Science.gov

Sample records for 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

  1. An Interim Report on the Student Support Services Program: 2002-03 and 2003-04, with Select Data from 1998-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze

    2007-01-01

    This report describes essential characteristics and key program outcome measures for the Student Support Services (SSS) program grantees and participants in reporting years 2002-03 and 2003-04. The SSS program is designed to increase college persistence and graduation rates for eligible students, increase the transfer rates of eligible students…

  2. The Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate for Public High Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Years 2002-03 and 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-606rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seastrom, Marilyn; Hoffman, Lee; Chapman, Chris; Stillwell, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the averaged freshman graduation rate for public high school students for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 based on data reported by state education agencies to the National Center for Education Statistics. Rates are included for most of the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and three other jurisdictions for both…

  3. Home Education in Pennsylvania 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-04 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,076. The total was comprised of 12,285 males and 11,791 females. This was a decrease of 339 students, or 1.4%, from the 2002-03 total of 24,415. This was the second year (along with 2001-02) that home education enrollments decreased since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  4. Home Education in Pennsylvania, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creason, John, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    The 2002-03 total for home education students in Pennsylvania was 24,415. The total was comprised of 12,377 males and 12,038 females. This was an increase of 512 students from the 2001-02 total of 23,903. Except for 2001-02, the total for Pennsylvania home education students has increased every year since the passage of Act 169 of 1988, which…

  5. "No Child Left Behind" State Education Report, School Year 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State of Hawaii Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document contains statistical information for the following performance targets for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 in the state of Hawaii: (1) reading; (2) mathematics; (3) graduation; and (4) retention. The federal "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) law requires the state to report this information. The state performance of these groups are…

  6. Student Transitions from the Kindergarten to Grade 12 Education System to the Public Post-Secondary System: 2002/03-2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the spring of 2005, the Ministry of Advanced Education on behalf of the 22 Central Data Warehouse participating institutions, the Ministry of Education, and the BC Universities signed an agreement to establish a formal mechanism that protects individual privacy while enabling the exchange of personal information between the parties for the…

  7. Overview and quality assurance for the oral health component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2003-04.

    PubMed

    Dye, B A; Nowjack-Raymer, R; Barker, L K; Nunn, J H; Steele, J G; Tan, S; Lewis, B G; Beltran-Aguilar, E D

    2008-01-01

    The 2003-04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) was a collaborative effort involving 28 federal funding partners with the National Center for Health Statistics. The collaborators for the 2003-04 NHANES oral health component included the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health. Oral health data are available on 8272 persons aged 2 years or older. This report provides an overview of the 2003-04 oral health component including content descriptions and procedures for oral health assessments conducted for the first time in a national survey in the United States. These assessments include posterior functional contacts, tooth wear, and oral health-related quality of life. This report also provides evaluations of data quality in terms of examiner reliability statistics (percent agreements, kappas, and correlation coefficients) for various NHANES 2003-04 oral health examination components and analytical recommendations for producing 6-year estimates using the previous two NHANES data collection components (1999-2000 and 2001-02).

  8. Survey of dental student financial assistance, 2003-04.

    PubMed

    Chmar, Jacqueline E; Weaver, Richard G; Valachovic, Richard W

    2005-11-01

    The Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance reports data collected by the American Dental Education Association on financial assistance to dental students in the academic year 2003-04. Over 90 percent of students at the fifty-one responding dental schools received financial assistance in the form of loans, grants, scholarships and/or work-study programs, with students receiving an average of 43,191 dollars per year. As tuition and fees rose 21.4 percent over the past two years, financial assistance rose 23.1 percent. Both continue to increase at a rate greater than inflation. The primary source of financial assistance was in the form of loans, accounting for nearly 90 percent of the reported financial assistance. Most of the remaining assistance was in the form of obligated or unobligated grants and scholarships, with an increasing share attributable to grants/scholarships with obligations following graduation. As the price of higher education increases, reliance on financial assistance continues to increase, and students graduate with an increasing amount of debt in real and constant dollars.

  9. Survey of dental student financial assistance, 2003-04.

    PubMed

    Chmar, Jacqueline E; Weaver, Richard G; Valachovic, Richard W

    2005-11-01

    The Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance reports data collected by the American Dental Education Association on financial assistance to dental students in the academic year 2003-04. Over 90 percent of students at the fifty-one responding dental schools received financial assistance in the form of loans, grants, scholarships and/or work-study programs, with students receiving an average of 43,191 dollars per year. As tuition and fees rose 21.4 percent over the past two years, financial assistance rose 23.1 percent. Both continue to increase at a rate greater than inflation. The primary source of financial assistance was in the form of loans, accounting for nearly 90 percent of the reported financial assistance. Most of the remaining assistance was in the form of obligated or unobligated grants and scholarships, with an increasing share attributable to grants/scholarships with obligations following graduation. As the price of higher education increases, reliance on financial assistance continues to increase, and students graduate with an increasing amount of debt in real and constant dollars. PMID:16275691

  10. Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance, 2001-02.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Richard G; Haden, N Karl; Valachovic, Richard W

    2004-01-01

    The American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance obtained data by which to report, in aggregate and by type of school, the amount of financial assistance being received by dental students, in the form of loans, grants and scholarships, and work-study programs. Over 90 percent of the dental students received financial assistance through one or more federal, state, and/or school source. The average amount of assistance per student was dollar 35,100, ranging from an average of dollar 27,700 at public dental schools to dollar 51,100 at private dental schools. Loan programs accounted for almost 88 percent of all financial assistance; grants and scholarships, for 12 percent; work-study programs, for 0.2 percent. Overall, financial assistance exceeded average tuition and fees by 102 percent. With such levels of reliance on financial assistance, it remains imperative that students, even at the undergraduate level, receive the counseling, monitoring, and advice that will help them judiciously seek and manage appropriate types and amounts of financial assistance as they obtain their dental education.

  11. 7 CFR 993.409 - Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersized prune regulation for the 2002-03 crop year. 993.409 Section 993.409 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... AGRICULTURE DRIED PRUNES PRODUCED IN CALIFORNIA Undersized Prune Regulation § 993.409 Undersized...

  12. Descriptive Summary of 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students: Three Years Later. NCES 2008-174

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Choy, Susan

    2008-01-01

    This report provides a description of the student characteristics, persistence, and degree attainment of a nationally representative sample of students who began postsecondary education for the first time during the 2003-04 academic year. The report describes the background, academic preparation, and experience of these beginning students over 3…

  13. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  14. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Blumer, S.P.; Crowley, S.L.

    2008-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to collect water-level altitudes (hereafter referred to as water levels) at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships will have continuous water-level recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships will revert to quarterly measurement status. USGS has also provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 23 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 23 quarterly-measured wells is also summarized in the annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for groundwater levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville and Harbor Beach, and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration [NOAA], 2002-04; Danny Costello, NOAA hydrologist, written commun., 2003-04). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period of this study was measured in

  15. Degrees and Certificates Earned, University of Hawaii, Community Colleges, Fiscal Year 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of Institutional Research and Analysis.

    This document presents the data on degrees and certificates earned at the University of Hawaii Community Colleges during fiscal year 2001-02. The data presented are for the following community colleges: (1) Windward; (2) Hawaii; (3) Honolulu; (4) Kapi'olani; (5) Kaua'i; (6) Leeward; and (7) Maui. The data are presented in the format of tables and…

  16. Santa Barbara City College Institutional Effectiveness Annual Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Barbara City Coll., CA.

    This document contains a comprehensive assessment institutional effectiveness at Santa Barbara City College (SBCC), California, during 2001-02. The report is divided into the following seven major areas related to SBCC's mission, function, and resources: (1) Student Learning; (2) Achievement and Development; (3) Student Outreach and Responsiveness…

  17. Racial Discrimination and Ethnic Disparities in Sleep Disturbance: the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Paine, Sarah-Jane; Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Stanley, James

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Research on the relationship between racial discrimination and sleep is limited. The aims of this study were to: (1) examine the independent relationship between ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic position, experience of racial discrimination and self-reported sleep disturbances, and (2) determine the statistical contribution of experience of racial discrimination to ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances. Methods: The study used data from the 2002/03 New Zealand Health Survey, a nationally-representative, population-based survey of New Zealand adults (≥ 15 years). The sample included 4,108 self-identified Māori (indigenous New Zealanders) and 6,261 European adults. Outcome variables were difficulty falling asleep, frequent nocturnal awakenings, and early morning awakenings. Experiences of racial discrimination across five domains were used to assess overall racial discrimination “ever” and the level of exposure to racial discrimination. Socioeconomic position was measured using neighborhood deprivation, education, and equivalized household income. Results: Māori had a higher prevalence of each sleep disturbance item than Europeans. Reported experiences of racial discrimination were independently associated with each sleep disturbance item, adjusted for ethnicity, sex, age group, and socioeconomic position. Sequential logistic regression models showed that racial discrimination and socioeconomic position explained most of the disparity in difficulty falling asleep and frequent nocturnal awakening between Māori and Europeans; however, ethnic differences in early morning awakenings remained. Conclusions: Racial discrimination may play an important role in ethnic disparities in sleep disturbances in New Zealand. Activities to improve the sleep health of non-dominant ethnic groups should consider the potentially multifarious ways in which racial discrimination can disturb sleep. Citation: Paine SJ, Harris R, Cormack D, Stanley J. Racial

  18. Occurrence of Selected Nutrients, Trace Elements, and Organic Compounds in Streambed Sediment in the Lower Chena River Watershed near Fairbanks, Alaska, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Hall, Cassidee C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2002-03, the U.S. Geological Survey collected samples of streambed sediment at 18 sites in the lower Chena River watershed for analysis of selected nutrients, traces elements, and organic compounds. The purpose of the project was to provide Federal, State, and local agencies as well as neighborhood committees, with information for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions in the watershed. The exploratory sampling program included analysis of streambed sediment from the Chena River and Chena Slough, a tributary to the Chena River. Results were compared to streambed-sediment guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and to 2001-02 sediment data from Noyes Slough, a side channel of the lower Chena River. The median total phosphorus concentration in Chena Slough sediment samples, 680 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg), was two orders of magnitude greater than median total phosphorus concentration in Chena River sediment samples of 5.2 mg/kg. Median concentrations of chloride and sulfate also were greater in Chena Slough samples. Low concentrations of nitrate were detected in most of the Chena Slough samples; nitrate concentrations were below method reporting limits or not detected in Chena River sediment samples. Streambed-sediment samples were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, nickel, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceeded probable-effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. Concentrations of arsenic in Chena Slough samples ranged from 11 to 70 mg/kg and concentrations in most of the samples exceeded the probable-effect guideline for arsenic of 17 mg/kg. Arsenic concentrations in samples from the Chena River ranged from 9 to 12 mg/kg. The background level for arsenic in the lower Chena River watershed is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of elevated concentrations of zinc in one sample, and of nickel in two samples

  19. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  20. Financial Aid at California Community Colleges: Pell Grants and Fee Waivers in 2003-04. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Woo, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-04 over half a million students attending the 109 California community colleges received about one billion dollars in financial aid to help meet their college expenses. Nearly all of the aided students received Board of Governors Fee Waivers to cover their enrollment fees. Less than one-half of the aided students also received federal Pell…

  1. School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04. Public-Use Data File Codebook. NCES 2007-333

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izrael, David; deFriesse, Frederick A.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2004) public-use data file codebook contains a list of variables and information about the variables on the SSOCS:2004 public-use data file. Users are provided with weighted and unweighted frequencies for the categorical variables on the file and descriptive statistics for the continuous…

  2. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to Simon Fraser University 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jacy; Chan, Liny; Chuang, Rachel

    2009-01-01

    This report presents data and analysis about students admitted to Simon Fraser University (SFU) who have BC College experience in the period 2003/04 to 2007/08. The first and second sections of the report focus on the profile of students admitted to SFU on the basis of BC College transfer including number of credits transferred, institution…

  3. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  4. State ESEA Title I Participation Information for 2001-02. Final Summary Report 2005. PPSS Doc # 2005-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Beth

    2005-01-01

    This state "Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA)" report summarizes data for the Title I, Part A, Grants to Local Education Agencies (LEAs) program. It provides Title I participation data for 2001-02, prior to the implementation of the "No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB)," and reflects implementation under the prior law, the…

  5. Channel-morphology data for the Tongue River and selected tributaries, southeastern Montana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chase, Katherine J.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed methane exploration and production have begun within the Tongue River watershed in southeastern Montana. The development of coal-bed methane requires production of large volumes of ground water, some of which may be discharged to streams, potentially increasing stream discharge and sediment load. Changes in stream discharge or sediment load may result in changes to channel morphology through changes in erosion and vegetation. These changes might be subtle and difficult to detect without baseline data that indicate stream-channel conditions before extensive coal-bed methane development began. In order to provide this baseline channel-morphology data, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, collected channel-morphology data in 2001-02 to document baseline conditions for several reaches along the Tongue River and selected tributaries. This report presents channel-morphology data for five sites on the mainstem Tongue River and four sites on its tributaries. Bankfull, water-surface, and thalweg elevations, channel sections, and streambed-particle sizes were measured along reaches near streamflow-gaging stations. At each site, the channel was classified using methods described by Rosgen. For six sites, bankfull discharge was determined from the stage- discharge relation at the gage for the stage corresponding to the bankfull elevation. For three sites, the step-backwater computer model HEC-RAS was used to estimate bankfull discharge. Recurrence intervals for the bankfull discharge also were estimated for eight of the nine sites. Channel-morphology data for each site are presented in maps, tables, graphs, and photographs.

  6. Streamflow and Water-Quality Characteristics for Wind Cave National Park, South Dakota, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heakin, Allen J.

    2004-01-01

    A 2-year study of streamflow and water-quality characteristics in Wind Cave National Park was performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the National Park Service. During this study, streamflow and water-quality data were collected for three of the park's perennial streams (Cold Spring, Beaver, and Highland Creeks) from January 2002 through November 2003. The potential influence of parking lot runoff on cave drip within Wind Cave also was investigated by collecting and analyzing several time-dependent samples from a drainage culvert downstream from the parking lot and from Upper Minnehaha Falls inside the cave following a series of simulated runoff events. The primary focus of the report is on data collected during the 2-year study from January 2002 to November 2003; however, data collected previously also are summarized. Losing reaches occur on both Beaver and Highland Creeks as these streams flow across outcrops of bedrock aquifers within the park. No streamflow losses occur along Cold Spring Creek because its confluence with Beaver Creek is located upstream from the outcrop of the Madison aquifer, where most streamflow losses occur. Physical properties, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrates, organic (wastewater) compounds, bottom sediment, and suspended sediment are summarized for samples collected from 2 sites on Cold Spring Creek, 2 sites on Beaver Creek, and 1 site on Highland Creek. None of the constituent concentrations for any of the samples collected during 2002-03 exceeded any of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standards, with the exception of the Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level for pH, which was exceeded in numerous samples from Beaver Creek and Highland Creek. Additionally, the pH values in several of these same samples also exceeded beneficial-use criteria for coldwater permanent fisheries and coldwater marginal fisheries. Water temperature exceeded the coldwater

  7. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  8. Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2002?03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-314

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer; Naum, Julia; Gray, Dell

    2005-01-01

    This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2002-03 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system. Discussion of data is limited to the 50 states and the District of Columbia and excludes the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of…

  9. Sources of phosphorus to the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir, Nevada and California, Water Years 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, Nancy L.; Seiler, Ralph L.

    2004-01-01

    Discharge of treated municipal-sewage effluent to the Carson River in western Nevada and eastern California ceased by 1987 and resulted in a substantial decrease in phosphorus concentrations in the Carson River. Nonetheless, concentrations of total phosphorus and suspended sediment still commonly exceed beneficial-use criteria established for the Carson River by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. Potential sources of phosphorus in the study area include natural inputs from undisturbed soils, erosion of soils and streambanks, construction of low-head dams and their destruction during floods, manure production and grazing by cattle along streambanks, drainage from fields irrigated with streamwater and treated municipal-sewage effluent, ground-water seepage, and urban runoff including inputs from golf courses. In 2000, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with Carson Water Subconservancy District, began an investigation with the overall purpose of providing managers and regulators with information necessary to develop and implement total maximum daily loads for the Carson River. Two specific goals of the investigation were (1) to identify those reaches of the Carson River upstream from Lahontan Reservoir where the greatest increases in phosphorus and suspended-sediment concentrations and loading occur, and (2) to identify the most important sources of phosphorus within the reaches of the Carson River where the greatest increases in concentration and loading occur. Total-phosphorus concentrations in surface-water samples collected by USGS in the study area during water years 2001-02 ranged from <0.01 to 1.78 mg/L and dissolved-orthophosphate concentrations ranged from <0.01 to 1.81 mg/L as phosphorus. In streamflow entering Carson Valley from headwater areas in the East Fork Carson River, the majority of samples exceeding the total phosphorus water-quality standard of 0.1 mg/L occur during spring runoff (March, April, and May) when suspended

  10. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Burke, Kevin P.

    2005-01-01

    to onsite conditions tended to neutralize the acidity of the samples by less than 1.0 microequivalent per liter. Onsite exposure of the sampling bucket appeared to slightly increase the concentration of most of the analytes but not to an extent that was environmentally significant to NADP data users. An interlaboratory-comparison program was used to estimate the analytical variability and bias of the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) during 2002-03. Bias was identified in the CAL data for calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, ammonium, chloride, nitrate, sulfate, hydrogen ion, and specific conductance, but the absolute value of the bias was less than analytical minimum detection limits for all constituents except magnesium, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance. Control charts showed that CAL results were within statistical control approximately 90 percent of the time. Data for the analysis of ultrapure deionized-water samples indicated that CAL did not have problems with laboratory contamination. During 2002-03, the overall variability of data from the NADP/NTN precipitation-monitoring system was estimated using data from three collocated monitoring sites. Measurement differences of constituent concentration and deposition for paired samples from the collocated samplers were evaluated to compute error terms. The medians of the absolute percentage errors (MAEs) for the paired samples generally were larger for cations (approximately 8 to 50 percent) than for anions (approximately 3 to 33 percent). MAEs were approximately 16 to 30 percent for hydrogen-ion concentration, less than 10 percent for specific conductance, less than 5 percent for sample volume, and less than 8 percent for precipitation depth. The variability attributed to each component of the sample-collection and analysis processes, as estimated by USGS quality-assurance programs, varied among analytes. Laboratory analysis variability accounted for approximately 2 percent of the

  11. Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-307

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2003-04 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system, a universe data collection that includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense…

  12. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2003-04. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Ben; Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership, that is, the number of students enrolled at the beginning of the school year) for the 2003-04 school year in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the…

  13. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  14. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  15. Degree Completions in Areas of National Need, 1996-97 and 2001-02. E.D. Tab. NCES 2006-154

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goan, Sarah Krichels; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. Tab focuses on degree completions in academic programs that have been deemed areas of national need by federal legislation. The analysis focuses on completions data from 1996-97 and 2001-02 and examines completions at institutions granting awards of associate's degrees and higher. In particular, it looks at the change in the total number…

  16. Concentrations, and estimated loads and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the Little River basin, Kentucky, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.

    2006-01-01

    Nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, naturally occur but also are applied to land in the form of commercial fertilizers and livestock waste to enhance plant growth. Concentrations, estimated loads and yields, and sources of nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate were evaluated in streams of the Little River Basin to assist the Commonwealth of Kentucky in developing 'total maximum daily loads' (TMDLs) for streams in the basin. The Little River Basin encompasses about 600 square miles in Christian and Trigg Counties, and a portion of Caldwell County in western Kentucky. Water samples were collected in streams in the Little River Basin during 2003-04 as part of a study conducted in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Agriculture. A total of 92 water samples were collected at four fixed-network sites from March through November 2003 and from February through November 2004. An additional 20 samples were collected at five synoptic-network sites during the same period. Median concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment varied spatially and seasonally. Concentrations of nitrogen were higher in the spring (March-May) after fertilizer application and runoff. The highest concentration of nitrite plus nitrate-5.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L)-was detected at the South Fork Little River site. The Sinking Fork near Cadiz site had the highest median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate (4.6 mg/L). The North Fork Little River site and the Little River near Cadiz site had higher concentrations of orthophosphate in the fall and lower concentrations in the spring. Concentrations of orthophosphate remained high during the summer (June-August) at the North Fork Little River site possibly because of the contribution of wastewater effluent to streamflow. Fifty-eight percent of the concentrations of total phosphorus at the nine sites exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended maximum concentration limit of

  17. Concentrations, and estimated loads and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the Little River basin, Kentucky, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.

    2006-01-01

    Nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, naturally occur but also are applied to land in the form of commercial fertilizers and livestock waste to enhance plant growth. Concentrations, estimated loads and yields, and sources of nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate were evaluated in streams of the Little River Basin to assist the Commonwealth of Kentucky in developing 'total maximum daily loads' (TMDLs) for streams in the basin. The Little River Basin encompasses about 600 square miles in Christian and Trigg Counties, and a portion of Caldwell County in western Kentucky. Water samples were collected in streams in the Little River Basin during 2003-04 as part of a study conducted in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Agriculture. A total of 92 water samples were collected at four fixed-network sites from March through November 2003 and from February through November 2004. An additional 20 samples were collected at five synoptic-network sites during the same period. Median concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment varied spatially and seasonally. Concentrations of nitrogen were higher in the spring (March-May) after fertilizer application and runoff. The highest concentration of nitrite plus nitrate-5.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L)-was detected at the South Fork Little River site. The Sinking Fork near Cadiz site had the highest median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate (4.6 mg/L). The North Fork Little River site and the Little River near Cadiz site had higher concentrations of orthophosphate in the fall and lower concentrations in the spring. Concentrations of orthophosphate remained high during the summer (June-August) at the North Fork Little River site possibly because of the contribution of wastewater effluent to streamflow. Fifty-eight percent of the concentrations of total phosphorus at the nine sites exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended maximum concentration limit of

  18. An Assessment of Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, and Stream Ecology in the Cardwell Branch Watershed, Nebraska, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Woodward, Brenda K.; Fry, Beth E.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    An assessment of the 16.3-square-mile Cardwell Branch watershed characterized the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology in 2003-04. The study - performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District - focused on the 7.7-square-mile drainage downstream from Yankee Hill Reservoir. Hydrologic and hydraulic models were developed using the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Engineering Center. Estimates of streamflow and water-surface elevation were simulated for 24-hour-duration design rainstorms ranging from a 50-percent frequency to a 0.2-percent frequency. An initial HEC-HMS model was developed using the standardized parameter estimation techniques associated with the Soil Conservation Service curve number technique. An adjusted HEC-HMS model also was developed in which parameters were adjusted in order for the model output to better correspond to peak streamflows estimated from regional regression equations. Comparisons of peak streamflow from the two HEC-HMS models indicate that the initial HEC-HMS model may better agree with the regional regression equations for higher frequency storms, and the adjusted HEC-HMS model may perform more closely to regional regression equations for larger, rarer events. However, a lack of observed streamflow data, coupled with conflicting results from regional regression equations and local high-water marks, introduced considerable uncertainty into the model simulations. Using the HEC-RAS model to estimate water-surface elevations associated with the peak streamflow, the adjusted HEC-HMS model produced average increases in water-surface elevation of 0.2, 1.1, and 1.4 feet for the 50-, 1-, and 0.2-percent-frequency rainstorms, respectively, when compared to the initial HEC-HMS model. Cross-sectional surveys and field assessments conducted between

  19. Hydrology and Ground-Water Quality in the Mine Workings within the Picher Mining District, Northeastern Oklahoma, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeHay, Kelli L.; Andrews, William J.; Sughru, Michael P.

    2004-01-01

    seepage from the aquifer to downstream portions of Tar Creek was much more likely. Water properties and major-ion concentrations indicate that water in the mining area was very hard, with large concentrations of dissolved solids that increased from areas of presumed recharge toward areas with older ground water. Most of the ground-water samples, particularly those from the airshafts, had dissolved-oxygen concentrations less than 1.0 milligram per liter. Small concentrations of dissolved oxygen may have been introduced during the sampling process. The small dissolved-oxygen concentrations were associated with samples containing large iron concentrations that indicates possible anoxic conditions in much of the aquifer. Ground water in the mining district was dominated by calcium, magnesium, and sulfate. Sodium concentrations tended to increase relative to calcium and magnesium concentrations. Ground-water samples collected in 2002-03 had large concentrations of many trace elements. Larger concentrations of metals and sulfate occurred in ground water with smaller pHs and dissolved-oxygen concentrations. Iron was the metal with the largest concentrations in the ground-water samples, occurring at concentrations up to 115,000 micrograms per liter. Cadmium, lead, manganese, zinc, and the other analyzed metals occurred in smaller concentrations in ground water than iron. However, larger cadmium concentrations appeared to be associated with sites that have small iron concentrations and more oxygenated waters. This is noteworthy because the small sulfate and iron concentrations in these waters could lead to conclusions that the waters are less contaminated than waters with large sulfate and iron concentrations. Ground-water quality in the mining district was compared with subsets of samples collected in 1983-85 and in 2002. Concentrations of most mine-water indicators such as specific conductance, acidity, magnesium, sulfate, and trace elements concentrations dec

  20. Nutrient concentrations in Upper and Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and associated outlet streams, California and Nevada, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lico, Michael S.

    2004-01-01

    Five lakes and their outlet streams in the Lake Tahoe Basin were sampled for nutrients during 2002-03. The lakes and streams sampled included Upper Echo, Lower Echo, Fallen Leaf, Spooner, and Marlette Lakes and Echo, Taylor, and Marlette Creeks. Water samples were collected to determine seasonal and spatial concentrations of dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved ammonia, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved orthophosphate, total phosphorus, and total bioreactive iron. These data will be used by Tahoe Regional Planning Agency in revising threshold values for waters within the Lake Tahoe Basin. Standard U.S. Geological Survey methods of sample collection and analysis were used and are detailed herein. Data collected during this study and summary statistics are presented in graphical and tabular form.

  1. Westerly Wind Events in the Eastern Indian Ocean as a Precursor to El Nino: A Case Study for the 2002-03 El Nino

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Scott; Adler, Robert F.; Huffman, George J.; Gu, Guojun

    2003-01-01

    This paper extends the work of our previous study, which showed the potential of using precipitation in the eastern Indian Ocean to predict when an El Nino would begin. The paper begins by showing the successful prediction of the 2002-03 El Nino. However, precipitation is really used as a substitute for wind (storms are usually accompanied by heavy wind), because a popular hypothesis is that winds (especially % winds out of the West) stir up the ocean surface in the western Pacific sending currents of warm waters to the east Pacific where El Ninos form. This paper shows that it is typical for storms that produce strong winds in the western Pacific to have traveled from the Indian Ocean. We begin in the Indian Ocean looking at strong bursts of wind over several days. The number of windy days seems to increase in the months prior to El Nino. We examined these relationships in detail for November 2001 to April 2002, before the recent El Nino, using NASA's TRMM and QuikSCAT data. We found in one case that a warming of the eastern Indian Ocean occurred about 25 days before heavy rainfall formed. As the stormed moved eastward it was followed (6 days later) by strong winds out of the West. The entire storm system (and warming of the sea) moved eastward through a small strip of water between Indonesia and Australia, before reaching the western Pacific. Thus, this paper increases our understanding of the physical processes leading to the formation of El Nino.

  2. Academic Pathways, Preparation, and Performance: A Descriptive Overview of the Transcripts from the High School Graduating Class of 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2007-316

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planty, Michael; Bozick, Robert; Ingels, Steven J.

    2006-01-01

    This report uses transcript data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:2002) to provide nationally representative information about the level of academic preparation the high school graduating class of 2003-04 had when leaving high school. ELS:2002 is the most recent secondary school longitudinal study conducted by the National Center…

  3. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04. First Look. NCES 2007-302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerino, Paul; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Noonan, Margaret E.; Kaffenberger, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in regular public schools in the United States, using data from the 2003--04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2004). First administered in the 1999--2000 school year, SSOCS provides information about school crime-related topics from the perspective of school administrators. Developed by…

  4. Zonal variations in abundance and body length of chaetognaths in the 140°E seasonal ice zone during the austral summer of 2001/02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terazaki, Makoto; Takahashi, Kunio T.; Odate, Tsuneo

    2013-03-01

    Time-series observations of chaetognaths were carried out during four cruises along the 140°E transect between 61°S and 66°28‧S from November to March in the 2001/02 austral summer. Three species -Eukrohnia hamata, Sagitta gazellae and Sagitta marri - occurred in the samples between 0 and 150 m. E. hamata was the most dominant species comprising between 89.6 and 100% of the chaetognath population, followed by S. gazellae (0-5.7%). There were large differences in the abundance and size frequency distribution of body length of E. hamata between the north and south of the Southern Boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SB-ACC) which was located between 64°S and 65°S. For E. hamata, low abundance and large sized animals (22-24 mm) occurred south of the SB-ACC. A possible reason could be that the breeding season in waters north of the SB-ACC may be early spring and summer. On the other hand, low reproduction was recognized by low the abundance of E. hamata and few occurrences of juveniles south of the SB-ACC (65°S). The result of a general comparison suggests that the abundance of chaetognaths along the 140°E transect has decreased during the 20 years since 1983.

  5. Results of analyses of the fungicide Chlorothalonil, its degradation products, and other selected pesticides at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern states, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Orlando, James L.; Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark; Kuivila, Kathryn M.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, a pesticide study was conducted during 2003-04 to determine the occurrence of the fungicide chlorothalonil and its degradation products at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2003. During the peanut-growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms. An analytical method was developed at the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, to measure chlorothalonil and its degradation products by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Chlorothalonil was detected in 4 of the 113 surface-water samples. The primary degradation product of chlorothalonil, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, was detected in 26 of the 113 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.930 microgram per liter. The chlorothalonil degradation products, 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil and 1,3-diamide-chlorothalonil, were detected in one water sample each at 0.020 and 0.161 microgram per liter, respectively. The USGS Methods and Research Development Group, Lakewood, Colorado, developed a custom method for chlorothalonil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in an effort to achieve a lower laboratory reporting level (LRL) than the USGS National Water-Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedule 2060, which analyzes the compound chlorothalonil at a LRL of 0.035 ?g/L. The group succeeded in achieving a lower GC/MS reporting level of 0.01 ?g/L. Chlorothalonil was detected in 5 of 68 water samples analyzed using the custom GC/MS method, whereas chlorothalonil was detected in 2 of 21 water samples analyzed using NWQL schedule 2060. In addition to analysis of chlorothalonil and its degradation products, samples were analyzed using the USGS NWQL schedules 2001 and 2060 for about 114 pesticides and their degradation products. Samples also were analyzed for

  6. Herbicides and their transformation products in source-water aquifers tapped by public-supply wells in Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Patrick C.; McMillan, William D.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-02, ground-water samples were collected from 117 public-supply wells distributed throughout Illinois to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and their transformation products in the State?s source-water aquifers. Wells were selected using a stratified-random method to ensure representation of the major types of source-water aquifers in the State. Samples were analyzed for 18 herbicides and 18 transformation products, including 3 triazine and 14 chloroacetanilide products. Herbicide compounds (field-applied parent herbicides and their transformation products) were detected in 34 percent of samples. A subset of samples was collected unfiltered to determine if analytical results for herbicides in unfiltered samples are similar to those in paired filtered samples and, thus, can be considered equally representative of herbicide concentrations in ground water supplied to the public. The study by the U.S. Geological Survey was done in cooperation with the Illinois Environmental Protection Agency. Parent herbicides were detected in only 4 percent of all samples. The six most frequently detected herbicide compounds (from 5 to 28 percent of samples) were chloroacetanilide transformation products. The frequent occurrence of transformation products and their higher concentrations relative to those of most parent herbicides confirm the importance of obtaining information on transformation products to understand the mobility and fate of herbicides in ground-water systems. No sample concentrations determined during this study exceeded current (2003) Federal or State drinking-water standards; however, standards are established for only seven parent herbicides. Factors related to the occurrence of herbicide compounds in the State?s source-water aquifers include unconsolidated and unconfined conditions, various hydrogeologic characteristics and well-construction aspects at shallow depths, and proximity to streams. Generally, the closer an aquifer (or well location) is

  7. Precipitation; ground-water age; ground-water nitrate concentrations, 1995-2002; and ground-water levels, 2002-03 in Eastern Bernalillo County, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blanchard, Paul J.

    2004-01-01

    The eastern Bernalillo County study area consists of about 150 square miles and includes all of Bernalillo County east of the crests of the Sandia and Manzanita Mountains. Soil and unconsolidated alluvial deposits overlie fractured and solution-channeled limestone in most of the study area. North of Interstate Highway 40 and east of New Mexico Highway 14, the uppermost consolidated geologic units are fractured sandstones and shales. Average annual precipitation at three long-term National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration precipitation and snowfall data-collection sites was 14.94 inches at approximately 6,300 feet (Sandia Ranger Station), 19.06 inches at about 7,020 feet (Sandia Park), and 23.07 inches at approximately 10,680 feet (Sandia Crest). The periods of record at these sites are 1933-74, 1939-2001, and 1953-79, respectively. Average annual snowfall during these same periods of record was 27.7 inches at Sandia Ranger Station, 60.8 inches at Sandia Park, and 115.5 inches at Sandia Crest. Seven precipitation data-collection sites were established during December 2000-March 2001. Precipitation during 2001-03 at three U.S. Geological Survey sites ranged from 66 to 94 percent of period-of-record average annual precipitation at corresponding National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration long-term sites in 2001, from 51 to 75 percent in 2002, and from 34 to 81 percent during January through September 2003. Missing precipitation records for one site resulted in the 34-percent value in 2003. Analyses of concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 in ground-water samples from nine wells and one spring were used to estimate when the sampled water entered the ground-water system. Apparent ages of ground water ranged from as young as about 10 to 16 years to as old as about 20 to 26 years. Concentrations of dissolved nitrates in samples collected from 24 wells during 2001-02 were similar to concentrations in samples collected from the same

  8. Riparian and Associated Habitat Characteristics Related to Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Responses of Small Streams in Selected Agricultural Areas, United States, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Munn, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical factors, including both in-stream and riparian habitat characteristics that limit biomass or otherwise regulate aquatic biological condition, have been identified by previous studies. However, linking the ecological significance of nutrient enrichment to habitat or landscape factors that could allow for improved management of streams has proved to be a challenge in many regions, including agricultural landscapes, where many ecological stressors are strong and the variability among watersheds typically is large. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were sampled once during 2003-04 for an intensive ecological and nutrients study of small perennial streams in five contrasting agricultural landscapes across the United States to determine how biological communities and ecosystem processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations were determined in stream water at two different sampling times per site and biological samples were collected once per site near the time of habitat characterization. Data for 141 sampling sites were compiled, representing five study areas, located in parts of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware and Maryland), Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, Nebraska, and Washington. This report examines the available data for riparian and associated habitat characteristics to address questions related to study-unit contrasts, spatial scale-related differences, multivariate correlation structure, and bivariate relations between selected habitat characteristics and either stream nutrient conditions or biological responses. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were summarized and categorized into 22 groups of habitat variables, with 11 groups representing land-use and land-cover characteristics and 11 groups representing other riparian or in-stream habitat characteristics. Principal components analysis was used to identify a reduced set of habitat variables that describe most of the variability among the

  9. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2009-01-01

    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  10. Effects of Hardened Low-Water Crossings on Periphyton and Water Quality in Selected Streams at the Fort Polk Military Reservation, Louisiana, 1998-99 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Barbara W.; Bryan, C. Frederick; Lovelace, John K.; Tollett, Roland W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Army Joint Readiness Training Center and Fort Polk, began a follow-up study to determine whether installation and modification of hardened low-water crossings had short-term (less than 1 year) or long-term (greater than 1 year) effects on periphyton or water quality in five streams at the Fort Polk Military Reservation, Louisiana. Periphyton data were statistically analyzed for possible differences between samples collected at upstream and downstream sites and before and after low-water crossings were modified on three streams, Big Brushy Creek, Tributary to East Fork of Sixmile Creek, and Tributary to Birds Creek, during 2003?04. Periphyton data also were analyzed for possible differences between samples collected at upstream and downstream sites on two streams, Tributary to Big Brushy Creek and Little Brushy Creek, during 1998?99 and 2003. Variations in periphyton communities could not be conclusively attributed to the modifications. Most of the significant changes in percent frequency of occurrence and average cell density of the 10 most frequently occurring periphyton taxa were increases at downstream sites after the hardened low-water crossing installations or modifications. However, these changes in the periphyton community are not necessarily deleterious to the community structure. Water-quality data collected from upstream and downstream sites on the five streams during 2003?04 were analyzed for possible differences caused by the hardened crossings. Generally, average water-quality values and concentrations were similar at upstream and downstream sites. When average water-quality values or concentrations changed significantly, they almost always changed significantly at both the upstream and downstream sites. It is probable that observed variations in water quality at both upstream and downstream sites are related to differences in rainfall and streamflow during the sample collection

  11. ARL Supplementary Statistics 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 25%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $228 million on electronic…

  12. Trends in medical and nonmedical immunization exemptions to measles-containing vaccine in Ontario: an annual cross-sectional assessment of students from school years 2002/03 to 2012/13

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Sarah E.; Seo, Chi Yon; Lim, Gillian H.; Fediurek, Jill; Crowcroft, Natasha S.; Deeks, Shelley L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Under Ontario legislation, for select vaccine-preventable diseases nonimmunized or under-immunized students must undergo vaccination or provide a statement of exemption, or risk suspension from school. At the time of this assessment, these diseases included measles, mumps, rubella, diphtheria, tetanus and polio. Methods: Exemptions data for the school years 2002/03 to 2012/13 were obtained from the Immunization Records Information System used in Ontario. Temporal trends were expressed for 7- and 17-year-old students by exemption classification (medical, prior immunity, religious or conscientious belief, total) at the provincial level, by school year and by birth cohort. Regional analysis was conducted for the 2012/13 school year. A temporal trend analysis of exemptions for measles-containing vaccines was performed by using a Poisson distribution with a 2-sided test (α = 5%). Results: For both 7- and 17-year-old students, religious or conscientious exemptions for measles-containing vaccines significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.001 in both age groups), whereas medical exemptions decreased (p < 0.001 in both age groups). The trends were reproduced when examined by birth cohort. The percentage of Ontario students with any exemption classification (total exemptions) remained low (< 2.5%) during the study period, although considerable geographic variation was noted. Interpretation: Ontario data suggest that nonmedical exemptions have increased during the last 11 years, consistent with trends reported elsewhere. The trend toward increasing religious or conscientious exemptions coupled with declining medical exemptions explains why total exemptions have remained stable or decreased at the provincial level. The prominent geographic variability in exemptions suggests that targeted interventions may be suitable for consideration. PMID:26457292

  13. Sources of groundwater based on Helium analyses in and near the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards Aquifer, South-Central Texas, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Andrew G.; Lambert, Rebecca B.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2010-01-01

    This report evaluates dissolved noble gas data, specifically helium-3 and helium-4, collected by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the San Antonio Water System, during 2002-03. Helium analyses are used to provide insight into the sources of groundwater in the freshwater/saline-water transition zone of the San Antonio segment of the Edwards aquifer. Sixty-nine dissolved gas samples were collected from 19 monitoring wells (categorized as fresh, transitional, or saline on the basis of dissolved solids concentration in samples from the wells or from fluid-profile logging of the boreholes) arranged in five transects, with one exception, across the freshwater/saline-water interface (the 1,000-milligrams-per-liter dissolved solids concentration threshold) of the Edwards aquifer. The concentration of helium-4 (the dominant isotope in atmospheric and terrigenic helium) in samples ranged from 63 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature (20 degrees Celsius) and pressure (1 atmosphere) in a well in the East Uvalde transect to 160,587 microcubic centimeters per kilogram at standard temperature and pressure in a well in the Kyle transect. Helium-4 concentrations in the 10 saline wells generally increase from the western transects to the eastern transects. Increasing helium-4 concentrations from southwest to northeast in the transition zone, indicating increasing residence time of groundwater from southwest to northeast, is consistent with the longstanding conceptualization of the Edwards aquifer in which water recharges in the southwest, flows generally northeasterly (including in the transition zone, although more slowly than in the fresh-water zone), and discharges at major springs in the northeast. Excess helium-4 was greater than 1,000 percent for 60 of the 69 samples, indicating that terrigenic helium is largely present and that most of the excess helium-4 comes from sources other than the atmosphere. The helium data of this report cannot be

  14. Surface- and ground-water relations on the Portneuf river, and temporal changes in ground-water levels in the Portneuf Valley, Caribou and Bannock Counties, Idaho, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barton, Gary J.

    2004-01-01

    The State of Idaho and local water users are concerned that streamflow depletion in the Portneuf River in Caribou and Bannock Counties is linked to ground-water withdrawals for irrigated agriculture. A year-long field study during 2001 02 that focused on monitoring surface- and ground-water relations was conducted, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Water Resources, to address some of the water-user concerns. The study area comprised a 10.2-mile reach of the Portneuf River downstream from the Chesterfield Reservoir in the broad Portneuf Valley (Portneuf River Valley reach) and a 20-mile reach of the Portneuf River in a narrow valley downstream from the Portneuf Valley (Pebble-Topaz reach). During the field study, the surface- and ground-water relations were dynamic. A losing river reach was delineated in the middle of the Portneuf River Valley reach, centered approximately 7.2 miles downstream from Chesterfield Reservoir. Two seepage studies conducted in the Portneuf Valley during regulated high flows showed that the length of the losing river reach increased from 2.6 to nearly 6 miles as the irrigation season progressed.Surface- and ground-water relations in the Portneuf Valley also were characterized from an analysis of specific conductance and temperature measurements. In a gaining reach, stratification of specific conductance and temperature across the channel of the Portneuf River was an indicator of ground water seeping into the river.An evolving method of using heat as a tracer to monitor surface- and ground-water relations was successfully conducted with thermistor arrays at four locations. Heat tracing monitored a gaining reach, where ground water was seeping into the river, and monitored a losing reach, where surface water was seeping down through the riverbed (also referred to as a conveyance loss), at two locations.Conveyance losses in the Portneuf River Valley reach were greatest, about 20 cubic feet per second, during the mid-summer regulated

  15. Kindergarten Readiness Survey, 2003-04. Stakeholders' Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Kindergarten Readiness Survey (KRS), using data collected by kindergarten teachers across the state, was determined to be an effective way to measure the effect of preschools and childcare settings preparing students to enter the K-12 education system. This approach allows for a more valid evaluation of programs and accurate assessment of…

  16. Montana Public School Enrollment Data, Fall 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana Office of Public Instruction, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This report gives details about the enrollment statistics of Montana Public Schools for 2003-2004. Sections include: (1) Enrollment Totals By Grade, (2) Data from Annual Data Collection (ADC) 1994-2004, and (3) Enrollment Totals by Racial/Ethnic Origin - October 2003.

  17. Asset Management Plans, Appraisal Guidance for 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Education and Skills, London (England).

    This document is one in a series which aims to assist Local Authorities in Britain with asset management planning (AMPs) for schools. AMPs set out the information needed, and the criteria used, to make decisions about spending on school premises. The document provides guidance on the appraisal of school AMPs in 2002 to inform 3-year formulaic…

  18. Inventory of Physical Facilities of Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report presents the results of the latest in a series of triennial surveys conducted by the Council of Ontario Universities (COU) (Ontario, Canada) in order to monitor the existing university space inventory and changes in space requirements as determined by the COU Building Blocks space formula. Section 1, "Introduction," discusses the…

  19. Sinkhole flooding in Murfreesboro, Rutherford County, Tennessee, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bradley, Michael W.; Hileman, Gregg Edward

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Murfreesboro, Tennessee, conducted an investigation from January 2001 through April 2002 to delineate sinkholes and sinkhole watersheds in the Murfreesboro area and to characterize the hydrologic response of sinkholes to major rainfall events. Terrain analysis was used to define sinkholes and delineate the sinkhole drainage areas. Flooding in 78 sinkholes in three focus areas was identified and tracked using aerial photography following three major storms in February 2001, January 2002, and March 2002. The three focus areas are located to the east, north, and northwest of Murfreesboro and are underlain primarily by the Ridley Limestone with some outcrops of the underlying Pierce Limestone. The observed sinkhole flooding is controlled by water inflow, water outflow, and the degree of the hydraulic connection (connectivity) to a ground-water conduit system. The observed sinkholes in the focus areas are grouped into three categories based on the sinkhole morphology and the connectivity to the ground-water system as indicated by their response to flooding. The three types of sinkholes described for these focus areas are pan sinkholes with low connectivity, deep sinkholes with high connectivity, and deep sinkholes with low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Shallow, broad pan sinkholes flood as water inflow from a storm inundates the depression at land surface. Water overflow from one pan sinkhole can flow downgradient and become inflow to a sinkhole at a lower altitude. Land-surface modifications that direct more water into a pan sinkhole could increase peak-flood altitudes and extend flood durations. Land-surface modifications that increase the outflow by overland drainage could decrease the flood durations. Road construction or alterations that reduce flow within or between pan sinkholes could result in increased flood durations. Flood levels and durations in the deeper sinkholes observed in the three focus areas are primarily affected by the connectivity with the ground-water conduit system. Deep sinkholes with a relatively high connectivity to the ground-water system fill quickly after a storm, and drain rapidly after the storm ends, and water levels decline as much as 3 to 5 feet per day in the first 2 to 3 days after a major storm. These sinkholes store the initial floodwater and then rapidly transmit water to the ground-water conduit system (high outflow). Land-surface changes that direct more water into the sinkhole may increase the flood peaks, but may not have a substantial effect on the flood durations. Deep sinkholes that have low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system may have a delayed peak water level and may drain slowly, only about 2 to 3 feet in 10 days. Outflow from these sinkholes is limited or restricted by low connectivity to the ground-water conduit system. Land-surface alterations that increase the inflow to the sinkholes can result in high flood levels or increased flood durations.

  20. Degrees Conferred: 2001-02 Update. Informational Memorandum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison. Office of Policy Analysis and Research.

    This memorandum contains facts about degrees conferred by institutions in the University of Wisconsin (UW) System in 2001-2002. Overall, the system conferred 28,894 degrees, of which 1,164 were associate degrees and 21,304 were bachelor's degrees. Institutions in the system conferred 5,083 master's degrees, 736 doctoral degrees, and 607…

  1. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR DOMESTIC AND IMPORTED PEANUTS MARKETED IN THE UNITED STATES Reports and Records § 996.75... subsequent crop year peanuts, to 2002-03 and 2001-02 crop year peanuts not yet inspected, or failing...

  2. Public Secondary School Dropouts in Pennsylvania 2003-04. Report to the General Assembly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hruska, Richard A., Comp.

    2005-01-01

    Act 49 of 1987 requires the Secretary of Education to provide the General Assembly with an annual report on public school dropouts in Pennsylvania. The purpose of this report is to document the actual number of students who drop out each year and to provide various characteristics about these students. The type of data collected about each dropout…

  3. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: France--National Description 2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  4. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Malta--National Description 2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  5. Texas Open-Enrollment Charter School Revenue. Supplement to the 2003-04 Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Amanda; Moak, Lynn M.; Shapley, Kelly; Huntsberger, Briana; Maloney, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses funding differences, and the sources of those differences, between charter schools and traditional districts in Texas. The need for this research stems from conflicting reports on charter school revenues and growing concern over the quality of charter school financial data reported through Texas' Public Education Information…

  6. Impact. Volume 16 Number 3 Fall-Winter 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly publication focuses on Achieving Secondary Education and Transition Results for Students with Disabilities. Editorial introduction notes that today's educational systems are being called upon to re-examine how they prepare students with disabilities for adult life. The shift toward greater participation by students with…

  7. Agricultural Chemicals in Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, is part of an Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate study conducted by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality samples were collected in Leary Weber Ditch and in the major hydrologic compartments of the Leary Weber Ditch Basin during 2003 and 2004. Hydrologic compartments that contribute water and agricultural chemicals to Leary Weber Ditch are rain water, overland-flow water, soil water, tile-drain water, and ground water. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides, nutrients, and major ions.

  8. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2003-04. Research Report 1-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiaoyun

    2004-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the thirty-sixth annual Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina. This report covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  9. A Comparison of Outsourcing in Higher Education, 1998-99 and 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L.; Guarino, A J.; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Edwards, Toni L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and extent of outsourcing by higher education institutions, benefits and challenges associated with outsourcing, and the implications of outsourcing for effective management. The principal investigator conducted a national study of outsourcing by four-year colleges and universities at two points in time, 1998-99 and…

  10. Montana School Nutrition Programs Free and Reduced Price Participation Data, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.

  11. How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2005-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in the postsecondary education of Latino students. However, very little comprehensive and easy to understand information is available about what types or how much financial aid Latinos receive. The goal of this brief is to provide timely and accurate information about how Latino undergraduates currently…

  12. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Finland--National Description 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  13. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Norway--National Description 2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  14. Integrating Immigrant Children into Schools in Europe: Austria--National Description 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eurydice, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The national contributions contained in this paper and on the Eurydice website formed the basis for the comparative study on the integration at school of immigrant children in Europe. Each contribution has exactly the same structure with four main sections entitled as follows: (1) National definitions and demographic context of immigration; (2)…

  15. Ohio's Independent Colleges: Transforming Lives, Transforming Communities. Fact File, 2002-03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Ohio, Columbus.

    This "Fact File" provides information about the colleges and universities that are members of the Association of Independent Colleges and Universities of Ohio (AICUO). This organization represents a diverse group of 51 independent, nonprofit institutions of higher education in Ohio. In the fall of 2001, AICUO member institutions enrolled 122,866…

  16. Arsenic in ground water in selected parts of southwestern Ohio, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Mary Ann; Schumann, Thomas L.; Pletsch, Bruce A.

    2005-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 57 domestic wells in Preble, Miami, and Shelby Counties, in southwestern Ohio. The median arsenic concentration was 7.1 ?g/L (micrograms per liter), and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. Thirty-seven percent of samples had arsenic concentrations greater than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water standard of 10 ?g/L. Elevated arsenic concentrations (>10 ?g/L) were detected over the entire range of depths sampled (42 to 221 feet) and in each of three aquifer types, Silurian carbonate bedrock, glacial buried-valley deposits, and glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel. One factor common in all samples with elevated arsenic concentrations was that iron concentrations were greater than 1,000 ?g/L. The observed correlations of arsenic with iron and alkalinity are consistent with the hypothesis that arsenic was released from iron oxides under reducing conditions (by reductive dissolution or reductive desorption). Comparisons among the three aquifer types revealed some differences in arsenic occurrence. For buried-valley deposits, the median arsenic concentration was 4.6 ?g/L, and the maximum was 67.6 ?g/L. There was no correlation between arsenic concentrations and depth; the highest concentrations were at intermediate depths (about 100 feet). Half of the buried-valley samples were estimated to be methanic. Most of the samples with elevated arsenic concentrations also had elevated concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and ammonia. For carbonate bedrock, the median arsenic concentration was 8.0 ?g/L, and the maximum was 30.7 ?g/L. Arsenic concentrations increased with depth. Elevated arsenic concentrations were detected in iron- or sulfate-reducing samples. Arsenic was significantly correled with molybdenum, strontium, fluoride, and silica, which are components of naturally ocurring minerals. For glacial till with interbedded sand and gravel, half of the samples had elevated arsenic concentrations. The median was 11.4 ?g/L, and the maximum was 27.6 ?g/L. At shallow depths (<100 feet), this aquifer type had higher arsenic and iron concentrations than carbonate bedrock. It is not known whether these observed differences among aquifer types are related to variations in (1) arsenic content of the aquifer material, (2) organic carbon content of the aquifer material, (3) mechanisms of arsenic mobilization (or uptake), or (4) rates of arsenic mobilization (or uptake). A followup study that includes solid-phase analyses and geochemical modeling was begun in 2004 in northwestern Preble County.

  17. Water-quality data for Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments, Arizona, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data are provided for four sites in Walnut Canyon and Wupatki National Monuments in north-central Arizona. These data describe the current water quality and provide baseline water-quality information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected from a ground-water seep and well in Walnut Canyon and from a spring and a river in Wupatki during September 2001 to September 2002. Water from the four sites is from four different sources. In Walnut Canyon, Cherry Canyon seep is in a shallow local aquifer, and the Little Colorado River contains ground-water discharge from several aquifers and runoff from a 22,000 square-mile drainage area. Concentrations of dissolved solids were similar within the two monuments; the range for water samples from Walnut Canyon was 203 to 248 milligrams per liter, and the range for water samples from Wupatki was 503 to 614 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of trace elements were generally low in water samples from the three ground-water sites--Cherry Canyon seep, Walnut Canyon headquarters well, and Heiser Spring. The water sample collected from the Little Colorado River, however, had high concentrations of aluminum (4,020 micrograms per liter), antimony (54 micrograms per liter), arsenic (14.3 micrograms per liter), and iron (749 micrograms per liter) relative to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Primary and Secondary Maximum Contaminant Levels. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in water samples from the four sites were generally low (0.11 to 1.8 milligrams per liter) and are within the upper 25 percent of nitrate concentrations measured in the regional aquifer near Flagstaff in 1996 and 1997. Water samples from Cherry Canyon seep, Heiser Spring, and the Little Colorado River contained total coliform bacteria. Fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria were found in water samples from Cherry Canyon seep and the Little Colorado River.

