northeastern and northwestern sectors of the GIS began melting in June of 2002 and 2005. Also an extensive area of surface melt was observed for a few days in June of 2004, and not in the other six years. Automatic weather station data from Dye-2, Saddle and South Dome corroborate the satellite measurements, showing higher air temperatures

  19. Quasi-Biennial Oscillation as the Result of Planetary Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Retejum, Alexey

    QUASI-BIENNIAL OSCILLATION AS THE RESULT OF PLANETARY MOTION A.Ju.Retejum Lomonosov Moscow State University, aretejum@yandex.ru A remarkable phenomenon of quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) attracts a growing attention for its unclear origin and possible global impact. A comprehensive theory of this phenomenon should answer the following questions: 1. Why does the phase change of the atmospheric circulation on average occur every 800 days? 2. When does the cycle length decreases or increases? 3. Wherefore the regular wind shift is observed in the equatorial stratosphere only? 4. What could cause a sudden reverse in zonal wind direction? 5. Why the generating impulse travels from the border between the atmosphere and outer space downwards without significant loss of power? 6. What is the reason of known differences in behavior patterns between west and east winds? 7. How do middle and upper latitudes respond to the remote signal? Unfortunately all the explanation of QBO that have been given so far, unable to meet the above criteria. The author proposes an alternative idea of the external forcing due to motion of Mars, Jupiter and Venus. This study is based on the QBO Index data at the 30-hPa Height for the 1979-2013 period (http://www.cpc.ncep.noaa.gov/data/indices/qbo.u30.index). Having in mind that the oscillation is symmetric about the Equator, where the Earth rotation speed is highest, one examined on the first stage relationships between the QBO manifestation and the length of day. A ten-year comparison of slow and fast spinning periods (1979-1983, 1991-1995 and 2000-2006, 2009-2011 respectively) reveals a significant difference in west and east winds strengths. The same picture can be observed if mean monthly data for March-April (the length of day maximum) and July (the length of day minimum) are collated. This is the answer to the question # 3. The exact answers to questions # 1 and # 2 give an analysis of the dependence of the wind reverse time on the moments

  20. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-02-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate - air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate) and 2047-2053 (future climate). The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate - air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~35-40% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease in major urban areas in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) and South Coast Air Basin (SoCAB). These changes resulted in a ~0.6-1.9 μg m-3 decrease in predicted PM2.5 concentrations in coastal and central Los Angeles. Annual average PM2.5 concentrations were predicted to increase at certain locations within the SJV and the Sacramento Valley due to the effects of climate change, but a corresponding analysis of the annual variability showed that these

  1. Fracture and earthquake physics in a non extensive view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallianatos, F.

    2009-04-01

    connection with fracture phenomena at much larger scales implying that a basic general mechanism is "actively hidden" behind all this phenomena. Acknowledgements: This work is partially supported by the Greek General Secretariat of Research and Technology in the frame of Crete Regional Project 2000- 2006 (M1.2): "TALOS: An integrated system of seismic hazard monitoring and management in the front of the Hellenic Arc", CRETE PEP 7 (KP 7). [1] F. Vallianatos and A. Tzanis, Phys. Chem. Earth 23, 933 (1998). [2] A. Tzanis and F. Vallianatos, Natural Hazards and Earth Syst, Sciences 3 (2003). [3] F. Vallianatos, D. Triantis, A. Tzanis, C. Anastasiadis and I. Stavrakas, Phys. Chem. Earth 29, 339 (2004). [4] C. Anastasiadis, D. Triantis, I. Stavrakas and F. Vallianatos, Ann. Geophys. 47, 21 (2004). [5] F. Vallianatos Proc., 2nd WSEAS Int. Conference on Seismology, (Cambridge, UK, 2008). [6] F. Vallianatos, Natural Hazards and Earth Syst, Sciences (2009).

