Science.gov

Sample records for 2001-04 selected intakes

  1. Selected Intakes as Ratios of Energy Intake, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the US population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  2. Selected Intakes of Energy from Empty Calories, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    This section provides information on population distributions of energy intakes from solid fats, alcoholic beverages and added sugars. These sources of energy comprise a major portion of the discretionary calories consumed by the US population.

  3. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2001-04

    Cancer.gov

    The NCI Method provides the capability to estimate the distribution of usual food intakes in the U.S. population to greatly enhance the ability to monitor diets relative to recommendations and to assess the scope of dietary deficiencies and excesses.

  4. THE IMPACT OF COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE ON ENERGY INTAKE (EI) AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The impact of covert manipulation of macronutrient intake on energy intake (EI) and macronutrient selection. William Rumpler, David Paul, Donna Rhodes. Beltsville Human Nutrition Research Center, Beltsville, MD 20705 Twelve men were fed a defined beverage continuously for two 8-week periods but ...

  5. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Ferraroni, M.; La Vecchia, C.; D'Avanzo, B.; Negri, E.; Franceschi, S.; Decarli, A.

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between estimated intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of colorectal cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. The study was based on 828 patients with colon cancer, 498 with rectal cancer and 2,024 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases. Relative risks (RRs) of intake quintiles were computed after allowance for age, sex and other major potential confounding factors, including an estimate of total energy intake. No apparent trend in risk across intake quintiles was evident for retinol, vitamin D, methionine and calcium. For beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and folate there was a trend of a protective effect with increasing consumption: the RR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.32 for beta-carotene, 0.40 for ascorbic acid, 0.60 for vitamin E and 0.52 for folate. These inverse associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer, and consistent across strata of sex and age. When simultaneous allowance was made for all these micronutrients, besides other covariates, the only persistent protective effects were for beta-carotene (RR = 0.38 for the highest quintile) and ascorbic acid (RR = 0.52). Whether this reflects a specific, or stronger, effect of these micronutrients, rather than problems of collinearity between micronutrients or other limitations of the data, remains open to discussion. Still, this study suggests that specific micronutrients may exert an independent protective effect against colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:7981067

  6. Selected micronutrient intake and the risk of colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Ferraroni, M; La Vecchia, C; D'Avanzo, B; Negri, E; Franceschi, S; Decarli, A

    1994-12-01

    The relationship between estimated intake of selected micronutrients and the risk of colorectal cancer was analysed using data from a case-control study conducted in northern Italy. The study was based on 828 patients with colon cancer, 498 with rectal cancer and 2,024 controls in hospital for acute, non-neoplastic, non-digestive tract diseases. Relative risks (RRs) of intake quintiles were computed after allowance for age, sex and other major potential confounding factors, including an estimate of total energy intake. No apparent trend in risk across intake quintiles was evident for retinol, vitamin D, methionine and calcium. For beta-carotene, ascorbic acid, vitamin E and folate there was a trend of a protective effect with increasing consumption: the RR for the highest versus the lowest quintile was 0.32 for beta-carotene, 0.40 for ascorbic acid, 0.60 for vitamin E and 0.52 for folate. These inverse associations were similar for colon and rectal cancer, and consistent across strata of sex and age. When simultaneous allowance was made for all these micronutrients, besides other covariates, the only persistent protective effects were for beta-carotene (RR = 0.38 for the highest quintile) and ascorbic acid (RR = 0.52). Whether this reflects a specific, or stronger, effect of these micronutrients, rather than problems of collinearity between micronutrients or other limitations of the data, remains open to discussion. Still, this study suggests that specific micronutrients may exert an independent protective effect against colorectal carcinogenesis. PMID:7981067

  7. Intake of selected minerals and risk of premenstrual syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chocano-Bedoya, Patricia O; Manson, Joann E; Hankinson, Susan E; Johnson, Susan R; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Ronnenberg, Alayne G; Bigelow, Carol; Bertone-Johnson, Elizabeth R

    2013-05-15

    Iron, potassium, zinc, and other minerals might impact the development of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) through multiple mechanisms, but few studies have evaluated these relations. We conducted a case-control study nested within the prospective Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2001). Participants were free from PMS at baseline. After 10 years, 1,057 women were confirmed as PMS cases and 1,968 as controls. Mineral intake was assessed using food frequency questionnaires completed in 1991, 1995, and 1999. After adjustment for calcium intake and other factors, women in the highest quintile of nonheme iron intake had a relative risk of PMS of 0.64 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44, 0.92; P for trend = 0.04) compared with women in the lowest quintile. Women in the highest quintile of potassium intake had a relative risk of 1.46 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.15; P for trend = 0.04) compared with women in the lowest quintile. High intake of zinc from supplements was marginally associated with PMS (for intake of ≥25 mg/day vs. none, relative risk = 0.69, 95% CI: 0.46, 1.02; P for trend = 0.05). Intakes of sodium, magnesium, and manganese were unrelated to PMS risk. These findings suggest that dietary minerals may be useful in preventing PMS. Additional studies are needed to confirm these relations. PMID:23444100

  8. Selected micronutrient intake and status in men with differing meat intakes, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Li, D; Sinclair, A J; Mann, N J; Turner, A; Ball, M J

    2000-03-01

    Dietary factors play a critical role in human health. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine micronutrient intake and status of subjects who were habitual meat eaters eating different quantities of meat with those who were habitual vegetarians or vegans. One hundred and thirty-nine healthy male subjects (vegan, n = 18; ovolacto-vegetarian, n = 46; moderate meat-eater, n = 65; and high meat-eater, n = 18) aged 20-55 years were recruited in metropolitan Melbourne. Each volunteer completed a semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) and gave a fasting venous blood sample. Dietary sodium/potassium ratio was significantly lower and vitamin C, fibre and iron intakes were higher in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. High meat-eaters had a significantly higher calcium, retinol and zinc intake than did the other three dietary groups; moderate meateaters had the lowest mean intake of fibre, vitamin C and β-carotene. Vegans had a significantly higher β-carotene intake than did the other groups. Serum ferritin and vitamin B12 levels, and haemoglobin concentration were significantly lower in vegetarians than in meat-eaters. Vegans had a significantly higher serum folate concentration than did ovolacto-vegetarian and moderate meat-eater groups. There was no significant difference in serum α-tocopherol concentration. There are differences between the four diet groups that have potential to affect the subjects' health and susceptibility to chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and cancer. Based on the present data, high meat-eaters may particularly benefit from altering their dietary pattern to reduce their sodium and saturated fat intake, and moderate meat-eaters from increasing their fibre and antioxidant consumption. Vegetarians, especially vegans, may need to increase their vitamin B12 and zinc intakes. PMID:24394311

  9. EFFECTS OF AGE ON CHILDREN'S INTAKE OF LARGE AND SELF-SELECTED PORTIONS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to intake promoting environmental influences is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected portions. Participants were 75 non-Hispanic white children aged 2-...

  10. Changes in intakes of selected foods rich in bioactive compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several foods have received considerable attention in recent years because of their possible protective effect on cardiovascular diseases and cancer. These foods are rich in bioactive compounds and include blueberries, strawberries, broccoli, soymilk, and tea. Dietary intake data for males and femal...

  11. Prattville intake, Lake Almanor, California, hydraulic model study on selective withdrawal modifications. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vermeyen, T.

    1995-07-01

    Bureau of Reclamation conducted this hydraulic model study to provide Pacific Gas and Electric Company with an evaluation of several selective withdrawal structures that are being considered to reduce intake flow temperatures through the Prattville Intake at Lake Almanor, California. Release temperature control using selective withdrawal structures is being considered in an effort to improve the cold-water fishery in the North Fork of the Feather River.

  12. New Stochastic Annual Limits on Intake for Selected Radionuclides

    SciTech Connect

    Carbaugh, Eugene H.

    2009-08-24

    Annual limits on intake (ALI) have historically been tabulated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (e.g., ICRP 1979, 1961) and also by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA 1988). These compilations have been rendered obsolete by more recent ICRP dosimetry methods, and, rather than provide new ALIs, the ICRP has opted instead to provide committed dose coefficients from which an ALI can be determined by a user for a specific set of conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy historically has referenced compilations of ALIs and has defined their method of calculation in its radiation protection regulation (10 CFDR 835), but has never provided a specific compilation. Under June 2007 amendments to 10 CFR 835, ALIs can be calculated by dividing an appropriate dose limit, either 5-rem (0.05 Sv) effective dose or 50 rem (0.5 Sv) equivalent dose to an individual organ or tissue, by an appropriate committed dose coefficient. When based on effective dose, the ALI is often referred to as a stochastic annual limit on intake (SALI), and when based on the individual organ or tissue equivalent limit, it has often been called a deterministic annual limit on intake (DALI).

  13. Intake of selected nutrients from foods, from fortification and from supplements in various European countries

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Albert; Hirvonen, Tero; Mensink, Gert B. M.; Ocké, Marga C.; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Stos, Katarzyna; Szponar, Lucjan; Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Fletcher, Reg; Wildemann, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    Background Recent European Union regulation requires setting of maximum amount of micronutrients in dietary supplements or foods taking into account the tolerable upper intake level (ULs) established by scientific risk assessment and population reference intakes. Objective To collect and evaluate recently available data on intakes of selected vitamins and minerals from conventional foods, food supplements and fortified foods in adults and children. Intake of calcium, copper, iodine, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, selenium, zinc, folic acid, niacin and total vitamin A/retinol, B6, D and E was derived from nationally representative surveys in Denmark, Germany, Finland, Ireland, Italy, the Netherlands, Poland, Spain and the United Kingdom. Intake of high consumers, defined as the 95th percentile of each nutrient, was compared to the UL. Results For most nutrients, adults and children generally consume considerably less than the UL with exceptions being retinol, zinc, iodine, copper and magnesium. The major contributor to intakes for all nutrients and in all countries is from foods in the base diet. The patterns of food supplements and voluntary fortification vary widely among countries with food supplements being responsible for the largest differences in total intakes. In the present study, for those countries with data on fortified foods, fortified foods do not significantly contribute to higher intakes for any nutrient. Total nutrient intake expressed as percentage of the UL is generally higher in children than in adults. Conclusion The risk of excessive intakes is relatively low for the majority of nutrients with a few exceptions. Children are the most vulnerable group as they are more likely to exhibit high intakes relative to the UL. There is a need to develop improved methods for estimating intakes of micronutrients from fortified foods and food supplements in future dietary surveys. PMID:20011225

  14. Global assessment of select phytonutrient intakes by level of fruit and vegetable consumption.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Mary M; Barraj, Leila M; Spungen, Judith H; Herman, Dena R; Randolph, R Keith

    2014-09-28

    Despite dietary recommendations that have repeatedly underscored the importance of increasing consumption of fruits and vegetables, intakes worldwide are lower than recommended levels. Consequently, the diets of many individuals may be lacking in nutrients and phytonutrients typical of a diet rich in a variety of fruits and vegetables. In the present study, we estimated phytonutrient intakes by adults categorised by sex, level of fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 v. ≥ 5 servings/d), and geographic diet cluster. Intakes of nine select phytonutrients were estimated from the 2002-4 World Health Survey fruit and vegetable servings intake data (n 198,637), the FAO supply utilisation accounts data, and phytonutrient concentration data obtained from the US Department of Agriculture databases and the published literature. Percentage contributions to each phytonutrient intake from fruit and vegetable sources were also estimated. Estimated intakes of phytonutrients from fruits and vegetables varied across the thirteen geographic diet clusters, reflecting regional differences in both numbers and proportions of fruit and vegetable servings consumed, and the specific types of fruits and vegetables available in the diet. The mean phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables were approximately 2- to 6-fold the mean phytonutrient intakes by adults with low fruit and vegetable consumption (< 5 servings/d). In some cases, phytonutrient intakes by adults consuming ≥ 5 servings/d of fruits and vegetables in one geographic diet cluster were lower than the intakes by adults reporting < 5 servings/d in another cluster. The findings from this assessment provide important information regarding the major dietary patterns of phytonutrient intakes across geographic diet clusters. PMID:25108700

  15. Anthropometric indices and selected nutrient intakes of young children in Kwangju, Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Nam; Cho, Youn-Ok

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of children's nutritional intakes is important because any nutritional inadequacies or toxicities may have adverse consequences. Studies on the nutritional intakes of Korean children are limited. The aims of this study were to determine anthropometric indices, estimate selected nutrient intakes of young Korean children, and compare these intakes with current Dietary Reference Intakes for Koreans. This study included 136 healthy children (65 boys, 71 girls), 2-6 y old, living in Kwangju, Korea. Weights and heights were measured. Three consecutive 24-h food recalls were obtained. According to International Obesity TaskForce BMI cutoffs, 8% were overweight and 2% were obese. The energy intakes of 40% were < Korean Estimated Energy Requirements, while all subjects consumed ≥ Korean Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) for protein. The majority of the children consumed > Korean EAR for iron, zinc, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B6, and niacin. Vitamin E intakes of 65% of the Korean children were < Korean Adequate Intake, and approximately half of the subjects had < Korean EAR for calcium and for folate. Many young children in Kwangju, Korea, likely have inadequate status of calcium, folate, and vitamin E. PMID:20126604

  16. Intake of selected bioactive compounds from plant food supplements containing fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) among Finnish consumers.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Liisa; Salmenhaara, Maija; Isoniemi, Merja; Garcia-Alvarez, Alicia; Serra-Majem, Lluís; Ribas-Barba, Lourdes; Finglas, Paul; Plumb, Jenny; Tuominen, Pirkko; Savela, Kirsti

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the intake of selected bioactive compounds from fennel-containing plant food supplements (PFS) among Finnish consumers. The estimated average intake of estragole was 0.20mg/d, of trans-anethole 1.15mg/d, of rosmarinic acid 0.09mg/d, of p-coumaric acid 0.0068mg/d, of kaempferol 0.0034mg/d, of luteolin 0.0525μg/d, of quercetin 0.0246mg/d, of matairesinol 0.0066μg/d and of lignans 0.0412μg/d. The intakes of kaempferol, quercetin, luteolin, matairesinol and lignans from PFS were low in comparison with their dietary supply. The intake of estragole was usually moderate, but a heavy consumption of PFS may lead to a high intake of estragole. The intake of trans-anethole did not exceed the acceptable daily intake, but PFS should be taken into account when assessing the total exposure. To our knowledge, this study provided the first intake estimates of trans-anethole, p-coumaric acid and rosmarinic acid in human populations. PMID:26471600

  17. Recording strategies and selection potential of feed intake measured using the X-ray method in rainbow trout

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; Tobin, Declan; Dobly, Alexandre; Houlihan, Dominic; Martin, Sam; Mäntysaari, Esa A; Ritola, Ossi; Ruohonen, Kari

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the way long-term feed intake should be recorded accurately for selective breeding purposes, and estimates selection potential in feed intake using the X-ray method to record individual daily feed intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The analysis showed that the point estimates of daily feed intake displayed low repeatabilities (r = 0.09–0.32). This indicates that a minimum of three repeated records were needed to accurately record average feed intake at a fixed age. To effectively breed for feed intake over the whole growing period, it is necessary to determine average feed intake at different ages, since there were only moderate phenotypic and genetic correlations between average daily feed intake recorded at 140 g, 750 g and 2000 g wet mass. Heritability for average daily feed intake was low (average h2 = 0.10), indicating that modest genetic changes can be obtained in response to selection. It was concluded that selection to genetically change long-term feed intake can be successful, yet repeated observations at several life stages are needed to ensure the accuracy of feed intake estimates and the efficiency of selection. PMID:16790229

  18. Increasing the size of portion options affects intake but not portion selection at a meal.

    PubMed

    Zuraikat, Faris M; Roe, Liane S; Privitera, Gregory J; Rolls, Barbara J

    2016-03-01

    In an environment with large portion sizes, allowing consumers more control over their portion selection could moderate the effects on energy intake. We tested whether having subjects choose a portion from several options influenced the amount selected or consumed when all portion sizes were systematically increased. In a crossover design, 24 women and 26 men ate lunch in the lab once a week for 3 weeks. At each meal, subjects chose a portion of macaroni and cheese from a set of 3 portion options and consumed it ad libitum. Across 3 conditions, portion sizes in the set were increased; the order of the conditions was counterbalanced across subjects. For women the portion sets by weight (g) were 300/375/450, 375/450/525, and 450/525/600; for men the portions were 33% larger. The results showed that increasing the size of available portions did not significantly affect the relative size selected; across all portion sets, subjects chose the smallest available portion at 59% of meals, the medium at 27%, and the largest at 15%. The size of portions offered did, however, influence meal intake (P < 0.0001). Mean intake (±SEM) was 16% greater when the largest set was offered (661 ± 34 kcal) than when the medium and smallest sets were offered (both 568 ± 18 kcal). These results suggest that portions are selected in relation to the other available options, and confirm the robust effect of portion size on intake. Although presenting a choice of portions can allow selection of smaller amounts, the sizes offered are a critical determinant of energy intake. Thus, the availability of choices could help to moderate intake if the portions offered are within an appropriate range for energy needs. PMID:26721718

  19. Parent-child associations in selected food group and nutrient intakes among overweight and obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Watts, Allison W; Mâsse, Louise C; Barr, Susan I; Lovato, Chris Y; Hanning, Rhona M

    2014-10-01

    Few studies have compared parent-child dietary intake among adolescents who are overweight or obese. The purpose of our study was to determine the relationship between parent-teen intake of selected dietary components among this sample. Baseline data from 165 parent and adolescent (aged 11 to 16 years) pairs who presented for a lifestyle behavior modification intervention were collected between 2010 and 2012. Parent and adolescent dietary intake (servings of fruits and vegetables [F/V]; grams of sugar; and percent energy from total fat, saturated fat, dessert/treats, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks) was assessed using web-based 24-hour dietary recalls. Multivariable linear and negative binomial regression models identified associations between parent and child dietary intake adjusting for relevant covariates. A large proportion of adolescents and parents did not meet dietary recommendations for F/V, total fat, and saturated fat. Parent-adolescent intake of F/V, total fat, saturated fat, sugar, sugar-sweetened beverages, and snacks were positively associated (r=0.19 to 0.37). No relationship was observed for dessert/treats. In multivariate models, significant interaction effects suggest that the parent-child association in diet was weaker for fat intake among parents with higher educational attainment (b=-.31; P<0.05) and for snacking among adolescent boys (b=-.30; P<.05). Parent intake of several dietary components important for good health, and related to obesity, was associated with adolescent intake. Helping parents improve their diet may promote improvements in their adolescent's diet and is a potential target for interventions designed to increase healthy eating among adolescents. PMID:24951436

  20. Effects of age on children's intake of large and self-selected food portions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: Whether developmental periods exist in which children become particularly sensitive to environmental influences on eating is unclear. This research evaluated the effects of age on intake of large and self-selected portions among children 2 to 9 years of age. RESEARCH METHODS AND PROCEDURE...

  1. Body composition and feed intake of reproducing and growing mice divergently selected for heat loss.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, A S; Nielsen, M K

    2014-05-01

    Changes in maintenance energy requirements and in feed efficiency have been achieved by divergent selection for heat loss in mice in 3 replicates, creating high heat loss, high maintenance (MH) and low heat loss, low maintenance (ML) lines and an unselected control (MC). However, feed intake has mainly been measured in mature animals and not during growth or reproduction. Additionally, there is evidence that reducing maintenance energy will increase fat content, an undesirable result. To evaluate if selection has altered body composition and lifecycle feed intake, mating pairs were continuously mated and maintained for up to 1 yr unless culled. Offspring pairs were sampled from each line at each parity and maintained from 21 to 49 d of age. Feed intake was recorded for mating pairs throughout the year and on offspring pairs. Body weight was recorded on all animals at culling as well as percent fat, total fat, and total lean, measured by dual X-ray densitometry. Average daily gain was also recorded for offspring. Energy partitioning was achieved using 2 approaches: Approach I regressed energy intake of the pair on sum of daily metabolic weight and total gain to obtain maintenance (bm) and growth (bg) coefficients for each line, replicate, feeding period, and sex (offspring pairs only); Approach II calculated bm for each pair assuming constant energy values for lean and fat gain. Energy coefficients and body composition traits were evaluated for effect of selection (MH vs. ML) and asymmetry of selection ([MH + ML]/2 vs. MC). Both MC mating and offspring pairs tended to have greater BW than the average of the selection lines (P < 0.08). Males of offspring pairs weighed more than females (P < 0.01), while females of mating pairs weighed more than males (P < 0.01). Line was insignificant (P > 0.15) for body composition traits. Using Approach I, MH mice had a greater bm than ML mice for mating pairs (P = 0.03) but not offspring pairs (P = 0.50). For Approach II, MH had a

  2. Hydrologic, soil, and vegetation gradients in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands in west-central Missouri, 2001-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heimann, David C.; Mettler-Cherry, Paige A.

    2004-01-01

    A study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Conservation at the Four Rivers Conservation Area (west-central Missouri), between January 2001 and March 2004, to examine the relations between environmental factors (hydrology, soils, elevation, and landform type) and the spatial distribution of vegetation in remnant and constructed riparian wetlands. Vegetation characterization included species composition of ground, understory, and overstory layers in selected landforms of a remnant bottomland hardwood ecosystem, monitoring survival and growth of reforestation plots in leveed and partially leveed constructed wetlands, and determining gradients in colonization of herbaceous vegetation in a constructed wetland. Similar environmental factors accounted for variation in the distribution of ground, understory, and overstory vegetation in the remnant bottomland forest plots. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of vegetation in the ground layer were elevation, soil texture (clay and silt content), flooding inundation duration, and ponding duration, while the distribution of vegetation in the understory layer was described by elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, and distance from the Marmaton or Little Osage River. The primary measured determining factors in the distribution of overstory vegetation in Unit 1 were elevation, soil texture (clay, silt, and sand content), total flooding and ponding inundation duration, ponding duration, and to some extent, flooding inundation duration. Overall, the composition and structure of the remnant bottomland forest is indicative of a healthy, relatively undisturbed flood plain forest. Dominant species have a distribution of individuals that shows regeneration of these species with significant recruitment in the smaller size classes. The bottomland forest is an area whose overall hydrology has

  3. Chromium, selenium, and other trace element intakes of a selected sample of Canadian premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Scythes, C A

    1984-04-01

    Daily Cr, Se, Ag, Cs, Rb, Sb, and Sc intakes of 84 Canadian women aged 30.3±6.1 yr (mean±SD) living in a University community and consuming self-selected diets were determined by analyses of 1-d food composites collected by the subjects. Aliquots of the homogenized food composites were freeze-dried and then analyzed by instrumental neutron activation procedures following irradiation for 72h. In all cases, trace element concentrations in the food composites were non-Gaussian. Median daily intakes were: Cr, 47 μg; Se, 74 μg; Ag, 7.1 μg; Cs, 4.4 μg; Rb, 1.5 mg; Sb 2.0 μg; and Sc, 0.38 μg. Sixty percent and 24% of the subjects received daily Cr and Se intakes, respectively, below the US Food and Nutrition Board safe and adequate range. High Cr density diets were associated with a significantly higher consumption of cheese and dry legumes and nuts (p<0.05). In the high Se density diets, intakes of grain products and breakfast cereals were significantly higher (p<0.05), and intakes of potatoes, table fats, total fat, saturated fat, and oleic acid were significantly lower (p<0.05) compared to the low Se density diets. The low daily Cr intakes evident in this study may be cause for concern in view of the increasing evidence that women may be at greater risk for deficiency of Cr than men because of Cr depletion during pregnancy. PMID:24263851

  4. Coconut and sunflower oil ratios in ice cream influence subsequent food selection and intake.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, G; Masic, U; Harrold, J A; Norton, J E; Halford, J C G

    2016-10-01

    The effect of coconut oil (CO, containing mainly medium chain triglycerides - MCTs) and sunflower oil (SO, containing mainly long chain triglycerides - LCTs) used as fat source (10% fat ice cream) in different ratios (25% CO and 75% SO - 25CO:75SO, 50% CO and 50% SO - 50CO:50SO, 75% CO and 25% SO - 75CO:25SO) was investigated to assess differences in appetite and ad-libitum (evening and snack) food intake using a single blind design. 36 healthy female participants consumed a fixed portion (150g) of ice cream 45min before an ad-libitum dinner and snacks. Appetite sensations were tracked across the day. Participants ate significantly less fat after 75CO:25SO than 25CO:75SO (p=0.007) and there was also a trend for lower fat intake in this condition as compared to 50CO:50SO (p=0.068). High fat savoury snack intake significantly decreased after 75CO:25SO in comparison with both 25CO:75SO (p=0.038) and 50CO:50SO (p=0.008). Calorie intake from snacks was also found to be significantly lower after 25CO:75SO and 50CO:50SO than 75CO:25SO (p=0.021 and 0.030 respectively). There was no effect of condition on appetite or desire ratings over the day. Eating a standard portion of ice cream containing different ratios of MCTs and LCTs can modestly influence acute food selection and intake, with MCTs manifesting their effect earlier and LCTs later due to differences in the absorption and metabolism of these lipids. However, the differences evident in the present study were small, and require further research before firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:27235735

  5. Divergent selection for residual feed intake affects the transcriptomic and proteomic profiles of pig skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Louveau, I; Gondret, F; Tréfeu, C; Gilbert, H; Lefaucheur, L

    2015-06-01

    Improving feed efficiency is a relevant strategy to reduce feed cost and environmental waste in livestock production. Selection experiments on residual feed intake (RFI), a measure of feed efficiency, previously indicated that low RFI was associated with lower feed intake, similar growth rate, and greater lean meat content compared with high RFI. To gain insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these differences, 24 Large White females from 2 lines divergently selected for RFI were examined. Pigs from a low-RFI ("efficient") and high-RFI ("inefficient") line were individually fed ad libitum from 67 d of age (27 kg BW) to slaughter at 115 kg BW (n = 8 per group). Additional pigs of the high-RFI line were feed restricted to the daily feed intake of the ad libitum low-RFI pigs (n = 8) to investigate the impact of selection independently of feed intake. Global gene and protein expression profiles were assessed in the LM collected at slaughter. The analyses involved a porcine commercial microarray and 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis. About 1,000 probes were differentially expressed (P < 0.01) between RFI lines. Only 10% of those probes were also affected by feed restriction. Gene functional classification indicated a greater expression of genes involved in protein synthesis and a lower expression of genes associated with mitochondrial energy metabolism in the low-RFI pigs compared with the high-RFI pigs. At the protein level, 11 unique identified proteins exhibited a differential abundance (P < 0.05) between RFI lines. Differentially expressed proteins were generally not significantly affected by feed restriction. Mitochondrial oxidative proteins such as aconitase hydratase, ATP synthase subunit α, and creatine kinase S-type had a lower abundance in the low-RFI pigs, whereas fructose-biphosphate aldolase A and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, 2 proteins involved in glycolysis, had a greater abundance in those pigs compared with high-RFI pigs

  6. Thermoregulatory responses during thermal acclimation in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos, Paulo Henrique Reis Furtado; Noblet, Jean; Jaguelin-Peyraud, Yolande; Gilbert, Hélène; Mormède, Pierre; de Oliveira Donzele, Rita Flavia Miranda; Donzele, Juarez Lopes; Renaudeau, David

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance and thermoregulatory responses during acclimation to high ambient temperature (Ta) of pigs from two lines selected for high (RFI+) or low (RFI-) residual feed intake with the hypothesis that RFI- pigs producing less heat would better tolerate high Ta. Pigs (50 kg initial body weight; 17 per line among which 10 of them were catheterized) were individually housed in a climatic-controlled room where Ta was maintained at 24.2 ± 0.4 °C during 7 days and thereafter at 30.4 ± 0.7 °C during 14 days. Irrespective of Ta, RFI- pigs had lower feed intake (ADFI) and similar average daily gain (ADG) than RFI+ pigs. Whatever the line, ADFI, ADG, and feed efficiency decreased with increased Ta. Overall, the Ta increase resulted in an increase in rectal temperature (RT), skin temperature (ST), and respiratory rate (RR) within the first 24-48 h and, subsequently, in a decrease followed by stabilization. The RT decrease during acclimation occurred 24 h earlier in RFI- pigs than in RFI+. Thyroid hormones and cortisol decreased at high Ta and it was similar in both lines. Based on performance and RT, ST, and RR responses, it seems that selection for low RFI tends to ameliorate pigs' tolerance to high Ta. Nevertheless, this selection does not induce significant differences between lines in endocrine and metabolite responses during thermal stress.

  7. Assessing peripheral blood cell profile of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Mpetile, Z; Young, J M; Gabler, N K; Dekkers, J C M; Tuggle, C K

    2015-03-01

    The cost of feed is a serious issue in the pork industry, contributing about 65 to 75% of the total production cost. To prevent economic losses and decreased productivity of the herd, it is important to select for animals that eat less for the same lean gain, or more efficient animals. Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between observed feed intake and expected feed intake based on estimated maintenance and production requirements. Selection for decreased RFI, or more efficient animals, is a potential solution to higher feed costs in pig production. However, animals that are highly selected for decreased RFI may have reduced energy input to the immune system and fail to withstand diseases and stressors after infection that negatively impact profitability. The objective of this study was to evaluate differences in circulating blood cell profiles at a young age between 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for RFI as well as the heritability of these traits, to investigate effects of selection for RFI on immune system parameters, and to identify potential biomarkers for feed efficiency. Previous work has shown that the 2 lines had diverged for IGF-1 in serum in young pigs and, therefore, this stage was investigated for other potential physiological differences. Blood samples were drawn for a complete blood count (CBC) analysis from 517 gilts and barrows, ages 35 to 42 d, across the 2 lines. In general, the low-RFI line had lower numbers of specific types of white blood cells but higher hemoglobin concentration and red blood cell volume compared to the high-RFI line. No significant correlations were found between CBC traits and RFI across and within the lines (0.05 < < 0.1). Of the 15 CBC traits that were measured, 3 were highly heritable (0.56 < < 0.62), 9 were moderately heritable (0.12 < < 0.47), and 3 were lowly heritable ( < 0.12), suggesting a substantial genetic component for CBC traits and that selection for CBC traits could be

  8. COVERT MANIPULATION OF MACRONUTRIENT INTAKE HAS LITTLE IMPACT ON LONG TERM VOLUNTARY FOOD INTAKE AND MACRONUTRIENT SELECTION IN MEN.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a means to investigate the effect of daily macronutrient composition on food intake, twelve healthy normal weight men (79.9 ± 8.3 kg, 39 ± 9 yrs, 24.1 ± 1.4 kg/m2) were fed continuously for two 8-week periods. They were allowed cafeteria-style ad libitum access to a variety of foods of varying ma...

  9. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks.

    PubMed

    Drouilhet, L; Monteville, R; Molette, C; Lague, M; Cornuez, A; Canario, L; Ricard, E; Gilbert, H

    2016-09-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (-5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (-5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (-0.08, P = 0.03 and -0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter. PMID

  10. Impact of selection for residual feed intake on production traits and behavior of mule ducks

    PubMed Central

    Drouilhet, L.; Monteville, R.; Molette, C.; Lague, M.; Cornuez, A.; Canario, L.; Ricard, E.; Gilbert, H.

    2016-01-01

    A divergent selection experiment of Muscovy sires based on the residual feed intake (RFI) of their male mule progeny was initiated in 2009. Using electronic feeders, the aim of this study was to establish whether 3 generations of selection for RFI had an impact on feeding behavior traits and general behavior, and to examine its effect on liver and meat quality. Eighty mule ducks, issued from 8 Muscovy drakes per line with extreme RFI, were tested in a pen equipped with 4 electronic feeders. Feeding behaviors were recorded from 3 to 7 wk after hatching under ad libitum feeding conditions. Then animals were prepared for overfeeding with a 3-week period of restricted feeding, and overfed during 12 d before slaughter. The RFI was significantly lower in the low RFI line than in the high RFI line (−5.4 g/d, P = 0.0005) and daily feed intake was reduced both over the entire test period (−5 g/d, P = 0.049) and on a weekly basis (P = 0.006). Weekly and total feed conversion ratios were also significantly lower (−0.08, P = 0.03 and −0.06, P = 0.01, respectively). Low RFI ducks had more frequent meals, spent as much time eating as high RFI ducks, and their feeding rate was lower when analyzed at the wk level only. Additionally no significant correlation between feed efficiency and feeding behavior traits was evidenced, indicating only limited relationships between RFI and feeding patterns. Some differences in behavioral responses to stressors (open field test combined with a test measuring the response to human presence) suggested that a lower RFI is associated with less fearfulness. Selection for RFI had no effect on liver weight and quality and a slightly deleterious impact on meat quality (decreased drip loss and L*). Finally, low RFI animals had higher body weights after restricted feeding from wk 10 to wk 12 and after overfeeding than high RFI ducks. This suggests that selection for reduced RFI until 7 wk of age increases the feed efficiency up to slaughter

  11. Residual feed intake as a feed efficiency selection tool and its relationship with feed intake, performance and nutrient utilization in Murrah buffalo calves.

    PubMed

    Subhashchandra Bose, Bisitha Kattiparambil; Kundu, Shivlal Singh; Tho, Nguyen Thi Be; Sharma, Vijay Kumar; Sontakke, Umesh Balaji

    2014-04-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI) is the difference between the actual and expected feed intake of an animal based on its body weight and growth rate over a specific period. The objective of this study was to determine the RFI of buffalo calves using residuals from appropriate linear regression models involving dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG) and mid-test metabolic body weight. Eighteen male Murrah buffalo calves of 5-7 months were selected and fed individually. A feeding trial using ad libitum feeding of total mixed ration (TMR, concentrate/roughage = 40:60) was conducted for 52 days in which the daily DMI, weekly body weight (BW) and growth rate of the calves were monitored. RFI of calves ranged from -0.20 to +0.23 kg/day. Mean DMI (in grams per kilogram of BW(0.75)) during the feeding trial period was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (79.66 g/kg BW(0.75)) compared to high RFI (87.74 g/kg BW(0.75)). Average initial BW, final BW and mid-test BW(0.75) did not differ (P > 0.05) between low and high RFI groups. Over the course of a trial period, low RFI group animals consumed 10% less feed compared to high RFI group of animals, yet performed in a comparable manner in terms of growth rate. Metabolizable energy for maintenance (MEm) was found to be significantly (P < 0.05) lower in low RFI group (13.54 MJ/100 kg BW) as compared to that of high RFI group (15.56 MJ/100 kg BW). The present study indicates that RFI is a promising selection tool for the selection of buffaloes for increased feed efficiency. PMID:24563229

  12. Metabolic response to an inflammatory challenge in pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Merlot, E; Gilbert, H; Le Floc'h, N

    2016-02-01

    Selection for residual feed intake (RFI), which is used to select animals for feed efficiency, also influences nutrient partitioning between growth and maintenance functions. This study was designed to investigate if selection for reduced RFI can alter the trade-off between growth and immunity and contributes to differences in metabolic responses to an inflammatory challenge. Piglets from 2 lines divergently selected on RFI (low: RFI, = 10, and high: RFI, = 11) were challenged at 55 d of age (on d 0) with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) to induce a noninfectious pneumonia. Plasma haptoglobin and nutrient concentrations (in fasted state and 2 h after feeding) were determined from d -1 to d 7, and tissue protein metabolism was determined on d 8. Haptoglobin concentrations were greater from d 1 to d 7 relative to d -1 ( < 0.01). Feed intake was less on d 1 than on the other days ( < 0.001), as was total AA plasma concentrations at fasted state ( < 0.05). Fasted concentrations of His ( = 0.06) and Trp ( = 0.05) tended to be less, those of Val were less ( < 0.05), and fed concentrations of Lys were increased ( < 0.05) on d 7 compared to d -1. Uremia was less on d 7 than on d -1 at fasted state ( < 0.05), whereas it did not vary at fed state ( 0.1). Fasted glucose and insulin plasma concentrations were stable across days ( 0.1). In the fed state and in only RFI pigs, glucose concentration was greater on d 1 than on d 3, 5, and 7 ( < 0.05). Total AA, Gln, Ile, Leu, Pro ( < 0.05), and hydroxyproline ( = 0.07) were less in RFI than RFI pigs at fed state, whereas Ala and Gly were less in RFI pigs at fasted and fed states ( < 0.05). Citrulline ( < 0.05) and Met ( < 0.01) concentrations were greater in RFI than RFI pigs in the fasted state, whereas Asp was greater in RFI pigs in both fasted and fed states ( < 0.05). On d 8, liver and LM protein synthesis tended to be lower ( = 0.07 and 0.09, respectively) and liver calpain activity was greater ( = 0.07) in RFI than RFI pigs

  13. Selection of motor programs for suppressing food intake and inducing locomotion in the Drosophila brain.

    PubMed

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J

    2014-06-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  14. Selection of Motor Programs for Suppressing Food Intake and Inducing Locomotion in the Drosophila Brain

    PubMed Central

    Schoofs, Andreas; Hückesfeld, Sebastian; Schlegel, Philipp; Miroschnikow, Anton; Peters, Marc; Zeymer, Malou; Spieß, Roland; Chiang, Ann-Shyn; Pankratz, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Central mechanisms by which specific motor programs are selected to achieve meaningful behaviors are not well understood. Using electrophysiological recordings from pharyngeal nerves upon central activation of neurotransmitter-expressing cells, we show that distinct neuronal ensembles can regulate different feeding motor programs. In behavioral and electrophysiological experiments, activation of 20 neurons in the brain expressing the neuropeptide hugin, a homolog of mammalian neuromedin U, simultaneously suppressed the motor program for food intake while inducing the motor program for locomotion. Decreasing hugin neuropeptide levels in the neurons by RNAi prevented this action. Reducing the level of hugin neuronal activity alone did not have any effect on feeding or locomotion motor programs. Furthermore, use of promoter-specific constructs that labeled subsets of hugin neurons demonstrated that initiation of locomotion can be separated from modulation of its motor pattern. These results provide insights into a neural mechanism of how opposing motor programs can be selected in order to coordinate feeding and locomotive behaviors. PMID:24960360

  15. Analysis of dietary intake of selected metals in the NHEXAS-Maryland investigation.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, P B; Scanlon, K A; MacIntosh, D L

    2001-01-01

    As part of a large pilot investigation of multimedia exposure to several classes of environmental contaminants, the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS)-Maryland study, we collected 388 semiquantitative food checklists and duplicate diet solid food samples, analyzed for arsenic, cadmium, chromium, and lead concentrations, from 80 individuals in Maryland in 1995-1996 in a repeated measures design. Here we explore several methods to infer foods most strongly associated with concentrations of these metals observed in the duplicate diet in our data set. We employed two techniques in which logarithmically transformed metal concentrations in the duplicate diet were regressed on individual food item consumption using algorithms designed to identify the foods most associated with the observed duplicate diet concentrations. We also employed an alternative strategy in which foods to be used as independent variables in regression were selected using data collected in national food consumption and residue surveys, with regression procedures proceeding with the selected foods in a similar manner. The concordance of foods selected as major predictors among these three techniques is noteworthy and is discussed. Finally, the Dietary Exposure Potential Model (DEPM) was used with the Dietary Checklist data to predict duplicate diet concentrations within our sample. A comparison between the predicted values and those observed gave R(2) values of 0.180, 0.206, and 0.076 for As, Cd, and Pb, respectively (p < 0.0001 in all cases). We discuss the significance of these observations and the implications for dietary-exposure-based risk analysis and dietary intake epidemiology. PMID:11266320

  16. Energy intake and macronutrient selection in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) challenged with fat dilution and fat deprivation using encapsulated diets.

    PubMed

    Almaida-Pagán, P F; Seco-Rovira, V; Hernández, M D; Madrid, J A; De Costa, J; Mendiola, P

    2008-02-27

    Sharpsnout seabream fed pure macronutrient capsules were challenged to fat dilution and fat deprivation in order to investigate the effects of fat level on energy intake regulation and macronutrient selection by fish, as they lack oropharyngeal chemosensory information from the diet. During the control phase, the fish were fed three individually encapsulated macronutrients, from which they composed a diet containing 67.36% protein (P), 19.08% carbohydrates (CH) and 13.57% fat (F), in terms of macronutrient weight intake percentage. During the second phase of the experiment, a lipid content reduction in F capsules from 55.0% to 13.4% did not significantly modify this selection pattern, energy ingestion or the number of capsules ingested of each macronutrient. During the third phase, in which they were subjected to fat deprivation, starting on almost the first day, the fish increased their total energy intake and total ingested number of capsules. These results reveal that fish are capable of distinguishing and selecting each of the three macronutrients contained in gelatine capsules, and that fish selection of a balanced diet from pure macronutrients is remarkably stable. Fish are capable of sustaining their macronutrient selection pattern and energy intake with very low amounts of fat in their diets (Phase 2). A certain instability in the initial P, CH and energy intake was only observed when fat was totally deprived (Phase 3), which resulted in higher values than those observed in Phase 1. In order to examine any possible effects of diet encapsulation, digestibility assays were performed in a second experiment. The fish were divided into two experimental groups and fed the same complete commercial diet, the only difference being the way it was presented to each group (pelleted or encapsulated). No statistical differences between the experimental groups were found with regards to both apparent digestibility coefficients and fish growth. PMID:17997462

  17. Comparison of the Effects of a Sweetened Beverage Intervention on Self-Selected Food Intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Evidence suggests that the intake of added sugar increases the risk of chronic disease and should be targeted for reduction. It is unclear if all types of added sugar have equivalent effects on food intake. This prospective, blinded intervention study compared parallel groups consuming one of five t...

  18. Influence of parents and friends on children's and adolescents' food intake and food selection123

    PubMed Central

    Elmo, Alison; Nitecki, Lauren A; Kluczynski, Melissa A; Roemmich, James N

    2011-01-01

    Background: The influence of parents versus friends on youths' eating behavior has not been directly compared, and little is known about the developmental effects of social influences on their eating behavior. Objective: The objective was to compare the effects of mothers and friends on children's and adolescents' energy intake from sandwiches and from healthy and unhealthy snacks and dessert foods. Design: Twenty-three children (ages 5–7 y) and 27 adolescents (ages 13–15 y) ate a meal with their mother on one occasion and with a same-sex friend on another occasion. Results: Male and female children consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks when in the presence of their mothers than when in the company of their friends. Conversely, female adolescents consumed less energy from unhealthy snacks and more energy from healthy snacks when they were with their friends than when with their mothers. Conclusions: Food selection is differentially influenced by the source of social influence and the age and sex of the child. Parents may act as an inhibitory influence on unhealthy eating for younger children. Adolescent girls may try to convey a good impression of healthy eating when eating with same-sex friends, but the eating habits of teenage boys are not as influenced by the social context. This trial is registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00875576. PMID:21048059

  19. Total arsenic in selected food samples from Argentina: Estimation of their contribution to inorganic arsenic dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Sigrist, Mirna; Hilbe, Nandi; Brusa, Lucila; Campagnoli, Darío; Beldoménico, Horacio

    2016-11-01

    An optimized flow injection hydride generation atomic absorption spectroscopy (FI-HGAAS) method was used to determine total arsenic in selected food samples (beef, chicken, fish, milk, cheese, egg, rice, rice-based products, wheat flour, corn flour, oats, breakfast cereals, legumes and potatoes) and to estimate their contributions to inorganic arsenic dietary intake. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) values obtained were 6μgkg(-)(1) and 18μgkg(-)(1), respectively. The mean recovery range obtained for all food at a fortification level of 200μgkg(-)(1) was 85-110%. Accuracy was evaluated using dogfish liver certified reference material (DOLT-3 NRC) for trace metals. The highest total arsenic concentrations (in μgkg(-)(1)) were found in fish (152-439), rice (87-316) and rice-based products (52-201). The contribution to inorganic arsenic (i-As) intake was calculated from the mean i-As content of each food (calculated by applying conversion factors to total arsenic data) and the mean consumption per day. The primary contributors to inorganic arsenic intake were wheat flour, including its proportion in wheat flour-based products (breads, pasta and cookies), followed by rice; both foods account for close to 53% and 17% of the intake, respectively. The i-As dietary intake, estimated as 10.7μgday(-)(1), was significantly lower than that from drinking water in vast regions of Argentina. PMID:27211625

  20. Pharmacologically relevant intake during chronic, free-choice drinking rhythms in selectively bred high alcohol-preferring mice.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2013-11-01

    Multiple lines of high alcohol-preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-hour daily access over a 4-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations (BECs) in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding BECs of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3 and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. PMID:22126215

  1. Pharmacologically Relevant Intake During Chronic, Free-Choice Drinking Rhythms in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Matson, Liana M.; Grahame, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    Multiple lines of High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice were selectively bred for their intake of 10% ethanol (v/v) during 24-h daily access over a four-week period, with the highest drinking lines exhibiting intakes in excess of 20 g/kg/day. We observed circadian drinking patterns and resulting blood ethanol concentrations in the HAP lines. We also compared the drinking rhythms and corresponding blood ethanol concentrations (BEC) of the highest drinking HAP lines to those of the C57BL/6J (B6) inbred strain. Adult male and female crossed HAP (cHAP), HAP replicate lines 1, 2, 3, and B6 mice had free-choice access to 10% ethanol and water for 3 weeks prior to bi-hourly assessments of intake throughout the dark portion of the light-dark cycle. All HAP lines reached and maintained a rate of alcohol intake above the rate at which HAP1 mice metabolize alcohol, and BECs were consistent with this finding. Further, cHAP and HAP1 mice maintained an excessive level of intake throughout the dark portion of the cycle, accumulating mean BEC levels of 261.5 ± 18.09 and 217.9 ± 25.02 mg/dl, respectively. B6 mice drank comparatively modestly, and did not accumulate high BEC levels (53.63 + 8.15 mg/dl). Free-choice drinking demonstrated by the HAP1 and cHAP lines may provide a unique opportunity for modeling the excessive intake that often occurs in alcohol-dependent individuals, and allow for exploration of predisposing factors for excessive consumption, as well as the development of physiological, behavioral, and toxicological outcomes following alcohol exposure. PMID:22126215

  2. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection.

    PubMed

    Rolfe, K M; Snelling, W M; Nielsen, M K; Freetly, H C; Ferrell, C L; Jenkins, T G

    2011-11-01

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of Hereford, Angus, or both as well as varying percentages of Simmental, Charolais, Limousin, Gelbvieh, Red Angus, and MARC III composite. Because the steers were slaughtered on various dates each year and the animals thus varied in days on feed, BW and feed data were adjusted to a 140-d feeding period basis. Adjustment of measures of feed efficiency [G:F or residual feed intake (RFI), intake adjusted for metabolic body size, and BW gain] for body fatness recorded at slaughter had little effect on the results of analyses. Average daily gain was less heritable (0.26) than was midtest BW (MBW; 0.35). Measures of feed intake had greater estimates of heritability, with 140-d DMI at 0.40 and RFI at 0.52; the heritability estimate for G:F was 0.27. Flight speed (FS), as an indicator of temperament, had an estimated heritability of 0.34 and a repeatability of 0.63. As expected, a strong genetic (0.86) correlation was estimated between ADG and MBW; genetic correlations were less strong between DMI and ADG or MBW (0.56 and 0.71). Residual feed intake and DMI had a genetic correlation of 0.66. Indexes for phenotypic RFI and genotypically restricted RFI (no correlation with BW gain) were compared with simple economic indexes incorporating feed intake and growth to elucidate expected selection responses under different criteria. In general, few breed differences were detected across the various measurements. Heterosis contributed to greater DMI, RFI, and MBW, but it did not significantly affect ADG, G:F, or FS. Balancing output (growth) with input costs (feed) is needed in practicing selection, and FS would not be recommended as an indicator trait for selection to change feed efficiency. An index including BW gain and RFI produced the best economic outcome. PMID:21622877

  3. Dietary fat intake and its association with risk of selected components of the metabolic syndrome among rural South Indians

    PubMed Central

    Narasimhan, Sowmya; Nagarajan, Lakshmipriya; Vaidya, Ruchi; Gunasekaran, Geetha; Rajagopal, Gayathri; Parthasarathy, Vijayalakshmi; Unnikrishnan, Ranjit; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Sudha, Vasudevan

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is limited literature on the dietary fat intake of rural Indian populations, particularly in relation to the risk of metabolic syndrome (MS). Aim: This study aims to assess the dietary fat intake and analyze its association with the risk of selected components of the MS among rural population in the state of Tamil Nadu. Settings and Design: Adults (n = 27012) ≥20 years of age were recruited from the rural component of the Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiological Study, a cross-sectional study conducted in 42 villages in Kanchipuram District of Tamil Nadu. Subjects and Methods: Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, data were obtained on the fat intake among 6907 adults. Anthropometric and clinical measures were collected using standard methods. The components of the MS assessed were abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. All analyses were performed using SPSS software (version 20). Results: Prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose were significantly higher in the highest quintile of fat intake (33%, P < 0.001; 39%, P = 0.04, and 23.3%, P = 0.003, respectively). Highest intake of fat was also significantly associated with risk of abdominal obesity (P < 0.001), hypertension (P = 0.04), and impaired fasting glucose (P = 0.01). Sunflower oil as the main cooking oil was significantly associated with a higher risk of these components of the MS (P for trend <0.001) compared to traditional oils and palmolein. Conclusions: Higher dietary fat was significantly associated with risk of components of the MS and use of sunflower oil as main cooking oil increased metabolic risk in rural South Indians. PMID:26904468

  4. Ruminal and adipose gene expression in beef steers selected for diverse feed intake and gain phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Limited information exists regarding the genes responsible for phenotypic variation in feed efficiency. To determine whether cattle feed intake or growth phenotypes are related to transcript abundance of genes expressed in the rumen and adipose, the variation in five candidate genes from two groups ...

  5. Dietary intake of selected flavonols, flavones, and flavonoid-rich food and risk of cancer in middle-aged and older women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Flavonoids may have protective effects on cancer development through several mechanisms. However, epidemiological studies on dietary flavonoids and cancer risk have obtained inconsistent results. Objective: We investigated the prospective association between intake of selected flavonoid...

  6. Physical and Chemical Water-Quality Data from Automatic Profiling Systems, Boulder Basin, Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, Water Years 2001-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowland, Ryan C.; Westenburg, Craig L.; Veley, Ronald J.; Nylund, Walter E.

    2006-01-01

    Water-quality profile data were collected in Las Vegas Bay and near Sentinel Island in Lake Mead, Arizona and Nevada, from October 2000 to September 2004. The majority of the profiles were completed with automatic variable-buoyancy systems equipped with multiparameter water-quality sondes. Profile data near Sentinel Island were collected in August 2004 with an automatic variable-depth-winch system also equipped with a multiparameter water-quality sonde. Physical and chemical water properties collected and recorded by the profiling systems, including depth, water temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved-oxygen concentration, and turbidity are listed in tables and selected water-quality profile data are shown in graphs.

  7. The relationship between dental status, food selection, nutrient intake, nutritional status, and body mass index in older people.

    PubMed

    Marcenes, Wagner; Steele, Jimmy George; Sheiham, Aubrey; Walls, Angus Willian Gilmour

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviewed the findings from a national survey in Great Britain which assessed whether dental status affected older people's food selection, nutrient intake, and nutritional status. The survey analyzed national random samples of free-living and institution subjects for dental examination, interview, and four-day food diary as well as blood and urine tests In the free-living sample, intakes of non-starch polysaccharides, protein, calcium, non-heme iron, niacin, and vitamin C were significantly lower in edentulous as compared to dentate subjects. People with 21 or more teeth consumed more of most nutrients, particularly non-starch polysaccharides. This relationship in intake was not apparent in the hematological analysis. Plasma ascorbate and retinol were the only analytes significantly associated with dental status. Having 21 or more teeth increased the likelihood of having an acceptable body mass index (BMI). Thus, maintaining a natural and functional dentition defined as having more than twenty teeth into old age plays an important role in having a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables, a satisfactory nutritional status, and an acceptable BMI. PMID:12806483

  8. Self-selecting fluid intake while maintaining high carbohydrate availability does not impair half-marathon performance.

    PubMed

    Lee, M J C; Hammond, K M; Vasdev, A; Poole, K L; Impey, S G; Close, G L; Morton, J P

    2014-12-01

    We aimed to test the hypothesis that self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high exogenous CHO availability (60 g/h) does not compromise half-marathon performance. 15 participants completed 3 half-marathons while drinking a 6% CHO solution to guidelines (DRINK) or a non-caloric solution in self-selected volumes when consuming 3×glucose (20 g) gels (G-GEL) or glucose-fructose (13 g glucose+7 g fructose) gels (GF-GEL) per hour. Fluid intake (DRINK: 1 557±182, G-GEL: 473±234, GF-GEL: 404±144 ml) and percent body mass loss (DRINK: - 0.8±0.9, G-GEL: - 2.0±0.6, GF-GEL: -2.3±1.1) were different (P<0.05) between conditions, though race time did not differ (DRINK: 110.6±14.4, G-GEL: 110.3±14.6, GF-GEL: 113.7±12.8 min). In G-GEL, there was a positive correlation (P<0.05) between body mass loss and race time. Plasma glucose was lower (P<0.05) in GF-GEL compared with other conditions, and total CHO oxidation (DRINK: 3.2±0.5, G-GEL: 3.0±0.4, GF-GEL: 2.6±0.4 g/min) was lower (P=0.06) in this trial. Self-selecting fluid intake but maintaining high CHO availability does not impair half-marathon performance. Additionally, consuming glucose-fructose mixtures in sub-optimal amounts reduces plasma glucose and total rates of CHO oxidation. PMID:25144431

  9. Selection for feed efficiency traits and correlated genetic responses in feed intake and weight gain of Nellore cattle.