  18. Financial Report of the Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume I: Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on…

  19. Financial Report of Ontario Universities, 2001-02. Volume II: Affiliated and Federated Colleges and Universities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This report contains detailed financial information that provides financial accountability to the Province of Ontario, Canada, for funds received by the 42 provincially assisted universities and colleges during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. It is the latest in an annual series that dates back more than 25 years. This volume contains information on 21…

  20. Modeling Streamflow and Water Temperature in the North Santiam and Santiam Rivers, Oregon, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Annett B.; Roundsk, Stewart A.

    2004-01-01

    To support the development of a total maximum daily load (TMDL) for water temperature in the Willamette Basin, the laterally averaged, two-dimensional model CE-QUAL-W2 was used to construct a water temperature and streamflow model of the Santiam and North Santiam Rivers. The rivers were simulated from downstream of Detroit and Big Cliff dams to the confluence with the Willamette River. Inputs to the model included bathymetric data, flow and temperature from dam releases, tributary flow and temperature, and meteorologic data. The model was calibrated for the period July 1 through November 21, 2001, and confirmed with data from April 1 through October 31, 2002. Flow calibration made use of data from two streamflow gages and travel-time and river-width data. Temperature calibration used data from 16 temperature monitoring locations in 2001 and 5 locations in 2002. A sensitivity analysis was completed by independently varying input parameters, including point-source flow, air temperature, flow and water temperature from dam releases, and riparian shading. Scenario analyses considered hypothetical river conditions without anthropogenic heat inputs, with restored riparian vegetation, with minimum streamflow from the dams, and with a more-natural seasonal water temperature regime from dam releases.

  1. Water-Quality Data for Navajo National Monument, Northeastern Arizona--2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality data are provided for six sites in Navajo National Monument in northeastern Arizona. These data describe the current water quality and provide baseline water-quality information for monitoring future trends. Water samples were collected from six sites near three ancient Indian ruins during September 2001 to August 2002. Two springs and one well near Betatakin Ruin, one spring is near Keet Seel Ruin, and one spring and one stream are near Inspection House Ruin. Water from all the sites is from the N aquifer, a regional sandstone aquifer that is the source of drinking water for most members of the Navajo Nation and Hopi Tribe in northeastern Arizona. Concentrations of dissolved solids, major ions, trace elements, and uranium were low at the six sites. Dissolved-solids concentration ranged from 94 to 221 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of dissolved nitrate (as nitrogen) were generally low (less than 0.05 to 0.92 milligrams per liter) and were within the range of concentrations at other N-aquifer sites within 20 miles of the study area. Water samples from Inscription House Spring, Navajo Creek Tributary (near Inscription House Ruin), and Keet Seel Ruin Spring contained indicators of human or animal wastes--fecal coliform and Escherichia coli bacteria.

  2. The Liversidge Lecture 2001-02. Chemistry amongst the stars: reaction kinetics at a new frontier.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian W M

    2002-05-01

    Over the past decade, experiments in the Universities of Rennes and Birmingham have provided rate constants for over 40 reactions of molecular and atomic radicals with neutral molecules at temperatures down to 13 K using the CRESU (cinétique de réaction en écoulement supersonique uniforme) technique. The demonstration that reactions between electrically neutral species can be extremely rapid at these very low temperatures has excited interest both from theoreticians and from those seeking to understand the chemistry that gives rise to the 120 or so molecules that have been identified as being present in dense interstellar clouds. This laboratory work, and its astrochemical and theoretical contexts, are reviewed here. In addition, I deal briefly with the present limitations of the experiments and how they might be overcome in future work.

  3. Bathymetric mapping, sediment quality, and water quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schnoebelen, Douglas J.; McVay, Jason C.; Barnes, Kymm K.; Becher, Kent D.

    2003-01-01

    Water-quality sampling results indicate areas affected by elevated nutrient and bacteria concentrations in the lake and tributary streams. The tributary streams had the highest median nitrate concentrations (12.1 milligrams per liter) when compared to median nitrate concentrations in the lake (8.7 milligrams per liter) or the Maquoketa River (10.5 milligrams per liter). The maximum nitrate concentrations detected for Maquoketa River, lake, and tributary sites were 13.5, 13.5, and 18.6 milligrams per liter, respectively. Nitrate concentrations in the late summer decreased from 2 Bathymetric Mapping, Sediment Quality, and Water Quality of Lake Delhi, Iowa, 2001–02 the upstream (7.8 milligrams per liter) to the downstream (5.0 milligrams per liter) one-third of Lake Delhi and most likely were the result of uptake of nitrate by algae and aquatic biota in the lake. Median concentrations of total coliform and E. coli bacteria for the lake sites were 450 and 17 colonies per 100 milliliters of sample, respectively. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency criteria for full body contact (swimming or bathing) are 200 colonies per 100 milliliters for fecal bacteria and 126 colonies per 100 milliliters for E. coli bacteria. The highest bacteria concentrations in the lake occurred after a rain and were 25,000 colonies per 100 milliliters total coliform and 1,900 colonies per 100 milliliters E. coli.

  4. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, Vancouver.

    This document provides background information as well as degree completion statistics for Associate Degrees awarded in British Columbia from 1993-1994 to 2001-2002. The Associate Degree is a 2-year academic credential available with an art or science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer initiated the credential in…

  5. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia: 1993/94 to 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2003

    2003-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions. The original curricular requirements, the goal of which were to…

  6. Youth, AIDS, and HIV: Resources for Educators, Policymakers, and Parents, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document provides information about technical assistance and educational materials that can guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention education for school-age youth. It also presents resources that can increase the awareness of those…

  7. Planning Information, University of Hawaii Community Colleges, 1992-93 to 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Institutional Research Office.

    This planning information for the University of Hawaii Community Colleges for 1992-1993 through 2001-2002 consists of a series of tables that provide relevant information about the system and its seven campuses. For the overall system the following information is provided for general education and vocational education courses for the years 1992-93…

  8. Water Quality and Streamflow of the Indian River, Sitka, Alaska, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neal, Edward J.; Brabets, Timothy P.; Frenzel, Steven A.

    2004-01-01

    The Indian River Basin, located near Sitka Alaska, drains an area of 12.3 square miles. This watershed is an important natural resource of Sitka National Historic Park. At the present time, the watershed faces possible development on large tracts of private land upstream of the park that could affect the water quality of Indian River. Due to this concern, a study was conducted cooperatively with the National Park Service. The approach was to examine the water quality of the Indian River in the upper part of the watershed where no development has occurred and in the lower part of the basin where development has taken place. Measurements of pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen concentrations of the Indian River were within acceptable ranges for fish survival. The Indian River is calcium bicarbonate type water with a low buffering capacity. Concentrations of dissolved ions and nutrients generally were low and exhibited little variation between the two study sites. Analysis of bed sediment trace element concentrations at both sampling sites indicates the threshold effect concentration was exceeded for arsenic, chromium, copper, nickel, and zinc; while the probable effect concentration was exceeded by arsenic, chromium and nickel. However, due to relatively large amounts of organic carbon present in the bed sediments, the potential toxicity from trace elements is low. Discharge in the Indian River is typical of coastal southeast Alaska streams where low flows generally are in late winter and early spring and greater flows are during the wetter fall months. Alaska Department of Fish and Game has established instream flow reservations on the lower 2.5 miles of the Indian River. Discharge data indicate minimum flow requirements were not achieved during 236 days of the study period. Natural low flows are frequently below the flow reservations, but diversions resulted in flow reservations not being met a total of 140 days. Thirty-five algae species were identified from the sample collected at Indian River near Sitka while 24 species were identified from the sample collected at Indian River at Sitka. Most species of algae identified in the Indian River samples were diatoms and the majority were pinnate diatoms; however, green algae and (or) blue-green algae accounted for much of the algal biomass at the two sites. The trophic condition of the Indian River is oligotrophic, and algal productivity likely is limited by low concentrations of dissolved nitrogen. Few invertebrate taxa were collected relative to many high-quality streams in the contiguous United States, but the number of taxa in Indian River appears to be typical of Alaska streams. Ephemeroptera was the most abundant order sampled followed by Diptera.

  9. Modelling the Effusive Eruption of Volcan de Colima, Mexico 2001-02

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, N. R.; Gavilanes-Ruiz, J.

    2002-12-01

    Volcan de Colima has produced frequent eruptions during historic times; both effusive, with dome growth and blocky lava flows, and explosive, e.g. the plinian event of 1913. In general, the mechanisms that influence an eruption to change from effusive to explosive or vice versa remain poorly understood. Field measurements and monitoring at Volc n de Colima have allowed the development of a model of its most recent effusive eruption, which started with the formation of a lava dome on 8 May 2001 and continues to the present. Based on physical characteristics, the eruption has been divided into seven phases. Digital models of the different stages of dome growth were used to calculate the volume and the associated extrusion rates. The initial stages included the filling of the large crater, which had been formed by the three major explosions that occurred in 1999, and the smaller inner crater formed by the 22 February 2001 explosion. Later stages followed the over-spilling of the crater rim and the development of several short blocky lava flows with associated rockfalls. The 2001/2 eruption has been characterised by a low rate of effusion (maximum 0.62 m3 s-1). The rate of degassing has been variable, with the flux of SO2 varying from 50 to 900 t d-1. The location and temperature of the summit fumaroles have undergone migration associated with the development of different lobes of the dome. In addition, the seismicity has varied from extremely low levels at the beginning of the eruption, to extended periods of harmonic tremor in May 2002. These parameters, along with temporal geochemical variations within the local spring waters and monitoring of diffuse degassing of CO2 at several locations, have been combined to form a model of this eruption.

  10. Education Cost Study, 2001-02: Higher Education Expenditures for Instruction (State Support Plus Tuition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Higher Education Coordinating Board, Olympia.

    Produced every 4 years by the Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, the "Education Cost Study" provides detailed instructional cost information for the state's public 2-year and 4-year institutions. The cost analysis is based on expenditures drawn from two sources: state appropriations and tuition revenue. By using data gathered from…

  11. Compendium of Statistical and Financial Information: Ontario Universities, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Ontario Universities, Toronto.

    This compendium presents data about aspects of the Ontario University System, Canada. It is a companion to the "Financial Report of Ontario Universities," the annual series of volumes prepared under the auspices of the Council of Financial OfficersUniversities of Ontario (COFO-UO). The Compendium contains supplementary information on Ontario…

  12. Achieving Excellence: The University of Wisconsin System Accountability Report, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ. System, Madison.

    This report presents information about the condition of the University of Wisconsin system (UW) and its progress toward educational excellence. The first section, "Context and Capacity," describes the environment and resources available to the UW system to fulfill its mission as a context for understanding progress on the six goals presented in…

  13. Hydrogeologic and Ground-Water-Quality Data for Belvidere, Illinois, and Vicinity, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, P.C.; Kay, R.T.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents miscellaneous geologic, hydrologic, and ground-water-quality data collected in and near Belvidere, Ill. during May 2001-November 2002. The data were collected for two studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey during 1990-2002, but subsequent to publication of the final interpretive reports for the studies. The cooperative studies with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and Illinois Environmental Protection Agency evaluated the hydrogeology, ground-water-flow system, and distribution of contaminants in the glacial drift and bedrock (primarily Galena-Platteville) aquifers underlying the vicinity of Belvidere, including the Parson?s Casket Hardware Superfund site. Data presented in the report include lithologic descriptions, geophysical logs, water levels, hydraulic characteristics, field-measured characteristics of water quality, and laboratory analyses of volatile organic compounds, major ions, trace elements, nutrients, and herbicides.

  14. National Study of Postsecondary Faculty (NSOPF:04) Field Test Methodology Report, 2004. Working Paper Series. NCES 2004-01

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heuer, R. E.; Cahalan, M.; Fahimi, M.; Curry-Tucker, J. L.; Carley-Baxter, L.; Curtin, T. R.; Hinsdale, M.; Jewell, D. M.; Kuhr, B. D.; McLean, L.

    2004-01-01

    This report describes the methodology and findings of the NSOPF:04 field test that took place during the 2002?03 academic year. The NSOPF:04 field test was used to plan, implement, and evaluate methodological procedures, instruments, and systems proposed for use in the full-scale study scheduled for the 2003-04 academic year. The field test was…

  15. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  16. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  17. Geology and preliminary hydrogeologic characterization of the cell-house site, Berlin, New Hampshire, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Clark, Stewart F.; Harte, Philip T.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    At the cell-house site, thin, generally less than 20-foot thick overburden, consisting of till and demolition materials, overlies fractured crystalline bedrock. Bedrock at the site consists of gneiss with thin discontinuous lenses of chlorite schist and discontinuous tabular pegmatite. Two distinct fracture domains, with principal trends to the west and northwest, and to the north, overlap near the site. The cell-house site shows principal trends common to both domains. Gneiss is the most abundant rock at the site. Steeply dipping fractures within the gneiss terminate on subhorizontal contacts with pegmatite and on moderately dipping contacts with chlorite schist. Steeply northwest-dipping en Echelon fracture zones, parallel joint zones, and silicified brittle faults show consistent strikes to the northeast. Gently east-dipping to subhorizontal fractures, sub-parallel to gneissosity, strike northeast. The impermeable cap, barrier wall, and bedrock surface topography affect ground-water flow in the overburden. There is relatively little ground-water flow in the overburden in the capped area and a poor hydraulic connection between the overburden and the underlying bedrock over most of the site. The overburden beneath the cap may receive inflow through or beneath the barrier wall, or by flow through vertical fractures in the underlying bedrock beneath the barrier wall. The bedrock aquifer near the river is well connected to the river and head difference in the bedrock across the site are large (greater than 13 ft). Horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 0.2 to 20 ft/d were estimated for the bedrock. Individual fractures or fracture zones likely have hydraulic conductivities greater than the bulk rock. Subhorizontal fractures occur at pegmatite contacts or along chlorite schist lenses and may serve as ground-water conduits to the steeply dipping fractures in gneiss. The effective hydraulic conductivity across the site is likely to be in the low range of the estimated values (0.2 ft/d). Ground water discharges to the river from the bedrock aquifer and is greatest during periods of large river stage fluctuations.

  18. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, Jamie P.; Porter, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2003, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,240 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,450 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,790 acre-feet. From 2002 to 2003, total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 4 percent, and municipal withdrawals decreased by 20 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 24 municipal wells in 2004. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.9 percent. Values ranged from -10.9 percent at Forest Lake NTUA 1 to +7.8 percent at Rough Rock NTUA 2. From 2003 to 2004, water levels declined in 6 of 12 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 7 of 11 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -2.7 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -23.2 feet. Median water-level change were -6.1 feet for 14 wells in the unconfined parts of the aquifer and and -72.1 feet for 12 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2003 and once in 2004 at four springs. Discharge stayed the same at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 9 percent at Moenkopi Spring, decreased 26 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and decreased 50 percent at Burro Spring. For the past 12 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2003 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2003 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2003 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2003 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2004, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 100 to 649 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 11 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 2 springs; increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 10 years of data for 2 springs.

  19. The High School Senior Class of 2003-04: Steps toward Postsecondary Enrollment. Issue Tables. NCES 2010-203

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Wu, Joanna; Tasoff, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    Preparing to attend a postsecondary institution often involves many steps. In addition to academic preparation, high school students who plan to pursue postsecondary education must apply for admission to a college. For those who want to attend a 4-year institution, most also need to take a college entrance examination and obtain financial aid…

  20. Occurrence and Distribution of Mercury in the SurficialAquifer, Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Andres, A. Scott; Vrabel, Joseph; Crilley, Dianna M.; Szabo, Zoltan; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.; Reyes-Padro, Betzaida

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, mercury (Hg) was detected (500 nanograms per liter, ng/L, or greater) in the distribution system of the Long Neck Water Company (LNWC), Pot Nets, Delaware. By April 2001, two LNWC production wells had been taken off-line because discharge concentrations of total mercury (HgT) either had exceeded or approached the Federal limit of 2,000 ng/L. From October 2003 through January 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Geological Survey, and Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control conducted a cooperative study to (a) determine if the Hg contamination was widespread, (b) identify possible forms of Hg in ground water, and (c) examine Hg occurrence in relation to (geo)chemical conditions and characteristics of ground water and sediment in the surficial aquifer on the Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware. An initial water-quality survey conducted with samples from 22 production wells revealed that concentrations of HgT in ground water in the surficial aquifer ranged from 0.11 to 1,820 ng/L. Shallow ground water (less than 120 feet below land surface) throughout most of the peninsula, including that which contained elevated concentrations of HgT (exceeding 100 ng/L), appeared to be affected by human activities. All samples contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elevated nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, exceeding 0.4 milligrams per liter, mg/L). Most (16 of 22) samples had elevated specific conductance (SC, in excess of 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). Elevated concentrations of HgT, however, only occurred in five production wells in the Pot Nets Bayside and Lakeside communities. The vertical distribution of HgT in shallow ground water (less than 80 feet below land surface) was determined with samples collected at 5 to 6 vertical-nest short-screened (2 - 5-foot length) monitoring wells installed near Bayside and Lakeside production wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng/L). Elevated concentrations ofHgT (100-6,380 ng/L) occurred in the shallow aquifer near each well at different depths. Chemical analyses of selected soil, fill, and aquifer sediment samples, obtained during the installation of nested wells, indicated that little HgT occurred in soil or fill at either site (40 micrograms per kilogram, ?g/kg, or less). No HgT was detected (less than 20 ?g/kg) in aquifer sediment samples. These low HgT concentrations imply that neither the soil, fill, nor aquifer sediment was a likely source of the elevated Hg in ground water. Given Hg occurrence appeared to be a ground-water transport phenomenon, the forms of Hg in transport were investigated. Differences in HgT concentrations between raw and filtered (0.1- and (or) 0.4-absolute micrometer pore size) samples from nested wells were random in sign and similar in magnitude to the variability in measuring HgT attributed to field and laboratory methods (? 5-10 percent, for HgT concentrations exceeding 100 ng/L). Thus, Hg transport likely occurred in a dissolved or fine-colloidal nonparticulate phase. Methyl mercury (HgMe) only was detected at low concentrations (0.06 ng/L or less) in nested-well samples with low to moderate concentrations of HgT (less than 366 ng/L). Whether HgMe occurred at similar concentrations in samples with high HgT concentrations was unresolved due to a sample-matrix interference problem. Potential complex forms of Hg were investigated in relation to the occurrence of selected ligands (organic carbon, sulfide, and chloride concentrations) and geochemical conditions (for example, pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations). Only dissolved organic carbon (DOC) appeared directly related to Hg occurrence. Elevated concentrations of HgT and DOC co-occurred in ground water at both Pot Nets sites. The average concentration of DOC was about four times greater in samples from the Pot Nets wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng/L) than in most Pot Nets o

  1. Ground-Water Age and Quality in the High Plains Aquifer near Seward, Nebraska, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Landon, Matthew K.; Turco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Seward, Nebraska, conducted a study of ground-water age and quality to improve understanding of: (1) traveltimes from recharge areas to public-supply wells, (2) the effects of geochemical reactions in the aquifer on water quality, and (3) how water quality has changed historically in response to land-use practices. Samples were collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field and from nine monitoring wells along two approximate ground-water flow paths leading to the well field. Concentrations of three different chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and ratios of tritium (3H) to helium-3 (3He) isotope derived from radioactive decay of 3H were used to determine the apparent recharge age of ground-water samples. Age interpretations were based primarily on 3H/3He and CFC-12 data. Estimates of apparent ground-water age from tracer data were complicated by mixing of water of different ages in 10 of the 13 ground-water samples collected. Apparent recharge dates of unmixed ground-water samples or mean recharge dates of young fractions of mixed water in samples collected from monitoring wells ranged from 1985 to 2002. For monitoring-well samples containing mixed water, the fraction of the sample composed of young water ranged from 26 to 77 percent of the sample. Apparent mean recharge dates of young fractions in samples collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field ranged from about 1980 to 1990. Estimated fractions of the samples composed of young water ranged from 39 to 54 percent. It is implicit in the mixing calculations that the remainder of the sample that is not young water is composed of water that is more than 60 years old and contains no detectable quantities of modern atmospheric tracers. Estimated fractions of the mixed samples composed of 'old' water ranged from 23 to 74 percent. Although alternative mixing models can be used to interpret the results, the mean age and mixing fractions from the primary mixing models used were fairly similar. Relations of ground-water age and nitrate concentrations to depth were not consistent across the study area. In some well nests, more young water and nitrate were present near the bottom than in the middle of the aquifer. These results probably reflect pumping from irrigation and supply wells, which are screened primarily in the lower part of the aquifer, and draw younger water downward in the aquifer. Substantial mixing probably occurs because the aquifer is relatively thin (50 feet) and has a relatively high density of wells (about five pumping wells per square mile). The most reliable estimate of horizontal traveltimes based on differences in ground-water ages between a shallow monitoring well at the upgradient end of the northwest well transect and the deep well at the downgradient end of the well transect was 9 years to travel a distance of about 2 miles. The general similarity of ages at similar depths between different well nests is consistent with the fact that horizontal flow in the aquifer is relatively rapid. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in untreated ground-water samples from supply wells in the well field were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), ranging from 11.3 to 13.5 mg/L. It is unlikely that nitrate concentrations in the aquifer near the Seward west well field are decreased by denitrification in the aquifer due to oxic geochemical conditions that preclude this reaction. Nitrate concentrations coupled with water recharge dates were compared to historical estimated fertilizer application in an attempt to reconstruct historical trends in ground-water nitrate concentrations and their relation to land-use practices. Nitrate concentrations in young-water fractions, after adjustment for mixing, may be decreasing over apparent recharg

  2. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  3. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  4. Mercury and Methylmercury in Water and Bottom Sediments of Wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Lundgren, Robert F.; Emerson, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    Certain ecosystem types, particularly wetlands, have environmental characteristics that can make them particularly sensitive to mercury inputs and that can result in large mercury concentrations in fish or other aquatic biota. To provide information needed to make effective management decisions to decrease human and wildlife exposure to methylmercury in northern prairie pothole wetlands, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, conducted a study to assess mercury and methylmercury concentrations in wetlands at the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (the Refuge) in northwest North Dakota. In April 2003 and 2004, water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from 44 individual wetlands that were classified as one of four wetland types. Many factors that may affect methylmercury production were considered in the study. The prairie pothole wetlands at the Refuge had large ranges in major environmental characteristics. Hydrologic differences, most notably semiannual wetting and drying cycles, that are intrinsic to prairie pothole wetlands affected methylmercury concentrations. This likely resulted from the stimulation of anaerobic microbial activity following reflooding of soils, particularly soils containing substantial organic carbon. Among the four wetland types considered for this study, seasonal and semipermanent wetlands generally had the largest methylmercury concentrations. Regardless of wetland type, however, methylmercury concentrations at the Refuge are large in relation to reported concentrations for natural aquatic systems.

  5. U.S. Geological Survey scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica: 2002-03 field season

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meunier, Tony K.; Williams, Richard S.; Ferrigno, Jane G.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) mapping program in Antarctica is one of the longest continuously funded projects in the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). This is the 53rd U.S. expedition to Antarctica in which USGS scientists have participated. The financial support from the National Science Foundation, which extends back to the time of the International Geophysical Year (IGY) in 1956–57, can be attributed to the need for accurate maps of specific field areas or regions where NSF-funded science projects were planned. The epoch of Antarctic exploration during the IGY was being driven by science, and, in a spirit of peaceful cooperation, the international scientific community wanted to limit military activities on the continent to logistical support. The USGS, a Federal civilian science agency in the Department of the Interior, had, since its founding in 1879, carried out numerous field-based national (and some international) programs in biology, geology, hydrology, and mapping. Therefore, the USGS was the obvious choice for these tasks, because it already had a professional staff of experienced mapmakers and program managers with the foresight, dedication, and understanding of the need for accurate maps to support the science programs in Antarctica when asked to do so by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences. Public Laws 85-743 and 87-626, signed in August 1958 and in September 1962, respectively, authorized the Secretary, U.S. Department of the Interior, through the USGS, to support mapping and scientific work in Antarctica. The USGS mapping and science programs still play a significant role in the advancement of science in Antarctica today. Antarctica is the planet's 5th largest continent [13.2 million km2 (5.1 million mi2)], it contains the world's largest (of two) remaining ice sheets, and it is considered to be one of the most important scientific laboratories on Earth. This report provides documentation of USGS scientific activities in the exploration of Antarctica during the 2002–03 field season (Mullins, 2002).

  6. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2004-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2002, total ground-water withdrawals were 8,000 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,640 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,360 acre-feet. From 2001 to 2002, total withdrawals increased by 4 percent, industrial use increased by 2 percent, and municipal use increased by 7 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 32 municipal wells in 2003. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.0 percent. Values ranged from -13.7 percent at Hopi High School no. 2 to +12.9 percent at Shonto PM3. From 2002 to 2003, water levels declined in 5 of 13 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was 0.0 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 13 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.1 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -8.3 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.4 foot for 13 wells in the unconfirned part of the aquifer and -60.3 feet for 13 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2002 and once in 2003 at four springs. Discharge decreased by 16 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 10 percent at Moenkopi Spring and 90 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and did not change at Burro Spring. For the past 11 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2002 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2002 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2002 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2002 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2003, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 118 to 642 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 10 of the wells and from all of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 4 springs; 7 wells had more than 8 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 10 years of data.

  7. Children Entering School Ready To Learn: School Readiness Information. School Year 2002-03 by State and County.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Education, Baltimore.

    As part of efforts to improve services for children from birth to age five, the Maryland Joint Committee on Children, Youth, and Families charged the State Department of Education with identifying and implementing, by school year 2000-01, an early childhood assessment system that would provide baseline information on children entering…

  8. Data on sediment quality and concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls from the Lower Neponset River, Massachusetts, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Cooke, Matthew G.; Merrill, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Executive Office of Environmental Affairs Department of Fish and Game Riverways Program, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, studied sediment and water quality in the lower Neponset River, which is a tributary to Boston Harbor. Grab and core samples of sediment were tested for elements and organic compounds including polyaromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. Physical properties of sediment samples, including grain size, were also measured. Selected sediment-core samples were tested for reactive sulfides and metals by means of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure, which are sediment-disposal-related tests. Water quality, with respect to polychlorinated biphenyl contamination, was determined by testing samples collected by PISCES passive-water-column samplers for polychlorinated biphenyl congeners. Total concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls were calculated by congener and by Aroclor.

  9. Differential Item Functioning of a Family Affluence Scale: Validation Study on Data from HBSC 2001/02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnohr, C. W.; Kreiner, S.; Due, E. P.; Currie, C.; Boyce, W.; Diderichsen, F.

    2008-01-01

    Methodology for making cross-national comparisons is an area of increasing interest in social and public health related research. When studying socio-economic differences in health outcomes cross-nationally, there are several methodological issues of concern, especially when data is derived from self-reported questionnaires. Health Behaviour in…

  10. Concentrations of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, Robert T.; Arnold, Terri L.; Cannon, William F.; Graham, David; Morton, Eric; Bienert, Raymond

    2003-01-01

    Polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds are ubiquitous in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago, Illinois. PAH concentrations in samples collected in June 2001 and January 2002 were typically in the following order from highest to lowest: fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, phenanthrene, benzo(a)pyrene, chrysene, benzo(a)anthracene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, indeno(1,2,3-cd)pyrene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, dibenzo(a,h)anthracene, and anthracene. Naphthalene, acenaphthene, acenaphthylene, and fluorene were consistently at the lowest concentrations in each sample. Concentrations of the PAH compounds showed variable correlation. Concentrations of PAH compounds with higher molecular weights typically show a higher degree of correlation with other PAH compounds of higher molecular weight, whereas PAH compounds with lower molecular weights tended to show a lower degree of correlation with all other PAH compounds. These differences indicate that high and low molecular-weight PAHs behave differentl y once released into the environment. Concentrations of individual PAH compounds in soils typically varied by at least three orders of magnitude across the city and varied by more than an order of magnitude over a distance of about 1,000 feet. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils are affected by a variety of site-specific factors, and may be affected by proximity to industrial areas. Concentrations of a given PAH in ambient surface soils did not appear to be affected the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to non-industrial land use, or proximity to a roadway. The concentration of the different PAH compounds in ambient surface soils appears to be affected by the propensity for the PAH compound to be in the vapor or particulate phase in the atmosphere. Lower molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are primarily in the vapor phase in the atmosphere, were detected in lower concentrations in the surface soils. Higher molecular-weight PAH compounds, which are present primarily in the particulate phase in the atmosphere, tended to be in higher concentrations in the surface soils. The apparent effect of the PAH phase in the atmosphere on the concentration of a PAH in ambient surface soils indicates that atmospheric settling of particulate matter is an important source of the PAH compounds in ambient surface soils in Chicago. The distribution of PAH compounds within the city was complex. Comparatively high concentrations were detected near Lake Michigan in the northern part of the city, in much of the western part of the city, and in isolated areas in the southern part of the city. Concentrations were lower in much of the northwestern, south-central, southwestern, and far southern parts of the city. The arithmetic mean concentration of arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium was from 2 to 6 times higher in ambient surface soils in the city of Chicago than in soils from surrounding agricultural areas. The arithmetic mean concentration of lead in Chicago soils was about 20 times higher. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium above those of surrounding agricultural areas appear to be related to the effects of dolomite bedrock on the chemical composition of the soil. Elevated concentrations of the remaining elements listed above indicate a potential anthropogenic source(s) of these elements in Chicago soils.

  11. ARL Supplementary Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This report presents statistics on how Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member libraries spend money on electronic resources. This report indicates that expenditures for electronic resources account for 19.6%, on average, of ARL institutions' library materials budgets. ARL libraries reported spending more than $171 million on electronic…

  12. ARL Preservation Statistics, 2001-02. A Compilation of Statistics from the Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2003-01-01

    This document presents data from 124 U.S. and Canadian research libraries that were members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) during the 2001-2002 fiscal year. Since 1987-1988, the number of preservation programs managed by a preservation administrator has grown irregularly from 66 to around 80 in more recent years. A fluctuating…

  13. Sediment Characteristics and Configuration within the Otsego City Dam Impoundment on the Kalamazoo River, Michigan, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rheaume, S.J.; Hubbell, D.L.; Rachol, C.M.; Simard, A.; Fuller, L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The removal of the Otsego City Dam on the Kalamazoo River at Otsego, Mich., is under consideration by the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality and the city of Otsego. The historical discharge of papermill waste containing polychlorinated biphenyls from sources upstream from the dam has led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to designate the Kalamazoo River from Morrow Dam near Comstock to its mouth near Saugatuck as a Federal Superfund site. The papermill waste is concentrated in organic sediment and kaolinite clay, with the sediment containing as much as 94 milligrams per kilogram polychlorinated biphenyls. This contaminated sediment could move if the dam is removed; therefore, it is necessary to estimate the characteristics and configuration of the sediment before removal plans begin. Data from augered sections and sediment cores show that the current Otsego City impoundment sediments were deposited in two distinctly different sedimentary environments: (1) lacustrine sediments consisting of organic-rich silt and clay, fine to medium sand, and some gravel deposited in a repetitive, cyclic fashion related to former stream velocities when the Otsego City impoundment water levels were 2-4 feet higher (1880s-1960s), and from downstream movement of lacustrine sediments during the removal of the upstream Plainwell Dam superstructure in the 1980s; and (2) more recent (1980s-2002) coarse-grained alluvium deposited on top of the lacustrine sediments. The volume of instream sediment contained within the Otsego City impoundment is estimated to be about 457,270 cubic yards. This estimate is based on the composite thicknesses of the lacustrine deposits and overlying alluvium, which were determined to contain PCBs, and does not include bank or flood-plain deposits.

  14. Effects of roads and well pads on erosion in the Largo Canyon watershed, New Mexico, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matherne, Anne Marie

    2006-01-01

    Largo Canyon, located in the San Juan Basin of northwestern New Mexico, is one of the longest dry washes in the world. Oil and gas production in the San Juan Basin, which began in the 1940's, required the development of an extensive network of dirt roads to service the oil and gas wells in the Navajo Reservoir area. Presently, there are about eight wells per square mile, and the density of oil and gas wells is expected to increase. Potential environmental effects on landscape stability that may result from the additional roads and well pads have not been documented. In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey began a study in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management to evaluate the effects of roads and well pads associated with oil and gas operations on the erosion potential of Bureau of Land Management lands in the Largo Canyon watershed. The effects of roads and well pads on erosion were quantified by installing sediment dams (dams) and by surveying transects across roads and well pads. Data from 26 dams were used in the analysis. Dams were installed at 43 sites: 21 on hillsides upslope from roads or pads to measure erosion from hillslopes, 11 at the downslope edges of roads to measure erosion from roads, and 11 at the downslope edges of well pads to measure erosion from well pads. Pairs of survey transects were established at nine well pads and two road locations. Sediment-accumulation data for 26 dams, recorded at 17 measurement intervals, indicate that average erosion rates at the dams significantly correlate to size of the contributing area. The average erosion rate normalized by drainage area was 0.001 foot per year below roads, 0.003 foot per year on hillslopes, and 0.011 foot per year below well pads. Results of a two-sample t-test indicate that there was no significant difference in average erosion rates for dams located on hillslopes and below roads, whereas average erosion rates were significantly greater for dams below well pads than for dams on hillslopes and dams below roads. The average erosion rates estimated from the data collected during this study most likely represent minimum erosion rates. Sediment-accumulation data for measurement intervals and for dams that were breached during 2002, resulting from the large volume of runoff generated by high-intensity storms, were not used to compute erosion rates. For this reason, the higher range of erosion rates is underrepresented and the results of this study are biased toward the lower end of the range of erosion rates. Measurements along road transects generally indicate that sediment is eroded from the top of road berms and redeposited at the base of the berms and may be transported downslope along the road. Measurements along well-pad transects generally indicate that sediment eroded from hillslopes is transported over the surface of the well pad and down the well-pad edges. Based on field observations, roads aligned parallel to topographic contours facilitate erosional processes in two ways: (1) roads cut across and collect runoff from previously established drainages and (2) roads, where they are cut into hillsides or into the land surface, provide focal points for the initiation of erosion. Roads aligned across topographic contours can serve as conduits to channel runoff but do not constitute a large percentage of the road network.

  15. Ground-water, surface-water and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona: 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Blakemore E.

    2002-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, and (5) ground-water chemistry. In 2001, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,680 acre-feet, industrial use was 4,530 acre-feet, and municipal use was 3,150 acre-feet. From 2000 to 2001, total withdrawals decreased by 1 percent, industrial use increased by 1 percent, and municipal use decreased by 3 percent. From 2001 to 2002, water levels declined in 5 of 14 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was +0.2 foot. Water levels declined in 12 of 17 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2002, the median water-level change for 32 wells was -15.8 feet. Median water-level changes were -1.3 feet for 15 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer and -31.7 feet for 17 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2001 and once in 2002 at four springs. Discharges decreased by 26 percent and 66 percent at two springs, increased by 100 percent at one spring, and did not change at one spring. For the past 10 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2001 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2001 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2001 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2001 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2002, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 96 to 636 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 8 of the wells and from 3 of the springs had less than 300 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 9 wells and 4 springs; the 9 wells had more than 7 years of data, and the 4 springs had more than 9 years of data.

  16. Quite Good News--For Now: The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamermesh, Daniel S.

    This annual report shows that economically it would seem that faculty members have much about which to be happy. The academic year 2001-2002 was the fifth consecutive year in which the value of the average faculty salary rose, and the one in which academics saw the largest single-year jump in their real (inflation-adjusted) salaries since the…

  17. Revenues and Expenditures by Public School Districts: School Year, 2001-02. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-342

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Common Core of Data (CCD) "School District Finance Survey." These data are collected annually from state education agencies through the U.S. Census Bureau's "Survey of Local Government Finances: School Systems." Data in the "School District Finance Survey" include revenues by source, expenditures by function…

  18. Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Methylmercury Production Potential, and Ancillary Streambed-Sediment and Pore-Water Data for Selected Streams in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.; Orem, William H.; Hall, Britt D.; DeWild, John F.; Brigham, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems is an issue of national concern, affecting both wildlife and human health. Detailed information on mercury cycling and food-web bioaccumulation in stream settings and the factors that control these processes is currently limited. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) conducted detailed studies from 2002 to 2006 on various media to enhance process-level understanding of mercury contamination, biogeochemical cycling, and trophic transfer. Eight streams were sampled for this study: two streams in Oregon, and three streams each in Wisconsin and Florida. Streambed-sediment and pore-water samples were collected between February 2003 and September 2004. This report summarizes the suite of geochemical and microbial constituents measured, the analytical methods used, and provides the raw data in electronic form for both bed-sediment and pore-water media associated with this study.

  19. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 1--A Quantitative Data Analysis of 2003/04 HESA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of the Strand 1 element of the Universities UK project to examine part-time students and part-time study within the United Kingdom. The aim of Strand 1 of this project is to set out, as far as possible, factual information about students studying part-time and following programmes of study leading to higher education…

  20. Getting Ready for College: Financial Concerns and Preparation among the High School Senior Class of 2003-04. Issue Tables. NCES 2010-204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Wu, Joanna; Tasoff, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    With college tuition rising significantly over the past three decades (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009), students and parents have become increasingly concerned about college affordability, financial aid, and financial preparations for postsecondary education. This set of Issue Tables, one of a series examining students' preparation for…

  1. Survey of Programs and Courses Offered in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions, 2003-04 and 2004-05. Annual Report, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the following data: (1) Summary of the Number of Courses and the Number of Students served in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions: 2000-2005; (2) Number of Students Admitted into Out-of-State Programs for 2003-2004 and 2004-2005; (3) Enrollment in Courses Offered in Nebraska by Out-of-State Institutions: Fall 2003-Spring…

  2. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-water inflow to North Lake likely occurs along the southwest and south shores, and along portions of the west, southeast, north, and northeast shores. Relatively cool lake-sediment temperatures along the southwest, south, west, and southeast shores, and in isolated beaver channels along the north and northeast shores of North Lake indicate potential ground-water inflow at these locations. Both localized ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage occurs along portions of the north, northeast, southeast, and south shores, varying seasonally. Conflicting evidence for ground-water flow conditions exist for the northwest and north-northwest pore-water samples. Only minor differences in the major constituent concentrations were seen between the surface-water and pore-water samples from the North Lake area with the exception of iron and manganese concentrations.Ground-water inflow likely takes place along the south-southwest and north shores of Teal Lake, with a mixture of ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage occurring in other areas of the lake. Cooler lake-sediment temperatures occurred along the south-southwest, west, and northwest shores, portions of the north shore, and in channels identified in aerial photographs throughout the lake, indicating potential ground-water inflow at those locations. Warmer lake-sediment temperatures along the northeast and portions of the southwest and northwest shores of Teal Lake indicate potential locations where surface-water outseepage or little ground- and surface-water interaction occurs. The major constituent concentrations were higher in the pore-water samples collected from the south-southwest and northeast shores of Teal Lake, indicating ground-water inflow. Cation adsorption, cation exchanges with hydrogen ions, and chelation with organic materials occurring in t

  3. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2003, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Huh, Seungho; Zhao, Luhua; Levine, Burton; Ginder, Scott; Wang, Jean; Broyles, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) is designed to collect data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization open to the public that has as its primary mission…

  4. STEM in Postsecondary Education: Entrance, Attrition, and Coursetaking among 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students. Web Tables. NCES 2013-152

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Ho, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are widely regarded as critical to the national economy. To provide a nationally representative portrait of undergraduate students' experiences in STEM education, these Web Tables summarize longitudinal data from a cohort of first-time, beginning students who started postsecondary…

  5. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Locale Code File: School Year 2003-04. Version 1a. NCES 2006-332

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geverdt, Douglas; Phan, Tai

    2006-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) Nonfiscal surveys consist of data submitted annually by state education agencies (SEAs) to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). School, local education agency, and state data are sent to NCES by SEA personnel who are designated CCD Coordinators. The data are edited and maintained in machine-readable…

  6. Ground-Water Quality Beneath Irrigated Cropland of the Northern and Southern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska and Texas, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    A study of the quality of ground water beneath irrigated cropland was completed for the northern and southern High Plains aquifer. Ground-water samples were collected from 30 water-table monitoring wells in the northern agricultural land-use (NAL) study area in Nebraska in 2004 and 29 water-table monitoring wells in the southern agricultural land-use (SAL) study area in Texas in 2003. The two study areas represented different agricultural and hydrogeologic settings. The primary crops grown in the NAL study area were corn and soybeans, and the primary crop in the SAL study area was cotton. Overall, pesticide and fertilizer application rates were larger in the NAL study area. Also, precipitation and recharge rates were greater in the NAL study area, and depths to water and evapotranspiration rates were greater in the SAL study area. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated cropland was different in the two study areas. Nitrate concentrations were larger and pesticide detections were more frequent in the NAL study area. Nitrate concentrations in NAL samples ranged from 1.96 to 106 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen, with a median concentration of 10.6 mg/L. Water in 73 percent of NAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. Most of the pesticide compounds detected (atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, simazine, and degradates of those pesticides) are applied to corn and soybean fields. Nitrate concentrations in SAL samples ranged from 0.96 to 21.6 mg/L, with a median of 4.12 mg/L. Water in 24 percent of SAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. The pesticide compounds detected were deethylatrazine (a degradate of atrazine and propazine), propazine, fluometuron, and tebuthiuron. Most of the pesticides detected are applied to cotton fields. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in the SAL area and were positively correlated with both nitrate and chloride concentrations, suggesting a combination of human and natural sources. Dissolved-solids concentrations in NAL samples ranged from 272 to 2,160 mg/L, with a median of 442 mg/L, and dissolved solids in SAL samples ranged from 416 to 3,580 mg/L, with a median of 814 mg/L.

  7. "You Can Only Get a Degree!" Theoretically Situating the Alterations to the Back to Education Allowance Welfare to Education Programme of 2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the Back to Education Allowance (BTEA) as a mechanism of social inclusion for Irish welfare recipients through participation in third-level education. The article is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative interviews with third-level students on the BTEA, and key informants. The article…

  8. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

  9. Land-atmosphere fluxes of methane and carbon dioxide at Siberian polygonal tundra - new data from 2009 in comparison to data from 2003/04 and 2006.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, Peter; Wille, Christian; Sachs, Torsten; Pfeiffer, Eva-Maria; Kutzbach, Lars

    2010-05-01

    The fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) between wet arctic polygonal tundra and the atmosphere were investigated by the eddy covariance method and empirical modeling. The study site is situated in the Lena River Delta in Northern Siberia (72° 22' N, 126° 30' E) and is characterized by a polar and distinctly continental climate, very cold and ice-rich permafrost, and its position at the interface between the Eurasian continent and the Arctic Ocean. The soils at the site are characterized by high organic matter content, low nutrient availability and pronounced water logging. The vegetation is dominated by sedges and mosses. Flux measurements were performed during one 'synthetic' growing season consisting of the periods July - October 2003 and May - July 2004, one full growing season in 2006 (June - September), and during July - August in 2009. The main carbon exchange processes - gross photosynthesis, ecosystem respiration, and CH4 emissions - were generally found to be of low intensity. Over the 2004/2003 growing season (June - September), these gas fluxes accumulated to -0.43 kg m-2, +0.33 kg m-2, and +2 g m-2, respectively. CH4 emissions from June - September 2006 were 1.96 g m-2 with highest emissions in July (+0.57 g m-2) and August (+0.64 g m-2). Day-to-day variations of photosynthesis were mainly controlled by radiation and hence by the synoptic weather conditions. Variations of ecosystem respiration were best explained by an exponential function of surface temperature, which indicates that plant respiration plays a major role within the tundra carbon balance. The factors controlling CH4 emissions were found to be soil temperature and near-surface atmospheric turbulence. The influence of atmospheric turbulence was attributed to the high coverage of open water surfaces in the tundra. For the 2003- 2004 period, winter fluxes were modeled based on functional relationships found in the measured data. On an annual basis, CH4 emissions accounted for 14 % of the annual ecosystem carbon balance. Considering the global warming potential of CH4, the tundra was an effective greenhouse gas source. Comparison of data from 2003-2004 and 2006 showed a difference of only a few percent between the CH4 fluxes measured. In this work, we present new analyses of CO2 and CH4 flux data from 2009 in order to assess interannual variability in the greenhouse gas balance of the polygonal tundra.

  10. Environmental and Biological Data of the Nutrient Enrichment Effects on Stream Ecosystems Project of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Munn, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began the process of developing regional nutrient criteria for streams and rivers. In response to concerns about nutrients by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program began studying the effects of nutrient enrichment on agricultural stream ecosystems to aid in the understanding of how nutrients affect the biota in agricultural streams. Streams within five study areas were sampled either in 2003 or 2004. These five study areas were located within six NAWQA study units: the combined Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) and Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain Drainages (GAFL), Central Columbia Plateau?Yakima River Basin (CCYK), Central Nebraska Basins (CNBR), Potomac River?Delmarva Peninsula (PODL), and the White-Miami River Basin (WHMI). Data collected included nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and other chemical parameters, biological samples (chlorophyll, algal assemblages, invertebrate assemblages, and some fish assemblages), stream habitat, and riparian and basin information. This report describes and presents the data collected from these study areas.

  11. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of general water-flow directions in lake watersheds and how they may change seasonally can help water-quality specialists and lake managers address a variety of water-quality and aquatic habitat protection issues for lakes. Results from this study indicate that ground-water and surface-water interactions at the study lakes are complex, and the ability of the applied techniques to identify ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage locations varied among the lakes. Measurement of lake-sediment temperatures proved to be a reliable and relatively inexpensive reconnaissance technique that lake managers may apply in complex settings to identify general areas of ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage.

  12. Simulation of Constituent Transport in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, During Unsteady-Flow Conditions, 1977 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation identified eight water-supply alternatives for the Red River Valley Water Supply Project. Of those alternatives, six were considered for this study. Those six alternatives include a no-action alternative, two in-basin alternatives, and three interbasin alternatives. To address concerns of stakeholders and to provide information for an environmental impact statement, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, developed and applied a water-quality model to simulate the transport of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, sodium, and total phosphorus during unsteady-flow conditions and to simulate the effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and the Sheyenne River. The physical domain of the model, hereinafter referred to as the Red River model, includes the Red River from Wahpeton, North Dakota, to Emerson, Manitoba, and the Sheyenne River from below Baldhill Dam, North Dakota, to the confluence with the Red River. Boundary conditions were specified for May 15 through October 31, 2003, and January 15 through June 30, 2004. Measured streamflow data were available for August 1 through October 31, 2003, and April 1 through June 30, 2004, but water-quality data were available only for September 15 through 16, 2003, and May 10 through 13, 2004. The water-quality boundary conditions were assumed to be time invariant for the entire calibration period and to be equal to the measured value. The average difference between the measured and simulated streamflows was less than 4 percent for both calibration periods, and most differences were less than 2 percent. The average differences are considered to be acceptable because the differences are less than 5 percent, or the same as the error that would be expected in a typical streamflow measurement. Simulated total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations generally were less than measured concentrations for both calibration periods. The average absolute differences generally were less than 25 percent. Total phosphorus was simulated as a nonconservative constituent by assuming that concentrations change according to a first-order decay rate. The average difference between the measured and simulated total phosphorus concentrations was 6.2 percent for the 2003 calibration period and -24 percent for the 2004 calibration period. The Red River model demonstrates sensitivity to changes in boundary conditions so a reasonable assumption is that the model can be used to compare relative effects of the various water-supply alternatives. The calibrated Red River model was used to simulate the effects of the six water-supply alternatives by using measured streamflows for September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977, when streamflows throughout the Red River Basin were relatively low. Streamflows for the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, were less than 17.9 cubic feet per second on 159 days of that 12-month period, and monthly average streamflows for the Red River at Grand Forks, North Dakota, and the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, were less than 30 percent of the respective long-term average monthly streamflows for 11 of the 12 months during September 1976 through August 1977. Water-quality boundary conditions were generated using a stochastic approach in which probability distributions derived from all available historical data on instream concentrations were used to produce daily concentrations at model boundaries. Return flow concentrations were estimated from source concentrations and current (2006) wastewater-treatment technology. Because no historical information on ungaged local inflow constituent concentrations is available to estimate those boundary conditions, time-invariant concentrations for the low-flow 2003 calibration period were used as the ungaged local inflow boundary conditions. The effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and

  13. Simulation of conservative-constituent transport in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2005-01-01

    Population growth along with possible future droughts in the Red River of the North (Red River) Basin will create an increasing need for reliable water supplies. Therefore, as a result of the Dakota Water Resources Act of 2000, the Bureau of Reclamation identified eight water-supply alternatives (including a no-action alternative) to meet future water needs in the basin. Because of concerns about the possible effects of the alternatives on water quality in the Red River and the Sheyenne River and in Lake Winnipeg, Manitoba, the Bureau of Reclamation needs to prepare an environmental impact statement that describes the specific environmental effects of each alternative. To provide information for the environmental impact statement, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, conducted a study to develop and apply a water-quality model, hereinafter referred to as the Red River water-quality model, to part of the Red River and the Sheyenne River to simulate conservative-constituent transport in the Red River Basin. The Red River water-quality model is a one-dimensional, steady-state flow and transport model for selected constituents in the Red River and the Sheyenne River. The model simulates the flow and transport of total dissolved solids, sulfate, and chloride during steady-state conditions. The physical model domain includes the Red River from the confluence of the Bois de Sioux and Otter Tail Rivers to the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, and the Sheyenne River from above Harvey, N. Dak., to the confluence with the Red River. The Red River water-quality model was calibrated and tested using data collected at 34 sites from September 15 through 16, 2003, and from May 10 through 13, 2004. Water-quality samples were collected during low, steady-flow conditions from September 15 through 16, 2003, and during medium, unsteady-flow conditions from May 10 through 13, 2004. The simulated total dissolved-solids, sulfate, and chloride concentrations generally were within 5 percent of the measured concentrations. The Red River water-quality model was used to simulate conservative-constituent transport in the Red River and the Sheyenne River for the eight water-supply alternatives identified by the Bureau of Reclamation. For the first set of eight simulations, September 2003 streamflows were used with projected 2050 return flows and withdrawals. For the second set of eight simulations, the September 2003 streamflows were reduced by 25 percent. The simulated concentrations for three of the alternatives generally were lower than for the no-action alternative. Of those alternatives, one would result in a decrease in concentrations for two constituents, one would result in a decrease in concentrations for all three constituents, and one would result in a decrease in concentrations for one constituent and an increase in concentrations for another constituent. For four of the alternatives, the differences between the mean simulated concentrations were less than calibration errors, indicating the effects of those alternatives on water quality in the rivers is uncertain. The effects of reduced streamflow on simulated total dissolved-solids, sulfate, and chloride concentrations were greatest for alternative 2. Reduced streamflow probably has an effect on simulated total dissolved-solids concentrations for alternatives 2, 3, 5, and 7 and on simulated sulfate concentrations for alternatives 2 and 5. Except for alternative 2, reduced streamflow had little effect on simulated chloride concentrations.

  14. Distance Education Courses for Public Elementary and Secondary School Students. 2002-03. E.D. Tab. NCES 2005-010.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzer, J. Carl; Lewis, Laurie

    2005-01-01

    Nontraditional methods of instructional delivery at the postsecondary level, such as Technology based distance education course offerings, have been a topic of considerable attention and debate. To date, however, no nationally representative study has examined technology based distance education availability, course offerings, and enrollments in…

  15. Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides in snow and lake sediment in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, and Glacier National Park, Montana, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mast, M. Alisa; Foreman, William T.; Skaates, Serena V.

