Science.gov

Sample records for 2001-2002 ionising radiation

  1. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk. PMID:26126928

  2. European Code against Cancer 4th Edition: Ionising and non-ionising radiation and cancer.

    PubMed

    McColl, Neil; Auvinen, Anssi; Kesminiene, Ausrele; Espina, Carolina; Erdmann, Friederike; de Vries, Esther; Greinert, Rüdiger; Harrison, John; Schüz, Joachim

    2015-12-01

    Ionising radiation can transfer sufficient energy to ionise molecules, and this can lead to chemical changes, including DNA damage in cells. Key evidence for the carcinogenicity of ionising radiation comes from: follow-up studies of the survivors of the atomic bombings in Japan; other epidemiological studies of groups that have been exposed to radiation from medical, occupational or environmental sources; experimental animal studies; and studies of cellular responses to radiation. Considering exposure to environmental ionising radiation, inhalation of naturally occurring radon is the major source of radiation in the population - in doses orders of magnitude higher than those from nuclear power production or nuclear fallout. Indoor exposure to radon and its decay products is an important cause of lung cancer; radon may cause approximately one in ten lung cancers in Europe. Exposures to radon in buildings can be reduced via a three-step process of identifying those with potentially elevated radon levels, measuring radon levels, and reducing exposure by installation of remediation systems. In the 4th Edition of the European Code against Cancer it is therefore recommended to: "Find out if you are exposed to radiation from naturally high radon levels in your home. Take action to reduce high radon levels". Non-ionising types of radiation (those with insufficient energy to ionise molecules) - including extremely low-frequency electric and magnetic fields as well as radiofrequency electromagnetic fields - are not an established cause of cancer and are therefore not addressed in the recommendations to reduce cancer risk.

  3. Infants and Toddlers, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 2001-2002 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The spring 2001 issue presents articles on the history of infant and toddler programs in Italy and how to fulfill infant needs in Montessori child care, and on learning activities in the kitchen…

  4. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B.

    2016-07-01

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these.

  5. Dosimetry of ionising radiation in modern radiation oncology.

    PubMed

    Kron, Tomas; Lehmann, Joerg; Greer, Peter B

    2016-07-21

    Dosimetry of ionising radiation is a well-established and mature branch of physical sciences with many applications in medicine and biology. In particular radiotherapy relies on dosimetry for optimisation of cancer treatment and avoidance of severe toxicity for patients. Several novel developments in radiotherapy have introduced new challenges for dosimetry with small and dynamically changing radiation fields being central to many of these applications such as stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy and intensity modulated radiation therapy. There is also an increasing awareness of low doses given to structures not in the target region and the associated risk of secondary cancer induction. Here accurate dosimetry is important not only for treatment optimisation but also for the generation of data that can inform radiation protection approaches in the future. The article introduces some of the challenges and highlights the interdependence of dosimetric calculations and measurements. Dosimetric concepts are explored in the context of six application fields: reference dosimetry, small fields, low dose out of field, in vivo dosimetry, brachytherapy and auditing of radiotherapy practice. Recent developments of dosimeters that can be used for these purposes are discussed using spatial resolution and number of dimensions for measurement as sorting criteria. While dosimetry is ever evolving to address the needs of advancing applications of radiation in medicine two fundamental issues remain: the accuracy of the measurement from a scientific perspective and the importance to link the measurement to a clinically relevant question. This review aims to provide an update on both of these. PMID:27351409

  6. International GPS Service 2001 - 2002 Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowey, Ken (Editor); Neilan, Ruth (Editor); Moore, Angelyn (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to Earth Science are numerous. The International GPS Service (IGS), a federation of government agencies and universities, plays an increasingly critical role in support of GPS-related research and engineering activities. Contributions from the IGS Governing Board and Central Bureau, analysis and data centers, station operators, and others constitute the 2001 / 2002 Technical Reports. Hard copies of each volume can be obtained by contacting the IGS Central Bureau at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report is published in black and white. To view graphs or plots that use color to represent data trends or information, please refer to the online PDF version at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/pubs.html.

  7. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors.

  8. Hazards of ionising radiation: 100 years of observations on man.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, R.