    PubMed

    Grion, A L; Mercadante, M E Z; Cyrillo, J N S G; Bonilha, S F M; Magnani, E; Branco, R H

    2014-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters for indicator traits of feed efficiency and to recommend traits that would result in better responses to selection for increased weaning weight (weaning weight adjusted to 210 d of age [W210]), ADG, and metabolic BW (BW(0.75)) and lower DMI. Records of W210 from 8,004 Nellore animals born between 1978 and 2011 and postweaning performance test records from 678 males and females born between 2004 and 2011 were used. The following feed efficiency traits were evaluated: G:F, partial efficiency of growth (PEG), relative growth rate (RGR), Kleiber's ratio (KR), residual feed intake (RFI), residual weight gain (RWG), and residual intake and gain (RIG). Covariance and variance components were estimated by the restricted maximum likelihood method using multitrait analysis under an animal model. Estimates of genetic gain and correlated responses were obtained considering single-stage and 2-stage selection. Heritability estimates were 0.22 ± 0.03 (W210), 0.60 ± 0.08 (DMI), 0.42 ± 0.08 (ADG), 0.56 ± 0.06 (BW(0.75)), 0.19 ± 0.07 (G:F), 0.25 ± 0.09 (PEG), 0.19 ± 0.07 (RGR), 0.22 ± 0.07 (KR), 0.33 ± 0.10 (RFI), 0.13 ± 0.07 (RWG), and 0.19 ± 0.08 (RIG). The genetic correlations of DMI with W210 (0.64 ± 0.10), ADG (0.87 ± 0.06), and BW(0.75) (0.84 ± 0.05) were high. The only efficiency traits showing favorable responses to selection for lower DMI were G:F, PEG, RFI, and RIG. However, the use of G:F, PEG, or RFI as a selection criterion results in unfavorable correlated responses in some growth traits. The linear combination of RFI and RWG through RIG is the best selection criterion to obtain favorable responses in postweaning growth and feed intake of Nellore cattle in single-stage selection. Genetic gains in feed efficiency are expected even after preselection for W210 and subsequent feed efficiency testing of the preselected animals. PMID:24492579

  10. Heavy metals in selected edible vegetables and estimation of their daily intake in Sanandaj, Iran.

    PubMed

    Maleki, Afshin; Zarasvand, Masoud Alasvand

    2008-03-01

    The levels of four different heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), chromium (Cr) and copper (Cu)] were determined in various vegetables [leek (Allium ampeloprasum), sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum), parsley (Petroselinum crispum), garden cress (Lepidium sativum) and tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)] cultivated around Sanandaj City. The contributions of the vegetables to the daily intake of heavy metals from vegetables were investigated. One hundred samples (20 samples per month) were collected for five months. Atomic absorption spectrometry was used to determine the concentrations of these metals in the vegetables. The average concentrations of each heavy metal regardless of the kind of vegetable for Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd were 13.60 +/- 2.27, 11.50 +/- 2.16, 7.90 +/- 1.05 and 0.31 +/- 0.17 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the above concentrations and the information of National Nutrition and Food Research Institute of Iran, the dietary intake of Pb, Cu, Cr and Cd through vegetable consumption was estimated at 2.96, 2.50, 1.72 and 0.07 mg/day, respectively. It is concluded that the vegetables grown in this region are a health hazard for human consumption. PMID:18564723

  11. Obesity-prone high-fat-fed rats reduce caloric intake and adiposity and gain more fat-free mass when allowed to self-select protein from carbohydrate:fat intake.

    PubMed

    Azzout-Marniche, Dalila; Chalvon-Demersay, Tristan; Pimentel, Grégory; Chaumontet, Catherine; Nadkarni, Nachiket A; Piedcoq, Julien; Fromentin, Gilles; Tomé, Daniel; Gaudichon, Claire; Even, Patrick C

    2016-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that, for rats fed a high-fat diet (HFD), a prioritization of maintaining protein intake may increase energy consumption and hence result in obesity, particularly for individuals prone to obesity ("fat sensitive," FS, vs. "fat resistant," FR). Male Wistar rats (n = 80) first received 3 wk of HFD (protein 15%, fat 42%, carbohydrate 42%), under which they were characterized as being FS (n = 18) or FR (n = 20) based on body weight gain. They then continued on the same HFD but in which protein (100%) was available separately from the carbohydrate:fat (50:50%) mixture. Under this second regimen, all rats maintained their previous protein intake, whereas intake of fat and carbohydrate was reduced by 50%. This increased protein intake to 26% and decreased fat intake to 37%. Adiposity gain was prevented in both FR and FS rats, and gain in fat-free mass was increased only in FS rats. At the end of the study, the rats were killed 2 h after ingestion of a protein meal, and their tissues and organs were collected for analysis of body composition and measurement of mRNA levels in the liver, adipose tissue, arcuate nucleus, and nucleus accumbens. FS rats had a higher expression of genes encoding enzymes involved in lipogenesis in the liver and white adipose tissue. These results show that FS rats strongly reduced food intake and adiposity gain through macronutrient selection, despite maintenance of a relatively high-fat intake and overexpression of genes favoring lipogenesis. PMID:27030668

  12. Effect of inflammation stimulation on energy and nutrient utilization in piglets selected for low and high residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Labussière, E; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Thibault, J N; Le Floc'h, N; Noblet, J; van Milgen, J

    2015-10-01

    Selection of animals for improved feed efficiency can affect sustainability of animal production because the most efficient animals may face difficulties coping with challenges. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of an inflammatory challenge (using an intravenous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant - CFA) in piglets from two lines of pigs divergently selected during the fattening period for a low (RFI-) or a high (RFI+) residual feed intake (RFI; difference between actual feed intake and theoretical feed requirements). Nitrogen and energy balances (including heat production - HP - and its components: activity-related HP - AHP, thermic effect of feeding, and resting HP) were measured individually in thirteen 20-kg BW castrated male piglets (six and seven from RFI+ and RFI- line, respectively) fed at the same level (1.72 MJ ME/kg BW0.60 per day) from 3 days before to 3 days after CFA injection. Dynamics of dietary U-13C-glucose oxidation were estimated from measurements of 13CO2 production on the day before and 3 days after the CFA injection. Oxidation of dietary nutrients and lipogenesis were calculated based on HP and O2 consumption and CO2 production. The data were analyzed as repeated measurements within piglets in a mixed model. Before CFA injection, RFI- piglets had a lower resting energy expenditure than RFI+ piglets, which tended to increase energy retention because of a higher energy retention as fat. The CFA injection did not affect feed intake from the day following CFA injection onwards but it increased energy retention (P=0.04). Time to recover 50% of 13C from dietary glucose as expired 13CO2 was higher in RFI+ piglets before inducing inflammation but decreased after to the level of RFI- piglets (P<0.01). Oxidation of U-13C-glucose tended to slightly increased in RFI- piglets and to decreased in RFI+ piglets (P=0.10) because of CFA. Additionally, RFI- piglets had a lower respiratory quotient during the 1st day following the CFA

  13. Contribution of selected wild and cultivated leafy vegetables from South India to lutein and beta-carotene intake.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, Julie; Balakrishna, Mungara; Latha, Putta; Katumalla, Shoba; Johns, Timothy

    2010-01-01

    Carotenoids, especially lutein and beta-carotene, offer benefits to human health in general and to eye health in particular. However, more data on the contribution of plant foods to carotenoid intake is of importance for developing strategies for promoting eye health in regions where cataract is highly prevalent such as in South India. The most frequently consumed 5 uncultivated and 5 commercially grown South Andhra Pradesh leafy vegetables were selected based on interviews with 100 local women. The lutein and beta-carotene contents of fresh and cooked samples were determined using reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography. Lutein values ranged from 53 to 143 microg/g and 58 to 175 microg/g in fresh and cooked samples, respectively. beta-carotene contents were found to range from 45 to 119 microg/g in fresh samples and from 40 to 159 microg/g in cooked samples. No significant difference was observed between the carotenoid contents of wild and commercially grown species. According to their reported frequency of consumption, the 10 species considered in this study contribute 40% of the daily recommended intake of beta-carotene. This is the first report of lutein content in fresh samples of Celosia argentea L., Rumex vesicarius L., Digera muricata (L.) Mart., and Amaranthus cruentus L. as well as in cooked samples of all species included in this study. PMID:20805087

  14. Selenium content in selected foods from the Greek market and estimation of the daily intake.

    PubMed

    Pappa, Eleni C; Pappas, Athanasios C; Surai, Peter F

    2006-12-15

    The total selenium content of foods purchased from the North West part of Greece was determined using hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectroscopy. The results of this study were within the range from other countries. The overall mean average of selenium concentration of the foods examined, in decreasing order, was found in sesame seeds (783.1 ng g(-1)), fish (246 ng g(-1)), legumes (162.5 ng g(-1)), eggs (123 ng g(-1)), bread (91.9 ng g(-1)), meat (71.7 ng g(-1)), cheese (69.8 ng g(-1)), yoghurt (23.6 ng g(-1)), nuts (19.6 ng g(-1)), milk (15.4 ng g(-1)), vegetables (6.5 ng g(-1)) and fruits (3.4 ng g(-1)). Considering the average daily individual consumption of these foods by Greeks, the average daily dietary intake of selenium supplied by this source is 39.3 microg per capita. PMID:16959300

  15. [The relationship between selected fluid intake and the risk of diabetes].

    PubMed

    Kotlewska, Joanna; Jeznach-Steinhagen, Anna; Czerwonogrodzka-Senczyna, Aneta

    2015-02-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease which affects more and more people. It is estimated that in Poland it affects about 2.6 million people, of which diagnosed and treated diabetes constitute only 60% cases. The increased incidences of diabetes and prediabetes, indicate the need for undertake prevention activities and forces for continuous analysis of lifestyle factors that may influence the risk of developing the disease. In the thesis it was described in detail the relationship between liquids intake such as coffee, tea, pure water and sugar-sweetened beverages and risk of the occurrence of type 2 diabetes. Much research proved that coffee reduces the risk of developing diabetes. An inverse relationship has been demonstrated in the case of consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In relation to tea and pure water due to the limited amount of data, there is a need to further research conducting, however, there are some evidence that people who consumed less than 0.5 liters of water a day should be covered by preventive treatment against diabetes. PMID:25771523

  16. Gray matter and intrinsic network changes in the posterior cingulate cortex after selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor intake.

    PubMed

    Kraus, Christoph; Ganger, Sebastian; Losak, Jan; Hahn, Andreas; Savli, Markus; Kranz, Georg S; Baldinger, Pia; Windischberger, Christian; Kasper, Siegfried; Lanzenberger, Rupert

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies have demonstrated that serotonin (5-HT) challenge changes neuronal circuitries and microarchitecture. However, evidence in human subjects is missing. Pharmacologic magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) applying selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) and high-resolution structural and functional brain assessment is able to demonstrate the impact of 5-HT challenge on neuronal network morphology and functional activity. To determine how SSRIs induce changes in gray matter and neuronal activity, we conducted a longitudinal study using citalopram and escitalopram. Seventeen healthy subjects completed a structural and functional phMRI study with randomized, cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind design. Significant gray matter increases were observed (among other regions) in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and the ventral precuneus after SSRI intake of 10days, while decreases were observed within the pre- and postcentral gyri (all P<0.05, family-wise error [FWE] corrected). Furthermore, enhanced resting functional connectivity (rFC) within the ventral precuneus and PCC was associated with gray matter increases in the PCC (all FWE Pcorr<0.05). Corroborating these results, whole-brain connectivity density, measuring the brain's functional network hubs, was significantly increased after SSRI-intake in the ventral precuneus and PCC (all FWE Pcorr<0.05). Short-term administration of SSRIs changes gray matter structures, consistent with previous work reporting enhancement of neuroplasticity by serotonergic neurotransmission. Furthermore, increased gray matter in the PCC is associated with increased functional connectivity in one of the brain's metabolically most active regions. Our novel findings provide convergent evidence for dynamic alterations of brain structure and function associated with SSRI pharmacotherapy. PMID:23988273

  17. Effect of thermal heat stress on energy utilization in two lines of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Renaudeau, D; Frances, G; Dubois, S; Gilbert, H; Noblet, J

    2013-03-01

    Castrated males from 2 lines of purebred French Large White obtained from a divergent selection experiment for their residual feed intake (RFI) over 7 generations were measured for their energy utilization during thermal acclimation to increased ambient temperature. The RFI(+) line consumed more feed than predicted from its performance, whereas the RFI- line consumed less feed. Each pig was exposed to 24°C for 7 d (P0) and thereafter to a constant temperature of 32°C for 3 consecutive periods of 7 d (P1, P2, P3). Feed intake, feeding behavior parameters, digestibility, components of heat production (HP; measured by indirect calorimetry in respiration chambers), and energy, nitrogen, fat, and water balance were measured in pigs offered feed and water ad libitum and individually housed in respiratory chambers. Two identical respiratory chambers were simultaneously used, and 5 pigs of each line were measured successively. Whatever the trait, the interaction between line and period was not significant (P > 0.10). On average, ADFI was greater in the RFI+ than in the RFI- line (1,945 vs. 1,639 g/d; P = 0.051) in relation to an increase of the mean size of each feeding bout (128 vs. 82 g/visit; P < 0.001). There was no line effect on nutrient and energy digestibility. Total HP tended to be greater in RFI+ than in RFI- lines (1,279 vs. 1,137 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.065), which tended to retain more energy (968 vs. 798 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.050). The sensible heat loss was greater in RFI+ compared with the RFI- line (644 vs. 560 kJ·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.020). The RFI+ pigs consumed more water (+981 vs. 657 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P = 0.085) and produced more urine (589 vs. 292 g·kg BW-0.60·d-1; P < 0.001) than RFI- pigs, whereas water evaporation was similar for both lines. On average, ME intake and HP declined by about 38% and 20%, respectively, from P0 to P1 (P < 0.001). In contrast to ME intake, HP gradually decreased (P < 0.05) from P1 to P3 in connection with

  18. The Relation Between Nutrition Knowledge and the Dietary Intake of Selected Women: A Basis for Adult Education Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Reba Jones

    To investigate the relationship between the estimated quality of dietary intake and (1) knowledge of nutrition concepts, (2) attitude toward nutrition, (3) food preferences, and (4) perception of personal control of dietary intake, information was gathered from two 24-hour food recalls and other instruments administered to 102 women representing…

  19. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Radke, Anna K; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-02-01

    Cocaine use results in anhedonia during withdrawal, but it is not clear how this emotional state interacts with an individual's vulnerability for addiction. Rats selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake are a well-established model of drug abuse vulnerability, with HiS rats being more likely to consume sweets and drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin (Carroll et al., 2002) than LoS rats. This study examined whether the motivational consequences of cocaine withdrawal are differentially expressed in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats were trained to respond for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and breakpoints were measured during and after chronic, continuous exposure to cocaine (30 mg/kg/day). Cocaine, but not saline, treatment resulted in lower breakpoints for sucrose during withdrawal in LoS rats only. These results suggest anhedonia during withdrawal is more pronounced in the less vulnerable LoS rats. Fewer motivational deficits during withdrawal may contribute to greater drug vulnerability in the HiS line. PMID:25482327

  20. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine use results in anhedonia during withdrawal, but it is not clear how this emotional state interacts with an individual's vulnerability for addiction. Rats selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake are a well-established model of drug abuse vulnerability, with HiS rats being more likely to consume sweets and drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin (Carroll et al. 2002) than LoS rats. This study examined whether the motivational consequences of cocaine withdrawal are differentially expressed in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats were trained to respond for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and breakpoints were measured during and after chronic, continuous exposure to cocaine (30 mg/kg/day). Cocaine, but not saline, treatment resulted in lower breakpoints for sucrose during withdrawal in LoS rats only. These results suggest anhedonia during withdrawal is more pronounced in the less vulnerable LoS rats. Fewer motivational deficits during withdrawal may contribute to drug vulnerability in the HiS line. PMID:25482327

  1. Short communication: grazing pattern of dairy cows that were selected for divergent residual feed intake as calves.

    PubMed

    Gregorini, P; Waghorn, G C; Kuhn-Sherlock, B; Romera, A J; Macdonald, K A

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and assess differences in the grazing pattern of 2 groups of mature dairy cows selected as calves for divergent residual feed intake (RFI). Sixteen Holstein-Friesian cows (471±31kg of body weight, 100 d in milk), comprising 8 cows selected as calves (6-8 mo old) for low (most efficient: CSCLowRFI) and 8 cows selected as calves for high (least efficient: CSCHighRFI) RFI, were used for the purpose of this study. Cows (n=16) were managed as a single group, and strip-grazed (24-h pasture allocation at 0800h) a perennial ryegrass sward for 31 d, with measurements taken during the last 21 d. All cows were equipped with motion sensors for the duration of the study, and jaw movements were measured for three 24-h periods during 3 random nonconsecutive days. Measurements included number of steps and jaw movements during grazing and rumination, plus fecal particle size distribution. Jaw movements were analyzed to identify bites, mastication (oral processing of ingesta) during grazing bouts, chewing during rumination, and to calculate grazing and rumination times for 24-h periods. Grazing and walking behavior were also analyzed in relation to the first meal of the day after the new pasture was allocated. Measured variables were subjected to multivariate analysis. Cows selected for low RFI as calves appeared to (a) prioritize grazing and rumination over idling; (b) take fewer steps, but with a higher proportion of grazing steps at the expense of nongrazing steps; and (c) increase the duration of the first meal and commenced their second meal earlier than CSCHighRFI. The CSCLowRFI had fewer jaw movements during eating (39,820 vs. 45,118 for CSCLowRFI and CSCHighRFI, respectively), more intense rumination (i.e., 5 more chews per bolus), and their feces had 30% less large particles than CSCHighRFI. These results suggest that CSCLowRFI concentrate their grazing activity to the time when fresh pasture is allocated, and graze more efficiently

  2. Intake port

    DOEpatents

    Mendler, Edward Charles

    2005-02-01

    The volumetric efficiency and power of internal combustion engines is improved with an intake port having an intake nozzle, a venturi, and a surge chamber. The venturi is located almost halfway upstream the intake port between the intake valves and the intake plenum enabling the venturi throat diameter to be exceptionally small for providing an exceptionally high ram velocity and an exceptionally long and in turn high efficiency diffuser flowing into the surge chamber. The intake port includes an exceptionally large surge chamber volume for blow down of the intake air into the working cylinder of the engine.

  3. INTAKES OF SELECTED NUTRIENTS, BONE MINERALISATION AND DENSITY OF ADOLESCENT FEMALE SWIMMERS OVER A THREE-YEAR PERIOD

    PubMed Central

    Długołęcka, B.; Czeczelewska, E.; Raczyńska, B.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11–13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20) and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20). Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine (L2 – L4). Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus) were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD) steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood. PMID:24744460

  4. Intakes of selected nutrients, bone mineralisation and density of adolescent female swimmers over a three-year period.

    PubMed

    Czeczelewski, J; Długołęcka, B; Czeczelewska, E; Raczyńska, B

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct three-year monitoring of bone mineralization (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) of adolescent girls engaged in swimming at the time of attaining the peak bone mass and of their counterparts leading a rather sedentary life, considering the intakes of calcium, phosphorus and protein, as well as the proportions among those nutrients. Two groups of girls aged 11-13 years were studied 3 times at yearly intervals: untrained controls (n = 20) and those engaged in competitive swimming (n = 20). Bone density was determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in the lumbar spine (L2 - L4). Nutrient intakes (energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus) were assessed from 24-h recalls. The group of swimmers had significantly lower BMI values than the control group. No systematic, significant between-group differences were found in nutrient intake or in bone mineralization variables. Calcium intake was below the recommended norm in all subjects but mean values of bone mineralization variables (BMC, BMD) steadily increased in both groups. The BMD z-scores proved negative throughout the three-year period of early adolescence in both groups of girls and that decrease was significant in swimmers. This could have been due to insufficient calcium intake as well as to inadequate calcium-to-phosphate and protein-to-calcium ratios and, when continued, might result in a decreased bone mass in adulthood. PMID:24744460

  5. Characterization and Profiling of Liver microRNAs by RNA-sequencing in Cattle Divergently Selected for Residual Feed Intake.

    PubMed

    Al-Husseini, Wijdan; Chen, Yizhou; Gondro, Cedric; Herd, Robert M; Gibson, John P; Arthur, Paul F

    2016-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs that post-transcriptionally regulate expression of mRNAs in many biological pathways. Liver plays an important role in the feed efficiency of animals and high and low efficient cattle demonstrated different gene expression profiles by microarray. Here we report comprehensive miRNAs profiles by next-gen deep sequencing in Angus cattle divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI) and identify miRNAs related to feed efficiency in beef cattle. Two microRNA libraries were constructed from pooled RNA extracted from livers of low and high RFI cattle, and sequenced by Illumina genome analyser. In total, 23,628,103 high quality short sequence reads were obtained and more than half of these reads were matched to the bovine genome (UMD 3.1). We identified 305 known bovine miRNAs. Bta-miR-143, bta-miR-30, bta-miR-122, bta-miR-378, and bta-let-7 were the top five most abundant miRNAs families expressed in liver, representing more than 63% of expressed miRNAs. We also identified 52 homologous miRNAs and 10 novel putative bovine-specific miRNAs, based on precursor sequence and the secondary structure and utilizing the miRBase (v. 21). We compared the miRNAs profile between high and low RFI animals and ranked the most differentially expressed bovine known miRNAs. Bovine miR-143 was the most abundant miRNA in the bovine liver and comprised 20% of total expressed mapped miRNAs. The most highly expressed miRNA in liver of mice and humans, miR-122, was the third most abundant in our cattle liver samples. We also identified 10 putative novel bovine-specific miRNA candidates. Differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI cattle were identified with 18 miRNAs being up-regulated and 7 other miRNAs down-regulated in low RFI cattle. Our study has identified comprehensive miRNAs expressed in bovine liver. Some of the expressed miRNAs are novel in cattle. The differentially expressed miRNAs between high and low RFI give some

  6. Glycoalkaloids (α-chaconine and α-solanine) contents of selected Pakistani potato cultivars and their dietary intake assessment.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Abdul; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Asghar, Ali; Yasin, Muhammad; Shibamoto, Takayuki

    2012-03-01

    Glycoalkaloids (α-solanine and α-chaconine) are naturally occurring toxic compounds in potato tuber (Solanum tuberosum L.) that cause acute intoxication in humans after their consumption. Present research was conducted to evaluate α-chaconine, α-solanine, and total glycoalkaloids (TGAs) contents in the peel and flesh portions by high-performance liquid chromatography method in selected Pakistani potato cultivars. The α-solanine content varies 45.98 ± 1.63 to 2742.60 ± 92.97 mg/100 g of dry weight (DW) in peel and from 4.01 ± 0.14 to 2466.56 ± 87.21 mg/100 g of DW in flesh. Similarly, α-chaconine content varied from 4.42 ± 0.16 to 6818.40 ± 211.07 mg/100 g of DW in potato peel and from 3.94 ± 0.14 to 475.33 ± 16.81 mg/100 g DW in flesh portion. The TGA concentration varied from 177.20 ± 6.26 to 5449.90 ± 192.68 mg/100 g of DW in peel and from 3.08 ± 0.11 to 14.69 ± 0.52 mg/100 g of DW in flesh portion of all the potato cultivars tested. All the potato cultivars contained lower concentration of TGA than the limits recommended as safe, except 2 cultivars, that is FD8-3 (2539.18 ± 89.77 mg/100 g of DW) and Cardinal (506.16 ± 17.90 mg/kg). The dietary intake assessment of potato cultivars revealed that Cardinal, FD 35-36, FD 8-3, and FD 3-9 contained higher amount of TGA in whole potato, although FD 8-3 only possessed higher content of TGA (154.93 ± 7.75) in its flesh portion rendering it unfit for human consumption. Practical Application:  This paper was based on the research conducted on toxic compounds present in all possible potato cultivars in Pakistan. Actually, we quantify the toxic compounds (glycoalkaloids) of potato cultivars through HPLC and their dietary assessment. This paper revealed safety assessment and their application in food industries especially potato processing. PMID:22329893

  7. Genetic and phenotypic parameter estimates for feed intake and other traits in growing beef cattle, and opportunities for selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Growth, feed intake, and temperament indicator data, collected over 5 yr on a total of 1,141 to 1,183 mixed-breed steers, were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters. All steers had a portion of either Hereford or Angus or both plus varying percentages also of Simmental, Charolais, Limo...

  8. Use of residual feed intake in Holsteins during early lactation shows potential to improve feed efficiency through genetic selection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Improved feed efficiency is a primary goal in dairy production to reduce feed costs and negative impacts of production on the environment. Estimates for efficiency of feed conversion to milk production based on residual feed intake (RFI) in dairy cattle are limited, primarily due to a lack of indiv...

  9. Lorcaserin, a selective 5-HT(2C) receptor agonist, decreases alcohol intake in female alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Rezvani, Amir H; Cauley, Marty C; Levin, Edward D

    2014-10-01

    Serotonergic systems in the brain have been found to be important in the addiction to alcohol. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a novel 5-HT2c receptor agonist, lorcaserin for reducing alcohol consumption in alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Adult female rats were allowed to drink water or alcohol (12%, v/v) using a standard two-bottle choice procedure. Once stable baselines were established, the acute (0, 0.3125, 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg, s.c.), and chronic (0, 0.625 mg/kg, sc for 10 days) effects of lorcaserin on alcohol intake and preference were assessed at different time points. In a separate experiment, the effects of lorcaserin on locomotor activity were determined. Our results show that both 0.625 and 1.25 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake at 2, 4 and 6 h. after the drug administration. The chronic administration of 0.625 mg/kg lorcaserin significantly reduced alcohol intake up to 6h every day after the injection and there was no sign of diminished efficacy of the drug during 10-day treatment. To determine the effects of lorcaserin on sucrose intake, rats were put on a two-bottle choice of water vs a solution of 7% sucrose. The high dose of lorcaserin (1.25 mg/kg, s.c.) reduced sucrose intake only for up to 2 h. When tested for locomotor activity, lorcaserin injected 20 min before testing significantly reduced locomotor activity at all doses. However, when it was injected 5.5h before the start of the 1-h session, neither dose had a significant effect on locomotor activity. These results show the efficacy of lorcaserin in reducing alcohol intake without a significant effect on water intake and locomotion suggesting the involvement of 5-HT2c receptors in alcohol seeking behavior. Further research is warranted to determine the possible efficacy of lorcaserin or similar drugs as treatments for the treatment of alcoholism. PMID:25109272

  10. Effects of ad libitum and restricted feeding on early production performance and body composition of Yorkshire pigs selected for reduced residual feed intake.

    PubMed

    Boddicker, N; Gabler, N K; Spurlock, M E; Nettleton, D; Dekkers, J C M

    2011-08-01

    Residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between observed and expected feed intake based on growth and backfat, has been used to investigate genetic variation in feed efficiency in cattle, poultry and pigs. However, little is known about the biological basis of differences in RFI in pigs. To this end, the objective of this study was to evaluate the fifth generation of a line of pigs selected for reduced RFI against a randomly selected Control line for performance, carcass and chemical carcass composition and overall efficiency. Here, emphasis was on the early grower phase. A total of 100 barrows, 50 from each line, were paired by age and weight (22.6 ± 3.9 kg) and randomly assigned to one of four feeding treatments in 11 replicates: ad libitum (Ad), 75% of Ad (Ad75), 55% of Ad (Ad55) and weight stasis (WS), which involved weekly adjustments in intake to keep body weight (BW) constant for each pig. Pigs were individually penned (group housing was used for selection) and were on treatment for 6 weeks. Initial BW did not significantly differ between the lines (P > 0.17). Under Ad feeding, the low RFI pigs consumed 8% less feed compared with Control line pigs (P < 0.06), had less carcass fat (P < 0.05), but with no significant difference in growth rate (P > 0.85). Under restricted feeding, low RFI pigs under the Ad75 treatment had a greater rate of gain while consuming the same amount of feed as Control pigs. Despite the greater gain, no significant line differences in carcass composition or carcass traits were observed. For the WS treatment, low RFI pigs had similar BW (P > 0.37) with no significant difference in feed consumption (P > 0.32). Overall, selection for reduced RFI has decreased feed intake, with limited differences in growth rate but reduced carcass fat, as seen under Ad feeding. Collectively, results indicate that the effects of selection for low RFI are evident during the early grower stage, which allows for greater savings to the producer

  11. Selective FFA2 Agonism Appears to Act via Intestinal PYY to Reduce Transit and Food Intake but Does Not Improve Glucose Tolerance in Mouse Models.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Sarah; Stafford, Stuart; Coope, Gareth; Heffron, Helen; Real, Katia; Newman, Robert; Davenport, Richard; Barnes, Matt; Grosse, Johannes; Cox, Helen

    2015-11-01

    Free fatty acid receptor 2 (FFA2) is expressed on enteroendocrine L cells that release glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY) when activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Functionally GLP-1 and PYY inhibit gut transit, increase glucose tolerance, and suppress appetite; thus, FFA2 has therapeutic potential for type 2 diabetes and obesity. However, FFA2-selective agonists have not been characterized in vivo. Compound 1 (Cpd 1), a potent FFA2 agonist, was tested for its activity on the following: GLP-1 release, modulation of intestinal mucosal ion transport and transit in wild-type (WT) and FFA2(-/-) tissue, and food intake and glucose tolerance in lean and diet-induced obese (DIO) mice. Cpd 1 stimulated GLP-1 secretion in vivo, but this effect was only detected with dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibition, while mucosal responses were PYY, not GLP-1, mediated. Gut transit was faster in FFA2(-/-) mice, while Cpd 1 slowed WT transit and reduced food intake and body weight in DIO mice. Cpd 1 decreased glucose tolerance and suppressed plasma insulin in lean and DIO mice, despite FFA2(-/-) mice displaying impaired glucose tolerance. These results suggest that FFA2 inhibits intestinal functions and suppresses food intake via PYY pathways, with limited GLP-1 contribution. Thus, FFA2 may be an effective therapeutic target for obesity but not for type 2 diabetes. PMID:26239054

  12. Consistent proportional macronutrient intake selected by adult domestic cats (Felis catus) despite variations in macronutrient and moisture content of foods offered.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Hewson-Hughes, Victoria L; Colyer, Alison; Miller, Andrew T; Hall, Simon R; Raubenheimer, David; Simpson, Stephen J

    2013-05-01

    We investigated the ability of domestic cats to regulate the macronutrient composition of their diet when provided with foods that differed not only in macronutrient content but also in texture and moisture content, as typically found in the main forms of commercially manufactured cat foods. Cats were provided with foods in different combinations (1 wet + 3 dry; 1 dry + 3 wet; 3 wet + 3 dry) in three separate experiments. Within each experiment cats were offered the wet and dry food combinations in two (naïve and experienced) diet selection phases where all the foods were offered simultaneously, separated by a phase in which the foods were offered sequentially in 3-day cycles in pairs (1 wet with 1 dry). Using nutritional geometry we demonstrate convergence upon the same dietary macronutrient composition in the naïve and experienced self-selection phases of each experiment as well as over the course of the 3-day cycles in the pair-wise choice phase of each experiment. Furthermore, even though the dietary options were very different in each of these experiments the macronutrient composition of the diets achieved across all experiments were remarkably similar. These results indicate that a mammalian obligate carnivore, the domestic cat, is able to regulate food selection and intake to balance macronutrient intake despite differences in moisture content and textural properties of the foods provided. PMID:23233166

  13. Stimulation of food intake after central administration of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone is similar in genetically selected low and high body weight lines of chickens.

    PubMed

    McConn, Betty R; Yi, Jiaqing; Gilbert, Elizabeth R; Siegel, Paul B; Chowdhury, Vishwajit S; Furuse, Mitsuhiro; Cline, Mark A

    2016-06-01

    Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH), first isolated from the brain of the Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica), when centrally administered exerts orexigenic effects in birds. However, the precise mechanisms mediating this effect are poorly understood and limited information is available on this effect in models of body weight dysfunction. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate appetite-associated effects of GnIH in chicks from lines that have been selected for either low or high body weight, and are anorexic or become obese, respectively. Central GnIH injection increased food intake in both lines with a similar magnitude of response. There was no effect on water intake. Hypothalamic GnIH mRNA was greater in the low than high weight lines and was greater in the fasted than fed chicks. GnIH receptor mRNA was similarly expressed in both lines, and was greater in fed than fasted chicks. Thus, although selection for body weight did not alter the effect of GnIH on feeding, fasting increased GnIH mRNA in both lines implying that it is an innate hunger factor. PMID:26764213

  14. Estimating the intake of abused methamphetamines using experimenter-administered deuterium labeled R-methamphetamine: selection of the R-methamphetamine dose.

    PubMed

    Li, Linghui; Lopez, Juan Carlos; Galloway, Gantt P; Baggott, Matthew J; Everhart, Tom; Mendelson, John

    2010-08-01

    All addictive drugs produce tolerance and addicts compensate by increasing drug exposure. Thus, the quantity of illicit drug ingested is related to the severity of addiction. Unfortunately, there are no objective methods to estimate intake for most addictive drugs. Using experimenter-administered doses of deuterium-labeled R-methamphetamine (R-[-]-MA-d3), we have developed a method to estimate the amount of abused methamphetamine intake in addicts enrolled in clinical trials. This study assessed the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and tolerability of single oral doses of R-MA in healthy adults to select a dose of R-MA-d3 to be used as a biomarker for estimation the amount of methamphetamine abuse. This was a five-session randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, balanced crossover study in eight subjects. Oral R-(-)-MA was dosed at 0 mg, 1 mg, 2.5 mg, 5 mg, or 10 mg; bioavailability was estimated by slow intravenous dosing (30 minutes) of 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 given with the 2.5 mg R-(-)-MA oral dose condition. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic measures were obtained. No serious adverse events occurred during the study and all doses of R-MA were well tolerated. Linear pharmacokinetics was observed within our oral dose range of 1 to 10 mg. Complete bioavailability and pharmacologic inactivity were found for all oral doses. These characteristics indicate the advantage of using a small oral R-(-)-MA-d3 dose as a biomarker to estimate exposure to abused methamphetamine. Based on these results, 5 mg R-(-)-MA-d3 has been selected as the biomarker dose in future studies. Preliminary findings from our study indicate that experimenter-administered oral R-(-)-MA-d3 may allow estimation of abused methamphetamine intake and exposure. Knowledge of the quantity of methamphetamine intake may allow better estimation of disease severity and treatment efficacy. Experience gained from this study also can be applied to the management of other drug dependence problems such as

  15. Prenatal Nitrate Intake from Drinking Water and Selected Birth Defects in Offspring of Participants in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    Weyer, Peter J.; Romitti, Paul A.; Mohanty, Binayak P.; Shinde, Mayura U.; Vuong, Ann M.; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Dwivedi, Dipankar; Horel, Scott A.; Kantamneni, Jiji; Huber, John C.; Zheng, Qi; Werler, Martha M.; Kelley, Katherine E.; Griesenbeck, John S.; Zhan, F. Benjamin; Langlois, Peter H.; Suarez, Lucina; Canfield, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Previous studies of prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and birth defects in offspring have not accounted for water consumption patterns or potential interaction with nitrosatable drugs. Objectives: We examined the relation between prenatal exposure to drinking-water nitrate and selected birth defects, accounting for maternal water consumption patterns and nitrosatable drug exposure. Methods: With data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, we linked addresses of 3,300 case mothers and 1,121 control mothers from the Iowa and Texas sites to public water supplies and respective nitrate measurements. We assigned nitrate levels for bottled water from collection of representative samples and standard laboratory testing. Daily nitrate consumption was estimated from self-reported water consumption at home and work. Results: With the lowest tertile of nitrate intake around conception as the referent group, mothers of babies with spina bifida were 2.0 times more likely (95% CI: 1.3, 3.2) to ingest ≥ 5 mg nitrate daily from drinking water (vs. < 0.91 mg) than control mothers. During 1 month preconception through the first trimester, mothers of limb deficiency, cleft palate, and cleft lip cases were, respectively, 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1), 1.9 (95% CI: 1.2, 3.1), and 1.8 (95% CI: 1.1, 3.1) times more likely than control mothers to ingest ≥ 5.42 mg of nitrate daily (vs. < 1.0 mg). Higher water nitrate intake did not increase associations between prenatal nitrosatable drug use and birth defects. Conclusions: Higher water nitrate intake was associated with several birth defects in offspring, but did not strengthen associations between nitrosatable drugs and birth defects. Citation: Brender JD, Weyer PJ, Romitti PA, Mohanty BP, Shinde MU, Vuong AM, Sharkey JR, Dwivedi D, Horel SA, Kantamneni J, Huber JC Jr., Zheng Q, Werler MM, Kelley KE, Griesenbeck JS, Zhan FB, Langlois PH, Suarez L, Canfield MA, and the National Birth Defects Prevention Study

  16. Food variety and dietary diversity scores to understand the food-intake pattern among selected Malaysian households.

    PubMed

    Zainal Badari, Shamsul A; Arcot, Jayashree; Haron, Sharifah A; Paim, Laily; Sulaiman, Norhasmah; Masud, Jariah

    2012-01-01

    Food variety scores (FVS) and dietary diversity scores (DDS) were estimated based on foods consumed weekly by 285 Malaysian households using a food frequency questionnaire. The scoring system of FVS and DDS was based on a scale of 0-7 and 0-6 respectively. The mean household FVS and DDS was 164.1 ± 93 and 6 ± 0.4. The age of respondents (husbands or wives; p < .01), sex (p < .05), and household food expenditure (p < .01) had a significant influence on both FVS and DDS. The food-intake pattern of Malaysian households showed that their typical diets had high protein and energy-based foods. PMID:22794127

  17. Geostatistical Characteristic of Space -Time Variation in Underground Water Selected Quality Parameters in Klodzko Water Intake Area (SW Part of Poland)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namysłowska-Wilczyńska, Barbara

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents selected results of research connected with the development of a (3D) geostatistical hydrogeochemical model of the Klodzko Drainage Basin, dedicated to the spatial and time variation in the selected quality parameters of underground water in the Klodzko water intake area (SW part of Poland). The research covers the period 2011÷2012. Spatial analyses of the variation in various quality parameters, i.e, contents of: ammonium ion [gNH4+/m3], NO3- (nitrate ion) [gNO3/m3], PO4-3 (phosphate ion) [gPO4-3/m3], total organic carbon C (TOC) [gC/m3], pH redox potential and temperature C [degrees], were carried out on the basis of the chemical determinations of the quality parameters of underground water samples taken from the wells in the water intake area. Spatial and time variation in the quality parameters was analyzed on the basis of archival data (period 1977÷1999) for 22 (pump and siphon) wells with a depth ranging from 9.5 to 38.0 m b.g.l., later data obtained (November 2011) from tests of water taken from 14 existing wells. The wells were built in the years 1954÷1998. The water abstraction depth (difference between the terrain elevation and the dynamic water table level) is ranged from 276÷286 m a.s.l., with an average of 282.05 m a.s.l. Dynamic water table level is contained between 6.22 m÷16.44 m b.g.l., with a mean value of 9.64 m b.g.l. The latest data (January 2012) acquired from 3 new piezometers, with a depth of 9÷10m, which were made in other locations in the relevant area. Thematic databases, containing original data on coordinates X, Y (latitude, longitude) and Z (terrain elevation and time - years) and on regionalized variables, i.e. the underground water quality parameters in the Klodzko water intake area determined for different analytical configurations (22 wells, 14 wells, 14 wells + 3 piezometers), were created. Both archival data (acquired in the years 1977÷1999) and the latest data (collected in 2011÷2012) were analyzed

  18. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  19. Increased intake of selected vegetables, herbs and fruit may reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-04-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥ 9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (-0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  20. Genomewide association analysis of sow lactation performance traits in lines of Yorkshire pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase.

    PubMed

    Thekkoot, D M; Young, J M; Rothschild, M F; Dekkers, J C M

    2016-06-01

    Lactation is an economically and biologically important phase in the life cycle of sows. Short generation intervals in nucleus herds and low heritability of traits associated with lactation along with challenges associated with collecting accurate lactation performance phenotypes emphasize the importance of using genomic tools to examine the underlying genetics of these traits. We report the first genomewide association study (GWAS) on traits associated with lactation and efficiency in 2 lines of Yorkshire pigs that were divergently selected for residual feed intake during grow-finish phase. A total of 862 farrowing records from 2 parities were analyzed using a Bayesian whole genome variable selection model (Bayes B) to locate 1-Mb regions that were most strongly associated with each trait. The GWAS was conducted separately for parity 1 and 2 records. Marker-based heritabilities ranged from 0.03 to 0.39 for parity 1 traits and from 0.06 to 0.40 for parity 2 traits. For all traits studied, around 90% of genetic variance came from a large number of genomic regions with small effects, whereas genomic regions with large effects were found to be different for the same trait measured in parity 1 and 2. The highest percentage of genetic variance explained by a 1-Mb window for each trait ranged from 0.4% for feed intake during lactation to 4.2% for back fat measured at farrowing in parity 1 sows and from 0.2% for lactation feed intake to 5.4% for protein mass loss during lactation in parity 2 sows. A total of thirteen 1-Mb nonoverlapping windows were found to explain more than 1.5% of genetic variance for either a single trait or across multiple traits. These 1-Mb windows were on chromosomes 2, 3, 6, 7, 8, 11, 14, 15, 17, and 18. The major positional candidate genes within 1 Mb upstream and downstream of these windows were , (SSC2), (SSC6) (SSC7), (SSC8), (SSC11), (SSC14), (SSC17). Further validation studies on larger populations are required to validate these findings and

  1. Divergent selection for residual feed intake in group-housed growing pigs: characteristics of physical and behavioural activity according to line and sex.

    PubMed

    Meunier-Salaün, M C; Guérin, C; Billon, Y; Sellier, P; Noblet, J; Gilbert, H

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the impact of selection for residual feed intake (RFI) on the behavioural activity of lines divergently selected for RFI during seven generations. In all, six successive batches from the seventh generation of selection were raised in collective pens equipped with a single-place electronic feeder (SEF) from 10 weeks of age to 100 kg BW. Each batch included four groups of 12 pigs: high RFI (RFI+) castrated males, RFI+ females, low RFI (RFI-) castrated males, RFI- females. At 17 weeks of age, health criteria were evaluated using a gradient scale for increased severity of lameness, body lesions, bursae and tail biting. Individual behavioural activities were recorded by 24-h video tape on the day after health evaluation. The investigative motivation towards unfamiliar objects was quantified at 18 weeks of age. The daily individual feeding patterns were computed from SEF records during the 4 weeks surrounding 12, 17 and 22 weeks of age. All pigs spent significantly most of their time lying in diurnal (80% of total scan) and nocturnal (>89%) periods. The RFI- pigs showed a lower proportion of health problems (P<0.01) than RFI+ pigs. The RFI- pigs used the SEF less than the RFI+ pigs, in diurnal (5.3% v. 6.4% of video scans, P<0.05) and nocturnal periods (3.6% v. 4.5% of video scans, P<0.05). This was confirmed by a significantly lower daily number and duration of visits to the SEF computed from the SEF data. The feeding activity measured from the video recording was significantly correlated (R>0.34; P<0.05) with feeding patterns computed from the SEF. The RFI- pigs spent less time standing over the 24-h period (9.7% v. 12.2% of scans, i.e. 35 min/day, P<0.05). In terms of energy costs, this amounted to 14% of the line difference in terms of daily metabolizable energy intake. The castrated males used the SEF more than females, especially at night (4.7% v. 3.4% of total scans, P<0.05), whereas females displayed greater investigation of

  2. Trawls and cooling-water intakes as estuarine fish sampling tools: Comparisons of catch composition, trends in relative abundance, and length selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenwood, M. F. D.

    2008-01-01

    Fish populations in estuaries are often monitored with traditional sampling gears such as trawls. Trawling is relatively expensive and may be hindered by environmental conditions such as tides and substrates. Power station cooling-water intake screens have been effectively used as estuarine fish sampling devices for many years, but very few quantitative comparisons of intake fish-catch characteristics with samples from other collection methods have been made. Fish collected at the cooling-water intake of a large power station in the lower Forth estuary, UK, were more similar in assemblage composition to fish caught by nearby pelagic trawling than to fish caught by Agassiz (demersal) trawling, mostly because the intake and pelagic-trawl catches were largely composed of clupeids ( Sprattus sprattus and Clupea harengus). The intake catch was typified by pelagic, demersal, and benthic species, however, and was less variable than the catches made by the two trawls. Monthly trends in relative abundance correlated reasonably well between the intake and trawl samples. Fish collected at the intake tended to be significantly smaller than those collected by trawling, which was probably attributable to the intake's smaller mesh size. The study highlighted the utility of a cooling-water intake as an efficient, low-cost fish sampling device, which should be considered as an alternative to trawling as the cost of the latter increases into the future.

  3. Relative Fluid Novelty Differentially Alters the Time Course of Limited-Access Ethanol and Water Intake in Selectively Bred High Alcohol Preferring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Linsenbardt, David N.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The influence of previous alcohol (ethanol) drinking experience on increasing the rate and amount of future ethanol consumption might be a genetically-regulated phenomenon critical to the development and maintenance of repeated excessive ethanol abuse. We have recently found evidence supporting this view, wherein inbred C57BL/6J (B6) mice develop progressive increases in the rate of binge-ethanol consumption over repeated Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) ethanol access sessions (i.e. ‘front-loading’). The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate identical parameters in High Alcohol Preferring (HAP) mice to determine if similar temporal alterations in limited-access ethanol drinking develop in a population selected for high ethanol preference/intake under continuous (24hr) access conditions. Methods Using specialized volumetric drinking devices, HAP mice received 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions. A subset of these mice was then given one day access to the opposite assigned fluid on day 15. Home cage locomotor activity was recorded concomitantly on each day of these studies. The possibility of behavioral/metabolic tolerance was evaluated on day 16 using experimenter administered ethanol. Results The amount of ethanol consumed within the first 15 minutes of access increased markedly over days. However, in contrast to previous observations in B6 mice, ethanol front-loading was also observed on day 15 in mice that only had previous DID experience with water. Furthermore, a decrease in the amount of water consumed within the first 15 minutes of access compared to animals given repeated water access was observed on day 15 in mice with 14 previous days of ethanol access. Conclusions These data further illustrate the complexity and importance of the temporal aspects of limited-access ethanol consumption, and suggest that previous procedural/fluid experience in HAP mice selectively alters the time course of ethanol and water consumption

  4. Changes induced by dietary energy intake and divergent selection for muscle fat content in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), assessed by transcriptome and proteome analysis of the liver

    PubMed Central

    Kolditz, Catherine-Ines; Paboeuf, Gilles; Borthaire, Maïena; Esquerré, Diane; SanCristobal, Magali; Lefèvre, Florence; Médale, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    Background Growing interest is turned to fat storage levels and allocation within body compartments, due to their impact on human health and quality properties of farm animals. Energy intake and genetic background are major determinants of fattening in most animals, including humans. Previous studies have evidenced that fat deposition depends upon balance between various metabolic pathways. Using divergent selection, we obtained rainbow trout with differences in fat allocation between visceral adipose tissue and muscle, and no change in overall body fat content. Transcriptome and proteome analysis were applied to characterize the molecular changes occurring between these two lines when fed a low or a high energy diet. We focused on the liver, center of intermediary metabolism and the main site for lipogenesis in fish, as in humans and most avian species. Results The proteome and transcriptome analyses provided concordant results. The main changes induced by the dietary treatment were observed in lipid metabolism. The level of transcripts and proteins involved in intracellular lipid transport, fatty acid biosynthesis and anti-oxidant metabolism were lower with the lipid rich diet. In addition, genes and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis were also under expressed with this diet. The major changes related to the selection effect were observed in levels of transcripts and proteins involved in amino-acid catabolism and proteolysis that were higher in the fat muscle line than in the lean muscle line. Conclusion The present study led to the identification of novel genes and proteins that responded to long term feeding with a high energy/high fat diet. Although muscle was the direct target, the selection procedure applied significantly affected hepatic metabolism, particularly protein and amino acid derivative metabolism. Interestingly, the selection procedure and the dietary treatment used to increase muscle fat content exerted opposite effects on

  5. Composition and quality characteristics of carcasses from pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake on high- or low-energy diets.

    PubMed

    Arkfeld, E K; Young, J M; Johnson, R C; Fedler, C A; Prusa, K; Patience, J F; Dekkers, J C M; Gabler, N K; Lonergan, S M; Huff-Lonergan, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective was to determine the extent to which feeding low-energy, high-fiber (LEHF) and high-energy, low-fiber (HELF) diets impacts meat quality and carcass composition of pigs divergently selected for residual feed intake (RFI). Two experiments were conducted in the divergently selected Iowa State University RFI lines: Exp. 1 evaluated carcasses of generation (G) 8 pigs fed on commercial feeders; Exp. 2 evaluated composition, pork quality, sensory, and postmortem proteolysis of pigs fed on electronic single-space feeders in G 8 and 9. Pigs (N = 177) in Exp. 1 were randomly assigned a pen (mixed sex and line; N = 8). Groups (n = 3) of pigs were slaughtered at a mean BW of 121.5 kg. Pigs in Exp. 2 (G8: n = 158; G9: n = 157) were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 pens of each diet per G. Pigs from G8 were slaughtered at a mean BW of 122.5 kg and G9 at a mean of 128.4 kg. Data were analyzed using the mixed procedure of SAS. Fixed effects were line, diet, sex, and all appropriate interactions. Random effects were group, pen, litter, and sire and covariate of off-test BW. For Exp. 2, G was added as a fixed effect and sensory day was added as a random effect when applicable. In Exp. 1, carcasses from low RFI (LRFI) pigs were leaner and had less fat depth (P < 0.01). Carcasses from pigs fed the LEHF diet had a lighter HCW and greater estimated percent lean than pigs fed HELF diet (P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, LRFI pigs on the HELF diet had the greatest loin depth (P < 0.01). Chops from HRFI pigs had greater drip loss, color scores, lean tissue a*, and percent lipid and lesser percent moisture than LRFI ( P< 0.05). Chops from pigs on the LEHF diet had lesser muscle L* values and greater percent moisture than chops from pigs fed the HELF diet (P < 0.05). Chops from LRFI pigs were juicer than those from HRFI pigs (P < 0.05). Protein extracted at d 2 postmortem from LRFI pigs on the LEHF diet had a greater 38 kDa desmin degradation product than protein from LRFI pigs fed the HELF

  6. Carbohydrate intake.

    PubMed

    Leturque, Armelle; Brot-Laroche, Edith; Le Gall, Maude

    2012-01-01

    Carbohydrates represent more than 50% of the energy sources present in most human diets. Sugar intake is regulated by metabolic, neuronal, and hedonic factors, and gene polymorphisms are involved in determining sugar preference. Nutrigenomic adaptations to carbohydrate availability have been evidenced in metabolic diseases, in the persistence of lactose digestion, and in amylase gene copy number. Furthermore, dietary oligosaccharides, fermentable by gut flora, can modulate the microbiotal diversity to the benefit of the host. Genetic diseases linked to mutations in the disaccharidase genes (sucrase-isomaltase, lactase) and in sugar transporter genes (sodium/glucose cotransporter 1, glucose transporters 1 and 2) severely impact carbohydrate intake. These diseases are revealed upon exposure to food containing the offending sugar, and withdrawal of this sugar from the diet prevents disease symptoms, failure to thrive, and premature death. Tailoring the sugar composition of diets to optimize wellness and to prevent the chronic occurrence of metabolic diseases is a future goal that may yet be realized through continued development of nutrigenetics and nutrigenomics approaches. PMID:22656375

  7. Intake, selection, digesta retention, digestion and gut fill of two coprophageous species, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), on a hay-only diet.

    PubMed

    Franz, R; Kreuzer, M; Hummel, J; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2011-10-01

    A colonic separation mechanism (CSM) is the prerequisite for the digestive strategy of coprophagy. Two different CSM are known in small herbivores, the 'wash-back' CSM of lagomorphs and the 'mucous-trap' CSM of rodents. Differences between these groups in their digestive pattern when fed exclusively hay were investigated in six rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and six guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Intake, digestibility (by total faecal collection), solute and particle mean retention times (MRT, using Co-EDTA and Cr-mordanted fibres) were measured. Rabbits selected less fibrous parts of the hay than guinea pigs, leaving orts with higher content of neutral detergent fibre [NDF; 721 ± 21 vs. 642 ± 31 g/kg dry matter (DM) in guinea pigs]. They also expressed a lower NDF digestibility (0.44 ± 0.10 vs. 0.55 ± 0.05 of total), a similar particle MRT (15 ± 3 vs. 18 ± 6 h), a longer solute MRT (51 ± 9 vs. 16 ± 4 h), and a lower calculated dry matter gut fill (19.6 ± 4.7 vs. 29.7 ± 4.1 g DM/kg body mass) than guinea pigs (p < 0.05 for each variable). These results support the assumption that the 'wash-back' CSM, exhibited in the rabbits, is more efficient in extracting bacterial matter from the colonic digesta plug than the 'mucous-trap' CSM found in the guinea pigs. Related to metabolic body mass, rabbits therefore need a less capacious colon for their CSM where a more efficient bacteria wash-out is reflected in the lower fibre digestibility. A lighter digestive tract could contribute to a peculiarity of lagomorphs: their ability to run faster than other similar-sized mammals. PMID:21091550

  8. Emotional reactivity to incentive downshift as a correlated response to selection of high and low alcohol preferring mice and an influencing factor on ethanol intake.