    2006-01-01

    Organochlorine compounds and current-use pesticides were measured in snow and lake-sediment samples from Rocky Mountain National Park in Colorado and Glacier National Park in Montana to determine their occurrence and distribution in high-elevation aquatic ecosystems. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, collected snow samples at eight sites in Rocky Mountain National Park and at eight sites in Glacier National Park during spring of 2002 and 2003 just prior to the start of snowmelt. Surface sediments were collected from 11 lakes in Rocky Mountain National Park and 10 lakes in Glacier National Park during summer months of 2002 and 2003. Samples were analyzed for organochlorine compounds by gas chromatography with electron-capture detection and current-use pesticides by gas chromatography with electron-impact mass spectrometry. A subset of samples was reanalyzed using a third instrumental technique (gas chromatography with electron-capture negative ion mass spectrometry) to verify detected concentrations in the initial analysis and to investigate the presence of additional compounds. For the snow samples, the pesticides most frequently detected were endosulfan, dacthal, and chlorothalonil, all of which are chlorinated pesticides that currently are registered for use in North America. Concentrations of these pesticides in snow were very low, ranging from 0.07 to 2.36 nanograms per liter. Of the historical-use pesticides, hexachlorobenzene, dieldrin, and trans-nonachlor were detected in snow but only in one sample each. Annual deposition rates of dacthal, endosulfan, and chlorothalonil were estimated at 0.7 to 3.0 micrograms per square meter. These estimates are likely biased low because they do not account for pesticide deposition during summer months. For the lake-sediment samples, DDE (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethene) and DDD (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyldichoroethane) were the most frequently detected organochlorine compounds. DDE and DDD are degradation products of DDT (p,p'-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), which is a well-documented, persistent organochlorine insecticide that has been banned from use in the United States since 1972. Detected concentrations were very low, ranging from 0.12 to 4.7 micrograms per kilogram, and probably pose little threat to aquatic organisms in park lakes. DDD and DDE concentrations in a sediment core from Mills Lake in Rocky Mountain National Park indicate that atmospheric deposition of DDT and possibly other banned organochlorine compounds to high-elevation parks has been in decline since the 1970s. Commonly detected current-use pesticides in lake sediments included dacthal and endosulfan sulfate, which ranged in concentrations from 0.11 to 0.26 micrograms per kilogram for dacthal and 0.12 to 1.2 micrograms per kilogram for endosulfan sulfate. Both compounds were found in nearly all the snow samples, confirming that some current-use pesticides entering high-elevation aquatic ecosystems through atmospheric deposition are accumulating in lake sediments and potentially in aquatic biota.

  16. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-312

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership) in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions (Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense schools, Puerto Rico, and four outlying areas: American Samoa, Guam,…

  17. Report on the Implementation of the "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" in the States and Outlying Areas for School Year 2002-03

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray-Adams, Karen; Sinclair, Beth

    2006-01-01

    The "Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994" ("GFSA") was reauthorized by Section 4141 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA) as amended by the "No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act of 2001" (Public Law 107-110). "GFSA" requires that each state or outlying area receiving federal funds under the ESEA have a law that requires all local…

  18. Evaluation of hydrologic conditions and nitrate concentrations in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer, Salinas, Puerto Rico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, Jose M.

    2006-01-01

    A ground-water quality study to define the potential sources and concentration of nitrate in the Rio Nigua de Salinas alluvial fan aquifer was conducted between January 2002 and March 2003. The study area covers about 3,600 hectares of the coastal plain within the municipality of Salinas in southern Puerto Rico, extending from the foothills to the Caribbean Sea. Agriculture is the principal land use and includes cultivation of diverse crops, turf grass, bioengineered crops for seed production, and commercial poultry farms. Ground-water withdrawal in the alluvial fan was estimated to be about 43,500 cubic meters per day, of which 49 percent was withdrawn for agriculture, 42 percent for public supply, and 9 percent for industrial use. Ground-water flow in the study area was primarily to the south and toward a cone of depression within the south-central part of the alluvial fan. The presence of that cone of depression and a smaller one located in the northeastern quadrant of the study area may contribute to the increase in nitrate concentration within a total area of about 545 hectares by 'recycling' ground water used for irrigation of cultivated lands. In an area that covers about 405 hectares near the center of the Salinas alluvial fan, nitrate concentrations increased from 0.9 to 6.7 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 1986 to 8 to 12 milligrams per liter as nitrogen in 2002. Principal sources of nitrate in the study area are fertilizers (used in the cultivated farmlands) and poultry farm wastes. The highest nitrogen concentrations were found at poultry farms in the foothills area. In the area of disposed poultry farm wastes, nitrate concentrations in ground water ranged from 25 to 77 milligrams per liter as nitrogen. Analyses for the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate were used to distinguish the source of nitrate in the coastal plain alluvial fan aquifer. Potential nitrate loads from areas under cultivation were estimated for the principal crops in the area. The load estimates ranged from 18 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for sorghum crops to 430 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen for turf-grass farms. Potential nitrate load from poultry farm wastes and from communities with septic tanks were estimated at about 580 and 47 kilograms per hectare per year as nitrogen, respectively. Results obtained from the analyses of the stable isotope ratios of nitrogen-15/nitrogen-14 in nitrate samples indicated that the high nitrate concentrations are from poultry wastes near the foothills, whereas artificial fertilizers were estimated to contribute between 39 to 97 percent of the total nitrate in the central part of the alluvial fan.

  19. ARL Statistics 2002-03: A Compilation of Statistics from the One Hundred and Twenty-Three Members of the Association of Research Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This document is the latest in a series of annual publications that describe collections, staffing, expenditures, and service activities for the 123 members of the Association of Research Libraries (ARL). Of these, 113 are university libraries, the remaining 10 are public, governmental, and nonprofit research libraries. Data reported by member…

  20. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2002-03. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-353

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason

    2005-01-01

    The data on public elementary and secondary education in this document are collected and reported each year by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES), U.S. Department of Education. The data are part of the "National Public Education Financial Survey" (NPEFS), one of the components of the Common Core of Data (CCD) collection of…

  1. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - MILWAUKEE WORM DRIVE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP{number_sign}: 2001-02, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-05

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw was assessed on August 14, 2001. During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Milwaukee worm drive circular saw is a hand-held tool with a 7 1/4-inch diameter circular blade for cutting wood. The saw contains a fixed upper and a retractable lower blade guard to prevent access to the blade during use. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch; and is supported with a handgrip mounted on top of the saw. An adjustable lever sets the depth of cut. The retractable blade guard permits blind or plunge cuts and protects from blade access during shutdown and blade coast. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible when using this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool. Personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was near the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) while the other was at the Action Level with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. Air sampling was performed while the workers dismantled the fiberglass-reinforced crates. The total nuisance dust sample for the Milwaukee circular saw was 36.07 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is much higher than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis void due to the overloading of the filter. The PEL for fiberglass is 1 fiber per cubic centimeter (f/cc).

  2. Engaging the Demons. Report on a Collaboration between English Faculty of Baldwin High School and Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, Georgia: 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carriere, Peter M.; Smith, Melissa

    A collaborative project between Georgia College and State University (GC&SU) and Baldwin High School (BHS) in Milledgeville, Georgia, had as its initial goals: to provide an opportunity for two-way mentoring between the GC&SU's Arts and Sciences faculty and BHS's English faculty; to improve curriculum alignment; to establish realistic expectations…

  3. System Performance on Partnership for Excellence Goals: District and College Data for 1999-00, 2000-01, and 2001-02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Community Colleges, Sacramento. Office of the Chancellor.

    This is the fifth in a series of reports that present information specific to California Community Colleges' Partnership for Excellence performance goals. The primary purpose of the report is to convey data included in the Management Information System (MIS) on systemwide, district, and college performance related to the 5 Partnership goals for…

  4. Developments in School Finance, 2001-02. Fiscal Proceedings from the Annual State Data Conferences of July 2001 and July 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The papers collected for this volume were selected from the fiscal proceedings of the 2001 and 2002 conferences of the National Center for Education Statistics. They represent current research in public-school education finance. The papers are as follows: "What We Know and What We Need to Know About Vouchers and Charter Schools" (Brian P. Gill,…

  5. Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B): Methodology Report for the 9-Month Data Collection (2001-02). Volume 2: Sampling. NCES 2005-147

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethel, James; Green, James L.; Nord, Christine; Kalton, Graham; West, Jerry

    2005-01-01

    This report is Volume 2 of the methodology report that provides information about the development, design, and conduct of the 9-month data collection of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, Birth Cohort (ECLS-B). This volume begins with a brief overview of the ECLS-B, but focuses on the sample design, calculation of response rates, development…

  6. Diffusion and drive-point sampling to detect ordnance-related compounds in shallow ground water beneath Snake Pond, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.

    2003-01-01

    Diffusion samplers and temporary drive points were used to test for ordnance-related compounds in ground water discharging to Snake Pond near Camp Edwards at the Massachusetts Military Reservation, Cape Cod, MA. The contamination resulted from artillery use and weapons testing at various ranges upgradient of the pond.The diffusion samplers were constructed with a high-grade cellulose membrane that allowed diffusion of explosive compounds, such as RDX (Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine) and HMX (Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine), into deionized water inside the samplers. Laboratory tests confirmed that the cellulose membrane was permeable to RDX and HMX. One transect of 22 diffusion samplers was installed and retrieved in August-September 2001, and 12 transects with a total of 108 samplers were installed and retrieved in September-October 2001. The diffusion samplers were buried about 0.5 feet into the pond-bottom sediments by scuba divers and allowed to equilibrate with the ground water beneath the pond bottom for 13 to 27 days before retrieval. Water samples were collected from temporary well points driven about 2-4 feet into the pond bottom at 21 sites in December 2001 and March 2002 for analysis of explosives and perchlorate to confirm the diffusion-sampling results. The water samples from the diffusion samplers exhibited numerous chromatographic peaks, but evaluation of the photo-diode-array spectra indicated that most of the peaks did not represent the target compounds. The peaks probably are associated with natural organic compounds present in the soft, organically enriched pond-bottom sediments. The presence of four explosive compounds at five widely spaced sites was confirmed by the photo-diode-array analysis, but the compounds are not generally found in contaminated ground water near the ranges. No explosives were detected in water samples obtained from the drive points. Perchlorate was detected at less than 1 microgram per liter in two drive-point samples collected at the same site on two dates about 3 months apart. The source of the perchlorate in the samples could not be related directly to other contamination from Camp Edwards with the available information. The results from the diffusion and drive-point sampling do not indicate an area of ground-water discharge with concentrations of the ordnance-related compounds that are sufficiently elevated to be detected by these sampling methods. The diffusion and drive-point sampling data cannot be interpreted further without additional information concerning the pattern of ground-water flow at Snake Pond and the distributions of RDX, HMX, and perchlorate in ground water in the aquifer near the pond.

  7. Reconnaissance of surface-water and ground-water quality at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City, Indiana, 2001-02

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buszka, Paul M.; Fowler, Kathleen K.

    2005-01-01

    In cooperation with the National Park Service, the U.S. Geological Survey investigated water quality of key water bodies at the Lincoln Boyhood National Memorial near Lincoln City in southwestern Indiana. The key water bodies were a stock pond, representing possible nonpoint agricultural effects on water quality; an ephemeral stream, representing the water quality of drainage from forested areas of the park; parking-lot runoff, representing water quality related to roads and parking lots; an unnamed ditch below the parking lot, representing the water quality of drainage from the parking lot and from an adjacent railroad track; and Lincoln Spring, a historical ground-water source representing ground-water conditions near a former diesel-fuel-spill site along a rail line. Water samples were analyzed for pH, temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and for concentrations of selected major ions and trace metals, nutrients, organic constituents, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Surface-water-quality data of water samples from the park represent baseline conditions for the area in relation to the data available from previous studies of area streams. Specific-conductance values and concentrations of most major ions and various nutrients in surface-water samples from the park were smaller than those reported for samples collected in other USGS studies in areas adjacent to the park. Water-quality-management issues identified by this investigation include potentially impaired water quality from parking-lot runoff, unknown effects on surface-water quality from adjacent railroads, and the potential impairment of water quality in Lincoln Spring from human influences. Parking-lot runoff is a source of calcium, alkalinity, iron, lead, and organic carbon in the water samples from the unnamed ditch. Detection of small concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons in water from Lincoln Spring could indicate residual contamination from a 1995 diesel-fuel spill and cleanup. The concentration of nitrite plus nitrate in water from Lincoln Spring was 16.5 milligrams per liter as nitrogen, greater than the State of Indiana standard for nitrate in drinking water (10 milligrams per liter as nitrogen). Lead concentrations in samples from the stock pond, parking-lot runoff, and the unnamed ditch exceeded the Indiana chronic aquatic criteria.

  8. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2001, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2001-02. E.D. Tabs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Wu, Shiying; Huh, Seungho; Levine, Burton; Broyles, Susan G.

    This report presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) winter 2001-2002 data collection that included both race and gender information for staff employed in fall 2001 and salaries and fringe benefits of full-time instructional faculty for academic year 2001-2002. Data were collected through a Web-based data…

  9. An Investigation of the Six-Year Persistence/Attainment of Independent Students and Students Beginning in Community Colleges, 2003-04--2008-09: A Closer Look at Academic and Social Integration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruot, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of college students, particularly through credential attainment, is of importance to many stakeholders in higher education, including policymakers, taxpayers, parents and students. This dissertation study used longitudinal data nationally representative of higher education institutions and students, the National Center for…

  10. Ground-water hydrology and water quality of the southern high plains aquifer, Melrose Air Force Range, Cannon Air Force Base, Curry and Roosevelt Counties, New Mexico, 2002-03

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Langman, Jeff B.; Gebhardt, Fredrick E.; Falk, Sarah E.

    2004-01-01

    In cooperation with the U.S. Air Force, the U.S. Geological Survey characterized the ground-water hydrology and water quality at Melrose Air Force Range in east-central New Mexico. The purpose of the study was to provide baseline data to Cannon Air Force Base resource managers to make informed decisions concerning actions that may affect the ground-water system. Five periods of water-level measurements and four periods of water-quality sample collection were completed at Melrose Air Force Range during 2002 and 2003. The water-level measurements and water-quality samples were collected from a 29-well monitoring network that included wells in the Impact Area and leased lands of Melrose Air Force Range managed by Cannon Air Force Base personnel. The purpose of this report is to provide a broad overview of ground-water flow and ground-water quality in the Southern High Plains aquifer in the Ogallala Formation at Melrose Air Force Range. Results of the ground-water characterization of the Southern High Plains aquifer indicated a local flow system in the unconfined aquifer flowing northeastward from a topographic high, the Mesa (located in the southwestern part of the Range), toward a regional flow system in the unconfined aquifer that flows southeastward through the Portales Valley. Ground water was less than 55 years old across the Range; ground water was younger (less than 25 years) near the Mesa and ephemeral channels and older (25 years to 55 years) in the Portales Valley. Results of water-quality analysis indicated three areas of different water types: near the Mesa and ephemeral channels, in the Impact Area of the Range, and in the Portales Valley. Within the Southern High Plains aquifer, a sodium/chloride-dominated ground water was found in the center of the Impact Area of the Range with water-quality characteristics similar to ground water from the underlying Chinle Formation. This sodium/chloride-dominated ground water of the unconfined aquifer in the Impact Area indicates a likely connection with the deeper water-producing zone. No pesticides, explosives, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, organic halogens, or perchlorate were found in water samples from the Southern High Plains aquifer at the Range.

  11. Salaries and Wages Paid Professional and Support Personnel in Public Schools, 2001-02. A Reference Tool for School Administrators [and] Education Leaders. National Survey of Salaries and Wages in Public Schools. 29th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Alicia R.; Protheroe, Nancy; Parks, Michael C.

    This annual survey presents salary and wage data on 23 professional and 10 support positions in the following categories: central office administrators, school building-level personnel, classroom teachers, auxiliary professional personnel, and support personnel. The positions selected represent the full scope of public-school employment. The data…

  12. Element Abundances in the Galactic Cosmic Rays with Atomic Number (Z) in the Interval 30 is less than or equal to Z is less than or equal to 40

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barbier, Louis; Binns, W. R.; Christian, E.; deNolfo, G.; Geier, S.; Israel, M. H.; Link, J. T.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Mitchell, J.; Rauch, B. F.

    2004-01-01

    We present new results on the elemental abundances of galactic cosmic rays with atomic number, Z, greater than 30, and comparison of these observations with abundances expected from galactic propagation of various suggested models of the cosmic-ray source. We combine preliminary results from the 2003-04 flight of the Trans-Iron Galactic Element Recorder (TIGER) cosmic-ray detector with previously reported results from the 2001-02 flight. This instrument flew over Antarctica for nearly 32 days at a mean atmospheric depth of 5.2 mb in December 2001 - January 2002. At the time of submission of this abstract, January 8, 2004, TIGER was again in the air over Antarctica having completed 22 days of an expected 30day flight at a mean atmospheric depth of about 4 nb, Data from the first flight demonstrated excellent resolution of individual elements, and we expect similar resolution from the second flight.

  13. Ice velocities on the front of Amery Ice Shelf, East Antarctica, from static GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shengkai; E, Dongchen; Wang, Zemin

    2006-10-01

    The Lambert Glacier-Amery Ice Shelf (LAS) system is the largest glacier-ice-shelf system in East Antarctica, the Amery Ice Shelf (AIS) and its tributaries drain ice from the LAS system. During the austral summer season of 2002/03, the 19th Chinese National Antarctica Research Expedition (CHINARE) carried out the first expedition on the Amery Ice Shelf and set up 7 GPS sites, During the austral summer season of 2003/04, the 20th Chinese National Antarctica Research Expedition (CHINARE) cooperated with Australian National Antarctica Research Expedition (ANARE) visited the Amery Ice Shelf again, 5 GPS sites were reoccupied. The GPS data were processed using the GAMIT/GLOBK software, and the surface ice velocities was calculated. Results show that surface horizontal velocities at the 5 GPS sites at the front of the Amery Ice Shelf vary between 900m/y and 1600m/y. Such studies are fundamental to improving our knowledge of the Antarctic ice sheet mass balance and dynamical models of ice/ocean interaction.

  14. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  15. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives. PMID:20688680

  16. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  17. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  18. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  19. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  20. 7 CFR 989.401 - Payments for services performed with respect to reserve tonnage raisins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 31: Provided, That handlers holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on August 1...: Provided, That persons holding 2002-03 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless reserve raisins on September 13,...

  1. Monitoring of Structural Components and Water Balance as AN Aid to Wetland Management Using Geospatial Techniques - a Case Study for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. V. R.; Panigrahy, S.

    2011-09-01

    The hydrologic variability greatly influences the structural components of wetlands that have a great bearing on habitats for avifauna, aquatic fauna including fish etc. This paper highlights the results of a study carried out to derive changes in open-water and vegetation, and also water balance for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat. MODIS 8-day composite data for three consecutive years viz 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 were used to study the seasonal and inter annual dynamics of water regime in the lake. Digital elevation model derived using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data with interpolated bottom topography was used to generate elevation contours and compute water volume from water spread data. The reference data of 2002 (drought year) shows the maximum extent of wetland to be 8.06 km2 with emergent vegetation of recorded as 2.36 km2 and open-water as 5.70 km2. The rainfall has an impact on the preferred habitat availability for various species of avifauna and it is noted that emergent vegetation present in the lake completely dried up by summer 2002, a rainfall deficit year but revived again in the preceding year i.e. 2003 which was a good rainfall year with 46.68 km2 under emergent vegetation and 61.96 km2 under open-water. The 2002 being a drought year has shown very low reference storage (0.256 MCM), which has shown a gradual decrease in the storage to 0.00019 MCM in March 2003. The reference storage also registered a steep increase to 18.165 MCM in October 2003 and decreased 1.264 MCM in March 2004. From this study it is evident that water level of about 9 m elevation at the end of the rainy season is found to be optimal for maintaining various habitats that in turn support the avifauna for the rest of the lean period.

  2. Comparison and Relative Utility of Inequality Measurements: As Applied to Scotland’s Child Dental Health

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Yvonne I.; McMahon, Alex D.; Macpherson, Lorna M. D.

    2013-01-01

    This study compared and assessed the utility of tests of inequality on a series of very large population caries datasets. National cross-sectional caries datasets for Scotland’s 5-year-olds in 1993/94 (n = 5,078); 1995/96 (n = 6,240); 1997/98 (n = 6,584); 1999/00 (n = 6,781); 2002/03 (n = 9,747); 2003/04 (n = 10,956); 2005/06 (n = 10,945) and 2007/08 (n = 12,067) were obtained. Outcomes were based on the d3mft metric (i.e. the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth). An area-based deprivation category (DepCat) measured the subjects’ socioeconomic status (SES). Simple absolute and relative inequality, Odds Ratios and the Significant Caries Index (SIC) as advocated by the World Health Organization were calculated. The measures of complex inequality applied to data were: the Slope Index of Inequality (absolute) and a variety of relative inequality tests i.e. Gini coefficient; Relative Index of Inequality; concentration curve; Koolman & Doorslaer’s transformed Concentration Index; Receiver Operator Curve and Population Attributable Risk (PAR). Additional tests used were plots of SIC deciles (SIC10) and a Scottish Caries Inequality Metric (SCIM10). Over the period, mean d3mft improved from 3.1(95%CI 3.0–3.2) to 1.9(95%CI 1.8–1.9) and d3mft = 0% from 41.1(95%CI 39.8–42.3) to 58.3(95%CI 57.8–59.7). Absolute simple and complex inequality decreased. Relative simple and complex inequality remained comparatively stable. Our results support the use of the SII and RII to measure complex absolute and relative SES inequalities alongside additional tests of complex relative inequality such as PAR and Koolman and Doorslaer’s transformed CI. The latter two have clear interpretations which may influence policy makers. Specialised dental metrics (i.e. SIC, SIC10 and SCIM10) permit the exploration of other important inequalities not determined by SES, and could be applied to many other types of disease where ranking of morbidity

  3. Students and Teachers Exploring Live the Limits of Life on Earth with a Nasa/seti Expedition to the Highest Lakes on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrol, N. A.; Grigsby, B. H.

    2004-12-01

    Bolivia and is the location of one of the least explored lakes in the world. K-12 educators played a key roll in the development and implementation of curriculum for this project. In 2002, a teacher accompanied the scientific team to the summit to document their research for the benefit of all k-12 educators both as the exploration occurs and as an ongoing educational enquiry. The virtual field experience was funded through an IDEAS (The Initiative to Develop Education through Astronomy and Space Science) grant. The 2002-03, and 2003-04 virtual field experience can be found at: http://www.extremeenvironment.com.

  4. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  5. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  6. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in New Jersey. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 108

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes enrollment and achievement trends of limited English proficient (LEP) students in New Jersey public schools between 2002/03 and 2008/09. It documents achievement gaps between LEP and general education students in language arts literacy and math. The study's main findings include: (1) From 2002/03 to 2008/09, LEP student…

  7. WCTC Graduate Follow-Up Report, 2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waukesha County Technical Coll., Pewaukee, WI.

    This paper reports on a survey of 2001-02 graduates of Waukesha County Technical College (WCTC), Wisconsin. The report indicates 1,257 students were awarded Associate's Degrees, technical diplomas, and apprenticeship certificates by WCTC in 2001-02. Of those graduates, 702 (56%) responded to the Graduate Follow-up Survey. Also, 84% of all…

  8. The State of Funding School Facilities' Needs in the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sielke, Catherine C.

    2002-01-01

    Investigates variations in state funding programs for school building needs. Includes table of 2001-02 primary state aid programs for school facilities. Also describes use of local voter-approved bond issues to fund local school construction. Includes table of 2001-02 state bond programs, debt limits, and state aid for debt. Discusses emerging…

  9. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2003-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2003-04-01 2003-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE....55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall be issued...

  10. 20 CFR 726.315 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2003-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2003-04-01 2003-04-01 false Contents. 726.315 Section 726.315 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... Penalties § 726.315 Contents. Any petition or cross-petition for review shall: (a) Be dated; (b)...

  11. Meeting the Demand for Future Dental School Faculty: Trends, Challenges, and Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haden, N. Karl; Weaver, Richard G.; Valachovic, Richard W.

    2002-01-01

    Presents data from the American Dental Education Association's 2001-02 survey of vacant budgeted faculty positions and examines challenges likely to exacerbate faculty shortages in the immediate future. (EV)

  12. Changes of Soil-Water-Plants relationships at abandoned field hillslopes along a pluviometric gradient in the South of Spain.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Martinez Murillo, J. F.

    2009-04-01

    . Final results shows the direct dependence of the soil water content from the rainfall events, as it is usual in Mediterranean. The presence of a period of drought (2004-06) during the monitoring let us to observe the incidence of reduction in the rainfall volumes. 2002-03 and 2003-04 years registered normal volumes of rainfalls and the soil water content followed the climatic gradient of the region: a decrease with the reduction of the rainfalls. Oppositely, during 2004-05 and 2005-06 years, the drought period, it was observed a significant reduction of soil water content for all hillslopes along the pluviometric gradient, although the effects were more evident at the hillslope in transition between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions. The lack of water into the soil caused the reduction of water available for vegetation. This led to a change in the vegetation pattern under different climatic conditions: a decrease in vegetal cover, the number of plants, and herbaceous growth; and an increase in the bare soil exposed to raindrop impacts and runoff. Hence, decreases in soil moisture content causes changes in the vegetal cover that could reduce the organic matter supply making soil aggregates more unstable with reduced soil permeability and water supply for vegetation, enhancing a positive feedback process of degradation. The observed changes related to increasing aridity during the drought period will lead the hillslopes eco-geomorphological system towards a more unstable equilibrium and special attention must be given to areas between sub-humid and semi-arid conditions because they could be used as sensitive indicators of the ecogeomorphological system responses in the Climate Change context.

  13. Changes in Storm Flow as a Result of Direct Seed Farming Practices on the Columbia Plateau Semiarid Croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J. D.

    2004-12-01

    Mass cultivation of the prairie and shrubland-steppe on the Columbia Plateau began in the 1880's. This region is characterized by very fertile, highly erodible silt-loam soils, developed on steep slopes over Miocene basalts. Early farming practices led to excessive soil loss; lower cropland productivity, fouled in-stream habitat for andronomous and non-andronomous salmonids and eels, and deposition of sediment in first, second, and third order channels that continues to migrate down stream during storm runoff events. Sixty years of soil and water conservation efforts have slowed soil loss from fields. Presently much of the sediment moved during stormflow originates from stream bank erosion, although the annual development of rills in many fields is still observed. To quantify the continuing contribution of sediment to streams, and to evaluate the effectiveness of direct seed farming practices to soil and water conservation, four first order drainages, and one hillslope were instrumented with flumes, weirs, and storm sediment samplers. The area of instrumented drainages and hillslope were, respectfully, 25.0, 18.1, 10.0, and 6.1 ha, and a 25 percent hillslope of 1.6 ha. The 6.1 ha drainage was managed using fallow and inversion tillage practices. In October 2002, the crop stubble was fall burned and the soil was inverted using a moldboard plow; the following spring and summer the drainage was field cultivated and rod-weeded three times to control weeds and prepare the seed bed for winter wheat in October 2003. All other drainages, and the hillslope site, were farmed using direct seed technology consisting of one pass using a direct seed drill to seed and fertilize the crop, one pass to harvest the crop, one pass to break-up crop stubble, and multiple passes to spray herbicides for weed control. Total crop year precipitation for 2002-03 and 2003-04 was 10 percent lower and 15 percent higher, respectively, than the long-term average, representing typical winter

  14. FY 2004 Energy Use and Recommended Energy Conservation Measures--Environmental Technology and National Security Buildings at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Norman J.; Hadley, Donald L.; Routh, Richard M.

    2006-06-14

    This revision adds additional information to the original study of the differences in 2003-04 energy usage between PNNL's ETB and NSB. The original PNNL report (PNNL-15535) of this study was published in Dec. 2005.

  15. CCSF Management Plan, 2002/2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    City Coll. of San Francisco, CA.

    This is the 2001-2002 management plan for the City College of San Francisco (CCSF), California. The plan contains the following sections: (1) Overview of Planning and Budgeting; (2) Vision, Values, and Mission; (3) College Goals and Strategic Priorities; (4) Annual Institutional Plan CCSF 2002-03; (5) College Core Performance Indicators; and (6)…

  16. 76 FR 6575 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE Systems (Operations) Limited Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-07

    ... under AD number 002-06-2000, requiring repetitive Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) crack inspections on the..., which was published in the Federal Register on July 7, 2010 (75 FR 38953). That earlier NPRM proposed to supersede AD 2002- 03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002), to require actions intended...

  17. 76 FR 31459 - Airworthiness Directives; BAE SYSTEMS (OPERATIONS) LIMITED Model BAe 146 and Avro 146-RJ Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... under AD number 002-06-2000, requiring repetitive Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) crack inspections on the... was published in the Federal Register on February 7, 2011 (76 FR 6575), and proposed to supersede AD 2002-03-10, Amendment 39-12651 (67 FR 6855, February 14, 2002). That NPRM proposed to correct an...

  18. Investigating Characteristics that Typify Engineering, Computer and Biological Sciences Graduates, the Differences that Occur among and between these Disciplines and the General Population of SUS Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micceri, Theodore

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this exercise was to determine whether any of the available demographic or academic variables show distinct trends in three specific discipline areas that differ from those of other areas: (1) Engineering, (2) Computer Sciences, and (3) Biological Sciences. Using data from 39,087 SUS graduates in 2002-03 and of 324,164 science…

  19. The Medium-Term Labor Market Returns to Community College Awards: Evidence from North Carolina. A CAPSEE Working Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belfield, Clive; Liu, Yuen Ting; Trimble, Madeline Joy

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine the relative labor market gains for first-time college students who enrolled in the North Carolina Community College System in 2002-03. The medium-term returns to diplomas, certificates, and degrees are compared with returns for students who accumulated college credits but did not graduate. The authors also…

  20. Statewide Educational Accountability Systems under the NCLB Act: A Report on 2009 and 2010 Amendments to State Plans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erpenbach, William J.

    2011-01-01

    The conclusion of the 2010-11 school year will mark nine plus years since enactment of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB). Throughout this period, numerous states--sometimes almost every one--have annually sought to amend the educational accountability systems they first developed as "workbooks" in 2002-03, consistent with the law's…

  1. What Works Clearinghouse Quick Review: "Better Schools, Less Crime?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effect of public school choice on adult crime and school-based outcomes. Prior to the 2002-03 school year, the Charlotte-Mecklenberg school district switched from forced desegregation to a district-wide open enrollment lottery. This study focuses on more than 2,000 male students in grades 6-11 who participated in the subset…

  2. Changes in the Cost of Energy in One State's School Districts. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 088

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cymrot, Donald J.; Martinez, Miguel; Jones, Joseph F.

    2010-01-01

    To support the work of Tennessee's Energy Efficient Schools Initiative (EESI) Council, this report describes data on energy expenditures in school districts for 2002/03-2007/08. Energy expenditures rose from about 2.6 percent to about 3.0 percent of total expenditures over the period, with some differences in the mix of energy types and…

  3. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 69

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking 8th grade algebra increased from less than half to nearly 90%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just six age cohorts. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  4. WWC Review of the Report “Better Schools, Less Crime?” What Works Clearinghouse Single Study Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2013

    2013-01-01

    The study reviewed in this paper examined the effect of school choice on the criminal activity, academic achievement, and high school graduation rate of more than 2,000 male middle and high school students in North Carolina’s Charlotte-Mecklenburg school district. For the 2002-03 school year, all district students were given the choice to either…

  5. Teaching for Understanding: Harvard Comes to Pennell Elementary. A Teacher Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fluellen, Jerry E., Jr.

    During the 2002-03 school year, one Philadelphia fifth grade class developed a core curriculum designed to teach every child the 21st century basic skills: the ability to think, learn, and create. This effort was a pilot for a rigorous Harvard University based program to develop proficiency for each child in a mixed ability classroom of 29…

  6. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies. Fifth Annual Report, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    This document, prepared by an Arizona State University education research unit, provides profiles of 47 educational-management organizations (EMOs) for 2002-03. The report begins with a description of the structure of the educational management industry and a discussion of the pros and cons of EMOs. This edition (fifth annual report) divides EMOs…

  7. Writing Changes in the Nation's K-12 Education System. Research Notes RN-34

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noeth, Richard J.; Kobrin, Jennifer L.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to learn whether there have been any changes in writing instruction across K-12 education in the past three years. A three-year time frame was chosen to structure the study as it included the time period subsequent to the College Board's first announcement of the SAT writing section (the 2002-03 academic year). The…

  8. West Virginia's Progress toward Universal Prekindergarten. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  9. West Virginia's Progress Toward Universal Prekindergarten. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 070

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavalluzzo, Linda; Clinton, Yvette; Holian, Laura; Marr, Linda; Taylor, Lydotta

    2009-01-01

    The report examines rates of participation in West Virginia's universal, voluntary prekindergarten (PreK) program from 2002-03 to 2006-07. It describes the share of seats provided by collaborative partners and public school systems and analyzes participation rates by demographic and socioeconomic subgroup and county characteristics. Reported…

  10. Third-Grade Retention in 2004. Research Brief. Volume 0404

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froman, Terry; Luzon-Canasi, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Beginning in the 2002-03 school year, the revised Florida School Code required 3rd grade students to demonstrate reading proficiency by scoring at level 2 or higher on the reading portion of the Florida Comprehensive Assessment Test (FCAT). If not, the student must be retained, unless exempted from mandatory retention for special circumstances…

  11. Prekindergarten Participation Rates in West Virginia. REL Technical Brief. REL 2012-No. 021

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geraghty, Thomas M.; Holian, Laura; Gyekye, Adwoa

    2012-01-01

    In 2009, in response to concerns of state policymakers, Regional Educational Laboratory Appalachia published "West Virginia's progress toward universal prekindergarten" (Cavalluzzo et al. 2009), which covered school years 2002/03-2006/07. This follow-up brief updates that report with data for 2007/08-2010/11. It compares the shares of preK seats…

  12. An Evaluation of Health and Sexuality Education in Turkish Elementary School Curricula

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bikmaz, Fatma Hazir; Guler, Duygu S.

    2007-01-01

    Research was undertaken to evaluate whether and to what extent the health-related domains, including sexuality education, specified by the Development of Health Awareness in Adolescent Project Science Committee overlapped with the goals and objectives of the 2002/03 elementary school curricula (grades one to eight; ages 7-14 years) in Turkey. For…

  13. The Aftermath of Accelerating Algebra: Evidence from a District Policy Initiative. Working Paper 18161

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clotfelter, Charles T.; Ladd, Helen F.; Vigdor, Jacob L.

    2012-01-01

    In 2002/03, the Charlotte-Mecklenburg Schools in North Carolina initiated a broad program of accelerating entry into algebra coursework. The proportion of moderately-performing students taking algebra in 8th grade increased from half to 85%, then reverted to baseline levels, in the span of just five years. We use this policy-induced variation to…

  14. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Head Start Impact Study: Final Report"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of offering Head Start to preschoolers. Head Start is a federal program aimed at boosting the school readiness of low-income children by providing preschool education and health and nutrition services. The study analyzed data on about 4,700 preschool-aged children who applied for enrollment for the 2002-03 program…

  15. Profile of Personnel Preparation Programs in Visual Impairments and Their Faculty: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Rosanne K.; Ambrose-Zaken, Grace; Corn, Anne L.; Trief, Ellen

    2004-01-01

    This article profiles the program delivery models, funding sources, and faculty demographics of 43 personnel preparation programs in 2002-03. It shows that there was an increase in the number of programs and fulltime faculty and a greater diversity of delivery models, although the number of tenure-track positions declined.

  16. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

  17. A Descriptive Analysis of Enrollment and Achievement among Limited English Proficient Students in Maryland. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2012-No. 128

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Conner, Rosemarie; Abedi, Jamal; Tung, Stephanie

    2012-01-01

    This study describes limited English proficient (LEP) student enrollment and achievement trends in Maryland. Two research questions guide this study: (1) How did the enrollment of LEP students in Maryland public schools change between 2002/03 and 2008/09?; and (2) How did performance (the percentage scoring at the proficient or advanced level) on…

  18. Older Adult Learners: A Comparison of Active and Non-Active Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloane-Seale, Atlanta; Kops, Bill

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports on a 2004 follow-up study conducted in partnership with the University of Manitoba Continuing Education Division and local senior's organizations. The partnership was formed in 2002-03 to promote applied research on lifelong learning and older adults, develop new and complement existing educational activities, and explore new…

  19. Northwest Education, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Lee, Ed.; Boss, Suzie, Ed.; Weeks, Denise Jarrett, Ed.

    2003-01-01

    This document contains the four issues of Northwest Education published during the 2002-03 school year. Issue themes are: (1) "Closing the Gap: How Northwest Schools Are Raising Minority Achievement"; (2) "Focus on Writing"; (3) "The Hidden Disability: When Bright Children Struggle To Learn"; and (4) "Discoveries in Learning: Lessons from Lewis &…

  20. Ideologies of Violence: The Social Origins of Islamist and Leftist Transnational Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Kristopher K.; Crenshaw, Edward M.; Jenkins, J. Craig,

    2006-01-01

    We evaluate the argument that Islamist terrorist attacks represent a distinctive "4th wave" of transnational terrorism that has supplanted Leftist terrorism. Drawing on ITERATE data for 1968-2003, the annual count of Leftist attacks has declined since the end of the Cold War while Islamist attacks have persisted and spiked upward in 2002-03.…

  1. Physical Activity, Emotional and Behavioural Problems, Maternal Education and Self-Reported Educational Performance of Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kantomaa, M. T.; Tammelin, T. H.; Demakakos, P.; Ebeling, H. E.; Taanila, A. M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02.…

  2. A Descriptive Analysis of the Principal Workforce in Florida Schools. REL 2015-068

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Folsom, Jessica Sidler; Osborne-Lampkin, La'Tara; Herrington, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the results of a REL Southeast study using the Florida Department of Education staffing database to describe the demographic make-up, Florida Educator Certificate coverages, career paths from 2001/02 to 2011/12, and evaluation ratings of Florida's educational leaders (i.e., assistant principals and principals) in the 2011/12…

  3. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  4. Report on Transfers from Community Colleges at Virginia Public Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    State Council of Higher Education for Virginia, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the total number of Virginia Community College System (VCCS) transfer students each institution of higher education enrolled, and graduated from 2001-02 to 2005-06. The number of VCCS transfer students admitted to each higher education institution is not included because the State Council of Higher Education does not require…

  5. Middle School Concept Helps High-Poverty Schools Become High-Performing Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picucci, Ali Callicoatte; Brownson, Amanda; Kahlert, Rahel; Sobel, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    The results of a study conducted by the Charles A. Dana Center at the University of Texas at Austin for the U.S. Department of Education during the 2001-02 school year showed that elements of the middle school concept can lead to improved student performance, even in high-poverty schools. This article describes common elements of the middle school…

  6. Homeschooling. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lines, Patricia M.

    Homeschooling has grown over the past several decades. It is estimated that 923,700 to 1,275,098 children will be homeschooled by the 2001-02 school year. Homeschooling families come from all major ethnic, cultural, and religious backgrounds and all income levels. Homeschooling parents are commonly active in their communities and join community…

  7. Ivory Tower to Concrete Jungle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crebert, Gay; Bates, Merrelyn; Bell, Barry; Patrick, Carol-Joy; Cragnolini, Vanda

    2004-01-01

    In 2001-02, a project team at Griffith University undertook Stage 4 of the Griffith Graduate Project. Stage 4 used a survey and focus group discussions to gather graduates' and employers' perceptions of the role of the university, work placements and postgraduation employment in the development of generic skills and abilities. This article will…

  8. Dance and Cheerleading as Competitive Sports: Making a Case for OCR Sport Recognition & NCAA Emerging Sport Designation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hennefer, April; Sowder, Kristina; Pemberton, Cynthia Lee A.; Easterly, Debra M.

    During the 2001-02 academic year, Idaho State University engaged a nationwide study to investigate the prevalence of dance and cheerleading programs among National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) D-I schools. The goal of the study was to build a case for Office for Civil Rights (OCR) and NCAA sport recognition and designation. The study…

  9. BC International Student Revenue Grows Again. BCTF Research Report. Section V. 2012-EF-02

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuehn, Larry

    2011-01-01

    After two years of decline, the tuition from international students increased in 2010-11 and reached more than $129 million. The revenue from international students has more than doubled in a decade, from $55.5 million in 2001-02. This revenue is the most significant source of funding for K-12 education in BC outside of direct grants from the…

  10. An Evaluation of Milwaukee Area Technical College District. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Kate; Monroe, Kellie; Bajkiewicz, David; Coulthart, Tim; Osmanski, Thomas; Smyth, Conor; Sommerfeld, Robert

    The Legislative Audit Bureau of the State of Wisconsin analyzed financial issues concerning the Milwaukee Area Technical College (MATC). The MATC District is the largest district in Wisconsin's technical college system, with 12,504 FTE students enrolled and 1,944 staff in the 2001-02 academic year. Operating expenses for that year were $152.0…

  11. Do Non-Census Funding Systems Encourage Special Education Identification?: Reconsidering Greene and Forster

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahitivanichcha, Kanya; Parrish, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    Special education as a percentage of total enrollment has risen significantly across the nation, increasing from 8% of the school-age population in 1975-76 to 12% in 2001-02. These growing numbers have garnered increased public attention and have raised questions as to whether the type of special education funding formula used by states may be…

  12. Public Education Finances: 2002 Census of Governments: Volume 4, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Volume 4. Government Finances contains six parts that cover a wide range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1) Public Education Finances; (2)Finances of Special District Governments; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of Government…

  13. An Examination of Compulsory School Attendance Ages and High School Dropout and Completion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landis, Rebecca N.; Reschly, Amy L.

    2011-01-01

    An increasingly popular, but underresearched, initiative aimed at reducing high school dropout is raising the compulsory school attendance age. This study used a national data set from academic years 2001-02 to 2005-06 to examine the grade level at which students drop out, rates of dropout over time, and high school completion by state, region of…

  14. Challenges and Tensions in Implementing Current Directions for Indigenous Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tripcony, Penny

    In 2001-02, the Queensland Indigenous Education Consultative Body conducted seven research projects examining Indigenous educational policies and strategies. Qualitative and quantitative methods included literature reviews; academic data collection; and interviews and focus groups with Indigenous and non-Indigenous educators, parents, community…

  15. The Changing Face of South Africa's National System of Innovation, 1991?2001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahn, Michael; Blankley, William

    2005-01-01

    The article examines changes in the South African national system of innovation (NSI) since the onset of democracy in 1994. In particular, the recently completed 2001/02 Survey of Research and Experimental Development (R&D) is used to quantify the shifts in R&D activity for the major business, government and higher education players. The major…

  16. Changes in Patterns of Pricing and Financial Aid: Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2006-153

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Alisa F.; Carroll, C. Dennis

    2005-01-01

    This report focuses on first-time, full-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduates in order to examine patterns of sticker prices, financial aid, and net prices from an institutional perspective. For the period 1999-2000 to 2001-02, the report examines how the price of attendance for full-time freshmen changed for various types of…

  17. Making a Difference: An Exploration of Leadership Roles within Sixth Form Colleges in Maintaining Ethos within a Context of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briggs, Ann R.J.

    2005-01-01

    In 2001?02, the Nuffield Foundation funded research into the impact of government policy upon the management of sixth form colleges since 1992. National and regional questionnaire surveys were carried out among senior managers at sixth form colleges, further education colleges and schools. Case studies were undertaken at five sixth form colleges…

  18. Free School Fruit--Sustained Effect 1 Year Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bere, E.; Veierod, M. B.; Bjelland, M.; Klepp, K.-I.

    2006-01-01

    This study reports the effect of a school-randomized fruit and vegetable intervention consisting of a subscription to the Norwegian School Fruit Programme at no parental cost, and the Fruit and Vegetables Make the Marks (FVMM) educational programme, both delivered in the school year of 2001-02. Nine randomly chosen schools received the…

  19. Teacher Effectiveness, Mobility, and Attrition in Florida: A Descriptive Analysis. Working Paper 2008-12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Martin; Chingos, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    We use value-added models to calculate measures of effectiveness for new elementary school teachers in Florida between 2001-02 and 2005-06, then compare the attrition and mobility patterns of more and less effective teachers overall and across various types of schools. While we do not find evidence that schools are disproportionately losing their…

  20. Constructivist Teaching and Student Achievement: The Results of a School-Level Classroom Observation Study in Washington. Technical Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbott, Martin L.; Fouts, Jeffrey T.

    This study built on a 2001-02 classroom observation study of Washington K-12 and technical schools that identified the extent of constructivist teaching activity. Results from classroom observations found that strong constructivist teaching was observable in 17 percent of the classroom lessons. The other 83 percent of the lessons observed may have…

  1. Good for Nothing: In-Grade Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenneady, Lisa M.

    2004-01-01

    Data from the Texas Education Association (TEA) show that 177,340 students (4.6 percent) in kindergarten through grade 12 were retained in 2001-02. This is enough students to fill Texas Stadium more than 2.5 times. Of this number, roughly 59,812 were elementary school students (grades kindergarten through six). There are several problems with in…

  2. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  3. Final Closeout Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Carl Crane

    2004-08-24

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida.

  4. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  5. Knowledge or Skills--The Way to a Meaningful Degree? An Investigation into the Importance of Key Skills within an Undergraduate Degree and the Effect This Has on Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Stuart; Feltham, Mark

    2007-01-01

    The grades attained by students studying biological science at level 1, at Liverpool John Moores University, UK, were examined between the academic years 2003/04 - 2005/06. The marks attained in the study skills module, and the mean level 1 mark (number of modules, n = 10) were also analysed. The data were divided into two groups: those relating…

  6. The Teachers' Lounge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Dudley

    2006-01-01

    For the 2003-04 school year, 73% of Florida schools were identified as in need of improvement under criteria of the "No Child Left Behind" (NCLB) Act, President Bush's 2001 renewal of President Lyndon B. Johnson's Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965. One year later, that figure had been cut almost in half, to 37.4%. California reduced…

  7. The Literacy Programs of Save the Children: Results from the 2008-09 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiter, Andrea S.; Arcaira, Erikson R.; White, Richard N.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003-04 school year, Save the Children, U.S. Programs, has supported programming designed to improve reading skills among struggling students in rural areas. The literacy program includes both afterschool and in-school interventions with small groups of children. These are implemented by well-trained paraprofessionals and are designed to…

  8. 78 FR 20971 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-08

    ...)(2) of the Act. See Securities Exchange Act Release Nos. 49066 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2773 (January 20, 2004) (SR-BSE-2003-17); 49065 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2768 (January 20, 2004) (SR-BSE-2003-04) (``BOXR Order''); and 49068 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2775 (January 20, 2004)...

  9. Teacher Turnover in Charter Schools. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuit, David; Smith, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    The current study aimed to contribute to a deeper understanding of the organizational conditions of charter schools by examining teacher turnover. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) and the Teacher Follow-Up Survey (TFS), researchers from the National Center on School…

  10. Retaining Teachers: How Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors studied how various aspects of teacher preparation affect the retention of new teachers--specifically mathematics and science teachers. They found that the preparation of new mathematics and science teachers differs from that of other new teachers in various respects, but factors…

  11. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This document presents a summary of a larger report that focuses on student proficiency reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07. The report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and…

  12. Achievement Gap Patterns of Grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native Students in Reading and Math. Issues & Answers. REL 2009-No. 073

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Steven; Greenough, Richard; Sage, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    Focusing on student proficiency in reading and math from 2003-04 to 2006-07, this report compares gaps in performance on state achievement tests between grade 8 American Indian and Alaska Native students and all other grade 8 students in 26 states serving large populations of American Indian and Alaska Native students. In response to a request by…

  13. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  14. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  15. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  16. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  17. Persistence and Attainment among Postsecondary Subbaccalaureate Students. Data Point. NCES 2016-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This Data Point examines the persistence and attainment of students who enrolled in postsecondary education for the first time in 2003-04, focusing on subbaccalaureate students (those seeking a certificate or associate's degree) and, among subbaccalaureate students, those who pursue occupational education. Their progress was tracked over 6 years.…

  18. An Examination of Innovation in Tennessee's Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other states, charter schools in Tennessee were established to improve student learning, provide options for parents, encourage the use of innovative methods, and provide new opportunities for teachers. With the passage of the TN Public Charter School Law, the first four charter schools opened in the 2003-04 academic year. Since that…

  19. Aboriginal Report - Charting Our Path

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report outlines Aboriginal learner participation and achievement in British Columbia's public post-secondary institutions for the period 2003-04 to 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations leadership, public…

  20. California. Universities hit by new round of cuts; more bad news ahead.

    PubMed

    Stokstad, Erik

    2003-08-15

    A new, belt-tightening budget for 2003-04 approved on 2 August by the governor of California has forced University of California administrators to draw up plans to raise tuition by 30%, slash outreach and other programs, and shrink the number of faculty and support-staff positions.

  1. 76 FR 66205 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Model S-76A Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-26

    ... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78). Examining the Docket You may examine the docket that contains the... FR 35469, August 16, 1982), requires a puck-to-disc inspection of rotor brake, part number (P/N..., 1981. AD 2003-04-15, issued February 14, 2003 (68 FR 8994, February 27, 2003), requires...

  2. Aligning School Finance with Academic Standards: A Weighted-Student Formula Based on a Survey of Practitioners. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstelie, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report contains estimates of the cost to California's public schools of meeting the state's achievement standards. In the aggregate, the cost is about 40 percent greater than the expenditures of California schools in 2003-04. The bulk of these additional costs are for resources needed to boost achievement in schools primarily serving students…

  3. Arkansas Pupils' Body Weights Add Up

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurst, Marianne D.

    2004-01-01

    This article reports the findings of a statewide study evaluating the body weights of nearly all public school students in Arkansas. Researchers in Arkansas analyzed "body-mass index" data for more than 345,000 students at all grade levels in 93 percent of the state's public schools during the 2003-04 school year. Based on the data, the…

  4. Signing Science! Andy And Tonya Are Just Like Me! They Wear Hearing Aids And Know My Language!?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesel, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Are these students talking about their classmates? No, they are describing the Signing Avatar characters--3-D figures who appear on the EnViSci Network Web site and sign the resources and activities in American Sign Language (ASL) or Signed English (SE). During the 2003?04 school year, students in schools for the deaf and hard of hearing…

  5. How Do Marital Status and Gender Affect the PRR to a University Degree in Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    While Australian evidence suggests that the Private Rate of Return (PRR) to a university degree in Australia has gradually declined with increases in the cost of higher education, these studies have only measured the PRR for the average male and average female. This paper uses income data from the ABS Income and Housing Survey (2003-04) CURF to…

  6. An Overview of Classes Taken and Credits Earned by Beginning Postsecondary Students. NCES 2013-151rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What can be learned from the college transcripts of beginning postsecondary students who first enrolled in the 2003-04 academic year and were followed over a 6-year period ending in 2009? The Web Tables presented in this report provide an overview of classes taken and credits earned by a nationwide sample of first-time beginning postsecondary…

  7. Bioassessment Tools for Stony Corals: Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Metrics in the Florida Keys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of coral reef condition were collected from stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Dry Tortugas National Park during 2003-04. Four assessment endpoints of reef condition were derived from transect censuses and measurements of stony corals: total s...

  8. Internet Audio Products (3/3)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Linda; de Schutter, Adrienne; Fahrni, Patricia; Rudolph, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Two contrasting additions to the online audio market are reviewed: "iVocalize", a browser-based audio-conferencing software, and "Skype", a PC-to-PC Internet telephone tool. These products are selected for review on the basis of their success in gaining rapid popular attention and usage during 2003-04. The "iVocalize" review emphasizes the…

  9. 77 FR 49710 - Airworthiness Directives; Sikorsky Aircraft Corporation Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... relating to the ERB on this and similar model helicopters. AD 82-17-03, issued July 30, 1982 (47 FR 35469... July 30, 1981). AD 2003-04-15, issued February 14, 2003 (68 FR 8994, February 27, 2003), requires... October 26, 2011, at 76 FR 66205, the Federal Register published our notice of proposed rulemaking...

  10. Condition of Higher Education Funding in Virginia. A SCHEV Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    This report examines trends in resources available, past funding policies, and the need for a funding policy for Virginia public higher education that can minimize the impact of peaks and troughs of economic cycles. It reviews trends from 1988-89 to 2003-04 by: identifying primary revenue sources of higher education, examining institutional…

  11. Scaling Online Education: Increasing Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Jacqueline F.; Oakley, Burks, II

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, online courses and entire online degree programs have been made available, serving millions of students in higher education. These online courses largely have been designed and taught using the theoretical concepts and practical strategies of Asynchronous Learning Networks (ALN). During 2003-04, approximately two million…

  12. Teacher Job Satisfaction. Data Point. NCES 2016-131

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2016-01-01

    This report uses teacher responses to the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) public and private school teacher questionnaires from the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. SASS is a system of related questionnaires that provide descriptive data on the context of elementary and secondary education in the United States. The SASS system covers…

  13. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  14. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  15. Prevention of child and adolescent overweight and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003-04, approximately 34.3% of 12-19 year olds and 37.2% of 6-11 year olds in the US were overweight or obese. Among samples with predominantly ethnic minorities in the US, 49% of middle school children were overweight or obese. Increasing prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity has been ...