  2. Variability of DTM-derived, morphometric parameters versus cell size. An example of application in Calabria (Southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rago, Valeria; Caloiero, Paola; Pellegrino, Annamaria Daniela; Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Terranova, Oreste G.; Pascale, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    , G. Gullà, G. Iovine, O. Petrucci, P. Salvador Sanchis, M. Sorriso-Valvo, O. Terranova, D. Torri, V. Bagarello, C. Di Stefano, V. Ferro, G. Buttafuoco, G. Callegari, P. Porto, B. Betrò, A. Bodini, C. Brambilla (2010) - Relazione Finale Contratto Lotto 2 Pericolosità legata ai fenomeni di intensa erosione idrica areale e lineare- POR Calabria 2000-2006, Azione. 1.4c. Rapporto per Autorità di Bacino Regione Calabria. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2014) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (southern Calabria, Italy) with considerations on the role of causal factors. Natural Hazards, 73(1), pp.111-136. In: G. Iovine & D. Cohen (Eds.), Advanced methods in landslide modelling. Iovine G., Greco R., Gariano S.L., Iaquinta P., Pellegrino A.D., Terranova O.G. (2013) - Shallow-landslide susceptibility in the Costa Viola mountain ridge (Italia). In: Landslide Science and Practice, Claudio Margottini, Paolo Canuti, Kyoji Sassa (Editors), Volume 3: Spatial Analysis and Modelling, pp.81-87. Proc. Second World Landslide Forum, 3-7 October 2011, Rome.

  3. Geochemical Consequences of Lithospheric Delamination in the Eastern Mediterranean: Evidence From Young Turkish Basalts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furman, T.; Kurkcuoglu, B.; Plummer, C.

    2007-12-01

    Magmatism associated with continental collision is increasingly attributed to major disturbance of or within the lithosphere. Geochemical and isotopic data on post-collisional primitive mafic lavas from across the Anatolian plate enable us to assess the effects of lithospheric delamination (slab rollback and breakoff) as indicated by geophysical studies. The Anatolian province displays geodynamically complex manifestations of the closure of neo-Tethys and the collision between Africa and Europe that commenced circa 30 Ma. The current south- southwestward motion of Anatolia, a.k.a. "Turkish escape", is accommodated by slab rollback along the Hellenic trench and orogenic collapse along both the eastern and western margins of the microplate. Volcanism occurs primarily along the fault zones that border and cross-cut Anatolia, and major element characteristics of the lavas vary with both space and time. In Western Anatolia, early Miocene collisional calc- alkaline magmatism was followed by Quaternary alkaline volcanism (Alici et al. 1998, 2002; Aldanmaz et al. 2000, 2006) related to orogenic collapse, presumably resulting from slab rollback. Orogenic collapse in Eastern Anatolia is facilitated by slab breakoff as determined by geophysical studies (Zor et al. 2003; Angus et al. 2006; Lei & Zhao 2007). This transition was accompanied a change from mid-Miocene calc-alkaline to Quaternary alkaline volcanism (e.g., Yilmaz 1990; Pearce et al. 1990). Central Anatolia displays calc-alkaline and tholeiitic volcanism, including alkali olivine basalts; plate tectonic reconstructions (Lyberis et al. 1992) indicate that the African slab did not reach Central Anatolia. Sr-Nd isotope values from each volcanic province define linear arrays that converge upon a common unradiogenic value typical of global depleted mantle. We suggest that mafic volcanism throughout Anatolia is supported by a common asthenospheric component, modified by identifiable, location-specific additions. In areas

  4. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  5. [Course of congenital malformation incidences and their changes over time in children born in the Czech Republic].