    PubMed

    Matson, Liana M; Grahame, Nicholas J

    2015-11-01

    Losing a job or significant other are examples of incentive loss that result in negative emotional reactions. The occurrence of negative life events is associated with increased drinking (Keyes, Hatzenbuehler, & Hasin, 2011). Further, certain genotypes are more likely to drink alcohol in response to stressful negative life events (Blomeyer et al., 2008; Covault et al., 2007). Shared genetic factors may contribute to alcohol drinking and emotional reactivity, but this relationship is not currently well understood. We used an incentive downshift paradigm to address whether emotional reactivity is elevated in mice predisposed to drink alcohol. We also investigated if ethanol drinking is influenced in High Alcohol Preferring mice that had been exposed to an incentive downshift. Incentive downshift procedures have been widely utilized to model emotional reactivity, and involve shifting a high reward group to a low reward and comparing the shifted group to a consistently rewarded control group. Here, we show that replicate lines of selectively bred High Alcohol Preferring mice exhibited larger successive negative contrast effects than their corresponding replicate Low Alcohol Preferring lines, providing strong evidence for a genetic association between alcohol drinking and susceptibility to the emotional effects of negative contrast. These mice can be used to study the shared neurological and genetic underpinnings of emotional reactivity and alcohol preference. Unexpectedly, an incentive downshift suppressed ethanol drinking immediately following an incentive downshift. This could be due to a specific effect of negative contrast on ethanol consumption or a suppressive effect on consummatory behavior in general. These data suggest that either alcohol intake does not provide the anticipated negative reinforcement, or that a single test was insufficient for animals to learn to drink following incentive downshift. However, the emotional intensity following incentive

  9. Performance of statistical methods to correct food intake distribution: comparison between observed and estimated usual intake.

    PubMed

    Verly-Jr, Eliseu; Oliveira, Dayan C R S; Fisberg, Regina M; Marchioni, Dirce Maria L

    2016-09-01

    There are statistical methods that remove the within-person random error and estimate the usual intake when there is a second 24-h recall (24HR) for at least a subsample of the study population. We aimed to compare the distribution of usual food intake estimated by statistical models with the distribution of observed usual intake. A total of 302 individuals from Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) answered twenty, non-consecutive 24HR; the average length of follow-up was 3 months. The usual food intake was considered as the average of the 20 collection days of food intake. Using data sets with a pair of 2 collection days, usual percentiles of intake of the selected foods using two methods were estimated (National Cancer Institute (NCI) method and Multiple Source Method (MSM)). These estimates were compared with the percentiles of the observed usual intake. Selected foods comprised a range of parameter distributions: skewness, percentage of zero intakes and within- and between-person intakes. Both methods performed well but failed in some situations. In most cases, NCI and MSM produced similar percentiles between each other and values very close to the true intake, and they better represented the usual intake compared with 2-d mean. The smallest precision was observed in the upper tail of the distribution. In spite of the underestimation and overestimation of percentiles of intake, from a public health standpoint, these biases appear not to be of major concern. PMID:27523187

  10. Phenotypic and genetic relationships between residual energy intake and growth, feed intake, and carcass traits of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1992-02-01

    Residual energy intake, defined as actual minus predicted energy intake during a production period, was estimated for each of 650 bull calves of 31 Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. Residual energy intake, measured under ad libitum feeding, had heritabilities similar to those of growth rate and energy conversion ratio with an estimate of approximately .3. Residual energy intake was related to average daily energy intake both phenotypically and genetically such that selection for decreased residual energy intake would lead to a decrease in daily feed intake. Such selection would also tend to increase carcass fatness (i.e., genetically fat animals are the most efficient). Residual energy intake estimated with and without correction for carcass composition were closely correlated. Thus, residual energy intake may be estimated without the knowledge of carcass composition in growing bulls of dual-purpose breeds. PMID:1548200

  11. Genetic parameter estimates for feed intake, body composition, and fillet quality traits in a rainbow trout population selected for improved growth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A selection program is ongoing at the National Center for Cool and Cold Water Aquaculture to improve growth performance in rainbow trout. Current selection criteria include 10-month body weight (10-mo BW) and thermal growth coefficient (TGC) measured during the growth period between 10 and 13 months...

  12. Factors affecting pasture intake and total dry matter intake in grazing dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, O P; Smith, T R

    2000-10-01

    We investigated the most relevant variables for estimating pasture intake and total dry matter (DM) intake in grazing dairy cows using 27 previously published studies. Variables compared were pasture allowance, days in milk, amount of forage, amount of concentrate and total supplementation, pasture allowance and supplementation interaction, fat-corrected milk, body weight (BW), metabolic BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes in pasture, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of pasture, and NDF in pasture selected. The variables were selected using stepwise regression analysis for total DM intake and pasture DM intake. Variables selected in the total DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.95) were pasture allowance, total supplementation, interaction of pasture allowance and supplementation, fat-corrected milk, BW, daily change in BW, percentage of legumes and pasture NDF content. Pasture DM intake regression equation (R2 = 0.90) was similar to total DM intake equation, but supplementation coefficient was negative, showing substitution effect in supplementing grazing cows. The intake of NDF as a percentage of BW was higher than 1.3% when considering NDF content of the pasture allowance. Low pasture allowance groups had values higher than 1.3%. PMID:11049073

  13. Age and disability affect dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Bartali, Benedetta; Salvini, Simonetta; Turrini, Aida; Lauretani, Fulvio; Russo, Cosimo R; Corsi, Anna M; Bandinelli, Stefania; D'Amicis, Amleto; Palli, Domenico; Guralnik, Jack M; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide information on dietary intake in the InCHIANTI study population, a representative sample (n = 1453) of persons living in two towns of Tuscany (Italy), including a large number of old and very old individuals (79.5% >65 y old). We also investigated whether difficulties in nutrition-related activities were associated with inadequate intake of selected nutrients. The percentage of persons with an inadequate intake of nutrients according to Italian Recommended Nutrients Levels (LARN) was higher in the older age groups. Older persons tended to adapt their diets in response to individual functional difficulties, often leading to monotonous food consumption and, as a consequence, to inadequate nutrient intakes. Multiple logistic models were used to evaluate whether inadequate intake of selected nutrients could be predicted by nutrition-related difficulties. Reporting difficulties in three or more nutrition-related activities (chewing, self-feeding, shopping for basic necessities, carrying a shopping bag, cooking a warm meal, using fingers to grasp or handle) significantly increased the risk of inadequate intake of energy [odds ratio (OR) = 3.8, 95% CI = 1.9-7.8) and vitamin C (OR = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.2-4.2, after adjustment for energy intake). More attention to functional problems in the elderly population and the provision of formal or informal help to those who have difficulty in purchasing, processing and eating food may reduce, at least in part, the percentage of older persons with poor nutrition. PMID:12949379

  14. Comparison of nutrient intakes from two selected diet plans considered healthful versus the cutoff points for green lights as defined by the UK's multiple traffic light scheme.

    PubMed

    Green, H; Fern, E

    2016-02-01

    This study compared nutrient intakes from 7-day menus for the US MyPlate and DASH Eating Plan versus the cutoff points for green lights defined by the UK's multiple traffic light (MTL) scheme. For both diets, the foods achieved green lights for saturated fat and salt, and for beverages for total fat, saturated fat and salt. The other nutrients achieved amber lights but were within the range of the two diets. By contrast, the MTL threshold for salt in beverages was outside the range of the diets. The values for salt in beverages in the MyPlate and Dash diet plans were 0.06±0.07 and 0.19±0.01 (s.d.) g/100 ml, which are both considerably lower compared with the cutoff of 0.3 g/100 ml for an MTL green light. Adjusting the green MTL threshold values to the median values for a healthful diet could help make MTL labelling a more valid way of helping consumers choose a healthful diet. PMID:26242724

  15. Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Holtz, Nathan A.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. Objective The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Methods Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a two-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were used also measured. Results Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. Conclusions These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line. PMID:23254375

  16. Energy and Nutrient Intake Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luckey, T. D.; Venugopal, B.; Hutcheson, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A passive system to determine the in-flight intake of nutrients is developed. Nonabsorbed markers placed in all foods in proportion to the nutrients selected for study are analyzed by neutron activation analysis. Fecal analysis for each market indicates how much of the nutrients were eaten and apparent digestibility. Results of feasibility tests in rats, mice, and monkeys indicate the diurnal variation of several markers, the transit time for markers in the alimentary tract, the recovery of several markers, and satisfactory use of selected markers to provide indirect measurement of apparent digestibility. Recommendations are provided for human feasibility studies.

  17. Sodium Content of Foods Contributing to Sodium Intake: Comparison between Selected Foods from the CDC Packaged Food Database and the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference

    PubMed Central

    Maalouf, Joyce; Cogswell, Mary E.; Yuan, Keming; Martin, Carrie; Gillespie, Cathleen; Ahuja, Jaspreet KC; Pehrsson, Pamela; Merritt, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The sodium concentration (mg/100g) for 23 of 125 Sentinel Foods (e.g. white bread) were identified in the 2009 CDC Packaged Food Database (PFD) and compared with data in the USDA’s 2013 National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference(SR 26). Sentinel Foods are foods identified by USDA to be monitored as primary indicators to assess the changes in the sodium content of commercially processed foods from stores and restaurants. Overall, 937 products were evaluated in the CDC PFD, and between 3 (one brand of ready-to-eat cereal) and 126 products (white bread) were evaluated per selected food. The mean sodium concentrations of 17 of the 23 (74%) selected foods in the CDC PFD were 90%–110% of the mean sodium concentrations in SR 26 and differences in sodium concentration were statistically significant for 6 Sentinel Foods. The sodium concentration of most of the Sentinel Foods, as selected in the PFD, appeared to represent the sodium concentrations of the corresponding food category. The results of our study help improve the understanding of how nutrition information compares between national analytic values and the label and whether the selected Sentinel Foods represent their corresponding food category as indicators for assessment of change of the sodium content in the food supply. PMID:26484010

  18. Dietary Reference Intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI) are recommendations intended to provide a framework for nutrient intake evaluation, as well as meal planning on the basis of nutrient adequacy. They are nutrient, not food based recommendations, created with chronic disease risk reduction as the primary goal, as ...

  19. Alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The knowledge of background alimentary fluoride intake in preschool children is of utmost importance for introducing optimal and safe caries preventive measures for both individuals and communities. The aim of this study was to assess the daily fluoride intake analyzing duplicate samples of food and beverages. An attempt was made to calculate the daily intake of fluoride from food and swallowed toothpaste. Methods Daily alimentary fluoride intake was measured in a group of 36 children with an average age of 4.75 years and an average weight of 20.69 kg at baseline, by means of a double plate method. This was repeated after six months. Parents recorded their child's diet over 24 hours and collected duplicated portions of food and beverages received by children during this period. Pooled samples of food and beverages were weighed and solid food samples were homogenized. Fluoride was quantitatively extracted from solid food samples by a microdiffusion method using hexadecyldisiloxane and perchloric acid. The content of fluoride extracted from solid food samples, as well as fluoride in beverages, was measured potentiometrically by means of a fluoride ion selective electrode. Results Average daily fluoride intake at baseline was 0.389 (SD 0.054) mg per day. Six months later it was 0.378 (SD 0.084) mg per day which represents 0.020 (SD 0.010) and 0.018 (SD 0.008) mg of fluoride respectively calculated per kg bw/day. When adding the values of unwanted fluoride intake from the toothpaste shown in the literature (0.17-1.21 mg per day) the estimate of the total daily intake of fluoride amounted to 0.554-1.594 mg/day and recalculated to the child's body weight to 0.027-0.077 mg/kg bw/day. Conclusions In the children studied, observed daily fluoride intake reached the threshold for safe fluoride intake. When adding the potential fluoride intake from swallowed toothpaste, alimentary intake reached the optimum range for daily fluoride intake. These results showed that

  20. Setting dietary intake levels: problems and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Russell, Robert M

    2007-01-01

    Recommended dietary intake levels are the nutrient standards used in designing food assistance programmes, institutional feeding programmes, counselling and teaching. In the USA, the recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) are the basis for setting the poverty threshold and food stamp allotments. In the 1990s, a new paradigm was put forth for estimating nutrient requirements and recommended intake levels. This considered the level of nutrient needed for normal body functioning (versus the amount needed to prevent a deficiency state from occurring). An estimated average requirement (EAR), an RDA and a tolerable upper intake level (UL) were determined for most nutrients. In setting forth these nutrient intake levels (dietary reference intakes, DRIs), a number of data challenges were encountered. For example, it was recognized that for most nutrients there was an absence of dose-response data, and few chronic human or animal studies had been undertaken. In considering how to revise nutrient intake recommendations for populations in the future, the following pitfalls must be overcome: (1) invalid assumption that a threshold level for a requirement will hold for all nutrients; (2) lack of uniform criteria for the selection of the endpoints used (need for evidence-based review, consideration of comparative risk); (3) invalid extrapolations to children for many nutrients; (4) lack of information on variability of responses, and interactions with other nutrients; and (5) lack of understanding in the community of how to use the various DRI numbers. PMID:17913222

  1. Predicting forage intake in extensive grazing systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary intake by cattle and other ruminants is controlled by a complex mix of physical and physiological factors that interact with a variety of environmental, geo-spatial, and experiential influences external to the animal. These factors are intensified in grazing ruminants, where selective gra...

  2. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. With this method, images of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared with images of 'standard' portions of food using computer...

  3. Measuring food intake with digital photography

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Corby K.; Nicklas, Theresa; Gunturk, Bahadir; Correa, John B.; Allen, H. Raymond; Champagne, Catherine

    2014-01-01

    The Digital Photography of Foods Method accurately estimates the food intake of adults and children in cafeterias. When using this method, imags of food selection and leftovers are quickly captured in the cafeteria. These images are later compared to images of “standard” portions of food using a computer application. The amount of food selected and discarded is estimated based upon this comparison, and the application automatically calculates energy and nutrient intake. Herein, we describe this method, as well as a related method called the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM), which relies on Smartphones to estimate food intake in near real-time in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, participants capture images of food selection and leftovers using a Smartphone and these images are wirelessly transmitted in near real-time to a server for analysis. Because data are transferred and analyzed in near real-time, the RFPM provides a platform for participants to quickly receive feedback about their food intake behavior and to receive dietary recommendations to achieve weight loss and health promotion goals. The reliability and validity of measuring food intake with the RFPM in adults and children will also be reviewed. The body of research reviewed herein demonstrates that digital imaging accurately estimates food intake in many environments and it has many advantages over other methods, including reduced participant burden, elimination of the need for participants to estimate portion size, and incorporation of computer automation to improve the accuracy, efficiency, and the cost-effectiveness of the method. PMID:23848588

  4. Measurement of children's food intake with digital photography and the effects of second servings upon food intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Corby K; Newton, Robert L; Anton, Stephen D; Allen, H Raymond; Alfonso, Anthony; Han, Hongmei; Stewart, Tiffany; Sothern, Melinda; Williamson, Donald A

    2007-04-01

    This study tested the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake with the digital photography method and the effects of second servings upon food intake. Food intake was measured in a school cafeteria for 5 days. Adiposity was assessed with body impedance analysis and body mass index, expressed as percentile rank. Mood and self-esteem were assessed with questionnaires. Estimates of food intake were highly reliable between two registered dietitians who independently estimated food intake. Boys ate more food than girls. A significant association between food intake and adiposity supported convergent validity. Non-significant correlations between food intake and depressed mood and self-esteem supported discriminant validity. When second servings were available, more food was selected and discarded, but mean food intake did not increase. Children who returned for second servings, however, ate more food when second servings were available, and a trend suggested that they also ate more food when second servings were not available. These findings support the reliability and validity of measuring children's food intake using digital photography and demonstrate its utility for studies of food intake and body weight. PMID:17336784

  5. Common genes regulate food and ethanol intake in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Sekhon, Morgan L; Lamina, Omoteniola; Hogan, Kerry E; Kliethermes, Christopher L

    2016-06-01

    The abuse liability of alcohol (ethanol) is believed to result in part from its actions on neurobiological substrates that underlie the motivation toward food and other natural reinforcers, and a growing body of evidence indicates that these substrates are broadly conserved among animal phyla. Understanding the extent to which the substrates regulating ethanol and food intake overlap is an important step toward developing therapeutics that selectively reduce ethanol intake. In the current experiments, we measured food and ethanol intake in Recombinant Inbred (RI) lines of Drosophila melanogaster using several assays, and then calculated genetic correlations to estimate the degree to which common genes might underlie behavior in these assays. We found that food intake and ethanol intake as measured in the capillary assay are genetically correlated traits in D. melanogaster, as well as in a panel of 11 Drosophila species that we tested subsequently. RI line differences in food intake in a dyed food assay were genetically unrelated to ethanol intake in the capillary assay or to ethanol preference measured using an olfactory trap apparatus. Using publicly available gene expression data, we found that expression profiles across the RI lines of a number of genes (including the D2-like dopamine receptor, DOPA decarboxylase, and fruitless) correlated with the RI line differences in food and ethanol intake we measured, while the expression profiles of other genes, including NPF, and the NPF and 5-HT2 receptors, correlated only with ethanol intake or preference. Our results suggest that food and ethanol intake are regulated by some common genes in Drosophila, but that other genes regulate ethanol intake independently of food intake. These results have implications toward the development of therapeutics that preferentially reduce ethanol intake. PMID:27286934

  6. Higher magnesium intake is associated with lower fasting glucose and insulin, with no evidence of interaction with select genetic loci, in a meta-analysis of 15 charge consortium studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Favorable associations between magnesium intake and glycemic traits, such as fasting glucose and insulin, are observed in observational and clinical studies, but whether genetic variation affects these associations is largely unknown. We hypothesized that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) assoc...

  7. Dietary intakes of pesticides based on community duplicate diet samples

    EPA Science Inventory

    The calculation of dietary intake of selected pesticides was accomplished using food samples collected from individual representatives of a defined demographic community using a community duplicate diet approach. A community of nine participants was identified in Apopka, FL from...

  8. POROUS DIKE INTAKE EVALUATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an evaluation of a porous dike intake. A small-scale test facility was constructed and continuously operated for 2 years under field conditions. Two stone dikes of gabion construction were tested: one consisted of 7.5 cm stones; and the other, 20 cm st...

  9. Peptides and food intake.

    PubMed

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  10. Peptides and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Sobrino Crespo, Carmen; Perianes Cachero, Aránzazu; Puebla Jiménez, Lilian; Barrios, Vicente; Arilla Ferreiro, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. Nutrients generated by food digestion have been proposed to activate G-protein-coupled receptors on the luminal side of enteroendocrine cells, e.g., the L-cells. This stimulates the release of gut hormones into the circulation such as glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptides, peptide tyrosine tyrosine, and cholecystokinin, which inhibit appetite. Ghrelin is a peptide secreted from the stomach and, in contrast to other gut hormones, plasma levels decrease after a meal and potently stimulate food intake. Other circulating factors such as insulin and leptin relay information regarding long-term energy stores. Both hormones circulate at proportional levels to body fat content, enter the CNS proportionally to their plasma levels, and reduce food intake. Circulating hormones can influence the activity of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons of the hypothalamus, after passing across the median eminence. Circulating factors such as gut hormones may also influence the nucleus of the tractus solitarius (NTS) through the adjacent circumventricular organ. On the other hand, gastrointestinal vagal afferents converge in the NTS of the brainstem. Neural projections from the NTS, in turn, carry signals to the hypothalamus. The ARC acts as an integrative center, with two major subpopulations of neurons influencing appetite, one of them coexpressing neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein (AgRP) that increases food

  11. Protein Intake and Growth in Preterm Infants

    PubMed Central

    Tonkin, Emma L.; Collins, Carmel T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. This review aimed to investigate the relationship between varying levels of enteral protein intake and growth in preterm infants, regardless of feeding method. Data Sources. Electronic databases were searched for relevant studies, as were review articles, reference lists, and text books. Study Selection. Trials were included if they were randomized or quasirandomized, participants were <37 weeks gestation at birth, and protein intakes were intentionally or statistically different between study groups. Trials reporting weight, length, and head circumference gains in infants fed formula, human milk, or fortified human milk were included. Data Extraction. Studies were categorized by feeding-type and relevant data were extracted into summary tables by one reviewer and cross-checked by a second. Data Synthesis. A meta-analysis could not be conducted due to extensive variability among studies; thus, results were synthesized graphically and narratively. Twenty-four trials met the inclusion criteria and were included in a narrative synthesis and 19 in a graphical synthesis of study results. Conclusions. There was extensive variability in study design, participant characteristics, and study quality. Nonetheless, results are fairly consistent that higher protein intake results in increased growth with graphical representation indicating a potentially linear relationship. Additionally, intakes as high as 4.5 g/kg/day were shown to be safe in infants weighing >1000 g. PMID:27335914

  12. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case-control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  13. Dietary fat intake and functional dyspepsia

    PubMed Central

    Khodarahmi, Mahdieh; Azadbakht, Leila

    2016-01-01

    A few studies have assessed the effects of fat intake in the induction of dyspeptic symptoms. So, the aim of this study was to review the articles regarding the dietary fat intake and FD. We used electronic database of PubMed to search. These key words were chosen: FD, dietary fat, dyspeptic symptom, energy intake and nutrients. First, articles that their title and abstract were related to the mentioned subject were gathered. Then, full texts of related articles were selected for reading. Finally, by excluding four articles that was irrelevant to subject, 19 relevant English papers by designing clinical trial, cross-sectional, case–control, prospective cohort, and review that published from 1992 to 2012 were investigated. Anecdotally, specific food items or food groups, particularly fatty foods have been related to dyspepsia. Laboratory studies have shown that the addition of fat to a meal resulted in more symptoms of fullness, bloating, and nausea in dyspeptic patients. Studies have reported that hypersensitivity of the stomach to postprandial distension is an essential factor in the generation of dyspeptic symptoms. Small intestinal infusions of nutrients, particularly fat, exacerbate this hypersensitivity. Moreover, evidence showed that perception of gastric distension increased by lipids but not by glucose. Long chain triglycerides appear to be more potent than medium chain triglycerides in inducing symptoms of fullness, nausea, and suppression of hunger. Thus, Fatty foods may exacerbate dyspeptic symptoms. Therefore, it seems that a reduction in intake of fatty foods may useful, although this requires more evaluations. PMID:27195249

  14. Inhibition of food intake.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew

    2005-01-01

    Over 100 publications, principally from five groups, describe an effect of amylin and amylin analogs in inhibition of food intake in animals and humans. The major groups contributing to this area are those of the following: Chance and Balasubramaniam (Balasubramaniam et al., 1991a,b; Chance et al., 1991a,b, 1992a,b, 1993). Morley, Flood, and Edwards (Edwards and Morley, 1992; Flood and Morley, 1992; Macintosh et al., 2000; Morley and Flood, 1991, 1994; Morley et al., 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997). Lutz, Geary, and others (Barth et al., 2003; Del Prete et al., 2002; Lutz et al., 1994, 1995a,b, 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998a,b,c, 2000a,b, 2001a,b,c, 2003; Mollet et al., 2001, 2003a,b, 2004; Riediger et al., 2002, 2004; Rushing et al., 2000a,b, 2001, 2002). Workers at Amylin Pharmaceuticals Inc., or their collaborators (Bhavsar et al., 1995, 1996, 1997a, 1998; Birkemo et al., 1995; Chapman et al., 2004a,b; Edwards et al., 1998; Feinle et al., 2002; Mack et al., 2003; Riediger et al., 1999; Roth et al., 2004; Watkins et al., 1996; Weyer et al., 2004; Young, 1997; Young and Bhavsar, 1996). Arnelo, Reidelberger, and others (Arnelo et al., 1996a,b, 1997a,b, 1998, 2000; Fruin et al., 1997; Granqvist et al., 1997; Reidelberger et al., 2001, 2002, 2004). The magnitude of amylin inhibition of food intake, and its potency for this effect when delivered peripherally, suggests a physiological role in satiogenesis. Increases in food intake following disruption of amylin signal-signaling (e.g., with amylin receptor blockade, or with amylin gene knock-out mice) further support a role of endogenous amylin to tonically restrict nutrient intake. In addition, synergies with other endogenous satiety agents may be present, and convey greater physiological importance than is conveyed by single signals. The anorectic effect of amylin is consistent with a classic amylin pharmacology. The anorectic effect of peripheral amylin appears principally due to a direct action at the area postrema

  15. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Garlapow, Megan E.; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T.; Peterson, Kara R.; Mackay, Trudy F. C.

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases. PMID:26375667

  16. Quantitative Genetics of Food Intake in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Garlapow, Megan E; Huang, Wen; Yarboro, Michael T; Peterson, Kara R; Mackay, Trudy F C

    2015-01-01

    Food intake is an essential animal activity, regulated by neural circuits that motivate food localization, evaluate nutritional content and acceptance or rejection responses through the gustatory system, and regulate neuroendocrine feedback loops that maintain energy homeostasis. Excess food consumption in people is associated with obesity and metabolic and cardiovascular disorders. However, little is known about the genetic basis of natural variation in food consumption. To gain insights in evolutionarily conserved genetic principles that regulate food intake, we took advantage of a model system, Drosophila melanogaster, in which food intake, environmental conditions and genetic background can be controlled precisely. We quantified variation in food intake among 182 inbred, sequenced lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP). We found significant genetic variation in the mean and within-line environmental variance of food consumption and observed sexual dimorphism and genetic variation in sexual dimorphism for both food intake traits (mean and variance). We performed genome wide association (GWA) analyses for mean food intake and environmental variance of food intake (using the coefficient of environmental variation, CVE, as the metric for environmental variance) and identified molecular polymorphisms associated with both traits. Validation experiments using RNAi-knockdown confirmed 24 of 31 (77%) candidate genes affecting food intake and/or variance of food intake, and a test cross between selected DGRP lines confirmed a SNP affecting mean food intake identified in the GWA analysis. The majority of the validated candidate genes were novel with respect to feeding behavior, and many had mammalian orthologs implicated in metabolic diseases. PMID:26375667

  17. Calcium Intake, Major Dietary Sources and Bone Health Indicators in Iranian Primary School Children

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Nasrin; Neyestani, Tirang-Reza; Hajifaraji, Majid; Eshraghian, Mohammad-Reza; Rezazadeh, Arezoo; Armin, Saloumeh; Haidari, Homa; Zowghi, Telma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adequate calcium intake may have a crucial role with regards to prevention of many chronic diseases, including hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, different types of cancer, obesity and osteoporosis. In children, sufficient calcium intake is especially important to support the accelerated growth spurt during the preteen and teenage years and to increase bone mineral mass to lay the foundation for older age. Objectives: This study aimed to assess daily calcium intake in school-age children to ensure whether they fulfill the FGP dairy serving recommendations, the recommended levels of daily calcium intake and to assess the relationship between dietary calcium intake and major bone health indicators. Patients and Methods: A total of 501 Iranian school-age children were randomly selected. Calcium intake was assessed using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Bone health indicators were also assessed. Results: Dairy products contributed to 69.3% of the total calcium intake of the children. Daily adequate intake of calcium was achieved by 17.8% of children. Only 29.8% met the Food guide pyramid recommendations for dairy intake. Dietary calcium intake was not significantly correlated with serum calcium and other selected biochemical indicators of bone health. Conclusions: The need for planning appropriate nutrition strategies for overcoming inadequate calcium intake in school age children in the city of Tehran is inevitable. PMID:26199684

  18. Food intake of very obese persons: quantitative and qualitative aspects.

    PubMed

    Strain, G W; Hershcopf, R J; Zumoff, B

    1992-02-01

    To document the caloric intake of very obese persons and investigate the food choices and dietary composition that maintain severe obesity, we studied the self-selected food intake required to maintain stable weight in two groups of very obese subjects: 11 inpatients with a mean weight 181% above desirable body weight and 35 outpatients with a mean weight 125% above desirable body weight. Qualitative and quantitative food intake were evaluated using records obtained on the hospital metabolic ward for the inpatients and using self-recorded food records for the outpatients. Absolute caloric intake in both groups was greater in proportion to the degree of obesity (deviation from desirable body weight); caloric intake per unit of lean body mass (kilocalories per gram urinary creatinine) was constant regardless of the degree of obesity and was essentially the same as that of normal nonobese persons. Food records indicated that the obese subjects maintained their high caloric intake by consuming mostly foods of high caloric density, with occasional binge eating. They largely avoided foods of low intrinsic energy density and modified-calorie foods, ie, foods with decreased fat, nonnutritive sweeteners, or fillers. By substituting foods of lower caloric density for usual food choices from the same food group, obese persons could decrease caloric intake by 20% and increase potential for notable weight loss. PMID:1737901

  19. Vitamin K Intake and Atherosclerosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been hypothesized that insufficient intake of vitamin K may increase soft tissue calcification due to impaired gamma-carboxylation of the vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (MGP). The evidence to support this putative role of vitamin K intake in atherosclerosis is ...

  20. Power plant intake entrainment analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Edinger, J.E.; Kolluru, V.S.

    2000-04-01

    Power plant condenser cooling water intake entrainment of fish eggs and larvae is becoming an issue in evaluating environmental impacts around the plants. Methods are required to evaluate intake entrainment on different types of water bodies. Presented in this paper is a derivation of the basic relationships for evaluating entrainment from the standing crop of fish eggs and larvae for different regions of a water body, and evaluating the rate of entrainment from the standing crop. These relationships are coupled with a 3D hydrodynamic and transport model that provides the currents and flows required to complete the entrainment evaluation. Case examples are presented for a simple river system, and for the more complex Delaware River Estuary with multiple intakes. Example evaluations are made for individual intakes, and for the cumulative impacts of multiple intakes.

  1. Dietary Salt Intake and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Over the past century, salt has been the subject of intense scientific research related to blood pressure elevation and cardiovascular mortalities. Moderate reduction of dietary salt intake is generally an effective measure to reduce blood pressure. However, recently some in the academic society and lay media dispute the benefits of salt restriction, pointing to inconsistent outcomes noted in some observational studies. A reduction in dietary salt from the current intake of 9-12 g/day to the recommended level of less than 5-6 g/day will have major beneficial effects on cardiovascular health along with major healthcare cost savings around the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) strongly recommended to reduce dietary salt intake as one of the top priority actions to tackle the global non-communicable disease crisis and has urged member nations to take action to reduce population wide dietary salt intake to decrease the number of deaths from hypertension, cardiovascular disease and stroke. However, some scientists still advocate the possibility of increased risk of CVD morbidity and mortality at extremes of low salt intake. Future research may inform the optimal sodium reduction strategies and intake targets for general populations. Until then, we have to continue to build consensus around the greatest benefits of salt reduction for CVD prevention, and dietary salt intake reduction strategies must remain at the top of the public health agenda. PMID:25061468

  2. Fiber Intake and Childhood Appendicitis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brender, Jean D.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Parents of 135 children with appendicitis and of 212 comparison children were interviewed about their children's diet. Results suggest that a liberal intake of whole-grain breads and cereals may decrease the risk of appendicitis during childhood. (KH)

  3. Power Plant Water Intake Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitoun, Ibrahim H.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    In order to adequately assess the impact of power plant cooling water intake on an aquatic ecosystem, total ecosystem effects must be considered, rather than merely numbers of impinged or entrained organisms. (Author/RE)

  4. Reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system123

    PubMed Central

    Votruba, Susanne B; Franks, Paul W; Krakoff, Jonathan; Salbe, Arline D

    2010-01-01

    Background: Accurate assessment of energy intake is difficult but critical for the evaluation of eating behavior and intervention effects. Consequently, methods to assess ad libitum energy intake under controlled conditions have been developed. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the reproducibility of ad libitum energy intake with the use of a computerized vending machine system. Design: Twelve individuals (mean ± SD: 36 ± 8 y old; 41 ± 8% body fat) consumed a weight-maintaining diet for 3 d; subsequently, they self-selected all food with the use of a computerized vending machine system for an additional 3 d. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from the actual weight of foods consumed and expressed as a percentage of weight-maintenance energy needs (%WMEN). Subjects repeated the study multiple times during 2 y. The within-person reproducibility of energy intake was determined through the calculation of the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) between visits. Results: Daily energy intake for all subjects was 5020 ± 1753 kcal during visit 1 and 4855 ± 1615 kcal during visit 2. There were no significant associations between energy intake and body weight, body mass index, or percentage body fat while subjects used the vending machines, which indicates that intake was not driven by body size or need. Despite overconsumption (%WMEN = 181 ± 57%), the reproducibility of intake between visits, whether expressed as daily energy intake (ICC = 0.90), %WMEN (ICC = 0.86), weight of food consumed (ICC = 0.87), or fat intake (g/d; ICC = 0.87), was highly significant (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Although ad libitum energy intake exceeded %WMEN, the within-person reliability of this intake across multiple visits was high, which makes this a reproducible method for the measurement of ad libitum intake in subjects who reside in a research unit. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00342732. PMID:19923376

  5. Salt intake and hypertension therapy.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Mulatero, Paolo; Rabbia, Franco; Veglio, Franco

    2002-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for cardiovascular and renal organ damage. Environmental conditions affect the development of high blood pressure (BP), although genetic influences are also important. Current international guidelines recommend reducing dietary sodium to no more than 100 mmol (about 2.4 g sodium or approximately 6 g salt) per day to prevent BP rising; the current intake of sodium in industrialized countries is approximately double the recommended amount. Clinical trials (DASH and TOHP studies) have shown that dietary factors are fundamental in the prevention and control of BP. Low dietary sodium intake is particularly effective in preventing hypertension in subjects with an increased risk such as the overweight, borderline hypertensives or the elderly. A low-salt diet combined with anti-hypertensive therapies facilitates BP reduction independent of race. The hypotensive effect of calcium channel blockers is less dependent on salt intake than other drugs, such as ACE inhibitors or diuretics. Reduced sodium intake associated with other dietary changes (such as weight loss, and increasing potassium, calcium and magnesium intake) are important instruments for the prevention and therapy of hypertension. PMID:11936420

  6. [Bone and Nutrition. Bone and phosphorus intake].

    PubMed

    Arai, Hidekazu; Sakuma, Masae

    2015-07-01

    Phosphorus is necessary for bone mineralization. Although adequate phosphorus intake is essential for skeletal mineralization, it is reported that excessive phosphorus intake can induce deleterious effect on bone. Recently, since the Japanese diet has been westernized, phosphorus intake by the meat and dairy products has increased. Furthermore, along with the development of processed foods, excessive intake of inorganic phosphorus from food additives has become a problem. An adverse effect on parathyroid hormone (PTH) secretion from high phosphorus intake was seen only when calcium intake was inadequate. Dietary calcium to phosphorus ratio can be considered as one of the indicators that can predict the health of the bone. PMID:26119308

  7. Maternal intake of vitamin E and birth defects, National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2005

    PubMed Central

    Gilboa, Suzanne M.; Lee, Kyung A.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Traven, Flavia K.; Botto, Lorenzo D.; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Correa, Adolfo; Boyle, Coleen A.

    2015-01-01

    Background In a recent study, high maternal periconceptional intake of vitamin E was found to be associated with risk of congenital heart defects (CHDs). To explore this association further, we investigated the association between total daily vitamin E intake and selected birth defects. Methods We analyzed data from 4,525 controls and 8,665 cases from the 1997–2005 National Birth Defects Prevention Study. We categorized estimated periconceptional energy-adjusted total daily vitamin E intake from diet and supplements into quartiles (referent, lowest quartile). Associations between quartiles of energy-adjusted vitamin E intake and selected birth defects were adjusted for demographic, lifestyle, and nutritional factors. Results We observed a statistically significant association with the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.01 – 1.35) and all CHDs combined. Among CHD sub-types, we observed associations with left ventricular outflow tract obstruction defects, and its sub-type, coarctation of the aorta and the third quartile of vitamin E intake. Among defects other than CHDs, we observed associations between anorectal atresia and the third quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.66; 95% CI 1.01 – 2.72) and hypospadias and the fourth quartile of vitamin E intake (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09 – 1.87). Conclusions Selected quartiles of energy-adjusted estimated total daily vitamin E intake were associated with selected birth defects. However, because these few associations did not exhibit exposure-response patterns consistent with increasing risk associated with increasing intake of vitamin E, further studies are warranted to corroborate our findings. PMID:24740457

  8. A novel approach for food intake detection using electroglottography

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Muhammad; Fontana, Juan M; Sazonov, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Many methods for monitoring diet and food intake rely on subjects self-reporting their daily intake. These methods are subjective, potentially inaccurate and need to be replaced by more accurate and objective methods. This paper presents a novel approach that uses an Electroglottograph (EGG) device for an objective and automatic detection of food intake. Thirty subjects participated in a 4-visit experiment involving the consumption of meals with self-selected content. Variations in the electrical impedance across the larynx caused by the passage of food during swallowing were captured by the EGG device. To compare performance of the proposed method with a well-established acoustical method, a throat microphone was used for monitoring swallowing sounds. Both signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of 30 s and processed to extract wavelet features. Subject-independent classifiers were trained using Artificial Neural Networks, to identify periods of food intake from the wavelet features. Results from leave-one-out cross-validation showed an average per-epoch classification accuracy of 90.1% for the EGG-based method and 83.1% for the acoustic-based method, demonstrating the feasibility of using an EGG for food intake detection. PMID:24671094

  9. Are Dietary Intakes Related to Obesity in Children?

    PubMed Central

    Papandreou, Dimitrios; Makedou, Kali; Zormpa, Areti; Karampola, Maria; Ioannou, Anastasia; Hitoglou-Makedou, Areti

    2016-01-01

    AIM: The purpose of this study was to report obesity status and identify any dietary substances that may be related to obesity in healthy school children from Northern Greece. METHODS: Four hundred and twenty-five (n = 425) children were randomly selected to participate in the study. A 24-h recall of three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) was used to analyze the dietary data of the subjects. RESULTS: Out of 425 subjects, 146 (34.3%) of them were found to be overweight and obese. Energy, protein, carbohydrate and thiamin intake was statistically positively correlated with obesity while dietary iron intake was statistically negatively correlated with obesity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the children with dietary iron deficiency were 1.128 (95% CI: 0.002, 0.161 P < 0.031) times more likely of being obese compared to the normal group after adjustment for energy intake. CONCLUSIONS: Although most of the dietary intakes of our subjects were adequate, special consideration should be given to energy, carbohydrate, protein, and sugar and iron intake especially and its relation to obesity. Furthermore, additional studies are required to investigate any possible relation of low dietary iron consumption and obesity. PMID:27335587

  10. Muscle fatigue resistance in the rat hindlimb in vivo from low dietary intakes of tuna fish oil that selectively increase phospholipid n-3 docosahexaenoic acid according to muscle fibre type.

    PubMed

    Henry, R; Peoples, G E; McLennan, P L

    2015-09-28

    Dietary fish oil (FO) modulates muscle O2 consumption and contractile function, predictive of effects on muscle fatigue. High doses unattainable through human diet and muscle stimulation parameters used engender uncertainty in their physiological relevance. We tested the hypothesis that nutritionally relevant FO doses can modulate membrane fatty acid composition and muscle fatigue. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised to control (10% olive oil (OO) by weight) or low or moderate FO diet (LowFO and ModFO) (HiDHA tuna fish oil) for 15 weeks (LowFO: 0.3% FO, 9.7% OO, 0.25% energy as EPA+DHA; ModFO: 1.25% FO, 8.75% OO, 1.0% energy as EPA+DHA). Hindlimb muscle function was assessed under anaesthesia in vivo using repetitive 5 s burst sciatic nerve stimulation (0.05 ms, 7-12 V, 5 Hz, 10 s duty cycle, 300 s). There were no dietary differences in maximum developed muscle force. Repetitive peak developed force fell to 50% within 62 (SEM 10) s in controls and took longer to decline in FO-fed rats (LowFO 110 (SEM 15) s; ModFO 117 (sem 14) s) (P<0.05). Force within bursts was better sustained with FO and maximum rates of force development and relaxation declined more slowly. The FO-fed rats incorporated higher muscle phospholipid DHA-relative percentages than controls (P<0.001). Incorporation of DHA was greater in the fast-twitch gastrocnemius (Control 9.3 (SEM 0.8) %, LowFO 19.9 (SEM 0.4), ModFO 24.3 (SEM 1.0)) than in the slow-twitch soleus muscle (Control 5.1 (SEM 0.2), LowFO 14.3 (SEM 0.7), ModFO 18.0 (SEM 1.4)) (P<0.001), which was comparable with the myocardium, in line with muscle fibre characteristics. The LowFO and ModFO diets, emulating human dietary and therapeutic supplement intake, respectively, both elicited muscle membrane DHA enrichment and fatigue resistance, providing a foundation for translating these physiological effects to humans. PMID:26266774

  11. Calcium Intake: A Lifelong Proposition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amschler, Denise H.

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews the current problem of low calcium intake in the United States among all age groups, the role of calcium in the formation and maintenance of bone mass, and major factors influencing absorption. Osteoporosis is discussed, and current recommendations for Recommended Dietary allowance are provided. (Author/MT)

  12. 75 FR 3182 - Intake Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE Bureau of Prisons 28 CFR Part 522 RIN 1120-AB47 Intake Screening AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Bureau of Prisons (Bureau... to the Rules Unit, Office of General Counsel, Bureau of Prisons, 320 First Street, NW.,...

  13. Protein intake and bone health.

    PubMed

    Bonjour, Jean-Philippe

    2011-03-01

    Adequate nutrition plays an important role in the development and maintenance of bone structures resistant to usual mechanical stresses. In addition to calcium in the presence of an adequate supply of vitamin D, dietary proteins represent key nutrients for bone health and thereby function in the prevention of osteoporosis. Several studies point to a positive effect of high protein intake on bone mineral density or content. This fact is associated with a significant reduction in hip fracture incidence, as recorded in a large prospective study carried out in a homogeneous cohort of postmenopausal women. Low protein intake (< 0.8 g/kg body weight/day) is often observed in patients with hip fractures and an intervention study indicates that following orthopedic management, protein supplementation attenuates post-fracture bone loss, tends to increase muscle strength, and reduces medical complications and rehabilitation hospital stay. There is no evidence that high protein intake per se would be detrimental for bone mass and strength. Nevertheless, it appears reasonable to avoid very high protein diets (i. e. more than 2.0 g/kg body weight/day) when associated with low calcium intake (i. e. less than 600 mg/day). In the elderly, taking into account the attenuated anabolic response to dietary protein with ageing, there is concern that the current dietary protein recommended allowance (RDA), as set at 0.8 g/kg body weight/day, might be too low for the primary and secondary prevention of fragility fractures. PMID:22139564

  14. Food choice and intake: the human factor.

    PubMed

    Mela, D J

    1999-08-01

    Human perceptions and selection of food are derived from the prevailing and momentary food, agro-economic and cultural environment, cognitive and biological characteristics of individuals, and the real and perceived intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of foods themselves. The range of items typically chosen and consumed within a given population is largely determined by interaction of the external environmental context with guiding sets of implicit and explicit social and psychobiological 'rules'. Within the rather broad limits of biology, individual food choices and intake behaviours relate to and reflect aspects of food availability, existing habitual behaviours, learning mechanisms, and individual beliefs and expectations. Many of the relevant features of these variables are uniquely human, together determining what is 'food', when, how, by and with whom it is chosen and eaten, and in what quantities. They also provide the opportunities for individuals to establish and maintain a relatively stable set of culturally and biologically determined affective responses ('likes') and intake behaviours. Understanding of the potential contribution of these influences under different conditions can serve to explain many of the observed characteristics of human eating, and highlight potential avenues for intervention. PMID:10604182

  15. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  16. Dietary supplement use is associated with higher intakes of minerals from food sources1234

    PubMed Central

    Fulgoni, Victor L; Keast, Debra R; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2011-01-01

    Background: Dietary supplement use is extensive in US adults. Some reports suggested that supplement users had higher nutrient intakes from the diet than did nonusers, but to our knowledge this finding has not been examined in nationally representative survey data. Objective: In this analysis, we examined mineral intakes from the diet by supplement-use categories and how these supplements contributed to meeting or exceeding Dietary Reference Intakes for selected minerals. Design: Data from adults (≥19 y of age; n = 8860) who participated in NHANES 2003–2006, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey, were examined. Supplement use was defined as the participant's self-reported use of a supplement that contained one or more selected minerals. Results: Dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for magnesium, copper, potassium, and selenium in male supplement users than in nonusers. For women, dietary intakes of minerals from food sources were higher for users than for nonusers for each mineral examined except for selenium. In women, users of calcium-containing dietary supplements were much more likely to meet the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) than were nonusers. Even after consideration of supplement use, >14% of adults had inadequate intakes for calcium and magnesium on the basis of the percentage of adults with usual intakes less than the EAR. The prevalence of adults who exceeded the tolerable upper intake level (UL) for calcium, zinc, iron, and magnesium was higher in users than in nonusers. Conclusions: Individuals who used mineral-containing dietary supplements had higher mineral intakes from food sources in the diet than did nonusers. For all minerals examined, and particularly for calcium and magnesium in men and women and iron in women, supplement use decreased the prevalence of intake inadequacy for each respective mineral; however, supplements contributed to risk of potentially excessive intakes for calcium, iron, zinc

  17. Nutrient Intakes and Vegetable and White Potato Consumption by Children Aged 1 to 3 Years.

    PubMed

    Storey, Maureen L; Anderson, Patricia A

    2016-01-01

    In 2020, for the first time, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans will include recommendations for children from birth to age 24 mo. We examined average nutrient intakes as well as total vegetable and white potato (WP) consumption among children aged 1-3 y using day 1 dietary data from the NHANES 2009-2012 and the Food Patterns Equivalents Database 2009-2012. Appropriate survey weights were used to calculate average daily consumption of total vegetables and WPs, which included French-fried potatoes and chips, for boys and girls aged 1-3 y. We calculated mean intakes of selected nutrients of concern, including vitamin D, potassium, dietary fiber (DF), and calcium. We also examined intakes of selected nutrients by major food group. Average intakes of most nutrients, including calcium, by children aged 1-3 y exceeded Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). However, average intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were 67%, 55%, and 49% of DRIs, respectively. Mean total vegetable intake was less than the recommendation of 1 cup/d. Boys and girls aged 1-3 y consumed an average of 0.58 cup equivalents of total vegetables on the day of the survey, which included 0.16 cups of WPs. Average vegetable consumption and mean intakes of potassium, DF, and vitamin D were far below recommendations. The consumption of all vegetables, particularly those that are excellent sources of potassium and DF, such as potatoes, should be encouraged. PMID:26773032

  18. Body development in sows, feed intake and maternal capacity. Part 1: performance, pre-breeding and lactation feed intake traits of primiparous sows.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C R G; Bunter, K L

    2011-12-01

    This study examined the genetic and phenotypic associations between finisher performance, pre-breeding body condition of the gilt, subsequent lactation feed intake and survival of the primiparous sow to farrow in the second parity. Complete data were available on ~2200 sows, along with additional cohort and historical performance data. Genetic variation was observed for average lactation feed intake (heritability: 0.18 ± 0.04), with a significant proportion of observed variation in average intake attributable to variation in lactation length. Weight and body condition (fatness) at finishing were very highly correlated genetically (0.89 ± 0.03 and 0.90 ± 0.02) and moderately correlated phenotypically (0.58 ± 0.01 and 0.58 ± 0.01) with weight and body condition before mating. Estimates of genetic (r(g)) and phenotypic (r(p)) correlations between feed intake recorded at finishing and average lactation feed intake (LADI) were moderate (r(g) = 0.26 ± 0.16 and 0.42 ± 0.22) and low (r(p) = 0.07 ± 0.02 and 0.08 ± 0.03), with r(g) dependent on the models and data subsets used for lactation intake. Non-unity genetic correlations imply that different genetic control mechanisms regulate feed intake during growth and lactation. Moderate genetic correlations between lactation feed intake with live weight (TWT) or growth rate (TADG) recorded at selection and live weight before mating (0.42 ± 0.11, 0.42 ± 0.11 and 0.37 ± 0.15) were considerably higher than the corresponding phenotypic correlations for LADI with TADG or 29WT (0.09 ± 0.02 and 0.08 ± 0.02). Correlations between fatness at selection (TFAT) or mating (29FT) and LADI were negative but not significantly different from 0. Overall, these data suggest that there is exploitable genetic variation for feed intake during lactation, and that selection is possible if lactation feed intakes are recorded. However, genetic correlations suggest that early growth seems to be related to lactation feed intake capacity

  19. Calcium intake and risk of fracture: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Leung, William; Tai, Vicky; Bastin, Sonja; Gamble, Greg D; Grey, Andrew; Reid, Ian R

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the evidence underpinning recommendations to increase calcium intake through dietary sources or calcium supplements to prevent fractures. Design Systematic review of randomised controlled trials and observational studies of calcium intake with fracture as an endpoint. Results from trials were pooled with random effects meta-analyses. Data sources Ovid Medline, Embase, PubMed, and references from relevant systematic reviews. Initial searches undertaken in July 2013 and updated in September 2014. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Randomised controlled trials or cohort studies of dietary calcium, milk or dairy intake, or calcium supplements (with or without vitamin D) with fracture as an outcome and participants aged >50. Results There were only two eligible randomised controlled trials of dietary sources of calcium (n=262), but 50 reports from 44 cohort studies of relations between dietary calcium (n=37), milk (n=14), or dairy intake (n=8) and fracture outcomes. For dietary calcium, most studies reported no association between calcium intake and fracture (14/22 for total, 17/21 for hip, 7/8 for vertebral, and 5/7 for forearm fracture). For milk (25/28) and dairy intake (11/13), most studies also reported no associations. In 26 randomised controlled trials, calcium supplements reduced the risk of total fracture (20 studies, n=58 573; relative risk 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.81 to 0.96) and vertebral fracture (12 studies, n=48 967. 0.86, 0.74 to 1.00) but not hip (13 studies, n=56 648; 0.95, 0.76 to 1.18) or forearm fracture (eight studies, n=51 775; 0.96, 0.85 to 1.09). Funnel plot inspection and Egger’s regression suggested bias toward calcium supplements in the published data. In randomised controlled trials at lowest risk of bias (four studies, n=44 505), there was no effect on risk of fracture at any site. Results were similar for trials of calcium monotherapy and co-administered calcium and vitamin D. Only one trial

  20. An animal model of differential genetic risk for methamphetamine intake

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Tamara J.; Shabani, Shkelzen

    2015-01-01

    The question of whether genetic factors contribute to risk for methamphetamine (MA) use and dependence has not been intensively investigated. Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. Using selective breeding, we created lines of mice that differ in genetic risk for voluntary MA intake and identified the chromosomal addresses of contributory genes. A quantitative trait locus was identified on chromosome 10 that accounts for more than 50% of the genetic variance in MA intake in the selected mouse lines. In addition, behavioral and physiological screening identified differences corresponding with risk for MA intake that have generated hypotheses that are testable in humans. Heightened sensitivity to aversive and certain physiological effects of MA, such as MA-induced reduction in body temperature, are hallmarks of mice bred for low MA intake. Furthermore, unlike MA-avoiding mice, MA-preferring mice are sensitive to rewarding and reinforcing MA effects, and to MA-induced increases in brain extracellular dopamine levels. Gene expression analyses implicate the importance of a network enriched in transcription factor genes, some of which regulate the mu opioid receptor gene, Oprm1, in risk for MA use. Neuroimmune factors appear to play a role in differential response to MA between the mice bred for high and low intake. In addition, chromosome 10 candidate gene studies provide strong support for a trace amine-associated receptor 1 gene, Taar1, polymorphism in risk for MA intake. MA is a trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) agonist, and a non-functional Taar1 allele segregates with high MA consumption. Thus, reduced TAAR1 function has the potential to increase risk for MA use. Overall, existing findings support the MA drinking lines as a powerful model for identifying genetic factors involved in determining risk for harmful MA use. Future directions include the development of a

  1. A STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT ON INTAKE TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an updated evaluation of mechanisms and intake designs for reducing the number of fish entrained and impinged at water intake facilities. These mechanisms consist of intake configurations, behavioral barriers for guiding fish past intake entrances, physical sc...

  2. Forty mouse strain survey of water and sodium intake

    PubMed Central

    Tordoff, Michael G.; Bachmanov, Alexander A.; Reed, Danielle R.

    2007-01-01

    We measured voluntary water and sodium intakes of 40 inbred strains of mice. Groups of ~10 males and ~10 females from each strain received a series of 48-h tests with a choice between a bottle of water and a bottle of one of the following: water, 25, 75, and 225 mM NaCl, 25, 75, and 225 sodium lactate. Sodium solution intakes were influenced by strain, sex, anion and concentration: Nine strains drank significantly more chloride than lactate, and only one strain (I/LnJ) drank significantly more lactate than chloride. The other 30 strains drank similar volumes of chloride and lactate. Sodium intakes were higher in females than males of 8 strains and did not differ by sex in the other 32 strains. Some strains had consistently high sodium intakes and preferred all sodium solutions to water (129S1/SvImJ, MA/MyJ, NZW/LacJ and SWR/J), some showed indifference (i.e. preferences not significantly different from 50%) to all concentrations tested (A/J, C57BL/6J, FVB/NJ and SEA/GnJ), and some had consistently low sodium intakes (AKR/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/10J, CBA/J, DBA/2J, I/LnJ, JF1/Ms, LP/J, NON/LtJ, PERA/EiJ, PL/J, and RIIIS/J). The results illustrate the diversity of voluntary sodium intake in mice and will assist in the selection of appropriate strains for focused genetic and physiological analyses. PMID:17490693

  3. Effect of Flow Rate of Side-Type Orifice Intake on Withdrawn Water Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guangning

    2014-01-01

    Side-type orifice intake is a type of selective withdrawal facility used in managing reservoirs to mitigate the negative effects of low-temperature water. Based on the temperature data of a thermal stratified reservoir in China, an experiment was conducted in flume to study the influence of intake flow rate on withdrawn water temperature with different temperature distributions. Results indicated that withdrawn water temperature changed with different flow rates. The temperature change was determined by the water temperature gradients above and below the intake, whereas the change trend of temperature depended on the difference between the water temperature gradient above and below the intake. We likewise proposed a new equation with which the withdrawn water temperature of a thermal stratified reservoir using a side-type orifice could be calculated. These findings could be directly applied to the design and operation of side-type orifice intake in thermal stratified reservoirs. PMID:25019100

  4. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  5. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake.