  16. Aboriginal Report--Charting Our Path: Public Post-Secondary System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministry of Advanced Education and Labour Market Development, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This report provides an update on initiatives, activities and performance information regarding public post-secondary Aboriginal students in British Columbia between 2003-04 and 2006-07. In developing the report, the Ministry worked with its Aboriginal Post-Secondary Education and Training Partners, which includes Aboriginal and First Nations…

  17. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  18. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…

  19. Using Journal Writing to Explore "They Communicate to Learn Mathematics and They Learn to Communicate Mathematically"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Louis; Pugalee, David K.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO)'s grade 9 applied mathematics assessment found that students are experiencing difficulty with the Ontario curriculum, specifically with written communication. Action research was conducted during the second semester of 2003/04 in a grade 10 applied mathematics class to…

  20. Trends in the Receipt of Pell Grants: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, these tables focus on trends in the receipt of federal Pell Grants and among Pell Grant recipients. Data include the percentages of Pell Grant recipients and the average Pell Grant received each survey year. Also shown are…

  1. Providing Transparency and Credibility: The Selection of International Students for Australian Universities. An Examination of the Relationship between Scores in the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT), Final Year Academic Programs and an Australian University's Foundation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lai, Kelvin; Nankervis, Susan; Story, Margot; Hodgson, Wayne; Lewenberg, Michael; Ball, Marita MacMahon

    2008-01-01

    Throughout 2003-04 five cohorts of students in their final year of school studies in various Malaysian colleges and a group of students completing an Australian university foundation year in Malaysia sat the International Student Admissions Test (ISAT). The ISAT is a multiple-choice test of general academic abilities developed for students whose…

  2. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  3. Influences on Student Withdrawal from Further Education: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bidgood, Penelope; Saebi, Nasrollah; May, Steve

    2006-01-01

    Provision of Further Education (FE) colleges is becoming more important to the nation's education strategy. Much of this provision is in National Vocational Qualifications (NVQ); in 2003/04 almost half a million of these qualifications were awarded. However, in contrast to the situation in Higher Education (HE), there has been comparatively little…

  4. California. Universities hit by new round of cuts; more bad news ahead.

    PubMed

    Stokstad, Erik

    2003-08-15

    A new, belt-tightening budget for 2003-04 approved on 2 August by the governor of California has forced University of California administrators to draw up plans to raise tuition by 30%, slash outreach and other programs, and shrink the number of faculty and support-staff positions. PMID:12920268

  5. Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students' Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Later in 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2012-273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2012-01-01

    This set of Web Tables presents descriptive statistics on the spring 2009 labor market experiences of subbaccalaureate students who first entered postsecondary education in 2003-04. The Web Tables use data from the nationally representative 2004/09 Beginning Post-secondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which followed a cohort of…

  6. The Reasons Students Choose Teaching Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krecic, Marija Javornik; Grmek, Milena Ivanus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the reasons students at the Faculty of Education in Maribor, Slovenija, chose pedagogy for their study direction, and therefore becoming a teacher. A total 237 second-year students of the academic year 2003/04 were included in the research. Of the five groups of reasons for choosing this program (altruistic,…

  7. Student Mobility Research: Next Steps. Engage. Fall/Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This "Engage" newsletter features articles on student mobility research, supporting the BC Transfer System and inter-provincial initiatives. It announces the publication of five reports profiling students who transferred to British Columbia universities in the period 2003-04 to 2007-08. These reports provide detailed demographic and performance…

  8. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  9. Block Scheduling Evaluation, 2003-2004. E&R Report No. 04.17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichstetter, Rosemary; Baenen, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    In 2003-04, 11 Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) high schools moved from a traditional student schedule of six full-year courses to a block schedule of four courses each semester (4x4). Implementation went fairly smoothly, with 90% of teachers trained prior to the change. Academic course opportunities and course enrollment numbers increased…

  10. Pell Grants Are a Waste of Taxpayer Money: A Study of the Effects of Pell Grants on Persistence in For-Profit Four-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filerino, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This ex post facto study examined the relationship between Pell Grant aid and persistence of for-profit four-year college students enrolled during 2003-04 through the next six years in the United States and Puerto Rico. This study examined the demographic dissimilarities in students based on age, gender, financial aid status and ethnicity of those…

  11. Impact of glacio-morphological parameters in the glacier change: A case study of parts of Western Himalaya, India.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmbhatt, R.; Bahuguna, I. M.; Rathore, B. P.; Kulkarni, A. V.; Shah, R.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalayas possess one of the largest resources of snow and ice, which act as a huge freshwater reservoir. Monitoring the glaciers is important to assess the overall reservoir health. In last few decades the most of the mountainous glaciers have undergone negative mass balance and terminal recessions, unlike the advancing glaciers. In this investigation, glaciers of Western Himalaya have been monitored since 1962 and variability in retreat was identified within the region. Thus, further analysis about significant parameters was taken into account to understand the relationship between glacio-morphological factors and change in glacial area. Initially change in areal extent of glaciers was derived for two time frames (1962-2001/02 and 2001/02-2010/11). The study comprised of 324 glaciers for the monitoring period of 1962-2001/02. A loss in glacial area was observed as 11% for this period. Many of these glaciers (238) were further monitored between 2001/02 and 2010/11. These glaciers showed a loss of 1.1%. The annual deglaciation has been found higher during the period of 1962-2001/02, which means rate of melting is less in this region in latest decade. Another observation in deglaciation was found spatial and temporal variability in glaciers which was addressed using glacio-morphic parameters. Areal extent of glaciers was observed to be having significant role on rate of glacial shrinkage. The another important parameter is equilibrium line altitude, i.e. the glaciers located below ELA have experienced 4.6% of deglaciation for the time frame 2001/02 - 2010/11 where as it was found to be 1.1% for the glaciers occurring above ELA. Moreover, glaciers located at lower altitude and having gentle slope show more area retreat. The results of area retreat in debris covered and debris free glaciers supports that the glaciers covered by debris retard ice melting at some extent. 158 glaciers were observed having no debris cover which shows 14% of loss in surface area. In

  12. How Long do Students Take to Graduate in the State University System? Information Brief, Volume 1, Issue 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Board of Governors, State University System, 2004

    2004-01-01

    It has been found that students who took the traditional path to a bachelor degree--those who started and finished at the same institution--averaged 4.3 years to complete their degrees at State University System (SUS) institutions in 2002-03. 12.4% took 3.5 years or less, 54.2% took 4 years or less, 69.5% took 4.5 years or less, and 86.5% took 5…

  13. Physics Students from Abroad: Monitoring the Continuing Impact of Visa Problems. AIP Report, Number R-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neuschatz, Michael; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2005-01-01

    Following the attacks of September 11, 2001, the US government set in motion a broad set of measures whose aim was to screen foreign applicants for entrance into the US, to try to identify those who it was felt might attempt to carry out further attacks. Since the 2001-02 academic year had already begun in most schools, and since it took time for…

  14. Molecular identification of a new pestivirus associated with increased mortality in the Pyrenean Chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in Spain.

    PubMed

    Hurtado, Ana; Aduriz, Gorka; Gómez, Nieves; Oporto, Beatriz; Juste, Ramón A; Lavin, Santiago; Lopez-Olvera, Jorge R; Marco, Ignasi

    2004-10-01

    Pestivirus infection was identified in 16 of 17 chamois during an outbreak of a previously unreported disease in Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica pyrenaica) in northeastern Spain in 2001-02. By analysis of the 5' noncoding regions of the virus, we assigned it to the border disease virus cluster with pairwise similarity values ranging from 82.1% to 88.1%. It will be important to investigate the association of this pestivirus with disease in Pyrenean chamois.

  15. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  16. Santa Fe Community College Fact Book, 2002-2003.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL. Office of Institutional Research and Planning.

    This fact book offers information on Santa Fe Community College (SFCC) (Florida) for fiscal year 2001-2002. SFCC had a total enrollment of 21,932 in 2001-02. Degrees and certificates awarded in that year totaled 2,593. The total faculty was 563, with 264 full-time and 299 adjunct instructors. The college has an annual operating budget of over $50…

  17. Access: Net Prices, Affordability, and Equity at a Highly Selective College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Catharine B.; Winston, Gordon C.

    2006-01-01

    With financial aid data on over 14,000 aided students at Williams College for the past 14 years, we can describe how much students actually paid to go to this highly selective and expensive school--their net prices--across income levels and over time. In 2001-02, the last year of our data, aided students across the five income quintiles of the US…

  18. Budget Analysis: Review of the Governor's Proposed Budget, 1999-00.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Office of the Comptroller, Albany.

    This report provides an overview of the 1999-2000 executive budget for New York State. The budget calls for $72.7 billion in all funds spending and proposes that a $1.8 billion surplus from the 1998-99 fiscal year be used to fill budget gaps in fiscal years 2000-01 and 2001-02. The report focuses on spending for education, health and social…

  19. The Correlates of Academic Performance for English Language Learner Students in a New England District. REL 2014-020

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Caroline E.; O'Dwyer, Laura M.; Irwin, Clare W.

    2014-01-01

    The number of English language learners has grown in the Northeast & Islands Region over the past decade. While the total student population shrank 3.5 percent between 2001/02 and 2009/10, the population of English language learner students grew 7.6 percent and now constitutes 6.1 percent of students in the region, up from 5.5 percent in…

  20. No Substitute for a Teacher: Adults' Absences Shortchange Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    U.S. teachers take off an average of 9.4 days (roughly 1 day per month) each during a typical 180-day school year. By that estimate, the average child has substitute teachers for more than six months of his school career. The education department reported after the 2003-04 school year that 5.3 percent of U.S. teachers are absent on any given day,…

  1. Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason; Ottem, Randolph; DeRoche, John

    2016-01-01

    Using data from seven administrations of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this Statistics in Brief examines trends in public and private school principal demographics, experience, and compensation over 25 years, from 1987-88 through 2011-12. Data are drawn from the 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 survey…

  2. 77 FR 30566 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMX BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2773 (January 20, 2004) (SR-BSE-2003-17); 49065 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2768 (January 20, 2004) (SR-BSE- 2003-04) (``BOXR Order''); and 49068 (January 13, 2004), 69 FR 2775 (January 20, 2004) (SR-BSE-2002-15). See also Release No. 34-58324; 73 FR 46936 (August 7, 2008) (File Nos....

  3. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  4. Teaching Vacancies and Difficult-to-Staff Teaching Positions in Public Schools. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-065

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkus, Nat; Hoyer, Kathleen Mulvaney; Sparks, Dinah

    2015-01-01

    This brief investigates teaching vacancies and difficult-to-staff teaching positions (i.e., positions for which the principals reported that it was very difficult to fill a vacancy or that they could not fill a vacancy in a specific subject area) in public schools in four school years (1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12). This Statistics in…

  5. Geochemical Patterns Classification of recent Mt. Etna Volcanic Products based on a synopsis of Kohonen Maps and Fuzzy Clustering.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Falsaperla, Susanna; Langer, Horst

    2010-05-01

    During the last two decades Mt. Etna experienced many summit and flank eruptions with different styles of activity, ranging from quiet lava effusion to explosive activity consisting of Strombolian explosions and/or spectacular fire fountains. This complex picture entails the presence of a complex plumbing system where magma dynamics strongly controls both the eruptive style and magma differentiation. All these eruptive events have furnished volcanic products on which systematic petrographic and geochemical analyses have been carried out since the mid 1990s. In particular, the content of major and trace elements of lavas is a key-point to characterize the composition of a magma emitted during an eruption. Petrologic investigations are traditionally based on the interpretation of compositional patterns described by selected oxides and/or elements in binary and ternary petrologic systems. This kind of analysis provides useful information about the magmatic processes occurring in the plumbing system. In this presentation we investigate whether the quality of petrologic investigations is improved by the application of more sophisticated analytical techniques based on the use of a relatively large number of parameters. To this purpose, we selected 13 components, i.e., SiO2, K2O, CaO/Al2O3, Mg#, Th, La, Nb, Nd, Sr, Tb, Cr, Ni and Rb/Nb. This choice brings along the problem of designing a suitable statistics and a convenient visualization of the results. As a way out, we propose advanced concepts of multivariate classification based on a synopsis of Kohonen Maps and Fuzzy Clustering, and apply them to the study of volcanics erupted from Mt. Etna between 1995 and 2005. Lavas erupted during the fire fountains (in 2000) and during the flank eruptions (2001, 2002-03) represent the most primitive products erupted from Mt. Etna in the investigated period. The literature data suggest that during the 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions two magmas with different geochemical characteristics

  6. Curriculum change in dental education, 2003-09.

    PubMed

    Haden, N Karl; Hendricson, William D; Kassebaum, Denise K; Ranney, Richard R; Weinstein, George; Anderson, Eugene L; Valachovic, Richard W

    2010-05-01

    This 2009 study of dental school curricula follows a similar one conducted in 2002-03. Through a web-based survey, the authors gathered information from dental schools about 1) past trends in curricular change over seven years; 2) current changes under way in dental school curricula; 3) significant challenges to curricular innovation; and 4) projected future trends in curricular change and innovation. Fifty-five schools (fifty U.S. and five Canadian) responded to the survey for a response rate of 86 percent. In addition to background information, the survey requested information in four broad areas: curriculum format, curriculum assessment, curriculum innovation, and resources needed for curriculum enhancement. Forty-nine percent of the respondents defined their curriculum format as primarily organized by disciplines. Half of the respondents reported the use of problem-based and case-reinforced learning for a section or specific component of some courses. In a significant change from the 2002-03 study, a high proportion (91 percent) of the responding schools require community-based patient care by all students, with just over half requiring five or more weeks of such experience. Competency-based education to prepare an entry-level general dentist seems well established as the norm in responding dental schools. Forty-three percent or less of the responding schools indicated that their students participate with other health professions education programs for various portions of their educational experience. Since the 2002-03 survey, dental schools have been active in conducting comprehensive curriculum reviews; 65 percent indicated that their most recent comprehensive curriculum review is currently under way or was conducted within the past two years. Respondents indicated that the primary reasons for the configuration of the current curriculum were "perceived success" (it works), "compatibility with faculty preferences," "faculty comfort," and "capacity

  7. Trends in drinking habits among adolescents in the Baltic countries over the period of transition: HBSC survey results, 1993–2002

    PubMed Central

    Zaborskis, Apolinaras; Sumskas, Linas; Maser, Mai; Pudule, Iveta

    2006-01-01

    Background The Baltic countries – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania – are considered to be an example of regional homogeneity over the period of transition. The World Health Organization cross-national study on Health Behavior in School-aged Children (HBSC) allows a comparison and time trends analysis of behavioral patterns among adolescents in this region. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and trends of alcohol consumption and drunkenness among adolescents of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02. Methods Representative samples of 5286 boys and 6485 girls aged 15 from Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania were surveyed in 1993/94, 1997/98, and 2001/02 school-year within the framework of HBSC study. The standardized survey methods were applied. The research focused on the following outcome variables: i) frequency of drinking beer, wine, and spirits; and ii) frequency of drunkenness. The same wording of questions on the consumption of alcohol was retained in each survey. Results Beer was the most frequently used alcoholic beverage across the Baltic countries among adolescents. The rate of weekly drinking of any alcoholic beverage increased considerably during the eight years of observation, especially among Estonian and Lithuanian students. In 2001/02, 25% of boys and 12.5% of girls have reported drinking alcohol at least weekly. The rate of regular alcohol drinking was two times higher in boys, while irregular drinking was more prevalent in girls. Two or more episodes of drunkenness in the lifespan were reported by 30% of boys and 15% of girls in 1993/94 and by 52% of boys and 36% of girls in 2001/02. The use of alcoholic beverages was related to the perceived family wealth: the students from the families perceived by them as wealthy were more likely to drink weekly as compared to the students from the families perceived by them as not wealthy. Conclusion Over the period between 1993 and 2002 the prevalence of alcohol

  8. Hi, I'm from the Administration and I'm Here to Help: My Journey to the Far Side

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Richard F.

    2002-12-01

    This article describes my experiences when I served as Interim Dean for Liberal Arts and Sciences during the 2001-02 academic year. While I had to expand my knowledge base of disciplines other than chemistry, there were many similarities in my interactions with colleagues, chairpersons, faculty, and students from previous experience as a faculty member and chairperson. Although I had less direct contact with students, I was still working towards the same goals as the faculty in providing the best educational experience for our students.

  9. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500-m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5-km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  10. Snow-Cover Variability in North America in the 2000-2001 Winter as Determined from MODIS Snow Products

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Salomonson, Vincent V.; Riggs, George A.; Chien, Janet Y. L.; Houser, Paul R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) snow-cover maps have been available since September 13, 2000. These products, at 500 m spatial resolution, are available through the National Snow and Ice Data Center Distributed Active Archive Center in Boulder, Colorado. By the 2001-02 winter, 5 km climate-modeling grid (CMG) products will be available for presentation of global views of snow cover and for use in climate models. All MODIS snow-cover products are produced from automated algorithms that map snow in an objective manner. In this paper, we describe the MODIS snow products, and show snow maps from the fall of 2000 in North America.

  11. Enteric helminths of juvenile and adult wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) in eastern Kansas.

    PubMed

    McJunkin, Jared W; Applegate, Roger D; Zelmer, Derek A

    2003-01-01

    Viscera of 49 wild turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) collected in the spring of 2001 and 23 wild turkeys collected in the fall and winter of 2001-02 from 12 counties in eastern Kansas were examined for enteric helminths. Four cestode species, two trematode species, one nematode species, and one acanthocephalan species were identified. Two cestode and two trematode species present in the spring sample also were present in the fall and winter sample. Parasite prevalence was similar to previous studies of enteric helminths of wild turkeys except for the low numbers of nematode species and individuals recovered in the present study.

  12. [How to develop professionally through investigation and research. A methodological strategy in education].

    PubMed

    Vaquero Barba, Angela; De Lorenzo Urien, Elena

    2008-03-01

    The authors present, and evaluate, from the viewpoint of participating students, an investigation-development project put into action during the 2003-04 academic year on the elaboration of a career-ending thesis at the Vitoria School of Nursing, as part of the European Nursing Licentiate program. This project establishes the starting point for a long-term project begun having the objective to develop theoretical principles and practical procedures which will permit the authors to systemize educational processes which, based on investigation and research, articulate theory and practice while integrating a communicative and cooperative perspective.

  13. Nitrites, nitrates and N-nitrosoamines in Estonian cured meat products: intake by Estonian children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Reinik, M; Tamme, T; Roasto, M; Juhkam, K; Jurtsenko, S; Tenńo, T; Kiis, A

    2005-11-01

    The contents of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines in commercial cured meat products on the Estonian market were determined for 2000-01 and 2003-04 as part of the Estonian food safety monitoring programme and the Estonian Science Foundation grant research activities. The maximum permitted levels of residual nitrites and nitrates were not exceeded in the samples analysed. However, a great variation in the content of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines was found for all the products. The concentrations of these compounds in domestic cured meat products showed a decrease from year to year. The mean intake of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitrosoamines by Estonian children (n=346) from cured meat products was calculated on the basis of individual intake data. The mean daily intake of nitrates was 1.7 mg, that of nitrites was 0.83 mg and that of N-nitrosoamines was 0.073 microg. In the 2000-01 study, the calculated nitrite intake exceeded the acceptable daily intake by up to 140% for 1-6-year-old children and up to 105% in 2003-04.

  14. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  15. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Horwatich, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Nagawicka Lake is a 986-acre, usually mesotrophic, calcareous lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over potential water-quality degradation of the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2002 to 2006 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake; quantify sources of phosphorus, including those associated with urban development; and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lake. All major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake. The Bark River, near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water contributed 74, 8, 12, and 6 percent of the inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake primarily through the Bark River outlet (88 percent) or by evaporation (11 percent). The water quality of Nagawicka Lake has improved dramatically since 1980 as a result of decreasing the historical loading of phosphorus to the lake. Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,000 pounds in monitoring year (MY) 2003 and 6,700 pounds in MY 2004. The largest source of phosphorus entering the lake was the Bark River, which delivered about 56 percent of the total phosphorus input, compared with about 74 percent of the total water input. The next largest contributions were from the urbanized near-lake drainage area, which disproportionately accounted for 37 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 5 percent of the total water input. Simulations with water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lakes Modeling Suite (WiLMS) indicated the response of Nagawicka Lake to 10 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included historical (1970s) and current (base) years (MY 2003-04) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six scenarios with percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from

  16. Assessment of Contaminant Exposure and Effects on Ospreys Nesting along the Lower Duwamish River, Washington, 2006-07

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Branden L.; Henny, Charles J.; Kaiser, James L.; Davis, Jay W.; Schulz, Edmund P.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of contaminants on osprey (Pandion haliaetus) nesting along the lower Duwamish River (LDR), Washington, and used the upper reach of the Willamette River (WR), Oregon, as a reference site. Osprey eggs and nestling blood (plasma) were collected at nests along the LDR (11 eggs, 7 plasmas) and WR (10 eggs, 6 plasmas) in 2006-07 and analyzed for contaminants. Additionally, hematology and serum chemistries were determined in the blood/plasma samples of nestlings (about 35-45 days old) and were used as potential indicators of stress induced by contaminant exposure. Detailed foraging information for ospreys nesting along the LDR was collected and evaluated to better understand contaminant profiles observed in the eggs and plasma. Additional residue data from 26 osprey eggs collected and analyzed in 2002-03 from nests along the LDR, Snohomish River Estuary (SRE) and Lake Washington (LW) in the Puget Sound (PS) region also were evaluated.

  17. Update on Radioactive Waste Management in the UK

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, John; McCall, Ann

    2003-02-24

    This paper provides a brief background to the current position in the United Kingdom (UK) and provides an update on the various developments and initiatives within the field of radioactive waste management that have been taking place during 2002/03. These include: The UK Government's Department of Trade and Industry (DTi) review of UK energy policy; The UK Government's (Department of Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra) and Devolved Administrations*) consultation program; The UK Government's DTi White Paper, 'Managing the Nuclear Legacy: A Strategy for Action'; Proposals for improved regulation of Intermediate Level Waste (ILW) conditioning and packaging. These various initiatives relate, in Nirex's opinion, to the three sectors of the industry and this paper will provide a comment on these initiatives in light of the lessons that Nirex has learnt from past events and suggest some conclusions for the future.

  18. Indoor radon concentrations in the town of Niksic, Montenegro.

    PubMed

    Antovic, N; Vukotic, P; Zekic, R; Ilic, R

    2007-01-01

    Indoor radon was systematically surveyed in the town of Niksic-the second largest town in Montenegro-which has some of its settlements built above red bauxite deposits. The radon concentrations were measured in 55 homes in 2002/03, in the summer and winter period, using CR-39 etched track detectors. The average annual radon concentrations were found to be lognormally distributed (geometric mean = 66.2 Bq m(-3), geometric standard deviation = 3.0) within the range from 10 to 966 Bq m(-3), with arithmetic mean of 122.7 Bq m(-3) and median of 61.7 Bq m(-3). Although the annual mean radon concentrations above the action level of 400 Bq m(-3) are found only in four dwellings, the indoor radon levels in the town of Niksic are relatively high when compared with the average in the South European countries, as well as with indoor radon levels in other regions in Montenegro.

  19. Water and Sediment Quality in the Yukon River Basin, Alaska, During Water Year 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schuster, Paul F.

    2007-01-01

    OVERVIEW: This report contains water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected in the Yukon River Basin from March through September during the 2005 water year (WY). Samples were collected throughout the year at five stations in the basin (three on the main stem Yukon River, one each on the Tanana and Porcupine Rivers). A broad range of physical, chemical, and biological analyses are presented. This is the final report in a series of five USGS Open-File Reports spanning five WYs, from October 2000 through September 2005. The previous four reports are listed in the references (Schuster, 2003, 2005a, 2005b, 2006). Water-quality and sediment-quality data from samples collected on the Yukon River and selected major tributaries in Alaska for synoptic studies during WYs 2002-03 are published in Dornblaser and Halm (2006).

  20. Assessing the Effectiveness of a Mathematics-Focused, Instructional Technology Program for Grades 6-8: A 5-Year Trend Analysis of NASA CONNECT(tm) Evaluation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glassman, Nanci A.; Perry, Jeannine B.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Lambert, Matthew A.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

    2004-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is a research-, inquiry, and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6 8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the series over the first five seasons (1998-99 through 2002-03) reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for the grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  1. Analysis of ENSO with an intermediate model through the ensemble Kalman filter and smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, G.; Higuchi, T.; Kagimoto, T.; Hirose, N.

    2006-12-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) are applied to an intermediate coupled atmosphere-ocean model by Zebiak and Cane [1987], into which the sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observations by TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry are assimilated. Smoothed estimates of the 54,403 dimensional state are obtained from 1981 observational points with 2048 ensemble members. While assimilated data are SSH anomalies alone, the estimated sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies reproduce actual SST behaviors as a whole. The smoothed estimate of the zonal wind anomalies is also consistent with the observation except for the westerly anomalies in the western Pacific. An ensemble experiment of 2002/03 El Nino event based on the EnKF can predict consistent Nino 3 SST anomalies about 5 months in advance.

  2. Analysis of ENSO with an intermediate model through the ensemble Kalman filter and smoother

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, G.; Higuchi, T.; Kagimoto, T.; Hirose, N.

    2005-05-01

    The ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) and smoother (EnKS) are applied to an intermediate coupled atmosphere-ocean model by Zebiak and Cane [1987], into which the sea surface height (SSH) anomaly observations by TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) altimetry are assimilated. Smoothed estimates of the 54,403 dimensional state are obtained from 1981 observational points with 2048 ensemble members. While assimilated data are SSH anomalies alone, the estimated sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies reproduce actual SST behaviors as a whole. The smoothed estimate of the zonal wind anomalies is also consistent with the observation except for the westerly anomalies in the western Pacific. An ensemble experiment of 2002/03 El Nino event based on the EnKF can predict consistent Nino 3 SST anomalies about 5 months in advance.

  3. Disease management: a leap of faith to lower-cost, higher-quality health care.

    PubMed

    Short, Ashley; Mays, Glen; Mittler, Jessica

    2003-10-01

    With managed care's promise to reduce costs and improve quality waning, employers and health plans are exploring more targeted ways to control rapidly rising health costs. Disease management programs, which focus on patients with chronic conditions such as asthma and diabetes, are growing in popularity, according to findings from the Center for Studying Health System Change's (HSC) 2002-03 site visits to 12 nationally representative communities. In addition to condition-based disease management programs, some health plans and employers are using intensive case management services to coordinate care for high-risk patients with potentially costly and complex medical conditions. Despite high expectations, evidence of both disease management and case management programs' success in controlling costs and improving quality remains limited.

  4. Strategic Asia 2002 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Ellings; Aaron Friedberg; Michael Wills

    2002-09-01

    The Strategic Asia Program made considerable progress over the course of 2002--the program's first year with support from the Department of Energy--and completed all its tasks on schedule and within budget. Following a planning meeting in Washington in February 2002, a team of leading specialists wrote a series of original assessments regarding the impact of September 11 on the strategic environment in Asia, examining how perceptions and strategies of countries in the region changed following the terrorist attacks. The final products, Strategic Asia 2002-03: Asian Aftershocks and its accompanying executive summary, were published in September 2002. The program's research findings (some of which are summarized) were presented to policymakers in Washington and elsewhere throughout the year, and almost 2,000 copies of the book had been distributed by mid-2003.

  5. GOME Observations of OClO in the Arctic Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühl, S.; Wilms-Grabe, W.; Beirle, S.; Frankenberg, C.; Hollwedel, J.; Kraus, S.; Platt, U.; Wagner, T.

    2003-04-01

    The GOME instrument onboard the ERS-2 satellit consists of a set of four spectrometers covering the wavelength range between 240 and 790 nm. By applying the DOAS method to the GOME measurements, the integrated concentration of several trace gases along the light path, the so called Slant Column Densities (SCDs), can be derived. Since GOME has a global coverage every three days, the SCDs of OClO give a good overview of the intensity and the extension of the chlorine activation. The OClO SCDs for the arctic winters 1995/96 to 2002/03 are discussed with respect to the minimum temperature at the Tpot = 475 K level, the occurrence of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) and the chemical ozone depletion. For certain interesting periods, the effect of stratospheric mountain waves and denitrification on the activation and deactivation of chlorine is examined.

  6. Child survival during the 2002-2003 drought in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    De Waal, A; Taffesse, A Seyoum; Carruth, L

    2006-01-01

    Droughts in Ethiopia have commonly been associated with increased child mortality. Early indications were that the 2002/03 drought, which affected 13.2 million people, was no exception, despite a large relief operation. Humanitarian agencies reported sharp increases in child deaths and pockets of acute distress in some hard-hit localities. In response, the 2004 Ethiopia Child Survival Survey (ECSS) was designed to investigate the impact of the drought on child survival in the general population. The survey covered 4816 households in both drought-affected and non-drought affected, as well as rural and urban localities. Data from the ECSS indicate that child mortality was indeed higher in drought-affected areas. However, a closer analysis reveals that this differential is attributable to chronic conditions in those localities, rather than the immediate impact of the 2002/03 drought. Multivariate analysis was used to construct a model for the determinants of child survival in the sample population. Household-level demographic factors, household-level food and livelihood security, community-level economic production, and access to potable water, were predictive of child survival. Additionally, household receipt of food aid had a small but significant positive association with child survival, even though the ECSS cannot determine either the underlying causal mechanisms of this association or the role of confounding factors. Nonetheless, it is remarkable that the most extensive drought in the country's modern history passed without a measurable increase in child mortality among the general population. Yet Ethiopian children still suffer unacceptably high rates of chronic malnutrition and poor life chances, and large populations continue to live at the brink of destitution and calamity.

  7. Cognate xenoliths in Mt. Etna lavas: witnesses of the high-velocity body beneath the volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corsaro, Rosa Anna; Rotolo, Silvio Giuseppe; Cocina, Ornella; Tumbarello, Gianvito

    2014-01-01

    Various xenoliths have been found in lavas of the 1763 ("La Montagnola"), 2001, and 2002-03 eruptions at Mt. Etna whose petrographic evidence and mineral chemistry exclude a mantle origin and clearly point to a cognate nature. Consequently, cognate xenoliths might represent a proxy to infer the nature of the high-velocity body (HVB) imaged beneath the volcano by seismic tomography. Petrography allows us to group the cognate xenoliths as follows: i) gabbros with amphibole and amphibole-bearing mela-gabbros, ii) olivine-bearing leuco-gabbros, iii) leuco-gabbros with amphibole, and iv) Plg-rich leuco gabbros. Geobarometry estimates the crystallization pressure of the cognate xenoliths between 1.9 and 4.1 kbar. The bulk density of the cognate xenoliths varies from 2.6 to 3.0 g/cm3. P wave velocities (V P ), calculated in relation to xenolith density, range from 4.9 to 6.1 km/s. The integration of mineralogical, compositional, geobarometric data, and density-dependent V P with recent literature data on 3D V P seismic tomography enabled us to formulate the first hypothesis about the nature of the HVB which, in the depth range of 3-13 km b.s.l., is likely made of intrusive gabbroic rocks. These are believed to have formed at the "solidification front", a marginal zone that encompasses a deep region (>5 km b.s.l.) of Mt. Etna's plumbing system, within which magma crystallization takes place. The intrusive rocks were afterwards fragmented and transported as cognate xenoliths by the volatile-rich and fast-ascending magmas of the 1763 "La Montagnola", 2001 and 2002-03 eruptions.

  8. Pestivirus exposure in free-living and captive deer in Austria.

    PubMed

    Krametter, Reinhild; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Loitsch, Angelika; Froetscher, Wolfgang; Benetka, Viviane; Moestl, Karin; Baumgartner, Walter

    2004-10-01

    During the hunting season of 2001-02, blood and spleen samples from 59 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 77 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), four fallow deer (Dama dama), and five chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) were collected from nine hunting districts (n = 133) and one deer farm (n = 12) in southern Austria. Sera were tested for antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and virus neutralization tests against three BVDVs and one border disease virus strain. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used for detection of pestivirus-specific RNA in spleen samples. Antibodies were detected in one serum sample when using ELISA and virus neutralization tests. Results of the virus neutralization tests of this sample provided strong evidence for the exposure to the BVDV-1 genotype. The spleen samples were negative for pestivirus-specific RNA.

  9. Influence of observers and stream flow on northern two-lined salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) relative abundance estimates in Acadia and Shenandoah National Parks, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crocker, J.B.; Bank, M.S.; Loftin, C.S.; Jung Brown, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    We investigated effects of observers and stream flow on Northern Two-Lined Salamander (Eurycea bislineata bislineata) counts in streams in Acadia (ANP) and Shenandoah National Parks (SNP). We counted salamanders in 22 ANP streams during high flow (May to June 2002) and during low flow (July 2002). We also counted salamanders in SNP in nine streams during high flow (summer 2003) and 11 streams during low flow (summers 2001?02, 2004). In 2002, we used a modified cover-controlled active search method with a first and second observer. In succession, observers turned over 100 rocks along five 1-m belt transects across the streambed. The difference between observers in total salamander counts was not significant. We counted fewer E. b. bislineata during high flow conditions, confirming that detection of this species is reduced during high flow periods and that assessment of stream salamander relative abundance is likely more reliable during low or base flow conditions.

  10. Annual Report of the Columbia River Treaty, Canadian and United States Entities, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996.

    SciTech Connect

    Columbia River Treaty Operating Committee; B.C. Hydro; United States. Bonneville Power Administration

    1996-11-01

    Agreements approved by the Entities during the period of this report include: (1) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1995 through 31 July 1996, signed 31 January 1996. (2) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on the Detailed Operating Plan for Columbia River Storage for 1 August 1996 through 31 July 1997, signed 29 August 1996. (3) Columbia River Treaty Entity Agreement on Resolving the Dispute on Critical Period Determination, the Capacity Entitlement for the 1998/99, 1999/00, and 2000/01 AOP/DDPB`s, and Operating Procedures for the 2001/02 and Future AOP`s, signed 29 August 1996.

  11. [Animal nutrition for veterinarians--actual cases: tulip bulbs with leaves (Tulipa gesneriana)--an unusual and high risk plant for ruminant feeding].

    PubMed

    Wolf, P; Blanke, H J; Wohlsein, P; Kamphues, J; Stöber, M

    2003-07-01

    14 cattle (mainly younger ones) of a total of 50 extensively kept Galloways died within 6 weeks in late winter 2001/02. According to the owner's report, grass growth had been rather poor; therefore, the herd was fed additionally hay as well as large amounts of tulip onions. In the microbiological examination a highly reduced hygienic quality of the roughage could be detected. In the rumen contents of two dissected young cattle parts of tulip onions were found. According to pertinent literature, tulip onions (in particular their external layers) contain variant-specific amounts of anti-nutritive substances; main active agents are tulipin (a glycoprotein), tuliposid A and B, and lectins. They may cause intensive mucosal irritation, accompanied by reduced feed digestion and body-weight gains, drooling, vomiting and diarrhea. This case report underlines risks caused by feeding of plants originally not destined as forage, if their active ingredients and effects are unknown or remain unconsidered.

  12. Decadal emission estimates of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitric oxide emissions from coal burning in electric power generation plants in India.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Moti L; Sharma, Chhemendra; Singh, Richa

    2014-10-01

    This study aims to estimate the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO₂), sulfur dioxide (SO₂), and nitric oxide (NO) for coal combustion in thermal power plants in India using plant-specific emission factors during the period of 2001/02 to 2009/10. The mass emission factors have been theoretically calculated using the basic principles of combustion under representative prevailing operating conditions in the plants and fuel composition. The results show that from 2001/02 to 2009/10 period, total CO₂ emissions have increased from 324 to 499 Mt/year; SO₂ emissions have increased from 2,519 to 3,840 kt/year; and NO emissions have increased from 948 to 1,539 kt/year from the Indian coal-fired power plants. National average emissions per unit of electricity from the power plants do not show a noticeable improvement during this period. Emission efficiencies for new plants that use improved technology are found to be better than those of old plants. As per these estimates, the national average of CO₂ emissions per unit of electricity varies between 0.91 and 0.95 kg/kWh while SO₂ and NO emissions vary in the range of 6.9 to 7.3 and 2.8 to 2.9 g/kWh, respectively. Yamunagar plant in Haryana state showed the highest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 0.58 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 3.87 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 1.78 g/kWh, while the Faridabad plant has the lowest emission efficiencies with CO₂ emissions as 1.5 kg/kWh, SO₂ emissions as 10.56 g/kWh, and NO emissions as 4.85 g/kWh. Emission values at other plants vary between the values of these two plants.

  13. Surface-water/ground-water interaction along reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hortness, Jon E.; Vidmar, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Declining water levels in the eastern Snake River Plain aquifer and decreases in spring discharges from the aquifer to the Snake River have spurred studies to improve understanding of the surface-water/ground-water interaction on the plain. This study was done to estimate streamflow gains and losses along specific reaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork and to compare changes in gain and loss estimates to changes in ground-water levels over time. Data collected during this study will be used to enhance the conceptual model of the hydrologic system and to refine computer models of ground-water flow and surface-water/ground-water interactions. Estimates of streamflow gains and losses along specific subreaches of the Snake River and Henrys Fork, based on the results of five seepage studies completed during 2001?02, varied greatly across the study area, ranging from a loss estimate of 606 ft3/s in a subreach of the upper Snake River near Heise to a gain estimate of 3,450 ft3/s in a subreach of the Snake River that includes Thousand Springs. Some variations over time also were apparent in specific subreaches. Surface spring flow accounted for much of the inflow to subreaches having large gain estimates. Several subreaches alternately gained and lost streamflow during the study. Changes in estimates of streamflow gains and losses along some of the subreaches were compared with changes in water levels, measured at three different times during 2001?02, in adjacent wells. In some instances, a strong relation between changes in estimates of gains or losses and changes in ground-water levels was apparent.

  14. Ochratoxin A in raisins and currants: basic extraction procedure used in two small marketing surveys of the occurrence and control of the heterogeneity of the toxins in samples.

    PubMed

    Möller, T E; Nyberg, M

    2003-11-01

    A basic extraction procedure for analysis of ochratoxin A (OTA) in currants and raisins is described, as well as the occurrence of OTA and a control of heterogeneity of the toxin in samples bought for two small marketing surveys 1999/2000 and 2001/02. Most samples in the surveys were divided into two subsamples that were individually prepared as slurries and analysed separately. The limit of quantification for the method was estimated as 0.1 microg kg(-1) and recoveries of 85, 90 and 115% were achieved in recovery experiments at 10, 5 and 0.1 microg kg(-1), respectively. Of all 118 subsamples analysed in the surveys, 96 (84%) contained ochratoxin A at levels above the quantification level and five samples (4%) contained more than the European Community legislation of 10 microg kg(-1). The OTA concentrations found in the first survey were in the range < 0.1-19.0 microg kg(-1) with a median concentration of 0.9 microg kg(-1). In the 2001/02 study, the range was < 0.1-34.6 microg kg(-1) with a median of 0.2 microg kg(-1). Big differences were often achieved between individual subsamples of the original sample, which indicate a wide heterogeneous distribution of the toxin. Data from the repeatability test as well as recovery experiments from the same slurries showed that preparation of slurries as described here seemed to give a homogeneous and representative sample. The extraction with the basic sodium bicarbonate-methanol mixture used in the surveys gave similar or somewhat higher OTA values on some samples tested in a comparison with a weak phosphoric acid water-methanol extraction mixture.

  15. Trends in influenza vaccination coverage in Portugal from 1998 to 2010: effect of major pandemic threats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vaccination is the key measure available for prevention of the public health burden of annual influenza epidemics. This article describes national trends in seasonal influenza vaccine (IV) coverage in Portugal from 1998/99 to 2010/11, analyzes progress towards meeting WHO 2010 coverage goals, and addresses the effect of major public health threats of the last 12 years (SARS in 2003/04, influenza A (H5N1) in 2005/06, and the influenza A (H1N1)2009 pandemic) on vaccination trends. Methods The National Institute of Health surveyed (12 times) a random sample of Portuguese families. IV coverage was estimated and was adjusted for age distribution and country region. Independence of age and sex coverage distribution was tested using a modified F-statistic with a 5% significance level. The effect of SARS, A (H5N1), and the A (H1N1)2009 pandemic was tested using a meta-regression model. The model was adjusted for IV coverage in the general population and in the age groups. Results Between 1998/99 and 2010/11 IV, coverage in the general population varied between 14.2% (CI 95%: 11.6%–16.8%) and 17.5% (CI 95%: 17.6%–21.6%). There was no trend in coverage (p = 0.097). In the younger age group (<15 years) a declining trend was identified until 2008/09 (p = 0.005). This trend reversed in 2009/10. There was also a gradual and significant increase in seasonal IV coverage in the elderly (p for trend < 0.001). After 2006/07, IV coverage remained near 50%. Adjusting for baseline trends, there was significantly higher coverage in the general population in 2003/04 (p = 0.032) and 2005/06 (p = 0.018). The high coverage observed in the <15-year age group in season 2009/10 was also significant (p = 0.015). Conclusions IV coverage in the elderly population displayed an increasing trend, but the 75% WHO 2010 target was not met. This result indicates that influenza vaccination strategy should be improved to meet the ambitious WHO coverage goals. The

  16. The Arizona Telemedicine Program business model.

    PubMed

    Barker, Gail P; Krupinski, Elizabeth A; McNeely, Richard A; Holcomb, Michael J; Lopez, Ana Maria; Weinstein, Ronald S

    2005-01-01

    The Arizona Telemedicine Program (ATP) was established in 1996 when state funding was provided to implement eight telemedicine sites. Since then the ATP has expanded to connect 55 health-care organizations through a membership programme formalized through legal contracts. The ATP's membership model is based on an application service provider (ASP) concept, whereby organizations can share services at lower cost; that is, the ATP acts as a broker for services. The membership fee schedule is flexible, allowing clients to purchase only those services desired. An annual membership fee is paid by every user, based on the services requested. The membership programme income has provided a steady revenue stream for the ATP. The membership-derived revenue represented 30% of the ATP's 2.6 million dollars total income during fiscal year 2003/04. PMID:16356313

  17. [Tobacco smoking among medical students of the University of Milano, Italy].

    PubMed

    Rea, B; Tortorano, A M

    2006-01-01

    In order to evaluate smoking habits among the future medical class an anonymous questionnaire about tobacco smoking was submitted to 822 students of the University of Milano in six academic years, from 1998/99 to 2003/04. A total of 184 students (22.4%) were smoker 463 (56.3%) had never smoked and 161 (19.6%) had previously smoked. More than half of these last had quit smoking during the university years. Smoking habits resulted influenced by the habits in the family (parents and brothers) and among the friends. Anti-smoking campaigns among medical students are needed taking into account their future role in health promotion and in prevention of tobacco smoking and its consequences.

  18. Amino Acids in the Antarctic Martian Meteorite MIL03346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Aubrey, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Botta, O.; Bada, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The report by McKay et al. that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains evidence for life on Mars remains controversial. Of central importance is whether ALH84001 and other Antarctic Martian meteorites contain endogenous organic compounds. In any investigation of organic compounds possibly derived from Mars it is important to focus on compounds that play an essential role in biochemistry as we know it and that have properties such as chirality which can be used to distinguish between biotic versus abiotic origins. Amino acids are one of the few compounds that fulfill these requirements. Previous analyses of the Antarctic Martian meteorites ALH84001 and EETA79001 have shown that these meteorites contain low levels of terrestrial amino acid contamination derived from Antarctic ice meltwater. Here we report preliminary amino acid investigations of a third Antarctic Martian meteorite MIL03346 which was discovered in Antarctica during the 2003-04 ANSMET season. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract

  19. Cost and performance of activated carbon injection for mercury control

    SciTech Connect

    2006-08-15

    Activated carbon injection (ACI) is one technology being developed to absorb mercury from mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants. In 2003/04, the USDOE and NETL selected 14 projects to test and evaluate mercury control technologies. While field testing is still ongoing, DOE/NETL recently completed an economic analysis of mercury control for six test sites spanning three ACI variations - conventional powdered activated carbon (PAC), brominated PAC and conventional PAC combined with a sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) applied to the coal. To evaluate the progress of the field testing program and discern the performance of ACI, a data adjustment methodology was developed to account for baseline methane capture. This data were used to perform economic analyses to achieve low, mid and high levels of mercury control. The costs are given in the article. Full details are available on the DOE/NETL website, www.netl.doe.gov. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  20. Joint Seismological and Geodetic Observations on David Glacier, South Victoria Land, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danesi, S.; Dubbini, M.; Morelli, A.; Vittuari, L.; Bannister, S.

    2006-12-01

    Ice streams play a major role in the ice mass balance and in the reckoning of the global sea level; they have therefore been the object of wide scientific interest in the last three decades. During the 21st Italian Antarctic Expedition, in the austral summer 2005-06, we deployed a joint seismographic and geodetic network in the area of the David Glacier, Southern Victoria Land. This followed a similar experiment carried out in the same area during the austral summer 2003-04 (19th Expedition) which involved the deployment of a seismographic network which recorded significant microseismicity beneath the David Glacier, primarily occurring as a few small clusters. In the latest 2006-06 deployment 7 seismographic stations and 3 GPS geodetic receivers operated continuously for a period of 3 months (November 2006-early February 2006) in an area of about 100x50 square km around the David Glacier. The seismic stations were sited on rocky outcrops around the ice flow, and were all equipped with a broad-band seismometer and a digitizer. Contemporaneous geodetic GPS measurements were made on two points located on the glacial body: the first site close to the 2003-04 epicentres and to the David Glacier ice fall, the second site on the floating Drygalski Ice Tongue. A primary master GPS receiver for the kinematic processing was installed on a benchmark located on the Hughes Bluff rock outcrop. Several analyses are planned utilising the combined data sets. These include examining the temporal evolution in earthquake magnitude and locations and also the contemporaneous observation of both seismic activity and surface kinematics of the ice stream to possibly correlate the registered microseismicity with potential surges of the glacier, eventually affected by the Ross Sea tides. Here we present some details of the two temporary networks and preliminary results and implications.

  1. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats.

  2. Changes in prevalence of ovine paratuberculosis following vaccination with Gudair®: Results of a longitudinal study conducted over a decade.

    PubMed

    Dhand, Navneet K; Eppleston, Jeff; Whittington, Richard J; Windsor, Peter A

    2016-09-30

    Since its registration in 2002, Gudair® vaccine has become the key tool for managing paratuberculosis in sheep in Australia. This study was conducted to evaluate its effectiveness in reducing paratuberculosis prevalence in 12 flocks over more than one decade. Flocks with variable initial prevalence (5, 4 and 3 with low, medium, and high prevalence, respectively) were enrolled in the study in 2003-04. Six biennial faecal samplings were conducted in these flocks over a 10year period. At each sampling, faeces from four age groups (3, 4, 5 and 6year-old sheep) were collected from each flock. The aim was to select 7 or 14 pools of faeces constituted with pellets from 50 or 25 sheep from each age group, respectively, but the numbers and sizes of pools did vary due to logistical issues. Samples were cultured using pooled faecal culture approach and sheep level paratuberculosis prevalence was estimated. Changes in probability of a pool being positive and in paratuberculosis prevalence over time were evaluated by fitting generalised-linear and linear mixed models. The proportion of positive faecal pools significantly declined over time from 50.3% at the first sampling in 2003-04 to only 3.1% at the last sampling in 2013-14, suggestive of a 30-fold reduction in the odds of a pooled faecal sample to be positive (p<0.001). Similarly, the average animal level prevalence in flocks dropped from 7.64% at the first sampling to 0.12% at the last sampling. However, faecal shedding persisted and was still present in 3 of the 8 flocks (37.5%) that remained in the study at the last sampling conducted in 2013-14. This is the longest study ever conducted to evaluate paratuberculosis vaccine effectiveness. The results will enable sheep producers to make informed decisions on managing paratuberculosis, and in evaluating the risks of purchasing and trading vaccinated sheep. PMID:27614780

  3. The pervasive effects of racism: experiences of racial discrimination in New Zealand over time and associations with multiple health domains.

    PubMed

    Harris, Ricci; Cormack, Donna; Tobias, Martin; Yeh, Li-Chia; Talamaivao, Natalie; Minster, Joanna; Timutimu, Roimata

    2012-02-01

    Self-reported experience of racial discrimination has been linked to a range of health outcomes in various countries and for different ethnic groups. This study builds on previous work in New Zealand to further investigate the prevalence of self-reported experience of racial discrimination by ethnicity, changes over time and associations with multiple health measures. The study uses data from the 2002/03 (n=12,500) and 2006/07 (n=12,488) New Zealand Health Surveys, nationally representative population-based surveys of adults (15+ years). Reported experience of racial discrimination was measured in both surveys and covered 5 items: experience of an ethnically motivated physical or verbal attack; and unfair treatment because of ethnicity by a health professional, in work, or when gaining housing. Ethnicity was classified as Maori, Pacific, Asian or European. Health indicators included measures of: mental health (SF36 mental health scale, psychological distress, doctor diagnosed mental health condition); physical health (self-rated health, SF36 physical functioning scale, cardiovascular disease); and health risk (smoking, hazardous drinking, excess body fat). Logistic regression was used to examine changes in prevalence of reported experience of racial discrimination over time and associations with health. Reported experience of racial discrimination increased between 2002/03 (28.1% ever) and 2006/07 (35.0% ever) among Asian peoples but remained largely unchanged for other ethnic groupings (Maori 29.5%, Pacific 23.0%, European 13.5%). Experience of racial discrimination was associated with all negative health measures except excess body fat. Where there were significant associations, a dose-response relationship was also evident. We conclude that racial discrimination experienced across a range of settings has the potential to impact on a wide range of health outcomes and risk factors. While ongoing research is needed to understand the multifarious nature of racism

  4. Determining the ice seasons severity during 1982-2015 using the ice extents sum as a new characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rjazin, Jevgeni; Pärn, Ove

    2016-04-01

    Sea ice is a key climate factor and it restricts considerably the winter navigation in sever seasons on the Baltic Sea. So determining ice conditions severity and describing ice cover behaviour at severe seasons interests scientists, engineers and navigation managers. The present study is carried out to determine the ice seasons severity degree basing on the ice seasons 1982 to 2015. A new integrative characteristic is introduced to describe the ice season severity. It is the sum of ice extents of the ice season id est the daily ice extents of the season are summed. The commonly used procedure to determine the ice season severity degree by the maximal ice extent is in this research compared to the new characteristic values. The remote sensing data on the ice concentrations on the Baltic Sea published in the European Copernicus Programme are used to obtain the severity characteristic values. The ice extents are calculated on these ice concentration data. Both the maximal ice extent of the season and a newly introduced characteristic - the ice extents sum are used to classify the winters with respect of severity. The most severe winter of the reviewed period is 1986/87. Also the ice seasons 1981/82, 1984/85, 1985/86, 1995/96 and 2002/03 are classified as severe. Only three seasons of this list are severe by both the criteria. They are 1984/85, 1985/86 and 1986/87. We interpret this coincidence as the evidence of enough-during extensive ice cover in these three seasons. In several winters, for example 2010/11 ice cover extended enough for some time, but did not endure. At few other ice seasons as 2002/03 the Baltic Sea was ice-covered in moderate extent, but the ice cover stayed long time. At 11 winters the ice extents sum differed considerably (> 10%) from the maximal ice extent. These winters yield one third of the studied ice seasons. The maximal ice extent of the season is simple to use and enables to reconstruct the ice cover history and to predict maximal ice

  5. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  6. Atmospheric verification of anthropogenic CO2 emission trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francey, Roger J.; Trudinger, Cathy M.; van der Schoot, Marcel; Law, Rachel M.; Krummel, Paul B.; Langenfelds, Ray L.; Paul Steele, L.; Allison, Colin E.; Stavert, Ann R.; Andres, Robert J.; Rödenbeck, Christian

    2013-05-01

    International efforts to limit global warming and ocean acidification aim to slow the growth of atmospheric CO2, guided primarily by national and industry estimates of production and consumption of fossil fuels. Atmospheric verification of emissions is vital but present global inversion methods are inadequate for this purpose. We demonstrate a clear response in atmospheric CO2 coinciding with a sharp 2010 increase in Asian emissions but show persisting slowing mean CO2 growth from 2002/03. Growth and inter-hemispheric concentration difference during the onset and recovery of the Global Financial Crisis support a previous speculation that the reported 2000-2008 emissions surge is an artefact, most simply explained by a cumulative underestimation (~ 9PgC) of 1994-2007 emissions; in this case, post-2000 emissions would track mid-range of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emission scenarios. An alternative explanation requires changes in the northern terrestrial land sink that offset anthropogenic emission changes. We suggest atmospheric methods to help resolve this ambiguity.