    PubMed

    Sípek, A; Gregor, V; Horáček, J; Sípek, A; Langhammer, P

    2012-10-01

    An analysis of incidences of selected birth defects in the Czech Republic in 2000 - 2008 period. Retrospective epidemiological analysis of birth defects incidences in births and total birth defects incidences (including prenatally diagnosed cases) from the Czech National Birth Defects Register database. Data from the National Birth Defects Register (Institute for Health Information and Statistics) in the Czech Republic in the 2000 - 2008 period were used along with data on prenatally diagnosed defects from particular departments of medical genetics. Sixteen selected defects (anencephaly, spina bifida, encephalocele, congenital hydrocephalus, coarctation of aorta, transposition of great vessels, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, Fallot tetralogy, omphalocele, gastroschisis, diaphragmatic hernia, oesophageal atresia and stenosis, anorectal malformations, Down syndrome, Edwards syndrome and Patau syndrome) were analyzed in detail. There were 119 570 live births (61 326 boys and 58 244 girls) in 2008. In the same period, 4664 live births with a birth defect (under the age of one year) were reported, out of which 2754 boys and 1910 girls. Mean incidence was 390.06 (449.08 in boys and 327.93 in girls) per 10 000 live births. In 1994 - 2006, totally 1 238 398 children were born, out of which more than 42 000 with a birth defect. In the 2000 - 2006 period, absolute numbers of diagnosed live births with birth defect varied between 3600 - 3800 cases per year while in 2007 and 2008 years absolute numbers raised over 4600 cases per year. During 2000 - 2008 period following mean incidences (per 10 000 live births) of selected defects were ascertained (total incidences including prenatal diagnostics in brackets): anencephaly 0 - 0.3 (1.9 - 3.7), spina bifida 0.7 - 2.3 (3.2 - 5.2), encephalocele 0.1 - 0.4 (0.9 - 2.4), congenital hydrocephalus 1.6 - 3.5 (5.3 - 7.0), coarctation of aorta 3.9 - 5.2 (4.8 - 6.1), transposition of great vessels 2.9 - 4.5 (3.2 - 5.0), hypoplastic left

  6. Technical Evaluation of the NASA Model for Cancer Risk to Astronauts Due to Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2012-01-01

    estimating risk and uncertainty in the proposed model is broadly similar to that used for the current (2005) NASA model and is based on recommendations by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP, 2000, 2006). However, NASA's proposed model has significant changes with respect to the following: the integration of new findings and methods into its components by taking into account newer epidemiological data and analyses, new radiobiological data indicating that quality factors differ for leukemia and solid cancers, an improved method for specifying quality factors in terms of radiation track structure concepts as opposed to the previous approach based on linear energy transfer, the development of a new solar particle event (SPE) model, and the updates to galactic cosmic ray (GCR) and shielding transport models. The newer epidemiological information includes updates to the cancer incidence rates from the life span study (LSS) of the Japanese atomic bomb survivors (Preston et al., 2007), transferred to the U.S. population and converted to cancer mortality rates from U.S. population statistics. In addition, the proposed model provides an alternative analysis applicable to lifetime never-smokers (NSs). Details of the uncertainty analysis in the model have also been updated and revised. NASA's proposed model and associated uncertainties are complex in their formulation and as such require a very clear and precise set of descriptions. The committee found the 2011 NASA report challenging to review largely because of the lack of clarity in the model descriptions and derivation of the various parameters used. The committee requested some clarifications from NASA throughout its review and was able to resolve many, but not all, of the ambiguities in the written description.

  7. Characterization of the Lower Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 1a in the Eastern Iberian Chain (Maestrat Basin, E Spain) by Means of Ammonite Biostratigraphy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno-Bedmar, J. A.; Company, M.; Bover-Arnal, T.; Delanoy, G.; Martinez, R.; Grauges, A.; Salas, R.

    2008-05-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (OAE1a) is now generally recognized to correlate with the lower part of the Leupoldina cabri planktonic foraminifer Zone. Unfortunately, the calibration of this zone against the standard ammonite scale has remained uncertain. Our recent high-resolution geochemical study (Carbon-isotope) of Lower Aptian sequences in the Iberian Chain of eastern Spain (Moreno-Bedmar et al., in prep) was used as proxy to further characterize OAE 1a. The sequence provides additional ammonite biostratigraphic data that permit correlation of the ammonite zonation with the isotopic signature of OAE1a. That interval includes specimens we identified with affinity for species of Roloboceras and Megatyloceras in the same beds that contain species of Deshayesites forbesi Casey, and Deshayesites gr. euglyphus/spathi, which are characteristic of the Deshayesites weissi Zone. Our results also indicate that D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny), the nominate taxon which marks the base of the superjacent Zone, first occurs a few meters above the geochemical signature corresponding to OAE 1a. Our isotopic data correlated with the ammonite occurrences are in further agreement with Roloboceras beds in England (Casey, 1961a, b; Casey et al., 1998) that are correlational with the Boreal Deshayesites forbesi Zone, which is coeval with the Mediterranean Deshayesites weissi Zone. Similarly, in the Cassis-La Bédoule area (SE France) the OAE 1a interval also corresponds to the Roloboceras beds, but they have been assigned to the Deshayesites deshayesi biozone (Ropolo et al., 2000; 2006). Here we argue that specimens attributed to D. deshayesi (d'Orbigny) and D. dechyi (Papp) from the Roloboceras levels (Ropolo et al., 2006) can be reinterpreted as belonging to D. forbesi, characteristic species of Deshayesites weissi Zone. Stratigraphic data from Roloboceras beds in le Teil region (Ardech patform, SE France) also reveal the presence of Deshayesites consobrinus (d'Orbigny) and Deshayesites gr