    PubMed

    Loper, Hillary B; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick; Steinle, Nanette

    2015-02-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as "flavor." It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  6. Taste perception, associated hormonal modulation, and nutrient intake

    PubMed Central

    Loper, Hillary B.; La Sala, Michael; Dotson, Cedrick

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that taste perception influences food intake. After ingestion, gustatory receptors relay sensory signals to the brain, which segregates, evaluates, and distinguishes the stimuli, leading to the experience known as “flavor.” It is well accepted that five taste qualities – sweet, salty, bitter, sour, and umami – can be perceived by animals. In this review, the anatomy and physiology of human taste buds, the hormonal modulation of taste function, the importance of genetic chemosensory variation, and the influence of gustatory functioning on macronutrient selection and eating behavior are discussed. Individual genotypic variation results in specific phenotypes of food preference and nutrient intake. Understanding the role of taste in food selection and ingestive behavior is important for expanding our understanding of the factors involved in body weight maintenance and the risk of chronic diseases including obesity, atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, liver disease, and hypertension. PMID:26024495

  7. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months. There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior. Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge. Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  8. Low Nutrient Intake Is an Essential Component of Frailty in Older Persons

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Frongillo, Edward A.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Lauretani, Fulvio; Semba, Richard D.; Fried, Linda P.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2009-01-01

    Background Poor nutrient intake is conceptualized to be a component of frailty, but this hypothesis has been little investigated. We examined the association between low energy and nutrient intake and frailty. Methods We used data from 802 persons aged 65 years or older participating to the InCHIANTI (Invecchiare in Chianti, aging in the Chianti area) study. Frailty was defined by having at least two of the following criteria: low muscle strength, feeling of exhaustion, low walking speed, and reduced physical activity. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) questionnaire was used to estimate the daily intake of energy and nutrients. Low intake was defined using the value corresponding to the lowest sex-specific intake quintile of energy and specific nutrients. Adjusted logistic regression analyses were used to study the association of frailty and frailty criteria with low intakes of energy and nutrients. Results Daily energy intake ≤21 kcal/kg was significantly associated with frailty (odds ratio [OR]: 1.24; 95% CI: 1.02–1.5). After adjusting for energy intake, a low intake of protein (OR: 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18–3.31); vitamins D (OR: 2.35; 95% CI: 1.48–3.73), E (OR: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.28–3.33), C (OR: 2.15; 95% CI: 1.34–3.45), and folate (OR: 1.84; 95% CI: 1.14–2.98); and having a low intake of more than three nutrients (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.29–3.50) were significantly and independently related to frailty. Conclusions This study provides evidence that low intakes of energy and selected nutrients are independently associated with frailty. PMID:16799141

  9. Salt intake belief, knowledge, and behavior: a cross-sectional study of older rural Chinese adults.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Wu, Tao; Chu, Hongling; Feng, Xiangxian; Shi, Jingpu; Zhang, Ruijuan; Zhang, Yuhong; Zhang, Jianxin; Li, Nicole; Yan, Lijing; Niu, Wenyi; Wu, Yangfeng

    2016-08-01

    Excess sodium consumption is a major cause of high blood pressure and subsequent vascular disease. However, the factors driving people's salt intake behavior remains largely unknown. This study aims to assess the relationship of salt intake behaviors with knowledge and belief on salt and health among older adults in rural China.A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 4693 older participants (men ≥50 and women ≥60 years old) randomly selected from 120 rural villages in 5 northern provinces in China. Healthy salt intake behavior was defined as either not eating pickled foods or not adding pickles/soy sauce/salt when food was not salty enough in prior 3 months.There were 81% participants having healthy salt intake behavior. Healthy salt intake behavior was more common among women (P < 0.01) and was positively associated with age (P < 0.01) and poorer health status (P < 0.01), but negatively associated with years in school (P < 0.05). After adjusting for age, sex, years in school, and health status, participants who believed in the harm of high salt intake were more likely to have healthy salt intake behavior, compared with those who did not believe (Odds Ratio = 1.6, P < 0.001). Knowledge of salt intake was not significantly related to healthy salt intake behavior.Our study demonstrated that belief in the harm of high salt intake rather than knowledge about salt and health was associated with healthy salt intake behavior, independent of age, sex, years in school, and health status. Future population salt reduction programs should place more emphasis on establishing health beliefs rather than only delivering salt-related knowledge.Clinical trial registration number of the study is NCT01259700. PMID:27495056

  10. Dietary Intake and Serum Level of Carotenoids in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Asbaghi, Somayeh; Saedisomeolia, Ahmad; Hosseini, Mostafa; Honarvar, Niyaz Mohammadzadeh; Khosravi, Adnan; Azargashb, Eznollah

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dietary intake and serum levels of some selected carotenoids of lung cancer patients with healthy subjects. Thirty-five lung cancer patients and 33 healthy people were enrolled into this case-control study. Daily intake of nutrients was estimated using a semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire and a 3-day 24-h food recall questionnaire. The concentration of serum beta-carotene and lycopene were analyzed using a high performance liquid chromatography method. Case and control groups did not differ by the means of age, gender, smoking habits, weight, body mass index, mean daily energy intake, mean daily fat intake, and the percentage of daily energy provided by fat to total daily energy intake. The beta-carotene and lycopene intake of the case subjects was 96% and 195% greater than that of the control subjects. Daily intake of fruits and vegetables in the cancer group was higher than the control group. However, the serum concentration of 118% beta-carotene and 60% lycopene were higher in the control group. Despite a higher daily dietary intake of beta-carotene and lycopene by lung cancer patients, serum beta-carotene and lycopene concentrations were significantly lower than the group without cancer. PMID:26168284

  11. Do obese eat faster than lean subjects? Food intake studies in Pima Indian men.

    PubMed

    Rising, R; Larson, D E; Ravussin, E

    1994-01-01

    Food intake rate has previously been derived from observation of eating behavior in laboratory settings or in public eating establishments. Although it has been suggested that obese individuals eat faster than lean individuals, observations of such an "obese eating style" have yielded mixed results. In the present study, the relationship between ad-libitum food intake rate and obesity was evaluated over 4 days on a metabolic ward in 28 healthy Pima Indian men (Mean +/- SD; 29 +/- 7 y, 100.4 +/- 27.1 kg, 33 +/- 10% body fat) using an automated food selection system containing a large variety of foods. Total energy intake averaged 18829 +/- 3299 kJ/d consisting of 47 +/- 4, 40 +/- 3, and 13 +/- 1 percent of carbohydrate, fat and protein, respectively. The average meal duration was 25 +/- 7 min. Food intake rate was 68 +/- 21 g/min while carbohydrate, fat and protein intake rates were 23 +/- 6, 9 +/- 3 and 6 +/- 2 g/min, respectively. Food intake rate correlated negatively with % body fat (r = -0.61, P < 0.01). Similar relationships were found between the intake rates of carbohydrate, fat and protein and body fatness. Only prospective studies will indicate whether a slow food intake rate may contribute to the etiology of obesity by possibly reducing satiety. PMID:16353604

  12. Beverage intake and obesity in Australian children

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There have been increases in the obesity and overweight rates in Australian children over the past 25 years and it has been suggested that sugar sweetened beverages (SSB) have played a role in this increase. Objective The objectives of this study were to: (1) examine SSB intakes in the 2007 Australian Children's Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey (2) relate SSB intake to rates of overweight and obesity, socio-economic status (SES), TV viewing time, and activity levels and (3) compare 2007 SSB intakes with data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey. Design A computer assisted 24 h dietary recall in 4,400 children aged 2-16 years was performed. Results In the 2007 survey 47% of all children reported drinking SSBs with 25% consuming sugar sweetened soft drinks on the day of the survey. The mean consumption of soft drink was 436 g/d/consumer. Activity levels were unrelated to SSB consumption. Television viewing was positively related to soft drink consumption with a difference of 55 g/day from bottom to top tertile of time spent TV viewing (p = 0.015) in children aged 9-16 years. 55% of SSB consumption occurred at home and 10% occurred at school. Lower SES status was associated with a greater prevalence of SSB consumption- 30% for the lowest SES quartile vs 19% in the highest quartile. The proportion of overweight who consumed SSBs (which excludes 100% fruit) was not different from the non-overweight children although the proportion of SSB consumers in the 6% of children who were obese was significant compared with the non-overweight children (59% vs 47%, p < 0.05). In the 2007 survey 23% of children were overweight (17%) or obese (6%) while in the 1995 survey this figure was 21%. The proportion of children consuming SSBs in 1995 and 2007 for selected age groups were: 2-3 years - 25.8% and 12.8% respectively and 4-7 years - 33.6% and 20.5% respectively (p < 0.001 for both). Conclusions This cross-sectional data set provides evidence that SSB

  13. Assessment of calcium intake by adolescents

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Cristiane Franco; da Silveira, Carla Rosane; Beghetto, Mariur; de Mello, Paula Daniel; de Mello, Elza Daniel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the daily calcium intake of adolescents in schools from Chapecó, Santa Catarina, Southern Brazil, to check if calcium intake is in accordance with the Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI), and to investigate variables associated with daily calcium intake. METHODS: Cross-sectional study approved by the Institutional Review Board and developed in 2010. Students of the 8th grade completed questionnaires with personal data and questions about the calcium-rich foods intake frequency. In order to compare students with adequate (1300mg) or inadequate intake of calcium/day (<1300mg), parametric and nonparametric tests were used. RESULTS: A total of 214 students with a mean age of 14.3±1.0 years were enrolled. The median daily calcium intake was 540mg (interquartile range - IQ: 312-829mg) and only 25 students (11.7%) had calcium intake within the recommendations of the DRI for age. Soft drink consumption ≥3 times/week was associated with a lower intake of calcium. CONCLUSIONS: Few students ingested adequate levels of calcium for the age group. It is necessary to develop a program to encourage a greater intake of calcium-rich foods in adolescence. PMID:25119753

  14. Floating intake reduces pump damage

    SciTech Connect

    Kronig, A.

    1993-12-31

    The solution to a costly sand erosion problem at the Grande Dixence hydroelectric project in Switzerland turned out to be as simple as a floating pump. The 726-MW Grande Dixence project drains a 350-square-kilometer reach of the Zermatt and Herens valleys in the southwestern Swiss Alps. About half of the drainage area is covered by active glaciers. Because the glaciers in Zermatt Valley are so low in altitude, their water is collected in Z`mutt Reservoir at the base of the Matterhorn, then pumped up 500 meters for transport to the main Grande Disence Reservoir near Sion. The glacier water is heavily laden with sand. In spite of a gravel pass and a desilter, the 700,000-acubic-meter Z`mutt Reservoir receives large quantities of sand. The sand tends to remain in solution because of the low water temperatures (1 to 2 degrees Centigrade). In the original intake system, the sand would be sucked into the pump intakes, causing extensive erosion to the pump wheels and an expensive yearly program of repair. (Pump damage averaged 200,000 Swiss Francs ($284,000 U.S.) per year between 1980 and 1985.)

  15. Effect of Zinc Intake on Growth in Infants: A Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nissensohn, M; Sánchez-Villegas, A; Fuentes Lugo, D; Henríquez Sánchez, P; Doreste Alonso, J; Peña Quintana, L; Ruano, C; Lowe, N L; Hall Moran, V; Skinner, A L; Warthon-Medina, M; Serra-Majem, L

    2016-01-01

    A systematic review and meta-analysis of available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted to evaluate the effect of zinc (Zn) intake on growth in infants. Out of 5500 studies identified through electronic searches and reference lists, 19 RCTs were selected after applying the exclusion/inclusion criteria. The influence of Zn intake on growth was considered in the overall meta-analysis. Other variables were also taken into account as possible effect modifiers: doses of Zn intake, intervention duration, nutritional status, and risk of bias. From each select growth study, final measures of weight, length, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC), head circumference, weight for age z-score (WAZ), length for age z-score (LAZ), and weight for length z-score (WLZ) were assessed. Pooled β and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. Additionally, we carried out a sensitivity analysis. Zn intake was not associated with weight, length, MUAC, head circumference, and LAZ in the pooled analyses. However, Zn intake had a positive and statistically effect on WAZ (β = 0.06; 95%CI 0.02 to 0.10) and WLZ (β = 0.05; 95%CI 0.01 to 0.08). The dose-response relationship between Zn intake and these parameters indicated that a doubling of Zn intake increased WAZ and WLZ by approximately 4%. Substantial heterogeneity was present only in length analyses (I(2) = 45%; p = 0.03). Zn intake was positively associated with length values at short time (four to 20 weeks) (β = 0.01; CI 95% 0 to 0.02) and at medium doses of Zn (4.1 to 8 mg/day) (β = 0.003; CI 95% 0 to 0.01). Nevertheless, the effect magnitude was small. Our results indicate that Zn intake increases growth parameters of infants. Nonetheless, interpretation of these results should be carefully considered. PMID:25365524

  16. Genetic regulation of prepartum dry matter intake in Holstein cows.

    PubMed

    Shonka, B N; Tao, S; Dahl, G E; Spurlock, D M

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for dry matter intake (DMI) in prepartum nonlactating and in lactating Holstein cows. Measurements were recorded on cows from Iowa State University (ISU) and the University of Florida (UF) dairy herds. Individual feed intake data were recorded daily at ISU from approximately 30 d prepartum through 150 d in milk (DIM). Individual intakes from cows at UF were recorded for approximately 42 d pre- and postpartum. Prepartum DMI traits were defined as DMI on d -15 (multiparous) or d -8 (primiparous) relative to calving date (DRYDMI), DMI on d -1 before parturition (CALVEDMI), and the negative of the slope of a regression line fitted through the last 14 (multiparous) or 7 (primiparous) days before calving (DEC). Lactation DMI traits were defined as DMI at 30 DIM (DMI30) and 100 DIM (DMI100; ISU data only). The final data set included 245 primiparous and 221 multiparous cows from ISU, and 125 multiparous cows from UF. Heritability estimates were 0.43, 0.64, 0.32, and 0.62 for DRYDMI, CALVEDMI, DEC, and DMI30, respectively. The estimate of heritability for DMI100 (ISU only) was 0.52. The genetic correlation between DRYDMI and DMI30 was 0.97. Thus, DMI prepartum is a moderately heritable trait that is highly correlated with intake during early lactation. Genetic correlations between DEC and DMI during lactation were lower and similar to standard error estimates (-0.24 ± 0.22 for DEC and DMI30 for combined data, and -0.13 ± 0.27 for DEC and DMI100 in ISU data). Thus, selection for altered DMI during lactation may not dramatically affect the depression in intake that occurs before parturition. PMID:26319760

  17. Soda Consumption During Ad Libitum Food Intake Predicts Weight Change

    PubMed Central

    Bundrick, Sarah C.; Thearle, Marie S.; Venti, Colleen A.; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2013-01-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index [BMI] 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20%) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=–0.27, P=0.0001), and choosing low-fat foods (r=−0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  18. Feed Intake Regulation for the Female Broiler Breeder: In Theory and in Practice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The modern commercial broiler is the product of intensive genetic selection for rapid and efficient growth. An unintended consequence of this selective breeding has been the loss of the ability for self-regulation of feed intake to closely match the requirements for maintenance, growth and reproduc...

  19. Genetic parameters of growth, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass composition of dual-purpose bulls in performance testing.

    PubMed

    Jensen, J; Mao, I L; Andersen, B B; Madsen, P

    1991-03-01

    Genetic parameters for growth, total energy intake, feed conversion ratio, average daily energy intake and carcass composition were estimated in an experiment with 650 bull calves from 31 half-sib groups of Holstein Friesian or Brown Swiss sires. All traits analyzed had an amount of additive genetic variance that allows for considerable response to selection. No interaction between genotype (sire group) and proportion of roughage in the diet was found. Daily gain was strongly correlated negatively with feed conversion ratio but positively correlated with daily energy intake. Results indicate that genetic selection for either daily gain or average daily energy intake would decrease carcass fatness at a constant slaughter weight. However, the environmental correlation between daily energy intake and carcass fatness was positive. PMID:2061263

  20. Children's Daily Fruit and Vegetable Intake: Associations with Maternal Intake and Child Weight Status

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paige; Moore, Renee H.; Kral, Tanja V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate associations between children's and their mothers' fruit and vegetable (FV) intake and children's FV intake and weight status. Methods: Mothers (n = 39) residing in Philadelphia, PA completed a subsection of the Diet History Questionnaire assessing their FV intake. Mothers also completed this questionnaire to estimate FV…

  1. Gender Differences in Psychiatric Disorders at Juvenile Probation Intake

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Gail A.; McReynolds, Larkin S.; Ko, Susan J.; Katz, Laura M.; Carpenter, Jennifer R.

    2005-01-01

    Objective. We identified gender differences in psychiatric disorders among youths at probation intake. Methods. We measured disorders with the Voice Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children among 991 randomly selected youths (200 girls) at probation intake in 8 Texas counties. Logistic regression analyses predicted diagnostic clusters by gender, adjusting for demographics and offense characteristics. Results. Demographic and offense characteristics explained small but interpretable and specific variance in diagnostic profile. Girls’ rates of anxiety and affective disorders were higher than boys’ (odds ratios = 0.59 and 0.32, respectively). Girls with violent offenses, compared with other groups, were 3 to 5 times as likely to report anxiety disorders. Conclusions. Among youths with conduct problems, girls demonstrated an elevated risk for co-occurring anxiety or affective disorder. PMID:15623873

  2. Jet engine air intake system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sorensen, N. E.; Latham, E. A. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An axisymmetric air intake system for a jet aircraft engine comprising a fixed cowl extending outwardly from the face of the engine, a centerbody coaxially disposed within the cowl, and an actuator for axially displacing the centerbody within the cowl was developed. The cowl and centerbody define a main airflow passageway therebetween, the configuration of which is changed by displacement of the centerbody. The centerbody includes a forwardly-located closeable air inlet which communicates with a centerbody auxiliary airflow passageway to provide auxiliary airflow to the engine. In one embodiment, a system for opening and closing the centerbody air inlet is provided by a dual-member centerbody, the forward member of which may be displaced axially with respect to the aft member.

  3. Association Between Low Dairy Intake During Pregnancy and Risk of Small-for-Gestational-Age Infants.

    PubMed

    Olmedo-Requena, Rocío; Amezcua-Prieto, Carmen; Luna-Del-Castillo, Juan de Dios; Lewis-Mikhael, Anne-Mary; Mozas-Moreno, Juan; Bueno-Cavanillas, Aurora; Jiménez-Moleón, José Juan

    2016-06-01

    Background Inadequate maternal nutrition is regarded as one of the most important indicators of fetal growth. The aim of this study was to analyze the associated risk of having a small for gestational age (SGA) infant according to the mother's dairy intake during the first half of pregnancy. Methods A prospective cohort study was performed using 1175 healthy pregnant women selected from the catchment area of Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital, Granada (Spain). SGA was defined as neonates weighing less than the 10th percentile, adjusted for gestational age. Factors associated with SGA were analyzed using logistic regression models. Population attributable fractions of SGA according to dairy intake were estimated. Results Dairy intake among women who gave birth to SGA infants was 513.9, versus 590.3 g/day for women with appropriate size for gestational age infants (P = 0.003). An increased intake of dairy products by 100 g/day during the first half of pregnancy decreased the risk of having a SGA infant by 11.0 %, aOR = 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). A dose-response gradient between dairy intake and SGA was observed. Conclusions An inadequate intake of dairy products is associated with a higher risk of SGA. Our results suggest a possible causal relation between dairy intake during pregnancy and the weight of the newborn, although we cannot discard residual confounding. These results should be further supported by properly designed studies. PMID:26971269

  4. Motorcycle with closeable engine intake exhaust passages

    SciTech Connect

    Kazuta, H.; Kawai, Y.; Tsuchida, N.

    1984-03-06

    An intake and exhaust system for a compact motorcycle including a valve arrangement for closing both the intake and exhaust systems so as to preclude the excape of fuel vapors to the surrounding area when the motorcycle is not in use.

  5. Nutritional intake of elite football referees.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor Hugo; Gonçalves, Liliana; Meneses, Tiago; Moreira, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    There is a paucity of dietary data in football referees. In this study, 23 elite main and assistant referees (34.4 ± 5.6 years) completed a 7-day dietary record during the competitive season. No nutritional intake differences were observed between main and assistant referees. Referees' mean daily energy intake (DEI) was 2819 ± 279 kcal. The intake of proteins (1.7 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)), carbohydrates (4.1 ± 0.8 g · kg(-1)) and fats (1.4 ± 0.2 g · kg(-1)) represented, respectively, 18.4 ± 1.5%, 44.4 ± 4.4% and 34.6 ± 4.1% of the DEI. Carbohydrate intakes before, during and after exercise were 66 ± 42, 7 ± 15 and 120 ± 62 g. Daily carbohydrate, fibre, polyunsaturated fat and water intakes were below recommendations, while fat, saturated fat, cholesterol and sodium intakes were above recommended values. The prevalence of inadequate intake was high for vitamin E (96%), folate (74%), vitamin A (61%), vitamin C (39%), magnesium (26%) and calcium (22%). Carbohydrate intake before, during and after exercise were far from achieving the minimum recommended values. Most referees demonstrated a negligent behaviour of hydration during exercise. Referees would benefit from dietary education in order to optimise performance and health. PMID:24784464

  6. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R; Dalsgaard, Trine K; Bertram, Hanne C

    2015-06-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  7. Metabolomics to Explore Impact of Dairy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Hong; Clausen, Morten R.; Dalsgaard, Trine K.; Bertram, Hanne C.

    2015-01-01

    Dairy products are an important component in the Western diet and represent a valuable source of nutrients for humans. However, a reliable dairy intake assessment in nutrition research is crucial to correctly elucidate the link between dairy intake and human health. Metabolomics is considered a potential tool for assessment of dietary intake instead of traditional methods, such as food frequency questionnaires, food records, and 24-h recalls. Metabolomics has been successfully applied to discriminate between consumption of different dairy products under different experimental conditions. Moreover, potential metabolites related to dairy intake were identified, although these metabolites need to be further validated in other intervention studies before they can be used as valid biomarkers of dairy consumption. Therefore, this review provides an overview of metabolomics for assessment of dairy intake in order to better clarify the role of dairy products in human nutrition and health. PMID:26091233

  8. Trans fatty acid intake and emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Holt, Megan E; Lee, Jerry W; Morton, Kelly R; Tonstad, Serena

    2015-06-01

    We examined whether there is a relationship between trans fatty acid intakes and emotion regulation, mediated by positive or negative affect. Archival data on 1699 men and 3293 women were used to measure trans fatty acid intake at baseline, positive, and negative affects and emotion regulation at follow-up. Higher trans fatty acid intake related to subsequent difficulties with emotional awareness (p = 0.045), clarity (p = 0.012), and regulation strategies (p = 0.009). Affect mediated these relationships. Lower trans fatty acid intake associated with increased positive and decreased negative affects which, in turn, associated with improved emotion regulation. Trans fatty acid intakes may be associated with subsequent ability to regulate emotions. PMID:26032795

  9. Rapid assessment of dietary calcium intake.

    PubMed

    Nordblad, Mikaela; Graham, Fiona; Mughal, M Zulf; Padidela, Raja

    2016-07-01

    A five-food item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a 3-day food diary (3DFD) were used to estimate daily dietary calcium (Ca) intake in 32 patients aged 1-17 years. Median and IQR of Ca intake from 3DFD was 840 mg and 438 mg while from FFQ it was 700 mg and 987 mg, respectively. The non-parametrical Bland-Altman limits of agreement plot between two methods showed that most of the values fell between the limits of agreement at +794 mg and -388 mg. The FFQ had a specificity of 93% in identifying children who consumed inadequate amount of dietary Ca and a sensitivity of 78% in identifying children whose dietary Ca intake exceeded UK's Reference Nutrient Intake. Thus the FFQ allows rapid estimation of children with low daily dietary Ca intake in the clinic setting; however it does not replace 3DFD. PMID:26662924

  10. INTERNATIONAL UNION OF OPERATING ENGINEERS NATIONAL HAZMAT PROGRAM - PORTER-CABLE CIRCULAR SAW OENHP: 2001-04, VERSION A

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-01-15

    Florida International University's (FIU) Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (HCET) evaluated five saws for their effectiveness in cutting specially prepared fiberglass-reinforced plywood crates. These crates were built as surrogates for crates that presently hold radioactively contaminated glove boxes at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Los Alamos facility. The Porter-Cable circular saw was assessed on August 15-16, 2001 (Porter-Cable No.1 and Porter-Cable No.2, respectively). During the FIU test of efficacy, a team from the Operating Engineers National Hazmat Program (OENHP) evaluated the occupational safety and health issues associated with this technology. The Porter-Cable saw is a straightforward machine for cutting wood of varying thickness. The blade is fully guarded with a fixed upper and a lower retractable guard. The lower guard retracts as the blade engages the work piece. The unit is operated with an on/off guarded trigger switch and is supported with a handgrip mounted near the front of the saw. The saw is equipped with a directional nozzle, which aims sawdust away from the operator and the line of cut. An optional vacuum system, attached to the directional nozzle, is used to remove and collect dust. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.1, personal noise sampling indicated that one worker was under and one was at the Occupational Safety and Health Administration's (OSHA) Action Level of 85 decibels (dBA) with time-weighted averages (TWA's) of 82.7 and 84.6 dBA, respectively. During the demonstration of Porter-Cable No.2, however, both workers did exceed the Action Level with TWA's of 89.7 and 90.0 dBA. These data are not entirely representative as they were gathered during a simulation and not at the actual worksite. Additional sampling should be conducted on-site, but the workers should wear hearing protection until it is determined that it is no longer necessary. The total nuisance dust sample for Porter-Cable No.1 was 3.53 milligrams per cubic meter (mg/m{sup 3}), which is lower than the OSHA Permissible Exposure Limit (PEL) of 15 mg/m{sup 3} and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists' (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 10 mg/m{sup 3}. Porter-Cable No.2's nuisance dust results yielded a value of 22.05 mg/m{sup 3}, which is over the PEL and TLV. The fiber analysis for the first demonstration yielded 12.9 fibers per cubic centimeter (f/cc), which is much higher than the PEL of 1 f/cc. Galson Laboratories considered the fiber analysis for the second demonstration void due to the overloading of dust on the filter. Kickback, the sudden reaction to a pinched blade, is possible with this saw and could cause the saw to lift up and out of the work piece and toward the operator. Proper work position and firm control of the saw minimizes the potential for a sprain or strain. Care needs to be exercised to support the work piece properly and to not force the tool.

  11. An Ejector Air Intake Design Method for a Novel Rocket-Based Combined-Cycle Rocket Nozzle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waung, Timothy S.

    Rocket-based combined-cycle (RBCC) vehicles have the potential to reduce launch costs through the use of several different air breathing engine cycles, which reduce fuel consumption. The rocket-ejector cycle, in which air is entrained into an ejector section by the rocket exhaust, is used at flight speeds below Mach 2. This thesis develops a design method for an air intake geometry around a novel RBCC rocket nozzle design for the rocket-ejector engine cycle. This design method consists of a geometry creation step in which a three-dimensional intake geometry is generated, and a simple flow analysis step which predicts the air intake mass flow rate. The air intake geometry is created using the rocket nozzle geometry and eight primary input parameters. The input parameters are selected to give the user significant control over the air intake shape. The flow analysis step uses an inviscid panel method and an integral boundary layer method to estimate the air mass flow rate through the intake geometry. Intake mass flow rate is used as a performance metric since it directly affects the amount of thrust a rocket-ejector can produce. The design method results for the air intake operating at several different points along the subsonic portion of the Ariane 4 flight profile are found to under predict mass flow rate by up to 8.6% when compared to three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics simulations for the same air intake.

  12. Suboptimal Micronutrient Intake among Children in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Kaganov, Boris; Caroli, Margherita; Mazur, Artur; Singhal, Atul; Vania, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Adequate dietary intake of micronutrients is not necessarily achieved even in resource-rich areas of the world wherein overeating is a public health concern. In Europe, population-based data suggests substantial variability in micronutrient intake among children. Two independent surveys of micronutrient consumption among European children were evaluated. Stratified by age, the data regarding micronutrient intake were evaluated in the context of daily requirements, which are typically estimated in the absence of reliable absolute values derived from prospective studies. The proportion of children living in Europe whose intake of at least some vitamins and trace elements are at or below the estimated average requirements is substantial. The most common deficiencies across age groups included vitamin D, vitamin E, and iodine. Specific deficiencies were not uniform across countries or by age or gender.  Micronutrient intake appears to be more strongly influenced by factors other than access to food. Substantial portions of European children may be at risk of reversible health risks from inadequate intake of micronutrients. Despite the growing health threat posed by excess intake of calories, adequate exposure to vitamins, trace elements, and other micronutrients may deserve attention in public health initiatives to optimize growth and development in the European pediatric population. PMID:25984741

  13. High alcohol intake in female Sardinian alcohol-preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Loi, Barbara; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola; Carai, Mauro A M; Franconi, Flavia; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2014-06-01

    Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats have been selectively bred for high alcohol preference and consumption. When exposed to the standard, home cage 2-bottle "alcohol (10%, v/v) vs. water" choice regimen with continuous access, male sP rats consume daily approximately 6 g/kg alcohol. Conversely, when exposed to the intermittent (once every other day) access to 2 bottles containing alcohol (20%, v/v) and water, respectively, male sP rats display marked increases in daily alcohol intake and signs of alcohol intoxication and "behavioral" dependence. The present study was designed to assess alcohol intake in female sP rats exposed, under the 2-bottle choice regimen, to (a) 10% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA10%), (b) 10% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA10%), (c) 20% (v/v) alcohol with continuous access (CA20%), and (d) 20% (v/v) alcohol with intermittent access (IA20%). Male sP rats (exposed to CA10% and IA20% conditions) were included for comparison. Over 20 daily drinking sessions, daily alcohol intake in female CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 7.0 and 9.6 g/kg, respectively. The rank of alcohol intake was IA20% > IA10% = CA20% > CA10%. Conversely, daily alcohol intake in male CA10% and IA20% rats averaged 6.0 and 8.2 g/kg, respectively. Comparison of female and male rats yielded the following rank of alcohol intake: female IA20% > male IA20% > female CA10% ≥ male CA10%. An additional experiment found that alcohol drinking during the first hour of the drinking session produced mean blood alcohol levels of 35-40 mg% and 85-100 mg% in the CA10% and IA20% rats, respectively. These results (a) extend to female sP rats previous data demonstrating the capacity of the IA20% condition to markedly escalate alcohol drinking, and (b) demonstrate that female sP rats consume more alcohol than male sP rats. This sex difference is more evident under the IA20% condition, suggesting that female sP rats are highly sensitive to the promoting effect

  14. Energy and nutrient intakes among Sri Lankan adults

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The epidemic of nutrition related non-communicable diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity has reached to epidemic portion in the Sri Lanka. However, to date, detailed data on food consumption in the Sri Lankan population is limited. The aim of this study is to identify energy and major nutrient intake among Sri Lankan adults. Methods A nationally-representative sample of adults was selected using a multi-stage random cluster sampling technique. Results Data from 463 participants (166 Males, 297 Females) were analyzed. Total energy intake was significantly higher in males (1913 ± 567 kcal/d) than females (1514 ± 458 kcal/d). However, there was no significant gender differences in the percentage of energy from carbohydrate (Male: 72.8 ± 6.4%, Female: 73.9 ± 6.7%), fat (Male: 19.9 ± 6.1%, Female: 18.5 ± 5.7%) and proteins (Male: 10.6 ± 2.1%, Female: 10.9 ± 5.6%). Conclusion The present study provides the first national estimates of energy and nutrient intake of the Sri Lankan adult population. PMID:25067954

  15. Astaxanthin intake attenuates muscle atrophy caused by immobilization in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Miyaji, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi; Goto, Katsumasa; Ohmori, Daijiro; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Sugiura, Takao

    2016-08-01

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment and has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of oxidative damage. We tested the hypothesis that astaxanthin intake would attenuate immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Male Wistar rats (14-week old) were fed for 24 days with either astaxanthin or placebo diet. After 14 days of each experimental diet intake, the hindlimb muscles of one leg were immobilized in plantar flexion position using a plaster cast. Following 10 days of immobilization, both the atrophic and the contralateral plantaris muscles were removed and analyzed to determine the level of muscle atrophy along with measurement of the protein levels of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and selected proteases. Compared with placebo diet animals, the degree of muscle atrophy in response to immobilization was significantly reduced in astaxanthin diet animals. Further, astaxanthin supplementation significantly prevented the immobilization-induced increase in the expression of CuZn-SOD, cathepsin L, calpain, and ubiquitin in the atrophied muscle. These results support the postulate that dietary astaxanthin intake attenuates the rate of disuse muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and proteolysis via three major proteolytic pathways. PMID:27482075

  16. Dietary intake of Senegalese adults

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify major food sources and dietary constituents of Senegalese adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study, using a single 24-hour dietary recall interview. Foods were classified into food groups based on similarities in nutrient content or use. Food groups included foods consumed individually, or as part of food mixtures such as stews, soups, or sandwiches. Median consumption (amount/day) of each food was determined and examined by relevant subgroups. Participants were 50 healthy Senegalese men, aged 20-62 years recruited at the Hôpital Général de Grand Yoff in Dakar, Senegal and from Sendou village, a rural area outside Dakar. A total of 90 foods and beverages were identified and classified into 11 groups. Sixty-five percent of foods identified could be classified as meats, grains, or fruits/vegetables. Fruits and vegetables comprised 42% (38/90) of all foods; meats 12% (11/90); and grains 11% (10/90). Sauces (6%, 5/90), sweets (4%, 4/90), and desserts (4%, 4/90) were also reported. The most common fruits/vegetables reported were potato, carrot, mango, and lettuce; commonly reported grains were bread and rice; and commonly reported meats were fish, beef, and ox. There were no differences in reported daily intake of each food by age, ethnicity, education, or residence. Most foods reported were traditional to the Senegalese diet, despite the increasing availability of Western foods in Senegal. PMID:20167099

  17. Nicotine intake by snuff users.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, M A; Jarvis, M J; Devitt, G; Feyerabend, C

    1981-01-01

    Blood nicotine and cotinine concentrations were measured in 27 volunteers before and after taking snuff. Within 10 minutes after snuffing blood nicotine concentrations were comparable to those obtained after the 10 minutes or so that it takes to smoke a cigarette. Nicotine intake from snuffing was related to the experience of the snuffer. In daily and occasional snuffers increases in plasma nicotine concentrations averaged 77.7 and 12.3 nmol/l (12.6 and 2.0 ng/ml) respectively, while the novices showed no appreciable increase. The increase shown by thea daily snuffers was comparable to the average increase of 62.3 nmol/l (10.1 ng/ml) obtained from a single cigarette by a group of heavy smokers. The peak nicotine concentrations in the daily snuffers were also similar to the peak values in 136 heavy smokers--222.6 and 226-3 nmol/l (36.1 and 36.7 ng/ml), respectively. Unusual multiple-dose snuffing produced massive increases in plasma nicotine to concentrations that have never been recorded in smokers. The similarity of the concentrations produced by regular daily snuffing and regular daily smoking suggests that the plasma nicotine concentration has some controlling influence over the self-regulation of these two quite different forms of tobacco use. The rapid absorption of nicotine from snuff confirms its potential as an acceptable and relatively harmless substitute for smoking. PMID:6794710

  18. Misreporting of dietary intake affects estimated nutrient intakes in low-income Spanish-speaking women.

    PubMed

    Banna, Jinan C; Fialkowski, Marie K; Townsend, Marilyn S

    2015-07-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  19. Misreporting of Dietary Intake Affects Estimated Nutrient Intakes in Low-Income Spanish-Speaking Women

    PubMed Central

    Banna, Jinan C.; Fialkowski, Marie K.; Townsend, Marilyn S.

    2015-01-01

    Misreporting of dietary intake affects the validity of data collected and conclusions drawn in studies exploring diet and health outcomes. One consequence of misreporting is biological implausibility. Little is known regarding how accounting for biological implausibility of reported intake affects nutrient intake estimates in Hispanics, a rapidly growing demographic in the United States. Our study explores the effect of accounting for plausibility on nutrient intake estimates in a sample of Mexican-American women in northern California in 2008. Nutrient intakes are compared with Dietary Reference Intake recommendations, and intakes of Mexican-American women in a national survey are presented as a reference. Eighty-two women provided three 24-hour recalls. Reported energy intakes were classified as biologically plausible or implausible using the reported energy intakes to total energy expenditure cutoff of <0.76 or >1.24, with low-active physical activity levels used to estimate total energy expenditure. Differences in the means of nutrient intakes between implausible (n=36) and plausible (n=46) reporters of energy intake were examined by bivariate linear regression. Estimated energy, protein, cholesterol, dietary fiber, and vitamin E intakes were significantly higher in plausible reporters than implausible. There was a significant difference between the proportions of plausible vs implausible reporters meeting recommendations for several nutrients, with a larger proportion of plausible reporters meeting recommendations. Further research related to misreporting in Hispanic populations is warranted to explore the causes and effects of misreporting in studies measuring dietary intake, as well as actions to be taken to prevent or account for this issue. PMID:25132121

  20. Dietary flavonoid intake and risk of stomach and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Kim, Jeongseon

    2013-01-01

    Stomach and colorectal cancers are common cancers and leading causes of cancer deaths. Because the alimentary tract can interact directly with dietary components, stomach and colorectal cancer may be closely related to dietary intake. We systematically searched published literature written in English via PubMed by searching for terms related to stomach and colorectal cancer risk and dietary flavonoids up to June 30, 2012. Twenty-three studies out of 209 identified articles were finally selected for the analysis. Log point effect estimates and the corresponding standard errors were calculated using covariate-adjusted point effect estimates and 95%CIs from the selected studies. Total dietary flavonoid intake was not associated with a reduced risk of colorectal or stomach cancer [odds ratio (OR) (95%CI) = 1.00 (0.90-1.11) and 1.07 (0.70-1.61), respectively]. Among flavonoid subclasses, the intake of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, anthocyanidins, and proanthocyanidins showed a significant inverse association with colorectal cancer risk [OR (95%CI) = 0.71 (0.63-0.81), 0.88 (0.79-0.97), 0.68 (0.56-0.82), and 0.72 (0.61-0.85), respectively]. A significant association was found only between flavonols and stomach cancer risk based on a limited number of selected studies [OR (95%CI) = 0.68 (0.46-0.99)]. In the summary estimates from case-control studies, all flavonoid subclasses except flavones and flavanones were inversely associated with colorectal cancer risk, whereas neither total flavonoids nor any subclasses of flavonoids were associated with colorectal cancer risk in the summary estimates based on the cohort studies. The significant association between flavonoid subclasses and cancer risk might be closely related to bias derived from the case-control design. There was no clear evidence that dietary flavonoids are associated with reduced risk of stomach and colorectal cancer. PMID:23467443

  1. Purinergic mechanisms of lateral parabrachial nucleus facilitate sodium depletion-induced NaCl intake.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Miguel F; Barbosa, Silas P; De Andrade, Carina A F; Menani, José V; De Paula, Patrícia M

    2011-02-01

    Purinergic receptors are present in the lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN), a pontine structure involved in the control of sodium intake. In the present study, we investigated the effects of α,β-methyleneadenosine 5'-triphosphate (α,β-methylene ATP, selective P2X purinergic agonist) alone or combined with pyridoxalphosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid (PPADS, P2X purinergic antagonist) or suramin (non-selective P2 purinergic antagonist) injected into the LPBN on sodium depletion-induced 1.8% NaCl intake. Male Holtzman rats with stainless steel cannulas implanted into the LPBN were used. Sodium depletion was induced by treating rats with the diuretic furosemide (20mg/kg of body weight) followed by 24h of sodium-deficient diet. Bilateral injections of α,β-methylene ATP (2.0 and 4.0nmol/0.2μl) into the LPBN increased sodium depletion-induced 1.8% NaCl intake (25.3±0.8 and 26.5±0.9ml/120min, respectively, vs. saline: 15.2±1.3ml/120min). PPADS (4nmol/0.2μl) alone into the LPBN did not change 1.8% NaCl intake, however, pretreatment with PPADS into the LPBN abolished the effects of α,β-methylene ATP on 1.8% NaCl intake (16.9±0.9ml/120min). Suramin (2.0nmol/0.2μl) alone into the LPBN reduced sodium depletion-induced 1.8% NaCl intake (5.7±1.9ml/120min, vs. saline: 15.5±1.1ml/120min), without changing 2% sucrose intake or 24h water deprivation-induced water intake. The combination of suramin and α,β-methylene ATP into the LPBN produced no change of 1.8% NaCl intake (15.2±1.2ml/120min). The results suggest that purinergic P2 receptor activation in the LPBN facilitates NaCl intake, probably by restraining LPBN mechanisms that inhibit sodium intake. PMID:21129366

  2. Application of nutrient intake values (NIVs)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The process of applying nutrient intake values (NIVs) for dietary assessment, planning, and implementing programs is discussed in this paper. In addition to assessing, monitoring, and evaluating nutritional situations, applications include planning food policies, strategies, and programs for promoti...

  3. Hormonal control of feed intake in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voluntary feed intake is controlled by a plethora of factors including, but not limited to, day length, social interactions, environmental conditions, oronasal sensory cues (i.e., taste, smell, texture), gastrointestinal fill, health status, metabolic status, dietary composition, drug interactions, ...

  4. Sodium intake and blood pressure in children.

    PubMed

    Hanevold, Coral D

    2013-10-01

    Elevation of blood pressure (BP) and the risk for progression to hypertension (HTN) is of increasing concern in children and adolescents. Indeed, it is increasingly recognized that target organ injury may begin with even low levels of BP elevation. Sodium intake has long been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for HTN. While it seems clear that sodium impacts BP in children, its effects may be enhanced by other factors including obesity and increasing age. Evidence from animal and human studies indicates that sodium may have adverse consequences on the cardiovascular system independent of HTN. Thus, moderation of sodium intake over a lifetime may reduce risk for cardiovascular morbidity in adulthood. An appetite for salt is acquired, and intake beyond our need is almost universal. Considering that eating habits in childhood have been shown to track into adulthood, modest sodium intake should be advocated as part of a healthy lifestyle. PMID:23949320

  5. Higher potato intake associated with hypertension risk.

    PubMed

    2016-06-29

    The aim of three US prospective longitudinal cohort studies was to determine whether a higher intake of baked or boiled potatoes, French fries or chips and mashed potatoes was associated with incidence of hypertension. PMID:27353785

  6. Fluid intake survey among schoolchildren in Belgium

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In childhood, inadequate fluid intakes can lead on the short term, to reduced physical and cognitive performances. However, few data are available on the fluid intake among schoolchildren in Belgium. The main aim of this study is to evaluate total fluid intake provided by different types of beverages in a sample of Belgian schoolchildren, in order to assess the percentage of individuals complying with the European Food Safety Authority recommendations for total fluid intake. A secondary aim was to characterize the study population in terms of determinants of the total fluid intake requirements. Methods A child friendly “fluids and liquid food” diary was used to prospectively record the volume and frequency of beverage consumption over 7 days from 1045 schoolchildren. This diary also recorded the practice of physical activity. An adequate fluid intake was defined as an intake ≥ 75% of the age-specific adequate intake recommended by the EFSA. Results The median (P25-P75) of habitual daily fluid intake was 864 (608–1104) ml/day, with 355 (194–579) coming from drinking water. This habitual daily fluid intake varied significantly among the three investigated EFSA groups (girls and boys aged from 8 years, girls from 9 to 13 and boys from 9 to 13), except for the drinking water (P = 0.906). The highest medians of fruit juice, sugar-sweetened beverages and milk and derivatives were found among boys of 9–13. Only 9.5% of the children had an adequate fluid intake, with a value of 19.2% among the 8 years old girls and boys, 7.0% among girls of 9–13 and 8.4% among boys of 9–13. In the whole sample, 27.7% of the children declared to drink less than 3-4x/day, 56% drunk water less than 2x/day and 7.7% drunk no water at all. Every day, 27.1% and 34.1% of the children drank respectively one fruit juice and one sugar-sweetened beverage. Conclusion Belgian schoolchildren have an inadequate total fluid intake. Given the potential health

  7. Silica urolithiasis without magnesium trisilicate intake.

    PubMed

    Ichiyanagi, O; Sasagawa, I; Adachi, Y; Suzuki, H; Kubota, Y; Nakada, T

    1998-10-01

    Two cases of silica stones, without previous oral intake of magnesium trisilicate, are reported. A 64-year-old Japanese woman had bilateral renal stones. Infrared spectrophotoscopy revealed that one of the fragments consisted of silicate and the others consisted of calcium oxalate. A 75-year-old woman had right renal stones. The composition of 1 stone was a mixture of silicate and unspecified matrices. Silicate urolithiasis may not necessarily be related to oral intake of silicate-containing antacids. PMID:9792982

  8. Hypospadias and Maternal Intake of Phytoestrogens

    PubMed Central

    Carmichael, Suzan L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Ma, Chen; Gonzalez-Feliciano, Amparo; Olney, Richard S.; Correa, Adolfo; Shaw, Gary M.

    2013-01-01

    Experimental data indicate that gestational exposures to estrogenic compounds impact risk of hypospadias. We examined whether risk of hypospadias (i.e., a congenital malformation in which the opening of the penile urethra occurs on the ventral side of the penis) was associated with maternal intake of phytoestrogens, given their potential impact on estrogen metabolism. The analysis included data on mothers of 1,250 hypospadias cases and 3,118 controls who delivered their infants from 1997 to 2005 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. After adjustment for several covariates, high intakes of daidzein, genistein, glycetin, secoisolariciresinol, total isoflavones, total lignans, and total phytoestrogens were associated with reduced risks; odds ratios comparing intakes ≥90th percentile with intakes between the 11th and 89th percentiles ranged from 0.6 to 0.8. For example, the odds ratio for total phytoestrogen intake was 0.7 (95% confidence interval: 0.5, 1.0). This study represents the first large-scale analysis of phytoestrogen intake and hypospadias. The observed associations merit investigation in additional populations before firm conclusions can be reached. PMID:23752918

  9. Dietary intake in clients with chronic wounds.

    PubMed

    Wojcik, Agnieszka; Atkins, Marlis; Mager, Diana R

    2011-01-01

    To assess relationships among food intake, anthropometrics, and wound severity, we studied 31 home care clients with pressure ulcers (PUs) or venous stasis ulcers (VSUs). Anthropometric variables (weight, height, waist circumference [WC]) were measured according to standard methodologies. Risk for PU development was assessed using the Braden Pressure Ulcer Risk Assessment score and wound severity according to the National Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel. Three-day food records were analyzed to assess dietary adequacy. Adults with VSUs (65.8 ± 18.4 years) had a higher body mass index (48.1 vs. 25.9), WC (146.6 vs. 98.4 cm), and Braden score (20.2 vs. 17.5) than did those with PUs (67.8 ± 17.9 years) (p <0.05). Energy, protein, and zinc intake by diet alone did not meet estimated requirements in 41%, 32%, and 54.5% of clients, respectively. Intake by diet alone met the Estimated Average Requirement/Adequate Intake for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin D, vitamin E, vitamin K, folate, calcium, magnesium, and potassium. Nutrient supplementation resolved this for all nutrients except fibre, vitamin K, and potassium. In multivariate analysis, increasing wound severity was associated with decreased intakes of vitamin A, vitamin K, magnesium, and protein (r2=0.90, p<0.001). Optimizing nutrient intake may be an important strategy to promote wound healing and decrease wound severity in home care clients with chronic wounds. PMID:21645427

  10. Intake technologies: Research status: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGroddy, P.M.; Matousek, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes recent research activities related to fish protection at water intake structures, with particular emphasis on research reported on or conducted at pumped cooling-water intakes. Information gathered from 51 organizations (33 utilities, seven equipment manufacturers, six research organizations, two private engineering firms, one steel mill, and two government agencies) is provided along with specific summaries of EPRI-sponsored research on behavioral barriers at pumped and hydroelectric facilities. The level of research activity indicted by utilities at pumped intakes has decreased recently, although the interest in potential plant operational impact mitigative techniques remains high. Two studies sponsored by EPRI at pumped cooling-water intake structures evaluated the individual and combined deterrent capabilities of three devices: an air bubble curtain, pneumatic guns, and underwater strobe lights. A study conducted during 1985 and 1986 at Ontario Hydro's nearshore test facility, located in Lake Ontario off the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station intake, indicated that all three devices and combinations of devices elicited an avoidance response in alewife. The pneumatic gun exhibited the highest deterrent capability and the air bubble curtain the lowest. Studies conducted using the same deterrent devices at the intake of Central Hudson Gas and Electric Corporation's Roseton Generating Station on the Hudson River did not indicate an overall avoidance response; some species-specific responses to the devices were noted. 22 refs., 9 tabs.