  7. Comparison of AMSR-E and SSM/I snow parameter retrievals over the Ob river basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mognard, N.M.; Grippa, M.; LeToan, T.; Kelly, R.E.J.; Chang, A.T.C.; Josberger, E.G.

    2004-01-01

    Passive microwave observations from the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer - EOS (AMSR-E) and from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are used to analyse the evolution of the snow pack in the Ob river basin during the snow season of 2002-03. The Ob river is the biggest Russian river with respect to its watershed area (2 975 000 km2). The Ob originates in the Altai mountains and flows northward across the vast West Siberian lowland towards the Arctic Ocean. The majority of snow cover is contained in the lowlands rather than in mountainous regions and persists for six months or more. During the snow season, surface air temperatures are very cold. Therefore, the combination of cold dry snow and large areas of uniform topography is ideal for snowpack extent and water equivalent retrievals from passive microwave observations. The thermal gradient through the snow pack is estimated and used to model the growth of the snow grain size and to compute the evolution of the passive microwave derived snow depth over the region. A comparison between the AMSR-E and SSM/I estimates is performed and the differences between the snow parameters from the two satellite instruments are analysed.

  8. Successful public policy change in California: firearms and youth resources.

    PubMed

    Wallack, Lawrence; Winett, Liana; Lee, Amy

    2005-07-01

    The California Wellness Foundation's Violence Prevention Initiative (VPI) was a 70 million dollars, 10-year effort to reduce violence among California youth. The Policy and Public Education Program of the initiative advanced two broad policy goals: (1) limiting the availability of handguns to youth, (2) increasing the state's investment in youth resources. Roughly 110 communities passed more than 300 ordinances to limit gun availability or promote gun safety. In addition, California legislators passed 24 statewide gun laws. Funding for youth programs increased to more that 368 million dollars in 2002-03, from about 100 million dollars in 1996-97. Using a framework adapted from the social movements and political communications literature the importance of four key elements was apparent in the VPI: articulating clear policy goals, strategic issue framing, capitalizing on political opportunity, and effectively mobilizing resources. The impact of new gun policies, increased funding for youth programs, and a diverse network of policy professionals and issue advocates interested in social change to decrease violence remain to be fully understood. PMID:16022213

  9. Grid Oriented Implementation of the Tephra Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, M.; D'Agostino, M.; Drago, A.; Pistagna, F.; Prestifilippo, M.; Reitano, D.; Scollo, S.; Spata, G.

    2009-04-01

    TEPHRA is a two dimensional advection-diffusion model implemented by Bonadonna et al. [2005] that describes the sedimentation process of particles from volcanic plumes. The model is used by INGV - Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione di Catania, to forecast tephra dispersion during Etna volcanic events. Every day weather forecast provided by the Italian Air Force Meteorological Office in Rome and by the hydrometeorological service of ARPA in Emilia Romagna are processed by TEPHRA model with other volcanological parameters to simulate two different eruptive scenarios of Mt. Etna (corresponding to 1998 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions). The model outputs are plotted on maps and transferred to Civil Protection which takes the trouble to give public warnings and plan mitigation measures. The TEPHRA model is implemented in ANSI-C code using MPI commands to maximize parallel computation. Actually the model runs on an INGV Beowulf cluster. In order to provide better performances we worked on porting it to PI2S2 sicilian grid infrastructure inside the "PI2S2 Project" (2006-2008). We configured the application to run on grid, using Glite middleware, analyzed the obtained performances and comparing them with ones obtained on the local cluster. As TEPHRA needs to be run in a short time in order to transfer fastly the dispersion maps to Civil Protection, we also worked to minimize and stabilize grid job-scheduling time by using customized high-priority queues called Emergency Queue.

  10. Genetic parameters and selection strategies for soybean genotypes resistant to the stink bug-complex.

    PubMed

    de Godoi, Cláudio Roberto Cardoso; Pinheiro, José Baldin

    2009-04-01

    Soybean genotypes resistant to stink bugs are derived from complex breeding processes obtained through indirect selection. The aim of the present work was to estimate genetic parameters for guiding selection strategies towards resistant genotypes, based on those traits associated with responses to pod-attacking stink bugs, such as the grain filling period (GFP), leaf retention (LR), percentage index of pod damage (PIPD) and percentage of spotted seeds (PSS). We assessed the parental lines IAC-100 (resistant) and FT-Estrela (susceptible), the progenies F(2) and F (4) , 30 progenies F (2:3) , 30 progenies BC (1) F (2:3) and 30 progenies BC (2) F (2:3) , besides the cultivars BRS Celeste and MGBR-46 (Conquista). Three field experiments, using randomized complete block design with three replications, were installed in Goiânia-GO, in the 2002/03 season. Each experiment consisted of 36 treatments (6 common and 30 regular). Heritability estimates were: 74.6 and 36.1 (GFP); 51.9 and 19.9 (LR); 49.6 and 49.6 (PIPD) and 55.8 and 20.3 (PSS), in both the broad and narrow senses, respectively. Based on these results, we concluded that the best strategy for obtaining stink bug-resistant genotypes consists of selecting the PIPD trait in early generations (F (3) or F (4) ), followed by selection for the GFP, LR and PSS traits in generations with higher endogamy levels.

  11. Apacheta, a new geothermal prospect in Northern Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Urzua, Luis; Powell, Tom; Cumming, William B.; Dobson, Patrick

    2002-05-24

    The discovery of two high-temperature fumaroles, with gas geochemistry compatible with an economic geothermal system, established Apacheta as one of the most attractive geothermal exploration prospects in northern Chile. These remote fumaroles at 5,150 m elevation were first sampled in 1999 by ENAP and its partners, following up on the reports of a CODELCO water exploration well that flowed small amounts of dry steam at 4,540 m elevation in the valley 4.5 km east of the fumaroles. The prospect is associated with a Plio-Pleistocene volcanic complex located within a NW-trending graben along the axis of the high Andes. The regional water table is 4,200 masl. There are no hot springs, just the 88 degrees C steam well and the 109 degrees and 118 degrees C fumaroles with gas compositions that indicate reservoir temperatures of greater than or equal to 250 degrees C, using a variety of gas geothermometers. An MT-TDEM survey was completed in 2001-2002 by Geotermica del Norte (SDN), an ENAP-C ODELCO partnership, to explore the Apacheta geothermal concession. The survey results indicated that base of the low resistivity clay cap has a structural apex just west of the fumaroles, a pattern typically associated with shallow permeability within a high temperature geothermal resource. SGN plans to drill at least one exploration well in 2002-03 to characterize a possible economic resource at Apacheta.

  12. Trend of Income-related Inequality of Child Oral Health in Australia

    PubMed Central

    Do, L.G.; Spencer, A.J.; Slade, G.D.; Ha, D.H.; Roberts-Thomson, K.F.; Liu, P.

    2010-01-01

    It is important that we monitor socio-economic inequality in health. Inequality in child oral health has been expected to widen because of widening socio-economic inequality. This study aimed to evaluate trends in income-related inequality in caries experience of Australian children. Cross-sectional studies in 1992/93 and 2002/03 collected data on deciduous caries experience of 5- to 10-year-olds and permanent caries experience of 6- to 12-year-olds. Household composition and income was used to calculate quartiles of equivalized income. Slope Index of Inequality (SII), Concentration Index (CI), and regression-based rate ratios were used to quantify income-related inequality and to evaluate trends. Income-related inequality in caries experience was evident regardless of time and dentition. The three indicators of inequality indicate a significant increase in income-related inequality in child deciduous caries experience during the decade. The income inequality in permanent caries experience did not change significantly. Income inequalities increased in deciduous teeth, but not in permanent teeth, among Australian children. PMID:20543094

  13. Trend of income-related inequality of child oral health in Australia.

    PubMed

    Do, L G; Spencer, A J; Slade, G D; Ha, D H; Roberts-Thomson, K F; Liu, P

    2010-09-01

    It is important that we monitor socio-economic inequality in health. Inequality in child oral health has been expected to widen because of widening socio-economic inequality. This study aimed to evaluate trends in income-related inequality in caries experience of Australian children. Cross-sectional studies in 1992/93 and 2002/03 collected data on deciduous caries experience of 5- to 10-year-olds and permanent caries experience of 6- to 12-year-olds. Household composition and income was used to calculate quartiles of equivalized income. Slope Index of Inequality (SII), Concentration Index (CI), and regression-based rate ratios were used to quantify income-related inequality and to evaluate trends. Income-related inequality in caries experience was evident regardless of time and dentition. The three indicators of inequality indicate a significant increase in income-related inequality in child deciduous caries experience during the decade. The income inequality in permanent caries experience did not change significantly. Income inequalities increased in deciduous teeth, but not in permanent teeth, among Australian children.

  14. Dynamicimagestoaddressconceptualnodes about mechanical waves: Example materials and preliminary results of the experimentation of the teacher training module IMAGONDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, I.; Lombardi, S.; Monroy, G.; Sassi, E.

    2004-09-01

    In the framework of the 2002-03 project “Fisica per la Formazione Culturale - FORMazione Insegnanti" funded by Italy ministry of Education, a set of training materials, focused on mechanical waves, has been developed. The core of the materials is represented by animated images purposely designed in order to: 1) address intrinsically dynamic aspects of one-dimensional impulses/waves propagation on a string; 2) have the trainees reflect upon students' difficulties in reading/interpreting static images (as the ones which are featured in common textbooks) and animations. In this paper we discuss example materials concerning transversal impulses on strings to address conceptual nodes such as: 1) configuration of the string at a given time and its aaabstract representation; 2) displacement vs. time graph of a string element and its aaabstract representation; 3) relationships between the two aaabstract representations; 4) modelization of mechanical wave propagation in one dimension. Moreover the results of the experimentation of the training materials in the framework of the Post Graduate School to Became Physics Teacher in Secondary Schools are presented and commented.

  15. How Sensitive are Helioseismic Mode Parameters and Subsurface Flows to Choice of the Spectral Line?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Jain, K.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, I.; Toner, C. G.; Tripathy, S. C.; Armstrong, J. D.; Jefferies, S.; Rhodes, E. J., Jr.; Rose, P. J.

    2006-06-01

    We analyze simultaneous multi-spectral line observations to investigate how the results of helioseismology are affected by the spectral line used to observe the solar oscillations. The data sets include observations obtained with the Ni I 676.8 nm (from Global Oscillation Network Group - GONG), K I 769.9 nm (from Magneto Optical Filters at Two Heights - MOTH experiment) and Na I D2 589.0 nm (from MOTH experiment and Mount Wilson Observatory) lines during the Austral summer of 2002-03. The depth formation of these lines occurs about 200 km, 420 km and 780 km above the base of the photosphere, respectively. The simultaneous observations in several atmospheric layers allow us to determine the propagation behavior of acoustic waves between these layers. We carry out ring-diagram analysis, a local helioseismology technique, to study the relative changes in local mode parameters and subsurface velocity fields inferred from the different data sets. Preliminary analysis of the mode parameters obtained from the Ni I 676.8 nm and K I 769.9 nm spectral lines clearly show a significant increase in mode amplitude with increasing observing height but with no apparent change in the mode width.

  16. Summer cover crops and soil amendments to improve growth and nutrient uptake of okra

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.R.; Li, Y.C.; Klassen, W.

    2006-04-15

    A pot experiment with summer cover crops and soil amendments was conducted in two consecutive years to elucidate the effects of these cover crops and soil amendments on 'Clemson Spineless 80' okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) yields and biomass production, and the uptake and distribution of soil nutrients and trace elements. The cover crops were sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), and sorghum sudan-grass (Sorghum bicolor x S. bicolor var. sudanense) with fallow as the control. The organic soil amendments were biosolids (sediment from wastewater plants), N-Viro Soil (a mixture of biosolids and coal ash), coal ash (a combustion by-product from power plants), co-compost (a mixture of 3 biosolids: 7 yard waste), and yard waste compost (mainly from leaves and branches of trees and shrubs, and grass clippings) with a soil-incorporated cover crop as the control. As a subsequent vegetable crop, okra was grown after the cover crops, alone or together with the organic soil amendments, had been incorporated. All of the cover crops, except sorghum sudangrass in 2002-03, significantly improved okra fruit yields and the total biomass production. Both cover crops and soil amendments can substantially improve nutrient uptake and distribution. The results suggest that cover crops and appropriate amounts of soil amendments can be used to improve soil fertility and okra yield without adverse environmental effects or risk of contamination of the fruit. Further field studies will be required to confirm these findings.

  17. Cohort Profile: The Panel Study of Income Dynamics' Child Development Supplement and Transition into Adulthood Study.

    PubMed

    McGonagle, Katherine A; Sastry, Narayan

    2015-04-01

    The Child Development Supplement (CDS) was started in 1997 to collect information on children and caregivers in families in the USA that participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID), an ongoing national longitudinal household survey that began in 1968. CDS was launched with the goal of creating a comprehensive, nationally representative, prospective database of young children and their families for studying the dynamic process of children's health and development. The same children and their caregivers were interviewed in up to three waves approximately every 5 years (1997, 2002-03, and 2007-08), with a child-based response rate of 90% in the most recent wave. Upon reaching age 18 years and finishing or leaving high school, the children in the CDS cohort shifted to a six-wave follow-up study launched in 2005 called the PSID Transition into Adulthood (TA) study. The TA data have been collected biennially through 2013, with a final wave planned for 2015. Once these young adults form their own economically independent households, they join the PSID. The main categories of data emphasize the major developmental tasks of childhood and young adulthood, including influences on successful development in the domains of family, schools and neighbourhoods. The majority of data and documentation are freely and publicly available through the PSID Online Data Center.

  18. Health care payments in the asia pacific: validation of five survey measures of economic burden

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Many low and middle-income countries rely on out-of-pocket payments to help finance health care. These payments can pose financial hardships for households; valid measurement of this type of economic burden is therefore critical. This study examines the validity of five survey measures of economic burden caused by health care payments. Methods We analyzed 2002/03 World Health Survey household-level data from four Asia Pacific countries to assess the construct validity of five measures of economic burden due to health care payments: any health expenditure, health expenditure amount, catastrophic health expenditure, indebtedness, and impoverishment. We used generalized linear models to assess the correlations between these measures and other constructs with which they have expected associations, such as health care need, wealth, and risk protection. Results Measures of impoverishment and indebtedness most often correlated with health care need, wealth, and risk protection as expected. Having any health expenditure, a large health expenditure, or even a catastrophic health expenditure did not consistently predict degree of economic burden. Conclusions Studies that examine economic burden attributable to health care payments should include measures of impoverishment and indebtedness. PMID:23822552

  19. Heterosexual men and women who seek sex through the Internet.

    PubMed

    Bolding, Graham; Davis, Mark; Hart, Graham; Sherr, Lorraine; Elford, Jonathan

    2006-08-01

    Heterosexual women (n = 330), heterosexual men (n = 319) and gay men (n = 331) attending a London HIV-testing clinic in 2002-03 completed a confidential self-administered questionnaire concerning their sexual behaviour and use of the Internet for seeking sexual partners (response rate 70%). One-in-twenty (5%) heterosexual women and one-in-ten (10%) heterosexual men had used the Internet to look for sexual partners in the previous 12 months compared with nearly half (43%) the gay men (P<0.001). Rates of high-risk sexual behaviour with a casual partner were elevated among those who used the Internet to look for sex (compared with those who did not). However, people who looked for sex through the Internet were just as likely to meet their high-risk casual partners offline as online. Our findings suggest that high-risk heterosexual women and men are selectively using the Internet to look for sex rather than the Internet per se leading to riskier sexual behaviour.

  20. Calving processes and lake evolution at Miage glacier, Mont Blanc, Italian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diolaiuti, G.; Kirkbride, M. P.; Smiraglia, C.; Benn, D. I.; D'Agata, C.; Nicholson, L.

    A marginal ice-contact lake at Miage glacier, Mont Blanc, Italian Alps, has been studied to reconstruct changes in lake area. Historical sources, comprising sketches, maps, photographs and scientific surveys, have been supplemented by recent field surveys. These include surveys of glacier surface velocity (which varied along the glacier tongue from 70 m a-1 in the upper part to about 6 m a-1 close to the snout, consistent with data in the literature, showing that velocity rates have remained constant during the last 40 years), volumetric ice-cliff loss (-92 000 ± 180 m3 in 2002 03), lake temperature and bathymetry, and qualitative observation of calving events, crevassing, and meltwater production. Results indicate that the lake has been stable for the last half-century following a period of enlargement due to ice-marginal retreat. The lake hydrology is complex, with possible reversals of englacial water flow causing infrequent emptying episodes. The debris cover on the glacier and ice-cliff surfaces seems to have played an important role in the ice-cliff evolution and the calving phenomena; calving is driven by undercutting at the water-line aided by the opening of water- and debris-filled crevasses in the glacier surface.

  1. The impact of early school behavior and educational achievement on adult drug use disorders: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Fothergill, Kate E; Ensminger, Margaret E; Green, Kerry M; Crum, Rosa M; Robertson, Judith; Juon, Hee-Soon

    2008-01-01

    Few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of education on drug use disorders among community populations of African Americans. This study explores the impact of multiple early education indicators on later problem drug use in an African American population followed for more than 35 years. The initial cohort comprised all 1st graders (N=1242, 51% female) living in the Woodlawn community of Chicago in 1966. Follow-up assessments were conducted in adolescence (1975-76), early adulthood (1992-93), and mid adulthood (2002-03). One or both adult interviews were completed by 1053 individuals providing information for identifying lifetime drug use disorders. Logistic regression with multiple imputation revealed several important relationships between early education indicators and DSM-III-R/DSM-IV drug use disorders. Specifically, the risk for adult problem drug use was related to: underachievement in 1st grade; low 7th and 8th grade standardized math scores; both suspension from and skipping school in adolescence; not having a high school diploma (compared to having a college degree), and having a diploma or GED (compared to having a college degree). Also, 1st graders characterized as shy by their teachers were less likely to develop problem drug use in adulthood. Results indicate potential opportunities for targeted intervention at multiple life stages.

  2. Velocity Profile Normalization of Field-Measured Turbidity Currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, J.

    2009-05-01

    Multiple occurrences of turbidity currents were observed in moored-ADCP measurements in Monterey (2002/03) and Hueneme (2007/08) submarine canyons, California. These turbidity currents, almost all of which were supercritical (densimetric Froude number greater than unity), lasted for hours and obtained a maximum speed of greater than 200 cm/s. The layer-averaged velocity of the turbidity currents varied from 100+ cm/s at the onset of the turbidity currents to 20+ cm/s toward the end of the events. The thickness of the turbidity currents tended to increase from 10 to 40 m over an event. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the field measurements [e.g. Altinakar, Graf, and Hopfinger, 1996, Flow structure in turbidity currents, Journal of Hydraulic Research, 34(5):713-718], were found to represent the field data fairly well. However, the best similarity collapse of the turbidity current velocity profiles was obtained when the streamwise velocity was normalized by the layer-averaged velocity and the elevation was normalized by the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to the same empirical function y = exp (-α xm) for the jet region above the velocity maximum.

  3. Metals and kidney markers in adult offspring of endemic nephropathy patients and controls: a two-year follow-up study

    PubMed Central

    Karmaus, Wilfried; Dimitrov, Plamen; Simeonov, Valeri; Tsolova, Svetla; Bonev, Angel; Georgieva, Rossitza

    2008-01-01

    Background The etiology of Balkan Endemic Nephropathy, (BEN), a tubulointerstitial kidney disease, is unknown. Although this disease is endemic in rural areas of Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania, and Serbia, similar manifestations are reported to occur in other regions, for instance Tunisia and Sri Lanka. A number of explanations have been stated including lignites, aristolochic acid, ochratoxin A, metals, and metalloids. Etiologic claims are often based on one or a few studies without sound scientific evidence. In this systematic study, we tested whether exposures to metals (cadmium and lead) and metalloids (arsenic and selenium) are related to Balkan Endemic Nephropathy. Methods In 2003/04 we recruited 102 adults whose parents had BEN and who resided in one of three communities (Vratza, Bistretz, or Beli Izvor, Bulgaria). A control group comprised of 99 adults having non-BEN hospitalized parents was enrolled in the study during the same time. We conducted face-to-face interviews, ultrasound kidney measurements, and determined kidney function in two consecutive investigations (2003/04 and 2004/05). Metals and metalloids were measured in urine and blood samples. To assess the agreement between these consecutive measurements, we calculated intraclass correlation coefficients. Repeated measurement data were analyzed using mixed models. Results We found that cadmium and arsenic were associated with neither kidney size nor function. Lead had a significant but negligible effect on creatinine clearance. Selenium showed a weak but significant negative association with two of the four kidney parameters, namely creatinine clearance and β2-microglobulin. It was positively related to kidney length. These associations were not restricted to the offspring of BEN patients. Adding credence to these findings are reports showing comparable kidney effects in animals exposed to selenium. Conclusion The findings of this 2-year follow-up study indicate that metals and metalloids do

  4. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region. PMID:27579485

  5. Monitoring of wet season rice crop at state and national level in India using multidate synthetic aperture radar data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Manab; Patnaik, Chakrapani; Panigrahy, Sushma; Parihar, Jai Singh

    2006-12-01

    Rice crop grown during the monsoon (wet) season is the most important food grain in India. The crop is grown under varied cultural and management practices. The present paper highlights the results of rice monitoring being carried out for the past five years (2001-02 to 2005-06) using multi-date RADARSAT ScanSAR Narrow-B data. 30 ScanSAR scenes covering thirteen states account for 95 percent of national crop area. 90 scenes are analysed to assess the national wet season rice crop. A stratified sampling plan is used to analyse 5*5 km segments accounting for 15 per cent of the crop area in each of the study states. A decision-rule classifier has been developed based on a Radiative Transfer (RT) model developed and calibrated using large number of rice sites in India and controlled field experiments. This procedure accounts for change in backscatter as a result of transplanting of rice and crop growth in multi-date data to classify rice areas. Results indicate more than 93 per cent accuracy of area estimation at state level and 97 per cent at national level. It is feasible to assess deviations in crop planting operation (late or early) for a given area.

  6. Female collegiate windmill pitchers: influences to injury incidence.

    PubMed

    Hill, Jennifer L; Humphries, Brendan; Weidner, Thomas; Newton, Robert U

    2004-08-01

    Few studies have examined fast-pitch softball pitchers and associated injuries. The aim of this study was to investigate injuries occurring to collegiate softball pitchers and associated influential factors. A web-based survey of 181 Division I (n = 45), II (n = 30), and III (n = 54) collegiate softball pitchers was conducted. The survey involved self-reported data from the previous year that addressed (a) demographic information, (b) pitching and game data, (c) training program information, and (d) injury reporting. Demographic information, pitching and game data, and training program information were not statistically significant (p < 0.05) in relation to injury. Descriptive statistics were used to report totals and percentages of pitchers surveyed. Among 131 reported injuries, 36 were acute, 92 chronic/overuse, and 3 unspecified. Of the total injuries, 80 were directly from pitching, with 33 shoulder-related and 16 related to the lower back. Among injured pitchers, 109 took nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 140 used modalities, 11 received surgeries, and 95 saw additional specialists. Pitchers are at a risk for injury, with 72.8% of surveyed pitchers being injured during the 2001-02 year.

  7. Assessment of trophic dynamics of cephalopods and large pelagic fishes in the central North Atlantic Ocean using stable isotope analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, John M.; Lutcavage, Molly E.

    2013-10-01

    Pelagic ecosystems in the central North Atlantic Ocean support numerous commercially-exploited tuna, shark, and billfish species, which rely largely on cephalopod as well as fish and crustacean prey. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses were performed on tuna and billfish predators as well as cephalopod prey species sampled during two research longline cruises (2001-02) to study their trophic structure. Nitrogen stable isotope (δ15N) analyses revealed similarity in trophic position (TP) among sampled fish predator species, with large swordfish occupying the highest TP. Species with wider vertical distributions (swordfish and bigeye tuna) had higher δ15N values than species more constrained to the epipelagic zone (yellowfin tuna and dolphinfish). Analysis of tissue nitrogen isotope values showed an ontogenetic increase for swordfish and white marlin but no effects for other sampled fish species. For cephalopods as a group, δ15N increased with size. Smaller cephalopods sampled in this study had δ15N values that were about one TP below co-occurring tunas and billfishes, confirming their importance as a prey resource. Larger cephalopods had similar δ15N values to tunas and billfishes, indicating that these large cephalopods occupy a comparable TP to their fish predators. Both carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values of large pelagic fishes showed spatial gradients relative to conspecifics analyzed in coastal regions, which can be used to trace large scale movements.

  8. Determination of β -Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sean; Bénet, Thierry; Michaud, Julien; Cuany, Denis; Rohfritsch, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90-110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80-120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92-102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%. PMID:24719617

  9. Food habits of American black bears as a metric for direct management of humanbear conflict in Yosemite Valley, Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenleaf, S.S.; Matthews, S.M.; Wright, R.G.; Beecham, J.J.; Leithead, H.M.

    2009-01-01

    The management of human-American black bear (Ursus americanus) conflict has been of significant concern for Yosemite National Park (YNP) personnel since the 1920s. Park managers implemented the YNP Human-Bear Management Plan in 1975 in an effort to reduce human-bear conflicts, especially in the extensively developed Yosemite Valley (YV). We used scat analysis to estimate annual and seasonal food habits of black bears in YV during 2001-02. We assessed the success of efforts to reduce the availability of anthropogenic foods, including garbage, by examining changes in the diet compared to a study from 1974-78 (Graber 1981). We also quantified consumption of non-native fruit to address its possible contribution to human-bear conflicts. The annual percent volume of human-provided food and garbage in black bear scats in YV decreased from 21% to 6% between 1978 and 2002, indicating YNP efforts have been effective. We found high use of non-native apples by bears throughout YV. Non-native food sources could be contributing to habituation and food conditioning, given their proximity to developed areas of YV. We recommend that YNP managers continue to (1) adapt and improve their management tools to address changing circumstances, (2) quantify the success of new management tools, and (3) reduce the availability of non-native food sources. ?? 2009 International Association for Bear Research and Management.

  10. Linking Data for Mothers and Babies in De-Identified Electronic Health Data

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Ruth; Cromwell, David; van der Meulen, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Linkage of longitudinal administrative data for mothers and babies supports research and service evaluation in several populations around the world. We established a linked mother-baby cohort using pseudonymised, population-level data for England. Design and Setting Retrospective linkage study using electronic hospital records of mothers and babies admitted to NHS hospitals in England, captured in Hospital Episode Statistics between April 2001 and March 2013. Results Of 672,955 baby records in 2012/13, 280,470 (42%) linked deterministically to a maternal record using hospital, GP practice, maternal age, birthweight, gestation, birth order and sex. A further 380,164 (56%) records linked using probabilistic methods incorporating additional variables that could differ between mother/baby records (admission dates, ethnicity, 3/4-character postcode district) or that include missing values (delivery variables). The false-match rate was estimated at 0.15% using synthetic data. Data quality improved over time: for 2001/02, 91% of baby records were linked (holding the estimated false-match rate at 0.15%). The linked cohort was representative of national distributions of gender, gestation, birth weight and maternal age, and captured approximately 97% of births in England. Conclusion Probabilistic linkage of maternal and baby healthcare characteristics offers an efficient way to enrich maternity data, improve data quality, and create longitudinal cohorts for research and service evaluation. This approach could be extended to linkage of other datasets that have non-disclosive characteristics in common. PMID:27764135

  11. Groundwater-surface water interactions in a braided river: a tracer-based assessment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodgers, P.; Soulsby, C.; Petry, J.; Malcolm, I.; Gibbins, C.; Dunn, S.

    2003-04-01

    Natural tracers (alkalinity and silica) were used to infer groundwater-surface water exchanges in the main braided reach of the river Feshie, Cairngorms, Scotland. Stream water samples were collected upstream and downstream of the braided section at fortnightly intervals throughout the 2001-02 hydrological year and then at finer resolution over two rainfall events. The braided reach was found to exert a significant downstream buffering effect on the alkalinity of these waters, particularly at moderate flows. Extensive hydrochemical surveys were undertaken to characterise the different source waters feeding the braids. Shallow groundwater flow systems at the edge of the braided floodplain recharged by effluent streams and hillslope drainage appear to be of particular significance. Deeper groundwater was identified closer to the main channel, upwelling through the hyporheic zone. Both sources contributed to the significant groundwater-surface water interactions that promote the buffering effect observed through the braided reach. Their impact was less significant at higher flows when acidic storm runoff from the peat-covered catchment headwaters dominated, as well as under baseflow conditions, when upstream alkalinity was already buffered due to headwater groundwater sources assuming dominance. The significant temporally and spatially dynamic influence of these groundwater-surface water interactions was therefore seen to have important implications for both catchment functioning and in-stream ecology.

  12. Viral haemorrhagic fevers in Europe--effective control requires a co-ordinated response.

    PubMed

    Crowcroft, N S; Morgan, D; Brown, D

    2002-03-01

    Viral haemorrhagic fevers (VHF) have attracted the attention of the medical world and general public for many reasons, some based in reality and more on misinformation. They are amongst the highest profile infections in the public mind, because they are thought to be highly infectious and to kill most of their victims in a dramatic way (1,2). To add to the intrigue, mysteries remain about the source of some of the viruses involved. They emerge and re-emerge in many countries, most recently Ebola in Uganda in 2000 (3) and Gabon in 2001/02 (4), and Congo Crimean Haemorrhagic Fever (CCHF) in Kosovo (5) and Pakistan in 2001 (6). Large outbreaks have affected populations in endemic areas, living mainly in inaccessible areas or refugee camps where living conditions are very difficult. Poorly resourced medical facilities have played a role in amplifying transmission and infection control measures have been difficult or virtually impossible to establish. These viruses are likely to remain a threat until the reservoir is identified and as long as endemic areas are afflicted with ecological change, poverty and social instability. Recent events since September 11 2001 remind us of their potential to be used as weapons, and that fear can present a risk to public health. PMID:12631941

  13. Geoprospection of Mound A, Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reppert, P. M.; Schneider, K. A.; Garrison, E. G.

    2005-05-01

    Mound A, located at Etowah Mounds State Park, Georgia, was the subject of a multi-sensor geoprospection study in 2001-02. Mound A, a late prehistoric mound, built by the Mississippian Culture, ca. 1250 - 1400 AD,is, due to its size, ~ 1 ha in area at the base and 20 m in height, a formidable subject for the use of shallow geoprospection techniques. Techniques used were ground radar (GPR), conductivity (EM) and electrical (resistivity) methods. Common Mid-Point (CMP) radar data produced detail on the mound interior from surface to base. Electrical pesudo-sections produced excellent detail of the mound's interior. The EM data appears relevant for only the upper half of the mound, perhaps to a depth of 10 m, and suggests significant heterogeneity in the sediment fill used in the mound's construction. Our results speak directly to the efficacy of shallow geophyscial techniques in exploring large archeological mounds and tells. Another important aspect of this study is the use of a geoprospection approach as a non-invasice methodology for characterizing culturally sensitive archaeological sites.

  14. Determination of β -Galactooligosaccharides by Liquid Chromatography.

    PubMed

    Austin, Sean; Bénet, Thierry; Michaud, Julien; Cuany, Denis; Rohfritsch, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Beta-galactooligosaccharides (GOS) are oligosaccharides normally produced industrially by transgalactosylation of lactose. They are also present naturally in the milk of many animals including humans and cows. GOS are thought to be good for health, being potential prebiotic fibres, and are increasingly added to food products. In order to control the GOS content of products, the AOAC official method 2001.02 was developed. However, the method has some shortcomings and in particular is unsuited to the analysis of products containing high levels of lactose such as infant formula. To overcome this problem, we developed a new method for application to infant formula and tested it on various GOS ingredients as well as infant formulae. When applied to GOS ingredients the results of the new method compare well with those of the official AOAC method, typically giving results in the range 90-110% of those of the official method and having an expanded measurement uncertainty of less than 15%. For three products, the results were outside this range (recoveries of 80-120% and expended measurement uncertainties up to 20%). When applied to the analysis of infant formula, recoveries were in the range of 92-102% and the expanded measurement uncertainties were between 4.2 and 11%.

  15. Nest-site characteristics and linear abundance of cliff-nesting American kestrels on San Clemente Island, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, Brian L.; Kershner, Eric L.; Finn, S.P.; Condon, Anne M.; Cooper, Douglass M.; Garcelon, David K.

    2003-01-01

    American Kestrels( Falco sparverius) are typically secondary-cavity nesters, and use of natural cliff cavities for nest sites is less-commonly reported. On San Clemente Island (SCI), California, however, American Kestrels nest primarily on cliffs in major canyons(93%), to a lesser extent on seacliffs(4%), as well as in man-made structures (3%). We located and mapped 99 American Kestrel territories on SCI, and recorded 11 nest-site characteristics at 40 cliff nests during 2001-02. Nest cliffs were typically fractured igneous rock with mean height of 16.1 m +_ 1.8 SE. Mean slope of nest cliffs was vertical (x=91 degrees). Nest cliffs and cavities were significantly oriented to the southeast, away from the prevailing wind direction(NW). In eight canyons, where we believe that we found all occupied American Kestrel territories, the mean linear abundance was 2.1 pairs/km, greater than most published estimates. Contrary to most previous studies, no American Kestrels nested in tree cavities despite their presence in SCI canyons. The absence of cavity-excavating breeding birds from the island likely restricts kestrels to nesting in naturally-formed cavities and man-made structures.

  16. Avian cholera in waterfowl: the role of lesser snow and ross's geese as disease carriers in the Playa Lakes Region.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Michael D; Shadduck, Daniel J; Goldberg, Diana R; Johnson, William P

    2005-01-01

    We collected samples from apparently healthy geese in the Playa Lakes Region (USA) during the winters of 2000-01 and 2001-02 to determine whether carriers of Pasteurella multocida, the bacterium that causes avian cholera, were present in wild populations. With the use of methods developed in laboratory challenge trials (Samuel et al., 2003a) and a serotype-specific polymerase chain reaction method for identification of P. multocida serotype 1, we found that a small proportion of 322 wild birds (<5%) were carriers of pathogenic P. multocida. On the basis of serology, an additional group of these birds (<10%) were survivors of recent avian cholera infection. Our results confirm the hypothesis that wild waterfowl are carriers of avian cholera and add support for the hypothesis that wild birds are a reservoir for this disease. In concert with other research, this work indicates that enzootic infection with avian cholera occurs in lesser snow goose (Chen caerulescens caerulescens) populations throughout their annual cycle. Although fewer Ross's geese (Chen rossii) were sampled, we also found these birds were carriers of P. multocida. Even in the absence of disease outbreaks, serologic evidence indicates that chronic disease transmission and recent infection are apparently occurring year-round in these highly gregarious birds and that a small portion of these populations are potential carriers with active infection. PMID:15827210

  17. [Time trends in sex differences in adolescents' health behaviour from 2001 to 2010].

    PubMed

    Bucksch, J; Finne, E; Glücks, S; Kolip, P

    2012-07-01

    Health behaviours are influenced by gender-specific conceptions and norms of the society. These conceptions and norms are changing over time. The aim of this analysis is to describe gender differences in health behaviour of adolescents and to interpret these gender differences in terms of theories of social construction.We used the national German data of the Health-Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) studies conducted in the years 2001/02, 2005/06 und 2009/10 with respect to the following health behaviours: tobacco use, binge drinking, diet, fruit and vegetable consumption, daily breakfast and physical activity. We describe the difference in frequencies between girls and boys and used a series of logistic regressions to test the significance of the gender difference in health behaviours with survey year as the predictor.There is only a small difference -between girls and boys with respect to tobacco use and binge drinking. For binge drinking girls nearly converge with the figures of boys. Relatively stable gender differences over time are existing for diet, nutrition and physical activity.From a theoretical gender perspective it might be possible that with respect to risky behaviours like tobacco use and alcohol consumption a clear gender specific connotation has changed over time. In other words risk behaviours become less important in presenting oneself as masculine. A gender sensible development of preventive interventions should consider the changes over time of gender-related -social constructions.

  18. International rescue? The dynamics and policy implications of the international recruitment of nurses to the UK.

    PubMed

    Buchan, James

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on one global aspect of the current health sector workforce policy agenda - the international recruitment and migration of health workers. It does so primarily by using a case study of the recruitment of nurses to the UK, as a means of exploring the policy challenges and associated research questions. The paper highlights the limitations in comparing national data on the nursing workforce, illustrating the extent to which currently collated national data can present a misleading picture of staff:population ratios in different countries. It then reports on the significant growth in the numbers of nurses entering the UK from other countries, using registration data. In 2001/02, more than 16 000 nurses entered the UK nursing register from non-UK sources. In this year, for the first time, the number exceeded the number of home-trained nurses. An analysis of postcode data highlights that these non-UK nurses have a younger age profile than home-based registered nurses and are more likely to report a postcode in London and south-east England. The paper also examines the push and pull factors that contribute to the international mobility of health workers. The paper concludes by examining the policy implications of this growing reliance on international recruitment, including the effect of the ethical guidelines on international recruitment introduced by the Department of Health in England.

  19. Nesting ecology and behavior of Broad-winged Hawks in moist karst forests of Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hengstenberg, D.W.; Vilella, F.J.

    2005-01-01

    The Puerto Rican Broad-winged Hawk (Buteo platypterus brunnescens) is an endemic and endangered subspecies inhabiting upland montane forests of Puerto Rico. The reproductive ecology, behavior, and nesting habitat of the Broad-winged Hawk were studied in Ri??o Abajo Forest, Puerto Rico, from 2001-02. We observed 158 courtship displays by Broad-winged Hawks. Also, we recorded 25 territorial interactions between resident Broad-winged Hawks and intruding Red-tailed Hawks (Buteo jamaicensis jamaicensis). Broad-winged Hawks displaced intruding Red-tailed Hawks from occupied territories (P = 0.009). Mayfield nest survival was 0.67 across breeding seasons (0.81 in 2001, N = 6; 0.51 in 2002, N = 4), and pairs averaged 1.1 young per nest (years combined). The birds nested in mixed species timber plantations and mature secondary forest. Nests were placed in the upper reaches of large trees emerging from the canopy. Nest tree DBH, understory stem density, and distance to karst cliff wall correctly classified (77.8%) nest sites. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  20. Relative abundance, age, growth, and fecundity of grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus in Niantic River and Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roseman, Edward F.; Tomichek, Christine A.; Maynard, Tracy; Burton, Jennifer A.

    2005-04-01

    Grubby ( Myoxocephalus aenaeus, Cottidae) is a common benthic fish of inshore waters and estuaries of eastern Long Island Sound; however, little information exists on their life history or population demographics. This study utilised a long-term data series (1976-2002) to assess grubby life history and population demographics and explores trends in the Niantic River and Niantic Bay populations. In addition, we examined the age, size, and fecundity of adult grubby in 2001-02 to determine the population characteristics in the region. Mean grubby catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Niantic Bay ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1976 to 2.9 per trawl in 1984 while river CPUE ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1977 to 7.6 per trawl in 1989. Catch of grubby in bottom trawls varied seasonally with highest CPUE occurring in winter. Highest entrainment of grubby larvae occurred in 2001 while the lowest entrainment observed was in 1991. Four age classes, 0+ through III+, were derived from otolith analysis (N = 51) although length frequency analysis suggested the possibility of older fish in the population. The total number of eggs in ovaries ranged from 286 to 16 451 for grubby (N = 64) between 52 mm and 155 mm TL. Results of this study indicated a decline in abundance of adult grubby over the 26-year period, possibly related to concurrent declines in eelgrass ( Zostera marina) abundance and/or increased water temperature.

  1. Relative abundance, age, growth, and fecundity of grubby Myoxocephalus aenaeus in Niantic River and Niantic Bay, Long Island Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Roseman, E.F.; Tomichek, C.A.; Maynard, T.; Burton, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Grubby (Myoxocephalus aenaeus, Cottidae) is a common benthic fish of inshore waters and estuaries of eastern Long Island Sound; however, little information exists on their life history or population demographics. This study utilised a long-term data series (1976-2002) to assess grubby life history and population demographics and explores trends in the Niantic River and Niantic Bay populations. In addition, we examined the age, size, and fecundity of adult grubby in 2001-02 to determine the population characteristics in the region. Mean grubby catch per unit effort (CPUE) in Niantic Bay ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1976 to 2.9 per trawl in 1984 while river CPUE ranged from 0.4 per trawl in 1977 to 7.6 per trawl in 1989. Catch of grubby in bottom trawls varied seasonally with highest CPUE occurring in winter. Highest entrainment of grubby larvae occurred in 2001 while the lowest entrainment observed was in 1991. Four age classes, 0+ through III+, were derived from otolith analysis (N = 51) although length frequency analysis suggested the possibility of older fish in the population. The total number of eggs in ovaries ranged from 286 to 16 451 for grubby (N = 64) between 52 mm and 155 mm TL. Results of this study indicated a decline in abundance of adult grubby over the 26-year period, possibly related to concurrent declines in eelgrass (Zostera marina) abundance and/or increased water temperature. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled in wave III (2001-02; ages 18-28) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (n = 13,150). Urbanicity-stratified multivariate negative binomial regression models were used to examine cross-sectional associations between neighborhood fast food availability and individual-level self-reported fast food consumption frequency, controlling for individual and neighborhood characteristics. Results In adjusted analysis, fast food availability was not associated with weekly frequency of fast food consumption in non-urban or low- or high-density urban areas. Conclusions Policies aiming to reduce neighborhood availability as a means to reduce fast food consumption among young adults may be unsuccessful. Consideration of fast food outlets near school or workplace locations, factors specific to more or less urban settings, and the role of individual lifestyle attitudes and preferences are needed in future research. PMID:21740571

  3. Renewal of Collaborative Research: Economically viable Forest Harvesting Practices that Increase Carbon Sequestration

    SciTech Connect

    Dail, David Bryan

    2012-08-02

    This technical report covers a 3-year cooperative agreement between the University of Maine and the Northeastern Forest Experiment Station that focused on the characterization of forest stands and the assessment of forest carbon storage (see attached for detailed description of the project). The goal of this work was to compare estimates of forest C storage made via remeasurement of FIA-type plots with eddy flux measurements. In addition to relating whole ecosystem estimates of carbon storage to changes in aboveground biomass, we explored methodologies by partitioning growth estimates from periodic inventory measurements into annual estimates. In the final year, we remeasured plots that were subject to a shelterwood harvest over the winter of 2001-02 to assess the production of coarse woody debris by this harvest, to remeasure trees in a long-term stand first established by NASA, to carry out other field activities at Howland, and, to assess the importance of downed and decaying wood as well as standing dead trees to the C inputs to harvested and non harvested plots.

  4. Ten years post-wildfire recovery and health of Eucalypt forests and woodland in the Sydney Basin, Australia, using remotely sensed vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heath, J.; Chafer, C.; Bishop, T.; Van Ogtrop, F.

    2012-04-01

    The response of vegetation after a wildfire is dependent on factors such as fire intensity and vegetation type. Australian woody vegetation species have evolved two mechanisms of disturbance survival i) seed germination (obligate seeders) and ii) resprouting from dormant vegetative buds and/or lignotubers (obligate resprouters). The majority of post wildfire vegetation response studies conducted in Victoria, Australia have been in obligate seeder dominant communities. These studies have found that there is a significant delay in species germination as they rely on the seed bank. Those studies do not represent the response of vegetation in the Sydney Basin, which is dominated by obligate resprouter species. This study examines the vegetation recovery of four burnt subcatchments affected by the summer 2001/02 wildfire event and compared to three unburnt subcatchments. The study uses a 20 year time series of Landsat and SPOT satellite data assessing vegetation 10 years pre-wildfire and 10 years post-wildfire on an annual basis. Several vegetation indices were compared to assess the health and integrity of eucalypt forests and woodlands (NDVI, NDVIc, NBR). This study provides land managers with crucial information about the response of vegetation communities to wildfire within the Sydney Basin.

  5. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  6. Physical activity, emotional and behavioural problems, maternal education and self-reported educational performance of adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kantomaa, M T; Tammelin, T H; Demakakos, P; Ebeling, H E; Taanila, A M

    2010-04-01

    This study examined whether physical activity, mental health and socio-economic position were associated with the overall academic performance and future educational plans of adolescents aged 15-16 years. We used a sample of 7002 boys and girls from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986. Data were collected by a postal enquiry in 2001-02. Multivariable logistic regression models were estimated and adjusted for family structure and all variables in the models. In the fully adjusted models, higher levels of physical activity and high parental socio-economic position were associated with higher overall academic performance and future plans for higher education. High scoring on behavioural problems was related to lower overall academic performance and poorer future academic plans. In summary, a higher level of physical activity, fewer behavioural problems and higher socio-economic position were independently associated with high self-perceived overall academic performance and plans for higher education among adolescents. The interrelations of these factors and the positive relationship between physical activity, mental health and school outcomes provide a context of critical importance for future research, intervention programming and policy directed at improving the educational attainment of adolescents. PMID:19762353

  7. Spatio-Temporal Variation in Length-Weight Relationships and Condition of the Ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus (Linnaeus, 1758): Implications for Fisheries Management.

    PubMed

    Al Nahdi, Abdullah; Garcia de Leaniz, Carlos; King, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of length-weight relationships for commercially exploited fish is an important tool for assessing and managing of fish stocks. However, analyses of length-weight relationship fisheries data typically do not consider the inherent differences in length-weight relationships for fish caught from different habitats, seasons, or years, and this can affect the utility of these data for developing condition indices or calculating fisheries biomass. Here, we investigated length-weight relationships for ribbonfish Trichiurus lepturus in the waters of the Arabian Sea off Oman collected during three periods (2001-02, 2007-08, and 2014-15) and showed that a multivariate modelling approach that considers the areas and seasons in which ribbonfish were caught improved estimation of length-weight relationships. We used the outputs of these models to explore spatio-temporal variations in condition indices and relative weights among ribbonfish, revealing fish of 85-125 cm were in the best overall condition. We also found that condition differed according to where and when fish were caught, with condition lowest during spring and pre-south-west monsoon periods and highest during and after the south-west monsoons. We interpret these differences to be a consequence of variability in temperature and food availability. Based on our findings, we suggest fishing during seasons that have the lowest impact on fish condition and which are commercially most viable; such fishery management would enhance fisheries conservation and economic revenue in the region.

  8. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    PubMed

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves.

  9. Patients treated by dental students in outreach: the first year of a pilot project.

    PubMed

    Elkind, A; Potter, C; Watts, C; Blinkhorn, F; Duxbury, J; Hull, P; Blinkhorn, A S

    2005-05-01

    This paper describes the patients treated by 4th year undergraduate students during the first year of a pilot outreach course to teach Restorative Dentistry in community clinics in 2001-02. Data were collected from 908 summaries of patient treatment completed by the students, and from 139 patient questionnaires. Some 75% of patients were aged between 16 and 64, 58% were female, and 16% had dental phobia or anxiety. Most lived locally to the clinic and 41% made their initial contact as an emergency or drop-in. Some 37% made only a single visit (including children treated as emergencies) but 22% made six or more visits. Did not attend (DNA) was a problem and 18% of patients DNA to complete their treatment. Students undertook the full range of restorative procedures, with the emphasis on direct restorations, preventive treatment and advice, scaling, extractions and emergency treatment. Patients' main reasons for attending the clinic were lay recommendation, the need for treatment, convenience, free treatment, or the lack of access to a dentist. Some 30% said they did not have or did not know of an alternative source of dental care, and half had not seen a dentist for at least 2 years. The study demonstrates that despite difficulties related to attendance, a suitable patient base can be established offering students the opportunity to provide comprehensive care for adults in a primary care setting.

  10. Acoustic and visual surveys for bowhead whales in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sue E.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Munger, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Two types of passive-acoustic survey were conducted to investigate the seasonal occurrence of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus) in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas: (1) an over-winter (2003-04) survey using autonomous recorders deployed northeast of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) a summertime dipping-hydrophone survey along the 2005 NOAA Ocean Exploration (OE) cruise track northwest of Barrow. The longest continuous sampling period from the over-winter survey was 3 October 2003 to 12 May 2004. During that period, bowhead whale calls were recorded from 3 to 23 October, intermittently on 6-7 and 22-23 November, then not again until 25 March 2004. Bowhead calls were recorded almost every hour from 19 April to 12 May 2004, with a call rate peak on 30 April ( ca. 9400 calls) and a few instances of patterned calling (or, "song") detected in early May. Bowhead whale calls were never detected during the NOAA OE cruise, but calls of beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) were recorded at 3 of 16 acoustic stations. Opportunistic visual surveys for marine mammals were also conducted during the NOAA OE cruise from the ship (65 h) and helicopter (7.8 h), resulting in single sightings of bowhead whales (3-5 whales), beluga (16-20 whales), walrus (1), polar bear (2=sow/cub), and 17 sightings of 87 ringed seals from the ship and 15 sightings of 67 ringed seals from the helicopter.

  11. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  12. Serologic evidence of West Nile virus infection in three wild raptor populations.

    PubMed

    Stout, William E; Cassini, Andrew G; Meece, Jennifer K; Papp, Joseph M; Rosenfield, Robert N; Reed, Kurt D

    2005-09-01

    We assayed for West Nile virus (WNV) antibodies to determine the presence and prevalence of WNV infection in three raptor populations in southeast Wisconsin during 2003-04. This study was conducted in the framework of ongoing population studies that started before WNV was introduced to the study area. For 354 samples, 88% of 42 adult Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii), 2.1% of 96 nestling Cooper's hawks, 9.2% of 141 nestling red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis), and 12% of 73 nestling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) tested positive for WNV antibodies by the constant virus-serum dilution neutralization test. Samples that tested positive for WNV antibodies were collected across a wide variety of habitat types, including urban habitats (both high and low density), roads, parking areas, recreational areas, croplands, pastures, grasslands, woodlands, and wetlands. Based on the increased prevalence and significantly higher WNV antibody titers in adults compared with nestlings, we suggest that nestlings with detectable antibody levels acquired these antibodies through passive transmission from the mother during egg production. Low levels of WNV antibodies in nestlings could serve as a surrogate marker of exposure in adult raptor populations. Based on breeding population densities and reproductive success over the past 15 yr, we found no apparent adverse effects of WNV infections on these wild raptor populations. PMID:16252490

  13. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims. PMID:20662147

  14. Consequences of players' dismissal in professional soccer: a crisis-related analysis of group-size effects.

    PubMed

    Bar-Eli, Michael; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Geister, Sabine

    2006-10-01

    This study documents the effect of players' dismissals on team performance in professional soccer. Our aim was to determine whether the punishment meted out for unacceptable player behaviour results in reduced team performance. The official web site of the German Soccer Association was used for coding data from games played in the first Bundesliga between the 1963 - 64 and 2003 - 04 (n = 41) seasons. A sample of 743 games where at least one red card was issued was used to test hypotheses derived from crisis theory (Bar-Eli & Tenenbaum, 1989a). Players' dismissals weaken a sanctioned team in terms of the goals and final score following the punishment. The chances of a sanctioned team scoring or winning were substantially reduced following the sanction. Most cards were issued in the later stages of matches. The statistics pertaining to outcome results as a function of game standing, game location, and time phases - all strongly support the view that teams can be considered conceptually similar to individuals regarding the link between stress and performance. To further develop the concept of team and individual psychological performance crisis in competition, it is recommended that reversal theory (Apter, 1982) and self-monitoring and distraction theories (Baumeister, 1984) be included in the design of future investigations pertaining to choking under pressure.

  15. Marketing hygiene behaviours: the impact of different communication channels on reported handwashing behaviour of women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth E; Schmidt, Wolf P; Aunger, Robert; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Animashaun, Rasaaque

    2008-06-01

    In 2003-04, a National Handwashing Campaign utilizing mass media and community events took place in Ghana. This article describes the results of the evaluation of the campaign in a sample of 497 women with children <5 years. The unifying message across all communication channels was that hands were not 'truly' clean unless washed with soap. The campaign reached 82% of the study population. Sixty-two per cent of women knew the campaign song, 44% were exposed to one channel and 36% to two or more. Overall, TV and radio had greater reach and impact on reported handwashing than community events, while exposure to both a mass media channel and an event yielded the greatest effect, resulting in a 30% increase in reported handwashing with soap after visiting the toilet or cleaning a child's bottom. Our evaluation questions wide-held belief that community events are more effective agents of behaviour change than mass media commercials, at least in the case of hygiene promotion. However, failure of mass media to reach the entire target audience, particularly in specific regions and lower socio-economic groups, and the additive effect of exposure, underscores the need to implement integrated communication programmes utilizing a variety of complementary channels.