  8. Impact of fluctuation of hydro-physical regime in the North Atlantic on the climate of Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serykh, Ilya; Anisimov, Mikhail; Byshev, Vladimir; Neiman, Victor; Romanov, Juri

    2015-04-01

    experiment the results of 20 years adapting calculation with Levitus array data for the state on January 1958 were taken. The data of CORE array were also accepted as ocean surface boundary conditions. Calculations of mean temperature were made for the colder (January, February, March) and warmer (July, August, September) seasons within each of the 3 climate scenarios that occurred in the region during periods of 1958-1974, 1975-1999 and 2000-2006. After that there were calculated area-averaged temperature profiles in two 5-degrees squares: Labrador sea (57.5°-62.5°N, 57.5°-52.5°W) and a region of Gulf Stream (42.5°-47.5°N, 40°-30°W). As a result there have been observed quasi-antiphase of 700-m layer heat content variability in these squares. In the Labrador sea during the transition from I to II climate scenario it was followed a heat discharge - ocean lost heat, while the transition from II to III scenario was marked by accumulation of heat. In the area of the Gulf stream the transition from I to II scenario was characterized by heat accumulation by the ocean, whereas a transition from II to III scenario was distinguished by a relatively weak heat loss. In respect to prognostic targets it was supposed that the result could be essential for disclosure of relationships between climatic parameters of the Eurasian continent and the thermodynamic processes in the specific areas of the North Atlantic Ocean.

  9. Monitoring 2009 Forest Disturbance across the Conterminous United States, Based on Near-Real Time and Historical MODIS 250 Meter NDVI Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spruce, J.; Hargrove, W. W.; Gasser, G.; Smoot, J. C.; Kuper, P.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation discusses a study on the use of MODIS NDVI data for viewing regional patterns of forest disturbance across the conterminous United States. This capability is a part of a national forest threat early warning system (EWS) being developed by the USDA Forest Service’s Eastern and Western Environmental Threat Centers with help from NASA Stennis Space Center and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The viewing capability of the EWS was recently demonstrated for 2009, using near-real time (NRT) MODIS NDVI data from the USGS eMODIS Web site and historical NDVI data from standard MOD13 products. For this study, a historical maximum NDVI baseline for CONUS was computed from fused Aqua and Terra MOD13 data for June 10-July 27 of each year during 2000-2006. Comparable 2009 MODIS NDVI imagery was computed from fusion and re-compositing of eMODIS NRT Aqua and Terra 7-day products. For the historical data, time series data processing software was used to remove poor quality data and to mitigate data gaps mainly due to clouds. Although the NRT component was not as rigorously processed to mitigate noise, the processing still yielded largely cloud-free clean, coherent CONUS NDVI imagery initially with only 21-days of compositing. The principal end product of the study was a forest disturbance visualization product based on an NDVI RGB image that combines data from 2 dates (i.e. time frames). For this RGB, the historical maximum NDVI for the observed temporal window was assigned to the red color gun and the 2009 NRT product for the same time frame was assigned to the blue and green guns. The resulting image was masked with a USFS FIA 250-m type map to include only forested areas. The forest disturbance areas on the forest-masked 2-date NDVI RGB are shown in red tones with non-disturbed closed canopy forest generally shown in medium to bright gray tones. This product highlighted several broad-scaled forest canopy disturbances for the observed time in 2009, including

  10. Snow cover data records from satellite and conventional measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derksen, C.; Brown, R.; Wang, L.