  11. Dietary reference intakes for DHA and EPA.

    PubMed

    Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Grieger, Jessica A; Etherton, Terry D

    2009-01-01

    Various organizations worldwide have made dietary recommendations for eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and fish intake that are primarily for coronary disease risk reduction and triglyceride (TG) lowering. Recommendations also have been made for DHA intake for pregnant women, infants, and vegetarians/vegans. A Dietary Reference Intake (DRI), specifically, an Adequate Intake (AI), has been set for alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) by the Institute of Medicine (IOM) of The National Academies. This amount is based on an intake that supports normal growth and neural development and results in no nutrient deficiency. Although there is no DRI for EPA and DHA, the National Academies have recommended that approximately 10% of the Acceptable Macronutrient Distribution Range (AMDR) for ALA can be consumed as EPA and/or DHA. This recommendation represents current mean intake for EPA and DHA in the United States ( approximately 100mg/day), which is much lower than what many groups worldwide are currently recommending. Global recommendations for long-chain omega-3 fatty acids underscore the pressing need to establish DRIs for DHA and EPA because DRIs are recognized as the "official" standard by which federal agencies issue dietary guidance or policy directives for the health and well-being of individuals in the United States and Canada. Because of the many health benefits of DHA and EPA, it is important and timely that the National Academies establish DRIs for the individual long-chain (20 carbons or greater) omega-3 fatty acids. PMID:19525100

  12. Preprandial ghrelin is not affected by macronutrient intake, energy intake or energy expenditure

    PubMed Central

    Paul, David R; Kramer, Matthew; Rhodes, Donna G; Rumpler, William V

    2005-01-01

    Background Ghrelin, a peptide secreted by endocrine cells in the gastrointestinal tract, is a hormone purported to have a significant effect on food intake and energy balance in humans. The influence of factors related to energy balance on ghrelin, such as daily energy expenditure, energy intake, and macronutrient intake, have not been reported. Secondly, the effect of ghrelin on food intake has not been quantified under free-living conditions over a prolonged period of time. To investigate these effects, 12 men were provided with an ad libitum cafeteria-style diet for 16 weeks. The macronutrient composition of the diets were covertly modified with drinks containing 2.1 MJ of predominantly carbohydrate (Hi-CHO), protein (Hi-PRO), or fat (Hi-FAT). Total energy expenditure was measured for seven days on two separate occasions (doubly labeled water and physical activity logs). Results Preprandial ghrelin concentrations were not affected by macronutrient intake, energy expenditure or energy intake (all P > 0.05). In turn, daily energy intake was significantly influenced by energy expenditure, but not ghrelin. Conclusion Preprandial ghrelin does not appear to be influenced by macronutrient composition, energy intake, or energy expenditure. Similarly, ghrelin does not appear to affect acute or chronic energy intake under free-living conditions. PMID:15745452

  13. Differential gene expression in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum among crossbred beef steers with divergent gain and feed intake phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Butler, A R; Kern, R J; Hill, R; Kuehn, L A; Wells, J E; Oliver, W T; Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-08-01

    Small intestine mass and cellularity were previously associated with cattle feed efficiency. The small intestine is responsible for the digestion of nutrients and absorption of fatty acids, amino acids and carbohydrates, and it contributes to the overall feed efficiency of cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate transcriptome differences among the small intestine from cattle with divergent gain and feed intake. Animals most divergent from the bivariate mean in each of the four phenotypic Cartesian quadrants for gain × intake were selected, and the transcriptomes of duodenum, jejunum and ileum were evaluated. Gene expression analyses were performed comparing high gain vs. low gain animals, high intake vs. low intake animals and each of the phenotypic quadrants to all other groups. Genes differentially expressed within the high gain-low intake and low gain-high intake groups of animals included those involved in immune function and inflammation in all small intestine sections. The high gain-high intake group differed from the high gain-low intake group by immune response genes in all sections of the small intestine. In all sections of small intestine, animals with low gain-low intake displayed greater abundance of heat-shock genes compared to other groups. Several over-represented pathways were identified. These include the antigen-processing/presentation pathway in high gain animals and PPAR signaling, starch/sucrose metabolism, retinol metabolism and melatonin degradation pathways in the high intake animals. Genes with functions in immune response, inflammation, stress response, influenza pathogenesis and melatonin degradation pathways may have a relationship with gain and intake in beef steers. PMID:27226174

  14. Nutrient intake and food habits of soccer players: analyzing the correlates of eating practice.

    PubMed

    García-Rovés, Pablo M; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Angeles M; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-07-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player's career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  15. Oxytocin knockout mice demonstrate enhanced intake of sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Rinaman, Linda; Vollmer, Regis R; Amico, Janet A

    2007-05-01

    Oxytocin knockout (OT KO) mice display enhanced intake of nutritive and nonnutritive sweet solutions (i.e., sucrose and saccharin) compared with wild-type (WT) mice of the same C57BL/6 background strain. The present study further investigated the differential behavioral response of OT KO and WT mice to sucrose solutions and also examined intake preferences of OT KO and WT mice for palatable but nonsweet isocaloric solutions of carbohydrate and fat. A progressive ratio operant licking procedure demonstrated that OT KO and WT mice display a similar motivational drive to consume 10% sucrose. A series of two-bottle intake tests revealed that OT KO mice consume significantly larger amounts of both sweet and nonsweet carbohydrate solutions (i.e., sucrose, Polycose, and cornstarch) compared with WT cohorts. Intake pattern analyses revealed that OT KO mice overconsume carbohydrate solutions by initiating more drinking bouts compared with WT mice; bout sizes did not differ between the genotypes. In contrast, OT KO and WT mice did not differ in their intake of Intralipid, a palatable soybean oil emulsion. These findings indicate that the absence of OT in mice does not affect their appetitive drive to consume palatable sucrose solutions. Instead, the absence of OT may increase daily intake of palatable sweet and nonsweet solutions of carbohydrate (but not fat) by selectively blunting or masking processes that contribute to postingestive satiety. PMID:17272659

  16. Nutrient Intake and Food Habits of Soccer Players: Analyzing the Correlates of Eating Practice

    PubMed Central

    García-Rovés, Pablo M.; García-Zapico, Pedro; Patterson, Ángeles M.; Iglesias-Gutiérrez, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite the impact and popularity of soccer, and the growing field of soccer-related scientific research, little attention has been devoted to the nutritional intake and eating habits of soccer players. Moreover, the few studies that have addressed this issue suggest that the nutritional intake of soccer players is inadequate, underscoring the need for better adherence to nutritional recommendations and the development and implementation of nutrition education programs. The objective of these programs would be to promote healthy eating habits for male and female soccer players of all ages to optimize performance and provide health benefits that last beyond the end of a player’s career. To date, no well-designed nutrition education program has been implemented for soccer players. The design and implementation of such an intervention requires a priori knowledge of nutritional intake and other correlates of food selection, such as food preferences and the influence of field position on nutrient intake, as well as detailed analysis of nutritional intake on match days, on which little data is available. Our aim is to provide an up-to-date overview of the nutritional intake, eating habits, and correlates of eating practice of soccer players. PMID:25045939

  17. A systematic review of behavioral interventions to promote intake of fruit and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Cynthia A; Ravia, Jennifer

    2011-10-01

    Fruit and vegetable (F/V) intake in the United States remains below recommended levels despite evidence of the health benefits of regular consumption. Efforts to increase F/V intake include behavior-based interventions. A systematic review of MEDLINE PubMed and PsycINFO databases (2005-2010) was conducted to identify behavior-based intervention trials designed to promote F/V intake. Using predetermined limits and selection criteria, 34 studies were identified for inclusion. Behavior-based interventions resulted in an average increase in F/V intake of +1.13 and +0.39 servings per day in adults and children, respectively. Interventions involving minority adults or low-income participants demonstrated average increases in daily F/V consumption of +0.97 servings/day, whereas worksite interventions averaged +0.8 servings/day. Achieving and sustaining F/V intake at recommended levels of intake across the population cannot be achieved through behavior-based interventions alone. Thus, efforts to combine these interventions with other approaches including social marketing, behavioral economics approaches, and technology-based behavior change models should be tested to ensure goals are met and sustained. PMID:21963019

  18. Association between dietary intake of micronutrients and cardiorespiratory fitness in Japanese men.

    PubMed

    Cao, Zhen-Bo; Sasaki, Azusa; Oh, Taewoong; Miyatake, Nobuyuki; Tsushita, Kazuyo; Higuchi, Mitsuru; Sasaki, Satoshi; Tabata, Izumi

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that meeting the dietary recommendations for macronutrients was significantly associated with higher cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) levels in adults. However, the relation between the status of micronutrient intake and CRF still remains unclear. This study examined the association between micronutrient intake status (based on adherence to the dietary reference intakes (DRI)) and CRF in Japanese men. The study comprised 373 Japanese men aged 30-69 years. Dietary intake was assessed with a self-administered diet history questionnaire. Overall micronutrient intake status was quantified using an overall nutrient adequacy score (ONAS) for thirteen selected micronutrients. ONAS was calculated based on adherence to the DRI for Japanese. CRF was defined as O2max during a maximal incremental test on a bicycle ergometer. Physical activity was measured using accelerometer-based activity monitors for seven consecutive days. We observed a significant inverse trend for the prevalence of inadequacy for the intake of vitamin A and Ca across incremental CRF categories (P < 0·05). In a multivariate model, the ONAS was positively associated with absolute (β = 0·10, P = 0·02) and relative O2max (β = 0·09, P = 0·04), independent of physical activity. The OR for being unfit (the lowest 25 % of the age-specific distribution of O2max) in the third ONAS tertile compared with the first ONAS tertile was 0·52 (95 % CI 0·28, 0·96). These results demonstrated that the intake of several individual micronutrients and overall micronutrient intake status are independently and positively associated with CRF in Japanese men. PMID:25191541

  19. Dietary intake and main sources of plant lignans in five European countries

    PubMed Central

    Tetens, Inge; Turrini, Aida; Tapanainen, Heli; Christensen, Tue; Lampe, Johanna W.; Fagt, Sisse; Håkansson, Niclas; Lundquist, Annamari; Hallund, Jesper; Valsta, Liisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary intakes of plant lignans have been hypothesized to be inversely associated with the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and cancer. Earlier studies were based on a Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) with two lignan precursors, secoisolariciresinol (SECO) and matairesinol (MAT). More recently, a Dutch database, including SECO and MAT and the newly recognized lignan precursors lariciresinol (LARI) and pinoresinol (PINO), was compiled. The objective was to re-estimate and re-evaluate plant lignan intakes and to identify the main sources of plant lignans in five European countries using the Finnish and Dutch lignan databases, respectively. Methods Forty-two food groups known to contribute to the total lignan intake were selected and attributed a value for SECO and MAT from the Finnish lignan database (Fineli®) or for SECO, MAT, LARI, and PINO from the Dutch database. Total intake of lignans was estimated from food consumption data for adult men and women (19–79 years) from Denmark, Finland, Italy, Sweden, United Kingdom, and the contribution of aggregated food groups calculated using the Dutch lignin database. Results Mean dietary lignan intakes estimated using the Dutch database ranged from 1 to 2 mg/day, which was approximately four-fold higher than the intakes estimated from the Fineli® database. When LARI and PINO were included in the estimation of the total lignan intakes, cereals, grain products, vegetables, fruit and berries were the most important dietary sources of lignans. Conclusion Total lignin intake was approximately four-fold higher in the Dutch lignin database, which includes the lignin precursors LARI and PINO, compared to estimates based on the Finnish database based only on SECO and MAT. The main sources of lignans according to the Dutch database in the five countries studied were cereals and grain products, vegetables, fruit, berries, and beverages. PMID:23766759

  20. Protein Intake and Muscle Strength in Older Persons: Does Inflammation Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Bartali, Benedetta; Frongillo, Edward A.; Stipanuk, Martha H.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salvini, Simonetta; Palli, Domenico; Morais, Jose A.; Volpato, Stefano; Guralnik, Jack M.; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The effect of dietary protein intake on muscle strength in older persons is unknown. The objective of this study was to examine whether protein intake is associated with change in muscle strength in older persons. Because systemic inflammation has been associated with protein catabolism, we also evaluated whethera synergistic effect exists between protein intake and inflammatory markers on change in muscle strength using a longitudinal study of community-dwelling persons aged 65 years or older. DESIGN Longitudinal. SETTING The InCHIANTI Study. PARTICIPANTS Five hundred and ninety-eight persons. MEASUREMENTS Knee extension strength was measured at baseline (1998–2000) and during 3-year follow-up (2001–2003) using a hand-held dynamometer. Protein intake was assessed using a very detailed food frequency questionnaire. The inflammatory markers included in this study were C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α). RESULTS The main effect of protein intake on change in muscle strength was not significant, but we found a significant interaction between protein intake and CRP, IL-6 and TNF-α (p=0.003, p=0.049 and p=0.019, respectively), indicating thata lower protein intake was associated with a greater decline in muscle strength in persons with high levels of inflammatory markers. CONCLUSION Selectively in older persons with a pro-inflammatory state, low protein intake was associated with accelerated decline in muscle strength. These results may help to understand the factors contributing to decline in muscle strength and to identify the target population of older persons who may benefit from nutritional interventions aimed at preventing or reducing age-associated muscle impairments and its detrimental consequences. PMID:22283208

  1. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    PubMed

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking. PMID:8660033

  2. A 10-Week Multimodal Nutrition Education Intervention Improves Dietary Intake among University Students: Cluster Randomised Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Shahril, Mohd Razif; Wan Dali, Wan Putri Elena; Lua, Pei Lin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of implementing multimodal nutrition education intervention (NEI) to improve dietary intake among university students. The design of study used was cluster randomised controlled design at four public universities in East Coast of Malaysia. A total of 417 university students participated in the study. They were randomly selected and assigned into two arms, that is, intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) according to their cluster. The IG received 10-week multimodal intervention using three modes (conventional lecture, brochures, and text messages) while CG did not receive any intervention. Dietary intake was assessed before and after intervention and outcomes reported as nutrient intakes as well as average daily servings of food intake. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and adjusted effect size were used to determine difference in dietary changes between groups and time. Results showed that, compared to CG, participants in IG significantly improved their dietary intake by increasing their energy intake, carbohydrate, calcium, vitamin C and thiamine, fruits and 100% fruit juice, fish, egg, milk, and dairy products while at the same time significantly decreased their processed food intake. In conclusion, multimodal NEI focusing on healthy eating promotion is an effective approach to improve dietary intakes among university students. PMID:24069535

  3. 1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE DAM NO. 1 AT HEAD OF SYSTEM (600 ALTITUDE). CONSTRUCTED WITH CONCRETE AND RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1948. INCLUDES INTAKE SCREEN AT LEFT AND SLUICE GATE AT RIGHT. TWO 8" CAST-IRON PIPES CARRY WATER FROM THE INTAKE TO THE OLD DAM (FORMER INTAKE) DOWN LINE. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  4. New Reference Values for Vitamin C Intake.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    The German, Austrian, and Swiss nutrition societies are the editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of vitamin C and published them in February 2015. The average vitamin C requirement in healthy adults is considered to be the vitamin C amount that compensates for the metabolic losses of vitamin C, and ensures a fasting ascorbate plasma level of 50 µmol/l. Based on the present data from studies with non-smoking men, metabolic losses of 50 mg/day are assumed, as well as an absorption rate of 80% and an urinary excretion of 25% of the vitamin C intake. Taking this into account, the calculated average requirement in men is 91 mg/day. Considering a coefficient of variation of 10%, a reference value (recommended intake) of 110 mg/day for men is derived. The vitamin C requirement in women as well as in children and adolescents is extrapolated from the requirement in men and in relation to their body weight. This results in a recommended intake of about 95 mg/day for adult women. Because the requirement in pregnant and lactating women is increased, higher recommended intakes are derived for them, 105 mg/day for pregnant women from the fourth month on and 125 mg/day for lactating women, respectively. For boys and girls at the age of 1 to under 15 years, there are increasing recommended intake values from 20 to 85 mg/day. For male and female adolescents, at the age of 15 to under 19 years, the recommended intake is 105 and 90 mg, respectively. As smokers have higher metabolic losses and lower plasma levels of vitamin C than non-smokers (turnover is 40% higher), the reference value for vitamin C intake is set to 135 mg/day for female smokers and 155 mg/day for male smokers. For infants in their first year of life, the reference value (estimated value) is set to 20 mg vitamin C/ day, based upon the lowest observed vitamin C intake for infants in the United Kingdom and the United States, that obviously meets

  5. Genetic factors involved in risk for methamphetamine intake and sensitization

    PubMed Central

    Belknap, John K.; McWeeney, Shannon; Reed, Cheryl; Burkhart-Kasch, Sue; McKinnon, Carrie S.; Li, Na; Baba, Harue; Scibelli, Angela C.; Hitzemann, Robert; Phillips, Tamara J.

    2013-01-01

    Lines of mice were created by selective breeding for the purpose of identifying genetic mechanisms that influence magnitude of the selected trait and to explore genetic correlations for additional traits thought to be influenced by shared mechanisms. DNA samples from high and low methamphetamine drinking (MADR) and high and low methamphetamine sensitization lines were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping. Significant additive genetic correlations between the two traits indicated common genetic influence, and a QTL on chromosome X was detected for both traits, suggesting one source of this commonality. For MADR mice, a QTL on chromosome 10 accounted for more than 50% of the genetic variance in that trait. Microarray gene expression analyses were performed for 3 brain regions for methamphetamine-naïve MADR line mice: nucleus accumbens, prefrontal cortex and ventral midbrain. Many of the genes that were differentially expressed between the high and low MADR lines were shared in common across the 3 brain regions. A gene network highly enriched in transcription factor genes was identified as being relevant to genetically-determined differences in methamphetamine intake. When the mu opioid receptor gene (Oprm1), located on chromosome 10 in the QTL region, was added to this top ranked transcription factor network, it became a hub in the network. These data are consistent with previously published findings of opioid response and intake differences between the MADR lines and suggest that Oprm1 or a gene that impacts activity of the opioid system, plays a role in genetically–determined differences in methamphetamine intake. PMID:24217691

  6. The intake of intense sweeteners - an update review.

    PubMed

    Renwick, Andrew G

    2006-04-01

    Studies on the intakes of intense sweeteners in different countries published since the author's previous review in 1999 indicate that the average and 95th percentile intakes of acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by adults are below the relevant acceptable daily intake (ADI) values. Fewer data are available for the newer sweeteners, sucralose and alitame, and because they are recent introductions to the market very low intakes were reported in those countries where they were available at the time of the intake study. Overall there has not been a significant change in the intakes of sweeteners in recent years. The only data indicating that the intake of an intense sweetener could exceed its ADI value were the 95th percentile intakes of cyclamate in children, particularly those with diabetes. This sub-group was identified as having high intakes of cyclamate in 1999, and recent studies have not generated reliable intake data to address this possibility. PMID:16546879

  7. Evaluating equations estimating change in swine feed intake during heat and cold stress.

    PubMed

    White, Robin R; Miller, Phillip S; Hanigan, Mark D

    2015-11-01

    effects of novel explanatory variables on feed intake during heat stress, and the comparison can be useful when selecting a model that best explains variability in feed intake responses to heat stress given available input data. PMID:26641059

  8. Soda consumption during ad libitum food intake predicts weight change.

    PubMed

    Bundrick, Sarah C; Thearle, Marie S; Venti, Colleen A; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B

    2014-03-01

    Soda consumption may contribute to weight gain over time. Objective data were used to determine whether soda consumption predicts weight gain or changes in glucose regulation over time. Subjects without diabetes (128 men, 75 women; mean age 34.3±8.9 years; mean body mass index 32.5±7.4; mean percentage body fat 31.6%±8.6%) self-selected their food from an ad libitum vending machine system for 3 days. Mean daily energy intake was calculated from food weight. Energy consumed from soda was recorded as were food choices that were low in fat (<20% of calories from fat) or high in simple sugars (>30%). Food choices were expressed as percentage of daily energy intake. A subset of 85 subjects had measurement of follow-up weights and oral glucose tolerance (57 men, 28 women; mean follow-up time=2.5±2.1 years, range 6 months to 9.9 years). Energy consumed from soda was negatively related to age (r=-0.27, P=0.0001) and choosing low-fat foods (r=-0.35, P<0.0001), but positively associated with choosing solid foods high in simple sugars (r=0.45, P<0.0001) and overall average daily energy intake (r=0.46, P<0.0001). Energy intake from food alone did not differ between individuals who did and did not consume beverage calories (P=0.11). Total daily energy intake had no relationship with change in weight (P=0.29) or change in glucose regulation (P=0.38) over time. However, energy consumed from soda correlated with change in weight (r=0.21, P=0.04). This relationship was unchanged after adjusting for follow-up time and initial weight. Soda consumption is a marker for excess energy consumption and is associated with weight gain. PMID:24321742

  9. Revised reference values for selenium intake.

    PubMed

    Kipp, A P; Strohm, D; Brigelius-Flohé, R; Schomburg, L; Bechthold, A; Leschik-Bonnet, E; Heseker, H

    2015-10-01

    The German, Austrian and Swiss nutrition societies are the joint editors of the 'reference values for nutrient intake'. They have revised the reference values for the intake of selenium and published them in February 2015. The saturation of selenoprotein P (SePP) in plasma is used as a criterion for the derivation of reference values for selenium intake in adults. For persons from selenium-deficient regions (China) SePP saturation was achieved with a daily intake of 49μg of selenium. When using the reference body weights the D-A-CH reference values are based upon, the resulting estimated value for selenium intake is 70μg/day for men and 60μg/day for women. The estimated value for selenium intake for children and adolescents is extrapolated using the estimated value for adults in relation to body weight. For infants aged 0 to under 4 months the estimated value of 10μg/day was derived from the basis of selenium intake via breast milk. For infants aged 4 to under 12 months this estimated value was used and taking into account the differences regarding body weight an estimated value of 15μg/day was derived. For lactating women compared to non-lactating women a higher reference value of 75μg/day is indicated due to the release of selenium with breast milk. The additional selenium requirement for pregnant women is negligible, so that no increased reference value is indicated. PMID:26302929

  10. Nutrient Intake in Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Grossniklaus, Daurice A.; O’Brien, Marian C.; Clark, Patricia C.; Dunbar, Sandra B.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Research Objective Approximately 50% of heart failure (HF) patients are thought to be malnourished, and macronutrient and micronutrient deficiencies may potentially aggravate HF symptoms. Thus, concerns have been raised about the overall nutrient composition of diets in HF populations. The purpose of this study was to examine the macronutrient and micronutrient intake by caloric adequacy among community-dwelling adults with HF. Participants and Methods A secondary analysis of baseline data of participants in an HF lifestyle intervention study was conducted. Participants (n = 45) were predominantly male (55.6%), white, and non-Hispanic (64.4%); had a mean age of 61 years (SD, 11 years) and mean body mass index of 31.2 kg/m2 (SD, 7.3 kg/m2); were of New York Heart Association functional classes II and III (77.8%); and had a mean ejection fraction of 31.9% (SD,13.2%); and 69% had a college or higher level of education. The Block Food Habits Questionnaire was used to assess the intake of macronutrients and micronutrients. Analysis included descriptive statistics and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results and Conclusions Individuals reporting inadequate daily caloric intake reported a lower intake of macronutrients and micronutrients as well as other differences in dietary patterns compared with individuals reporting adequate daily caloric intake. More than half of the individuals reporting adequate caloric intake did not meet the recommended dietary allowance for magnesium and vitamin E. Interventions aimed at increasing overall intake and nutrient density are suggested. Further research is needed to better understand the relationship between dietary factors and outcomes in HF. PMID:18596500

  11. Organotin intake through fish consumption in Finland

    SciTech Connect

    Airaksinen, Riikka; Rantakokko, Panu; Turunen, Anu W.; Vartiainen, Terttu; Vuorinen, Pekka J.; Lappalainen, Antti; Vihervuori, Aune; Mannio, Jaakko; Hallikainen, Anja

    2010-08-15

    Background: Organotin compounds (OTCs) are a large class of synthetic chemicals with widely varying properties. Due to their potential adverse health effects, their use has been restricted in many countries. Humans are exposed to OTCs mostly through fish consumption. Objectives: The aim of this study was to describe OTC exposure through fish consumption and to assess the associated potential health risks in a Finnish population. Methods: An extensive sampling of Finnish domestic fish was carried out in the Baltic Sea and freshwater areas in 2005-2007. In addition, samples of imported seafood were collected in 2008. The chemical analysis was performed in an accredited testing laboratory during 2005-2008. Average daily intake of the sum of dibutyltin (DBT), tributyltin (TBT), triphenyltin (TPhT) and dioctyltin (DOT) ({Sigma}OTCs) for the Finnish population was calculated on the basis of the measured concentrations and fish consumption rates. Results: The average daily intake of {Sigma}OTCs through fish consumption was 3.2 ng/kg bw day{sup -1}, which is 1.3% from the Tolerable Daily Intake (TDI) of 250 ng/kg bw day{sup -1} set by the European Food Safety Authority. In total, domestic wild fish accounted for 61% of the {Sigma}OTC intake, while the intake through domestic farmed fish was 4.0% and the intake through imported fish was 35%. The most important species were domestic perch and imported salmon and rainbow trout. Conclusions: The Finnish consumers are not likely to exceed the threshold level for adverse health effects due to OTC intake through fish consumption.

  12. A Region on BTA6 Is Associated with Feed Intake and Gain in Beef Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic selection for animals that require less feed while still achieving acceptable levels of production could result in substantial cost savings for cattle producers. The purpose of this study was to identify DNA markers with predictive merit for differences among cattle in feed intake and BW gai...

  13. Variable oxygen/nitrogen enriched intake air system for internal combustion engine applications

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Cole, Roger L.

    1997-01-01

    An air supply control system for selectively supplying ambient air, oxygen enriched air and nitrogen enriched air to an intake of an internal combustion engine includes an air mixing chamber that is in fluid communication with the air intake. At least a portion of the ambient air flowing to the mixing chamber is selectively diverted through a secondary path that includes a selectively permeable air separating membrane device due a differential pressure established across the air separating membrane. The permeable membrane device separates a portion of the nitrogen in the ambient air so that oxygen enriched air (permeate) and nitrogen enriched air (retentate) are produced. The oxygen enriched air and the nitrogen enriched air can be selectively supplied to the mixing chamber or expelled to atmosphere. Alternatively, a portion of the nitrogen enriched air can be supplied through another control valve to a monatomic-nitrogen plasma generator device so that atomic nitrogen produced from the nitrogen enriched air can be then injected into the exhaust of the engine. The oxygen enriched air or the nitrogen enriched air becomes mixed with the ambient air in the mixing chamber and then the mixed air is supplied to the intake of the engine. As a result, the air being supplied to the intake of the engine can be regulated with respect to the concentration of oxygen and/or nitrogen.

  14. Nutrient intakes of US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers meet or exceed dietary reference intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of the study reported here was to assess the usual nutrient intakes of 3,273 US infants, toddlers, and preschoolers, aged 0 to 47 months, who were surveyed in the Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS) 2008; and to compare data on the usual nutrient intakes for the two waves of FITS...

  15. Usual Dietary Intakes: Food Intakes, U.S. Population, 2007-10

    Cancer.gov

    We have applied the NCI Method for estimating distributions of usual intake to data from two recent cycles of the NHANES to estimate means and percentiles of the distributions of food intake and the percentage of persons meeting recommendations for a range of sex-age groups in the US population.

  16. Dietary intake of advanced cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T D; Bowman, K B; Jackson, G P

    1983-02-01

    A state registered dietitian assessed the voluntary dietary intake of 13 advanced cancer inpatients on one ward of St. Christopher's Hospice for five consecutive days. There were 11 females, two males; median age 74 years (range 56 to 83). Two patients died on the fourth day of the study. A partially individualised weighed technique was used. Standard sized scoops and spoons were used to serve the food in small, medium or large standard portions (depending on appetite) and were weighed as served. Individual plate waste (by weight) was subtracted to give estimated individual intake. Foods provided by visitors was not included. The median and range of individual mean daily intakes (estimated) were: energy 5760 (938-8945) kJ, 1376 (224-2137) kcal; protein 44 (11-86) g; fat 52 (9-93) g; carbohydrate 169 (21-194) g; calcium 748 (268-1457) mg; iron 4.8 (0.5-21.0) mg; dietary fibre 5.0 (0.5-21.0) g. Compared to recommended amounts, energy, iron and dietary fibre intakes were low; calcium intake was high. Nutritional status may affect prognosis and/or subjective well-being in advanced cancer. The value of nutritional supplementation and the role of appetite stimulants in improving nutritional status needs investigation. PMID:6841131

  17. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake

    PubMed Central

    Hopf, F. Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M.B.

    2014-01-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  18. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake.

    PubMed

    Hopf, F Woodward; Lesscher, Heidi M B

    2014-05-01

    Continued seeking and drinking of alcohol despite adverse legal, health, economic, and societal consequences is a central hallmark of human alcohol use disorders. This compulsive drive for alcohol, defined by resistance to adverse and deleterious consequences, represents a major challenge when attempting to treat alcoholism clinically. Thus, there has long been interest in developing pre-clinical rodent models for the compulsive drug use that characterizes drug addiction. Here, we review recent studies that have attempted to model compulsive aspects of alcohol and cocaine intake in rodents, and consider technical and conceptual issues that need to be addressed when trying to recapitulate compulsive aspects of human addiction. Aversion-resistant alcohol intake has been examined by pairing intake or seeking with the bitter tastant quinine or with footshock, and exciting recent work has used these models to identify neuroadaptations in the amygdala, cortex, and striatal regions that promote compulsive intake. Thus, rodent models do seem to reflect important aspects of compulsive drives that sustain human addiction, and will likely provide critical insights into the molecular and circuit underpinnings of aversion-resistant intake as well as novel therapeutic interventions for compulsive aspects of addiction. PMID:24731992

  19. Stress Exposure, Food Intake, and Emotional State

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, “Stress, Palatable Food and Reward”, that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr. Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr. Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr. Mark Wilson describes his group’s research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Lastly, Dr. Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical–amygdalar–hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e., fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential, and environmental factors. PMID:26303312

  20. Stress exposure, food intake and emotional state.

    PubMed

    Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M; Fulton, Stephanie; Wilson, Mark; Petrovich, Gorica; Rinaman, Linda

    2015-01-01

    This manuscript summarizes the proceedings of the symposium entitled, "Stress, Palatable Food and Reward", that was chaired by Drs. Linda Rinaman and Yvonne Ulrich-Lai at the 2014 Neurobiology of Stress Workshop held in Cincinnati, OH. This symposium comprised research presentations by four neuroscientists whose work focuses on the biological bases for complex interactions among stress, food intake and emotion. First, Dr Ulrich-Lai describes her rodent research exploring mechanisms by which the rewarding properties of sweet palatable foods confer stress relief. Second, Dr Stephanie Fulton discusses her work in which excessive, long-term intake of dietary lipids, as well as their subsequent withdrawal, promotes stress-related outcomes in mice. Third, Dr Mark Wilson describes his group's research examining the effects of social hierarchy-related stress on food intake and diet choice in group-housed female rhesus macaques, and compared the data from monkeys to results obtained in analogous work using rodents. Finally, Dr Gorica Petrovich discusses her research program that is aimed at defining cortical-amygdalar-hypothalamic circuitry responsible for curbing food intake during emotional threat (i.e. fear anticipation) in rats. Their collective results reveal the complexity of physiological and behavioral interactions that link stress, food intake and emotional state, and suggest new avenues of research to probe the impact of genetic, metabolic, social, experiential and environmental factors on these interactions. PMID:26303312

  1. Dietary intake of acrylamide in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Svensson, K; Abramsson, L; Becker, W; Glynn, A; Hellenäs, K-E; Lind, Y; Rosén, J

    2003-11-01

    High levels of acrylamide have been found in foods heated at high temperatures, especially in carbohydrate rich foods. Several kinds of foods (industrially produced) representing different food/product groups available on the Swedish market have been analysed for acrylamide. A considerable variation in levels of acrylamide between single foodstuffs (different brands) within food categories were found, which also applies for levels in different food categories. Using recent Swedish food consumption data the dietary intake of acrylamide for the Swedish adult population was assessed based on foodstuffs with low to high levels of acrylamide (<30-2300 microg/kg), such as processed potato products, bread, breakfast cereals, biscuits, cookies, snacks and coffee. The estimated dietary intake of acrylamide per person (total population) given as the 5th, 50th and 95th percentile were 9.1, 27 and 62 microg/day respectively, from those food/product groups (mean 31 microg/day). No acrylamide was found in many other foodstuffs analysed and those were therefore not included in the dietary intake assessment of acrylamide. However, an additional minor contribution of a few microg/day of acrylamide from foods/products like poultry, meat, fish, cocoa powder and chocolates cannot be excluded. An average daily intake of 35 microg corresponds to 0.5 microg per kg body weight and day (body weight 70 kg). Risk assessments of acrylamide, made by US EPA and WHO, imply that this dietary intake of acrylamide could be associated with potential health risks. PMID:12963011

  2. Viral vector-induced amygdala NPY overexpression reverses increased alcohol intake caused by repeated deprivations in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Thorsell, Annika; Repunte-Canonigo, Vez; O'Dell, Laura E.; Chen, Scott A.; King, Alvin R.; Lekic, Dusan; Koob, George F.; Sanna, Pietro Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Acute administration of neuropeptide Y (NPY) modulates alcohol intake in genetic and chemical models of high intake, while leaving intake unaffected during ‘normal’ or baseline conditions. In non-selected, normal rat lines, alcohol consumption can be increased by prolonged exposure to alcohol, and it is unclear what effect a constitutive increase in NPY function will have on alcohol intake. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects on alcohol intake of an inducible, constitutive overexpression of NPY, one of the most abundant neuropeptides in the central nervous system. A liquid diet was used in combination with repeated alcohol deprivation sessions to increase alcohol intake in normal Wistar rats. We then examined the effect of NPY overexpression in the amygdala on excessive alcohol intake produced by prolonged exposure to alcohol and alcohol deprivation. Repeated withdrawal increased alcohol consumption in a 24-h continuous access two-bottle choice model. Both the number of withdrawals as well as the length of the withdrawal periods affected alcohol consumption with an increased intake resulting from multiple withdrawals and the alcohol deprivation effect being enhanced by longer periods of abstinence. The increase in intake following repeated abstinence was blunted by intra-amygdala administration of a Sindbis viral vector containing NPY cDNA. Amygdala NPY overexpression also was demonstrated to be anxiolytic in the open field test. Repeated withdrawal in combination with a history of alcohol consumption significantly elevated alcohol intake, and the amygdala may mediate the transition to high-drinking states in this model. PMID:17405766

  3. Validity of the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) for estimating energy and nutrient intake in near real-time

    PubMed Central

    Martin, C. K.; Correa, J. B.; Han, H.; Allen, H. R.; Rood, J.; Champagne, C. M.; Gunturk, B. K.; Bray, G. A.

    2014-01-01

    Two studies are reported; a pilot study to demonstrate feasibility followed by a larger validity study. Study 1’s objective was to test the effect of two ecological momentary assessment (EMA) approaches that varied in intensity on the validity/accuracy of estimating energy intake with the Remote Food Photography Method (RFPM) over six days in free-living conditions. When using the RFPM, Smartphones are used to capture images of food selection and plate waste and to send the images to a server for food intake estimation. Consistent with EMA, prompts are sent to the Smartphones reminding participants to capture food images. During Study 1, energy intake estimated with the RFPM and the gold standard, doubly labeled water (DLW), were compared. Participants were assigned to receive Standard EMA Prompts (n=24) or Customized Prompts (n=16) (the latter received more reminders delivered at personalized meal times). The RFPM differed significantly from DLW at estimating energy intake when Standard (mean±SD = −895±770 kcal/day, p<.0001), but not Customized Prompts (−270±748 kcal/day, p=.22) were used. Error (energy intake from the RFPM minus that from DLW) was significantly smaller with Customized vs. Standard Prompts. The objectives of Study 2 included testing the RFPM’s ability to accurately estimate energy intake in free-living adults (N=50) over six days, and energy and nutrient intake in laboratory-based meals. The RFPM did not differ significantly from DLW at estimating free-living energy intake (−152±694 kcal/day, p=0.16). During laboratory-based meals, estimating energy and macronutrient intake with the RFPM did not differ significantly compared to directly weighed intake. PMID:22134199

  4. Problems with estimating vitamin C intakes.

    PubMed

    Sinha, R; Block, G; Taylor, P R

    1993-04-01

    The vitamin C content of foods was examined from two national databases and new values were obtained by HPLC. HPLC values were lower in four of the five highest vitamin C contributors to the US diet (orange juice, grapefruit, tomatoes and tomato juice, and potatoes), as well as in broccoli, red peppers, and cooked collard and mustard greens, compared with values from the other databases. When HPLC values were substituted in the Health Habits and History Questionnaire, the resulting estimates of dietary intake of vitamin C in two studies were lower. Despite these lower estimates of absolute intake, in one study the correlation between dietary vitamin C and plasma ascorbic acid was similar. In conclusion, the accuracy of the vitamin C content of foods is important for estimating the absolute amount of vitamin C intake in the population but may not change the ranking of people in epidemiological studies. PMID:8460610

  5. Association between Dietary Magnesium Intake and Hyperuricemia

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Jie; Yang, Tuo; Li, Hui; Deng, Zhen-han; Yang, Ye; Zhang, Yi; Ding, Xiang; Xie, Dong-xing; Yang, Tu-bao; Lei, Guang-hua

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine the cross-sectional associations between dietary magnesium (Mg) intake and hyperuricemia (HU). Methods 5168 subjects were included in this study. Dietary intake was assessed using a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Hyperuricemia (HU) was defined as uric acid ≥ 416 μmol/L for male population and ≥ 360 μmol/L for female. A multivariable logistic analysis model was applied to test the associations after adjusting a number of potential confounding factors. Results The relative odds of the overall prevalence of HU were decreased by 0.57 times in the fourth quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.35–0.94) and 0.55 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.30–1.01) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.091. The results of multivariable linear regression also suggested a significant inverse association between serum uric acid and Mg intake (β = -0.028, P = 0.022). For male, the relative odds of HU were decreased by 0.62 times in the third quintile of Mg intake (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.40–0.97), 0.40 times in the fourth quintile (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.23–0.72) and 0.35 times in the fifth quintile (OR 0.35, 95% CI 0.17–0.71) comparing with the lowest quintile, and P for trend was 0.006. Multivariable adjusted inverse association was also existed between serum uric acid and Mg intake in male population (β = -0.061, P = 0.002). However, no significant association was observed between dietary Mg intake and HU for female. Conclusions The findings of this cross-sectional study indicated that dietary Mg intake is inversely associated with HU, independent of some major confounding factors. In addition, this association remains valid for the male subgroup, but not for the female subgroup. Level of Evidence LevelIII, cross-sectional study. PMID:26536119

  6. Residual feed intake: a nutritional tool for genetic improvement.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Sarmento, José Lindenberg Rocha; Neto, Severino Gonzaga; de Paula, Ney Rômulo Oliveira; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; do Rêgo, Wagner Martins Fontes

    2013-11-01

    The goal of this bibliographical study was to provide information about residual feed intake (RFI), a new criterion used in the selection of beef cattle for growth rate, food ingestion, and feed efficiency. RFI is calculated as the difference between real consumption and the quantity of food an animal is expected to eat based on its mean live weight and rate of weight gain. In studies of RFI, many speculations are made among researchers about the reliability of this criterion. However, there is a high genetic correlation with characteristics related to post-weaning consumption and maturity, indicating that the biological processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in young animals are similar to the processes that regulate consumption and efficiency in animals of greater age. In contrast to feed conversion, selection based on RFI seems to select for lower rates of consumption and lower animal maintenance requirements without changing adult weight or weight gain. Therefore, we conclude that the data indicate that there are extraordinary benefits to be gained from changing the goals of selection from increased weight gain to improved nutritional efficiency. Given the importance of animal production for economic development in Brazil choosing the best selection goals for livestock improvement is essential. To include an index of feed efficiency in future goals would be desirable, and RFI may play a part in this if economic methods of implementation can be developed. PMID:24174268

  7. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition.

    PubMed

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-06-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different 'attractiveness' (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  8. Balancing macronutrient intake in a mammalian carnivore: disentangling the influences of flavour and nutrition

    PubMed Central

    Hewson-Hughes, Adrian K.; Colyer, Alison; Simpson, Stephen J.; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-01-01

    There is a large body of research demonstrating that macronutrient balancing is a primary driver of foraging in herbivores and omnivores, and more recently, it has been shown to occur in carnivores. However, the extent to which macronutrient selection in carnivores may be influenced by organoleptic properties (e.g. flavour/aroma) remains unknown. Here, we explore the roles of nutritional and hedonic factors in food choice and macronutrient balancing in a mammalian carnivore, the domestic cat. Using the geometric framework, we determined the amounts and ratio of protein and fat intake in cats allowed to select from combinations of three foods that varied in protein : fat (P : F) composition (approx. 10 : 90, 40 : 60 and 70 : 30 on a per cent energy basis) to which flavours of different ‘attractiveness’ (fish, rabbit and orange) were added. In two studies, in which animal and plant protein sources were used, respectively, the ratio and amounts of protein and fat intake were very consistent across all groups regardless of flavour combination, indicating regulation of both protein and fat intake. Our results suggest that macronutrient balancing rather than hedonistic rewards based on organoleptic properties of food is a primary driver of longer-term food selection and intake in domestic cats. PMID:27429768

  9. Wheel running reduces high-fat diet intake, preference and mu-opioid agonist stimulated intake

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Nu-Chu; Bello, Nicholas T.; Moran, Timothy H.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges of mechanisms by which exercise affects energy balance remain unclear. One potential mechanism may be that exercise reduces intake and preference for highly palatable, energy dense fatty foods. The current study used a rodent wheel running model to determine whether and how physical activity affects HF diet intake/preference and reward signaling. Experiment 1 examined whether wheel running affected the ability of intracerebroventricular (ICV) µ opioid receptor agonist D-Ala2, NMe-Phe4, Glyol5-enkephalin (DAMGO) to increase HF diet intake. Experiment 2 examined the effects of wheel running on the intake of and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. We also assessed the effects of wheel running and diet choice on mesolimbic dopaminergic and opioidergic gene expression. Experiment 1 revealed that wheel running decreased the ability of ICV DAMGO administration to stimulate HF diet intake. Experiment 2 showed that wheel running suppressed weight gain and reduced intake and preference for a previously preferred HF diet. Furthermore, the mesolimbic gene expression profile of wheel running rats was different from that of their sedentary paired-fed controls but similar to that of sedentary rats with large HF diet consumption. These data suggest that alterations in preference for palatable, energy dense foods play a role in the effects of exercise on energy homeostasis. The gene expression results also suggest that the hedonic effects of exercise may substitute for food reward to limit food intake and suppress weight gain. PMID:25668514

  10. An Analytical Pipeline for Quantitative Characterization of Dietary Intake: Application To Assess Grape Intake.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Perez, Isabel; Posma, Joram M; Chambers, Edward S; Nicholson, Jeremy K; C Mathers, John; Beckmann, Manfred; Draper, John; Holmes, Elaine; Frost, Gary

    2016-03-23

    Lack of accurate dietary assessment in free-living populations requires discovery of new biomarkers reflecting food intake qualitatively and quantitatively to objectively evaluate effects of diet on health. We provide a proof-of-principle for an analytical pipeline to identify quantitative dietary biomarkers. Tartaric acid was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy as a dose-responsive urinary biomarker of grape intake and subsequently quantified in volunteers following a series of 4-day dietary interventions incorporating 0 g/day, 50 g/day, 100 g/day, and 150 g/day of grapes in standardized diets from a randomized controlled clinical trial. Most accurate quantitative predictions of grape intake were obtained in 24 h urine samples which have the strongest linear relationship between grape intake and tartaric acid excretion (r(2) = 0.90). This new methodological pipeline for estimating nutritional intake based on coupling dietary intake information and quantified nutritional biomarkers was developed and validated in a controlled dietary intervention study, showing that this approach can improve the accuracy of estimating nutritional intakes. PMID:26909845

  11. Subgroup-dependent effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in outbred Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Shima; Roman, Erika

    2014-12-15

    Experimental animal models are critical for understanding the genetic, environmental and neurobiological underpinnings of alcohol use disorders. Limited studies investigate alcohol-induced effects on behavior using free-choice paradigms. The aims of the present experiment were to study voluntary alcohol intake using a modified intermittent access paradigm, investigate the effects of voluntary alcohol intake on behavioral profiles in water- and alcohol-drinking rats, and select extreme low- and high-drinking animals for a more detailed behavioral characterization. Sixty outbred male Wistar rats were randomized into water and alcohol groups. Behavioral profiles in the multivariate concentric square field™ (MCSF) test were assessed prior to and after voluntary alcohol intake. The animals had intermittent access to 20% alcohol and water for three consecutive days per week for seven weeks. The results revealed increased alcohol intake over time. No major alcohol-induced differences on behavior profiles were found when comparing water- and alcohol-drinking animals. The high-drinking animals displayed an alcohol deprivation effect, which was not found in the low-drinking animals. High-drinking rats had lower risk-taking behavior prior to alcohol access and lower anxiety-like behavior after voluntary alcohol intake compared to low-drinking rats. In conclusion, the modified intermittent access paradigm may be useful for pharmacological manipulation of alcohol intake. With regard to behavior, the present findings highlights the importance of studying subgroup-dependent differences and add to the complexity of individual differences in behavioral traits of relevance to the vulnerability for excessive alcohol intake. PMID:25200519

  12. Acetaminophen intake and risk of asthma, hay fever and eczema in early adolescence.

    PubMed

    Vlaski, Emilija; Stavric, Katerina; Isjanovska, Rozalinda; Seckova, Lidija; Kimovska, Milica

    2007-09-01

    A positive association between acetaminophen intake and allergic diseases has recently been reported in developed countries with impaired oxidant/antioxidant balance and promotion of atopy as proposed underlying mechanisms. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between acetaminophen intake and asthma, hay fever, and eczema in The Republic of Macedonia as a country with acetaminophen intake not physician-controlled, high passive smoke exposure and dietary antioxidant intake, and moderately low prevalence of allergic diseases. Self-reported data obtained through the standardized International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood Phase Three written questionnaires of 3026 adolescents aged 13/14 years from randomly selected schools in Skopje, the capital of Macedonia, were used. The frequency of current acetaminophen intake--both unadjusted and adjusted for confounding factors--was correlated to current and ever-diagnosed asthma, hay fever and eczema by odds ratios (OR, 95% CI) in binary logistic regression. Use of acetaminophen at least once monthly increased the risk of current wheeze (adjusted OR 2.04, 1.31-3.20 p = 0.002), asthma 'ever' (adjusted OR 2.77, 1.06-7.26 p=0.039), current allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (adjusted OR 2.95, 1.79-4.88 p=0.000) and hay fever 'ever' (adjusted OR 2.25, 1.36-3.70 p=0.002). A significant association between frequent acetaminophen intake and atopic eczema and also between infrequent acetaminophen intake and investigated allergic diseases was not established. The findings suggest an increased risk of asthma and hay fever, but not atopic eczema associated with frequent acetaminophen use in a developing country. PMID:17893435

  13. Dietary phytoestrogen intake and mammographic density -- results of a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nagel, Gabriele; Mack, U; von Fournier, D; Linseisen, J

    2005-09-12

    The influence of dietary phytoestrogens provided by Western diets on mammographic density is not well established. Soy and soy products as source of isoflavones were found to be inversely associated with high mammographic density, a marker for breast cancer risk. Another class of phytoestrogens, the lignans, which are more frequent in Western diets, are rarely investigated. Within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort in Heidelberg (EPIC-Heidelberg) we explored the feasibility of mammogram collection and measurement of mammographic density in order to investigate the association between dietary phytoestrogen intake and breast density patterns. Wolfe classification was used to summarize mammographic density. Dietary habits were assessed by means of a validated food frequency questionnaire. - Out of the 505 randomly selected women, 317 (63%) returned the questionnaire and 310 (61.4%) women provided informed consent to collect mammograms. Dietary intake of seven women with dense patterns (DY) was compared with 47 women without dense patterns. A high dietary intake of fibre (p-value = 0.008) and secoisolariciresinol (p-value = 0.043) is inversely associated with non-dense breast patterns. This is also observed for a high dietary intake of soy-products (p-value = 0.004) and, in tendency, genistein (p-value = 0.069). After adjustment for energy intake and age the groups of dense and non-dense mammographic patterns were different regarding the intake of carbohydrate (p = 0.032), soy-products (p = 0.020), fibre (p = 0.046), and secoisolariciresinol (p = 0.027). - Our results suggest an inverse association between dietary lignan intake and breast density, similar to the findings for isoflavones. To our knowledge this is the first report on this association, but due to the risk of chance finding, this has to be confirmed in a study with sufficient statistical power. PMID:16183551

  14. Design and Control of a Proof-of-Concept Active Jet Engine Intake Using Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Song, Gangbing; Ma, Ning; Penney, Nicholas; Barr, Todd; Lee, Ho-Jun; Arnold, Steven M.

    2004-01-01

    The design and control of a novel proof-of-concept active jet engine intake using Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti or Nitinol) shape memory alloy (SMA) wire actuators is used to demonstrate the potential of an adaptive intake to improve the fuel efficiency of a jet engine. The Nitinol SMA material is selected for this research due to the material's ability to generate large strains of up to 5 percent for repeated operations, a high power-to-weight ratio, electrical resistive actuation, and easy fabrication into a variety of shapes. The proof-of-concept engine intake employs an overlapping leaf design arranged in a concentric configuration. Each leaf is mounted on a supporting bar that rotates upon actuation by SMA wires electrical resistive heating. Feedback control is enabled through the use of a laser range sensor to detect the movement of a leaf and determine the radius of the intake area. Due to the hysteresis behavior inherent in SMAs, a nonlinear robust controller is used to direct the SMA wire actuation. The controller design utilizes the sliding-mode approach to compensate for the nonlinearities associated with the SMA actuator. Feedback control experiments conducted on a fabricated proof-of-concept model have demonstrated the capability to precisely control the intake area and achieve up to a 25 percent reduction in intake area. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of engine intake area control using the proposed design.

  15. Vitamin B12 intake and status and cognitive function in elderly people.

    PubMed

    Doets, Esmée L; van Wijngaarden, Janneke P; Szczecińska, Anna; Dullemeijer, Carla; Souverein, Olga W; Dhonukshe-Rutten, Rosalie A M; Cavelaars, Adrienne E J M; van 't Veer, Pieter; Brzozowska, Anna; de Groot, Lisette C P G M

    2013-01-01

    Current recommendations on vitamin B12 intake vary from 1.4 to 3.0 μg per day and are based on the amount needed for maintenance of hematologic status or on the amount needed to compensate obligatory losses. This systematic review evaluates whether the relation between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function should be considered for underpinning vitamin B12 recommendations in the future. The authors summarized dose-response evidence from randomized controlled trials and prospective cohort studies on the relation of vitamin B12 intake and status with cognitive function in adults and elderly people. Two randomized controlled trials and 6 cohort studies showed no association or inconsistent associations between vitamin B12 intake and cognitive function. Random-effects meta-analysis showed that serum/plasma vitamin B12 (50 pmol/L) was not associated with risk of dementia (4 cohort studies), global cognition z scores (4 cohort studies), or memory z scores (4 cohort studies). Although dose-response evidence on sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status (methylmalonic acid and holotranscobalamin) was scarce, 4 of 5 cohort studies reported significant associations with risk of dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or global cognition. Current evidence on the relation between vitamin B12 intake or status and cognitive function is not sufficient for consideration in the development of vitamin B12 recommendations. Further studies should consider the selection of sensitive markers of vitamin B12 status. PMID:23221971

  16. A Review of Dietary Selenium Intake and Selenium Status in Europe and the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Stoffaneller, Rita; Morse, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    This is a systematic review of existing data on dietary selenium (Se) intake and status for various population groups in Europe (including the United Kingdom (UK)) and the Middle East. It includes English language systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials, cohort studies, cross-sectional and case-control studies obtained through PUBMED searches from January, 2002, to November, 2014, for European data and from 1990 to November 2014, for Middle Eastern data. Reports were selected if they included data on Se intake and status. The search identified 19 European/UK studies and 15 investigations in the Middle East that reported Se intake and Se concentration in water and/or food and 48 European/UK studies and 44 investigations in the Middle East reporting Se status. Suboptimal Se status was reported to be widespread throughout Europe, the UK and the Middle East, and these results agreed with previous reports highlighting the problem. Eastern European countries had lower Se intake than Western European countries. Middle Eastern studies provided varying results, possibly due to varying food habits and imports in different regions and within differing socioeconomic groups. In conclusion, Se intake and status is suboptimal in European and Middle Eastern countries, with less consistency in the Middle East. PMID:25734564

  17. Excess dietary salt intake alters the excitability of central sympathetic networks.

    PubMed

    Stocker, Sean D; Madden, Christopher J; Sved, Alan F

    2010-07-14

    The ingestion of excess dietary salt (defined as NaCl) is strongly correlated with cardiovascular disease, morbidity, mortality, and is regarded as a major contributing factor to the pathogenesis of hypertension. Although several mechanisms contribute to the adverse consequences of dietary salt intake, accumulating evidence suggests that dietary salt loading produces neurogenically-mediated increases in total peripheral resistance to raise arterial blood pressure (ABP). Evidence from clinical studies and experimental models clearly establishes a hypertensive effect of dietary salt loading in a subset of individuals who are deemed "salt-sensitive". However, we will discuss and present evidence to develop a novel hypothesis to suggest that while chronic increases in dietary salt intake do not elevate mean ABP in "non-salt-sensitive" animals, dietary salt intake does enhance several sympathetic reflexes thereby predisposing these animals and/or individuals to the development of salt-sensitive hypertension. Additional evidence raises an intriguing hypothesis that these enhanced sympathetic reflexes are largely attributed to the ability of excess dietary salt intake to selectively enhance the excitability of sympathetic-regulatory neurons in the rostral ventrolateral medulla. Insight into the cellular mechanisms by which dietary salt intake alters the responsiveness of RVLM circuits will likely provide a foundation for developing new therapeutic approaches to treat salt-sensitive hypertension. The paper represents an invited review by a symposium, award winner or keynote speaker at the Society for the Study of Ingestive Behavior [SSIB] Annual Meeting in Portland, July 2009. PMID:20434471

  18. Influence of simplified nutrition labeling and taxation on laboratory energy intake in adults.

    PubMed

    Temple, Jennifer L; Johnson, Karena M; Archer, Kelli; Lacarte, Allison; Yi, Christina; Epstein, Leonard H

    2011-08-01

    The purpose of these studies was to test the hypotheses that simplified nutrition labeling and taxation alter food selection and intake. In Experiment 1, participants consumed lunch in the laboratory three times with no labels, standard nutrition labels, or traffic light diet labels at each visit. In Experiment 2, participants were given $6.00 with which to purchase lunch in the laboratory twice with standard pricing on one visit and a 25% tax on "red" foods on another visit. Participants received a brief education session on the labeling systems being used. Total energy intake and energy intake and number of foods purchased from each traffic light category were measured. Nutrition labeling decreased energy intake in lean females, but had no effect in men or in obese females. Traffic light labels increased consumption of "green" foods and decreased consumption of "red" foods. Taxation decreased the purchasing of "red" foods in obese, but not non-obese participants. There were no interactions between taxation and simplified nutrition labeling. Although generalization to real-world purchasing and consumption is limited by the laboratory study design, our findings suggests that taking multiple, simultaneous approaches to reduce energy intake may have the greatest impact on food purchases and/or nutrient consumption. PMID:21569807

  19. Estimated daily intake of phenolics and antioxidants from green tea consumption in the Korean diet.

    PubMed

    Lee, Bong Han; Nam, Tae Gyu; Park, Na Young; Chun, Ock K; Koo, Sung I; Kim, Dae-Ok

    2016-01-01

    To estimate daily intake of total phenolics and flavonoids from green tea and the contribution of green tea to the antioxidant intake from the Korean diet, 24 commercial brands of green tea were selected and analyzed. Data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2008 and 2011 indicate that the green tea consumption in these 2 years was 2.8 g/tea drinker/day and 2.9 g/tea drinker/day, respectively. Based on data derived from direct measurements of green tea phenolics and the dataset of the 2008 KNHANES, we estimated the daily per tea drinker phenolics intake to be 172 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE), the total flavonoids to be 43 mg catechin equivalents (CE) and the total antioxidants to be 267 mg vitamin C equivalents (VCE; 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assay) and 401 mg VCE (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) assay). In 2011, we estimated the daily per tea drinker total phenolics intake to be 246 mg GAE, the total flavonoids to be 60 mg CE and the antioxidants to be 448 mg VCE (DPPH assay) and 630 mg VCE (ABTS assay). The daily intake of total phenolics, total flavonoids and antioxidants from green tea consumption increased from 2008 to 2011. PMID:26940374

  20. Perceived parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Jeong; McIntosh, William A; Anding, Jenna; Kubena, Karen S; Reed, Debra B; Moon, Gap-Soon

    2008-10-01

    This study investigated whether perceptions of parenting behaviours predict young adolescents' nutritional intake and body fatness. The randomly selected study sample consisted of 106 13-15 years olds from Houston Metropolitan Statistical Area. Parenting style variables were created by cluster analysis and factor analysis. A two-cluster solution for both maternal and paternal parenting style represented authoritative vs. non-authoritative parenting. Two parenting dimension factors derived were maternal/paternal nurturing and control. For adolescents' energy and nutrient intake, greater maternal nurturing appeared to be most beneficial given its association with lower consumption of total kilocalorie and lower saturated fat intake. Paternal nurturing was associated with lower sodium intake, whereas paternal control predicted lower percentage of kilocalories from carbohydrate and percentage Dietary Reference Intake for dietary fibre, and greater percentage of kilocalories from total fat. Maternal authoritative parenting and lower maternal control over their adolescents may have protective effects against having heavier and fatter adolescents given their associations with adolescents' body weight, sub-scapular skinfold, waist circumference, body mass index, and the tendencies of being at risk of overweight and being overweight. None of paternal parenting styles or dimensions appeared to be significantly related to adolescents' body fatness. PMID:18811793

  1. Pedigree and genomic analyses of feed consumption and residual feed intake in laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wolc, Anna; Arango, Jesus; Jankowski, Tomasz; Settar, Petek; Fulton, Janet E; O'Sullivan, Neil P; Fernando, Rohan; Garrick, Dorian J; Dekkers, Jack C M

    2013-09-01

    Efficiency of production is increasingly important with the current escalation of feed costs and demands to minimize the environmental footprint. The objectives of this study were 1) to estimate heritabilities for daily feed consumption and residual feed intake and their genetic correlations with production and egg-quality traits; 2) to evaluate accuracies of estimated breeding values from pedigree- and marker-based prediction models; and 3) to localize genomic regions associated with feed efficiency in a brown egg layer line. Individual feed intake data collected over 2-wk trial periods were available for approximately 6,000 birds from 8 generations. Genetic parameters were estimated with a multitrait animal model; methods BayesB and BayesCπ were used to estimate marker effects and find genomic regions associated with feed efficiency. Using pedigree information, feed efficiency was found to be moderately heritable (h(2) = 0.46 for daily feed consumption and 0.47 for residual feed intake). Hens that consumed more feed and had greater residual feed intake (lower efficiency) had a genetic tendency to lay slightly more eggs with greater yolk weights and albumen heights. Regions on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 7, 13, and Z were found to be associated with feed intake and efficiency. The accuracy from genomic prediction was higher and more persistent (better maintained across generations) than that from pedigree-based prediction. These results indicate that genomic selection can be used to improve feed efficiency in layers. PMID:23960108

  2. Early oral intake after reconstruction with a free flap for cancer of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Guidera, Alice K; Kelly, Bronwen N; Rigby, Paul; MacKinnon, Craig A; Tan, Swee T

    2013-04-01

    To allow healing of the surgical wound patients are traditionally given nothing by mouth for 6-12 days after resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity. Our aim was to assess the impact of introducing oral intake within 6 days postoperatively. Consecutive patients who had resection and reconstruction of a cancer of the oral cavity with a free flap within an 8-year period were selected from the head and neck database. Personal and social data; type, stage, and site of the tumour; type of resection and free flap; postoperative complications; and duration of hospital stay were recorded, supplemented by review of casenotes for the time that oral intake was started, duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation, and changes in body weight. Patients in the early oral intake group started oral intake within 5 days postoperatively, and those in the late group began feeding from postoperative day 6. The duration of hospital stay in the early group was significantly shorter than that in the late group. There was, however, no difference in the morbidity, including orocutaneous fistula, between the two groups. The duration of nasogastric and tracheostomy intubation was shorter, and weight loss was less, in the early group than in the late group, but not significantly so. Early oral feeding does not increase the morbidity for patients having resection and reconstruction with free flaps for cancers of the oral cavity. Early oral intake is associated with a shorter hospital stay, and this may have implications for improved postoperative outcome. PMID:22776518

  3. Activation of brain somatostatin2 receptors stimulates feeding in mice: analysis of food intake microstructure

    PubMed Central

    Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Wang, Lixin; Rivier, Jean; Kobelt, Peter; Mönnikes, Hubert; Taché, Yvette

    2010-01-01

    We recently reported that the oligosomatostatin receptor agonist, ODT8-SST increases food intake in rats via the somatostatin2 receptor (sst2). We characterized ingestive behavior following intracerebroventricular (icv) injection of a selective sst2 agonist in freely fed mice during the light phase. The sst2 agonist (0.01, 0.03, 0.1, 0.3 or 1µg/mouse) injected icv under short inhalation anesthesia dose-dependently increased cumulative light phase food intake over 4h compared to vehicle with a 3.1-times increase at 1µg/mouse (p<0.05). Likewise, the sst2,3,5 agonist octreotide (0.3 or 1µg/mouse) dose-dependently increased 4-h food intake, whereas selective sst1 or sst4 agonists at 1µg/mouse did not. In vehicle-treated mice, high fat diet increased caloric intake/4h by 2.8-times compared to regular diet (p<0.05) and values were further increased 1.4-times/4h by the sst2 agonist. Automated continuous assessment of food intake established a 6.6-times higher food intake during the dark phase due to increased number of meals, meal size, meal duration and rate of ingestion compared to non-treated mice during the light phase. During the first 4h post icv sst2 agonist injection, mice had a 57% increase in number of meals with a 60% higher rate of ingestion, and a 61% reduction in inter-meal intervals, whereas meal sizes were not altered compared to vehicle. These data indicate that activation of brain sst2 receptors potently stimulates ingestive behavior under basal or high fat diet-stimulated conditions in mice. The shortened inter-meal interval suggests an inhibitory effect of the sst2 agonist on “satiety”, whereas “satiation” is not altered as indicated by normal meal size. PMID:20851136

  4. The medical management of unintentional radionuclide intakes.

    PubMed

    Breitenstein, B D

    2003-01-01

    As a general medical problem, radionuclide intakes that may cause significant health effects are uncommon events. In preparing to manage a radionuclide accident, planning is the key. The medical aspects of such an accident are only one part of the management, and a professional team approach is required. Specific priorities and sequencing are necessary in medically managing a radionuclide intake. As soon as is reasonably practical, promptly remove the victim(s) from further radionuclide, radiation field, or chemical exposure. Life and limb-saving medical aid takes precedence over ionising radiation concerns in nearly all cases. Next are the prevention and/or minimisation of internal intake of radionuclides and evaluation and control of external radionuclide contamination, followed by institution of treatment to minimise the retained radionuclide. Communication with the accident victim, and his or her family, and public affairs/media issues are important. Finally, follow-up treatment for internal intakes that may cause delayed health effects is given. PMID:14527016

  5. Cart Regulates Food Intake in Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cocaine-and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) is a potent hypothalamic anorectic peptide in mammals and fish. We hypothesized that increased food intake is associated with changes in expression of CART mRNA within the brain of channel catfish. Objectives were to clone the CART gene, examine ...