  16. Detection of Excess Influenza Severity: Associating Respiratory Hospitalization and Mortality Data With Reports of Influenza-Like Illness by Primary Care Physicians

    PubMed Central

    van Asten, Liselotte; Meijer, Adam; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Nagelkerke, Nico J. D.; Donker, Gé A.; van der Sande, Marianne A. B.; Koopmans, Marion P. G.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives. We explored whether excesses in influenza severity can be detected by combining respiratory syndromic hospital and mortality data with data on influenza-like illness (ILI) cases obtained from general practitioners. Methods. To identify excesses in the severity of influenza infections in the population of the Netherlands between 1999 and 2005, we looked for increases in influenza-associated hospitalizations and mortality that were disproportionate to the number of ILI cases reported by general practitioners. We used generalized estimating equation regression models to associate syndromic hospital and mortality data with ILI surveillance data obtained from general practitioners. Virus isolation and antigenic characterization data were used to interpret the results. Results. Disproportionate increases in hospitalizations and mortality (relative to ILI cases reported by general practitioners) were identified in 2003/04 during the A/Fujian/411/02(H3N2) drift variant epidemic. Conclusions. Combined surveillance of respiratory hospitalizations and mortality and ILI data obtained from general practitioners can capture increases in severe influenza-associated illness that are disproportionate to influenza incidence rates. Therefore, this novel approach should complement traditional seasonal and pandemic influenza surveillance in efforts to detect increases in influenza case fatality rates and percentages of patients hospitalized. PMID:20864730

  17. Details of Tidally Modulated Stick-Slip Motion of Whillans Ice Stream, West Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bindschadler, R.; Anandakrishnan, S.; Voigt, D.; Joughin, I.; Alley, R.; King, M.; Winberry, P.; Peters, L.; Horgan, H.

    2005-12-01

    Whillans Ice Stream remains the only Antarctic ice stream yet reported where most of the motion occurs as stick-slip. Continued study of this ice stream has revealed a number of other interesting characteristics: the fraction of mean daily motion accomplished by these slips is approximately 90% near the grounding line and decreases upstream; the motion on the ice plain is larger during spring tides than during neap tides, but the slip fraction is constant; and near the grounding line, slip events begin and end more impulsively that farther upstream. Additionally, the mean annual velocity continues to decrease and the slip fraction of daily motion increased from 2003-04 to 2004-05 due to an increase in the slip displacements. Dense grids of GPS receivers and seismometers were established in the mouth of Whillans Ice Stream for approximately one month during the 2004-2005 Antarctic field season to examine further details of these stick-slip characteristics. GPS receivers spaced approximately 25 km apart formed a background grid while a set of mobile receivers were moved to gain a finer resolution picture of the stick-slip phenomenon at specific locations. A majority of the events appear to initiate in a single local and propagate upstream and downstream. Data processing is ongoing. We expect to be able to address issues of propagation speed and mechanism, till properties and the initiation mechanism.

  18. Practical Application of NASA-Langley Advanced Satellite Products to In-Flight Icing Nowcasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ben C.; Wolff, Cory A.; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Experimental satellite-based icing products developed by the NASA Langley Research Center provide new tools to identify the locations of icing and its intensity. Since 1997, research forecasters at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been helping to guide the NASA Glenn Research Center's Twin Otter aircraft into and out of clouds and precipitation for the purpose of characterizing in-flight icing conditions, including supercooled large drops, the accretions that result from such encounters and their effect on aircraft performance. Since the winter of 2003-04, the NASA Langley satellite products have been evaluated as part of this process, and are being considered as an input to NCAR s automated Current Icing Potential (CIP) products. This has already been accomplished for a relatively straightforward icing event, but many icing events have much more complex characteristics, providing additional challenges to all icing diagnosis tools. In this paper, four icing events with a variety of characteristics will be examined, with a focus on the NASA Langley satellite retrievals that were available in real time and their implications for icing nowcasting and potential applications in CIP.

  19. Multi-scale Factors Affecting the Distribution of the Critically Imperiled Crayfish, Orconectes williamsi, in the Upper White River Drainage of Missouri, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westhoff, J. T.; Distefano, R. J.; Guyot, J. A.; McManus, M. G.

    2005-05-01

    Orconectes williamsi is known from only a few locations in the upper White River drainage of Missouri and Arkansas. We implemented a stratified (by stream order) random survey to sample for this crayfish in Missouri in 2003-04. Survey objectives were twofold. First, we estimated the overall proportion of stream order segments (segments of streams between points where stream order changes) in the drainage harboring O. williamsi, and then estimated the proportion of first, second and third (or larger) order stream segments harboring this crayfish. Second, we obtained means or ratio estimators (point estimates) and 95 % confidence limits (interval estimates) for 62 environmental variables and conducted overall contrasts of those estimates between segments that did and did not harbor O. williamsi. For significant overall contrasts, we then conducted contrasts partitioned by stream order. We detected O. williamsi at an overall proportion of 0.34 of 50 sampled segments, with no difference between first and second order stream segments. Variables exhibiting differences between segments that did and did not harbor O. williamsi included bankfull width:bankfull depth ratio, wetted width:wetted depth ratio, macrophyte abundance, elevation, and stream connectivity. Results will be used to drive future sampling and conservation efforts.

  20. An investigation into the effectiveness of problem-based learning in a physical chemistry laboratory course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gürses, Ahmet; Açıkyıldız, Metin; Doğar, Çetin; Sözbilir, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a problem-based learning (PBL) approach in a physical chemistry laboratory course. The parameters investigated were students’ attitudes towards a chemistry laboratory course, scientific process skills of students and their academic achievement. The design of the study was one group pre-test post-test. Four experiments, covering the topics adsorption, viscosity, surface tension and conductivity were performed using a PBL approach in the fall semester of the 2003/04 academic year at Kazim Karabekir Education Faculty of Atatürk University. Each experiment was done over a three week period. A total of 40 students, 18 male and 22 female, participated in the study. Students took the Physical Chemistry Laboratory Concept Test (PCLCT), Attitudes towards Chemistry Laboratory (ATCL) questionnaire and Science Process Skills Test (SPST) as pre and post-tests. In addition, the effectiveness of the PBL approach was also determined through four different scales; Scales Specific to Students’ Views of PBL. A statistically significant difference between the students’ academic achievement and scientific process skills at p

  1. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  2. [Prevalence of gastric lesions in the pars proventricularis in finishing pigs at slaughter in Switzerland].

    PubMed

    van den Berg, A; Brülisauer, F; Regula, G

    2005-07-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted at two large abattoirs in the winter 2003/04 to determine the prevalence of gastric lesions in Swiss finishing pigs. The stomachs of 1897 pigs from 107 slaughter groups were examined for macroscopic epithelial lesion of the pars proventricularis. Severe hyperceratosis, erosion, ulceration and constriction at the transition between oesophagus and stomach were described as gastric lesions. Lesions were observed in 36% of all animals, with slaughter group prevalence ranging from 0% to 94%. Ulceration or constriction was present in four percent of the examined pigs. Associations between gastric lesions, farm management data, and data obtained at ante and post mortem examinations conducted at the slaughterhouse were analysed. A significantly higher prevalence of gastric lesions was found in pigs originating from conventional housing systems compared to pigs raised on farms with 'animal-friendly' housing systems providing straw bedding and outdoor exercise to pigs. In addition, significantly higher prevalence was observed in pigs originating from herds with clinical signs of tail biting and peritarsitis. PMID:16041976

  3. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  4. Variability in stream discharge and temperatures during ecologically sensitive time periods: a preliminary assessment of the implications for Atlantic salmon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tetzlaff, D.; Soulsby, C.; Youngson, A. F.; Gibbins, C.; Bacon, P. J.; Malcolm, I. A.; Langan, S.

    2005-05-01

    This study focused on improving the understanding of the temporal variability in hydrological and thermal conditions and their potential influences on two life stages of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) - stream resident juveniles and returning adult spawners. Stream discharges and temperatures in the Girnock Burn, NE Scotland, a small nursery stream, were characterised over a time period of ten hydrological years (1994/95-2003/04). Frequency, magnitude, duration and timing of thermal, hydraulic and hydrological conditions were examined using data with a high temporal resolution (hourly and subhourly). Particular attention was focussed on assessing variations during ecologically sensitive time periods when salmon behaviour is most susceptible to environmental perturbations. The Girnock Burn was characterised by a strong inter- and intra-annual variability in the hydrological and thermal regime. This has clear implications for the likely feeding opportunities for juvenile fish in winter and early spring and the emergence of fry in the late spring. The movement of adult spawners towards breeding areas showed a complex dependence on hydrological variability. If discharges were low, fish movement was increasingly triggered by suboptimal flow increases as spawning time approached. Elucidating links between discharge/temperature variability and salmon habitat availability and utilization at appropriately fine temporal scales is a prerequisite to the development of better conservation management strategies and more biologically meaningful flow regimes in regulated river systems.

  5. Adolescents’ attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness predict physical activity 5 and 10 years later

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Dan J.; Sirard, John R.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether adolescent attitudes towards sports, exercise and fitness predict moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) 5 and 10 years later. Method A diverse group of 1902 adolescents participating in Project EAT (Eating and Activity in Teens), reported weekly MVPA and attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness in EAT-I (1998-99), EAT-II (2003-04), and EAT-III (2008-09). Results Mean MVPA was 6.4, 4.8, and 4.0 hrs/wk at baseline, 5-yr, and 10-yr follow-up, respectively. Attitudes toward sports, exercise, and fitness together predicted MVPA at 5- and 10-years. Among the predictors of 5- and 10-year MVPA, attitude’s effect size, though modest, was comparable to the effect sizes for sports participation and BMI. Adolescents with more-favorable attitudes toward sports, exercise and fitness engaged in approximately 30-40% more weekly MVPA at follow-up (1.7 hr/wk at 5 years and 1.2 hr/wk at 10 years) than those with less-favorable attitudes. Conclusion Adolescents’ exercise-related attitudes predict subsequent MVPA independent of baseline behavior suggesting that youth MVPA promotion efforts may provide long-term benefits by helping youth develop favorable exercise attitudes. PMID:21130803

  6. Marketing hygiene behaviours: the impact of different communication channels on reported handwashing behaviour of women in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Scott, Beth E; Schmidt, Wolf P; Aunger, Robert; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Animashaun, Rasaaque

    2008-06-01

    In 2003-04, a National Handwashing Campaign utilizing mass media and community events took place in Ghana. This article describes the results of the evaluation of the campaign in a sample of 497 women with children <5 years. The unifying message across all communication channels was that hands were not 'truly' clean unless washed with soap. The campaign reached 82% of the study population. Sixty-two per cent of women knew the campaign song, 44% were exposed to one channel and 36% to two or more. Overall, TV and radio had greater reach and impact on reported handwashing than community events, while exposure to both a mass media channel and an event yielded the greatest effect, resulting in a 30% increase in reported handwashing with soap after visiting the toilet or cleaning a child's bottom. Our evaluation questions wide-held belief that community events are more effective agents of behaviour change than mass media commercials, at least in the case of hygiene promotion. However, failure of mass media to reach the entire target audience, particularly in specific regions and lower socio-economic groups, and the additive effect of exposure, underscores the need to implement integrated communication programmes utilizing a variety of complementary channels. PMID:18000025

  7. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    PubMed

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach. PMID:24993009

  8. Treatment outcomes and risk factors for relapse in patients with early-stage human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) in the Republic of the Congo.

    PubMed Central

    Balasegaram, Manica; Harris, Steve; Checchi, Francesco; Hamel, Catherine; Karunakara, Unni

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In 2002-03, the Republic of the Congo increased the threshold separating stage 1 and 2 cases of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) from a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) white cell count of 5 cells/mm(3) to 10 cells/mm(3). We aimed to assess whether the increased threshold of 10 cells/mm(3) is a safe indicator of stage 2 disease. METHODS: We assessed patients treated for stage 1 HAT caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in the Republic of the Congo between April 2001 and April 2005. Patients with 0-10 cells/mm(3) in CSF were classed as stage 1 and treated with pentamidine. Patients with CSF of > 10 cells/mm(3) were classed as stage 2 and treated with either melarsoprol or eflornithine. We did a retrospective analysis of all patients treated after the September 2002 increase in threshold for classification of HAT disease stage 2, and who were eligible for at least 1 year of follow-up. Primary outcome was survival without death or relapse within 1 year of discharge. Risk factors for treatment failure, in particular CSF white cell count on diagnosis, were assessed. FINDINGS: Between September 2002 to April 2004, 692 patients eligible for our analysis were treated with pentamidine. All were discharged alive. Relapse rate was 5% (n = 33). The only identified risk factor for relapse was a CSF white cell count of 6-10 cells/mm(3) rather than 0-5 cells/mm(3) (adjusted hazard ratio 3.27 (95% confidence interval, 1.52-7.01); P = 0.002). CONCLUSION: A threshold of 5 white cells/mm(3) in CSF is safer than 10 cells/mm(3) to determine stage 2 HAT and reduce risk of relapse. PMID:17128357

  9. Hydrogeologic framework, groundwater movement, and water budget in the Chimacum Creek basin and vicinity, Jefferson County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Joseph L.; Welch, Wendy B.; Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2011-01-01

    This report presents information used to characterize the groundwater flow system in the Chimacum Creek basin. It includes descriptions of the geology and hydrogeologic framework; groundwater recharge and discharge; groundwater levels and flow directions; seasonal fluctuations in groundwater level; interactions between aquifers and the surface-water system; and a groundwater budget. The study area covers 124 square miles in northeastern Jefferson County, Washington, and includes the Chimacum Creek basin, which drains an area of about 37 square miles. The area is underlain by a north-thickening sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and igneous bedrock units that crop out along the margins and western interior of the study area. Six hydrogeologic units consisting of unconsolidated aquifers and confining units, along with an underlying bedrock unit, were identified. A surficial hydrogeologic map was developed and used with well information from 187 drillers' logs to construct 4 hydrogeologic sections, and maps showing the extent and thickness of the units. Natural recharge was estimated using precipitation-recharge relation regression equations developed for western Washington, and estimates were calculated for return flow from data on domestic indoor and outdoor use and irrigated agriculture. Results from synoptic streamflow measurements and water table elevations determined from monthly measurements at monitoring wells are presented and compared with those from a study conducted during 2002-03. A water budget was calculated comprising long-term average recharge, domestic public-supply withdrawals and return flow, self-supplied domestic withdrawals and return flow, and irrigated agricultural withdrawals and return flow.

  10. Impact of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus on congenital anomalies, Canada, 2002–2012

    PubMed Central

    Liu, S.; Rouleau, J.; León, J. A.; Sauve, R.; Joseph, K. S.; Ray, J. G.; System, Canadian Perinatal Surveillance

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To examine the impact of pre-pregnancy diabetes mellitus (DM) on the population birth prevalence of congenital anomalies in Canada. Methods: We carried out a population-based study of all women who delivered in Canadian hospitals (except those in the province of Quebec) between April 2002 and March 2013 and their live-born infants with a birth weight of 500 grams or more and/or a gestational age of 22 weeks or more. Pre-pregnancy type 1 or type 2 DM was identified using ICD-10 diagnostic codes. The association between DM and all congenital anomalies as well as specific congenital anomaly categories was estimated using adjusted odds ratios; the impact was calculated as a population attributable risk percent (PAR%). Results: There were 118 892 infants with a congenital anomaly among 2 839 680 live births (41.9 per 1000). While the prevalence of any congenital anomaly declined from 50.7 per 1000 live births in 2002/03 to 41.5 per 1000 in 2012/13, the corresponding PAR% for a congenital anomaly related to pre-pregnancy DM rose from 0.6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.4–0.8) to 1.2% (95% CI: 0.9–1.4). Specifically, the PAR% for congenital cardiovascular defects increased from 2.3% (95% CI: 1.7–2.9) to 4.2% (95% CI: 3.5–4.9) and for gastrointestinal defects from 0.8% (95% CI: 0.2–1.9) to 1.4% (95% CI: 0.7–2.6) over the study period. Conclusion: Although there has been a relative decline in the prevalence of congenital anomalies in Canada, the proportion of congenital anomalies due to maternal pre-pregnancy DM has increased. Enhancement of preconception care initiatives for women with DM is recommended. PMID:26186019

  11. Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wefel, John P.; Guzik, T. Gregory

    2001-01-01

    During grant NAG5-5064, Louisiana State University (LSU) led the ATIC team in the development, construction, testing, accelerator validation, pre-deployment integration and flight operations of the Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment. This involved interfacing among the ATIC collaborators (UMD, NRL/MSFC, SU, MSU, WI, SNU) to develop a new balloon payload based upon a fully active calorimeter, a carbon target, a scintillator strip hodoscope and a pixilated silicon solid state detector for a detailed investigation of the very high energy cosmic rays to energies beyond 10(exp 14) eV/nucleus. It is in this very high energy region that theory predicts changes in composition and energy spectra related to the Supernova Remnant Acceleration model for cosmic rays below the "knee" in the all-particle spectrum. This report provides a documentation list, details the anticipated ATIC science return, describes the particle detection principles on which the experiment is based, summarizes the simulation results for the system, describes the validation work at the CERN SPS accelerator and details the balloon flight configuration. The ATIC experiment had a very successful LDB flight from McMurdo, Antarctica in 12/00 - 1/01. The instrument performed well for the entire 15 days. Preliminary data analysis shows acceptable charge resolution and an all-particle power law energy deposition distribution not inconsistent with previous measurements. Detailed analysis is underway and will result in new data on the cosmic ray charge and energy spectra in the GeV - TeV energy range. ATIC is currently being refurbished in anticipation of another LDB flight in the 2002-03 period.

  12. Silicoflagellate Fluxes in Cuenca Alfonso, Mexico During the 2002-2003 El Niño Event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez, I. G.; Martínez-López, A.; Silverberg, N.

    2007-05-01

    Changes in the circulation and water mass patterns in the Gulf of California are closely associated with changes in atmospheric circulation. At the interannual scale, such changes are associated with events like El Niño, which in the Gulf are characterized by greater penetration of tropical-equatorial water. Subsamples of sediment trap material, collected between January 2002 and February 2004 were examined with the aim of inferring average oceanographic conditions in Cuenca Alfonso, Bahia de La Paz and those during the relatively mild 2002- 03 El Niño. Analysis of the silicoflagellate data series reveals seasonal and interannual relationships between the silicoflagellate fluxes and the dynamics of the water column. Comparison of silicoflagellate fluxes with those of the diatom group indicate that the former represent 0-52% of their combined flux. Both silicate groups generally co-vary but show differences in intensity. Thirteen taxa made up the silicoflagellate species composition. The simultaneous occurrence of Dictyocha epiodon and Distephanus speculum with Dictyocha calida and Dictyocha californica during August 2002 to May 2003, indicated the presence of both California Current Water and Equatorial Surface Water in the area close to Cuenca Alfonso. This favored the increase, mainly in November-December, in the flux of the dominant species, Octactis pulchra (as high as 7 x 106 skeletons m-2 day-1). Spring, on the other hand, was notable for a drop in the total silicoflagellate flux, probably due to the influence of the El Niño event. The subsequent increase in species typical of warm water and the replacement of the dominant species (O. pulchra) by Dictyocha messanensis var messanensis, suggest that the effects of El Niño extended to the fall of 2003.

  13. Outstanding Science at Neptune: Aerocapture Implementation of NASA's "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-12-01

    After successfully proposing to NASA's "Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) the authors are studying an implementation option for the "Neptune Orbiter With Probes" mission that performs Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload including multiple Neptune entry probes. Significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team allowed focusing quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's "Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory and its parent institution, the California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  14. Outstanding Science in the Neptune System From an Aerocaptured Vision Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spilker, T. R.; Ingersoll, A. P.

    2004-11-01

    In 2003 the authors successfully proposed to NASA's ``Vision Missions Studies" NRA (NRA-03-OSS-01-VM) to study an implementation option for the ``Neptune Orbiter with Probes" mission that does Cassini-level science without fission-based electric power or propulsion. Our Study Team includes a Science Team composed of experienced planetary scientists, many of whom helped draft the Neptune discussions in the Solar System Exploration Decadal Survey, and an Implementation Team with experienced engineers and technologists from multiple NASA Centers and JPL. The key characteristics of our mission concept are a mix of Solar Electric Propulsion and gravity assists to reach Neptune in 12 years or less, aerocapture into an eccentric Neptune orbit for a Triton-driven orbital tour, and a well designed set of science objectives guiding a very capable science payload that includes multiple Neptune entry probes. We leveraged the significant pathfinding work done in 2002-03 by NASA's Aerocapture Systems Analysis Team to focus quickly on principal issues. By the end of May 2004 the Science Team had drafted a thorough and coherent set of science objectives, leading to our first series of design sessions with JPL's ``Team X" in early June. The initial design options studied in those sessions produced flight system designs that all fit easily on soon-to-be-operational launch vehicles. Since then, students working in Caltech's Laboratory for Space Mission Design have studied the potential benefits of incorporating new technologies into those initial designs. Later this year another series of Team X sessions will incorporate the most beneficial technologies into the best design options. The poster will discuss the mission's science objectives, and summarize study results to date. This work was done at multiple NASA Centers and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract to NASA's Office of Space Science.

  15. Trophic and environmental drivers of the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Marc H.; Wolff, Matthias; Vadas, Flora; Yamashiro, Carmen

    2008-03-01

    Interannual environmental variability in Peru is dominated by the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The most dramatic changes are associated with the warm El Niño (EN) phase (opposite the cold La Niña phase), which disrupts the normal coastal upwelling and affects the dynamics of many coastal marine and terrestrial resources. This study presents a trophic model for Sechura Bay, located at the northern extension of the Peruvian upwelling system, where ENSO-induced environmental variability is most extreme. Using an initial steady-state model for the year 1996, we explore the dynamics of the ecosystem through the year 2003 (including the strong EN of 1997/98 and the weaker EN of 2002/03). Based on support from literature, we force biomass of several non-trophically-mediated ‘drivers’ (e.g. Scallops, Benthic detritivores, Octopus, and Littoral fish) to observe whether the fit between historical and simulated changes (by the trophic model) is improved. The results indicate that the Sechura Bay Ecosystem is a relatively inefficient system from a community energetics point of view, likely due to the periodic perturbations of ENSO. A combination of high system productivity and low trophic level target species of invertebrates (i.e. scallops) and fish (i.e. anchoveta) results in high catches and an efficient fishery. The importance of environmental drivers is suggested, given the relatively small improvements in the fit of the simulation with the addition of trophic drivers on remaining functional groups’ dynamics. An additional multivariate regression model is presented for the scallop Argopecten purpuratus, which demonstrates a significant correlation between both spawning stock size and riverine discharge-mediated mortality on catch levels. These results are discussed in the context of the appropriateness of trophodynamic modeling in relatively open systems, and how management strategies may be focused given the highly environmentally influenced marine

  16. The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems.

    PubMed Central

    Ronveaux, O.; Rickert, D.; Hadler, S.; Groom, H.; Lloyd, J.; Bchir, A.; Birmingham, M.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. METHODS: The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanuspertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). FINDINGS: The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks, injection supplies and adverse events; unsafe computer practices; and poor monitoring of completeness and timeliness of reporting. CONCLUSION: Inconsistencies in immunization data occur in many countries, hampering their ability to manage their immunization programmes. Countries should use these findings to strengthen monitoring systems so that data can reliably guide programme activities. The DQA is an innovative tool that provides a way to independently assess the quality of immunization monitoring systems at all levels of a health service and serves as a point of entry to make improvements. It provides a useful example for other global health initiatives. PMID:16175824

  17. Financial Burden of Health Care Expenditures: Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Sulku, S Nur; Bernard, D Minbay

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examine whether and to what extent the health insurance system in Turkey provided adequate protection against high out of pocket expenditures in the period prior to “The Health Transformation Programme”. Furthermore, we examine the distribution of out of pocket expenditures by demographic characteristics, poverty status, health service type, access to health care and self-reported health status. We employ the 2002/03 National Household Health Expenditure Survey data to analyze financial burden of health care expenditure. Following the literature, we define high burdens as expenses above 10 and 20% of income. We find that 19% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 10% of family income and that 14% of the nonelderly population were living in families spending more than 20% of family income on health care. Furthermore, the poor and those living in economically less developed regions had the greatest risk of high out of pocket burdens. The risk of high financial burdens varied by the type of insurance among the insured due to differences in benefits among the five separate public schemes that provided health insurance in the pre-reform period. Our results are robust to three alternative specifications of the burden measure and including elderly adults in the sample population. We see that prior to the reforms there were not adequate protection against high health expenditures. Our study provides a baseline against which policymakers can measure the success of the health care reform in terms of providing financial protection. PMID:23113149

  18. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Global Seasonality of Norovirus

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Sharia M.; Lopman, Benjamin A.; Levy, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Background Noroviruses are the most common cause of acute gastroenteritis across all ages worldwide. These pathogens are generally understood to exhibit a wintertime seasonality, though a systematic assessment of seasonal patterns has not been conducted in the era of modern diagnostics. Methods We conducted a systematic review of the Pubmed Medline database for articles published between 1997 and 2011 to identify and extract data from articles reporting on monthly counts of norovirus. We conducted a descriptive analysis to document seasonal patterns of norovirus disease, and we also constructed multivariate linear models to identify factors associated with the strength of norovirus seasonality. Results The searched identified 293 unique articles, yielding 38 case and 29 outbreak data series. Within these data series, 52.7% of cases and 41.2% of outbreaks occurred in winter months, and 78.9% of cases and 71.0% of outbreaks occurred in cool months. Both case and outbreak studies showed an earlier peak in season-year 2002-03, but not in season-year 2006-07, years when new genogroup II type 4 variants emerged. For outbreaks, norovirus season strength was positively associated with average rainfall in the wettest month, and inversely associated with crude birth rate in both bivariate and multivariate analyses. For cases, none of the covariates examined was associated with season strength. When case and outbreaks were combined, average rainfall in the wettest month was positively associated with season strength. Conclusions Norovirus is a wintertime phenomenon, at least in the temperate northern hemisphere where most data are available. Our results point to possible associations of season strength with rain in the wettest month and crude birth rate. PMID:24098406

  19. Expanding Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple at small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization- improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accommodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  20. Recent Advances in Hydrogen Peroxide Propulsion Test Capability at NASA's Stennis Space Center E-Complex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacks, Thomas E.; Beisler, Michele

    2003-01-01

    In recent years, the rocket propulsion test capability at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center's (SSC) E-Complex has been enhanced to include facilitization for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) based ground testing. In particular, the E-3 test stand has conducted numerous test projects that have been reported in the open literature. These include combustion devices as simple as small-scale catalyst beds, and larger devices such as ablative thrust chambers and a flight-type engine (AR2-3). Consequently, the NASA SSC test engineering and operations knowledge base and infrastructure have grown considerably in order to conduct safe H2O2 test operations with a variety of test articles at the component and engine level. Currently, the E-Complex has a test requirement for a hydrogen peroxide based stage test. This new development, with its unique set of requirements, has motivated the facilitization for hydrogen peroxide propellant use at the E-2 Cell 2 test position in addition to E-3. Since the E-2 Cell 2 test position was not originally designed as a hydrogen peroxide test stand, a facility modernization-improvement project was planned and implemented in FY 2002-03 to enable this vertical engine test stand to accomodate H2O2. This paper discusses the ongoing enhancement of E-Complex ground test capability, specifically at the E-3 stand (Cell 1 and Cell 2) and E-2 Cell 2 stand, that enable current and future customers considerable test flexibility and operability in conducting their peroxide based rocket R&D efforts.

  1. Health systems' responsiveness and reporting behaviour: Multilevel analysis of the influence of individual-level factors in 64 countries.

    PubMed

    Valentine, Nicole; Verdes-Tennant, Emese; Bonsel, Gouke

    2015-08-01

    Health systems' responsiveness encompasses attributes of health system encounters valued by people and measured from the user's perspective in eight domains: dignity, autonomy, confidentiality, communication, prompt attention, social support, quality of basic amenities and choice. The literature advocates for adjusting responsiveness measures for reporting behaviour heterogeneity, which refers to differential use of the response scale by survey respondents. Reporting behaviour heterogeneity between individual respondents compromises comparability between countries and population subgroups. It can be studied through analysing responses to pre-defined vignettes - hypothetical scenarios recounting a third person's experience in a health care setting. This paper describes the first comprehensive approach to studying reporting behaviour heterogeneity using vignettes. Individual-level variables affecting reporting behaviour are grouped into three categories: (1) sociodemographic, (2) health-related and (3) health value system. We use cross-sectional data from 150,000 respondents in 64 countries from the World Health Organization's World Health Survey (2002-03). Our approach classifies effect patterns for the scale as a whole, in terms of strength and in relation to the domains. For the final eight variables selected (sex; age; education; marital status; use of inpatient services; perceived health (own); caring for close family or friends with a chronic illness; the importance of responsiveness), the strongest effects were present for education, health, caring for friends or relatives with chronic health conditions, and the importance of responsiveness. Patterns of scale elongation or contraction were more common than uniform scale shifts and were usually constant for a particular factor across domains. The dependency of individual-level reporting behaviour heterogeneity on country is greatest for prompt attention, quality of basic amenities and confidentiality domains

  2. New Zealand risk management approach for toxic cyanobacteria in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kouzminov, Alexander; Ruck, John; Wood, Susanna A

    2007-06-01

    Cyanobacterial blooms are common seasonal phenomena occurring worldwide in fresh, estuarine and coastal waters, including those used for drinking-water supplies, recreation and stock watering. In New Zealand, the frequency of blooms and their geographic spread is likely to grow with increasing eutrophication and global climate change. The New Zealand Ministry of Health has recently developed national criteria for assessing and managing the risk of toxic cyanobacteria in drinking-water supplies. This paper investigates a cyanobacterial bloom incident in the summer 2002/03 in the Waikato River and hydro lakes, which are a major drinking-water supply for Hamilton City and many other smaller towns along the river. The procedures invoked by the Hamilton City Council and other authorities to deal with this bloom event are considered in terms of the best practice of the day and compared with the Drinking-Water Standards for New Zealand 2005. The presence of cyanobacteria has significant economic effects because of increases in water supply treatment costs or the need to use an alternative source, and there are also social effects from the disruption of recreational use of water bodies and loss of confidence in the quality of reticulated, treated water supplies. Notional evaluation of economic cost of monitoring regimes and control, based on the Waikato River cyanobacterial bloom incident, is also given. The multi-barrier and process-control risk management approach, reliant on good vertical communication systems between central and local government, is an advanced approach useful for any country that regularly experiences cyanobacterial problems.

  3. Cost and results of information systems for health and poverty indicators in the United Republic of Tanzania.

    PubMed Central

    Rommelmann, Vanessa; Setel, Philip W.; Hemed, Yusuf; Angeles, Gustavo; Mponezya, Hamisi; Whiting, David; Boerma, Ties

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the costs of complementary information generation activities in a resource-constrained setting and compare the costs and outputs of information subsystems that generate the statistics on poverty, health and survival required for monitoring, evaluation and reporting on health programmes in the United Republic of Tanzania. METHODS: Nine systems used by four government agencies or ministries were assessed. Costs were calculated from budgets and expenditure data made available by information system managers. System coverage, quality assurance and information production were reviewed using questionnaires and interviews. Information production was characterized in terms of 38 key sociodemographic indicators required for national programme monitoring. FINDINGS: In 2002-03 approximately US$ 0.53 was spent per Tanzanian citizen on the nine information subsystems that generated information on 37 of the 38 selected indicators. The census and reporting system for routine health service statistics had the largest participating populations and highest total costs. Nationally representative household surveys and demographic surveillance systems (which are not based on nationally representative samples) produced more than half the indicators and used the most rigorous quality assurance. Five systems produced fewer than 13 indicators and had comparatively high costs per participant. CONCLUSION: Policy-makers and programme planners should be aware of the many trade-offs with respect to system costs, coverage, production, representativeness and quality control when making investment choices for monitoring and evaluation. In future, formal cost-effectiveness studies of complementary information systems would help guide investments in the monitoring, evaluation and planning needed to demonstrate the impact of poverty-reduction and health programmes. PMID:16184275

  4. Why it is time to review the role of private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    The role of private health insurance (PHI) within the Australian health-care system is urgently in need of comprehensive review. Two decades of universal health cover under Medicare have meant a change in the function of PHI, which is not reflected in policies to support PHI nor in the public debate around PHI. There is increasing evidence that the series of policy adjustments introduced to support PHI have served to undermine rather than promote the efficiency and equity of Australia's health care system. While support for PHI has been justified to 'take pressure off the public hospital system' and to facilitate choice of insurer and private provider', and the incentives have indeed increased PHI membership, this increase comes at a high cost relative to benefits achieved. The redirection of hospital admissions from the public to private hospitals is small, with a value considerably less than 25% of the cost of the policies. The Commonwealth share of the health care budget has increased and the relative contribution from private health insurance is lower in 2001-02, despite an increase in PHI membership to nearly 45% of the population, compared with the 30% coverage in 1998. The policies have largely directed subsidies to those on higher incomes who are more likely to take out PHI, and to private insurance companies, private hospitals and medical specialists. Ad hoc policy adjustments need to be replaced by a coherent policy towards PHI, one that recognises the fundamental change in its role and significance in the context of universal health coverage. PMID:15362292

  5. Success with Web-based image access.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Sean W

    2003-01-01

    The University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson, Miss., is the only medical school in the state. We performed 235,000 procedures in the 2001-02 fiscal year. All imaging services within the radiology department are networked to a PACS and are filmless. The elimination of film required that we decentralize our traditional file room to allow easy access to our radiology network across the campus. In our facility, there are three levels of image access: Diagnostic Quality, Review Quality and Web Access. Diagnostic Quality requires top-of-the-line workstations and monitors and is the most expensive. Review Quality workstations represent some savings over Diagnostic and are used in the ICU, orthopedics and surgery. Web Access appears to satisfy most areas outside the main diagnostic department. The account set-up procedure is simple because it uses our intranet email system. Images are easily pasted into presentation applications for articles and conferences. However, the main advantage of Web Access is the low cost. The downside of Web Access is that the images are for review only and are limited by the quality of the monitor in use. It is also somewhat cumbersome to retrieve old or comparison images via this method. The Web only holds approximately 45 days of the most recent images, therefore older studies may not be available. The deployment of this Web-based service has aided in our efforts to reduce the amount of film we print and has also been beneficial in improving patient care through faster service. PMID:12800563

  6. Introduction to the Deep Gulf of Mexico Benthos Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowe, Gilbert T.; Kennicutt, Mahlon C.

    2008-12-01

    The Deep Gulf of Mexico Benthos Program (DGoMB) investigated the structure and function of sea-floor biota on the continental slope and abyssal plain of the Gulf of Mexico. Supported by the Minerals Management Service of the US Department of the Interior, DGoMB's purpose was to gain better understanding of how oil and gas exploration and production might affect the ecosystem and its natural inhabitants. The goal of assessing both community structure (abundance, biomass and species composition) and biogeochemical processes (community function) was unique, because traditionally such studies have been investigated independently. The field work aboard R/V Gyre was conducted in two phases over a 3-year period (2000-02). The first phase, a broad geographic survey stretching from the western GoM near Mexico to the upper Florida slope, was designed to provide a database from which large detailed maps could be created to explore potential controls on community structure. Physiographic features (depth, the base of steep escarpments, the axes of canyons, methane seep sites, mesoscale "salt" basins, etc.) were sampled in replicate locations to assess the relationships between topography and spatial distribution patterns. During the second phase (2001-02), a limited number (7) of locations were investigated with measurements designed to estimate rates of processes related to the cycling of organic matter. The strategy was successful in defining the quantitative relationships between carbon cycling (trophic conditions) and community structure (zonation and diversity), for those groups for which "species" lists were generated (harpacticoid copepods in the meiofauna, macrofauna, megafauna and fishes). In retrospect, additional "process" locations in the western GoM would have improved the second phase of the study by more rigorously describing the relationships between broader geographic patterns in community structure and trophic conditions.

  7. Is Workplace Smoking Policy Equally Prevalent and Equally Effective Among Immigrants?

    PubMed Central

    Osypuk, Theresa L.; Subramanian, S.V.; Kawachi, Ichiro; Acevedo-Garcia, Dolores

    2009-01-01

    Background We examined whether immigrants were less likely to be covered by a smokefree workplace policy, as well as whether workplace smoking policies garnered comparable associations with smoking for immigrants and the US-born, in the US. Methods We applied the 2001/02 Current Population Survey Tobacco Use Supplement among US indoor workers (n=85,784) using multiple logistic regression analyses. First, we examined whether nativity (immigrants vs. US-born) was independently associated with smokefree policy coverage. Second, we examined whether the smokefree policy association with current smoking was differential by nativity (effect modification). Results Immigrants were less likely to work in smokefree workplaces than the US-born; however occupation and industry accounted for these disparities. Employment in a workplace that was not smokefree was associated with higher odds of smoking (vs. smokefree workplaces), both before (OR=1.83, 95% CI:1.74–1.92) and after (OR=1.36, (1.29–1.44)) covariate adjustment among the US-born, but associations were weaker among immigrants (OR=1.39(1.20–1.61) unadjusted, OR=1.15(0.97–1.35) adjusted). Worker industry partly explained (16% of) the weaker policy-smoking association among immigrants, while other socioeconomic variables reduced the policy-smoking association without explaining the disparity. Conclusions The patchwork of US workplace smoking restriction policy at different governmental levels, combined with a voluntary regime among some employers, generates coverage inequalities. Workplace smokefree policies may be less effective for immigrants, and this is related to differential coverage by such policies due to occupational segregation. Understanding the complex patterns of the social context of smoking is important for understanding how policy interventions might have heterogeneous effects for different demographic groups. PMID:19359272

  8. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained. PMID:16614427

  9. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension.

  10. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    PubMed

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed.

  11. The role of adolescent behaviors in the female-male disparity in obesity incidence in US black and white young adults.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Whitney R; Stevens, June; Kaufman, Jay S; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2010-07-01

    In the United States, black women are at much greater risk for obesity than black men. We explored whether adolescent behaviors (family dinners, hours of television, playing sports with mother, playing sports with father, bouts of physical activity) were associated with gender disparity in 6-year obesity incidence in young adulthood. We used data from the nationally representative National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health to examine adolescent behaviors in nonimmigrant black (n = 1,503) and white (n = 4,452) youths in 1994-95 (aged 11-19 years) and 1995-96 (aged 12-20). We assessed gender disparity in obesity incidence (female incidence minus male incidence) during young adulthood (2001-02; aged 18-26). Standardized gender disparities were calculated using race- and gender-stratified, covariate-adjusted logistic regression models in which males and females were set to the same distributions of adolescent behaviors. In adolescence, black females reported less leisure-time physical activity and lower likelihood of playing sports with either parent compared with black males. Setting adolescent behaviors equal for black males and females did not reduce the estimated gender disparity in obesity incidence (nonstandardized: 9.8 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5, 15.1); fully standardized: 10.2 percentage points (5.2, 15.2)). There was little gender disparity in whites before or after adjustments. To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine to what extent behavioral differences during adolescence might account for gender disparity in obesity incidence in black young adults. Male-female differences in these adolescent behaviors did not appear to underlie the gender gap in young adult obesity.

  12. The McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica: Terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems responding to climatic events that enhance hydrologic transport acress the landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKnight, D. M.; Lyons, W. B.; Fountain, A. G.; Gooseff, M. N.; Doran, P. T.; Wall, D. H.; Virginia, R. A.; Priscu, J. C.; Adams, B.; Vesbach-Takacs, C.; Barrett, J. E.; Howkins, A.

    2014-12-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica is comprised of alpine and terminal glaciers, large expanses of patterned ground, and permanently ice-covered lakes in the valley floors, which are linked by glacial meltwater streams that flow during the austral summer. These valleys were first explored by Robert Scott and his party in 1903. In 1968 the New Zealand Antarctic Program began a gauging network on the Onyx River, a 32 km river in Wright Valley which is the longest river in Antarctica. As part of the McMurdo Dry Valleys Long-Term Ecological research project our research group has monitored meteorological conditions, glacial mass balance, lake level and streamflow in the adjacent Taylor Valley. The extent of liquid water throughout the landscape is strongly controlled by summer climate, and the availability of liquid water in turn is a limitation to the microscopic life that is present in the diverse habitats in the valleys. We have studied the responses of soil, lake, stream and cryoconite ecosystems through a sustained cooling period that has been driven by atmospheric changes associated with the ozone hole. In the past decade, this cooling period appears to have ceased and summer conditions have become more variable. Three warm sunny summers have occurred since 2001/02. These conditions have created weeks long "flood events" in the valleys, causing wet areas to emerge in the soils, thermokarsting in some stream channels and increases in lake level. These flood events can be considered as pulse events that drive an increase in ecosystem connectivity, changing rates of biogeochemical processes and the distribution of biota. Collectively the ecosystems of the McMurdo Dry Valleys are highly responsive to dynamic climatic influences associated with the ozone hole and global warming.

  13. School environment as predictor of teacher sick leave: data-linked prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Poor indoor air quality (IAQ) and psychosocial problems are common in schools worldwide, yet longitudinal research on the issue is scarce. We examined whether the level of or a change in pupil-reported school environment (IAQ, school satisfaction, and bullying) predicts recorded sick leaves among teachers. Methods Changes in the school environment were assessed using pupil surveys at two time points (2001/02 and 2004/05) in 92 secondary schools in Finland. Variables indicating change were based on median values at baseline. We linked these data to individual-level records of teachers’ (n = 1678) sick leaves in 2001–02 and in 2004–05. Results Multilevel multinomial logistic regression models adjusted for baseline sick leave and covariates showed a decreased risk for short-term (one to three days) sick leaves among teachers working in schools with good perceived IAQ at both times (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), and for those with a positive change in IAQ (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4-0.9), compared to teachers in schools where IAQ was constantly poor. Negative changes in pupil school satisfaction (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-2.8) and bullying (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.0-2.3) increased the risk for short-term leaves among teachers when compared to teachers in schools where the level of satisfaction and bullying had remained stable. School environment factors were not associated with long-term sick leaves. Conclusions Good and improved IAQ are associated with decreased teacher absenteeism. While pupil-related psychosocial factors also contribute to sick leaves, no effect modification or mediation of psychosocial factors on the association between IAQ and sick leave was observed. PMID:22966903

  14. Atherosclerotic Risk Factors and Risk of Myocardial Infarction and Venous Thromboembolism; Time-Fixed versus Time-Varying Analyses. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Småbrekke, Birgit; Rinde, Ludvig Balteskard; Hindberg, Kristian; Hald, Erin Mathiesen; Vik, Anders; Wilsgaard, Tom; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Njølstad, Inger; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Hansen, John-Bjarne; Brækkan, Sigrid

    2016-01-01

    Background Single measurements of modifiable risk factors may underestimate associations with outcomes in cohorts. We aimed to compare risk estimates of myocardial infarction (MI) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) by atherosclerotic risk factors during long follow-up using time-fixed analyses without and with correction for regression dilution and time-varying analyses. Methods The study included 5970 subjects enrolled in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study (1994/95). Blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index (BMI), diabetes and smoking status were measured at baseline, and subjects still alive at the fifth (2001/02, n = 5179) and sixth (2007/08, n = 4391) survey were re-measured. Incident events of MI (n = 714) and VTE (n = 214) were recorded until December 2010. Time-fixed and time-varying Cox regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for MI and VTE adjusted for age and sex. Results Variations in BMI, blood pressure and lipid levels were small, and did not alter the risk estimates when time-varying analyses were compared to time-fixed analyses. For MI, variables that changed considerably over time yielded the greatest changes in risk estimates (HR for smoking changed from 1.80 (95% CI 1.55–2.10) to 2.08 (95% CI 1.78–2.42)). For VTE, only BMI was associated with increased risk in both time-fixed and time-varying analysis, but the risk estimates weakened in the time-varying analysis. Correction of time-fixed HRs with Rosner´s method tended to overestimate risk estimates compared to time-varying analysis. Comment For MI and VTE, risk estimates based on baseline and repeated measures corresponded well, whereas correction for regression dilution tended to overestimate risks. PMID:27635655

  15. The 2005 USDA Food Guide Pyramid is associated with more adequate nutrient intakes within energy constraints than the 1992 Pyramid.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiang; Wilde, Parke E; Lichtenstein, Alice H; Tucker, Katherine L

    2006-05-01

    The USDA issued the Food Guide Pyramid (FGP) to help Americans choose healthy diets. We examined whether adherence to the 1992 and 2005 FGP was associated with moderate energy and adequate nutrient intakes. We used data for 2138 men and 2213 women > 18 y old, from the 2001-2002 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quadratic programming was used to generate diets with minimal departure from intakes reported for the NHANES 2001-02. We examined the effect of the number of servings/d of Food Pyramid groups set at 1992 and at 2005 FGP recommendations for 1600, 2200, and 2800 kcal (1 kcal = 4.184 kJ) levels. We calculated energy and nutrients provided by different FGP dietary patterns. Within current U.S. dietary practices, following the 1992 FGP without sodium restriction may provide 200 more kcal than recommended for each energy level. Although it can meet most of old nutrient recommendations (1989), it fails to meet the latest dietary reference intakes, especially for the 1600 kcal level. The 2005 FGP appears to provide less energy and more adequate nutrient intakes, with the exception of vitamin E and potassium for some groups. However, without discretionary energy restriction, Americans are at risk of having excessive energy intake even if they follow the 2005 FGP food serving recommendations. Our analysis suggests that following the 2005 FGP may be associated with lower energy and optimal nutrient intake. Careful restriction of discretionary calories appears necessary for appropriate energy intakes to be maintained.

  16. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  17. PERCEIVED BARRIERS TO TREATMENT FOR ALCOHOL PROBLEMS: A LATENT CLASS ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Schuler, Megan S.; Puttaiah, Savitha; Mojtabai, Ramin; Crum, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Low rates of alcohol treatment seeking has been shown to be associated with perceived barriers to treatment, yet heterogeneity in patterns of perceived barriers have not been explored. We used data from a population-based sample of adults with alcohol abuse and dependence to: describe latent classes of perceived barriers to seeking alcohol treatment and identify characteristics associated with class membership. Methods Data are from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (2001-02). Analyses were restricted to treatment-naive adults with alcohol abuse or dependence with a perceived treatment need (N=1,053). Latent class analysis was performed to identify subgroups with respect to barriers to treatment; latent class regression was performed to identify variables associated with each subgroup. Results Two subgroups emerged: the low barriers class (87%), characterized primarily by attitudinal barriers, and the high barriers class (13%), characterized by significant attitudinal, financial, stigma and readiness for change barriers. In both classes, the most frequently endorsed barrier was the attitudinal belief that they should be “strong enough” to handle it on their own. Univariate analyses showed strong associations between membership in the high barriers class and comorbid psychiatric disorders, alcohol dependence (relative to abuse), and family history of alcohol problems; multivariate analyses found significant associations with lifetime anxiety disorder and education level. Conclusions Findings show that attitudinal barriers are most prevalent, and highlight the existence of a notable subgroup with multiple barriers, including financial and stigma-related barriers, who may require additional resources and support in order to enter treatment. PMID:26234326

  18. Effects of Recent Climate Change on Facultative and Spontaneous Torpor in Apline Habitats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, C. L.; Hood, W. R.; Stevens, M.; Gary, G.

    2007-12-01

    Mean annual air temperatures have increased in North America by 1.0°C during the past 100 years, and are predicted to increase by 4-8 °C further within the next 70 years. Hibernating mammals may be particularly sensitive to climate change since body temperatures during torpor are strongly influence by ambient temperature. We conducted 3-7 year studies on the relationship between ambient (air/soil) temperature and the torpor patterns of free-ranging facultative and spontaneous hibernators. The facultative hibernation of eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus) in New York State and the spontaneous hibernation by golden-mantled ground squirrels (Spermophilus lateralis) in the mountains of California were continuously monitored using temperature sensitive radiocollars during winters of 2000-01 through 2006-07. Mean air/soil temperatures during the winter 2001-02 were much greater than those observed during the same periods of 2000-1 and 2002-3 winters at both sites, and the winter of 2001-2 was one of the warmest measured in both New York State and California since 1895. Consequently T. striatus during the winter 2001-2 had: a) fewer individuals using torpor, b) reduced the time spent in torpor by 96%, and, c) increased energy expenditure by 100% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the colder winters of 2000-1/2002-3. Likewise, S. lateralis during the winter of 2001-2 had: a) delayed the entrance into hibernation by a mean of 12.2 days, b) increased mean body temperatures by an average of 5.4 C during torpor, and, c) increased metabolic rate during torpor by 75% when compared to the torpor patterns of the same population during the winters of 2000-1/2002-3.

  19. Effect of partner violence in adolescence and young adulthood on blood pressure and incident hypertension.

    PubMed

    Clark, Cari Jo; Everson-Rose, Susan A; Alonso, Alvaro; Spencer, Rachael A; Brady, Sonya S; Resnick, Michael D; Borowsky, Iris W; Connett, John E; Krueger, Robert F; Suglia, Shakira F

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has adverse health consequences, but little is known about its association with hypertension. This study investigates sex differences in the relationship between intimate partner violence and blood pressure outcomes. Data included 9,699 participants from waves 3 (2001-02) and 4 (2008-09) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (51% female). Systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and incident hypertension (SBP≥140 mmHg, DBP≥90 mmHg, or taking antihypertensive medication) were ascertained at wave 4. Intimate partner violence was measured at wave 3 with 8 items from the revised Conflict Tactics Scales. Separate victimization and perpetration scores were calculated. Sex-specific indicators of severe victimization and perpetration were created using the 66th percentile among those exposed as a cut point. Sex-specific, linear and logistic regression models were developed adjusting for age, race, financial stress, and education. Thirty-three percent of men and 47% of women reported any intimate partner violence exposure; participants were categorized as having: no exposure, moderate victimization and / or perpetration only, severe victimization, severe perpetration, and severe victimization and perpetration. Men experiencing severe perpetration and victimization had a 2.66 mmHg (95% CI: 0.05, 5.28) higher SBP and a 59% increased odds (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.07, 2.37) of incident hypertension compared to men not exposed to intimate partner violence. No other category of violence was associated with blood pressure outcomes in men. Intimate partner violence was not associated with blood pressure outcomes in women. Intimate partner violence may have long-term consequences for men's hemodynamic health. Screening men for victimization and perpetration may assist clinicians to identify individuals at increased risk of hypertension. PMID:24658452

  20. Teaching for quality learning in chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira-Dias, José J. C.; Pedrosa de Jesus, Helena; Neri de Souza, Francislê; Watts, Mike

    2005-09-01

    In Portugal, the number of students in higher education increased from 80,000 in 1975 to 381,000 in 2000 (a change from 11% to 53% in the age group 18 22), meaning a major change in the diversity of student population with consequences well known and studied in other countries. The teaching of chemistry at the University of Aveiro, for the first-year students of science and engineering, has been subjected to continuous attention to implement quality and student-centred approaches. The work devoted to excellence and deep learning by several authors has been carefully followed and considered. This communication reports research work on chemistry teaching, associated with those developments for first-year students. The work included the design of strategies and the adoption of teaching and learning activities exploring ways to stimulate active learning by improving the quality of classroom interactions. In addition to regular lectures, large classes' teaching based on student-generated questions was explored. In order to improve students' motivation and stimulate their curiosity, conference-lectures were adopted to deal with selected topics of wide scientific, technological and social interest. Quantitative analysis and discussion of selected case studies, together with the organization of laboratory classes based on selected enquiry-based experiments, planned and executed by students, stimulated deep learning processes. A sample of 32 students was followed in the academic year of 2000/01 and the results obtained are here discussed in comparison with those of a sample of 100 students followed in 2001/02. Particular attention was paid to the quality of classroom interactions, the use of questions by students and their views about the course design.

  1. Food preparation patterns in German family households. An econometric approach with time budget data.

    PubMed

    Möser, Anke

    2010-08-01

    In Germany, the rising importance of out-of-home consumption, increasing usage of convenience products and decreasing knowledge of younger individuals how to prepare traditional dishes can be seen as obvious indicators for shifting patterns in food preparation. In this paper, econometric analyses are used to shed more light on the factors which may influence the time spent on food preparation in two-parent family households with children. Two time budget surveys, carried out 1991/92 and 2001/02 through the German National Statistical Office, provide the necessary data. Time budget data analyses reveal that over the last ten years the time spent on food preparation in Germany has decreased. The results point out that time resources of a household, for example gainful employment of the parents, significantly affect the amount of time spent on food preparation. The analysis confirms further that there is a more equal allocation of time spent on cooking, baking or laying the table between women and men in the last ten years. Due to changing attitudes and conceivably adaption of economic conditions, differences in time devoted to food preparation seem to have vanished between Eastern and Western Germany. Greater time spent on eating out in Germany as well as decreasing time spent on food preparation at home reveal that the food provisioning of families is no longer a primarily private task of the households themselves but needs more public attention and institutional offers and help. Among other points, the possibility of addressing mothers' lack of time as well as growing "food illiteracy" of children and young adults are discussed. PMID:20420870

  2. Circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses: current state of knowledge.

    PubMed Central

    Kew, Olen M.; Wright, Peter F.; Agol, Vadim I.; Delpeyroux, Francis; Shimizu, Hiroyuki; Nathanson, Neal; Pallansch, Mark A.