    2008-12-01

    coupled with lake ice model simulations have illustrated frequency dependent, seasonally evolving relationships between brightness temperature and lake fraction across tundra regions. A potential solution based on the temporal evolution of 37 GHz AMSR-E measurements shows some promise as this was found to be significantly correlated with field measurements of tundra SWE, and to be relatively insensitive to lake fraction. New pan-Arctic (N 60°N) snowmelt onset and end date records (2000-2006) were produced from enhanced resolution (4.45 km) QuikSCAT (QSCAT) Ku-band backscatter measurements. The goal is to merge this with melt onset information from other components of the cryosphere (e.g. glaciers, ice caps, ice sheets, lake ice, sea ice) to provide an integrated circumpolar melt onset and duration dataset for climate monitoring and research on cryosphere-climate links and feedbacks. A major challenge is expanding the relatively short time period of Ku-band satellite measurements with historical C-band data (i.e. from ERS-1). Geostatistical methods and snow cover modeling were used to develop a 10-km gridded SWE dataset over Quebec from 1970-2005 for climate studies and evaluation of the performance of the Canadian Regional Climate Model.

  11. Potential of VIIRS Data for Regional Monitoring of Gypsy Moth Defoliation: Implications for Forest Threat Early Warning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spruce, Joseph P.; Ryan, Robert E.; Smoot, James C.; Prados, Donald; McKellip, Rodney; Sader. Steven A.; Gasser, Jerry; May, George; Hargrove, William

    2007-01-01

    A NASA RPC (Rapid Prototyping Capability) experiment was conducted to assess the potential of VIIRS (Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite) data for monitoring non-native gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar) defoliation of forests. This experiment compares defoliation detection products computed from simulated VIIRS and from MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) time series products as potential inputs to a forest threat EWS (Early Warning System) being developed for the USFS (USDA Forest Service). Gypsy moth causes extensive defoliation of broadleaved forests in the United States and is specifically identified in the Healthy Forest Restoration Act (HFRA) of 2003. The HFRA mandates development of a national forest threat EWS. This system is being built by the USFS and NASA is aiding integration of needed satellite data products into this system, including MODIS products. This RPC experiment enabled the MODIS follow-on, VIIRS, to be evaluated as a data source for EWS forest monitoring products. The experiment included 1) assessment of MODIS-simulated VIIRS NDVI products, and 2) evaluation of gypsy moth defoliation mapping products from MODIS-simulated VIIRS and from MODIS NDVI time series data. This experiment employed MODIS data collected over the approximately 15 million acre mid-Appalachian Highlands during the annual peak defoliation time frame (approximately June 10 through July 27) during 2000-2006. NASA Stennis Application Research Toolbox software was used to produce MODIS-simulated VIIRS data and NASA Stennis Time Series Product Tool software was employed to process MODIS and MODIS-simulated VIIRS time series data scaled to planetary reflectance. MODIS-simulated VIIRS data was assessed through comparison to Hyperion-simulated VIIRS data using data collected during gypsy moth defoliation. Hyperion-simulated MODIS data showed a high correlation with actual MODIS data (NDVI R2 of 0.877 and RMSE of 0.023). MODIS-simulated VIIRS data for the same

  12. Sudden cardiac death: a nationwide cohort study among the young.

    PubMed

    Risgaard, Bjarke

    2016-12-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a tragic event affecting millions of individuals worldwide. Although several studies have investigated the epidemiology of SCD, these studies may have been affected by reporting and referral biases, which are reflected in the very different incidence rates and causes of deaths that have previously been reported. Among SCD victims aged < 36 years, inherited cardiac diseases are well known to play an important role. However, the extent to which inherited cardiac diseases also play a role in SCD victims aged < 50 years has not been completely described. Additionally, SCD in children is of particular interest. These deaths are often described as a part of the deaths of young adolescents up to 40 years of age, and the focus has recently shifted towards the prevention of these deaths. The SCD incidence rate among patients with psychiatric disease has also gained significant attention. Finally, the incidence rate of sports-related sudden cardiac death (SrSCD) has been thoroughly investigated in young competitive athletes. However, whether competitive athletes are at increased risk for SrSCD compared with non-competitive athletes remains unknown. These data should be available prior to discussing optimal screening strategies for (competitive) athletes. In this thesis, we investigated the SCD burden in Danes aged 1-49 years between 2007 and 2009. By using the unique Danish death certificates, autopsy reports, discharge summaries, and registries, we included all deaths in a nationwide setting. We described the incidence rates and causes of death, and we performed a sub-group analysis of SCD in children (1-18 years, 2000-2006). Furthermore, we described the SCD burden in competitive and non-competitive athletes and investigated how often SCD occurred in patients with previous psychiatric disease. SCD has an incidence rate of 8.6 (95% confidence interval (CI) 8.0-9.2) per 100,000 person-years in persons aged 1-49 years. We found a steep increase

  13. Land-Use and Land-Cover Change around Mobile Bay, Alabama from 1974-2008

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, Jean; Spruce, Joseph P.; Swann, Roberta; Smooth, James C.