  6. Arguments at Mealtime and Child Energy Intake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnier, Daniel; Dubois, Lise; Girard, Manon

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine how arguments at mealtimes relate to children's daily energy intake. Design: A cross-sectional study using data obtained through the Quebec Longitudinal Study of Child Development 1998-2010 (QLSCD), a representative sample of children born in 1998, in the province of Quebec, Canada. Setting: Face-to-face interviews,…

  7. INFORMATION SOURCE ON COOLING WATER INTAKE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Resource Purpose:Supports the technical and financial analysis for the cooling water intake structure rule under Section 316(b) of the CWA.
    Legislation/Enabling Authority:Section 308
    Supported Program:Water permits - implementation of Section 316(b) of ...

  8. Some medical aspects of radionuclide intakes

    SciTech Connect

    Poda, G A

    1983-01-01

    In the field of medicine, particularly industrial medicine, the radiation aspect of the practice probably takes about 1/10 of 1% of our time. All the health physicist's tools of principles of internal dosimetry, lung models, mathematics, chemistry, etc. have little meaning until applied to an individual who has had an intake. This article discusses some of the medical aspects of internal dosimetry.

  9. Parents significantly overestimate zinc intakes in children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dietary surveys (e.g., CSFII) suggest that many toddlers exceed the Institute of Medicine's tolerable upper limit (UL) for zinc. Our objective was to compare zinc intakes estimated from parental report of toddlers to weighed dietary records carried out at home and in an inpatient setting at the Gene...

  10. [Lycopene intake by different aged women groups].

    PubMed

    Wawrzyniak, Agata; Sitek, Agnieszka

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to estimate dietary intake of lycopene by the group of 100 women, from Central Poland, in different age <30 years, 30-50 years, >50 years (mean age 49 +/- 16 years) and main sources of lycopene. The study was carried out in the year 2006 (June-July) with the use of 4-day dietary food records. The lowest intake of lycopene was noted in the youngest group--4.17 mg/person/day, the highest intake in the oldest group--4.88 mg/person/day. The main sources of lycopene in food rations were tomato products (50.6%) and fresh tomatoes (43.5%). Tropical fruit delivered 5.2% of lycopene, other fruit and vegetable juices only 0.7%. Intakes of products, sources of lycopene, depended on age of women and were statistically significant in case of tomato, watermelon, pink grapefruit, and tomato products: ketchup, liquid tomato sauces, liquid tomato soups, tomato juice. PMID:20839464

  11. Shock Induced Separating Flows in Scramjet Intakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yufeng; Rincon, Daniel; Zheng, Yao

    Shock induced separating flows in a scramjet intake has been studied by using a computational fluid dynamics approach. A configuration of scramjet intake geometry consisting of two exterior compression ramps, followed by a subsequent inlet and interior isolator/diffuser assembly, is chosen. The flow conditions are incoming Mach 7 with free-stream static temperature of 46.3K and wall temperature of 300K, respectively. Consequently, oblique shock wave will be formed and its interaction with viscous boundary layers will lead to flow separation that is responsible for the loss of mass flow, total pressure and several other effects. Simulations confirmed that it is necessary to include the cowl wedge in order to predict wall pressure distributions along the lower surface of the intake walls. It is also shown that mesh topology has some influences on prediction results with structured mesh gives better predictions than that of hybrid mesh. A total of eight turbulence models have been applied and results have shown reasonably good agreement with the experimental measurements and other numerical predictions, with small differences occur in localized regions particularly after shock reflection inside the intake channel. Not surprisingly, shock induced flow separation occurs and it correlates well with higher wall pressure and heating downstream. This phenomenon will have significant impact on deteriorating boundary layer property and consequently the engine performance.

  12. Menstrual cycle hormones, food intake, and cravings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Food craving and intake are affected by steroid hormones during the menstrual cycle, especially in the luteal phase, when craving for certain foods has been reported to increase. However, satiety hormones such as leptin have also been shown to affect taste sensitivity, and therefore food ...

  13. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    PubMed

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A; Werler, Martha M

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  14. Preconceptional Iron Intake and Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Darling, Anne Marie; Mitchell, Allen A.; Werler, Martha M.

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to assess the impact of preconceptional heme and non-heme iron on gestational diabetes mellitius (GDM) in the Boston University Slone Epidemiology Birth Defects Study (BDS). This retrospective cohort analysis included 7229 participants enrolled in the BDS between 1998 and 2008 who gave birth to non-malformed infants and were free of pre-existing diabetes. All data were collected through structured interviews conducted within 6 months of delivery. Calorie-adjusted and multivariable odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using logistic regression models. Preconceptional dietary heme iron was modestly associated with an elevated risk of GDM among those (multivariable OR comparing the fifth quintile to the first: 1.55; 95% CI 0.98, 2.46). Conversely, preconceptional dietary non-heme iron was associated with a decreased risk of GDM among those in the fifth quintile of intake compared to the first (multivariable OR: 0.48; 95% CI 0.28, 0.81). Women who consumed supplemental iron during preconception also had a decreased risk of GDM (multivariable OR: 0.78; 95% CI 0.60, 1.02). In conclusion, our data support a positive association between preconceptional heme iron intake and GDM and an inverse association between preconceptional non-heme iron intake from foods and preconceptional intake from supplements. PMID:27231921

  15. Advantageous effect of theanine intake on cognition.

    PubMed

    Tamano, Haruna; Fukura, Kotaro; Suzuki, Miki; Sakamoto, Kazuhiro; Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Takeda, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    Theanine, γ-glutamylethylamide, is one of the major amino acid components in green tea. On the basis of the preventive effect of theanine intake after weaning on stress-induced impairment of recognition memory, the advantageous effect of theanine intake on recognition memory was examined in young rats, which were fed water containing 0.3% theanine for 3 weeks after weaning. The rats were subjected to object recognition test. Object recognition memory was maintained in theanine-administered rats 48 hours after the training, but not in the control rats. When in vivo dentate gyrus long-term potentiation (LTP) was induced, it was more greatly induced in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The levels of brain-derived neurotropic factor and nerve growth factor in the hippocampus were significantly higher in theanine-administered rats than in the control rats. The present study indicates the advantageous effect of theanine intake after weaning on recognition memory. It is likely that theanine intake is of advantage to the development of hippocampal function after weaning. PMID:24621060

  16. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes.

    PubMed

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0-6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  17. Thyroid Function among Breastfed Children with Chronically Excessive Iodine Intakes

    PubMed Central

    Aakre, Inger; Strand, Tor A.; Bjøro, Trine; Norheim, Ingrid; Barikmo, Ingrid; Ares, Susana; Alcorta, Marta Duque; Henjum, Sigrun

    2016-01-01

    Iodine excess may impair thyroid function and trigger adverse health consequences for children. This study aims to describe iodine status among breastfed infants with high iodine exposure in the Saharawi refugee camps Algeria, and further assess thyroid function and iodine status among the children three years later. In 2010, a cross-sectional study among 111 breastfed children aged 0–6 months was performed (baseline study). In 2013, a second cross-sectional study (follow-up study) was conducted among 289 children; 213 newly selected and 76 children retrieved from baseline. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and breast milk iodine concentration (BMIC) were measured at baseline. UIC, thyroid hormones and serum thyroglobulin (Tg) were measured at follow-up. At baseline and follow-up, 88% and 72% had excessive iodine intakes (UIC ≥ 300 µg/L), respectively. At follow-up, 24% had a thyroid hormone disturbance and/or elevated serum Tg, including 9% with subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), 4% with elevated fT3 and 14% with elevated Tg. Children with SCH had poorer linear growth and were more likely to be underweight than the children without SCH. Excessive iodine intakes and thyroid disturbances were common among children below four years of age in our study. Further, SCH seemed to be associated with poor growth and weight. PMID:27367720

  18. Daily boron intake from the American diet.

    PubMed

    Rainey, C J; Nyquist, L A; Christensen, R E; Strong, P L; Culver, B D; Coughlin, J R

    1999-03-01

    Interest in boron as a naturally occurring trace element nutrient from the food supply is increasing. Mounting evidence suggests that boron is essential to human beings. This study explores the major food and beverage contributors of boron and estimates of daily boron intake from the American diet. Previous estimates in the literature of dietary boron consumption are based on limited foods and population segments. In this study we provide a more comprehensive assessment of boron consumption by the US population. A boron nutrient database of 1,944 individual foods was developed. These foods represent 95.3% by weight of all foods consumed in the US Department of Agriculture 1989-1991 Continuing Survey of Food Intakes by Individuals (1989-1991 CSFII). The Boron Nutrient Database (version 1.0) was then linked to the 3-day food records of 11,009 respondents to the 1989-1991 CSFII to generate the average daily boron intake for each person. The weighted 5th percentile, median, mean, and 95th percentile boron intakes, respectively, are 0.43, 1.02, 1.17 and 2.42 mg/day for men; 0.33, 0.83, 0.96 and 1.94 mg/day for women; and 0.40, 0.86, 1.01 and 2.18 mg/day for pregnant women. For vegetarian adults, these intakes are 0.46, 1.30, 1.47 and 2.74 mg/day for men and 0.33, 1.00, 1.29 and 4.18 mg/day for women. The top 2 boron contributors, coffee and milk, are low in boron, yet they make up 12% of the total boron intake by virtue of the volume consumed. Among the top 50 boron contributors, peanut butter, wine, raisins, peanuts, and other nuts are high in boron. As more data become available on daily boron requirements, the results of this study may be used to assess whether Americans' daily intake of boron is adequate. PMID:10076586

  19. Memory facilitation educed by food intake.

    PubMed

    Oomura, Y; Sasaki, K; Li, A J

    1993-09-01

    Acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) in rat CSF increased 1000 times in the 2-h period after food intake, or IP, or ICV glucose infusion. The ICV application of aFGF dose dependently depresses and anti-aFGF antibody facilitates food intake. aFGF is produced in the ependymal cells and released into the CSF in response to increased glucose in the CSF caused by food intake. Released aFGF diffused into the brain parenchyma and was taken up into neurons in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, amygdala, etc. IP injection of glucose 2 h before a task that combined acquisition with passive avoidance significantly increased retention of avoidance by mice tested 24 h later. In a Morris water maze task, IP glucose injection 2 h before a first trial block reduced time to find and climb onto a platform hidden just below the water surface. The glucose facilitation of these affective and spatial memory were abolished by pretreatment with anti-aFGF antibody applied ICV. Continuous ICV infusion of aFGF into rats also significantly increased the reliability of passive avoidance for several days. After food intake, centrally released aFGF reaches the hippocampus and facilitates memory; peripherally released cholecystokinin reaches the endings of the afferent vagal nerves in the portal vein and changes their activity, which modulates hippocampal activity, to lead to memory facilitation. This, however, is blocked by vagotomy below the diaphragm. The results indicate the importance of food intake, not only to maintain homeostasis, but also to prepare a readiness state for memory facilitation. PMID:7692459

  20. Usual Dietary Intakes: SAS Macros for Fitting Multivariate Measurement Error Models & Estimating Multivariate Usual Intake Distributions

    Cancer.gov

    The following SAS macros can be used to create a multivariate usual intake distribution for multiple dietary components that are consumed nearly every day or episodically. A SAS macro for performing balanced repeated replication (BRR) variance estimation is also included.

  1. CONVOLUTION APPROACH TO EVALUATING INTAKE DISTRIBUTIONS FOR INHALED PLUTONIUM DIOXIDE FOR THE STOCHASTIC INTAKE PARADIGM

    EPA Science Inventory

    For airborne toxic particles, the stochastic intake (SI) paradigm involves relativelylow numbers of particles that are presented for inhalation. Each person at risk may inhale adifferent number of particles, including zero particles. For such exposure scenarios, probabilistic d...

  2. Validity of a Self-Administered Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Assessing Amino Acid Intake in Japan: Comparison With Intake From 4-Day Weighed Dietary Records and Plasma Levels

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Motoki; Ishihara, Junko; Takachi, Ribeka; Todoriki, Hidemi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi; Miyano, Hiroshi; Yamaji, Taiki; Tsugane, Shoichiro

    2016-01-01

    Background Interest in the physiological roles of amino acids and their impact on health outcomes is substantial and growing. This interest has prompted assessment of the habitual intake of amino acids for use in epidemiologic studies and in clarifying the association between habitual intake and plasma levels of amino acids. Here, we investigated the validity of ranking individuals according to dietary amino acid intake as estimated using a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) in comparison with intakes from dietary records (DRs) and plasma levels. Methods A total of 139 men and women selected from examinees of the cancer screening program at the Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening, National Cancer Center, Japan, provided 4-day weighed DRs, a semi-quantitative FFQ, and plasma samples. Plasma levels of amino acids were measured using the UF-Amino Station system. Results Spearman rank correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake of amino acids from the DR and FFQ ranged from 0.40 to 0.65 for men and from 0.35 to 0.46 for women. Correlation coefficients of energy-adjusted intake from the DR and plasma levels ranged from −0.40 to 0.25 for men and from −0.16 to 0.11 for women. Similarly, no significant positive correlation coefficients were observed between intake from the FFQ and plasma levels for either men or women. Conclusions We confirmed that this FFQ has moderate validity in estimating amino acid intake when 4-day weighed DRs are used as a reference method, suggesting that it is suitable for ranking individuals living in urban areas in Japan by amino acid intake. PMID:26277881

  3. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls.

    PubMed

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680 kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665-0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  4. Effects of repeated light-dark phase shifts on voluntary ethanol and water intake in male and female Fischer and Lewis rats.

    PubMed

    Rosenwasser, Alan M; Clark, James W; Fixaris, Michael C; Belanger, Gabriel V; Foster, James A

    2010-05-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate reciprocal interactions between excessive alcohol (ethanol) intake and dysregulation of circadian biological rhythms. Thus, chronic alcohol intake leads to widespread circadian disruption in both humans and experimental animals, while in turn, chronobiological disruption has been hypothesized to promote or sustain excessive alcohol intake. Nevertheless, the effects of circadian disruption on voluntary ethanol intake have not been investigated extensively, and prior studies have reported both increased and decreased ethanol intake in rats maintained under "shift-lag" lighting regimens mimicking those experienced by shift workers and transmeridian travelers. In the present study, male and female inbred Fischer and Lewis rats were housed in running wheel cages with continuous free-choice access to both water and 10% (vol/vol) ethanol solution and exposed to repeated 6-h phase advances of the daily light-dark (LD) cycle, whereas controls were kept under standard LD 12:12 conditions. Shift-lag lighting reduced overall ethanol and water intake, and reduced ethanol preference in Fischer rats. Although contrary to the hypothesis that circadian disruption would increase voluntary ethanol intake, these results are consistent with our previous report of reduced ethanol intake in selectively bred high-alcohol-drinking (HAD1) rats housed under a similar lighting regimen. We conclude that chronic circadian disruption is a form of chronobiological stressor that, like other stressors, can either increase or decrease ethanol intake, depending on a variety of poorly understood variables. PMID:20488643

  5. A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls

    PubMed Central

    Delisle Nyström, Christine; Forsum, Elisabet; Henriksson, Hanna; Trolle-Lagerros, Ylva; Larsson, Christel; Maddison, Ralph; Timpka, Toomas; Löf, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 ± 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 ± 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 ± 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (ρ = 0.665–0.896, p < 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials. PMID:26784226

  6. Does eating slowly influence appetite and energy intake when water intake is controlled?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Slow eating has been associated with enhanced satiation, but also with increased water intake. Therefore, the role of water ingestion in regard to eating rate needs to be discerned. This study examined the influence of eating rate on appetite regulation and energy intake when water intake is controlled. Methods In a randomized design, slow and fast eating rates were compared on two occasions, in 30 women (22.7±1.2y; BMI=22.4±0.4kg/m2) who consumed an ad libitum mixed-macronutrient lunch with water (300 mL). Satiation was examined as the main outcome by measuring energy intake during meals. At designated times, subjects rated hunger, satiety, desire-to-eat, thirst, and meal palatability on visual analogue scales. Paired t-tests were used to compare hypothesis-driven outcomes. Appetite ratings were compared across time points and conditions by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) using a within-subject model. Results Energy intake and appetite ratings did not differ between conditions at meal completion. However, subjects rated less hunger and tended to rate lower desire-to-eat and greater satiety at 1 hour following the slow condition. Conclusions Results tend to support a role of slow eating on decreased hunger and higher inter-meal satiety when water intake is controlled. However, the lack of significant differences in energy intake under these conditions indicates that water intake may account for the effects of eating rate on appetite regulation. PMID:23171246

  7. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010-2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min-max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0-180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  8. Associations Between Excessive Sodium Intake and Smoking and Alcohol Intake Among Korean Men: KNHANES V

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kyung-Hwa; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Jung Ae; Lim, Ji-Ae

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we evaluated the associations of smoking and alcohol intake, both independently and collectively, with sodium intake in Korean men. Subjects (6340 men) were from the fifth Korean National Health Examination Survey (2010–2012). Smoking-related factors included smoking status, urinary cotinine level, and pack-years of smoking. Food intake was assessed using a 24-h recall. The odds of excessive sodium intake were estimated using survey logistic regression analysis. The smoking rate was 44.1%. The geometric mean of the urinary cotinine level was 0.05 µg/mL, and the median (min–max) pack-years of smoking was 13.2 (0–180). When adjusted for related factors, the odds (95% confidence interval) of excessive sodium intake were 1.54 (1.00, 2.37), 1.55 (1.23, 1.94), 1.44 (1.07, 1.95), and 1.37 (1.11, 1.68) times higher in the group exposed to smoking and drinking than in the group that never smoked nor drank, the group that never smoked and drank <5 times per month, the group that did not currently smoke and never drank, and the group that did not currently smoke or drink <5 times per month, respectively. There was an interaction effect between smoking and alcohol intake (p-interaction = 0.02). The results suggest that simultaneous exposure to smoking and alcohol intake is associated with increased odds of excessive sodium intake. PMID:26670236

  9. 98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    98. (Credit BLV) Detail of gravity, flow conduit intake at cross Lake dam Cribbing supports extra suction intake installed in 1930. - McNeil Street Pumping Station, McNeil Street & Cross Bayou, Shreveport, Caddo Parish, LA

  10. 1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. INTAKE CHANNEL LOOKING NORTHEAST; WATER FROM BEAVER BROOK ENTERS THE INTAKE CHANNEL HERE. - Hondius Water Line, 1.6 miles Northwest of Park headquarters building & 1 mile Northwest of Beaver Meadows entrance station, Estes Park, Larimer County, CO

  11. 46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM. THIS WAS FORMERLY THE MAIN INTAKE FOR THE SYSTEM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  12. INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTHNORTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTAKE, DAMS #1, #2, AND #3, AND FOOTBRIDGE; FACING NORTH-NORTHEAST - Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project, Intake, North Bank of Snake River, immediately West/Northwest of the Shoshone Falls Hydroelectric Project Dam No. 1, Tipperary Corner, Jerome County, ID

  13. View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Diversion Dam and Flume Intake of the Childs System at the Irving Powerhouse. Looking northwest - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Intake & Forebay, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  14. View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Pressure Tunnel Intake at Stehr Lake. Looking southeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Pressure Tunnel Intake, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  15. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING SOUTH. (MOTTLED SKY FROM CONDENSED MOISTURE ON NEGATIVE AFFECTING EVEN PROCESSING OF SKY, SAVED FOR DOCUMENTARY PURPOSES) - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. VIEW OF TWIN COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURES (POND SIDE), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF TWIN COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURES (POND SIDE), TUMALO RESERVOIR FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE TO LEFT. LOOKING NORTH/NORTHEAST - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  17. Dependence of the dose estimate on the time pattern of intake by the example of tritiated water intakes.

    PubMed

    Molokanov, A; Blanchardon, E

    2007-01-01

    The uncertainties related to activity measurement and time pattern of intake in routine monitoring of internal exposure are considered through the example of tritiated water intakes. For this purpose, a combination of intake-to-bioassay and bioassay-to-intake calculations with Monte Carlo integration technique is introduced as a method of investigation. The time pattern of intake and the measured activity are defined as random input quantities. The probability density functions (PDFs) of the input quantities are defined and a Monte Carlo integration is performed to obtain the PDF of the output quantity which is either the value of intake estimated from a measured value of activity or the estimated activity from a given value of intake. Different possible estimates of the intake are considered: some represent the parameters of the PDF of the output quantity, others are derived from the commonly used constant chronic, I(CC), and mid-point, I(1/2), methods. The combinations of activity and intake estimates that would provide a stable estimate of the initial intake in intake-to-bioassay and bioassay-to-intake calculations were studied. Several intake estimates satisfying this requirement can be chosen depending on the task to be solved by adjusting the proper activity estimate. PMID:17567759

  18. Genome-wide association analysis of feed intake and residual feed intake in Nellore cattle

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Feed intake plays an important economic role in beef cattle, and is related with feed efficiency, weight gain and carcass traits. However, the phenotypes collected for dry matter intake and feed efficiency are scarce when compared with other measures such as weight gain and carcass traits. The use of genomic information can improve the power of inference of studies on these measures, identifying genomic regions that affect these phenotypes. This work performed the genome-wide association study (GWAS) for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI) of 720 Nellore cattle (Bos taurus indicus). Results In general, no genomic region extremely associated with both phenotypic traits was observed, as expected for the variables that have their regulation controlled by many genes. Three SNPs surpassed the threshold for the Bonferroni multiple test for DMI and two SNPs for RFI. These markers are located on chromosomes 4, 8, 14 and 21 in regions near genes regulating appetite and ion transport and close to important QTL as previously reported to RFI and DMI, thus corroborating the literature that points these two processes as important in the physiological regulation of intake and feed efficiency. Conclusions This study showed the first GWAS of DMI to identify genomic regions associated with feed intake and efficiency in Nellore cattle. Some genes and QTLs previously described for DMI and RFI, in other subspecies (Bos taurus taurus), that influences these phenotypes are confirmed in this study. PMID:24517472

  19. Major food sources contributing to energy intake--a nationwide survey of Brazilians aged 10 years and older.

    PubMed

    Sichieri, Rosely; Bezerra, Ilana Nogueira; Araújo, Marina Campos; de Moura Souza, Amanda; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2015-05-28

    Identification of major sources of energy in the diet helps to implement dietary recommendations to reduce obesity. To determine the food sources of energy consumed by Brazilians, we used the traditional method of ranking energy contribution of selected food groups and also compared days with and without consumption of specific food groups. Analysis was based on two non-consecutive days of dietary record from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey, conducted among 34,003 Brazilians (aged 10 years or more), taking into account the complex design of the survey. Comparison of days with and without consumption gave more consistent results, with sweets and cookies as the most important contributors to energy intake, increasing 992 kJ/d (95% CI 883, 1096) for those days when consumption of cakes, cookies and desserts was reported compared to days without their consumption. Savoury snacks, cheese and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) also increase energy intake by about 600 kJ. The only group associated with decreased energy intake was vegetable (-155 kJ; 95% CI -272, -37). Consumption of beans, milk and fruits increased the energy intake by about 210 kJ. In total, the mean energy intake of the group was 8000 kJ. Except for the consumption of vegetables, all of the other ten food groups analysed were associated with increased energy intake. Sweets and cookies may increase the energy intake by 12% and SSB by 7%, indicating that these two groups are major targets for improving healthy eating by reducing energy intake; whereas vegetable intake is associated with the reduction of energy content of the diet. PMID:25864784

  20. Dietary Intake of the Urban Black Population of Cape Town: The Cardiovascular Risk in Black South Africans (CRIBSA) Study

    PubMed Central

    Steyn, Nelia P.; Jaffer, Nasreen; Nel, Johanna; Levitt, Naomi; Steyn, Krisela; Lombard, Carl; Peer, Nasheeta

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: To determine dietary intake of 19 to 64 years old urban Africans in Cape Town in 2009 and examine the changes between 1990 and 2009. Methods: A representative cross-sectional sample (n = 544), stratified by gender and age was randomly selected in 2009 from the same areas sampled in 1990. Socio-demographic data and a 24-h dietary recall were obtained by trained field workers. The associations of dietary data with an asset index and degree of urbanization were assessed. Results: Fat intakes were higher in 19–44-year-old men (32% energy (E)) and women (33.4%E) in 2009 compared with 1990 (men: 25.9%E, women: 27.0%E) while carbohydrate intakes were lower in 2009 (men 53.2%E, women: 55.5%E) than in 1990 (men: 61.3%E; women: 62%E) while sugar intake increased significantly (p < 0.01) in women. There were significant positive correlations between urbanization and total fat (p = 0.016), saturated fat (p = 0.001), monounsaturated fat (p = 0.002) and fat as a %E intake (p = 0.046). Urbanization was inversely associated with intake of carbohydrate %E (p < 0.001). Overall micronutrient intakes improved significantly compared with 1990. It should also be noted that energy and macronutrient intakes were all significant in a linear regression model using mean adequacy ratio (MAR) as a measure of dietary quality in 2009, as was duration of urbanization. Discussion: The higher fat and lower carbohydrate %E intakes in this population demonstrate a transition to a more urbanized diet over last two decades. These dietary changes reflect the nutrition transitions that typically occur as a longer time is spent in urban centers. PMID:27187459

  1. Dietary intake of minerals and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma: results from the Golestan Cohort Study123

    PubMed Central

    Hashemian, Maryam; Poustchi, Hossein; Abnet, Christian C; Boffetta, Paolo; Dawsey, Sanford M; Brennan, Paul J; Pharoah, Paul; Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Sharafkhah, Maryam; Hekmatdoost, Azita; Malekzadeh, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Dietary factors have been hypothesized to affect the risk of esophageal cancer via different mechanisms, but the intake of minerals is understudied and the evidence is conflicting. Objective: The objective was to evaluate the associations of dietary intake of minerals with risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Design: We used data from the Golestan Cohort Study, which was launched in a high-risk region for esophageal cancer in Iran. Participants were enrolled in 2004–2008 and were followed to 2014. Intakes of minerals were assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of ESCC for dietary intakes of selected minerals. Results: We identified 201 ESCC cases among 47,405 subjects. Calcium intake was significantly inversely associated with the risk of ESCC (HR per 100-mg/d increase: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.81, 0.96; P = 0.005; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.49; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.82; P-trend = 0.013). Zinc intake was also inversely associated with ESCC, but the quartile association did not reach significance (HR per 1-mg/d increase: 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77, 0.98; P = 0.027; quartile 4 vs. quartile 1 HR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.28, 1.12; P-trend = 0.097). The relations between dietary intakes of selenium, magnesium, and copper and risk of ESCC were nonlinear (P-nonlinear trend = 0.001, 0.016, and 0.029, respectively). There was no relation between dietary intake of manganese and the risk of ESCC. Conclusion: The results suggest that higher intakes of calcium and zinc are associated with a lower risk of ESCC in a high-risk region of Iran. PMID:26016858

  2. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    PubMed

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-05-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored. PMID:26903206

  3. Gene expression profiling of hormonal regulation related to the residual feed intake of Holstein cattle.

    PubMed

    Xi, Y M; Yang, Z; Wu, F; Han, Z Y; Wang, G L

    2015-09-11

    An accumulation of over a decade of research in cattle has shown that genetic selection for decreased residual feed intake (RFI), defined as the difference between an animal's actual feed intake and its expected feed intake, is a viable option for improving feed efficiency and reducing the feed requirements of herds, thereby improving the profitability of cattle producers. Hormonal regulation is one of the most important factors in feed intake. To determine the relationship between hormones and feed efficiency, we performed gene expression profiling of jugular vein serum on hormonal regulation of Chinese Holstein cattle with low and high RFI coefficients. 857 differential expression genes (from 24683 genes) were found. Among these, 415 genes were up-regulated and 442 genes were down-regulated in the low RFI group. The gene ontology (GO) search revealed 6 significant terms and 64 genes associated with hormonal regulation, and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) selected the adipocytokine signaling pathway, insulin signaling pathway. In conclusion, the study indicated that the molecular expression of genes associated with hormonal regulation differs in dairy cows, depending on their RFI coefficients, and that these differences may be related to the molecular regulation of the leptin-NPY and insulin signaling pathways. PMID:26231801

  4. Method and apparatus for reducing cold-phase emissions by utilizing oxygen-enriched intake air

    DOEpatents

    Poola, Ramesh B.; Sekar, Ramanujam R.; Stork, Kevin C.

    1997-01-01

    An oxygen-enriched air intake control system for an internal combustion engine includes air directing apparatus to control the air flow into the intake of the engine. During normal operation of the engine, ambient air flowing from an air filter of the engine flows through the air directing apparatus into the intake of the engine. In order to decrease the amount of carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions that tend to be produced by the engine during a short period of time after the engine is started, the air directing apparatus diverts for a short period of time following the start up of the engine at least a portion of the ambient air from the air filter through a secondary path. The secondary path includes a selectively permeable membrane through which the diverted portion of the ambient air flows. The selectively permeable membrane separates nitrogen and oxygen from the diverted air so that oxygen enriched air containing from about 23% to 25% oxygen by volume is supplied to the intake of the engine.

  5. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  6. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to...

  7. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  8. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Compressed Air and Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that...

  9. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cooling water intake structures. 401... GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  10. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  11. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  12. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2014-07-01 2012-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  13. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Well-Completion Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that...

  14. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Well-Workover Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  16. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  17. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  18. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  19. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  20. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  1. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  2. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  3. 30 CFR 56.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 56.7806 Section 56.7806... Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing § 56.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet-piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  4. 30 CFR 57.7806 - Oxygen intake coupling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxygen intake coupling. 57.7806 Section 57.7806... Jet Piercing Rotary Jet Piercing-Surface Only § 57.7806 Oxygen intake coupling. The oxygen intake coupling on jet piercing drills shall be constructed so that only the oxygen hose can be coupled to it....

  5. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  6. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  7. 30 CFR 57.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 57.13012 Section 57... and Boilers § 57.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  8. 30 CFR 56.13012 - Compressor air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compressor air intakes. 56.13012 Section 56... Boilers § 56.13012 Compressor air intakes. Compressor air intakes shall be installed to ensure that only clean, uncontaminated air enters the compressors....

  9. 40 CFR 401.14 - Cooling water intake structures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Cooling water intake structures. 401.14... AND STANDARDS GENERAL PROVISIONS § 401.14 Cooling water intake structures. The location, design, construction and capacity of cooling water intake structures of any point source for which a standard...

  10. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  11. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  12. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  13. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  14. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  15. 40 CFR 89.325 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.325 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement must be made within 122 cm of the engine. The measurement location must be made...

  16. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  17. 40 CFR 91.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Provisions § 91.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) Engine intake air temperature measurement... the supply system or in the air stream entering the engine. (b) The temperature measurements must...

  18. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...

  19. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The intake... operator's compartment, to shut off the air supply to the engine. This valve shall be constructed to...

  20. 40 CFR 90.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Gaseous Exhaust Test Procedures § 90.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure...

  1. 40 CFR 91.416 - Intake air flow measurement specifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake air flow measurement... Procedures § 91.416 Intake air flow measurement specifications. (a) If used, the engine intake air flow measurement method used must have a range large enough to accurately measure the air flow over the...

  2. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  3. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines which are...

  4. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended must be equipped...

  5. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  6. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  7. 30 CFR 250.510 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.510 Section 250... Operations § 250.510 Diesel engine air intakes. Diesel engine air intakes must be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel engines that are continuously attended...

  8. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  9. 30 CFR 250.610 - Diesel engine air intakes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Diesel engine air intakes. 250.610 Section 250... Operations § 250.610 Diesel engine air intakes. No later than May 31, 1989, diesel engine air intakes shall be equipped with a device to shut down the diesel engine in the event of runaway. Diesel...

  10. Managing the herbage utilisation and intake by cattle grazing rangelands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To be able to predict the performance of grazing cattle in extensive rangeland environments, herbage intake is paramount because it quantifies energy intake and performance. Nutrient demand of the animals is the major driver of herbage intake and characteristics of the sward dictate how this demand...

  11. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  12. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  13. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  14. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  15. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  16. 40 CFR 90.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to... for the engine intake air, the ambient test cell humidity measurement may be used. (a)...

  17. Influence of milk production potential on forage dry matter intake by multiparous and primiparous Brangus females.

    PubMed

    Johnson, C R; Lalman, D L; Brown, M A; Appeddu, L A; Buchanan, D S; Wettemann, R P

    2003-07-01

    Brangus cows (n = 29) were used in three experiments to evaluate the effects of parity (multiparous vs. primiparous) and potential genetic merit for milk production (high vs. low) on forage intake during late gestation, early lactation, and late lactation. Cows were selected for milk production based on their sire's EPD for milk production (MEPD). Cows had ad libitum access to (130% of previous 2-d average intake) low-quality hay (5.3% CP and 76% NDF), and cottonseed meal was supplemented to ensure adequate degradable intake protein. All females were adapted to diets for at least 7 d, and individual intake data were collected for 9 d. During the lactation trials, actual milk production was determined using a portable milking machine following a 12-h separation from calves. During late gestation, multiparous cows consumed 24% more (P = 0.01) forage DM (kg/d) than primiparous cows; however, parity class did not influence forage intake when intake was expressed relative to BW. Furthermore, MEPD did not influence forage intake during late gestation. During early lactation, multiparous cows produced 66% more (P < 0.001) milk than primiparous cows, and high MEPD tended (P = 0.10) to produce more milk than low MEPD. Multiparous cows consumed 19% more (P < 0.0001) forage DM than did primiparous cows when expressed on an absolute basis, but not when expressed on a BW basis. High-MEPD cows consumed 8% more (P < 0.05) forage DM than did low-MEPD cows. During late lactation, multiparous cows produced 84% more milk than primiparous cows, although MEPD did not influence (P = 0.40) milk yield. In addition, multiparous cows consumed 17% more (P < 0.01) forage DM per day than primiparous cows, but when intake was expressed relative to BW, neither parity nor MEPD influenced forage DMI during late lactation. Milk yield and BW explained significant proportions of the variation in forage DMI during early and late lactation. Each kilogram increase in milk yield was associated with a 0

  18. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  19. ERICA: intake of macro and micronutrients of Brazilian adolescents.

    PubMed

    Souza, Amanda de Moura; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Giannini, Denise Tavares; de Oliveira, Cecília Lacroix; dos Santos, Marize Melo; Leal, Vanessa Sá; Vasconcelos, Francisco de Assis Guedes

    2016-02-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe food and macronutrient intake profile and estimate the prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake of Brazilian adolescents. METHODS Data from 71,791 adolescents aged from 12 to 17 years were evaluated in the 2013-2014 Brazilian Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA). Food intake was estimated using 24-hour dietary recall (24-HDR). A second 24-HDR was collected in a subsample of the adolescents to estimate within-person variability and calculate the usual individual intake. The prevalence of food/food group intake reported by the adolescents was also estimated. For sodium, the prevalence of inadequate intake was estimated based on the Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL). The Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) method used as cutoff was applied to estimate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake. All the analyses were stratified according to sex, age group and Brazilian macro-regions. All statistical analyses accounted for the sample weight and the complex sampling design. RESULTS Rice, beans and other legume, juice and fruit drinks, breads and meat were the most consumed foods among the adolescents. The average energy intake ranged from 2,036 kcal (girls aged from 12 to 13 years) to 2,582 kcal (boy aged from14 to 17 years). Saturated fat and free sugar intake were above the maximum limit recommended (< 10.0%). Vitamins A and E, and calcium were the micronutrients with the highest prevalence of inadequate intake (> 50.0%). Sodium intake was above the UL for more than 80.0% of the adolescents. CONCLUSIONS The diets of Brazilian adolescents were characterized by the intake of traditional Brazilian food, such as rice and beans, as well as by high intake of sugar through sweetened beverages and processed foods. This food pattern was associated with an excessive intake of sodium, saturated fatty acids and free sugar. PMID:26910551

  20. Protein intake and obesity in young adolescents

    PubMed Central

    XU, SHUMEI; XUE, YING

    2016-01-01

    The abundance of protein and its functional diversity in living systems makes it essential for virtually all life processes. Dietary protein and amino acid requirements are affected by age, body size, body composition, physiological state, and the level of energy output. The requirement for dietary protein is based on the indispensable amino acids under all conditions and under specific physiological and pathological conditions as well as the synthesis of dispensable amino acids and other nitrogen-containing compounds. Previous findings have shown the influence of early intake of proteins on the development of overweight in healthy children. The present review focused on the possible association (if any) between protein intake and later development of obesity. The aim is to benefit physicians, dieticians as well as parents to understand future consequences of incorrect dietary habits in young adolescents and encourage healthy dietary habits to avoid obesity. PMID:27168771

  1. Vitamin K: food composition and dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Sarah L.

    2012-01-01

    Vitamin K is present in the diet in the forms of phylloquinone and menaquinones. Phylloquinone, which is the major dietary source, is concentrated in leafy plants and is the vitamin K form best characterized in terms of food composition and dietary intakes. In contrast, menaquinones are the product of bacterial production or conversion from dietary phylloquinone. Food composition databases are limited for menaquinones and their presence in foods varies by region. Dietary intakes of all forms of vitamin K vary widely among age groups and population subgroups. Similarly, the utilization of vitamin K from different forms and food sources appear to vary, although our understanding of vitamin K is still rudimentary in light of new developments regarding the menaquinones. PMID:22489217

  2. Caffeine Intake Among Adolescents in Delhi

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Mridul; Kalra, Swati; Gupta, Piyush

    2016-01-01

    Background: Availability and advertising of caffeinated drinks is on the rise in Indian market. Excess caffeine intake may have deleterious effects on health. Objective: To estimate the daily consumption of caffeine among urban school-going adolescents from Delhi. Materials and Methods: A school-based survey was conducted to determine the amount and pattern of caffeine consumption among students of classes 9-12, using a self-administered questionnaire. Results: Of 300 participants (median age 15 year, 174 boys), 291 (97%) were consuming caffeine [mean (SD): 121.0 (98.2) mg/day]. Nineteen (6%) students were consuming more than 300 mg of caffeine per day. Tea/coffee contributed to more than 50% of the caffeine intake. The rest was derived from cola beverages, chocolates, and energy drinks. Conclusion: Average caffeine consumption among school-going adolescents from Delhi is high. The findings of this preliminary survey need to be confirmed in larger data sets. PMID:27051091

  3. 2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2 AT 560" CONSTRUCTED OF RUBBLE MASONRY IN 1937-1938. VIEW LOOKING DOWN LINE FORMER INTAKE GRILLE WAS TO LEFT SIDE OF DAM (TWO 8" IRON PIPES FROM NEW INTAKE NOW ENTER OLD INTAKE OPENING), BOX FLUME EXITS AT RIGHT AND CARRIES WATER TO AERATOR. NOTE THE SMALL SLUICEWAY OPENING AT CENTER ALONG WATERLINE. THIS DAM WAS SUPERCEDED BY THE NEW INTAKE DAM TO REACH THE MORE RELIABLE WATER SOURCE OF THE MAIN STREAM. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  4. Breast milk intake: 12 hour versus 24 hour assessment.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, M; Pittard, W

    1982-11-01

    Letter to the editor commenting on "Clinical and field studies of human lactation: methodological considerations," by Brown et al. The point is made that in test-weighing infants to estimate breast milk intake, culture related breastfeeding practices must be studied before a 12 hour test period is used to estimate intake for a complete 24 hour period. In western cultures milk intake between 7 am and 7 pm was found to differ significantly from intake between 7 pm and 7 am, whereas in a Bangladesh study milk intake during the 2 12 hour periods was comparable. PMID:7137079

  5. Hydraulic model studies on bulb turbine intakes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Pugh, C.A.

    1983-03-01

    Intakes for bulb and rim generator turbines are very large in relation to their runner diameters. Because the water velocity is low in the intake area, the losses are small. This report describes research on the effect that simplifying the intake design has on energy losses and flow distribution. Using straight surfaces in place of curved bellmouth entrances and shortening the length of the intake could significantly reduce construction costs. In addition, reducing the intake size would reduce the size of trashracks, gates, and associated operating equipment.

  6. Effect of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Bruininx, E M A M; Binnendijk, G P; van der Peet-Schwering, C M C; Schrama, J W; den Hartog, L A; Everts, H; Beynen, A C

    2002-06-01

    To assess the effects of creep feed consumption on individual feed intake characteristics and performance of group-housed weaned pigs, 16 litters (149 piglets) were fed a commercial creep feed (3,040 kcal NE/kg, 15.2 g lysine/kg) supplemented with 1% chromic oxide. Another five litters (48 piglets) were not given access to creep feed (no-feed). Piglets were weaned at 28 d after birth. On d 18, 22, and 27 of age, fecal samples from all the piglets were taken using fecal loops. A green color of the feces indicated that the piglet had eaten creep feed. Piglets that had green-colored feces three times were considered as eaters. Piglets that never showed green-colored feces were considered as non-eaters. At weaning 22 piglets of each type (no-feed, non-eaters, and eaters) were selected based on BW, litter origin, and sex. These 66 pigs were assigned to six pens equipped with computerized feeding stations. Eaters, non-eaters, and no-feed pigs were equally divided over all six pens. After weaning a prestarter (d 0 to 13) and a starter diet (d 14 to 34) were offered for ad libitum consumption. The individual feed intake characteristics of latency time (interval between weaning and first feed intake) and initial feed intake (intake during the first 24 h following first feed intake) and performance traits were determined for all piglets. The pigs that were designated as eaters needed less time between weaning and first feed intake than the pigs that were designated as non-eaters and no-feed pigs (P = 0.04 and P = 0.06, respectively). Initial feed intake was not affected (P > 0.1) by feed intake prior to weaning. However, during d 0 to 8 the eaters had more visits per day during which feed was consumed than both the non-eaters and no-feed pigs. Averaged over the first 8 d after weaning, the ADFI and ADG of the eaters were higher than that of the non-eaters and no-feed pigs (P < 0.05). Averaged over the total 34-d period the effect of creep feed intake on postweaning ADFI was

  7. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake.

    PubMed

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the "Different" session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the "Same" session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the "Same" and "Different" sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the "Different" session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  8. Vagus Nerve Stimulation and Food Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Kristin L.; Oleski, Jessica; Gordon, Katherine; Rothschild, Anthony J.; Pagoto, Sherry L.

    2014-01-01

    Animal research suggests that vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) is associated with weight loss and decreased appetite. Results from human studies are mixed; some suggest that VNS affects weight whereas others do not, and it is unclear how VNS affects eating behaviors. Baseline body mass index (BMI) and VNS device settings may moderate the effects of VNS on caloric intake. This study investigates the association among BMI, VNS device settings, and caloric intake of highly palatable foods during VNS on versus VNS off sessions in 16 adult patients (62.5% female; BMI mean = 29.11 ± 6.65) using VNS therapy for either epilepsy or depression. Participants attended 2 experimental sessions (VNS on versus off) where they were presented with 4 preferred snack foods totaling 1600 calories. At the start of the session, they either had their VNS devices turned off or left on. Caloric intake was calculated by weighing foods before and after each session. BMI category (overweight/obese and lean) was the between group factor in the analysis. After controlling for covariates, an interaction of condition and BMI category (P = .03) was found. There was an interaction of condition and device output current (P = .05) and a trend toward an interaction of condition and device on time (P = .07). Excess weight may impact how neurobiological signals from the vagus nerve affect appetite and eating. Future research is needed to further elucidate this relationship. PMID:24876624

  9. PYY3-36: Beyond food intake.

    PubMed

    Stadlbauer, Ulrike; Woods, Stephen C; Langhans, Wolfgang; Meyer, Urs

    2015-07-01

    The gastrointestinal hormone peptide tyrosine tyrosine 3-36 (PYY(3-36)) has attained broad recognition with respect to its involvement in energy homeostasis and the control of food intake. It is mainly secreted by distal intestinal enteroendocrine L-cells in response to eating and exerts neurally mediated, paracrine and endocrine effects on various target organs. In addition to its gastrointestinal effects, PYY(3-36) has long been known to inhibit food intake. Recent closer examination of the effects of PYY(3-36) revealed that this gut-derived peptide also influences a wide spectrum of behavioral and cognitive functions that are pivotal for basic processes of perception and judgment, including central information processing, salience learning, working memory, and behavioral responding to novelty. Here, we review the effects of PYY(3-36) that go beyond food intake and provide a conceptual framework suggesting that several apparently unrelated behavioral actions of PYY(3-36) may actually reflect different manifestations of modulating the central dopamine system. PMID:25527432

  10. Dietary intakes of age-group swimmers.

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, J A; Williams, M M

    1991-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to collect information regarding the dietary habits of male and female age-group swimmers and report the energy consumptions of these athletes in relation to their daily training demands. Twenty competitive swimmers, who were training 6000 m per day 6 days a week, recorded all fluid and food consumed during a 4-day period. Dietary analysis revealed that 11 swimmers (55%) had calcium intakes below recommended dietary allowances (RDA), while 13 (65%) had iron intakes lower than RDA. Despite identical training loads and body mass, male swimmers had significantly greater (P = 0.004) daily mean (s.d.) energy consumption (3072(732) kcal, 12.9(3.1) MJ) than females (2130(544) kcal, 8.9(2.3) MJ) and were maintaining energy balance. Although the contribution of carbohydrate to total daily energy intake was the same for male (55%) and female swimmers (56%), the females ingested significantly less (P = 0.011) carbohydrate (292(87) g) than the males (404(88) g) and could be considered deficient in dietary carbohydrate with respect to their daily training demands. PMID:1777785

  11. Effect on Caries of Restricting Sugars Intake

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, P.J.; Kelly, S.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic review of studies in humans was conducted to update evidence on the association between the amount of sugars intake and dental caries and on the effect of restricting sugars intake to < 10% and < 5% energy (E) on caries to inform the updating of World Health Organization guidelines on sugars consumption. Data sources included MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Database, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang, and South African Department of Health. Eligible studies reported the absolute amount of sugars and dental caries, measured as prevalence, incidence, or severity. The review was conducted and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement, and the evidence was assessed according to GRADE Working Group guidelines. From 5,990 papers identified, 55 studies were eligible – 3 intervention, 8 cohort, 20 population, and 24 cross-sectional. Data variability limited meta-analysis. Of the studies, 42 out of 50 of those in children and 5 out of 5 in adults reported at least one positive association between sugars and caries. There is evidence of moderate quality showing that caries is lower when free-sugars intake is < 10% E. With the < 5% E cut-off, a significant relationship was observed, but the evidence was judged to be of very low quality. The findings are relevant to minimizing caries risk throughout the life course. PMID:24323509

  12. Autophagy in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajat

    2012-04-01

    The cellular nutrient sensing apparatus detects nutritional depletion and transmits this information to downstream effectors that generate energy from alternate sources. Autophagy is a crucial catabolic pathway that turns over redundant cytoplasmic components in lysosomes to provide energy to the starved cell. Recent studies have described a role for hypothalamic autophagy in the control of food intake and energy balance. Activated autophagy in hypothalamic neurons during starvation mobilized neuron-intrinsic lipids to generate free fatty acids that increased AgRP levels. AgRP neuron-specific inhibition of autophagy decreased fasting-induced increases in AgRP levels and food intake. Deletion of autophagy in AgRP neurons led to constitutive increases in levels of proopiomelanocortin and its active processed product, α-melanocyte stimulating hormone that contributed to reduced adiposity in these rodents. The current manuscript discusses these new findings and raises additional questions that may help understand how hypothalamic autophagy controls food intake and energy balance. These studies may have implications for designing new therapies against obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:23700515

  13. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  14. Television and eating: repetition enhances food intake

    PubMed Central

    Mathur, Utsa; Stevenson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Some studies find that eating with TV increases food intake while others do not. Some of this variability may reflect the engagingness of what is being watched (i.e., content). To test this we varied engagingness by manipulating content familiarity. Female participants undertook two sessions. In the “Different” session they watched two different episodes of the comedy Friends, with snack food presented during the second episode. In the “Same” session they viewed another episode of Friends twice in succession, with snack food presented during the second repeat showing. The three episodes of Friends used here were fully counterbalanced, so overall the only difference between the “Same” and “Different” sessions was whether the content of the second show was familiar or novel. As expected, 14% less was eaten in the “Different” session, suggesting that novel and presumably more engaging content can reduce intake relative to watching familiar and presumably less engaging content. These findings are consistent with the idea that the engagingness of TV can differentially affect food intake, although boredom or irritability resulting from repeat viewing might also explain this effect. PMID:26579040

  15. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Almedawar, Mohamad M; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir; Isma'eel, Hussain A

    2015-06-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign's strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  16. A Retrospective Investigation of Thiamin and Energy Intakes Following an Outbreak of Beriberi in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Thurnham, David I.; Cathcart, Angela E.; Livingstone, Margaret B. E.