    2004-01-01

    Within the past 4 years, poliomyelitis outbreaks associated with circulating vaccine-derived polioviruses (cVDPVs) have occurred in Hispaniola (2000-01), the Philippines (2001), and Madagascar (2001-02). Retrospective studies have also detected the circulation of endemic cVDPV in Egypt (1988-93) and the likely localized spread of oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV)-derived virus in Belarus (1965-66). Gaps in OPV coverage and the previous eradication of the corresponding serotype of indigenous wild poliovirus were the critical risk factors for all cVDPV outbreaks. The cVDPV outbreaks were stopped by mass immunization campaigns using OPV. To increase sensitivity for detecting vaccine-derived polioviruses (VDPVs), in 2001 the Global Polio Laboratory Network implemented additional testing requirements for all poliovirus isolates under investigation. This approach quickly led to the recognition of the Philippines and Madagascar cVDPV outbreaks, but of no other current outbreaks. The potential risk of cVDPV emergence has increased dramatically in recent years as wild poliovirus circulation has ceased in most of the world. The risk appears highest for the type 2 OPV strain because of its greater tendency to spread to contacts. The emergence of cVDPVs underscores the critical importance of eliminating the last pockets of wild poliovirus circulation, maintaining universally high levels of polio vaccine coverage, stopping OPV use as soon as it is safely possible to do so, and continuing sensitive poliovirus surveillance into the foreseeable future. Particular attention must be given to areas where the risks for wild poliovirus circulation have been highest, and where the highest rates of polio vaccine coverage must be maintained to suppress cVDPV emergence. PMID:15106296

  3. Why it is time to review the role of private health insurance in Australia.

    PubMed

    Segal, Leonie

    2004-01-01

    The role of private health insurance (PHI) within the Australian health-care system is urgently in need of comprehensive review. Two decades of universal health cover under Medicare have meant a change in the function of PHI, which is not reflected in policies to support PHI nor in the public debate around PHI. There is increasing evidence that the series of policy adjustments introduced to support PHI have served to undermine rather than promote the efficiency and equity of Australia's health care system. While support for PHI has been justified to 'take pressure off the public hospital system' and to facilitate choice of insurer and private provider', and the incentives have indeed increased PHI membership, this increase comes at a high cost relative to benefits achieved. The redirection of hospital admissions from the public to private hospitals is small, with a value considerably less than 25% of the cost of the policies. The Commonwealth share of the health care budget has increased and the relative contribution from private health insurance is lower in 2001-02, despite an increase in PHI membership to nearly 45% of the population, compared with the 30% coverage in 1998. The policies have largely directed subsidies to those on higher incomes who are more likely to take out PHI, and to private insurance companies, private hospitals and medical specialists. Ad hoc policy adjustments need to be replaced by a coherent policy towards PHI, one that recognises the fundamental change in its role and significance in the context of universal health coverage.

  4. Socioeconomic status and children's health: evidence from a low-income country.

    PubMed

    Sepehri, Ardeshir; Guliani, Harminder

    2015-04-01

    There has been a growing empirical literature on the relationship between household socioeconomic status (SES) and children's health, and in particular, whether this SES gradient is constant or varies in strength across different life stages. Much of this literature focuses on the developed countries and less evidence has been presented for developing countries. Using Vietnam's rich National Health Survey (2001-02) and appropriate multilevel modeling this study empirically assesses the SES gradient in health and whether it varies in strength across different life stages of children aged 15 and younger (N = 45,448). The results for the interaction terms between the natural logarithm of household consumption and age groups indicate no evidence of a steeper health gradient for older children. However, health-consumption gradients are found to be sensitive to the functional form of the regression model as well as the model specification. The results for the interaction terms between consumption expenditure quintiles and age groups indicate that gradients vary in strength across ages. Not only are children from the poorest households worse off, compared to those from the richest households, but this relative disadvantage is greater among the 0-3 year olds. The inclusion of parental health status in the regression model weakens the gradients for all age groups as does the inclusion of household sources of drinking water. However, poorer children are still relatively worse off, specially the 0-3 year olds. This suggests that absolute deprivation may help explain the relative health disadvantage of younger children. Better measures of poverty alleviation are hence needed to improve children's health in a low-income country such as Vietnam.

  5. Evaluation of a national programme to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for upper respiratory tract infections: effects on consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour in Australia.

    PubMed

    Wutzke, Sonia E; Artist, Margaret A; Kehoe, Linda A; Fletcher, Miriam; Mackson, Judith M; Weekes, Lynn M

    2007-03-01

    The over-use of antibiotics, in particular, inappropriate use to treat upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs), is a global public health concern. In an attempt to reduce inappropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs, and, in particular, to modify patient misconceptions about the effectiveness of antibiotics for URTIs, Australia's National Prescribing Service Ltd (NPS) has undertaken a comprehensive, multistrategic programme for health professionals and the community. Targeted strategies for the community, via the NPS common colds community campaign, commenced in 2000 and have been repeated annually during the winter months. Community strategies were closely integrated, using the same tagline, key messages and visual images, and were delivered in numerous settings including general practice, community pharmacy, child-care centres and community groups. Strategies included written information via newsletters and brochures, mass media activity using billboards, television, radio and magazines and small grants to promote local community education. The evaluation used multiple methods and data sources to measure process, impact and outcomes. Consistent with intervention messages, the integrated nationwide prescriber and consumer programme is associated with modest but consistent positive changes in consumer awareness, beliefs, attitudes and behaviour to the appropriate use of antibiotics for URTIs. These positive changes among the community are corroborated by a national decline in total antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in the community (from 23.08 million prescriptions in 1998-99 to 21.44 million in 2001-02) and, specifically, by a decline among the nine antibiotics commonly used for URTI such that by 2003 nationally 216,000 fewer prescriptions for URTI are written each year by general practitioners.

  6. Aerogeophysical evidence for complex subglacial geology below the Rutford drainage basin,WestAntarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, P.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Smith, A. M.; King, E.; Vaughan, D.

    2003-12-01

    A significant part of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet appears to be imposed upon a complex and still largely unknown continental rift system, perhaps featuring sedimentary basins, thin crust and high heat flow. Subglacial geology has been postulated to strongly modulate the dynamics and stability of the ice sheet itself. Specifically, recent aerogeophysics collected over central West Antarctica at edge of the Whitmore Mountains crustal block show that narrow subglacial rift basins with thick sedimentary infill may control the onsets and lateral margins of ice streams. The British Antarctic Survey flew an aerogeophysical survey during the 2001-02 field season: the main aim was to investigate what factors control the location and dynamics of the onset region of the Rutford Ice stream. Airborne radar, aerogravity and aeromagnetic data were simultaneously collected over the drainage basin of the Rutford Ice Stream. The new bedrock elevation grid for the area shows that the Rutford Ice Stream is constrained by a deep bedrock trough with a N-S to NE-SW trend. The onset region appears however to lie within an E-W bedrock trough at the edge of the Ellsworth Mountains crustal block. Bouguer gravity maps do not reveal typical signatures for a coincident deep rift basin at this location. However, a sharp NE-SW trending gradient, likely separating crustal blocks with contrasting crustal thickness is revealed. Aeromagnetic data image NE-SW trends north of the Rutford Ice Stream. In the onset region, these trends appear to be truncated by a NNW-SSE trend, lying on strike with the Ellsworth Mountains. Hence, the new aerogeophysical data suggests greater complexity in the subglacial geology and structure of an onset region of an ice stream compared to previous investigations.

  7. Elevation change (2000-2004) on the Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, J.; Molnia, B.; Carabajal, C.; Luthcke, S.; Muskett, R.

    2005-01-01

    The glaciers of the southeastern Alaska coastal region are the largest temperate glacier meltwater source on Earth and may contribute one third of the total glacier meltwater entering the global ocean. Since melt onset and refreeeze timing in this region show a tendency toward earlier onset and longer ablation seasons, accelerated glacier wastage may be occurring. In this study we focus on one of the largest temperate glacier systems on Earth, the Malaspina Glacier. This glacier, with a length of approximately 110 km and an area of approximately square 5,000 km, has the largest piedmont lobe of any temperate glacier. The entire lobe, which lies at elevations below 600 m, is within the ablation zone. We report and interpret ice elevation change between a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM C band) observations in Feb. 2000 and ICESat Laser 1-3 observations between Feb. 2003 and Nov. 2004. We use these elevation change results, along with earlier studies, to address the spatial and temporal variability in wastage of the piedmont lobe. Between 2000 and 2004 ice elevation changes of 10-30 meters occurred across the central Malaspina piedmont lobe. From 1972/73 (USGS DEM) to 1999 (SRTM corrected for estimated winter snow accumulation) Malaspina's (Agassiz, Seward Lobe, and Marvine) mean ice thinning was estimated at -47 m with maximum thinning on parts of the lobes to -160 m. The Malaspina's accumulation area is only slightly larger than its ablation area (2,575 km2 vs. 2,433 km2); unfortunately few glaciological observations are available from this source region. Snow accumulation rates have been largely inferred from low-altitude precipitation and temperature data. Comparing sequential ICESat observations in the Malaspina source region, we estimated short-term elevation increases of up to 5 meters during the winter of 2003/04.

  8. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG'). PMID:23334584

  9. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  10. Childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nidhi; Shah, Priyali; Nayyar, Sugandha; Misra, Anoop

    2013-03-01

    Rapidly changing dietary practices accompanied by an increasingly sedentary lifestyle predispose to nutrition-related non-communicable diseases, including childhood obesity. Over the last 5 y, reports from several developing countries indicate prevalence rates of obesity (inclusive of overweight) >15 % in children and adolescents aged 5-19 y; Mexico 41.8 %, Brazil 22.1 %, India 22.0 % and Argentina 19.3 %. Moreover, secular trends also indicate an alarming increase in obesity in developing countries; in Brazil from 4.1 % to 13.9 % between 1974 and 1997; in China from 6.4 % to 7.7 % between 1991 and 1997; and in India from 4.9 % to 6.6 % between 2003-04 to 2005-06. Other contributory factors to childhood obesity include: high socio-economic status, residence in metropolitan cities and female gender. Childhood obesity tracks into adulthood, thus increasing the risk for conditions like the metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), polycystic ovarian syndrome, hypertension, dyslipidemia and coronary artery disease later in life. Interestingly, prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 35.2 % among overweight Chinese adolescents. Presence of central obesity (high waist-to-hip circumference ratio) along with hypertriglyceridemia and family history of T2DM increase the odds of T2DM by 112.1 in young Asian Indians (< 40 y). Therapeutic lifestyle changes and maintenance of regular physical activity are most important strategies for preventing childhood obesity. Effective health awareness educational programs for children should be immediately initiated in developing countries, following the successful model program in India (project 'MARG').

  11. Common mental disorders, neighbourhood income inequality and income deprivation: small-area multilevel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fone, David; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; White, James; Kelly, Mark; Dunstan, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Background Common mental disorders are more prevalent in areas of high neighbourhood socioeconomic deprivation but whether the prevalence varies with neighbourhood income inequality is not known. Aims To investigate the hypothesis that the interaction between small-area income deprivation and income inequality was associated with individual mental health. Method Multilevel analysis of population data from the Welsh Health Survey, 2003/04–2010. A total of 88 623 respondents aged 18–74 years were nested within 50 587 households within 1887 lower super output areas (neighbourhoods) and 22 unitary authorities (regions), linked to the Gini coefficient (income inequality) and the per cent of households living in poverty (income deprivation). Mental health was measured using the Mental Health Inventory MHI-5 as a discrete variable and as a ‘case’ of common mental disorder. Results High neighbourhood income inequality was associated with better mental health in low-deprivation neighbourhoods after adjusting for individual and household risk factors (parameter estimate +0.70 (s.e. = 0.33), P = 0.036; odds ratio (OR) for common mental disorder case 0.92, 95% CI 0.88–0.97). Income inequality at regional level was significantly associated with poorer mental health (parameter estimate -1.35 (s.e. = 0.54), P = 0.012; OR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.04–1.22). Conclusions The associations between common mental disorders, income inequality and income deprivation are complex. Income inequality at neighbourhood level is less important than income deprivation as a risk factor for common mental disorders. The adverse effect of income inequality starts to operate at the larger regional level. PMID:23470284

  12. How does the spread of primary and secondary schooling influence the fertility transition? Evidence from rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-01-01

    From 1996 to 2006, Nepal experienced a substantial fertility decline, with the total fertility rate dropping from 4.6 to 3.1 births per woman. This study examines the associations between progress towards universal primary and secondary schooling and fertility decline in rural Nepal. Several hypotheses regarding mechanisms through which education affects current fertility behaviour are tested, including: the school environment during women's childhood; current availability of schools; knowledge of educational costs; and women's own educational attainment. Data for the analysis come from the 2003-04 Nepal Living Standards Survey, a nationally representative random sample of households, which includes detailed data on fertility, household expenditure, educational attainment, demographic characteristics and the use of social services. Census and administrative data are also used to construct district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during the women's childhood. Discrete dependent variable modelling techniques are used to estimate the effects of the following variables on the probability of women giving birth in a given year: district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during women's childhood; having had a child previously in school; women's own educational level; current school availability; and other covariates. Separate models are estimated for the overall sample of rural women of reproductive age, and for parity-specific sub-samples. The results suggest that district-level gross enrolment ratios for secondary schools and, in some instances, having had a previous child enrolled in school are significant determinants of fertility in rural areas. These results are highly independent of women's own educational levels. Overall, the results suggest that, in the rural Nepal context, mass schooling influences the fertility transition through both community- and household-level pathways.

  13. Reconsidering the Sedentary Behaviour Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Carol; Olds, Tim; Mire, Emily; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.

    2014-01-01

    Aims Recent literature has posed sedentary behaviour as an independent entity to physical inactivity. This study investigated whether associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers remain when analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. Methods Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 4,618 adults from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Minutes of sedentary behaviour and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), and total physical activity (total daily accelerometer counts minus counts accrued during sedentary minutes) were determined from accelerometry. Associations between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers were examined using linear regression. Results Results showed that sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with 8/11 cardio-metabolic biomarkers when adjusted for MVPA. However, when adjusted for total physical activity, the associations effectively disappeared, except for C-reactive protein, which showed a very small, favourable association (β = −0.06) and triglycerides, which showed a very small, detrimental association (β = 0.04). Standardised betas suggested that total physical activity was consistently, favourably associated with cardio-metabolic biomarkers (9/11 biomarkers, standardized β = 0.08–0.30) while sedentary behaviour was detrimentally associated with just 1 biomarker (standardized β = 0.12). Conclusion There is virtually no association between sedentary behaviour and cardio-metabolic biomarkers once analyses are adjusted for total physical activity. This suggests that sedentary behaviour may not have health effects independent of physical activity. PMID:24454968

  14. Effectiveness of the influenza vaccine in preventing admission to hospital and death in people with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Vamos, Eszter P.; Pape, Utz J.; Curcin, Vasa; Harris, Matthew J.; Valabhji, Jonathan; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background: The health burden caused by seasonal influenza is substantial. We sought to examine the effectiveness of influenza vaccination against admission to hospital for acute cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and all-cause death in people with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We conducted a retrospective cohort study using primary and secondary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink in England, over a 7-year period between 2003/04 and 2009/10. We enrolled 124 503 adults with type 2 diabetes. Outcome measures included admission to hospital for acute myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, heart failure or pneumonia/influenza, and death. We fitted Poisson regression models for influenza and off-season periods to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) for cohorts who had and had not received the vaccine. We used estimates for the summer, when influenza activity is low, to adjust for residual confounding. Results: Study participants contributed to 623 591 person-years of observation during the 7-year study period. Vaccine recipients were older and had more comorbid conditions compared with nonrecipients. After we adjusted for covariates and residual confounding, vaccination was associated with significantly lower admission rates for stroke (IRR 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.53–0.91), heart failure (IRR 0.78, 95% CI 0.65–0.92) and pneumonia or influenza (IRR 0.85, 95% CI 0.74–0.99), as well as all-cause death (IRR 0.76, 95% CI 0.65–0.83), and a nonsignificant change for acute MI (IRR 0.81, 95% CI 0.62–1.04) during the influenza seasons. Interpretation: In this cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes, influenza vaccination was associated with reductions in rates of admission to hospital for specific cardiovascular events. Efforts should be focused on improvements in vaccine uptake in this important target group as part of comprehensive secondary prevention. PMID:27455981

  15. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific. PMID:17459459

  16. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  17. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  18. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  19. When will α-HCH disappear from the western Arctic Ocean?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pućko, Monika; Stern, Gary A.; Macdonald, Robie W.; Barber, David G.; Rosenberg, Bruno; Walkusz, Wojciech

    2013-11-01

    Water column concentrations of α-HCH were measured in the southern Beaufort Sea as part of the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study (CASES; 2003-04), the Circumpolar Flaw Lead System Study (CFL; 2007-08), and in the Mackenzie River during the 2008 NAHIDIK program. Atmospheric α-HCH concentrations were measured during CASES program. Inventories of α-HCH in the Polar Mixed Layer (PML) and the Pacific Mode Layer (PL) of the Beaufort Sea were calculated between 1986 and 2007 based on the available data. Between 1986 and 1993, there was a significant loading of α-HCH to the Beaufort Sea via the ocean currents. About 12% of the loading to the PML could be explained by the combined effect of the air-water gas exchange and the river runoff. After 1993, α-HCH inventories started decreasing, and could be well predicted exclusively by degradation. Ice formation was shown to be a solvent depleting process leading to a significant increase in the α-HCH concentration in the water just beneath the ice. Associated low α-HCH concentrations in the ice and relatively low ice export from the Beaufort Sea resulted in negligible influence of this output route on the inventories in the PML. The majority of α-HCH in the Beaufort Sea could be eliminated due to degradation by 2020, with concentrations in 2040 dropping to < 0.006 and < 0.004 ng L- 1 in the PML and PL, respectively. Elimination of α-HCH from sea water takes significantly longer than from the atmosphere, with a lag of about two decades.

  20. Ocean Sciences as a Foundation for Curriculum Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhmenkulova, I.; Gorshkalev, S.; Odriozola, A.; Dominguez, A.; Greely, T.; Pyrtle, A.; Keiper, T.; Watkins, J.

    2005-05-01

    The GK-12 OCEANS program is an initiative of the National Science Foundation (NSF). This program provides marine science graduate students within the College of Marine Science, USF, weekly interactions with K-12 teachers and students in Pinellas County schools with the overall purpose of enhancing the quality and effectiveness of science teaching. The GK-12 OCEANS program provides hands-on and minds-on ocean science learning inquiries. Campbell Park Elementary is a Marine Science attractor school designed to provide a child-centered approach to learning that integrates marine science activities into the daily curriculum while meeting the required state education standards. In 2003-04 a GK-12 Fellow helped third and fourth grade teachers design new teaching curricula that integrated ocean sciences. The current 2004-04 Fellow and teachers are implementing the new curriculum, assessing feasibility and impact on students' learning. One characteristic of the new curriculum includes several field trips to local natural settings during which students have the opportunity to collect data the way scientists do, and use real scientific instruments and approaches. The information collected is then used in different activities within the classroom. These activities encourage the students to use inquiry as the basis of their learning experience, in which the application of scientific thinking and methods are keys. This process also requires the students to apply skills from other disciplines such as writing, reading, and math. Towards the end of the school year the students have the opportunity to highlight their accomplishments through two projects, 1) a hall display of different ocean zones, which includes habitat characteristics and species adaptations, and 2) a marine science experiment presented at the school science fair. The results and accomplishments from the implementation of these new curricula will be presented at the conference.

  1. Proximity to Mosquito Breeding Habitat and Ross River Virus Risk in the Peel Region of Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Neville, Peter J.; Lindsay, Michael D.A.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are

  2. A multidisciplinary system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coltelli, Mauro; Prestifilippo, Michele; Spata, Gaetano; Scollo, Simona; Andronico, Daniele

    2010-05-01

    One of the most active volcanoes in the world is Mt. Etna, in Italy, characterized by frequent explosive activity from the central craters and from fractures opened along the volcano flanks which, during the last years, caused several damages to aviation and forced the closure of the Catania International Airport. To give precise warning to the aviation authorities and air traffic controller and to assist the work of VAACs, a novel system for monitoring and forecasting Etna volcanic plumes, was developed at the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, sezione di Catania, the managing institution for the surveillance of Etna volcano. Monitoring is carried out using multispectral infrared measurements from the Spin Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) on board the Meteosat Second Generation geosynchronous satellite able to track the volcanic plume with a high time resolution, visual and thermal cameras used to monitor the explosive activity, three continuous wave X-band disdrometers which detect ash dispersal and fallout, sounding balloons used to evaluate the atmospheric fields, and finally field data collected after the end of the eruptive event needed to extrapolate important features of explosive activity. Forecasting is carried out daily using automatic procedures which download weather forecast data obtained by meteorological mesoscale models from the Italian Air Force national Meteorological Office and from the hydrometeorological service of ARPA-SIM; run four different tephra dispersal models using input parameters obtained by the analysis of the deposits collected after few hours since the eruptive event similar to 22 July 1998, 21-24 July 2001 and 2002-03 Etna eruptions; plot hazard maps on ground and in air and finally publish them on a web-site dedicated to the Italian Civil Protection. The system has been already tested successfully during several explosive events occurring at Etna in 2006, 2007 and 2008. These events produced eruption

  3. Sources of mercury in sediments, water, and fish of the lakes of Whatcom County, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Paulson, Anthony J.

    2004-01-01

    used to calculate current (2002-03) loadings of Hg to Lake Whatcom. Hg in tributaries contributed 59 percent of the total Hg, whereas non-local atmospheric deposition was estimated to have contributed 41 percent of the 303 grams of Hg entering Lake Whatcom each year. However, these inputs cannot be verified without a better understanding of the sources of sediment to Lake Whatcom.

  4. The difference of tropical Indian Ocean warming, PJ-pattern, oceanic and atmospheric changes around Philippines Sea and East Asia after two types of El Nino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, T.; Kubota, H.; Kosaka, Y.; Xie, S.

    2012-12-01

    At the termination year of El Nino event, the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) SST warming appears in boreal summer accompanying with anomalous anticyclone over the Philippine Sea with negative phase of Pacific-Japan (PJ) teleconnection pattern (i.e., low pressure centered east of Japan) and is related to the increase of mei-yu-baiu rainfall over East Asia. Previous studies showed that above oceanic and atmospheric process becomes dominant after the climate regime shift of 1977. It was reported that there are two types of El Nino: one is strong El Nino type having large positive SST anomalies in the central-to-eastern Pacific (e.g., 1997/98 El Nino), and the other is weak El Nino type that shows weak/medium positive SST anomalies centered at the International Date Line (or El Nino Modoki). At present it is unclear whether or not TIO SST warming and following atmospheric and oceanic variations show different feature between the two El Nino types. The purpose of this study is to explore the differences in TIO SST warming and also related climate variations in the boreal summer of the El Nino termination year between the two El Nino types after the 1977 regime shift. The composite analysis of SST shows that strong El Nino type (occurring in 1982, 1986, and 1998) shows TIO SST warming in boreal summer of El Nino termination year. On the other hand, weak type (occurring in 1991, 1994, 2002, 2004, and 2006) shows other SST anomaly pattern in IO: weak positive SST anomalies and negative SST anomalies appear in the north IO and the south IO respectively. Also, strong type shows clear negative PJ pattern and negative air temperature anomalies especially in the north Japan. Weak type does not show such tendency. In summer of the termination year of weak type El Nino events except for 2002/03 El Nino, anomalies of air-temperature in north Japan are positive or almost zero, in contrast to strong type. The present study indicates that strong type shows clear signals of TIO SST

  5. Longitudinal study of body mass index in Asian men who immigrate to the US.

    PubMed

    Oakkar, Eva Erber; Stevens, June; Bradshaw, Patrick T; Cai, Jianwen; Perreira, Krista M; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Young, Deborah R; Ghai, Nirupa R; Caan, Bette; Quinn, Virginia P

    2015-01-01

    背景与目的:横断面研究表明:适应西方的规范,尤其是在年轻的时候,或许可以解释生活在美国的亚洲人的平均体质指数(BMI)高于生活在亚洲的亚洲人。然而,移民和非移民之间社会文化因素难以测量,因此,需要对同一人群移民前后进行纵向研究。为确定不同年龄BMI因居住地(美国或亚洲)不同变化的差别,采用纵向数据记录移民时的年龄和移民前后的BMI。方法和研究设计:加州男性健康研究包括1549位2002-03调查基线时年龄在44-71岁的亚裔男性。用自己报告的体重历史和当前的身高计算其30、40、50和60岁时的BMI。确定每个年龄段的居住地和移民时的年龄。使用广义估计方程进行数据分析。结果:亚裔男性在移民美国之前,十年BMI增幅小于已经在美国生活的亚裔男性。年龄在30-40岁的人群中这种效果最明显,居住在亚洲的亚洲人群,其十年间BMI增幅比在美国生活的亚裔男性低0.69 kg/m2 (95% CI: -1.08, -0.30)。40岁之前移民到美国其BMI增幅大于年龄较大时移民到美国的人群。结论:本研究是第一个支持生活在美国和年轻时移民导致亚裔男性较大的BMI增长这一假设的研究。.

  6. Backwards Spiral Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Astronomers using NASA's Hubble Space Telescope have found a spiral galaxy that may rotate in the opposite direction from what was expected.

    A picture of the oddball galaxy is available at http://heritage.stsci.edu or http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/2002/03 or http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/images/wfpc . It was taken in May 2001 by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.

    The picture showed which side of galaxy NGC 4622 is closer to Earth; that information helped astronomers determine that the galaxy may be spinning clockwise. The image shows NGC 4622 and its outer pair of winding arms full of new stars, shown in blue.

    Astronomers are puzzled by the clockwise rotation because of the direction the outer spiral arms are pointing. Most spiral galaxies have arms of gas and stars that trail behind as they turn. But this galaxy has two 'leading' outer arms that point toward the direction of the galaxy's clockwise rotation. NGC 4622 also has a 'trailing' inner arm that is wrapped around the galaxy in the opposite direction. Based on galaxy simulations, a team of astronomers had expected that the galaxy was turning counterclockwise.

    NGC 4622 is a rare example of a spiral galaxy with arms pointing in opposite directions. Astronomers suspect this oddity was caused by the interaction of NGC 4622 with another galaxy. Its two outer arms are lopsided, meaning that something disturbed it. The new Hubble image suggests that NGC 4622 consumed a smaller companion galaxy.

    Galaxies, which consist of stars, gas, and dust, rotate very slowly. Our Sun, one of many stars in our Milky Way galaxy, completes a circuit around the Milky Way every 250 million years. NGC 4622 lies 111 million light-years away in the direction of the constellation Centaurus.

    The science team, consisting of Drs. Ron Buta and Gene Byrd from the University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, and Tarsh Freeman of Bevill State

  7. High Energy Electrons and Gamma Rays from the ATIC-2 Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isbert, J. B.; ATIC Collaboration

    2004-08-01

    The Advanced Thin Ionization Calorimeter (ATIC) Balloon Experiment is primarily designed to measure the spectra of nuclear cosmic rays (protons to nickel). It is composed of a segmented BGO calorimeter (18 radiation lengths deep) following a carbon target (0.75 nuclear interaction lengths) interleaved with scintillator tracking layers. A Silicon matrix detector at the entrance identifies the incident particle charge. Utilizing simulations such as Fluka and Geant we have investigated the ability of this design to differentiate electron (gamma) initiated showers from hadronic showers. The differences in shower development between the two populations are sufficient to differentiate them for measurements of electron spectra into the TeV region, as confirmed by accelerator tests at CERN and by the ATIC-1 test flight in 2000-01. ATIC had a successful science flight in 2002-03 from McMurdo, Antarctica returning about 19 days of flight data. This exposure is sufficient to record electrons into the TeV region and measure gamma rays at 100's of GeV. The majority of gamma rays are of atmospheric origin and provide a test for this technique. The preliminary electron spectrum from the ATIC-2 flight is presented and compared to previous high energy measurements, principally from emulsion chambers. Possible astrophysical interpretations of the results are discussed. The ATIC Collaboration: J.H. Adams,2 H.S. Ahn,3 G.L. Bashindzhagyan,4 K.E. Batkov,4 J. Chang,6,7 M. Christl,2 A.R. Fazely,5, O. Ganel,3 R.M. Gunasingha,5 T.G. Guzik,1 J. Isbert,1 K.C. Kim,3 E.N. Kouznetsov,4 M.I. Panasyuk,4 A.D. Panov,4 W.K.H. Schmidt,6 E.S. Seo,3 N.V. Sokolskaya,4 J.Z. Wang,3 J.P. Wefel,1 J. Wu,3 V.I. Zatsepin,4 (1) Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (2) Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL, USA (3) University of Maryland, College Park, MD, USA (4) Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia (5) Southern University, Baton Rouge, LA, USA (6

  8. Habitat and hydrology: assessing biological resources of the Suwannee River Estuarine System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raabe, Ellen A.; Edwards, Randy E.; McIvor, Carole C.; Grubbs, Jack W.; Dennis, George D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot integrated-science study during 2002 and 2003 to map, describe, and evaluate benthic and emergent habitats in the Suwannee River Estuary on the Gulf Coast of Florida. Categories of aquatic, emergent, and terrestrial habitats were determined from hyperspectral imagery and integrated with hydrologic data to identify estuarine fish habitats. Maps of intertidal and benthic habitat were derived from 12-band, 4-m resolution hyperspectral imagery acquired in September 2002. Hydrologic data were collected from tidal creeks during the winter of 2002-03 and the summer-fall of 2003. Fish were sampled from tidal creeks during March 2003 using rivulet nets, throw traps, and seine nets. Habitat characteristics, hydrologic data, and fish assemblages were compared for tidal creeks north and south of the Suwannee River. Tidal creeks north of the river had more shoreline edge and shallow habitat than creeks to the south. Tidal creeks south of the river were generally of lower salinity (fresher) and supported more freshwater marsh and submerged aquatic vegetation. The southern creeks tended to be deeper but less sinuous than the northern creeks. Water quality and inundation were evaluated with hydrologic monitoring in the creeks. In-situ gauges, recording pressure and temperature, documented a net discharge of brackish to saline groundwater into the tidal creeks with pronounced flow during low tide. Groundwater flow into the creeks was most prominent north of the river. Combined fish-sampling results showed an overall greater abundance of organisms and greater species richness in the southern creeks, nominally attributed a greater range in water quality. Fish samples were dominated by juvenile spot, grass shrimp, bay anchovy, and silverside. The short time frame for hydrologic monitoring and the one-time fish-sampling effort were insufficient for forming definitive conclusions. However, the combination of hyperspectral imagery and

  9. Water quality and ground-water/surface-water interactions along the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass, Alaska, 2002-2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moran, Edward H.; Brabets, Timothy P.

    2005-01-01

    The headwaters of the John River are located near the village ofAnaktuvuk Pass in the central Brooks Range of interior Alaska. With the recent construction of a water-supply system and a wastewater-treatment plant, most homes in Anaktuvuk Pass now have modern water and wastewater systems. The effluent from the treatment plant discharges into a settling pond near a tributary of the John River. The headwaters of the John River are adjacent to Gates of the Arctic National Park and Preserve, and the John River is a designated Wild River. Due to the concern about possible water-quality effects from the wastewater effluent, the hydrology of the John River near Anaktuvuk Pass was studied from 2002 through 2003. Three streams form the John River atAnaktuvuk Pass: Contact Creek, Giant Creek, and the John RiverTributary. These streams drain areas of 90.3 km (super 2) , 120 km (super 2) , and 4.6 km (super 2) , respectively. Water-qualitydata collected from these streams from 2002-03 indicate that the waters are a calcium-bicarbonate type and that Giant Creek adds a sulfate component to the John River. The highest concentrations of bicarbonate, calcium, sodium, sulfate, and nitrate were found at the John River Tributary below the wastewater-treatment lagoon. These concentrations have little effect on the water quality of the John River because the flow of the John River Tributary is only about 2 percent of the John River flow. To better understand the ground-water/surface-water interactions of the upper John River, a numerical groundwater-flow model of the headwater area of the John River was constructed. Processes that occur during spring break-up, such as thawing of the active layer and the frost table and the resulting changes of storage capacity of the aquifer, were difficult to measure and simulate. Application and accuracy of the model is limited by the lack of specific hydrogeologic data both spatially and temporally. However

  10. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists.

  11. Water acidification trends in a reservoir of the Iberian Pyrite Belt (SW Spain).

    PubMed

    Cánovas, C R; Olías, M; Macias, F; Torres, E; San Miguel, E G; Galván, L; Ayora, C; Nieto, J M

    2016-01-15

    Scarcity of waters is the main limiting factor of economic development in most arid and semi-arid regions worldwide. The construction of reservoirs may be an optimal solution to assure water availability if the drainage area shows low disturbances. This is the quandary of mining areas where economic development relies on water accessibility. Water acidification trends were investigated in the Sancho Reservoir (SW Spain) in the last 20 years. The acidity (pH3-5) and high dissolved metal concentrations (e.g., 4.4 mg/L of Al, 2.1mg/L of Mn, 1.9 mg/L of Zn) observed in the Sancho, together with the large volume stored (between 37 and 55 Mm(3)), makes this reservoir an extreme case of surface water pollution worldwide. A progressive acidification has been observed since 2003, as evidenced by decreasing pH values and increasing dissolved metal concentrations, especially noticeable after 2007. The increase in the net acidity in the reservoir originates from the higher input of metals and acidity due to the rebound effect after the mining closure in 2001. This trend was not detected in the river feeding the reservoir due to its great hydrological and hydrochemical variability, typical of the Mediterranean climate. Chemical analysis and absolute dating of sediments identified a progressive enrichment in S and metals (i.e., Fe, Zn Cu, Ni, Co and Cd) in the upper 20 cm, which reinforce the year 2002/03 as the onset of the acidification of the reservoir. The decrease of pH values from 4-5 to 3-4 occurred later than the increase in sulfate and metals due to pH-buffering by Al. The acid mine drainage (AMD) pressure has caused an increment of dissolved Fe and other metals, as well as a change in the pH buffering role, exerted now by Fe. These processes were simulated by PHREEQC, which confirms that the acidification trend will continue, causing pH values to reach 2.5 if AMD pressure persists. PMID:26410715

  12. A stitch in time: a cross-sectional survey looking at long lasting insecticide-treated bed net ownership, utilization and attrition in SNNPR, Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since 2002/03, an estimated 4.7 million nets have been distributed in the Southern Nations, Nationalities and Peoples Region (SNNPR) among an at risk population of approximately 10 million people. Evidence from the region suggests that large-scale net ownership rapidly increased over a relatively short period of time. However, little is known about how coverage is being maintained given that the last mass distribution was in 2006/2007. This study sought to determine the status of current net ownership, utilization and rate of long lasting insecticide-treated nets (LLIN) loss in the previous three years in the context of planning for future net distribution to try to achieve sustainable universal coverage. Methods A total of 750 household respondents were interviewed across malarious, rural kebeles of SNNPR. Households were randomly selected following a two-stage cluster sampling design where kebeles were defined as clusters. Kebeles were chosen using proportional population sampling (PPS), and 25 households within 30 kebeles randomly chosen. Results Approximately 67.5% (95%CI: 64.1–70.8) of households currently owned at least one net. An estimated 31.0% (95%CI 27.9–34.4) of all nets owned in the previous three years had been discarded by owners, the majority of whom considered the nets too torn, old or dirty (79.9%: 95%CI 75.8–84.0). Households reported that one-third of nets (33.7%) were less than one year old when they were discarded. The majority (58.8%) of currently owned nets had ‘good’ structural integrity according to a proportionate Hole Index. Nearly two-thirds of households (60.6%) reported using their nets the previous night. The overriding reason for not using nets was that they were too torn (45.7%, 95% CI 39.1–50.7). Yet, few households are making repairs to their nets (3.7%, 95% CI: 2.4–5.1). Conclusions Results suggest that the life span of nets may be shorter than previously thought, with little maintenance by their owners

  13. Proximity to mosquito breeding habitat and Ross River virus risk in the Peel region of Western Australia.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Andrew; Neville, Peter J; Lindsay, Michael D A

    2015-02-01

    It is intuitive that vector-borne disease exposure risk is related to proximity to sources of vector breeding, but this aspect rarely receives empirical testing. The population of Western Australia (WA) is increasing rapidly, with many new residential developments proposed in close proximity to mosquito breeding habitat. However, potential mosquito-borne disease risks for future residents are given little consideration by planning authorities. The Peel region is one of the fastest growing regions in WA and regularly experiences a large number of cases of the mosquito-borne Ross River virus (RRV) disease with epidemics occuring in the region every few years. A spatial analysis of RRV disease data in the Peel region was undertaken to determine the risk associated with proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software was used to create buffers between 1 and 6 km from the breeding habitat. The number of cases per 1000 dwellings in each buffer was calculated between 2002/03 to 2011/12 for years with >100 cases across all buffers (n=5) in addition to the cumulative rate over the entire period in each buffer. Residents living within 1 km of a mosquito breeding habitat had a significantly higher rate of RRV disease compared to the background rate across the Peel region in all individual years investigated. The cumulative data over the 10-year study period showed that residents in the 1- and 2-km buffers had a significantly higher rate, whereas those living between 3 and 6 km away did not. This study demonstrates an increased mosquito-borne disease risk associated with living in close proximity to a mosquito breeding habitat in a rapidly expanding region of WA and highlights the importance of considering mosquito-borne disease risks when planning authorities assess new residential development applications. Known mosquito breeding wetlands should be incorporated into land use planning scheme maps to ensure that they are accurately

  14. Spatial analysis of cattle and shoat population in Ethiopia: growth trend, distribution and market access.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; Mesele, Frehiwot

    2014-01-01

    The livestock subsector has an enormous contribution to Ethiopia's national economy and livelihoods of many Ethiopians. The subsector contributes about 16.5% of the national Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and 35.6% of the agricultural GDP. It also contributes 15% of export earnings and 30% of agricultural employment. The livestock subsector currently support and sustain livelihoods for 80% of all rural population. The GDP of livestock related activities valued at 59 billion birr. Ethiopian livestock population trends, distribution and marketing vary considerably across space and time due to a variety of reasons. This study was aimed to assess cattle and shoat population growth trend, distribution and their access to market. Regression analysis was used to assess the cattle and shoat population growth trend and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) techniques were used to determine the spatial distribution of cattle and shoats, and their relative access to market. The data sets used are agricultural census (2001/02) and annual CSA agricultural sample survey (1995/96 to 2012/13). In the past eighteen years, the livestock population namely cattle, sheep and goat grew from 54.5 million to over 103.5 million with average annual increment of 3.4 million. The current average national cattle, sheep and goat population per km(2) are estimated to be 71, 33 and 29 respectively (excluding Addis Ababa, Afar and Somali regions). From the total livestock population the country owns about 46% cattle, 43% sheep and 40% goats are reared within 10 km radius from major livestock market centres and all-weather roads. On the other hand, three fourth of the country's land mass which comprises 15% of the cattle, 20% of the sheep and 21% of goat population is not accessible to market (greater than 30 km from major livestock market centres). It is found that the central highland regions account for the largest share of livestock population and also more accessible to market. Defining the

  15. Burden of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics in Italy: comparison with the H1N1v (A/California/07/09) pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lai, Piero Luigi; Panatto, Donatella; Ansaldi, Filippo; Canepa, Paola; Amicizia, Daniela; Patria, Antonio Giuseppe; Gasparini, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Despite preventive efforts, seasonal influenza epidemics are responsible for substantial morbidity and mortality every year worldwide, including developed countries. The A/H1N1v pandemic imposed a considerable healthcare and economic burden. In order to obtain an accurate estimate of the economic burden of influenza, and hence to guide policymakers effectively, systematic studies are necessary. To this end, data from epidemiological surveillance are essential. To estimate the impact of the 1999-2008 seasonal influenza epidemics and the H1N1v pandemic, we analyzed data from the Italian Influenza Surveillance System (CIRI NET). In the period 1999-2008, the Italian surveillance network consisted of sentinel general practitioners and pediatricians, who reported cases of Influenza-Like Illness (ILI) and Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI ) observed during their clinical practice from mid-October to late April each year; reports were sent to the Center for Research on Influenza and other Viral Infections (CIRI -IV). CIRI -IV receives data from 9 of the 20 Italian regions: Liguria, Abruzzo, Calabria, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Lombardy, Puglia, Sicily, Tuscany and Umbria. Previous estimates of influenza case costs were used in economic evaluations. Clinical-epidemiological and virological surveillance of the seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 showed that the highest epidemic period was 2004-2005, when a new variant of the H3N2 influenza virus subtype emerged (A/California/07/04). Indeed, the highest peak of morbidity in the decade occurred in February 2005 (12.6 per 1,000 inhabitants). In 1999-2008, H1N1 subtype strains circulated and co-circulated with strains belonging to the H3N2 subtype and B type. Regarding B viruses in 2001-02, viruses belonged to the B/Victoria/02/07 lineage re-emerged, and in subsequent years co-circulated with viruses belonging to the B/Yamagata/lineage. The estimated costs of seasonal epidemics from 1999-2008 in Italy ranged from €15 to €20

  16. Groundwater seeps in Taylor Valley Antarctica: an example of a subsurface melt event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, W. Berry; Welch, Kathleen A.; Carey, Anne E.; Doran, Peter T.; Wall, Diana H.; Virginia, Ross A.; Fountain, Andrew G.; Csathó, Bea M.; Tremper, Catherine M.

    The 2001/02 austral summer was the warmest summer on record in Taylor Valley, Antarctica, (˜78° S) since continuous records of temperature began in 1985. The highest stream-flows ever recorded in the Onyx River, Wright Valley, were also recorded that year (the record goes back to the 1969/70 austral summer). In early January 2002, a groundwater seep was observed flowing in the southwest portion of Taylor Valley. This flow has been named 'Wormherder Creek' (WHC) and represents an unusual event, probably occurring on a decadal time-scale. The physical characteristics of this feature suggest that it may have flowed at other times in the past. Other groundwater seeps, emanating from the north-facing slope of Taylor Valley, were also observed. Little work has been done previously on these very ephemeral seeps, and the source of water is unknown. These features, resembling recently described features on Mars, represent the melting of subsurface ice. The Martian features have been interpreted as groundwater seeps. In this paper we compare the chemistry of the WHC groundwater seep to that of the surrounding streams that flow every austral summer. The total dissolved solids content of WHC was ˜6 times greater than that of some nearby streams. The Na : Cl and SO4 : Cl ratios of the seep waters are higher than those of the streams, but the Mg : Cl and HCO3 : Cl ratios are lower, indicating different sources of solutes to the seeps compared to the streams. The enrichment of Na and SO4 relative to Cl may suggest significant dissolution of mirabilite within the previously unwetted soil. The proposed occurrence of abundant mirabilite in higher-elevation soils of the dry valley region agrees with geochemical models developed, but not tested, in the late 1970s. The geochemical data demonstrate that these seeps could be important in 'rinsing' the soils by dissolving and redistributing the long-term accumulation of salts, and perhaps improving habitat suitability for soil biota

  17. Feasibility Study of Two Candidate Reaction Wheel/thruster Hybrid Control Architecture Designs for the Cassini Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macala, Glenn A.; Lee, Allan Y.; Wang, Eric K.

    2012-01-01

    As the first spacecraft to achieve orbit at Saturn in 2004, Cassini has collected science data throughout its four-year prime mission (2004-08), and has since been approved for a first and second extended mission through 2017. Cassini carries a set of three "fixed" reaction wheels and a backup reaction wheel (reaction wheel #4) is mounted on top of an articulable platform. If necessary, this platform could be articulated to orient the backup reaction wheel with the degraded wheel. The reaction wheels are used primarily for attitude control when precise and stable pointing of a science instrument such as the narrow angle camera is required. In 2001-02, reaction wheel #3 exhibited signs of bearing cage instability. As a result, reaction wheel #4 was articulated to align with reaction wheel #3. Beginning in July 2003, Cassini was controlled using wheel #1, #2, and #4. From their first use in the spring of 2000 until today, reaction wheels #1 and #2 have accumulated more than3.5 billions revolutions each. As such, in spite of very carefully management of the wheel spin rates by the mission operation team, there are some observed increases in the drag torque of the wheels' bearings. Hence, the mission operations team must prepare for the contingency scenario in which the reaction wheel #1 (in addition to wheel #3) had degraded. In this hypothetical fault scenario, the two remaining reaction wheels (#2 and #4) will not be able to provide precise and stable three-axis control of the spacecraft. In this study, we evaluate the feasibility of controlling Cassini using the two remaining reaction wheels and four thrusters to meet the science pointing requirements for two key science operational modes: the Optical Remote Sensing and Downlink, Fields, Particles, & Waves operation modes. The performance (e.g., pointing control error, pointing stability, hydrazine consumption rate, etc.) of the hybrid controllers in both operations scenarios will be compared with those achieved

  18. Active surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome in Yangon, Myanmar.

    PubMed Central

    Thant, Kyaw-Zin; Oo, Win-Mar; Myint, Thein-Thein; Shwe, Than-Nu; Han, Aye-Maung; Aye, Khin-Mar; Aye, Kay-Thi; Moe, Kyaw; Thein, Soe; Robertson, Susan E.

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Rubella vaccine is not included in the immunization schedule in Myanmar. Although surveillance for outbreaks of measles and rubella is conducted nationwide, there is no routine surveillance for congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). Therefore, we organized a study to assess the burden of CRS. METHODS: From 1 December 2000 to 31 December 2002 active surveillance for CRS was conducted among children aged 0-17 months at 13 hospitals and 2 private clinics in Yangon, the capital city. Children with suspected CRS had a standard examination and a blood sample was obtained. All serum samples were tested for rubella-specific IgM; selected samples were tested for rubella-specific IgG and for rubella RNA by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). FINDINGS: A total of 81 children aged 0-17 months were suspected of having CRS. Of these, 18 children had laboratory-confirmed CRS (7 were IgM positive; 7 were RT-PCR positive; and 10 were IgG positive at > 6 months of age). One additional child who tested positive by RT-PCR and whose mother had had rubella during pregnancy but who had a normal clinical examination was classified as having congenital rubella infection. During 2001-02 no rubella outbreaks were detected in Yangon Division. In the 31 urban townships of Yangon Division, the annual incidence was 0.1 laboratory-confirmed cases of CRS per 1000 live births. CONCLUSION: This is the first population-based study of CRS incidence from a developing country during a rubella-endemic period; the incidence of CRS is similar to endemic rates found in industrialized countries during the pre-vaccine era. Rubella-specific IgG tests proved practical for diagnosing CRS in children aged > 6 months. This is one of the first studies to report on the use of rubella-specific RT-PCR directly on serum samples; further studies are warranted to confirm the utility of this method as an additional means of diagnosing CRS. PMID:16501710

  19. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  20. Concentrations of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and Major and Trace Elements in Simulated Rainfall Runoff From Parking Lots, Austin, Texas, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Van Metre, Peter C.; Wilson, Jennifer T.

    2004-01-01

    Samples of creek bed sediment collected near seal-coated parking lots in Austin, Texas, by the City of Austin during 2001?02 had unusually elevated concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). To investigate the possibility that PAHs from seal-coated parking lots might be transported to urban creeks, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Austin, sampled runoff and scrapings from four test plots and 13 urban parking lots. The surfaces sampled comprise coal-tar-emulsion-sealed, asphalt-emulsion-sealed, unsealed asphalt, and unsealed concrete. Particulates and filtered water in runoff and surface scrapings were analyzed for PAHs. In addition, particulates in runoff were analyzed for major and trace elements. Samples of all three media from coal-tar-sealed parking lots had concentrations of PAHs higher than those from any other types of surface. The average total PAH concentrations in particulates in runoff from parking lots in use were 3,500,000, 620,000, and 54,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed (asphalt and concrete combined) lots, respectively. The probable effect concentration sediment quality guideline is 22,800 micrograms per kilogram. The average total PAH (sum of detected PAHs) concentration in filtered water from parking lots in use was 8.6 micrograms per liter for coal-tar-sealed lots; the one sample analyzed from an asphalt-sealed lot had a concentration of 5.1 micrograms per liter and the one sample analyzed from an unsealed asphalt lot was 0.24 microgram per liter. The average total PAH concentration in scrapings was 23,000,000, 820,000, and 14,000 micrograms per kilogram from coal-tar-sealed, asphalt-sealed, and unsealed asphalt lots, respectively. Concentrations were similar for runoff and scrapings from the test plots. Concentrations of lead and zinc in particulates in runoff frequently exceeded the probable effect concentrations, but trace element concentrations showed no

  1. The South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study: Wind Wave Energy Dissipation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demir, H.; Work, P. A.; Voulgaris, G.