    2009-01-01

    This document summarizes the major findings of a Gulf of Mexico Application Pilot project led by NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) in conjunction with a regional collaboration network of the Gulf of Mexico Alliance (GOMA). NASA researchers processed and analyzed multi-temporal Landsat data to assess land-use and land-cover (LULC) changes in the coastal counties of Mobile and Baldwin, AL between 1974 and 2008. Our goal was to create satellite-based LULC data products using methods that could be transferable to other coastal areas of concern within the Gulf of Mexico. The Mobile Bay National Estuary Program (MBNEP) is the primary end-user, however, several other state and local groups may benefit from the project s data products that will be available through NOAA-NCDDC s Regional Ecosystem Data Management program. Mobile Bay is a critical ecologic and economic region in the Gulf of Mexico and to the entire country. Mobile Bay was designated as an estuary of national significance in 1996. This estuary receives the fourth largest freshwater inflow in the United States. It provides vital nursery habitat for commercially and recreationally important fish species. It has exceptional aquatic and terrestrial bio-diversity, however, its estuary health is influenced by changing LULC patterns, such as urbanization. Mobile and Baldwin counties have experienced a population growth of 1.1% and 20.5% from 2000-2006. Urban expansion and population growth are likely to accelerate with the construction and operation of the ThyssenKrupp steel mill in the northeast portion of Mobile County. Land-use and land-cover change can negatively impact Gulf coast water quality and ecological resources. The conversion of forest to urban cover types impacts the carbon cycle and increases the freshwater and sediment in coastal waters. Increased freshwater runoff decreases salinity and increases the turbidity of coastal waters, thus impacting the growth potential of submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV

  14. Climate impact on airborne particulate matter concentrations in California using seven year analysis periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, A.; Hixson, M.; Hu, J.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, S.-H.; Kleeman, M. J.

    2010-11-01

    The effect of global climate change on the annual average concentration of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in California was studied using a climate-air quality modeling system composed of global through regional models. Output from the NCAR/DOE Parallel Climate Model (PCM) generated under the "business as usual" global emissions scenario was downscaled using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model followed by air quality simulations using the UCD/CIT airshed model. The system represents major atmospheric processes acting on gas and particle phase species including meteorological effects on emissions, advection, dispersion, chemical reaction rates, gas-particle conversion, and dry/wet deposition. The air quality simulations were carried out for the entire state of California with a resolution of 8-km for the years 2000-2006 (present climate with present emissions) and 2047-2053 (future climate with present emissions). Each of these 7-year analysis periods was analyzed using a total of 1008 simulated days to span a climatologically relevant time period with a practical computational burden. The 7-year windows were chosen to properly account for annual variability with the added benefit that the air quality predictions under the present climate could be compared to actual measurements. The climate-air quality modeling system successfully predicted the spatial pattern of present climate PM2.5 concentrations in California but the absolute magnitude of the annual average PM2.5 concentrations were under-predicted by ~4-39% in the major air basins. The majority of this under-prediction was caused by excess ventilation predicted by PCM-WRF that should be present to the same degree in the current and future time periods so that the net bias introduced into the comparison is minimized. Surface temperature, relative humidity (RH), rain rate, and wind speed were predicted to increase in the future climate while the ultra violet (UV) radiation was predicted to decrease

  15. Inter-annual variability in apparent relative production, survival, and growth of juvenile Lost River and shortnose suckers in Upper Klamath Lake, Oregon, 2001–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burdick, Summer M.; Martin, Barbara A.