    2011-01-01

    In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. PMID:22254079

  17. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

    PubMed Central

    Gudmundsdottir, Edda Y.; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Thorlacius, Arngrimur; Reykdal, Olafur; Gunnlaugsdottir, Helga; Thorsdottir, Inga; Steingrimsdottir, Laufey

    2012-01-01

    Background/objectives Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208); nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P=0.002 and r=0.22; P=0.04, respectively) while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium. PMID:22952457

  18. Under-reporting of dietary energy intake in five populations of the African diaspora.

    PubMed

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E; Lambert, Estelle V; Dugas, Lara R; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A; Cooper, Richard S; Schoeller, Dale A

    2015-02-14

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic under-reporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialised countries. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among the individuals of African ancestry (n 324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index (HDI) scale, a UN statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24 h dietary recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labelled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values ((self-report - expenditure/expenditure) × 100) to identify under-reporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the USA. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all the five countries. The South African cohort exhibited the highest mean under-reporting ( - 52·1% of energy) compared with the cohorts of Ghana ( - 22·5%), Jamaica ( - 17·9%), Seychelles ( - 25·0%) and the USA ( - 18·5%). BMI was the most consistent predictor of under-reporting compared with other predictors. In conclusion, there is substantial under-reporting of dietary energy intake in populations across the whole range of the HDI, and this systematic reporting error increases according to the BMI of an individual. PMID:25585294

  19. A retrospective investigation of thiamin and energy intakes following an outbreak of beriberi in The Gambia.

    PubMed

    Thurnham, David I; Cathcart, Angela E; Livingstone, Margaret B E

    2011-01-01

    In the early part of the rainy season in 1988, an outbreak of beriberi occurred in free-living adults in a relatively small area in the North Bank region of The Gambia. In 1995 we selected two compounds in a village called Chilla situated within the affected district to retrospectively examine dietary factors potentially contributing to the outbreak. There had previously been cases of beriberi in one compound (BBC) but not in the other (NBC). We measured energy and thiamin intakes for four days on six occasions during the year. We calculated energy and thiamin intakes of people living in the two compounds and foods were collected for thiamin analysis through the year. Thiamin:Energy ratios only met international recommendations in the immediate post‑harvest season when energy and thiamin intakes were highest and then fell through the year. In the rainy season when food was short and labour was heaviest, energy intakes were lower in the NBC but thiamin:energy ratios were lower in BBC. Records of rainfall in 1988 collected near the village indicated that the amount in August was twice the average. We suggest the heavy rainfall may have increased farm workload and reduced income from outside-village work activity. The lower energy intakes in the NBC may have forced adults to rest thus sparing thiamin demands and delaying onset of beriberi. In contrast, the higher energy intake of adults in the BBC may have enabled them to continue working, thus increasing demands for thiamin and inducing the earlier onset of beriberi. PMID:22254079

  20. The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to the alarming trends in increasing rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth. The objective of this analysis was to examine the effects of the HEALTHY study on student self-reported dietary intakes (energy, macronutrients and grams consumed of selected food groups). Methods HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools. Results The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption. Conclusion The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children. Clinical Trials Registration NCT00458029 PMID:21294869

  1. The impact of water intake on energy intake and weight status: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Melissa C.; Popkin, Barry M.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of consuming water with meals rather than drinking no beverage or various other beverages remains under-studied. This systematic review of English language studies compared the effects of drinking water and various beverage alternatives on energy intake and/or weight status. We collected relevant clinical trials, epidemiologic, and intervention studies and summarized findings across the literature. Using clinical trials, average differences in total energy intake at test meals (ΔTEI) were calculated across studies for each of several beverage categories compared to water. The literature for these comparisons is sparse and somewhat inconclusive. One of the most consistent sets of findings comes from comparing adults drinking sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB’s) vs. water before a single meal. Total energy intakes were increased 7.8% (ΔTEI range −7.5 to 18.9) when SSBs were consumed. Studies comparing nonnutritive sweeteners with water were also relatively consistent and found no impact on energy intake among adults (ΔTEI = −1.3, range −9 to13.8). Much less conclusive evidence replacing water with milk and juice estimated increases in TEI of 14.9% (range 10.9 to 23.9). These findings, along with epidemiologic and intervention studies suggested a potentially important role for water in reducing energy intakes, and by this means a role in obesity prevention. A need for randomized-controlled trials exists. PMID:20796216

  2. Effects of fluoxetine on weight gain and food intake in smokers who reduce nicotine intake.

    PubMed

    Pomerleau, O F; Pomerleau, C S; Morrell, E M; Lowenbergh, J M

    1991-01-01

    The effect of fluoxetine hydrochloride, a 5-HT uptake inhibitor (60 mg/day PO), in preventing weight gain associated with nicotine reduction was investigated in participants in a double-blind, placebo-controlled smoking-cessation trial. A lunch of cheese pizza and chocolate bars was offered, and caloric intake was monitored. The analysis focused on subjects (placebo: n = 11; fluoxetine: n = 10) who succeeded in reaching cotinine levels of less than 50% of their starting cotinine levels (signifying a stringent reduction in nicotine intake) and who participated in pre- and post-nicotine reduction lunch sessions 70 days apart. Subjects on placebo gained significantly more weight (mean +/- SEM = +3.3 +/- 0.7 kg) than subjects on fluoxetine (-0.6 +/- 1.2 kg). In fluoxetine-treated subjects, weight gain/loss was strongly correlated with initial body mass index, with higher BMI being associated with greater decreases in weight. A trend towards decreased caloric intake in the fluoxetine group was observed; the change in total calories at lunch was significantly correlated with weight change, an association accounted for principally by change in pizza intake. We conclude that fluoxetine treatment effectively prevents the weight gain that accompanies nicotine reduction and that this phenomenon is mediated, at least in part, by diminished caloric intake. PMID:1805294

  3. Effects of dairy intake on weight maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Zemel, Michael B; Donnelly, Joseph E; Smith, Bryan K; Sullivan, Debra K; Richards, Joanna; Morgan-Hanusa, Danielle; Mayo, Matthew S; Sun, Xiaocun; Cook-Wiens, Galen; Bailey, Bruce W; Van Walleghen, Emily L; Washburn, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Background To compare the effects of low versus recommended levels of dairy intake on weight maintenance and body composition subsequent to weight loss. Design and Methods Two site (University of Kansas-KU; University of Tennessee-UT), 9 month, randomized trial. Weight loss was baseline to 3 months, weight maintenance was 4 to 9 months. Participants were maintained randomly assigned to low dairy (< 1 dairy serving/d) or recommended dairy (> 3 servings/d) diets for the maintenance phase. Three hundred thirty eight men and women, age: 40.3 ± 7.0 years and BMI: 34.5 ± 3.1, were randomized; Change in weight and body composition (total fat, trunk fat) from 4 to 9 months were the primary outcomes. Blood chemistry, blood pressure, resting metabolism, and respiratory quotient were secondary outcomes. Energy intake, calcium intake, dairy intake, and physical activity were measured as process evaluation. Results During weight maintenance, there were no overall significant differences for weight or body composition between the low and recommended dairy groups. A significant site interaction occurred with the low dairy group at KU maintaining weight and body composition and the low dairy group at UT increasing weight and body fat. The recommended dairy group exhibited reductions in plasma 1,25-(OH)2-D while no change was observed in the low dairy group. No other differences were found for blood chemistry, blood pressure or physical activity between low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group showed significantly greater energy intake and lower respiratory quotient compared to the low dairy group. Conclusion Weight maintenance was similar for low and recommended dairy groups. The recommended dairy group exhibited evidence of greater fat oxidation and was able to consume greater energy without greater weight gain compared to the low dairy group. Recommended levels of dairy products may be used during weight maintenance without contributing to weight gain

  4. Whole Grain Intake Reduces Pancreatic Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Qiucheng; Zheng, Huazhen; Bi, Jingcheng; Wang, Xinying; Jiang, Tingting; Gao, Xuejin; Tian, Feng; Xu, Min; Wu, Chao; Zhang, Li; Li, Ning; Li, Jieshou

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Mounting evidence from epidemiology studies suggests that whole grain intake may reduce pancreatic cancer risk, but convincing evidence is scarce. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess the association between whole grain intake and pancreatic cancer risk. Relevant observational studies were identified by searching PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Cochrane library databases for the period from January 1980 to July 2015, with no restrictions. We calculated the summary odds ratios (ORs) for pancreatic cancer using random-effects model meta-analysis. Between-study heterogeneity was analyzed using the I2 statistic. A total of 8 studies regarding whole grain intake were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled OR of pancreatic cancer for those with high versus low whole grain intake was 0.76 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.64–0.91; P = 0.002). There was no significant heterogeneity across these studies (I2 = 11.7%; Pheterogeneity = 0.339). In the subgroup analysis by geographic area, the summary ORs of developing pancreatic cancer were 0.64 (95% CI, 0.53–0.79; P < 0.001; I2 = 0%; Pheterogeneity = 0.482) in the United States (n = 4) and 0.95 (95% CI, 0.63–1.43; P = 0.803; I2 = 45.6%; Pheterogeneity = 0.175) in Europe (n = 2). In the subgroup analysis by type of whole grain, the summary ORs were 0.72 (95% CI, 0.60–0.87; P = .001; I2 = 0; Pheterogeneity = 0.876) for grains (n = 4) and 0.74 (95% CI, 0.27–2.02; P = 0.554; I2 = 86.3%; Pheterogeneity = 0.007) for wheat (n = 2). A high intake of whole grains was associated with a reduced risk of pancreatic cancer. Because of the absent of more cohort studies, further prospective studies need to be conducted to ensure conclusions that are more robust. PMID:26945361

  5. Important role of ventromedial hypothalamic carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1a in the control of food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Su; Serra, Dolors; Keung, Wendy; Hegardt, Fausto G; Lopaschuk, Gary D

    2013-08-01

    Carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1) liver isoform, or CPT-1a, is implicated in CNS control of food intake. However, the exact brain nucleus site(s) in mediating this action of CPT-1a has not been identified. In this report, we assess the role of CPT-1a in hypothalamic ventromedial nucleus (VMN). We stereotaxically injected an adenoviral vector containing CPT-1a coding sequence into the VMN of rats to induce overexpression and activation of CPT-1a. The VMN-selective activation of CPT-1a induced an orexigenic effect, suggesting CPT-1a in the VMN is involved in the central control of feeding. Intracerebroventricular administration of etomoxir, a CPT-1 inhibitor, decreases food intake. Importantly, in the animals with VMN overexpression of a CPT-1a mutant that antagonizes the CPT-1 inhibition by etomoxir, the anorectic response to etomoxir was attenuated. This suggests that VMN is involved in mediating the anorectic effect of central inhibition of CPT-1a. In contrast, arcuate nucleus (Arc) overexpression of the mutant did not alter etomoxir-induced inhibition of food intake, suggesting that Arc CPT-1a does not play significant roles in this anorectic action. Furthermore, in the VMN, CPT-1a appears to act downstream of hypothalamic malonyl-CoA action of feeding. Finally, we show that in the VMN CPT-1 activity was altered in concert with fasting and refeeding states, supporting a physiological role of CPT-1a in mediating the control of feeding. All together, CPT-1a in the hypothalamic VMN appears to play an important role in central control of food intake. VMN-selective modulation of CPT-1a activity may therefore be a promising strategy in controlling food intake and maintaining normal body weight. PMID:23736540

  6. Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey: Methodology and Estimated Arsenic Intake from Drinking Water and Urinary Arsenic Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, Jason; O’Rourke, Mary Kay; Meza-Montenegro, Maria Mercedes; Gutiérrez-Millán, Luis Enrique; Burgess, Jefferey L.; Harris, Robin B.

    2012-01-01

    The Binational Arsenic Exposure Survey (BAsES) was designed to evaluate probable arsenic exposures in selected areas of southern Arizona and northern Mexico, two regions with known elevated levels of arsenic in groundwater reserves. This paper describes the methodology of BAsES and the relationship between estimated arsenic intake from beverages and arsenic output in urine. Households from eight communities were selected for their varying groundwater arsenic concentrations in Arizona, USA and Sonora, Mexico. Adults responded to questionnaires and provided dietary information. A first morning urine void and water from all household drinking sources were collected. Associations between urinary arsenic concentration (total, organic, inorganic) and estimated level of arsenic consumed from water and other beverages were evaluated through crude associations and by random effects models. Median estimated total arsenic intake from beverages among participants from Arizona communities ranged from 1.7 to 14.1 µg/day compared to 0.6 to 3.4 µg/day among those from Mexico communities. In contrast, median urinary inorganic arsenic concentrations were greatest among participants from Hermosillo, Mexico (6.2 µg/L) whereas a high of 2.0 µg/L was found among participants from Ajo, Arizona. Estimated arsenic intake from drinking water was associated with urinary total arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), urinary inorganic arsenic concentration (p < 0.001), and urinary sum of species (p < 0.001). Urinary arsenic concentrations increased between 7% and 12% for each one percent increase in arsenic consumed from drinking water. Variability in arsenic intake from beverages and urinary arsenic output yielded counter intuitive results. Estimated intake of arsenic from all beverages was greatest among Arizonans yet participants in Mexico had higher urinary total and inorganic arsenic concentrations. Other contributors to urinary arsenic concentrations should be evaluated. PMID:22690182

  7. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of stroke: a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Zhenyu; Li, Min; Zhang, Xiaowei; Hou, Wenshang

    2016-01-01

    Objective To clarify and quantify the potential association between intake of flavonoids and risk of stroke. Design Meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Data source Studies published before January 2016 identified through electronic searches using PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Prospective cohort studies with relative risks and 95% CIs for stroke according to intake of flavonoids (assessed as dietary intake). Results The meta-analysis yielded 11 prospective cohort studies involving 356 627 participants and more than 5154 stroke cases. The pooled estimate of the multivariate relative risk of stroke for the highest compared with the lowest dietary flavonoid intake was 0.89 (95% CI 0.82 to 0.97; p=0.006). Dose-response analysis indicated that the summary relative risk of stroke for an increase of 100 mg flavonoids consumed per day was 0.91 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.08) without heterogeneity among studies (I2=0%). Stratifying by follow-up duration, the relative risk of stroke for flavonoid intake was 0.89 (95% CI 0.81 to 0.99) in studies with more than 10 years of follow-up. Conclusions Results from this meta-analysis suggest that higher dietary flavonoid intake may moderately lower the risk of stroke. PMID:27279473

  8. Changes in Intakes of Total and Added Sugar and their Contribution to Energy Intake in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Chun, Ock K.; Chung, Chin E.; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O.

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1–18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  9. Changes in intakes of total and added sugar and their contribution to energy intake in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Chun, Ock K; Chung, Chin E; Wang, Ying; Padgitt, Andrea; Song, Won O

    2010-08-01

    This study was designed to document changes in total sugar intake and intake of added sugars, in the context of total energy intake and intake of nutrient categories, between the 1970s and the 1990s, and to identify major food sources contributing to those changes in intake. Data from the NHANES I and III were analyzed to obtain nationally representative information on food consumption for the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the U.S. from 1971 to 1994. In the past three decades, in addition to the increase in mean intakes of total energy, total sugar, added sugars, significant increases in the total intake of carbohydrates and the proportion of carbohydrates to the total energy intake were observed. The contribution of sugars to total carbohydrate intake decreased in both 1-18 y and 19+ y age subgroups, and the contribution of added sugars to the total energy intake did not change. Soft drinks/fluid milk/sugars and cakes, pastries, and pies remained the major food sources for intake of total sugar, total carbohydrates, and total energy during the past three decades. Carbonated soft drinks were the most significant sugar source across the entire three decades. Changes in sugar consumption over the past three decades may be a useful specific area of investigation in examining the effect of dietary patterns on chronic diseases. PMID:22254059

  10. Methane emissions from cattle differing in feed intake and feed efficiency fed a high concentrate diet

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One hundred thirteen steers were fed a dry-rolled corn-based ration to determine feed intake and growth over a 64-d period. Thirty–seven steers were selected to determine 6 h methane emissions. Steers that were evaluated had a methane emission of 3.6 ± 0.2 L/h, a BW of 573 ± 12 kg, a DMI of 696 ± ...

  11. Dietary intake, food composition and nutrient intake in wild and captive populations of Daubentonia madagascariensis.

    PubMed

    Sterling, E J; Dierenfeld, E S; Ashbourne, C J; Feistner, A T

    1994-01-01

    Data are presented on dietary and nutrient intake in a wild population of aye-ayes. Study animals ate 4 main food types: seeds, nectar, fungus and insect larvae. Calculated calorie intake was slightly lower during the cold season than during the hot, wet and the hot, dry seasons. Total intakes almost doubled to compensate for the lower energy content of the diet during the cold season. Comparison of natural and captive diets suggests that maintenance and even growth requirements of aye-ayes can be met by relatively low-fat, low-protein diets. Daily energy requirements were estimated to average about 280 kcal metabolizable energy/day. Animals in the wild were estimated to eat between 260 and 342 kcal, while captive animals consumed 260 kcal/day. PMID:7721197

  12. Using dietary reference intake-based methods to estimate prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake among female students in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Juliana Masami; Marchioni, Dirce Maria Lobo; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2006-05-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of inadequate usual nutrient intake among female university students. This was a cross-sectional study in which 119 students at a public university in the State of São Paulo, Brazil, completed 3-day estimated food records. These were analyzed for nutrient content, and intake distributions were determined. Nutrient intake distributions were estimated using the National Research Council method. For nutrients for which an Estimated Average Requirement has been established, the Estimated Average Requirement cutpoint method was used to determine the proportion of students with inadequate intake. The students' food records indicated inadequate intakes of folate (99%), zinc (47%), and copper (33%). For approximately 95% of the students in this study, calcium was less than the Adequate Intake. The results showed the need for improvement in dietary choices to minimize the prevalence of inadequate intake of folate, zinc, copper, and calcium in this group. PMID:16647333

  13. Discrete strategies to reduce intake of discretionary food choices: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Grieger, Jessica A; Wycherley, Thomas P; Johnson, Brittany J; Golley, Rebecca K

    2016-01-01

    On a population level, dietary improvement strategies have had limited success in preventing the surge in overweight and obesity or reducing risk factors for chronic disease. While numerous multi-component studies have examined whole-of-diet strategies, and single component (i.e. discrete) dietary intervention strategies have targeted an increase in core foods (e.g. fruits, vegetables, dairy), there is a paucity of evidence on the effectiveness of dietary intervention strategies targeting a decrease in discretionary choices. The aim of this review was to identify dietary intervention strategies that are potentially relevant to reducing intake of discretionary choices in 2-65 year olds. A scoping review was carried out to map the literature on key discrete dietary intervention strategies that are potentially applicable to reducing discretionary choices, and to identify the targeted health/nutrition effects (e.g. improve nutrient intake, decrease sugar intake, and reduce body weight) of these strategies. Studies conducted in participants aged 2-65 years and published in English by July 20, 2015, were located through electronic searches including the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, and Scopus. Three thousand two hundred and eighty three studies were identified from the search, of which 44 met the selection criteria. The dietary intervention strategies included reformulation (n = 13), substitution (n = 5), restriction/elimination (n = 9), supplementation (n = 13), and nutrition education/messages (n = 4). The key findings of the review were: restricting portion size was consistently beneficial for reducing energy intake in the acute setting; reformulating foods from higher fat to lower fat could be useful to reduce saturated fat intake; substituting discretionary choices for high fibre snacks, fruit, or low/no-calorie beverages may be an effective strategy for reducing energy intake; supplementing nutrient dense foods such as nuts and

  14. Validity and Reliability of a Self-administered Food Frequency Questionnaire to Assess Vitamin K Intake in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eunsu; Kim, Misung

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to validate a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) to assess vitamin K intake in clinical and research settings based on data from the Fifth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES V). We collected a subset of data on informative food items using the 24-hour recall method from adults aged 19 to 64 years from KNHANES V. The cumulative percent contribution and cumulative multiple regression coefficients for vitamin K intake from each food were computed. Twenty-five foods items were selected for the FFQ to assess vitamin K intake. The FFQ was validated against intakes derived from a 5-day food record (5DR) (n = 48). To assess the reliability of the FFQ, participants completed the self-administered FFQ (FFQ1) and a second FFQ (FFQ2) after a 6-month period (n = 54). Data were analyzed using Pearson's correlation coefficients, the cross-classification method, and Bland-Altman plots. Mean intakes were similar for vitamin K between the FFQ and dietary records, with significant correlations observed (r = 0.652), and cross-classification analyses demonstrated no major misclassification of participants into intake quartiles. Bland-Altman plots showed no serious systematic bias between the administrations of the two dietary assessment methods over the range of mean intakes. FFQ reliability was high, with a Pearson's correlation coefficient of 0.560. This pilot study shows promising validation and reliability evidence for the use of this FFQ, which is focused on vitamin K intake in adults, as an efficient screening tool in clinical and research settings. PMID:27482519

  15. Evaluation of dietary intake of lactating women in China and its potential impact on the health of mothers and infants

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Optimal nutrition for lactating mothers is importance for mother and infants’ health and well-being. We determined the nutrient intake and dietary changes during the first 3-month of lactation, and its potential effect on health and disease risk. Method Personal interviews were conducted to collect a 24h diet recall questionnaire from 199 healthy lactating women in the postpartum days 2, 7, 30, 90 and healthy 58 non-pregnant women served as the controls. Results We found in lactating women (1) the mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake was lower than that of the Chinese Recommended Nutrient Intake (RNI, 2600 Kcal, 357.5 ~ 422.5g) by 11% ~ 17% and 33% ~ 49%, respectively; (2) the fat intake increased from 3% to 13%, which was 9 ~ 77% higher than the RNI (57 ~ 86.7g); (3) the protein intake exceeded the RNI of 85g by 32 ~ 53%; (4) the total calories consumed from carbohydrate (39%-44%), fat (34% ~ 42%) and protein (20%-23%) failed to meet Chinese RNI (5) the intake of vitamin C, B1, folate, zinc, dietary fiber, and calcium was 5% ~ 73% lower than the RNI while vitamin B2, B3, E, iron and selenium intake was 20% to 3 times higher than the RNI. Nutrient intake in the control group was lower for all nutrients than the recommended RNI. Conclusion Lactating women on a self-selected diet did not meet the Chinese RNI for many important micronutrients, which may influence the nutritional composition of breast milk and thus impact the potential health of mothers and infants. RNI should consider the regional dietary habits and culture. A single national RNI is not applicable for all of China. Nutritional education into the community is needed. PMID:22800437

  16. Impact of beverage intake on metabolic and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    Helm, Laura; Macdonald, Ian A

    2015-09-01

    This review is based on a presentation that was made at a meeting concerning hydration. It summarizes the epidemiological evidence for selected beverages in relation to cardiovascular and/or metabolic health. The review focuses on tea, cocoa, milk, orange juice, alcohol, and beverages sweetened with sugars. These beverage types were chosen because of their widespread consumption, with tea, cocoa, orange juice, and milk being of potential benefit while alcohol and sugars may be detrimental. There is reasonably consistent evidence of reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in association with high consumption of tea, with the tea flavonoids appearing to be responsible for these benefits. There is also a growing evidence base for cocoa flavanols to have beneficial cardiovascular effects. The bulk of the evidence supporting these conclusions is epidemiological and needs to be confirmed with randomized controlled trials. Milk is associated with reduced risk of CVD, particularly in relation to blood pressure, with certain milk tripeptides being implicated in having effects to reduce angiotensin action. Further work is needed to confirm these potentially beneficial effects. There is some evidence of potentially beneficial effects of orange juice on aspects of cardiovascular function, but this is by no means convincing, and further evidence is needed from randomized controlled trials, together with the elucidation of whether any benefits are linked to the citrus flavanones or simply to the vitamin C content. While there is some evidence that red wine may convey some health benefits, there is also clear evidence that alcoholic beverages can have undesirable effects on blood pressure and increase the risk of CVD. It is possible that low to moderate intakes of alcoholic beverages may be beneficial. There is some evidence that beverages sweetened with sugars may contribute to increased energy intake and weight gain, and there is also an indication from longitudinal cohort

  17. Micronutrient Intakes from Food and Supplements in Australian Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Caroline M.; Black, Lucinda J.; Oddy, Wendy H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Low micronutrient intakes in adolescents are frequently reported. We assessed micronutrient intakes in adolescents to determine whether supplement use optimises intakes. Methods: Dietary intake was assessed using a food frequency questionnaire in 17 year old participating in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study (n = 991). We calculated median daily micronutrient intakes in supplement users and non-users (from food sources only and from food and supplements), along with the percentage of adolescents meeting the Estimated Average Requirements (EAR) or Adequate Intake (AI) where appropriate. Results: Intakes of calcium, magnesium, folate and vitamins D and E from food only were low. Although supplements significantly increased micronutrient intakes in supplement users, more than half of supplement users failed to meet the EAR or AI for some key micronutrients. Compared with non-users, supplement users had higher micronutrient intakes from food sources with the exception of vitamins D and B12 and were more likely to achieve the EAR or AI for many micronutrients from food only. Conclusions: Intakes of some key micronutrients were low in this population, even among supplement users. Those facing the greatest risk of micronutrient deficiencies were less likely to use supplements. PMID:24424459

  18. Energy and macronutrient intakes of professional football (soccer) players.

    PubMed Central

    Maughan, R J

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the dietary habits of professional soccer players at two Scottish Premier League clubs during the competitive season. METHODS: A study of the dietary intake of 51 professional soccer players with two different clubs was carried out by the seven day weighed intake method. RESULTS: Physical characteristics of the two groups of players were similar, with only small differences in age and body mass but no difference in height and body fat. Mean (SD) daily energy intake for club A was 11.0 (2.6) MJ, and for club B 12.8 (2.2) MJ. The higher energy intake at club B was largely accounted for by a higher (P < 0.005) fat intake (118 v 93 g d-1): there was no difference in the absolute amounts of protein, carbohydrate, or alcohol consumed. When expressed as a fraction of total energy intake, mean protein intake was higher (P < 0.05) and fat intake lower (P < 0.01) at club A. CONCLUSIONS: The mean energy intake of these players was not high compared with athletes in endurance sports. Fractional contribution of the macronutrients to total energy intake was broadly similar to that of the general population. PMID:9132211

  19. Food reinforcement, energy intake, and macronutrient choice123

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Leonard H; Carr, Katelyn A; Lin, Henry; Fletcher, Kelly D

    2011-01-01

    Background: Food is a powerful reinforcer that motivates people to eat. The relative reinforcing value of food (RRVfood) is associated with obesity and energy intake and interacts with impulsivity to predict energy intake. Objective: How RRVfood is related to macronutrient choice in ad libitum eating tasks in humans has not been studied; however, animal research suggests that sugar or simple carbohydrates may be a determinant of reward value in food. This study assessed which macronutrients are associated with food reinforcement. Design: Two hundred seventy-three adults with various body mass indexes were assessed for RRVfood, the relative reinforcing value of reading, food hedonics, energy intake in an ad libitum taste test, and usual energy intake derived from repeated 24-h dietary recalls. Multiple regression was used to assess the relation between predictors of total energy and energy associated with macronutrient intake after control for age, sex, income, education, minority status, and other macronutrient intakes. Results: The results showed that the relative proportion of responding for food compared with reading (RRVprop) was positively related to body mass index, laboratory-measured energy intake, and usual energy intake. In addition, RRVprop was a predictor of sugar intake but not of total carbohydrate, fat, or protein intake. Conclusion: These results are consistent with basic animal research showing that sugar is related to food reward and with the hypothesis that food reward processes are more strongly related to eating than are food hedonics. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00962117. PMID:21543545

  20. Changes in nutrient intake of hypertensives during a behavioral weight-control program.

    PubMed

    Nowalk, M P; Wing, R R

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate the nutritional adequacy of the diets selected by hypertensive patients participating in a behavioral weight-control program, 26 patients were asked to complete 3-day food records at the start and end of the 8-week program. These records were analyzed using the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Handbook 456 data base. Patients decreased their overall caloric intake by 39% during the course of the program and decreased consumption of all nutrients, but only calcium intake decreased to unacceptable levels. There was, however, a significant increase in the number of individuals consuming less than two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for thiamin, niacin, calcium, and iron, and a significant increase in the number of patients who were deficient in three or more nutrients. Thus, although average intake in the behavioral weight-control program was adequate, there was a sizeable number of individuals who were consuming poor diets. Inadequate intake occurred primarily in patients eating less than 1000 calories a day. The simple behavior change of adding a cup of skim milk to the unstructured calorie-counting diet would help restore calcium, thiamin, and niacin to adequate levels. PMID:4091068

  1. A Sensor System for Automatic Detection of Food Intake Through Non-Invasive Monitoring of Chewing

    PubMed Central

    Sazonov, Edward S.; Fontana, Juan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective and automatic sensor systems to monitor ingestive behavior of individuals arise as a potential solution to replace inaccurate method of self-report. This paper presents a simple sensor system and related signal processing and pattern recognition methodologies to detect periods of food intake based on non-invasive monitoring of chewing. A piezoelectric strain gauge sensor was used to capture movement of the lower jaw from 20 volunteers during periods of quiet sitting, talking and food consumption. These signals were segmented into non-overlapping epochs of fixed length and processed to extract a set of 250 time and frequency domain features for each epoch. A forward feature selection procedure was implemented to choose the most relevant features, identifying from 4 to 11 features most critical for food intake detection. Support vector machine classifiers were trained to create food intake detection models. Twenty-fold cross-validation demonstrated per-epoch classification accuracy of 80.98% and a fine time resolution of 30 s. The simplicity of the chewing strain sensor may result in a less intrusive and simpler way to detect food intake. The proposed methodology could lead to the development of a wearable sensor system to assess eating behaviors of individuals. PMID:22675270

  2. Beverage intake preference and bowel preparation laxative taste preference for colonoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Laiyemo, Adeyinka O; Burnside, Clinton; Laiyemo, Maryam A; Kwagyan, John; Williams, Carla D; Idowu, Kolapo A; Ashktorab, Hassan; Kibreab, Angesom; Scott, Victor F; Sanderson, Andrew K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To examine whether non-alcoholic beverage intake preferences can guide polyethylene glycol (PEG)-based bowel laxative preparation selection for patients. METHODS: We conducted eight public taste test sessions using commercially procured (A) unflavored PEG, (B) citrus flavored PEG and (C) PEG with ascorbate (Moviprep). We collected characteristics of volunteers including their beverage intake preferences. The volunteers tasted the laxatives in randomly assigned orders and ranked the laxatives as 1st, 2nd, and 3rd based on their taste preferences. Our primary outcome is the number of 1st place rankings for each preparation. RESULTS: A total of 777 volunteers completed the study. Unflavored PEG was ranked as 1st by 70 (9.0%), flavored PEG by 534 (68.7%) and PEG with ascorbate by 173 (22.3%) volunteers. Demographic, lifestyle characteristics and beverage intake patterns for coffee, tea, and carbonated drinks did not predict PEG-based laxative preference. CONCLUSION: Beverage intake pattern was not a useful guide for PEG-based laxative preference. It is important to develop more tolerable and affordable bowel preparation laxatives for colonoscopy. Also, patients should taste their PEG solution with and without flavoring before flavoring the entire gallon as this may give them more opportunity to pick a pattern that may be more tolerable. PMID:26261736

  3. Relationship between dietary mercury intake and blood mercury level in Korea.

    PubMed

    You, Chang-Hun; Kim, Byoung-Gwon; Kim, Yu-Mi; Lee, Sang-Ah; Kim, Rock-Bum; Seo, Jeong-Wook; Hong, Young-Seoub

    2014-02-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the effect of dietary factors for mercury exposure by comparing with blood mercury concentration. Study population consisted of 1,866 adults (839 men and 1,027 women) in randomly-selected 30 districts in southeast Korea. Dietary mercury intake was calculated from food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) on seafood items and 24 hr recall record. Blood mercury concentration was measured with atomic absorption spectrometry. Mean age of the subjects was 43.5 ± 14.6 yr. The FFQ showed that mercury-laden fish (tuna, shark) and frequently-eating fish (squid, belt fish, mackerel) were important in mercury intake from fish species. The recall record suggested that fish and shellfish was a highest group (63.1%) of mercury intake and had a wide distribution in the food groups. In comparison with the blood mercury concentration, age group, sex, household income, education, drinking status and coastal area were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In multiple regression analysis, coefficient from the FFQ (β = 0.003) had greater effect on the blood mercury than the recall record (β = 0.002), but the effect was restricted (adjusted R(2) = 0.234). Further studies with more precise estimation of dietary mercury intake were required to evaluate the risk for mercury exposure by foods and assure risk communication with heavily-exposed group. PMID:24550642

  4. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Barbara J.; Roe, Liane S.; Halverson, Kitti H.; Meengs, Jennifer S.

    2007-01-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21±13 g, 11±13 g, and 4±18 g, respectively, equivalent to < 142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  5. Using a smaller plate did not reduce energy intake at meals.

    PubMed

    Rolls, Barbara J; Roe, Liane S; Halverson, Kitti H; Meengs, Jennifer S

    2007-11-01

    In three cross-over experiments, we examined the effect on energy intake of changing the size of the plate used at a meal. On separate days, adults were served the same lunch menu but were given a different-sized plate. In the first study, 45 participants used each of three plate sizes (17, 22, or 26 cm) and served the main course from a large dish. In the second study, 30 participants received an equal amount of food presented on each of the two larger plates. In the third study, 44 participants used each of the three plates and selected from a buffet of five foods matched for energy density. Results showed that plate size had no significant effect on energy intake. The mean differences in intake using the smallest and largest plates in the three studies were 21+/-13 g, 11+/-13 g, and 4+/-18 g, respectively, equivalent to <142 kJ (34 kcal) and not significantly different from zero. Participants in the third study made significantly more trips to the buffet when they were given the smallest plate. These findings show that using a smaller plate did not lead to a reduction in food intake at meals eaten in the laboratory. PMID:17540474

  6. Child care choices, food intake, and children's obesity status in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Bidisha; Powell, Lisa M

    2014-07-01

    This article studies two pathways in which selection into different types of child care settings may affect likelihood of childhood obesity. Frequency of intake of high energy-dense and low energy-dense food items may vary across care settings, affecting weight outcomes. We find that increased use of paid and regulated care settings, such as center care and Head Start, is associated with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables. Among children from single-mother households, the probability of obesity increases by 15 percentage point with an increase in intake of soft drinks from four to six times a week to daily consumption and by 25 percentage point with an increase in intake of fast food from one to three times a week to four to six times a week. Among children from two-parent households, eating vegetables one additional time a day is associated with 10 percentage point decreased probability of obesity, while one additional drink of juice a day is associated with 10 percentage point increased probability of obesity. Second, variation across care types could be manifested through differences in the structure of the physical environment not captured by differences in food intake alone. This type of effect is found to be marginal and is statistically significant among children from two-parent households only. Data are used from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study - Birth Cohort surveys (N=10,700; years=2001-2008). Children's age ranged from four to six years in the sample. PMID:24958453

  7. Oleic acid content of a meal promotes oleoylethanolamide response and reduces subsequent energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Mennella, Ilario; Savarese, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Sacchi, Raffaele; Vitaglione, Paola

    2015-01-01

    Animal data suggest that dietary fat composition may influence endocannabinoid (EC) response and dietary behavior. This study tested the hypothesis that fatty acid composition of a meal can influence the short-term response of ECs and subsequent energy intake in humans. Fifteen volunteers on three occasions were randomly offered a meal containing 30 g of bread and 30 mL of one of three selected oils: sunflower oil (SO), high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and virgin olive oil (VOO). Plasma EC concentrations and appetite ratings over 2 h and energy intake over 24 h following the experimental meal were measured. Results showed that after HOSO and VOO consumption the circulating oleoylethanolamide (OEA) was significantly higher than after SO consumption; a concomitantly significant reduction of energy intake was found. For the first time the oleic acid content of a meal was demonstrated to increase the post-prandial response of circulating OEA and to reduce energy intake at subsequent meals in humans. PMID:25347552

  8. Estimating daily salt intake based on 24 h urinary sodium excretion in adults aged 18–69 years in Shandong, China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ji-yu; Yan, Liu-xia; Tang, Jun-li; Ma, Ji-xiang; Guo, Xiao-lei; Zhao, Wen-hua; Zhang, Xiao-fei; Li, Jian-hong; Chu, Jie; Bi, Zhen-qiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective 24 h urinary sodium extretion was used to estimate the daily salt intake of shandong residents aged from 18 to 69 years in China. Setting 20 selected counties/districts in Shandong stratified by geographic region (Eastern, Central Southern and North Western) and residence type (urban vs rural). Participants Among 2184 randomly selected adults, 2061 provided usable 24 h urine samples. Urine volume <500 mL or male creatinine <3.81 (female creatinine <4.57) are not included in the analysis. Results The mean sodium level excreted over 24 h was 237.61 mmol (95% CI 224.77 to 250.44) mmol. Overall, the estimated mean salt intake was 13.90 g/day (95% CI 13.15 to 14.65). The mean salt intake among rural residents was higher than that among urban residents (14.00 vs 13.68 g; p<0.01). Salt intake in men was higher than that in women (14.40 vs 13.37 g; p<0.01). Approximately 96% of the survey participants had a dietary salt intake of ≥6 g/day. Conclusions The salt intake in Shandong is alarmingly higher than the current recommended amount (6 g/day). Thus, effective interventions to reduce salt intake levels to combat the increasing burden of non-communicable diseases need to be developed and implemented. PMID:25037642

  9. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p < .05) for the urban (112.7 systolic: 73.6 diastolic mmHg) than for the rural group (108.4 systolic: 70.8 diastolic mmHg). They were also higher for men (111.8 systolic: 74.3 diastolic mmHg) than for women (109.6 systolic: 70.2 diastolic mmHg), the diastolic BP difference being significant (p < 0.05). The average daily Na excretion was also higher in the urban (122.2 mmol/day) than in the rural community (98.0 mmol/day) (p < 0.01). Potassium excretion rates showed similar differences. The differences in sodium excretion and blood pressure among communities were particularly marked in those over 30 years of age. The means for the four community-sex groups had the same rank order for both BP and Na. However, although some large surveys have suggested that half the observed differences in BP might be explained by different Na intakes, in this study the relationship between Na excretion and BP did not achieve statistical significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP. PMID:8987195

  10. CADMIUM INTAKE VIA OYSTERS AND HEALTH EFFECTS IN NEW ZEALAND: CADMIUM INTAKE, METABOLISM AND EFFECTS IN PEOPLE WITH A HIGH INTAKE OF OYSTERS IN NEW ZEALAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    The aim of this study was to confirm the high dietary intakes of cadmium and other trace elements from oysters in a population associated with the oystering industry, and to determine (1) the impact of those high intakes on cadmium concentrations in accessible tissues of the stud...

  11. Feeding Behaviour, Swimming Activity and Boldness Explain Variation in Feed Intake and Growth of Sole (Solea solea) Reared in Captivity

    PubMed Central

    Mas-Muñoz, Julia; Komen, Hans; Schneider, Oliver; Visch, Sander W.; Schrama, Johan W.

    2011-01-01

    The major economic constraint for culturing sole (Solea solea) is its slow and variable growth. The objective was to study the relationship between feed intake/efficiency, growth, and (non-) feeding behaviour of sole. Sixteen juveniles with an average (SD) growth of 2.7 (1.9) g/kg0.8/d were selected on their growth during a 4-week period in which they were housed communally with 84 other fish. Selected fish were housed individually during a second 4-week period to measure individual feed intake, growth, and behaviour. Fish were hand-fed three times a day during the dark phase of the day until apparent satiation. During six different days, behaviour was recorded twice daily during 3 minutes by direct observations. Total swimming activity, frequency of burying and of escapes were recorded. At the beginning and end of the growth period, two sequential behavioural tests were performed: “Novel Environment” and “Light Avoidance”. Fish housed individually still exhibited pronounced variation in feed intake (CV = 23%), growth (CV = 25%) and behavior (CV = 100%). Differences in feed intake account for 79% of the observed individual differences in growth of sole. Fish with higher variation in feed intake between days and between meals within days had significantly a lower total feed intake (r = −0.65 and r = −0.77) and growth. Active fish showed significantly higher feed intake (r = 0.66) and growth (r = 0.58). Boldness during both challenge tests was related to fast growth: (1) fish which reacted with a lower latency time to swim in a novel environment had significantly higher feed intake (r = −0.55) and growth (r = −0.66); (2) fish escaping during the light avoidance test tended to show higher feed intake (P<0.1) and had higher growth (P<0.05). In conclusion, feeding consistency, swimming activity in the tank, and boldness during behavioral tests are related to feed intake and growth of sole in captivity. PMID:21738651

  12. Gastroschisis and maternal intake of phytoestrogens.

    PubMed

    Wadhwa, Elizabeth L; Ma, Chen; Shaw, Gary M; Carmichael, Suzan L

    2016-08-01

    The prevalence of gastroschisis has increased significantly in the past few decades. The strongest risks have been observed for women <25 years old or of low body mass index, and maternal diet also been proposed to be associated with risk. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the risk of gastroschisis is associated with maternal dietary intake of phytoestrogens. The analysis includes data on mothers of 409 gastroschisis cases and 3,007 controls who delivered their infants from 2005 to 2010 and participated in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a multistate, population-based, case-control study. Detailed information was obtained from maternal telephone interviews that included a validated food frequency questionnaire. We conducted logistic regression analyses that included each phytoestrogen in its continuous form (to test for linearity) and quadratic form (to test for non-linearity), adjusted for maternal energy intake, age, BMI, race-ethnicity, and smoking in 1st trimester. Logistic regression analysis indicated that biochanin A, formonoetin, and coumestrol had a significant non-linear association with gastroschisis (P-value <0.05 for quadratic term). Lower intakes were associated with increased risk, with somewhat stronger but relatively modest associations at the lower end of the distribution; for example, the ORs for the 10th versus 50th percentiles ranged from 1.1 to 1.2. Associations were not significant for the other phytoestrogens. This study provides some evidence for association with certain phytoestrogens, after adjusting for covariates. The implications of our findings for clinical practice are uncertain pending other studies examining this association. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27232448

  13. Fruit juice consumption decreases the proportion of children with inadequate intakes of key nutrients: NHANES 2003-2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fruit juice (FJ) consumption has been under scrutiny despite its nutrient profile. NHANES (2003–2006) data were used to compare the proportion of children ages 2–18 years with intakes of selected vitamins/minerals below recommended levels among consumers (n = 3,976; 51% females) and non-consumers (n...

  14. Evaluation of the "Energize Your Life!" Social Marketing Campaign Pilot Study to Increase Fruit Intake among Community College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shive, Steven E.; Morris, Michelle Neyman

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the authors evaluated the effectiveness of the "Energize Your Life!" social-marketing campaign pilot study to improve knowledge, attitudes, and fruit intake among community college students. The authors used a cross-sectional, quasi-experimental, pre- and posttest design. They randomly selected community college students (N = 1,367)…

  15. Effect of renin-angiotensin system on sodium intake.

    PubMed Central

    Chiaraviglio, E

    1976-01-01

    1. Water and saline intake was measured in rats depleted of Na by I.P. dialysis. Na intake was prevented 180 min but not 60-90 min after bilateral nephrectomy. Unilateral nephrectomy as well as ureteral ligature had no effect on Na intake. 2. Renin (3u.) injected I.P. re-established the Na appetite abolished by nephrectomy. 3. Angiotensin I (5 ng) or II (5-40 ng) injected into the 3rd ventricle, also restored the Na intake and this effect was dose-dependent. 4. The angiotensin converting-enzyme inhibitor Sq 20,881 (1 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of AI but not that of AII in restoring Na intake. 5. It is concluded that the kidneys might play a role in the regulation of Na intake through the renin-angiotensin system. PMID:1255521

  16. Reductions in entree energy density increase children's vegetable intake and reduce energy intake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The energy density (ED; kcal/g) of an entrée influences children's energy intake (EI), but the effect of simultaneously changing both ED and portion size of an entrée on preschool children's EI is unknown. In this within-subject crossover study, 3- to 5-year-old children (30 boys, 31 girls) in a day...

  17. LCD OF AIR INTAKE MANIFOLDS PHASE 2: FORD F250 AIR INTAKE MANIFOLD

    EPA Science Inventory

    The life cycle design methodology was applied to the design analysis of three alternatives for the lower plehum of the air intake manifold for us with a 5.4L F-250 truck engine: a sand cast aluminum, a lost core molded nylon composite, and a vibration welded nylon composite. The ...

  18. Lipopolysacharide Rapidly and Completely Suppresses AgRP Neuron-Mediated Food Intake in Male Mice.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yang; Huang, Ying; Liu, Tiemin; Wu, Hua; Cui, Huxing; Gautron, Laurent

    2016-06-01

    Although Agouti-related peptide (AgRP) neurons play a key role in the regulation of food intake, their contribution to the anorexia caused by proinflammatory insults has yet to be identified. Using a combination of neuroanatomical and pharmacogenetics experiments, this study sought to investigate the importance of AgRP neurons and downstream targets in the anorexia caused by the peripheral administration of a moderate dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (100 μg/kg, ip). First, in the C57/Bl6 mouse, we demonstrated that LPS induced c-fos in select AgRP-innervated brain sites involved in feeding but not in any arcuate proopiomelanocortin neurons. Double immunohistochemistry further showed that LPS selectively induced c-Fos in a large subset of melanocortin 4 receptor-expressing neurons in the lateral parabrachial nucleus. Secondly, we used pharmacogenetics to stimulate the activity of AgRP neurons during the course of LPS-induced anorexia. In AgRP-Cre mice expressing the designer receptor hM3Dq-Gq only in AgRP neurons, the administration of the designer drug clozapine-N-oxide (CNO) induced robust food intake. Strikingly, CNO-mediated food intake was rapidly and completely blunted by the coadministration of LPS. Neuroanatomical experiments further indicated that LPS did not interfere with the ability of CNO to stimulate c-Fos in AgRP neurons. In summary, our findings combined together support the view that the stimulation of select AgRP-innervated brain sites and target neurons, rather than the inhibition of AgRP neurons themselves, is likely to contribute to the rapid suppression of food intake observed during acute bacterial endotoxemia. PMID:27111742

  19. High salt intake: independent risk factor for obesity?

    PubMed

    Ma, Yuan; He, Feng J; MacGregor, Graham A

    2015-10-01

    High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012. We included 458 children (52% boys; age, 10±4 years) and 785 adults (47% men; age, 49±17 years) who had complete 24-hour urine collections. Energy intake was calculated from 4-day diary and misreporting was assessed by Goldberg method. The results showed that salt intake as measured by 24-hour urinary sodium was higher in overweight and obese individuals. A 1-g/d increase in salt intake was associated with an increase in the risk of obesity by 28% (odds ratio, 1.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.12-1.45; P=0.0002) in children and 26% (odds ratio, 1.26; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.37; P<0.0001) in adults, after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, household income, physical activity, energy intake, and diet misreporting, and in adults with additional adjustment for education, smoking, and alcohol consumption. Higher salt intake was also significantly related to higher body fat mass in both children (P=0.001) and adults (P=0.001) after adjusting for age, sex, ethnic group, and energy intake. These results suggest that salt intake is a potential risk factor for obesity independent of energy intake. PMID:26238447

  20. Performance Predictions of Supersonic Intakes with Isentropic-Compression Forebody

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakashima, K.; Saito, Tsutomu

    Intake is an important component of next generation air-breathing engines such as Ram/Scram jet engines, as well as conventional jet-propulsion systems. The supersonic intake decelerates compresses the air inflow by shocks or compression waves to appropriate flow conditions for a specific engine system. The performance of supersonic intakes is evaluated mainly by the mass flow rate and the total pressure recovery rate.

  1. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J. Scott; Simcox, Judith A.; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T.; McClain, Donald A.

    2015-01-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  2. Physiology of Food Intake Control in Children.

    PubMed

    Anderson, G Harvey; Hunschede, Sascha; Akilen, Rajadurai; Kubant, Ruslan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to draw attention to the limited information available on food intake (FI) control in children and adolescents 7-17 y of age, which is essential for developing food policies and guidelines in this population. Although environmental factors have been the overwhelming focus of research on the causative factors of obesity, research focusing on the physiologic control of appetite in children and adolescents is a neglected area of research. To present this message, a review of FI regulation and the role of food and food components in signaling processes are followed by an examination of the role of hormones during puberty in intake regulation. To examine the interaction of environment and physiology on FI regulation, the effects of exercise, television programs, and food advertisements are discussed. In conclusion, although limited, this literature review supports a need for children and adolescents to be a greater focus of research that would lead to sound nutrition policies and actions to reduce chronic disease. A focus on the environment must be balanced with an understanding of physiologic and behavioral changes associated with this age group. PMID:26773031

  3. Adipocyte iron regulates leptin and food intake.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Li, Zhonggang; Gabrielsen, J Scott; Simcox, Judith A; Lee, Soh-hyun; Jones, Deborah; Cooksey, Bob; Stoddard, Gregory; Cefalu, William T; McClain, Donald A

    2015-09-01

    Dietary iron supplementation is associated with increased appetite. Here, we investigated the effect of iron on the hormone leptin, which regulates food intake and energy homeostasis. Serum ferritin was negatively associated with serum leptin in a cohort of patients with metabolic syndrome. Moreover, the same inverse correlation was observed in mice fed a high-iron diet. Adipocyte-specific loss of the iron exporter ferroportin resulted in iron loading and decreased leptin, while decreased levels of hepcidin in a murine hereditary hemochromatosis (HH) model increased adipocyte ferroportin expression, decreased adipocyte iron, and increased leptin. Treatment of 3T3-L1 adipocytes with iron decreased leptin mRNA in a dose-dependent manner. We found that iron negatively regulates leptin transcription via cAMP-responsive element binding protein activation (CREB activation) and identified 2 potential CREB-binding sites in the mouse leptin promoter region. Mutation of both sites completely blocked the effect of iron on promoter activity. ChIP analysis revealed that binding of phosphorylated CREB is enriched at these two sites in iron-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes compared with untreated cells. Consistent with the changes in leptin, dietary iron content was also directly related to food intake, independently of weight. These findings indicate that levels of dietary iron play an important role in regulation of appetite and metabolism through CREB-dependent modulation of leptin expression. PMID:26301810

  4. Piston engine intake and exhaust system design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, P. O. A. L.

    1993-07-01

    The aim of intake and exhaust system design is to control the transfer of acoustic energy from the sources and its emission by the system with minimal loss of engine performance. A rational design process depends on the adoption of a design methodology based on predictive modeling of acoustic behavior. Virtually any system geometry can be modeled by breaking it down to a sequence of simple elements or chambers. An initial design layout is then produced with simple parametric models of individual element behavior. This design is then refined to prototype level by systematic modification of detail using realistic assessments of system performance in its operational environment. Following prototype validation by practical testing, further necessary development is again assisted by predictive modeling. The application of appropriate procedures is illustrated by a series of practical examples. These concern improvements in interior noise by control of intake noise, of vehicle performance by reducing flow losses, of the environment by control of exhaust emissions, and lastly with the control of flow noise. The report concludes with a brief outline of current and new developments involving integrated design procedures.