    2004-12-01

    As part of the South Carolina Coastal Erosion Study (SCCES) wave and current data were collected offshore of Myrtle Beach, SC for 2 months in 2001-02. This field measurement campaign was the second of a three-part experiment series. While the overall objective of the study is to describe the processes governing the circulation, wave propagation and sediment transport along the northern South Carolina coast, this presentation focuses on the wave energy dissipation over a heterogeneous seafloor over a distance of 6 km. The data were collected between November 9, 2001 and January 17, 2002. The instruments were placed along a transect crossing a large sand shoal in an area otherwise largely deprived of sand, at depths of 8 to 12 meters. The four instruments used, in order of decreasing distance from shore, were 600 and1200 KHz RDI ADCP's, a Nortek Aquadopp and a Sontek Argonaut-XR. Bathymetry and bottom characteristics such as depth and thickness of sand layer are available through USGS's coastal relief model and side scan surveys. Wind data are supplied by a large-scale numerical wind model. Its output is compared with wind data collected at Frying Pan Shoals buoy and at an anemometer placed at Spring Maid pier after the experiment. The SWAN wave model (Booij et al. 1999) was used to model the spectral wave transformation from the offshore buoy to the inner stations and to compare the observed wave energy dissipation to the available models. There was no extreme storm event during the deployment period. The maximum significant wave height observed was 1.6 meters at the offshore wave station, and the mean wave height was 0.8 meters. The mean period was between 5 and 7 seconds most of the time. Significant wave energy dissipation (up to 40% decrease in wave energy flux) across 6 km was observed. A shift of the spectral peak and a change in the spectral shape was observed in many events, which were not generally reproduced by the model. Sand and rock bottom

  2. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary. PMID:24661742

  3. Does gravidity influence smoking behaviour in pregnancy? A comparison of multigravid and primigravid women.

    PubMed

    Morris, Melanie; Maconochie, Noreen; Doyle, Pat

    2007-05-01

    This study used the data from a retrospective cross-sectional survey to describe the prevalence of smoking in pregnancy in a large UK sample, over more than 20 years of pregnancies. The main objective was to determine whether women in their second or subsequent pregnancy are more or less likely than primigravidae to change their smoking behaviour. The participants were 7506 ever-pregnant women, from 7702 who answered the second stage of a survey of reproductive history in 2001-02, sent to 10 828 women, aged 18-55 years on the UK electoral register. These women gave detailed information on their last pregnancy. The main outcome measure was self-reported cigarette consumption in the first trimester of pregnancy. Nineteen per cent (1417/7506) of women in this sample smoked in the first trimester of the reported pregnancy. The data showed that there had been a decrease over the last 20 years in smoking prevalence, but this trend was not statistically significant after adjustment for confounding (P(trend) = 0.07). There was evidence that multigravidae were more likely to smoke in their pregnancies than were primigravidae (adjusted OR = 1.24, [95% CI 1.01, 1.53]), with a highly significant trend with increasing pregnancy order (P(trend) < 0.0001). Over time, women who reported smoking before pregnancy (n = 1926), showed a decreasing trend in continuing to smoke the same amount after recognising their pregnancies (P(trend) < 0.0001). After adjustment, multigravid smokers were almost 75% more likely than primigravid smokers to continue to smoke with no change in consumption (adjusted OR = 1.74, [95% CI 1.32, 2.28]), with a clear trend found with increasing pregnancy order (P(trend) = 0.001). In this UK population-based study, multigravidae were more likely to smoke in pregnancy than women pregnant for the first time. If already a smoker, they were much less likely to cut down their smoking once they found out they were pregnant, regardless of age. This suggests that a

  4. The relationship between parental socio-economic status and episodes of drunkenness among adolescents: findings from a cross-national survey

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Matthias; Leppin, Anja; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse

    2006-01-01

    Background Behavioral factors such as (excessive) alcohol consumption play a major role in the explanation of social inequalities in health. The unequal distribution of health risk behaviors among socio-economic groups has important consequences for both the current and future health status of the younger generation. However, little is known about socio-economic differences in unhealthy lifestyles during adolescence. The purpose of the present study is to investigate socio-economic differences in adolescent drinking behaviour among 11–15 year old adolescents in Europe and North America. Methods Data was obtained from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study 2001/02, a cross-national survey conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization. The present analysis is based on 69249 male and 73619 female students from 28 countries. The effect of parental occupation and family affluence on episodes of drunkenness was assessed using separate logistic regression models controlling for age. Results Socio-economic circumstances of the family had only a limited effect on repeated drunkenness in adolescence. For girls only in one out of 28 countries a significant association between family affluence and repeated drunkenness was observed, while boys from low and/or medium affluent families in nine countries faced a lower risk of drunkenness than boys from more affluent families. Regarding parental occupation, significant differences in episodes of drunkenness were found in nine countries for boys and in six countries for girls. Compared to family affluence, which was positively related to risk of drunkenness, a decreasing occupational status predicted an increasing risk of drunkenness. This pattern was identified within a number of countries, most noticeably for boys. Conclusion Parental socio-economic status is only of limited importance for episodes of drunkenness in early adolescence, and this very limited role seems to apply for girls more

  5. Tobacco Use and Suicide Attempt: Longitudinal Analysis with Retrospective Reports

    PubMed Central

    Berlin, Ivan; Hakes, Jahn K.; Hu, Mei-Chen; Covey, Lirio S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Suicide has been associated with smoking/tobacco use but its association of and change in smoking/tobacco use status with suicide attempt (SA) is not well established. Methods We investigated whether persistent, former tobacco use, initiation, quitting tobacco use, relapse to tobacco use, and DSM-IV nicotine dependence predict independently SA using Wave 1 and 2 data of the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Data from 34,653 US adults interviewed at Wave 1 (2001-02) and Wave 2 (2004-05) were analyzed. The main outcome measure was SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2 as reported at Wave 2. Results Among the 1,673 respondents reporting lifetime SA at Wave 2, 328 individuals reported SA between Wave 1 and Wave 2. Current and former tobacco use at Wave 1 predicted Wave 2 SA independently of socio-demographic characteristics, psychiatric history, and prior SA (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.49; 95% CI: 1.13-1.95, AOR: 1.31; 95% CI:1.01-1.69, respectively versus never tobacco users). The strongest association with SA was observed among former tobacco users who relapsed after Wave 1 (AOR: 4.66; 95% CI: 3.49-6.24) and among tobacco use initiators after Wave 1 (AOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 2.23-4.49). Persistent tobacco use (current tobacco use at both Wave 1 and Wave 2) also had an increased risk of SA (AOR: 1.89; 95% CI: 1.47-2.42). However, former tobacco users in both Waves 1 and 2 did not show a significantly elevated risk for SA in Wave 2 (AOR:1.09, 95% CI: 0.78-1.52) suggesting that the risk resided mainly in Wave 1 former tobacco users who relapsed to tobacco use by Wave 2. DSM-IV nicotine dependence did not predict SA at Wave 2. Conclusion In a representative sample of US adults, relapse, tobacco use initiation, and persistent tobacco use, which are amenable to intervention, were associated with risk of SA. PMID:25849514

  6. Risk Factors and Predictors Of Subsequent ACL Injury After ACL Reconstruction: Prospective Analysis Of 2801 Primary ACL Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Kaeding, Christopher C.; Pedroza, Angela; Reinke, Emily; Huston, Laura J.; Spindler, Kurt P.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Retear of an ACL after an ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is devastating for all involved. Understanding risk factors and predictors of subsequent ACL tear after an ACLR is vital for patient education of subsequent risk of injury and if a predictor is modifiable, to make adjustments to minimize the risk of repeat ACL tear. The objectives of this study were 1) to identify the risk factors and predictors for ispilateral and contralateral ACL tears after primary ACLR and 2) to compare retear risk between the 2002/03 and 2007/08 cohorts. This is the largest and most comprehensive prospective analysis of this kind in the literature. Methods: Data from the 2002-2008 MOON database was used to identify risk factors for ACL retear. Subjects who had a primary ACLR with no history of contralateral knee surgery and had 2 year follow-up data were included. Subjects who had multiligament surgery were excluded. Graft type (auto-BTB, auto-hamstring, allograft), age, Marx score at time of index surgery, sport played post ACLR, sex, smoking status, lateral meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, medial meniscus tear at the time of ACLR, BMI, and MOON site were evaluated to determine their contribution to both ipsilateral retear and contralateral ACL tear. The analysis was repeated using the 2002/3 and 2007/8 cohort and included age, graft, sex, and Marx. An ANOVA with post-hoc analysis was performed to detect significant differences in age and Marx score by graft type over time. Results: A total of 2801 subjects met all inclusion/exclusion criteria. There were 165/2801 (5.89%) ipsilateral and 177/2801 (6.32%) contralateral ACL tears identified in the cohort at the two year follow-up. The odds of ipsilateral retear are 1.68 times greater for hamstring autograft (p=0.04) and 4.67 times greater for an allograft (p<0.001) compared to auto-BTB. The odds of ipsilateral retear decrease by 8% for every yearly increase in age (p < 0.001) and increases by 6% for every increased point on the

  7. PARTNeR for Teaching and Learning Radio Astronomy Basics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaquerizo, Juan Ángel

    2010-10-01

    NASA has three satellite tracking stations around the world: CDSCC (Canberra, Australia), GDSCC (Goldstone, USA) and MDSCC (Madrid, Spain). One of the antennas located at MDSCC, DSS-61, is not used for satellite tracking any more and thanks to an agreement between INTA (Instituto Nacional de TA~l'cnica Aeroespacial) and NASA, it has been turned into an educational radio telescope. PARTNeR (Proyecto Académico con el RadioTelescopio de NASA en Robledo, Academic Project with the NASA Radio Telescope at Robledo) is a High School and University radio astronomy educational program that allows teachers and students to control this 34-meter radio telescope and conduct radio astronomical observations via the Internet. As radio astronomy is not a popular subject and astronomy has little presence in the High School Curriculum, teachers need specific training in those subjects to implement PARTNeR. Thus, High School teachers joining the project take a course to learn about the science of radio astronomy and how to use the antenna in their classrooms. Also, teachers are provided with some learning activities they can do with their students. These lesson plans are focused on the implementation of the project within an interdisciplinary framework. All educational resources are available on PARTNeR website. PARTNeR is an inquiry based approach to science education. Nowadays, students can join in three different observational programmes: variability studies in quasars, studies of radio-bursts in X-ray binaries (microquasars), and mapping of radio sources in the galactic plane. Nevertheless, any other project can be held after an evaluation by the scientific committee. The operational phase of the project started in the academic year 2003-04. Since then, 85 High Schools, seven Universities and six societies of amateur astronomers have been involved in the project. During the 2004-09 period, 103 High School teachers from Spain and Portugal have attended the training courses, and 105

  8. Road traffic emission factors for heavy metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johansson, Christer; Norman, Michael; Burman, Lars

    Quantifying the emissions and concentrations of heavy metals in urban air is a prerequisite for assessing their health effects. In this paper a combination of measurements and modelling is used to assess the contribution from road traffic emissions. Concentrations of particulate heavy metals in air were measured simultaneously during 1 year at a densely trafficked street and at an urban background site in Stockholm, Sweden. Annual mean concentrations of cadmium were 50 times lower than the EU directive and for nickel and arsenic concentrations were 10 and six times lower, respectively. More than a factor of two higher concentrations was in general observed at the street in comparison to roof levels indicating the strong influence from local road traffic emissions. The only compound with a significantly decreasing trend in the urban background was Pb with 9.1 ng m -3 in 1995/96 compared to 3.4 ng m -3 2003/04. This is likely due to decreased emissions from wear of brake linings and reduced emissions due to oil and coal combustion in central Europe. Total road traffic emission factors for heavy metals were estimated using parallel measurements of NOx concentrations and knowledge of NOx emission factors. In general, the emission factors for the street were higher than reported in road tunnel measurements. This could partly be due to different driving conditions, since especially for metals which are mainly emitted from brake wear, more stop and go driving in the street compared to in road tunnels is likely to increase emissions. Total emissions were compared with exhaust emissions, obtained from the COPERT model and brake wear emissions based on an earlier study in Stockholm. For Cu, Ni and Zn the sum of brake wear and exhaust emissions agreed very well with estimated total emission factors in this study. More than 90% of the road traffic emissions of Cu were due to brake wear. For Ni more than 80% is estimated to be due to exhaust emissions and for Zn around 40% of

  9. Re-analysing eleven years of mass balance observations at Langenferner, Ortler-Cevedale Group, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galos, Stephan; Klug, Christoph; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sauter, Tobias; Gurgiser, Wolfgang; Kaser, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Long term surface mass balance records of glaciers are of peculiar scientific interest as they reflect the most direct link between the observed glacier changes and the underlying atmospheric forcing. Consequently they provide a unique source of information which is used in a wide range of different models (climate-, mass- or energy balance-, sea level rise- or run-off models). However, both inhomogeneities and unknown error ranges in the observational series limit the usefulness of respective datasets. Hence, the homogenization of long term records, as well as the availability of solid error values can significantly improve the quality of data and is therefore of crucial interest to the community. The surface mass balance of Langenferner / Vedretta Lunga, a small valley glacier in the Italian Eastern Alps, has been measured since the hydrological year 2003/04. The resulting series of annual mass balances was homogenized using a process based mass balance model in order to calculate the annual mass balance for points without stake measurements during the first observation years. A detailed error analysis was performed considering all significant sources of uncertainties involved in the mass balance determination applying the direct glaciological method. The homogenized mass balance values differ from the initial series mainly during the first measurement years when the number of measurements in the upper glacier parts was low and consequently large errors in the spatial extrapolation of measurements were made due to a lack of knowledge about changes in the upper glacier part. Hence the largest errors in mass balance calculation at Langenferner / Vedretta Lunga originate from inaccurate spatial extrapolation of point measurements, while other effects such as errors due to surface roughness play a role on the point scale but are canceled out by the high number of measurement points on the glacier wide scale. A comparison of the surface mass balance to the geodetic

  10. Go Polar! Network: a Museum-Zoo-Aquarium Approach to Disseminate IPY Research to Children and their Families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, D. D.; Horne, C.

    2006-12-01

    With proper programming, informal learning environments of children's museums, zoos and aquariums can be fertile frontiers for communicating the excitement, the significance and even the complexity of Polar scientific research to the public, including children under 12 old. These venues can also be effective in enhancing public understanding of the global dimensions of the issues facing the Polar Regions in the coming decades. We base these assertions not just on scholarly research in how children learn in informal environments but also from an experiential program we created in 2003-04 called Go Polar! Cool Science in the Arctic. Funded by the US National Science Foundation in 2003 (ESI-0336928), Go Polar! was a partnership between the EdVenture Children Museum, the largest children's museum in the southeastern US, and the University of South Carolina, the State's largest research university. Go Polar! involved active Arctic researchers, university undergraduate students, the EdVenture museum staff, family education specialists, and educational psychologists to disseminate on-going NSF funded research on the Arctic hydrologic cycle (ODP-0229737). The Go Polar program provided opportunities for South Carolina children and families to meet real scientists engaged in Arctic research with hands-on activities that introduced children and families not only to the scientific process but also to new science concepts and knowledge. The Go Polar! also resulted in the development and testing of new educational materials Arctic Discovery Boxes specially designed hands-on informal education activities on three themes #1 The Arctic and Global Change, #2 Arctic Cultures and #3 Animal Adaptations in the Arctic. In 2005 the Go Polar! partnership expanded the reach of their programming and materials to include the Antarctic. Using the theme "Exploring and Connecting the Opposite Ends of the Earth," the Go Polar! team created a Polar Festival featuring a giant floor puzzle of the

  11. Riparian Land Use/Land Cover Data for Five Study Units in the Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical Study of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Michaela R.; Buell, Gary R.; Kim, Moon H.; Nardi, Mark R.

    2007-01-01

    This dataset was developed as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program, Nutrient Enrichment Effects Topical (NEET) study for five study units distributed across the United States: Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin, Central Columbia Plateau-Yakima River Basin, Central Nebraska Basins, Potomac River Basin and Delmarva Peninsula, and White, Great and Little Miami River Basins. One hundred forty-three stream reaches were examined as part of the NEET study conducted 2003-04. Stream segments, with lengths equal to the logarithm of the basin area, were delineated upstream from the downstream ends of the stream reaches with the use of digital orthophoto quarter quadrangles (DOQQ) or selected from the high-resolution National Hydrography Dataset (NHD). Use of the NHD was necessary when the stream was not distinguishable in the DOQQ because of dense tree canopy. The analysis area for each stream segment was defined by a buffer beginning at the segment extending to 250 meters lateral to the stream segment. Delineation of land use/land cover (LULC) map units within stream segment buffers was conducted using on-screen digitizing of riparian LULC classes interpreted from the DOQQ. LULC units were mapped using a classification strategy consisting of nine classes. National Wetlands Inventory (NWI) data were used to aid in wetland classification. Longitudinal transect sampling lines offset from the stream segments were generated and partitioned into the underlying LULC types. These longitudinal samples yielded the relative linear extent and sequence of each LULC type within the riparian zone at the segment scale. The resulting areal and linear LULC data filled in the spatial-scale gap between the 30-meter resolution of the National Land Cover Dataset and the reach-level habitat assessment data collected onsite routinely for NAWQA ecological sampling. The final data consisted of 12 geospatial datasets: LULC within 25 meters of the stream reach

  12. Volume, patterns, and types of sedentary behavior and cardio-metabolic health in children and adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardio-metabolic risk factors are becoming more prevalent in children and adolescents. A lack of moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) is an established determinant of cardio-metabolic risk factors in children and adolescents. Less is known about the relationship between sedentary behavior and cardio-metabolic health. Therefore, the objective was to examine the independent associations between volume, patterns, and types of sedentary behavior with cardio-metabolic risk factors among children and adolescents. Methods The results are based on 2527 children and adolescents (6-19 years old) from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). A cardio-metabolic risk score (CRS) was calculated based on age- and sex-adjusted waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and C-reactive protein values. Volume and patterns of sedentary behavior and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were measured objectively using accelerometers. Types of sedentary behavior were measured by questionnaire. A series of logistic regression models were used to examine associations. Results Volume and patterns of sedentary behavior were not predictors of high CRS after adjusting for MVPA and other confounders (P > 0.1). For types of sedentary behavior, high TV use, but not high computer use, was a predictor of high CRS after adjustment for MVPA and other confounders. Children and adolescents who watched ≥4 hours per day of TV were 2.53 (95% confidence interval: 1.45-4.42) times more likely to have high CRS than those who watched <1 hour per day. MVPA predicted high CRS after adjusting for all sedentary behavior measures and other confounders. After adjustment for waist circumference, MVPA also predicted high non-obesity CRS; however, the same relationship was not seen with TV use. Conclusion No association was observed between overall volume and patterns of sedentary behavior

  13. Thermal effects of dams in the Willamette River basin, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, Stewart A.

    2010-01-01

    Methods were developed to assess the effects of dams on streamflow and water temperature in the Willamette River and its major tributaries. These methods were used to estimate the flows and temperatures that would occur at 14 dam sites in the absence of upstream dams, and river models were applied to simulate downstream flows and temperatures under a no-dams scenario. The dams selected for this study include 13 dams built and operated by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) as part of the Willamette Project, and 1 dam on the Clackamas River owned and operated by Portland General Electric (PGE). Streamflows in the absence of upstream dams for 2001-02 were estimated for USACE sites on the basis of measured releases, changes in reservoir storage, a correction for evaporative losses, and an accounting of flow effects from upstream dams. For the PGE dam, no-project streamflows were derived from a previous modeling effort that was part of a dam-relicensing process. Without-dam streamflows were characterized by higher peak flows in winter and spring and much lower flows in late summer, as compared to with-dam measured flows. Without-dam water temperatures were estimated from measured temperatures upstream of the reservoirs (the USACE sites) or derived from no-project model results (the PGE site). When using upstream data to estimate without-dam temperatures at dam sites, a typical downstream warming rate based on historical data and downstream river models was applied over the distance from the measurement point to the dam site, but only for conditions when the temperature data indicated that warming might be expected. Regressions with measured temperatures from nearby or similar sites were used to extend the without-dam temperature estimates to the entire 2001-02 time period. Without-dam temperature estimates were characterized by a more natural seasonal pattern, with a maximum in July or August, in contrast to the measured patterns at many of the tall dam sites

  14. Use of information and communication technology among dental students at the University of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Rajab, Lamis D; Baqain, Zaid H

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the current knowledge, skills, and opinions of undergraduate dental students at the University of Jordan with respect to information communication technology (ICT). Dental students from the second, third, fourth, and fifth years were asked to complete a questionnaire presented in a lecture at the end of the second semester in the 2002-03 academic year. The response rate was 81 percent. Besides free and unlimited access to computers at the school of dentistry, 74 percent of the students had access to computers at home. However, 44 percent did not use a computer regularly. Male students were more regular and longer users of computers than females (p<0.001). A significant number of students (70 percent) judged themselves competent in information technology (IT) skills. More males felt competent in basic IT skills than did females (p<0.05). More than two-thirds acquired their computer skills through sources other than at the university. The main educational use of computers was accessing the Internet, word processing, multimedia, presentations, Medline search, and data management. More clinical students felt competent in word-processing skills (p<0.05) and many more used word processing for their studies (p<0.001) than did preclinical students. More males used word processing for their studies than females (p<0.001). Students used computers for personal activities more frequently than for academic reasons. More males used computers for both academic (p<0.01) and personal activities (p<0.001) than did females. All students had access to the Internet at the university, and 54 percent had access at home. A high percentage of students (94 percent) indicated they were comfortable using the Internet, 75 percent said they were confident in the accuracy, and 80 percent said they were confident in the relevance of information obtained from the Internet. Most students (90 percent) used email. Most students (83 percent) supported the idea

  15. Streamflow and water-quality characteristics at selected sites of the St. Johns River in central Florida, 1933 to 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kroening, Sharon E.

    2004-01-01

    To meet water-supply needs in central Florida for 2020, the St. Johns River is being considered as a source of water supply to augment ground water from the Floridan aquifer system. Current (2004) information on streamflow and water-quality characteristics of the St. Johns River in east-central Florida is needed by water resources planners to assess the feasibility of using the river as an alternate source of water supply and to design water treatment facilities. To address this need, streamflow and water quality of the 90-mile-long middle reach of the St. Johns River, Florida, from downstream of Lake Poinsett to near DeLand, were characterized by using retrospective (1991-99) and recently collected data (2000-02). Streamflow characteristics were determined by using data from water years 1933-2000. Water-quality characteristics were described using data from 1991-99 at 15 sites on the St. Johns River and 1 site each near the mouths of the Econlockhatchee and Wekiva Rivers. Data were augmented with biweekly water-quality data and continuous physical properties data at four St. Johns River sites and quarterly data from sites on the Wekiva River, Blackwater Creek, and downstream of Blue Springs from 2000-02. Water-quality constituents described were limited to information on physical properties, major ions and other inorganic constituents, nutrients, organic carbon, suspended solids, and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a. The occurrence of antibiotics, human prescription and nonprescription drugs, pesticides, and a suite of organic constituents, which may indicate domestic or industrial waste, were described at two St. Johns River sites using limited data collected in water years 2002-03. The occurrence of these same constituents in water from a pilot water treatment facility on Lake Monroe also was described using data from one sampling event conducted in March 2003. Dissolved oxygen concentration and water pH values in the St. Johns River were significantly lower during

  16. Changes in soil pH across England and Wales in response to decreased acid deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirk, G. J. D.; Bellamy, P. H.

    2009-04-01

    In our recent analysis of data from the National Soil Inventory of England and Wales, we found widespread changes in soil pH across both countries between the two samplings of the Inventory. In general, soil pH increased - i.e. soils became less acid - under all land uses. The Inventory was first sampled in 1978-83 on a 5-km grid over the whole area. This yielded about 6,000 sites of which 5,662 could be sampled for soil. Roughly 40% of the sites were re-sampled at intervals from 12 to 25 years after the original sampling - in 1994/96 for agricultural land and in 2002/03 for non-agricultural. Exactly the same sampling and analytical protocols were used in the two samplings. In arable soils, the increase in pH was right across the range, whereas in grassland soils the main increase was at the acid end of the scale (pH < 5.5) with a small increase above pH 7. Some part of the change is likely to have been due to changes in land management. This includes better targeting of agricultural lime on acid soils; changes in nitrogen fertilizer use; deeper ploughing bringing up more calcareous subsoil on soils on calcareous materials; and so forth. However a major driver appears to have been decreased acid deposition to land. The total amounts of nitrogen compounds deposited were relatively unchanged over the survey period, but the amounts of acidifying sulphur compounds decreased by approximately 50%. We constructed a linear regression model to assess the relation between the rate of change in pH (normalised to an annual basis) and the rate of change in acid deposition, as modified by soil properties (pH, clay content, organic matter content), rainfall and past acid deposition. We used data on rainfall and acid deposition over the survey period on the same 5-km grid as the NSI data. We fitted the model separately for each land use category. The results for arable land showed a significant effect of the change in rate of acid deposition, though a significant part of the

  17. External quality-assurance results for the National Atmospheric Deposition Program / National Trends Network and Mercury Deposition Network, 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wetherbee, Gregory A.; Latysh, Natalie E.; Greene, Shannon M.

    2006-01-01

    the collector bucket. Field-audit results for 2004 indicate dissolved analyte loss in more than one-half of NADP/NTN wet-deposition samples for all analytes except chloride. Concentrations of contaminants also were estimated from field-audit data. On the basis of 2004 field-audit results, at least 25 percent of the 2004 NADP/NTN concentrations for sodium, potassium, and chloride were lower than the maximum sodium, potassium, and chloride contamination likely to be found in 90 percent of the samples with 90-percent confidence. Variability and bias in NADP/NTN data attributed to chemical analysis by the NADP Central Analytical Laboratory (CAL) were comparable to the variability and bias estimated for other laboratories participating in the interlaboratory-comparison program for all analytes. Variability in NADP/NTN ammonium data evident in 2002-03 was reduced substantially during 2004. Sulfate, hydrogen-ion, and specific conductance data reported by CAL during 2004 were positively biased. A significant (a = 0.05) bias was identified for CAL sodium, potassium, ammonium, and nitrate data, but the absolute values of the median differences for these analytes were less than the method detection limits. No detections were reported for CAL analyses of deionized-water samples, indicating that contamination was not a problem for CAL. Control charts show that CAL data were within statistical control during at least 90 percent of 2004. Most 2004 CAL interlaboratory-comparison results for synthetic wet-deposition solutions were within ?10 percent of the most probable values (MPVs) for solution concentrations except for chloride, nitrate, sulfate, and specific conductance results from one sample in November and one specific conductance result in December. Overall variability of NADP/NTN wet-deposition measurements was estimated during water year 2004 by the median absolute errors for weekly wet-deposition sample concentrations and precipitation measurements for tw

  18. Detailed comparison of the geodetic and direct glaciological mass balances on an annual time scale at Hintereisferner, Austria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klug, Christoph; Bollmann, Erik; Galos, Stephan; Kaser, Georg; Prinz, Rainer; Rieg, Lorenzo; Sailer, Rudolf

    2016-04-01

    eventually built up before the ALS acquisition, is corrected. As snow cover biases are particular uncertain, a statistical approach has been applied to assess combined DTM errors by using the population of DTM differences over stable terrain. This method incorporates all known and unknown error sources from the surface difference in stable areas and uses its median thickness for correction in all altitudinal belts. In addition, intensity data of the ALS surveys are used to classify the optical surface properties into ice and firn zones. The resulting grids with according conversion factors (900 and 700 kg/m³ for ice and firn, respectively) are combined to calculate mass changes. In a last step, the survey dates are adjusted, using numerous field observations. On an annual time scale, the geodetic mass balances of HEF corrected using this approach, correlate well with the results from the homogenized direct glaciological method. Significant deviations occur in years with few measurements in the uppermost areas applying the direct glaciological method, due to strong melt in areas not equipped with ablation stakes (cf. Figure 2 for 2002/03) or inaccessibility due to weather conditions. On the basis of these results, the conventional error risk (e.g. confidence levels), was adopted in order to test the null hypothesis and to check if unexplained discrepancies suggest reanalyses of glaciological mass balances. Regarding the cumulative mass balance, the deviations between the two methods tend to become smaller the longer the period of comparison extends. Averaged between 2001 and 2011 the largest sources of differences are snow cover and density assumptions having high uncertainties in their estimates and/or leading to higher error ranges in the geodetic mass balances. Some errors were found to have a minor impact and are not treated explicitly, such as uncertainties in different glacier outlines used in both methods or the influence of snow covered and snow free crevasses in

  19. Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) for the ICESat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Sun, Xiaoli; Ketchum, Eleanor A.; Millar, Pamela S.; Riris, Haris

    2002-01-01

    The Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) is a new generation lidar and is the primary science payload for NASA's ICESat Mission. The GLAS design combines a 10 cm precision surface lidar with a sensitive dual wavelength cloud and aerosol lidar. GLAS will precisely measure the heights of the Earth's polar ice sheets, establish a grid of accurate height profiles of the Earth's land topography, and profile the vertical distribution of clouds and aerosols on a global scale. GLAS will be integrated onto a small spacecraft built by Ball Aerospace, and will be launched into a polar orbit with a 590-630 km altitude at an inclination of 94 degrees. ICESat is is currently planned to launch in winter 2002/03 and GLAS is designed to operate continuously in space for a minimum of 3 years. GLAS will measure the vertical distance from orbit to the Earth's surface with pulses from a ND:YAG laser at a 40 Hz rate. Each 6 nsec wide 1064 nm laser pulse is used to produce a single range measurement. On the surface, the laser footprints have 66 m diameter and approx. 170 m center-center spacings. The GLAS receiver uses a I m diameter telescope to detect laser backscatter and a Si APD to detect the 1064 nm signals. The detector's output is sampled by a digital ranging receiver, which records each transmitted pulse and surface echo waveform with 1 nsec (15 cm) resolution. Each echo pulse is digitized and is reported to ground with a record length of from 200 to 544 samples, depending on the spacecraft's location . The GLAS location and epoch times are measured by a precision GPS receiver carried on the ICESat spacecraft. Initial processing of the echo waveforms within GLAS permits discrimination between cloud and surface echoes for selecting appropriate waveform samples. This selection is guided by an on-board DEM which is used to set the boundaries for the echo pulse search algorithm. Subsequent ground-based echo pulse analysis, along with GPS-based clock frequency estimates, permit

  20. Analyses of potential factors affecting survival of juvenile salmonids volitionally passing through turbines at McNary and John Day Dams, Columbia River

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beeman, John; Hansel, Hal; Perry, Russell; Hockersmith, Eric; Sandford, Ben

    2011-01-01

    This report describes analyses of data from radio- or acoustic-tagged juvenile salmonids passing through hydro-dam turbines to determine factors affecting fish survival. The data were collected during a series of studies designed to estimate passage and survival probabilities at McNary (2002-09) and John Day (2002-03) Dams on the Columbia River during controlled experiments of structures or operations at spillways. Relatively few tagged fish passed turbines in any single study, but sample sizes generally were adequate for our analyses when data were combined from studies using common methods over a series of years. We used information-theoretic methods to evaluate biological, operational, and group covariates by creating models fitting linear (all covariates) or curvilinear (operational covariates only) functions to the data. Biological covariates included tag burden, weight, and water temperature; operational covariates included spill percentage, total discharge, hydraulic head, and turbine unit discharge; and group covariates included year, treatment, and photoperiod. Several interactions between the variables also were considered. Support of covariates by the data was assessed by comparing the Akaike Information Criterion of competing models. The analyses were conducted because there was a lack of information about factors affecting survival of fish passing turbines volitionally and the data were available from past studies. The depth of acclimation, tag size relative to fish size (tag burden), turbine unit discharge, and area of entry into the turbine intake have been shown to affect turbine passage survival of juvenile salmonids in other studies. This study indicates that turbine passage survival of the study fish was primarily affected by biological covariates rather than operational covariates. A negative effect of tag burden was strongly supported in data from yearling Chinook salmon at John Day and McNary dams, but not for subyearling Chinook salmon or

  1. Leaving School — learning at SEA: Regular high school education alongside polar research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gatti, Susanne

    2010-05-01

    Against the background of unsatisfactory results from the international OECD study PISA (Program for International Student Assessment), Germany is facing a period of intense school reforms. Looking back at a tradition of school culture with too few changes during the last century, quick and radical renewal of the school system is rather unlikely. Furthermore students are increasingly turning away from natural sciences [1]. The AWI aims at providing impulses for major changes in the schooling system and is offering solid science education not only for university students but also for a larger audience. All efforts towards this goal are interconnected within the project SEA (Science & Education @ the AWI). With the school-term of 2002/03 the Alfred-Wegener-Institute for Polar and Marine Research started HIGHSEA (High school of SEA). The program is the most important component of SEA. Each year 22 high school students (grade 10 or 11) are admitted to HIGHSEA spending their last three years of school not at school but at the institute. Four subjects (biology as a major, chemistry, math and English as accessory subjects) are combined and taught fully integrated. Students leave their school for two days each week to study, work and explore all necessary topics at the AWI. All of the curricular necessities of the four subjects have been rearranged in their temporal sequencing thus enabling a conceptual formulation of four major questions to be dealt with in the course of the three-year program [2]. Students are taught by teachers of the cooperation schools as well as by scientists of the AWI. Close links and intense cooperation between both groups are the basis of fundamental changes in teaching and learning climate. We are organizing expeditions for every group of HIGHSEA-students (e. g. to the Arctic or to mid-Atlantic seamounts). For each student expedition we devise a "real" research question. Usually a single working group at the AWI has a special interest in the

  2. Educating Tomorrow's Aerrospace Engineers by Developing and Launching Liquid-Propelled Rockets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besnard, Eric; Garvey, John; Holleman, Tom; Mueller, Tom

    2002-01-01

    conducted at California State University, Long Beach (CSULB), in which engineering students develop and launch liquid propelled rockets. The program is articulated around two main activities, each with specific objectives. The first component of CALVEIN is a systems integration laboratory where students develop/improve vehicle subsystems and integrate them into a vehicle (Prospector-2 - P-2 - for the 2001-02 academic year - AY). This component has three main objectives: (1) Develop hands- on skills for incoming students and expose them to aerospace hardware; (2) allow for upper division students who have been involved in the program to mentor incoming students and manage small teams; and (3) provide students from various disciplines within the College of Engineering - and other universities - with the chance to develop/improve subsystems on the vehicle. Among recent student projects conducted as part of this component are: a new 1000 lbf thrust engine using pintle injector technology, which was successfully tested on Dec. 1, 2001 and flown on Prospector-2 in Feb. 2002 (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); a digital flight telemetry package (developed by CSULB Electrical Engineering students); a new recovery system where a mechanical system replaces pyrotechnics for parachute release (developed by CSULB Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering students); and a 1-ft payload bay to accommodate experimental payloads (e.g. "CANSATS" developed by Stanford University students). The second component of CALVEIN is a formal Aerospace System Design curriculum. In the first-semester, from top-level system requirements, the students perform functional analysis, define the various subsystems and derive their requirements. These are presented at the Systems Functional and Requirement Reviews (SFR &SRR). The methods used for validation and verification are determined. Specifications and Interface Control Documents (ICD) are generated by the student team

  3. Comparing large eddy simulations and measurements of the turbulent kinetic energy budget in an urban canopy layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, M. B.; Giometto, M. G.; Meneveau, C. V.; Fang, J.; Christen, A.

    2013-12-01

    Local turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the Urban Canopy Layer (UCL) is highly dependent on the actual configuration of obstacles relative to mean wind and stability. For many applications, building-resolving information is neither required nor feasible, and simply beyond the numerical capabilities of operational systems. Common urban canopy parameterizations (UCP) used in dispersion and mesoscale forecasting models hence rely on a horizontally averaged approach, where the UCL is represented as a 1D column, often for simplified geometries such as infinite street canyons. We use Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the airflow over and within a realistic urban geometry in the city of Basel, Switzerland to determine all terms of the TKE budget in order to guide and validate current approaches used in UCPs. A series of high-resolution LES runs of the fully developed flow are performed in order to characterize the TKE budget terms in a horizontally averaged frame of view for various directions of the approaching flow under neutral conditions. Equations are solved on a regular domain with a horizontal resolution of 2 m. A Lagrangian scale-dependent LES model is adopted to parametrize the subgrid-scale stresses and buildings are taken into account adopting an immersed boundary approach with the geometry taken from a highly accurate digital building model. The modeled (periodic) domain is centered on the location of a 32 m tall tower, where measurements of turbulence were performed, during the BUBBLE program in 2001/02 (Rotach et al., Theor. Appl. Clim., 82, 231-261, 2005). Selected terms of the TKE budget were inferred from six levels of ultrasonic anemometer measurements operated over nearly a full year between ground level and two times the mean building height. This contribution answers the questions: (1) How well do TKE budget terms calculated by the LES at the exact tower location match the single point measurements on the tower under comparable conditions? (2) How

  4. Hydrogeology and ground-water availability in the carbonate aquifer system of Frederick County, Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harlow,, George E.; Orndorff, Randall C.; Nelms, David L.; Weary, David J.; Moberg, Roger M.

    2005-01-01

    general direction of ground-water flow is from the hills in the west of the study area into and across the carbonate valley. A ground-water divide may occur north of Round Hill in the vicinity of the Apple Pie Ridge fault where the North Mountain fault zone cuts out the resistant Silurian and Devonian sandstone units and results in surface drainage from the carbonate rocks toward the west and out of the carbonate valley. Estimates of effective ground-water recharge for 2001-02 range from 5.8 to 6.2 inches in the Cedar Creek Basin, with base flow accounting for between 60 and 64 percent of streamflow, and from 3.2 to 3.8 inches in the Opequon Creek Basin, with base flow accounting for between 86 and 92 percent of streamflow. Water budgets calculated for 2001, a year of below-normal precipitation (33.1 inches), and 2002, a year of above-normal precipitation (41.2 inches), include a streamflow of 9.0 inches in 2001 and 9.2 inches in 2002 in Cedar Creek. Evapotranspiration ranged from 25.9 to 30.7 inches, and ground-water storage decreased 1.8 inches in 2001 and increased 1.3 inches in 2002. Streamflow was 3.7 inches in 2001 and 2002 in Opequon Creek. Evapotranspiration ranged from 29.8 to 37.5 inches, and ground-water storage decreased 0.4 inch in 2001 and did not change in 2002.

  5. Nutrient Response of the Ventura River to Drought Conditions in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leydecker, A.; Alstatt, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Ventura River drains 580 sq. km of mountainous coastal watershed 100 km northwest of Los Angles, Ca. The climate is Mediterranean with an average annual rainfall of 500 mm and extreme seasonal and inter-annual variations in runoff; more than 90 % of the rain falls between Nov. and April and most of the annual flow (range: 0 to 11 cu.m/sec) occurs over a few days. Monthly synoptic sampling of nutrients at 15 locations (from Nov. 2000) shows nitrate peaking in early winter, presumably from mineralization and mobilization after the advent of the rainy season, with concentrations decreasing to a minimum by late summer. Phosphate follows a similar pattern. Variation in nitrate (0 to 550 microM) and phosphate (0 to 35 microM) on the river and its tributaries is considerable. During winter stormflow, nitrate concentrations in the lower, urbanized portion of the catchment are decreased by dilution from surface runoff, while phosphate concentrations increase throughout the basin coincident with sediment mobilization. Rainfall in the winter of 2001-02 was only 40 % of the annual mean, insufficient to meet end-of-dry-season soil moisture deficits and generate runoff from upland areas; subsequent groundwater inflows to rivers and creeks were severely diminished. Average flow this past winter was 0.15 cu.m/sec, in contrast with a 72 yr mean of 4.6. In the absence of stormflows, which usually scour the channel, exuberant plant growth overwhelmed the lower river and macrophytes have replaced algae as dominant primary producers. Phosphate concentrations following the drought winter have remained similar to those measured during the previous, normal rainfall, year of 2000-2001 (1-5 microM), except below km 9, where treated sewage effluent is discharged. With lower flows, effluent has become the dominant source of water below the treatment plant, increasing the relative nutrient loading; 3 km below the plant, phosphate and nitrate concentrations increased by late summer to ~ 30

  6. Effects of Single-Drop Impactions and Natural and Simulated Rains on the Dispersal of Botryosphaeria dothidea Conidia.

    PubMed

    Ahimera, Neph; Gisler, Simon; Morgan, David P; Michailides, Themis J

    2004-11-01

    the 1999-2000 and 2001-02 sampling seasons, with r(2) values of >/=0.73, whereas the exponential law model fit best for the 2000-01 data, with r(2) values of >/=0.81. In a rain simulation experiment, the intensity of the rain generated by a nozzle at 138 kPa of pressure inside the tree canopy was approximately five times higher than rain recorded outside the tree canopy. Rain removed up to 65% of conidia from infected fruit. These results confirmed that B. dothidea is a splash-dispersed pathogen with relatively short distances of spore dispersal within pistachio orchards. Only pycnidia are present in pistachio orchards; therefore, the results also indicate that inoculum of B. dothidea should be entirely splashed dispersed. PMID:18944454

  7. Effects of urbanization on the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of small blackland prairie dtreams in and near the Dallas-Fort Worth Metropolitan Area, Texas: Chapter C in Effects of urbanization on stream ecosystems in six metropolitan areas of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moring, J. Bruce

    2009-01-01

    In 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program began a series of studies in the contiguous United States to examine the effects of urbanization on the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of streams. Small streams in the Texas Blackland Prairie level III ecoregion in and near the Dallas-Fort Worth metropolitan area were the focus of one of the studies. The principal objectives of the study, based on data collected in 2003-04 from 28 subbasins of the Trinity River Basin, were to (1) define a gradient of urbanization for small Blackland Prairie streams in the Trinity River Basin on the basis of a range of urban intensity indexes (UIIs) calculated using land-use/land-cover, infrastructure, and socioeconomic characteristics; (2) assess the relation between this gradient of urbanization and the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of these streams; and (3) evaluate the type of relation (that is, linear or nonlinear, and whether there was a threshold response) of the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of these streams to the gradient of urbanization. Of 94 water-chemistry variables and one measure of potential toxicity from a bioassay, the concentrations of two pesticides (diazinon and sima-zine) and one measure of potential toxicity (P450RGS assay) from compounds sequestered in semipermeable membrane devices were significantly positively correlated with the UII. No threshold responses to the UII for diazinon and simazine concentrations were observed over the entire range of the UII scores. The linear correlation for diazinon with the UII was significant, but the linear correlation for simazine with the UII was not. No statistically significant relations between the UII and concentrations of suspended sediment, total nitrogen, total phosphorous, or any major ions were indicated. Eleven of 59 physical variables from streamflow were significantly correlated with the UII. Temperature was not

  8. Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Modeling of Tropical Cyclones: Progress, Challenges, and Ways Forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shuyi

    2015-04-01

    It has long been recognized that air-sea interaction plays an important role in tropical cyclones (TC) intensity change. However, most current numerical weather prediction (NWP) models are deficient in predicting TC intensity. The extreme high winds, intense rainfall, large ocean waves, and copious sea spray in TCs push the surface-exchange parameters for temperature, water vapor, and momentum into untested regimes. Parameterizations of air-sea fluxes in NWP models are often crude and create "manmade" energy source/sink that does not exist, especially in the absence of a fully interactive ocean in the model. The erroneous surface heat, moisture, and momentum fluxes can cause compounding errors in the model (e.g., precipitation, water vapor, boundary layer properties). The energy source (heat and moisture fluxes from the ocean) and sink (surface friction and wind-induced upper ocean cooling) are critical to TC intensity. However, observations of air-sea fluxes in TCs are very limited, especially in extreme high wind conditions underneath of the eyewall region. The Coupled Boundary Layer Air-Sea Transfer (CBLAST) program was designed to better understand the air-sea interaction, especially in high wind conditions, which included laboratory and coupled model experiments and field campaign in 2003-04 hurricane seasons. Significant progress has been made in better understanding of air-sea exchange coefficients up to 30 m/s, i.e., a leveling off in drag coefficient and relatively invariant exchange coefficient of enthalpy with wind speed. More recently, the Impact of Typhoon on the Ocean in the Pacific (ITOP) field campaign in 2010 has provided an unprecedented data set to study the air-sea fluxes in TCs and their impact on TC structure and intensity. More than 800 GPS dropsondes and 900 AXBTs/AXCTs as well as drifters, floats, and moorings were deployed in TCs, including Typhoons Fanapi and Malakas, and Supertyphoon Megi with a record peak wind speed of more than 80 m

  9. Chemical Characteristics, Water Sources and Pathways, and Age Distribution of Ground Water in the Contributing Recharge Area of a Public-Supply Well near Tampa, Florida, 2002-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Katz, Brian G.; Crandall, Christy A.; Metz, Patricia A.; McBride, William S.; Berndt, Marian P.

    2007-01-01

    In 2001, the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey began a series of studies on the transport of anthropogenic and natural contaminants (TANC) to public-supply wells. The main goal of the TANC program was to better understand the source, transport, and receptor factors that control contaminant movement to public-supply wells in representative aquifers of the United States. Studies were first conducted at regional scales at four of the eight TANC study areas during 2002-03 and at small (local) scales during 2003-05 in California, Nebraska, Connecticut, and Florida. In the Temple Terrace study area near Tampa, Florida, multiple chemical indicators and geochemical and ground-water flow modeling techniques were used to assess the vulnerability of a public-supply well in the karstic Upper Floridan aquifer to contamination from anthropogenic and naturally occurring contaminants. During 2003-05, water samples were collected from the public-supply well and 13 surrounding monitoring wells that all tap the Upper Floridan aquifer, and from 15 monitoring wells in the overlying surficial aquifer system and the intermediate confining unit that are located within the modeled ground-water contributing recharge area of the public-supply well. Six volatile organic compounds and four pesticides were detected in trace concentrations (well below drinking-water standards) in water from the public-supply well, which had an open interval from 36 to 53 meters below land surface. These contaminants were detected more frequently in water samples from monitoring wells in the overlying clastic surficial aquifer system than in water from monitoring wells in the Upper Floridan aquifer in the study area. Likewise, nitrate-N concentrations in the public-supply well (0.72-1.4 milligrams per liter) were more similar to median concentrations in the oxic surficial aquifer system (2.1 milligrams per liter) than to median nitrate-N concentrations in the anoxic

  10. Simulation of flow and sediment transport in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles; Bennett, James P.

    2005-01-01

    Characterization of sediment transport of the Kootenai River in the white sturgeon spawning reach is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to predict sediment-transport conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho. The decreasing population and spawning failure of the white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeon are found in the river today. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. A 15-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied, including the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat near Bonners Ferry, Idaho, and a 1-mile long side channel around the western side of Shorty Island. A one-dimensional sediment-transport model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to simulate the response of the hydraulic and sediment system to varying discharges and water-surface elevations. The model comprises 79 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. Bed-sediment samples collected in 2002 and additional samples collected for this study in 2004 were used in the model. The model was calibrated to discharge and water-surface elevations at two U.S. Geological Survey gaging stations. The model also was calibrated to suspended-sediment discharge at several sites in the study reach. The calibrated model was used to simulate six different management alternatives to assess erosion and deposition under varying hydraulic conditions at the end of 21 days of simulation. Alternative 1 was simulated with a discharge of 6,000 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), alternative 2 with 20,000 ft3/s, alternative 3 with 40,000 ft3/s, and alternatives 4 through 6 with 60,000 ft3/s and represents low to high discharges in the river since the construction of Libby Dam. Sediment deposition

  11. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C

    2015-06-01

    increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 42% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2011/12, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. As a result of the epidemics which are of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and the expansion of private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$45,321 million (46.9% of total current expenditure) in 2011/12 with the remaining HK$51,251 million made up of private sources of funds. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.2%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.1% of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.3%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.4%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.7%), whereas in-patient care (24.7%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding

  12. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    /90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social

  13. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2010/11.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Chui, A W M; Tay, M S M

    2013-12-01

    /90 to 2010/11, which is likely due to shift of policy directives from in-patient to day patient care, and the increasing demand for dialysis and cataract surgery in an ageing population.Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of TEH, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 43% to 44%during the period 2005/06 to 2010/11, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of several epidemics (e g avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on the provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of TEH over that period.Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$42 264 million(47.5% of total current expenditure) in 2010/11. The remaining HK$46 723 million was from private sources. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.7%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.0%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.4%of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.6%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.5%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.2%),whereas in-patient care (24.5%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) accounted for most of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to healthcare in the last decade. As a share of TEH, public funding(either general government revenue or social

  14. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2009/10.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Chui, A W M; Lo, S V

    2013-04-01

    -patient curative care (27.3%), day patient hospital services (4.9%) and home care (0.5%). Notwithstanding the small share of total spending for day patient hospital services, there was an increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2009/10, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped steadily to 43% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2009/10. This trend was primarily driven by reduced expenditure by the Hospital Authority. As a result of epidemics that were of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and expansion of the private health insurance market in the last 2 decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$40,951 million (48.2% of total current expenditure) in 2009/10. The remaining HK$43,923 expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (50.9%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.0% of total current spending), the distribution patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (48.9%) and substantially less on out-patient care (26.0%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (43.4%), whereas in-patient care (23.3%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.5%) accounted for the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, Hong Kong has

  15. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2011/12.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Lee, Y H; Chong, D S Y; Lam, D W S; Yeung, A Y T; Ma, E S K; Maw, C K C

    2015-06-01

    increasing trend over the period 1989/90 to 2011/12, likely as a result of policy directives to shift the emphasis from in-patient to day patient care. Hospitals accounted for an increasing share of total spending, from 28.2% in 1989/90 to 46.8% in 2002/03 and then dropped slightly to 42% to 44% during the period 2005/06 to 2011/12, which was primarily driven by reduced expenditure of Hospital Authority. As a result of the epidemics which are of public health importance (eg avian flu, SARS, swine flu) and the expansion of private health insurance market in the last two decades, spending on provision and administration of public health programmes, and general health administration and insurance accounted for increasing, though less significant, shares of total health spending over the period. Without taking into account capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities), public current expenditure on health amounted to HK$45,321 million (46.9% of total current expenditure) in 2011/12 with the remaining HK$51,251 million made up of private sources of funds. Public current expenditure was mostly incurred at hospitals (74.1%), whereas private current expenditure was mostly incurred at providers of ambulatory health care (51.2%). Although both public and private spending were mostly expended on personal health care services and goods (91.1% of total current spending), the distributional patterns among functional categories differed. Public expenditure was targeted at in-patient care (47.3%) and substantially less on out-patient care (27.4%). In comparison, private spending was mostly concentrated on out-patient care (42.7%), whereas in-patient care (24.7%) and medical goods outside the patient care setting (19.9%) comprised the majority of the remaining share. Compared to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries, Hong Kong has devoted a relatively low percentage of GDP to health care in the last decade. As a share of total spending, public funding

  16. Which Ringed Planet...!?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-12-01

    Don't worry - you are not the only one who thought this was a nice amateur photo of planet Saturn, Lord of the Rings in our Solar System! But then the relative brightness and positions of the moons may appear somewhat unfamiliar... and the ring system does look unusually bright when compared to the planetary disk...?? Well, it is not Saturn, but Uranus , the next giant planet further out, located at a distance of about 3,000 million km, or 20 times the distance between the Sun and the Earth. The photo shows Uranus surrounded by its rings and some of the moons, as they appear on a near-infrared image that was obtained in the K s -band (at wavelength 2.2 µm) with the ISAAC multi-mode instrument on the 8.2-m VLT ANTU telescope at the ESO Paranal Observatory (Chile) . The exposure was made on November 19, 2002 (03:00 hrs UT) during a planetary research programme. The observing conditions were excellent (seeing 0.5 arcsec) and the exposure lasted 5 min. The angular diameter of Uranus is about 3.5 arcsec. The observers at ISAAC were Emmanuel Lellouch and Thérése Encrenaz of the Observatoire de Paris (France) and Jean-Gabriel Cuby and Andreas Jaunsen (both ESO-Chile). The rings The rings of Uranus were discovered in 1977, from observations during a stellar occultation event by astronomer teams at the Kuiper Airborne Observatory (KAO) and the Perth Observatory (Australia). Just before and after the planet moved in front of the (occulted) star, the surrounding rings caused the starlight to dim for short intervals of time. Photos obtained from the Voyager-2 spacecraft in 1986 showed a multitude of very tenuous rings. These rings are almost undetectable from the Earth in visible light. However, on the present VLT near-infrared picture, the contrast between the rings and the planet is strongly enhanced. At the particular wavelength at which this observation was made, the infalling sunlight is almost completely absorbed by gaseous methane present in the planetary atmosphere

  17. Simulation of hydraulic characteristics in the white sturgeon spawning habitat of the Kootenai River near Bonners Ferry, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Berenbrock, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Hydraulic characterization of the Kootenai River, especially in the white sturgeon spawning habitat reach, is needed by the Kootenai River White Sturgeon Recovery Team to promote hydraulic conditions that improve spawning conditions for the white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) in the Kootenai River. The decreasing population and spawning failure of white sturgeon has led to much concern. Few wild juvenile sturgeons are found in the river today. Determining the location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water in the Kootenai River is a primary focus for biologists who believe that hydraulic changes at the transition affect the location where the sturgeon choose to spawn. The Kootenai River begins in British Columbia, Canada, and flows through Montana, Idaho, and back into British Columbia. The 65.6-mile reach of the Kootenai River in Idaho was studied. The study area encompasses the white sturgeon spawning reach that has been designated as a critical habitat. A one-dimensional hydraulic-flow model of the study reach was developed, calibrated, and used to develop relations between hydraulic characteristics and water-surface elevation, discharge, velocity, and backwater extent. The model used 164 cross sections, most of which came from a previous river survey conducted in 2002-03. The model was calibrated to water-surface elevations at specific discharges at five gaging stations. Calibrated water-surface elevations ranged from about 1,743 to about 1,759 feet, and discharges used in calibration ranged from 5,000 to 47,500 cubic feet per second. Model calibration was considered acceptable when the difference between measured and simulated water-surface elevations was ?0.15 foot or less. Measured and simulated average velocities also were compared. These comparisons indicated agreement between measured and simulated values. The location of the transition between backwater and free-flowing water was determined using the calibrated model. The model

  18. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  19. Mid-late Holocene climate and vegetation in northeastern part of the Altai Mountains recorded in Lake Teletskoye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudaya, Natalia; Nazarova, Larisa; Novenko, Elena; Babich, Valery; Kalugin, Ivan; Daryin, Andrei

    2015-04-01

    temperatures fell to 17.04 0C. Minimums of July temperatures related to AD1560-1650 and may reflect Little Ice Age in the northeastern Altai. This assumption is in an agreement with previous data from Lake Teletskoye (core Tel 2001-02 covered last 1000 years) where the period with relatively cold and dry climate was revealed between AD1560 and 1820 (Andreev et al., 2007). The coldest period in Tuva according to dendrochronological data (Myglan, Oidupaa, Vaganov, 2012) was in 17-19 centuries with minimum of June-July temperatures at AD1778-1819. Pollen records from the Chuya basin (southeastern part of Russian Altai) revealed the onset of LIA around AD1600 (Schluetz&Lehmkuhl, 2007). Open steppe-like vegetation slightly enlarged after ~AD1700 with increasing of continentality. Modern Index of Continentality mapping for the Altai Mountains is in range of 50-59 (Grieser et al., 2006). The average Index of Continentality calculated for last 30 years using data from Barnaul meteostation, located 300 km northwest of the lake in forest-steppe zone, is 40.6; the average Index of Continentality for Yailu meteostation (north shore of Lake Teletskoye) is 20. Index of Continentality reconstructed from Tel 2006 varies in limits of 48-58 and obviously shows regional but not local situation. Throughout the Tel 2006 record woody coverages vary between 29.0% at the 3890 cal yr BP and 50.3% at the AD1830. Woody coverage greater than 65% is associated with the Siberian mid-latitudinal zonal taiga. Areas north and south of the taiga zone have moderate forest coverage (25-45%), suggesting greater landscape openness (Tarasov et al., 2007). Regarding to VCF data, modern woody cover in 20 km around the lake is ca. 55% (http://glcf.umiacs.umd.edu/data/vcf). Reconstructed woody coverage is lower than observed and reflect probably forest development in the whole lake catchment basin. Spectral analysis of Tel 2006 data demonstrates periodic changes of taiga-biome curve of ~1050, ~470 and ~210 years

  20. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in