    2017-06-15

    daily growth may be an indication that environmental conditions are affecting growth rates of these species in different ways.The combined evidence outlined in this report and in Simon and others (2012) indicates that years of relatively high age-0 sucker production occurred in the late 1990s through at least 2000, in 2006, and in 2011. Our analysis of annual age-0 sucker catch per unit effort (CPUE), which accounted for zero inflated data and annual variation in sampling gears and locations, indicated that 2006 had the greatest apparent relative production of age-0 suckers ≥ 45 mm standard length (SL) during the time period examined. Midsummer trap net effort by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) was too sparse to examine age-0 sucker CPUE from 2011 to 2013. Relatively frequent catches of age-1 suckers in 2001, 2007, and 2012 corroborated relatively high CPUE for age-0 suckers during 1999–2000, 2006, and 2011, as reported by USGS or Simon and others (2012).There were several indications in the data that juvenile sucker survival is low from at least midsummer of the first year of life through mid-September of the second year of life. Our estimated index of relative apparent age-0 sucker late-summer survival, which accounted for zero inflated data and variations in sampling gears and locations, was higher in 2009 than in 2004. Our index of apparent age-0 sucker mortality for all other years from 2001 to 2015 was similar among years. Seventy-five percent of age-1 suckers were captured prior to July 17 each year. In 2007, the one year with substantial age-1 sucker summertime catches, the proportion of nets to capture age-1 suckers decreased from July to mid-September. Maximum annual age-2+ sucker CPUE was 0.02 fish per net, 10,000 times less than the maximum annual age-0 sucker CPUE.Analysis of species data indicated that juvenile Lost River suckers may have greater apparent mortality than shortnose suckers. Lost River suckers made up a smaller proportion of age-0

  16. Results of groundwater monitoring and vegetation sampling at Everest, Kansas, in 2009 .

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-05-13

    In April 2008, the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) conducted groundwater sampling for the analysis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the existing network of monitoring points at Everest, Kansas (Argonne 2008). The objective of the 2008 investigation was to monitor the distribution of carbon tetrachloride contamination in groundwater previously identified in CCC/USDA site characterization and groundwater sampling studies at Everest in 2000-2006 (Argonne 2001, 2003, 2006a,b). The work at Everest is being undertaken on behalf of the CCC/USDA by Argonne National Laboratory, under the oversight of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE). The findings of the 2008 investigation were as follows: (1) Measurements of groundwater levels obtained manually and through the use of automatic recorders demonstrated a consistent pattern of groundwater flow - and inferred contaminant migration - to the north-northwest from the former CCC/USDA facility toward the Nigh property, and then west-southwest from the Nigh property toward the intermittent creek that lies west of the former CCC/USDA facility and the Nigh property. (2) The range of concentrations and the areal distribution of carbon tetrachloride identified in the groundwater at Everest in April 2008 were generally consistent with previous results. The results of the 2008 sampling (reflecting the period from 2006 to 2008) and the earlier investigations at Everest (representing the period from 2000 to 2006) show that no significant downgradient extension of the carbon tetrachloride plume occurred from 2000 to 2008. (3) The slow contaminant migration indicated by the monitoring data is qualitatively consistent with the low groundwater flow rates in the Everest aquifer unit estimated previously on the basis of site-specific hydraulic testing (Argonne 2006a,b). (4) The April 2008 and earlier sampling results demonstrate that the limits of the plume have been

  17. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    area (Forest Carbon Portal 2009). From a time-series of Landsat satellite images, Gaveau et al calculate deforestation rates from 1990-2000 and 2000-2006. They apply these annual rates to deforestation probability maps, generated from forest condition in 2006 and six static spatial variables, to predict potential locations of future deforestation through 2030 under three different scenarios: (i) a business-as- usual with no REDD project; (ii) the current 7500 km2 project; and (iii) an extensive 65 000 km2 REDD scheme extending across the Aceh and Sumatra Utara provinces. Gaveau et al's chief contribution is identifying locations where forest carbon projects potentially have the greatest benefits for forest and orangutan conservation. By processing Landsat satellite imagery - now freely available - with relatively few spatial model inputs, this approach also has great potential for widespread application in tropical countries developing historical deforestation baselines. Yet Landsat satellite data also impose limitations for REDD. For example, Gaveau et al are unable to calculate forest degradation, which is highly problematic both to define and detect with Landsat imagery, yet critical especially in Indonesia with extensive logged forests (Curran et al 2004, Ramankutty et al 2007, Asner et al 2006). Nevertheless, Landsat remains one of the most appropriate satellite data products available for countries calculating previous rates of forest change. Assuming that technical roadblocks to REDD are overcome, another challenge surrounds assessing the feasibility of emission reduction scenarios, including those presented by Gaveau et al. Their estimates show that carbon and biodiversity gains would be 6- to 7-fold greater if the pilot project encompassed the 65 000 km2 northern Sumatra region. Yet, developers chose to implement this REDD project across 7500 km2, ~ 10% of Gaveau et al's expanded scenario region. If REDD programs are to be realized across large spatial scales