  5. The prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake.

    PubMed

    Lione, A

    1983-02-01

    The use of modern analytical methods has demonstrated that aluminium salts can be absorbed from the gut and concentrated in various human tissues, including bone, the parathyroids and brain. The neurotoxicity of aluminium has been extensively characterized in rabbits and cats, and high concentrations of aluminium have been detected in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer's disease. Various reports have suggested that high aluminium intakes may be harmful to some patients with bone disease or renal impairment. Fatal aluminium-induced neuropathies have been reported in patients on renal dialysis. Since there are no demonstrable consequences of aluminium deprivation, the prophylactic reduction of aluminium intake by many patients would appear prudent. In this report, the major sources of aluminium in foods and non-prescription drugs are summarized and alternative products are described. The most common foods that contain substantial amounts of aluminium-containing additives include some processed cheeses, baking powders, cake mixes, frozen doughs, pancake mixes, self-raising flours and pickled vegetables. The aluminium-containing non-prescription drugs include some antacids, buffered aspirins, antidiarrhoeal products, douches and haemorrhoidal medications. The advisability of recommending a low aluminium diet for geriatric patients is discussed in detail. PMID:6337934

  6. Nutritional adequacy of dietary intake in women with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Raatz, Susan K; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A

    2015-05-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011-2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1-3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  7. Flavonoid Intake in European Adults (18 to 64 Years)

    PubMed Central

    Vogiatzoglou, Anna; Mulligan, Angela A.; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Luben, Robert N.; Spencer, Jeremy P. E.; Schroeter, Hagen; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kuhnle, Gunter G. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Flavonoids are a group of phenolic secondary plant metabolites that are ubiquitous in plant-based diets. Data from anthropological, observational and intervention studies have shown that many flavonoids are bioactive. For this reason, there is an increasing interest in investigating the potential health effects of these compounds. The translation of these findings into the context of the health of the general public requires detailed information on habitual dietary intake. However, only limited data are currently available for European populations. Objective The objective of this study is to determine the habitual intake and main sources of anthocyanidins, flavanols, flavanones, flavones, flavonols, proanthocyanidins, theaflavins and thearubigins in the European Union. Design We use food consumption data from the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the FLAVIOLA Food Composition Database to estimate intake of flavonoids. Results Mean (±SEM) intake of total flavonoids in Europe was 428±49 mg/d, of which 136±14 mg/d were monomeric compounds. Gallated flavan-3-ols (53±12 mg/d) were the main contributor. The lowest flavonoid intake was observed in Mediterranean countries (monomeric compounds: 95±11 mg/d). The distribution of intake was skewed in many countries, especially in Germany (monomeric flavonoids; mean intake: 181 mg/d; median intake: 3 mg/d). Conclusions The habitual intake of flavonoids in Europe is below the amounts found to have a significant health effect. PMID:26010916

  8. Estimated intake levels for Finnish children of methylmercury from fish.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, Anna K; Hallikainen, Anja; Hirvonen, Tero; Kiviranta, Hannu; Knip, Mikael; Kronberg-Kippilä, Carina; Leino, Olli; Simell, Olli; Sinkko, Harri; Tuomisto, Jouni T; Veijola, Riitta; Venäläinen, Eija-Riitta; Virtanen, Suvi M

    2013-04-01

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a well-known neurotoxic agent, and consumption of contaminated fish is the principal environmental source of MeHg exposure in humans. Children are more susceptible to adverse effects than adults. No previous specific data exist for intake by Finnish children of methylmercury from fish. We estimated fish consumption and MeHg intakes from species most commonly consumed by Finnish children aged 1-6 years. The total mercury concentrations were determined in fish species consumed, and age-specific methylmercury intakes were derived. We also examined safety margins and the proportion of children exceeding the tolerable daily intakes set by international expert bodies. The daily intake of MeHg ranged from 0 to 0.33 μg/kg bw. The strictest reference value 0.1 μg/kg bw/day for MeHg, proposed by USEPA, was exceeded by 1-15% of the study population, and FAO/WHO JECFA provisional tolerable weekly intake of 1.6 μg/kg bw was exceeded by 1% of boys and 2.5% of girls aged 6 years. Intakes of 1-year old girls were higher than of boys, whereas for 3-year olds they were the opposite. The highest intakes were observed for 6-year-old boys and girls. There was great variation in the estimated MeHg intakes among Finnish children. PMID:22425939

  9. Relationship between Food Intake and Sleep Pattern in Healthy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Crispim, Cibele Aparecida; Zimberg, Ioná Zalcman; dos Reis, Bruno Gomes; Diniz, Rafael Marques; Tufik, Sérgio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between food intake and sleep patterns in healthy individuals. Methods: Fifty-two healthy volunteers (27 women and 25 men) were recruited to participate in the study. Volunteers underwent sleep evaluation through nocturnal polysomnography and completed a 3-day food diary to evaluate food intake. Results: No differences in sleep patterns were observed in either gender, except in the percentage of stage 1 sleep, which was greater in men. Different correlations were observed between sleep and dietary variables according to gender. The correlation between dietary and sleep variables in men indicated a negative relationship between nocturnal fat intake and the sleep latency, including REM sleep. The percentage of nocturnal fat intake correlated with sleep efficiency, sleep latency, REM latency, stage 2 sleep, REM sleep, and wake after sleep onset (WASO) in women. The percentage of nocturnal caloric intake correlated with sleep latency and efficiency in women. Conclusions: We conclude that food intake during the nocturnal period is correlated with negative effects on the sleep quality of healthy individuals. Indeed, food intake near the sleeping period (dinner and late night snack) was negatively associated with sleep quality variables. More studies are necessary to elucidate the real effect of food intake on sleep. Citation: Crispim CA; Zimberg IZ; dos Reis BG; Diniz RM; Tufik S; de Mello MT. Relationship between food intake and sleep pattern in healthy individuals. J Clin Sleep Med 2011;7(6):659-664. PMID:22171206

  10. Experimental studies on intake headloss of a blasted lake tap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, James; Billstein, Mats; Engström, Fredrik; Strand, Rikard

    2014-03-01

    In existing reservoirs, construction of an intake is sometimes achieved by so-called lake tapping, a submerged tunnel piercing by blasting out the rock plug at the intake. The blasting process involves phases of rock, water, air and gas released from the explosive charge; the resulting entrance profile often differs from design assumptions. The intake headloss is a factor of concern for power generation. For a vertical intake formed by lake tapping, experiments have been carried out in a 1:30 physical model to examine the effect of entrance shapes on intake headlosses. The purpose is that, if there is potential to reduce the headlosses, the originally blasted intake shape would be modified. In the model, five alternative shapes are evaluated. The test results show that to enlarge the vertical shaft area is the most effective way to reduce the intake headloss; to further blast out a narrow channel upstream does not give much effect. Bearing in mind the risk of free-surface vortex at the intake, the influence of the intake modifications on vortex is also checked.

  11. Nutritional Adequacy of Dietary Intake in Women with Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    Raatz, Susan K.; Jahns, Lisa; Johnson, LuAnn K.; Crosby, Ross; Mitchell, James E.; Crow, Scott; Peterson, Carol; Le Grange, Daniel; Wonderlich, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding nutrient intake of anorexia nervosa (AN) patients is essential for the treatment. Therefore, estimates of total energy and nutrient consumption were made in a group of young women (19 to 30 years) with restricting and binge purge subtypes of AN participating in an ecological momentary assessment study. Participants completed three nonconsecutive 24-hour diet recalls. Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by subtype and by quartiles of energy intake and compared to the age specific Dietary Reference Intake (DRI) levels, as well as to the reported intakes from the What We Eat In America (WWEIA) dietary survey 2011–2012. Reported intake was determined for energy, macronutrients, and micronutrients. The mean body mass index (BMI) for all participants was 17.2 ± 0.1 kg/m2. Reported nutrient intake was insufficient for participants in quartiles 1–3 of both AN subtypes when compared to the DRIs. Intake reported by participants in quartile 4 of both subgroups met requirements for most nutrients and even met or exceeded estimated energy needs. Counseling of AN patients should be directed to total food consumption to improve energy intake and to reduce individual nutritional gaps. PMID:25988761

  12. Dietary fat intake and red blood cell fatty acid composition of children and women from three different geographical areas in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ford, Rosalyn; Faber, Mieke; Kunneke, Ernesta; Smuts, Cornelius M

    2016-06-01

    Dietary fat intake, particularly the type of fat, is reflected in the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid (FA) profile and is vital in growth, development and health maintenance. The FA profile (%wt/wt) of RBC membrane phospholipids (as determined by gas chromatography) and dietary intake (as determined by 24h recall) was assessed in 2-6y old South African children and their caregivers randomly selected from three communities, i.e. an urban Northern Cape community (urban-NC; n=104), an urban coastal Western Cape community (urban-WC; n=93) and a rural Limpopo Province community (rural-LP; n=102). Mean RBC FA values across groups were compared using ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test while controlling for age and gender (children); median dietary intake values were compared using a Kruskal-Wallis test. Dietary intakes for total fat, saturated FAs and polyunsaturated FAs were higher in the two urban areas compared to the rural area. Total fat intake in rural-LP, and omega-3 FA dietary intake in all three areas were lower than the South African adopted guidelines. Dietary SFA intake in both urban areas was higher than recommended by South African guidelines; this was reflected in the RBC membrane FA profile. Rural-LP children had the lowest intake of omega-3 and omega-6 FAs yet presented with the highest RBC docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) profile and highest arachidonic acid percentage. Although differences observed in dietary fat intake between the two urban and the rural area were reflected in the RBC membrane total phospholipid FA profile, the lowest total fat and α-linolenic acid (ALA) intake by rural children that presented with the highest RBC DHA profile warrants further investigation. PMID:27269709

  13. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K; Kern, Rebecca J; Keel, Brittney N; Snelling, Warren M; Kuehn, Larry A; Freetly, Harvey C

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  14. Estimation of daily dietary fluoride intake: 3-d food diary v. 2-d duplicate plate.

    PubMed

    Omid, N; Maguire, A; O'Hare, W T; Zohoori, F V

    2015-12-28

    The 3-d food diary method (3-d FD) or the 2-d duplicate plate (2-d DP) method have been used to measure dietary fluoride (F) intake by many studies. This study aimed to compare daily dietary F intake (DDFI) estimated by the 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods at group and individual levels. Dietary data for sixty-one healthy children aged 4-6 years were collected using 3-d FD and 2-d DP methods with a 1-week gap between each collection. Food diary data were analysed for F using the Weighed Intake Analysis Software Package, whereas duplicate diets were analysed by an acid diffusion method using an F ion-selective electrode. Paired t test and linear regression were used to compare dietary data at the group and individual levels, respectively. At the group level, mean DDFI was 0·025 (sd 0·016) and 0·028 (sd 0·013) mg/kg body weight (bw) per d estimated by 3-d FD and 2-d DP, respectively. No statistically significant difference (P=0·10) was observed in estimated DDFI by each method at the group level. At an individual level, the agreement in estimating F intake (mg/kg bw per d) using the 3-d FD method compared with the 2-d DP method was within ±0·011 (95 % CI 0·009, 0·013) mg/kg bw per d. At the group level, DDFI data obtained by either the 2-d DP method or the 3-d FD method can be replaced. At an individual level, the typical error and the narrow margin between optimal and excessive F intake suggested that the DDFI data obtained by one method cannot replace the dietary data estimated from the other method. PMID:26568435

  15. Underreporting of Dietary Energy Intake in Five Populations of the African Diaspora

    PubMed Central

    Orcholski, Lindsay; Luke, Amy; Plange-Rhule, Jacob; Bovet, Pascal; Forrester, Terrence E.; Lambert, Estelle V.; Dugas, Lara R.; Kettmann, Elizabeth; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon A.; Cooper, Richard S.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies on the role of diet in the development of chronic diseases often rely on self-report surveys of dietary intake. Unfortunately, many validity studies have demonstrated that self-reported dietary intake is subject to systematic underreporting, although the vast majority of such studies have been conducted in industrialized countries. The aim of this study was to investigate whether or not systematic reporting error exists among individuals of African ancestry (n=324) in five countries distributed across the Human Development Index scale, a United Nations statistic devised to rank countries on non-income factors plus economic indicators. Using two 24-hour recalls to assess energy intake and the doubly labeled water method to assess total energy expenditure, we calculated the difference between these two values to identify underreporting of habitual energy intake in selected communities in Ghana, South Africa, Seychelles, Jamaica and the United States. Under-reporting of habitual energy intake was observed in all countries. The South African cohort displayed the greatest mean % under-reporting: −52.1% ([self-report - expenditure/expenditure]×100) compared to −22.5%, −17.9%, −25.0%, and −18.5%, for, Ghana, Jamaica, Seychelles and the United States cohorts, respectively. Body mass index was the most consistent predictor of underreporting compared to other factors. We conclude that there is substantial under-reporting in populations across the whole range of the human development index and that this systematic error increases according to an individual’s body mass index. PMID:25585294

  16. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study.

    PubMed

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013-2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6-9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children's dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren's mental health. PMID:27011198

  17. Brucine suppresses ethanol intake and preference in alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yu-ling; Liu, Qing; Gong, Qi; Li, Jun-xu; Wei, Shou-peng; Wang, Yan-ting; Liang, Hui; Zhang, Min; Jing, Li; Yong, Zheng; Lawrence, Andrew J; Liang, Jian-hui

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Brucine (BRU) extracted from the seeds of Strychnos nux-vomica L is glycine receptor antagonist. We hypothesize that BRU may modify alcohol consumption by acting at glycine receptors, and evaluated the pharmacodynamic profiles and adverse effects of BRU in rat models of alcohol abuse. Methods: Alcohol-preferring Fawn-Hooded (FH/Wjd) rats were administered BRU (10, 20 or 30 mg/kg, sc). The effects of BRU on alcohol consumption were examined in ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigm and 5-d ethanol deprivation test. In addition, open field test was used to assess the general locomotor activity of FH/Wjd rats, and conditioned place preference (CPP) was conducted to assess conditioned reinforcing effect. Results: In ethanol 2-bottle-choice drinking paradigm, treatment with BRU for 10 consecutive days dose-dependently decreased the ethanol intake associated with a compensatory increase of water intake, but unchanged the daily total fluid intake and body weight. In ethanol/sucrose operant self-administration paradigms, BRU (30 mg/kg) administered before each testing session significantly decreased the number of lever presses for ethanol and the ethanol intake, without affecting the number of sucrose (10%) responses, total sucrose intake, and the number of lever presses for water. Acute treatment with BRU (30 mg/kg) completely suppressed the deprivation-induced elevation of ethanol consumption. Treatment with BRU (10, 20, and 30 mg/kg) did not alter locomotion of FH/Wjd rats, nor did it produce place preference or aversion. Conclusion: BRU selectively decreases ethanol consumption with minimal adverse effects. Therefore, BRU may represent a new pharmacotherapy for alcoholism. PMID:24909512

  18. Profile of the Spleen Transcriptome in Beef Steers with Variation in Gain and Feed Intake

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm-Perry, Amanda K.; Kern, Rebecca J.; Keel, Brittney N.; Snelling, Warren M.; Kuehn, Larry A.; Freetly, Harvey C.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified components of the immune system contributing to feed intake and gain in both the rumen and small intestine of beef steers. In this study, we examined the spleen, a major lymphatic organ near the digestive tract, to determine whether it was also influencing individual feed efficiency status through immune responses. Animals (n = 16) that were divergent for gain and intake were selected for tissue sampling. The spleen transcriptomes were evaluated by microarray. A total of 1216 genes were identified as differentially expressed. Genes were over-represented in Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes (KEGG) pathways including biological regulation, protein folding, cell communication, immune systems process, response to stress, and RNA metabolic process. Several stress response or heat shock genes including HSPH1, HSPA1A, HSPA4, DNAJB4, DNAJA4, etc., were identified as a stress response functional gene cluster in the low gain-low intake animals. These genes were up-regulated amongst the low gain-low intake animals compared to all other groups. Canonical pathways associated with the differentially expressed genes included the coagulation system, extrinsic prothrombin activation, protein ubiquitination, unfolded protein response, and aldosterone signaling in epithelial cells. An analysis of expressed copy number variable (CNV) genes in the spleen produced some of the same genes and gene families that were differentially expressed. Our data suggests the splenic contribution to some of the underlying variation among gain and intake within this group of animals may be a result of immune function and stress response. In addition, some of the differences in immune response functions may be related to gene copy number. PMID:27504120

  19. Assessment of Nutrient Intake in Cleft Lip and Palate Children After Surgical Correction

    PubMed Central

    GOPINATH, Vellore Kannan

    2013-01-01

    This research aimed to compare the nutrient intake of children with cleft lip and palate (CLP) with that of normal children (without CLP) in the same age groups. The study was conducted at the School of Dental Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 139 children, of both sexes, from two to six years of age, either with CLP (40 children) or without CLP (99 children), were selected. The CLP and non-CLP children were grouped according to age, which is a key determinant of nutrient intake. Children in subgroup I were between the ages of 2 and 4 years, the group comprising 48 normal children of mean age 39.85 months (SD 7.1), and 20 CLP children of mean age 37.05 months (SD 5.9). Children in subgroup II were those over 4 years and up to 6 years old, and the group comprised 51 normal children, of mean age 64.16 months (SD 7.9), and 20 CLP children of mean age 56.75 months (SD 9.9). A comparative cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate nutrient intake in subgroups I and II, using a 24 hours diet recall method. The nutrient intake of CLP children was shown to have no significant differences from that of normal children. A comparison of intake per day with Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for Malaysian children showed that the consumption of nutrients was inadequate in both the normal and CLP children, in both age sub-groups. PMID:24643339

  20. Nutrient Intake and Depression Symptoms in Spanish Children: The ANIVA Study

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-López, Nuria; Morales-Suárez-Varela, María; Pico, Yolanda; Livianos-Aldana, Lorenzo; Llopis-González, Agustín

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between nutritional intake and depressive symptoms in Valencian schoolchildren. The ANIVA (Antropometria y Nutricion Infantil de Valencia) study is a descriptive cross-sectional study. During academic year 2013–2014, 710 schoolchildren aged 6–9 years were selected from eleven primary schools in Valencia (Spain). Children’s dietary intake was measured on three-day food records, completed by parents/guardians; children completed the 20-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale for Children (CES-DC) Questionnaire to measure depressive symptoms. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI), and z-scores were evaluated in all subjects. Nutrient adequacy was assessed using Spanish dietary recommended intakes (DRIs); 20.70% of the sample presented depressive symptoms. We identified a positive association between children with depressive symptoms and non-depressive symptoms for thiamin, vitamin K, and bromine (p < 0.05), and a negative association for protein, carbohydrates, pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamin B12 and E, zinc, manganese, cobalt, and aluminum (p < 0.05). Statistically significant differences were found between both groups according to the DRIs for intakes of total energy (p = 0.026), fiber (p < 0.001), vitamin C (p < 0.001), vitamin E (p = 0.004), magnesium (p = 0.018), and iron (p = 0.013). Our results demonstrated that carbohydrates were the most closely associated factor with depressive symptoms, and highlight the potential significant public health implications of inadequate nutritional intake on schoolchildren’s mental health. PMID:27011198

  1. Cocaine- and Amphetamine-Regulated Transcript (CART) Messenger RNA Expression is Regulated by Food Intake in the Brain of the Channel Catfish (Ictalurus punctatus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increased growth is included as a selection criterion at the USDA Catfish Genetics Research Unit, Stoneville, MS, USA. Faster growth of selected channel catfish is typically attributed to their ability to consume more feed. While endocrine and neural factors and mechanisms that regulate feed intak...

  2. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong

    2014-10-01

    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  3. Endogenous and dietary lipids influencing feed intake and energy metabolism of periparturient dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Kuhla, B; Metges, C C; Hammon, H M

    2016-07-01

    The high metabolic priority of the mammary gland for milk production, accompanied by limited feed intake around parturition results in a high propensity to mobilize body fat reserves. Under these conditions, fuel selection of many peripheral organs is switched, for example, from carbohydrate to fat utilization to spare glucose for milk production and to ensure partitioning of tissue- and dietary-derived nutrients toward the mammary gland. For example, muscle tissue uses nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA) but releases lactate and amino acids in a coordinated order, thereby providing precursors for milk synthesis or hepatic gluconeogenesis. Tissue metabolism and in concert, nutrient partitioning are controlled by the endocrine system involving a reduction in insulin secretion and systemic insulin sensitivity and orchestrated changes in plasma hormones such as insulin, adiponectin, insulin growth factor-I, growth hormone, glucagon, leptin, glucocorticoids, and catecholamines. However, the endocrine system is highly sensitive and responsive to an overload of fatty acids no matter if excessive NEFA supply originates from exogenous or endogenous sources. Feeding a diet containing rumen-protected fat from late lactation to calving and beyond exerts similar negative effects on energy intake, glucose and insulin concentrations as does a high extent of body fat mobilization around parturition in regard to the risk for ketosis and fatty liver development. High plasma NEFA concentrations are thought not to act directly at the brain level, but they increase the energy charge of the liver which is, signaled to the brain to diminish feed intake. Cows differing in fat mobilization during the transition phase differ in their hepatic energy charge, whole body fat oxidation, glucose metabolism, plasma ghrelin, and leptin concentrations and in feed intake several week before parturition. Hence, a high lipid load, no matter if stored, mobilized or fed, affects the endocrine system

  4. Children in school cafeterias select foods containing more saturated fat and energy than the institute of medicine recommends.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we examined if children’s food selections met the School Meals Initiative (SMI) standards, and the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Mean food selection, plate waste, and food intake were also examined. Food intake of 2,049 4th-6th grade students were meas...

  5. Children in school cafeterias select foods containing more saturated fat and energy than the Institute of Medicine recommendations.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, we examined if children’s food selection met the School Meals Initiative (SMI) standards, and the recently released Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations. Mean food selection, plate waste, and food intake were also examined. Food intake of 2,049 4th-6th grade students were measu...

  6. Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age. Methods Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire. Results A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption. Conclusions Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately. This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits

  7. Intakes of Calcium and Phosphorus and Calculated Calcium-to-Phosphorus Ratios of Older Adults: NHANES 2005–2006 Data

    PubMed Central

    Adatorwovor, Reuben; Roggenkamp, Kathy; Anderson, John J. B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intakes of dietary phosphorus (P), relative to calcium (Ca) intake, are associated with a lower calcium:phosphorus ratio (Ca:P) ratio which potentially has adverse health effects, including arterial calcification, bone loss, and death. A substantial percentage of older adults (50 to 70 and 71 plus years) who have a higher risk of fracture rate than younger adults typically have low intakes of dietary Ca that are dominated by higher intakes of dietary P from natural and fortified foods, and lower Ca:P ratios than desirable. Objective: This investigation was undertaken to examine Ca and P intakes and the resulting Ca:P ratios (by mass) across gender and older adult age groups, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2005–2006. Design: NHANES data are based on a cross-sectional sample of the non-institutionalized United States (US) population within various regions. This sample is selected to be representative of the entire US population at all ages. National Cancer Institute (NCI) methods and SAS survey procedures were used for analyses. Ca:P ratios were calculated using total Ca from both foods and supplements, whereas P intakes were calculated from food composition values and supplements. The amounts of P additives in processed foods are not available. Results: Mean Ca and P intakes demonstrated lower intakes of Ca and higher intakes of P compared to current Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs). The Ca:P ratios in older male and female adults were influenced by both low-Ca and high-P dietary consumption patterns. Conclusions: Both low total Ca intakes and high P amounts contribute to lower Ca:P ratios, i.e., ~0.7:1.0, in the consumption patterns of older adults than is recommended by the RDAs, i.e., ~1.5:1.0. Whether Ca:P ratios lower than recommended contribute to increased risk of bone loss, arterial calcification, and all-cause mortality cannot be inferred from these data. Additional amounts of chemical P

  8. Evaluation of nutritional knowledge of second grade school children and assessment of their dietary intake.

    PubMed

    Kherkheulidze, M; Kavlashvili, N; Kandelaki, E; Manjavidze, T

    2012-11-01

    The aim of the study was assessment of the general nutrition knowledge and physical activity rate among the first grade school age children and evaluation of their diet and nutritional skills based on the parental interviews. Cross-sectional study was conducted in randomly selected schools of Tbilisi. In each school was selected one group of the second grade children and their parents by cluster selection method. A population of 290 children aged 6-8 years and their parents were interviewed. The statistical analysis was carried out by means of the SPPS 17. Questionnaires, except those with incomplete answers (n=30), were used for the analytical data. The study shows that in general, the level of knowledge related to rich sources of nutrients was poor. The most of the children can't identify the role of calcium (72,6%), proteins (68,1%) and iron (84,6 %). Children prefer to eat and select foods which they like (71,8%), such as sweets and cakes, hamburgers, chips and etc. The study showed that the most of the children (83,3%) have normal weight for age, underweight was revealed in 3,1% of children, more frequent was overweight (12,3%) and obesity (1,4%). There wasn't significant difference of overweight and underweight distribution in boys and girls. The assessment of child dietary intake show, that intake of fruits and vegetables, as well as milk and milk products is quite low, while intake of bread and pastry, and sweets and cakes are quite high. Daily consumption of sweets and snacks was significantly higher in girls (64.2%) than in boys (47.5%) (p<0.01). The study revealed that only 62 % of children eat the breakfast, in frequent cases children eat very fast (26,1%), 47,8 % of children need to remind to wash hands before eating, most children 60,4% view TV during the meal time or play computer games. The most of the children play the active games approximately 30-60 minutes, quite often children play active games only 20-30 minutes that is much less then WHO

  9. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bo, Yacong; Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Jizhe; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake and digestive tract cancers risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate this association. PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications from inception to October 2015. The risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoid intake were pooled using a fixed-effects model. A total of 15 articles reporting 23 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary flavonoid intake, we found no significant association between flavonoid intake and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75–1.10; I2 = 0.0%), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92–1.14, I2 = 36.2%) or gastric cancer (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.74–1.04, I2 = 63.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated an association between higher flavonoid intake and a decreased risk of gastric cancer in the European population (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62–0.97). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not strongly support an association between dietary flavonoid intake and oesophageal or colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis suggested an association between higher dietary flavonoid intake and decreased gastric cancer risk in European population. PMID:27112267

  10. Dietary flavonoid intake and the risk of digestive tract cancers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yacong; Sun, Jinfeng; Wang, Mengmeng; Ding, Jizhe; Lu, Quanjun; Yuan, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between dietary flavonoid intake and digestive tract cancers risk; however, the results remain inconclusive. The aim of our study was to evaluate this association. PubMed and the Web of Knowledge were searched for relevant publications from inception to October 2015. The risk ratio (RR) or odds ratio (OR) with the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for the highest versus the lowest categories of flavonoid intake were pooled using a fixed-effects model. A total of 15 articles reporting 23 studies were selected for the meta-analysis. In a comparison of the highest versus the lowest categories of dietary flavonoid intake, we found no significant association between flavonoid intake and oesophageal cancer (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.75-1.10; I(2) = 0.0%), colorectal cancer (OR = 1.02, 95% CI = 0.92-1.14, I(2) = 36.2%) or gastric cancer (OR = 0.88; 95% CI = 0.74-1.04, I(2) = 63.6%). The subgroup analysis indicated an association between higher flavonoid intake and a decreased risk of gastric cancer in the European population (OR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.62-0.97). In conclusion, the results of this meta-analysis do not strongly support an association between dietary flavonoid intake and oesophageal or colorectal cancer. Furthermore, the subgroup analysis suggested an association between higher dietary flavonoid intake and decreased gastric cancer risk in European population. PMID:27112267

  11. Iron deficiency is uncommon among lactating women in urban Nepal, despite a high risk of inadequate dietary iron intake.

    PubMed

    Henjum, Sigrun; Manger, Mari; Skeie, Eli; Ulak, Manjeswori; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Chandyo, Ram; Shrestha, Prakash S; Locks, Lindsey; Ulvik, Rune J; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Strand, Tor A

    2014-07-14

    The main objective of the present study was to examine the association between dietary Fe intake and dietary predictors of Fe status and Hb concentration among lactating women in Bhaktapur, Nepal. We included 500 randomly selected lactating women in a cross-sectional survey. Dietary information was obtained through three interactive 24 h recall interviews including personal recipes. Concentrations of Hb and plasma ferritin and soluble transferrin receptors were measured. The daily median Fe intake from food was 17·5 mg, and 70% of the women were found to be at the risk of inadequate dietary Fe intake. Approximately 90% of the women had taken Fe supplements in pregnancy. The prevalence of anaemia was 20% (Hb levels < 123 g/l) and that of Fe deficiency was 5% (plasma ferritin levels < 15 μg/l). In multiple regression analyses, there was a weak positive association between dietary Fe intake and body Fe (β 0·03, 95% CI 0·014, 0·045). Among the women with children aged < 6 months, but not those with older infants, intake of Fe supplements in pregnancy for at least 6 months was positively associated with body Fe (P for interaction < 0·01). Due to a relatively high dietary intake of non-haem Fe combined with low bioavailability, a high proportion of the women in the present study were at the risk of inadequate intake of Fe. The low prevalence of anaemia and Fe deficiency may be explained by the majority of the women consuming Fe supplements in pregnancy. PMID:24708993

  12. Intakes of dietary folate and other B vitamins are associated with risks of esophageal adenocarcinoma, Barrett's esophagus, and reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Sharp, Linda; Carsin, Anne-Elie; Cantwell, Marie M; Anderson, Lesley A; Murray, Liam J

    2013-12-01

    Folate is implicated in carcinogenesis via effects on DNA synthesis, repair, and methylation. Efficient folate metabolism requires other B vitamins and is adversely affected by smoking and alcohol. Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) may develop through a process involving inflammation [reflux esophagitis (RE)] leading to metaplasia [Barrett's esophagus (BE)] and carcinoma. Within a population-based, case-control study, we investigated associations between dietary folate and related factors and risks of EAC, BE, and RE. EAC and BE cases had histologically confirmed disease; RE cases had endoscopically visible inflammation. Controls, age-sex frequency matched to EAC cases, were selected through population and general practice registers. Participants underwent structured interviews and completed food-frequency questionnaires. Multivariate ORs and 95% CIs were computed using logistic regression. A total of 256 controls and 223 EAC, 220 BE, and 219 RE cases participated. EAC risk decreased with increasing folate intake (OR highest vs. lowest = 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31, 1.00; P-trend < 0.01). Similar trends were found for BE (P-trend < 0.01) and RE (P-trend = 0.01). Vitamin B-6 intake was significantly inversely related to risks of all 3 lesions. Riboflavin intake was inversely associated with RE. Vitamin B-12 intake was positively associated with EAC. For EAC, there was a borderline significant interaction between folate intake and smoking (P-interaction = 0.053); compared with nonsmokers with high (≥ median) folate intake, current smokers with low intakes (

  13. CRC pilot program to investigate the effect on driveability of intake valve deposits and variations in fuel volatility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    During the Coordinating Research Council's (CRC) program to select an engine to replace the BMW 318i as the industry standard intake valve deposit test engine, an opportunity was identified to compare the driveability performance of the engines evaluated with and without intake valve deposits. A pilot program was thus conducted by the CRC Volatility Group at Southwest Research Institute during late 1 991 and early 1 992 to investigate the relationship between intake valve deposits and cold-start and warmup driveability. Eight vehicles were tested using three fuels with varying T50 levels. Duplicate ratings were made using both the BMW Driveability Test Procedure and a modification of the CRC Cold-Start and Warmup Driveability Procedure. None of the three candidate engines were as good as the BMW 318i reference engine in discriminating valve deposit effects on driveability. Rater differences obscured other possible effects.

  14. Dietary intake data collection: challenges and limitations.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Ann C

    2012-11-01

    The purpose of this paper is to succinctly review the origin of US dietary surveys, the challenges and limitations of obtaining dietary intake data, the National Nutrition Monitoring and Related Research Act of 1990, the integrated US federal food survey, and the development of the US Department of Agriculture's (USDA) automated multiple-pass method. The USDA has monitored the food consumption patterns of Americans since the late 1890 s. In 2002, the US Department of Health and Human Services and the USDA integrated their data collection efforts, with data now collected on a continuous basis. Two 24-hour dietary recalls are obtained using USDA's automated multiple-pass method. By combining their respective areas of expertise, the USDA and the Department of Health and Human Services have increased research opportunities for scientists and provided data foundational for establishing programs and public policy. PMID:23121343

  15. The macronutrients, appetite and energy intake

    PubMed Central

    Carreiro, Alicia L; Dhillon, Jaapna; Gordon, Susannah; Jacobs, Ashley G; Higgins, Kelly A; McArthur, Breanna M; Redan, Benjamin W; Rivera, Rebecca L; Schmidt, Leigh R; Mattes, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Each of the macronutrients, carbohydrate, protein and fat, has a unique set of properties that influence health, but all are a source of energy. The optimal balance of their contribution to the diet has been a long-standing matter of debate. Over the past half century, there has been a progression of thinking regarding the mechanisms by which each may contribute to energy balance. At the beginning of this time period, the emphasis was on metabolic signals that initiated eating events (i.e., determined eating frequency). This was followed by an orientation to gut endocrine signals that purportedly modulate the size of eating events (i.e., determined portion size). Most recently, research attention has been directed to the brain where the reward signals elicited by the macronutrients are viewed as potentially problematic (i.e., contribute to disordered eating). At this point the predictive power of the macronutrients for energy intake remains limited. PMID:27431364

  16. Porous dike intake evaluation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ketschke, B.A.; Toner, R.C.

    1982-09-01

    The hydraulic performance and screening potential of a porous-dike intake were evaluated in both a laboratory flume and a small-scale field test facility. Two stone sizes were tested, 7.5 cm and 20 cm. Dikes were of gabion construction. The following parameters were evaluated: hydraulic performance, fouling, siltation, zooplankton-screening effectiveness, ichthyoplankton-screening effectiveness, and finfish-screening effectiveness. Flow volume through the porous dike induced by a relatively fixed hydraulic head was dependent upon cross-sectional area (tidal height). Flow resistance increased with time, causing a reduction in flow volume. Flow resistance could be reduced by back flushing. Zooplankton and ichthyoplankton did not appear to avoid entrainment, although some actively-swimming larval fish may avoid entrainment. A high percentage of the entrained plankton is filtered out by the stones or fouling material. Juvenile and adult fish were neither entrained nor impinged by the stone dike.

  17. Dietary sources of fiber intake in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Sardinha, Aline Nascimento; Canella, Daniela Silva; Martins, Ana Paula Bortoletto; Claro, Rafael Moreira; Levy, Renata Bertazzi

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the household availability of fibers in Brazil and to identify the dietary sources of this nutrient. Data from the 2008-2009 Household Budget Survey were used to estimate national household availability and density of fibers and also according to stratifications defined by income level, five regions and area (rural or urban). The contribution of the different food groups, classified by the nature, extent and purpose of processing, to total fibers available in Brazilian households was also determined. The mean density of per capita fibers was 7.6 g/1000 kcal. Higher availability and density of fibers was observed in households situated in rural areas and among low-income families. The main dietary sources of fiber were beans, bread, rice, fruit, vegetables and manioc flour. Fiber intake was found to be insufficient. Therefore, actions promoting a healthy diet are needed to improve the dietary quality of the Brazilian population. PMID:24769296

  18. Dietary protein intake and human health.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guoyao

    2016-03-16

    A protein consists of amino acids (AA) linked by peptide bonds. Dietary protein is hydrolyzed by proteases and peptidases to generate AA, dipeptides, and tripeptides in the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. These digestion products are utilized by bacteria in the small intestine or absorbed into enterocytes. AA that are not degraded by the small intestine enter the portal vein for protein synthesis in skeletal muscle and other tissues. AA are also used for cell-specific production of low-molecular-weight metabolites with enormous physiological importance. Thus, protein undernutrition results in stunting, anemia, physical weakness, edema, vascular dysfunction, and impaired immunity. Based on short-term nitrogen balance studies, the Recommended Dietary Allowance of protein for a healthy adult with minimal physical activity is currently 0.8 g protein per kg body weight (BW) per day. To meet the functional needs such as promoting skeletal-muscle protein accretion and physical strength, dietary intake of 1.0, 1.3, and 1.6 g protein per kg BW per day is recommended for individuals with minimal, moderate, and intense physical activity, respectively. Long-term consumption of protein at 2 g per kg BW per day is safe for healthy adults, and the tolerable upper limit is 3.5 g per kg BW per day for well-adapted subjects. Chronic high protein intake (>2 g per kg BW per day for adults) may result in digestive, renal, and vascular abnormalities and should be avoided. The quantity and quality of protein are the determinants of its nutritional values. Therefore, adequate consumption of high-quality proteins from animal products (e.g., lean meat and milk) is essential for optimal growth, development, and health of humans. PMID:26797090

  19. Adolescent meat intake and breast cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Farvid, Maryam S; Cho, Eunyoung; Chen, Wendy Y; Eliassen, A Heather; Willett, Walter C

    2015-04-15

    The breast is particularly vulnerable to carcinogenic influences during adolescence due to rapid proliferation of mammary cells and lack of terminal differentiation. We investigated consumption of adolescent red meat and other protein sources in relation to breast cancer risk in the Nurses' Health Study II cohort. We followed prospectively 44,231 women aged 33-52 years who, in 1998, completed a detailed questionnaire about diet during adolescence. Relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were estimated using Cox proportional hazard regression. We documented 1132 breast cancer cases during 13-year follow-up. In multivariable Cox regression models with major breast cancer risk factors adjustment, greater consumption of total red meat in adolescence was significantly associated with higher premenopausal breast cancer risk (highest vs. lowest quintiles, RR, 1.43; 95%CI, 1.05-1.94; Ptrend  = 0.007), but not postmenopausal breast cancer. Adolescent intake of poultry was associated with lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.76; 95%CI, 0.60-0.97; for each serving/day). Adolescent intakes of iron, heme iron, fish, eggs, legumes and nuts were not associated with breast cancer. Replacement of one serving/day of total red meat with one serving of combination of poultry, fish, legumes, and nuts was associated with a 15% lower risk of breast cancer overall (RR, 0.85; 95%CI, 0.74-0.96) and a 23% lower risk of premenopausal breast cancer (RR, 0.77; 95%CI, 0.64-0.92). In conclusion, higher consumption of red meat during adolescence was associated with premenopausal breast cancer. Substituting other dietary protein sources for red meat in adolescent diet may decrease premenopausal breast cancer risk. PMID:25220168

  20. Genetic Response To Selection In Channel Catfish

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Channel catfish selected solely for fast growth (fast growing) were compared to USDA103, USDA403, and industry pool groups of channel catfish for growth, body composition, and stress response. All fish were fed daily for 8 wks followed by an acute 10-minute dewatering stress. By wk 4, feed intake ...

  1. κ Opioid Receptors in the Nucleus Accumbens Shell Mediate Escalation of Methamphetamine Intake

    PubMed Central

    Schlosburg, Joel E.; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R.; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F.; Koob, George F.

    2015-01-01

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin–KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. PMID:25762676

  2. κ Opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens shell mediate escalation of methamphetamine intake.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Timothy W; Schlosburg, Joel E; Wee, Sunmee; Gould, Adam; George, Olivier; Grant, Yanabel; Zamora-Martinez, Eva R; Edwards, Scott; Crawford, Elena; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Koob, George F

    2015-03-11

    Given that the κ opioid receptor (KOR) system has been implicated in psychostimulant abuse, we evaluated whether the selective KOR antagonist norbinaltorphimine dihydrochloride (nor-BNI) would attenuate the escalation of methamphetamine (METH) intake in an extended-access self-administration model. Systemic nor-BNI decreased the escalation of intake of long-access (LgA) but not short-access (ShA) self-administration. nor-BNI also decreased elevated progressive-ratio (PR) breakpoints in rats in the LgA condition and continued to decrease intake after 17 d of abstinence, demonstrating that the effects of a nor-BNI injection are long lasting. Rats with an ShA history showed an increase in prodynorphin immunoreactivity in both the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell, but LgA animals showed a selective increase in the NAc shell. Other cohorts of rats received nor-BNI directly into the NAc shell or core and entered into ShA or LgA. nor-BNI infusion in the NAc shell, but not NAc core, attenuated escalation of intake and PR responding for METH in LgA rats. These data indicate that the development and/or expression of compulsive-like responding for METH under LgA conditions depends on activation of the KOR system in the NAc shell and suggest that the dynorphin-KOR system is a central component of the neuroplasticity associated with negative reinforcement systems that drive the dark side of addiction. PMID:25762676

  3. Relationship between dietary iron intake, corrected for diet reporting error, and serum ferritin in Danish women aged 35-65 years.

    PubMed

    Heitmann, B L; Milman, N; Hansen, G L

    1996-06-01

    Several studies have failed to demonstrate an association between Fe status and intake of dietary Fe. However, in the long term, it seems logical to presume that body Fe reserves are, fundamentally, dependent on the intake of bioavailable dietary Fe. This discrepancy may depend on several factors: (1) interindividual variation in biological availability of dietary Fe (differences in intestinal absorption), (2) interactions between dietary Fe and absorption enhancers and inhibitors, (3) variations in physiological (menstruation, childbirth) or unphysiological (blood donation) Fe losses, (4) the failure to adjust dietary intake data for Fe supplements, (5) uncertain food composition data (discrepancies between calculated and chemically measured Fe content in the diet), and (6) diet reporting error (reported intake of dietary Fe may deviate considerably from the true intake). The present study examined associations between dietary intake of Fe (assessed by diet history interview) and Fe status (assessed by ferritin status) among 167 Danish women aged 35-65 years, who were not blood donors, by taking into account diet reporting error (assessed from p-amino benzoic acid-validated urinary N), physiological blood losses (menstruation, childbirth, abortions), and Fe supplementation. Our results indicate that the lack of a general association between Fe status and dietary Fe intake may, in part, be caused by selective diet reporting error. PMID:8774235

  4. USDA develops a database for flavonoids to assess dietary intakes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The beneficial health effects of dietary flavonoids continue to interest the scientific community in associating the flavonoid intakes and certain chronic diseases. Scientists at the Nutrient Data Laboratory (NDL) and the Food Surveys Research Group (FSRG), USDA planned a study of the intakes of fl...

  5. 14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. PROJECT PLAN, INTAKE PIER, RAW WATER CONDUITS, PUMPING STATION FORCE MAINS, TREATED WATER PIPELINES, AND FILTRATION PLANT, SHEET 1 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  6. 2. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  7. 16. INTAKE PIER, PLANS ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS, SHEETS 5 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTAKE PIER, PLANS ELEVATIONS, AND SECTIONS, SHEETS 5 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  8. 18. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE DETAILS, SHEET 9 OF 117, 1920. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE DETAILS, SHEET 9 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  9. 20. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS, PLANS, PROFILES, AND DETAILS, SHEET ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS, PLANS, PROFILES, AND DETAILS, SHEET 115 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  10. 21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. COMPLETION OF INTAKE CONDUITS REVISED, PIPE SECTIONS AND PLANS, SHEET 117 OF 117, 1922. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  11. 3. APPROACH TO THE ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. APPROACH TO THE ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  12. 17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. INTAKE PIER, BRIDGE STRESS SHEET, SHEET 8 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND MAIN SPAN OF ACCESS BRIDGE FROM WATER LEVEL, LOOKING NORTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. 7. DETAIL OF INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM EASTERN SACRAMENTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. DETAIL OF INTAKE PIER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST FROM EASTERN SACRAMENTO LEVEE. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  15. 8. VIEW OF ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER FROM THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW OF ACCESS BRIDGE AND INTAKE PIER FROM THE BRIDGE PIER ABUTMENT, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  16. 11. DETAIL VIEW OF APPROACH TO INTAKE PIER FROM ACCESS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DETAIL VIEW OF APPROACH TO INTAKE PIER FROM ACCESS BRIDGE, SHOWING DOOR TO INTERIOR GATE OPERATOR ROOM, LOOKING WEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  17. LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING NORTH. DIVERTED WATER FOR CITY OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LEE VINING INTAKE LOOKING NORTH. DIVERTED WATER FOR CITY OF LOS ANGELES USED TO GO OUT VIA COVERED CONDUIT TO RIGHT OF PICTURE SPACE. SCORCHED SAGE IN FOREGROUND FROM RECENT FOREST FIRE - Los Angeles Aqueduct, Lee Vining Intake Structure, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. OBLIQUE VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTHWEST, FROM THE EASTERN LEVEE. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  19. 19. INTAKE CONDUITS, PROFILE, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS, SHEET 10 OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. INTAKE CONDUITS, PROFILE, SECTIONS, AND DETAILS, SHEET 10 OF 117, 1920. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  20. 3. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM AT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. FORMER INTAKE DAM NO. 2, VIEW LOOKING UPSTREAM AT LEFT IS RUBBLE MASONRY COVERING INTERSECTION OF THE TWO IRON PIPES FROM NEW DAM ENTERING OLD INTAKE OPENING AT RIGHT IS BOX FLUME LEADING TO AERATOR. - Kalaupapa Water Supply System, Waikolu Valley to Kalaupapa Settlement, Island of Molokai, Kalaupapa, Kalawao County, HI

  1. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  2. Micronutrient Intake in Healthy Toddlers: A Multinational Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Hilger, Jennifer; Goerig, Tatiana; Weber, Peter; Hoeft, Birgit; Eggersdorfer, Manfred; Costa Carvalho, Nina; Goldberger, Ursula; Hoffmann, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Adequate nutrient intake during early childhood is of particular importance for optimal growth and future health. However, cross-national comparative research on nutrient intake of toddlers is still limited. We conducted a literature review to examine the nutrient intake in healthy toddlers from some of the world’s most populous nations currently on different stages of socioeconomic development: Brazil, Germany, Russia and the United States. We aimed to identify national surveys reporting mean intakes of the following nutrients: vitamins A, D, E, folate, calcium, iron and zinc. To calculate the prevalence of inadequate nutrient intake, we used a modified version of the Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method. Overall, five studies with 6756 toddlers were eligible for inclusion in this review. In countries where data were available, a prevalence of inadequate intake higher than 20% was found for vitamins A, D, E and calcium. In Germany, folate intake also appeared to be inadequate. The results of our review indicate that inadequate micronutrient intake in toddlers might be a global challenge affecting also affluent countries. However, to explore the full scope of this important public health issue joint efforts of researchers worldwide are needed to combine existing data and fill in data gaps. PMID:26295254

  3. 28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photocopied August 1978. UPPER INTAKE COFFER DAM, OCTOBER 7, 1901. LOGS WERE PLACED ON THE WATER SIDE OF THIS DAM TO COUNTERACT WAVE ACTION AGAINST THE DAM. NOTE THE TIMBER RETAINING WALL ON THE NORTH SIDE OF THE LOWER INTAKE. (185) - Michigan Lake Superior Power Company, Portage Street, Sault Ste. Marie, Chippewa County, MI

  4. Fluid Intake and Cognitive Performance: Should Schoolchildren Drink during Lessons?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Tanja; Lührmann, Petra; Simpson, Faith; Dohnke, Birte

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence suggests that an insufficient fluid intake impairs cognitive performance. Drinking policies at schools--especially drinking during lessons--is a point of controversy. To provide a scientific base for this debate, more empirical evidence is needed on which aspects of fluid intake are crucial for cognitive performance. This…

  5. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  6. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  7. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  8. 40 CFR 90.309 - Engine intake air temperature measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air temperature... Emission Test Equipment Provisions § 90.309 Engine intake air temperature measurement. (a) The measurement...) The temperature measurements must be accurate to within ±2 °C....

  9. VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF TUMALO RESERVOIR FEED CANAL INTAKE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF UPSTREAM SIDE OF TUMALO RESERVOIR FEED CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURE, OLD COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL POND OUTLET (FAR LEFT), AND NEW COLUMBIA SOUTHERN CANAL INTAKE STRUCTURES (FAR RIGHT). LOOKING NORTH - Tumalo Irrigation District, Tumalo Project, West of Deschutes River, Tumalo, Deschutes County, OR

  10. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Intake and cooling air measurements. 92.108 Section 92.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM LOCOMOTIVES AND LOCOMOTIVE ENGINES Test Procedures § 92.108 Intake and cooling air measurements....

  11. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  12. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  13. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  14. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  15. 40 CFR 1065.125 - Engine intake air.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air. 1065.125 Section 1065.125 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Equipment Specifications § 1065.125 Engine intake air. (a) Use the...

  16. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  17. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  18. 30 CFR 36.23 - Engine intake system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake system. 36.23 Section 36.23... APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS APPROVAL REQUIREMENTS FOR PERMISSIBLE MOBILE DIESEL-POWERED TRANSPORTATION EQUIPMENT Construction and Design Requirements § 36.23 Engine intake system. (a) Construction. The...

  19. View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of steel flume (Irving intake system) that is covered with old flume stock, flattened to protect from debris, animals and daylight, and is supported by wood trestles, as it continues downhill toward the Irving Powerhouse. Truck in photo provides scale. Looking north - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Irving System, Intake System, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  20. Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Diane C; Knight, Carol A; Hockenberry, Jon; Teplansky, Robyn; Hartman, Terryl J

    2014-01-01

    Caffeine is one of the most researched food components, with the vast majority of dietary contributions coming from beverage consumption; however, there is little population-level data on caffeine intakes in the U.S. This study estimated the caffeine intakes of the U.S. population using a comprehensive beverage survey, the Kantar Worldpanel Beverage Consumption Panel. A nationally representative sample of 37,602 consumers (aged ≥ 2 years) of caffeinated beverages completed 7-day diaries which facilitated the development of a detailed database of caffeine values to assess intakes. Results showed that 85% of the U.S. population consumes at least one caffeinated beverage per day. The mean (±SE) daily caffeine intake from all beverages was 165±1 mg for all ages combined. Caffeine intake was highest in consumers aged 50-64 years (226±2 mg/day). The 90th percentile intake was 380 mg/day for all ages combined. Coffee was the primary contributor to caffeine intakes in all age groups. Carbonated soft drinks and tea provided a greater percentage of caffeine in the younger (<18 years) age groups. The percentage of energy drink consumers across all age groups was low (≤10%). These data provide a current perspective on caffeinated beverage consumption patterns and caffeine intakes in the U.S. population. PMID:24189158

  1. 10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL VIEW OF LOWER LEVEL OF INTAKE PIER SHOWING THE RIVER HEIGHT INDICATOR, ONE OF THE FIVE GATE OPENINGS, AND MOORINGS, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  2. 1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. OVERALL VIEW OF INTAKE PIER AND ACCESS BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST FROM WESTERN LEVEE OF THE SACRAMENTO RIVER. - Sacramento River Water Treatment Plant Intake Pier & Access Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River approximately 175 feet west of eastern levee on river; roughly .5 mile downstream from confluence of Sacramento & American Rivers, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  3. Mormon crickets maximize nutrient intake at the expense of immunity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For insects, two of the most important dietary macronutrients are carbohydrates and protein, and many organisms regulate dietary intake of both. In the field, carbohydrate (C) to protein (P) intake of Mormon crickets is indicative of nutritional imbalance that has major effects on immunity to pathog...

  4. Magnesium Intake and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Older Adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Higher dietary intake of magnesium (Mg) may protect against development of type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to examine the association between dietary magnesium intake and metabolic syndrome risk factors in elderly men and women. We examined cross-sectional associations between magnesium i...

  5. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  6. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  7. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  8. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air supply...

  9. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  10. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  11. 40 CFR 92.108 - Intake and cooling air measurements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... recommended practice J244 (incorporated by reference at § 92.5) are allowed. (b) Humidity and temperature measurements. (1) Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity-conditioned air. For this type of intake air supply, the humidity measurements must be made within the intake air...

  12. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  13. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  14. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  15. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  16. 40 CFR 91.310 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Provisions § 91.310 Engine intake air humidity measurement. This section refers to engines which are supplied... air, the ambient testcell humidity measurement may be used. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply....

  17. 40 CFR 89.326 - Engine intake air humidity measurement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Engine intake air humidity measurement... Test Equipment Provisions § 89.326 Engine intake air humidity measurement. (a) Humidity conditioned air supply. Air that has had its absolute humidity altered is considered humidity- conditioned air. For...

  18. Reduction of intake in the rat due to gastric filling.

    PubMed

    Davis, J D; Smith, G P; Sayler, J L

    1997-05-01

    With two exceptions, the literature shows that confining ingested fluid to the stomach of a rat during an intake test had no effect on the volume ingested. In the two exceptions (J. D. Davis and J. L. Sayler, Physiol. Behav. In press. J. A. Deutsch, Handbook of Behavioral Neurobiology. Neurobiology of Food and Fluid Intake, edited by E. M. Stricker. New York: Plenum, 1990, vol. 10), intake with the cuff open was very large, suggesting that, when intake on cuff-open tests exceeds some critical volume, confining all of it to the stomach during the test will reduce intake. To test this, we measured intake of three different solutions known to stimulate large intake with the pylorus open and closed. In cuff-closed tests, intake was less than in cuff-open tests. In cuff-closed tests, rate of licking began to decline within 5-6 min when only about one-quarter of the ultimate contents of the stomach had accumulated, indicating that some signal from the stomach slowed the rate of ingestion before the full capacity of the stomach was reached. This shows that the stomach is sensitive to its contents when it contains only a small proportion of its capacity. PMID:9176353

  19. Intake and sources of dietary fatty acids in Europe: Are current population intakes of fats aligned with dietary recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    Eilander, Ans; Harika, Rajwinder K.

    2015-01-01

    1 The development of food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of cardiovascular diseases requires knowledge of the contribution of common foods to SFA and PUFA intake. We systematically reviewed available data from European countries on population intakes and dietary sources of total fat, SFA, and PUFA. Data from national dietary surveys or population studies published >1995 were searched through Medline, Web of Science, and websites of national public health institutes. Mean population intakes were compared with FAO/WHO dietary recommendations, and contributions of major food groups to overall intakes of fat and fatty acids were calculated. Fatty acid intake data from 24 European countries were included. Reported mean intakes ranged from 28.5 to 46.2% of total energy (%E) for total fat, from 8.9 to 15.5%E for SFA, from 3.9 to 11.3%E for PUFA. The mean intakes met the recommendation for total fat (20–35%E) in 15 countries, and for SFA (<10%E) in two countries, and for PUFA (6–11%E) in 15 of the 24 countries. The main three dietary sources of total fat and SFA were dairy, added fats and oils, and meat and meat products. The majority of PUFA in the diet was provided by added fats and oils, followed by cereals and cereal products, and meat and meat products. Practical applications: While many European countries meet the recommended intake levels for total fat and PUFA, a large majority of European population exceeds the widely recommended maximum 10%E for SFA. In particular animal based products, such as dairy, animal fats, and fatty meat contribute to SFA intake. Adhering to food‐based dietary guidelines for prevention of CHD and other chronic diseases in Europe, including eating less fatty meats, low‐fat instead of full‐fat dairy, and more vegetable fats and oils will help to reduce SFA intake and at the same time increase PUFA intake. In European countries, SFA intakes are generally higher than the recommended <10%E and PUFA intakes lower than the

  20. Dietary intake in 6-year-old children from southern Poland: part 1 - energy and macronutrient intakes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The studies on dietary intake in Polish children are sparse and the information about dietary intake in 6-year-olds in Europe is limited. The published studies on dietary intake in children rarely provide information on the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water. The purpose of the study was to analyse energy and macronutrient intakes in 6-year-old children from southern Poland. Methods The studied population comprised 120 children, 64 girls and 56 boys. Energy and macronutrient intakes were estimated from a three-day food record. Weight and height were measured, and body mass index was calculated. Results Intakes of energy (kJ, kcal), plant protein (g), total fat (g), saturated fatty acids (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal), monounsaturated fatty acids (g) and starch (g, % of energy, g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in boys, while intakes of sucrose (% of energy, g/1000 kcal) and total water (g/1000 kcal) were significantly higher in girls. The children’s diets were characterised by excessive intake of total fat, saturated fatty acids, sucrose, and by inadequate intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids, available carbohydrates and starch. Conclusions The observed adverse characteristics of the children’s diets are similar to those observed in the diets of children in other European countries and show the need to work out a common educational programme to improve nutrition in young European children. It is also important to provide the lacking information about the intake of animal protein, plant protein and water in young children. PMID:25086600