  18. Relativistic Celestial Mechanics of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopeikin, Sergei; Efroimsky, Michael; Kaplan, George

    2011-09-01

    initio within the relativistic framework presented in the other resolutions (in that regard, there still exist some difficult problems to solve), their relativistic terms are accurate enough for all the current and near-future observational techniques. At that level, the Earth rotation models are consistent with the general relativity framework recommended by the IAU and considered in this book. The chapter presents practical algorithms for implementing the recommended models. The appendices to the book contain a list of astronomical constants and the original text of the relevant IAU resolutions adopted by the IAU General Assemblies in 1997, 2000, 2006, and 2009. Numerous colleagues have contributed to this book in one way or or another. It is a pleasure for us to acknowledge the enlightening discussions which one or more of the authors had on different occasions with Victor A. Brumberg of the Institute of Applied Astronomy (St. Petersburg, Russia); Tianyi Huang and Yi Xie of Nanjing University (China); Edward B. Fomalont of the National Radio Astronomical Observatory (USA); Valeri V. Makarov, William J. Tangren, and James L. Hilton of the US Naval Observatory; Gerhard Schäfer of the Institute of Theoretical Physics (Jena, Germany); Clifford M. Will of Washington University (St. Louis, USA); Ignazio Ciufolini of the Università del Salento and INFN Sezione di Lecce (Italy); and Patrick Wallace, retired from Her Majesty's Nautical Almanac Office (UK). We also would like to thank Richard G. French of Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA); Michael Soffel and Sergei Klioner of the Technical University of Dresden; Bahram Mashhoon of the University of Missouri-Columbia; John D. Anderson, retired from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (USA); the late Giacomo Giampieri, also of JPL; Michael Kramer, Axel Jessner, and Norbert Wex of the Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie (Bonn, Germany); Alexander F. Zakharov of the Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics (Moscow

  19. Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, James; Kharecha, Pushker; Sato, Makiko

    2013-03-01

    decrease in land use emissions during the past decade (Harris et al 2012) could contribute to the decreasing airborne fraction in figure 3, although Malhi (2010) presents evidence that tropical forest deforestation and regrowth are approximately in balance, within uncertainties. Land use change can be only a partial explanation for the decrease of the airborne fraction; something more than land use change seems to be occurring. We suggest that the huge post-2000 increase of uptake by the carbon sinks implied by figure 3 is related to the simultaneous sharp increase in coal use (figure 1). Increased coal use occurred primarily in China and India (Boden et al 2012; BP 2012; see graphs at www.columbia.edu/~mhs119/Emissions/Emis_moreFigs/). Satellite radiance measurements for July-December, months when desert dust does not dominate aerosol amount, yield an increase of aerosol optical depth in East Asia of about 4% yr-1 during 2000-2006 (van Donkelaar et al 2008). Associated gaseous and particulate emissions increased rapidly after 2000 in China and India (Lu et al 2011, Tian et al 2010). Some decrease of the sulfur component of emissions occurred in China after 2006 as wide application of flue-gas desulfurization began to be initiated (Lu et al 2010), but this was largely offset by continuing emission increases from India (Lu et al 2011). We suggest that the surge of fossil fuel use, mainly coal, since 2000 is a basic cause of the large increase of carbon uptake by the combined terrestrial and ocean carbon sinks. One mechanism by which fossil fuel emissions increase carbon uptake is by fertilizing the biosphere via provision of nutrients essential for tissue building, especially nitrogen, which plays a critical role in controlling net primary productivity and is limited in many ecosystems (Gruber and Galloway 2008). Modeling (e.g., Thornton et al 2009) and field studies (Magnani et al 2007) confirm a major role of nitrogen deposition, working in concert with CO2 fertilization