    1995-01-01

    In November 1895, when Conrad Röntgen serendipitously discovered X-rays, epidemiology was effectively limited to the study of infectious disease. What little epidemiological work was done in other fields was done as part of clinical medicine or under the heading of geographical pathology. The risks from exposure to X-rays and subsequently from other types of ionising radiation were consequently discovered by qualitative association or animal experiment. They did not begin to be quantified in humans until half a century later, when epidemiology emerged as a scientific discipline capable of quantifying risks of non-infectious disease and the scientific world was alerted to the need for assessing the effects of the radiation to which large populations might be exposed by the use of nuclear energy in peace and war. PMID:8519643

  9. Protection of the environment from ionising radiation: ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Oughton, Deborah

    2003-01-01

    The paper identifies some of the main ethical issues concerning the protection of the environment from radiation and suggests ways in which ethics can aid in developing a system of protection. After a presentation of background on ethical theory and environmental ethics, three main issues related to environmental protection are discussed: First, the question of valuing the environment and implications for the definition of harm and monetary valuation of environmental goods; second, difficulties with scientific uncertainty and applications of the precautionary principle; and third, issues concerned with the distribution of risk and its relevance for participation in decision-making. In summary, the paper argues that there are strong ethical grounds to provide for the protection of the environment and that, all other things being equal, there is no reason to treat ionising radiation differently to other environmental stressors. PMID:12590067

  10. The New 2001-2002 Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed during the 2001-2002 term of the U.S. Supreme Court, which convened on October 1, 2001: (1) school vouchers; (2) affirmative action; (3) online pornography; and (4) the death penalty. (CMK)

  11. A study of ionisation of free and clustered molecules under the action of femtosecond laser radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Apatin, V M; Kompanets, V O; Lokhman, V N; Ogurok, N-D D; Poydashev, D G; Ryabov, E A; Chekalin, S V

    2014-05-30

    We have investigated the processes of excitation and ionisation of monomers and clusters of CF{sub 3}I, IF{sub 2}CCOF and Fe(CO){sub 5} molecules under the action of femtosecond laser radiation at the wavelengths of 266, 400 and 800 nm. It is concluded that the nature of the excitation of free molecules and clustered molecules by femtosecond pulses is different. The simulation of the ionisation yield of the objects under study has shown that the multiphoton ionisation is the key mechanism in the case of free molecules, while the field ionisation may play a significant role for clusters, in particular, in the case of ionisation at the wavelength of λ = 800 nm. (interaction of radiation with matter)

  12. Foundation for Child Development Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the activities of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) for 2001-2002. Beginning the report is a brief description of the Foundations mission, its funding priorities, and application procedures. The report then presents the joint statement of the chair, Karen Gerard, and the president, Ruby Takanishi, focusing on…

  13. Public Education Information Management System Data Standards, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The submission of Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) data is required of all Texas school districts. The "Data Standards" document provides instructions regarding the submission of PEIMS data from school districts to the Texas Education Agency. The 2001-2002 standards describe the PEIMS data reporting requirement and provide…

  14. Perkins Core Performance Measures: Results and Targets, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.; Taylor, Garry

    This report addresses the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) core performance standards and measures for the years 2001-2002. There are four core indicators through which the VCCS is assessed. They are the following: (1) student attainment including academic and technical skills; (2) completion/graduation rate using first time, full-time…

  15. The State of Our Nation's Youth, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    This report details 2001-2002 findings of an annual, national survey of the attitudes and plans of American adolescents. Participating in the telephone survey was a nationally representative sample of 1,014 students 13 to 18 years of age in ninth through twelfth grade. The report summarizes findings "at a glance" and discusses findings under the…

  16. St. Petersburg College FactBook, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    This 2001-2002 fact book for St. Petersburg College (SPC) in Florida provides statistical information to support planning and decision-making. It also offers a historical perspective of the institution. SPC was founded in 1927 as St. Petersburg Junior College, Florida's first two-year institution of higher learning. SPC has evolved from an…

  17. Invasive oral cancer stem cells display resistance to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Gemenetzidis, Emilios; Gammon, Luke; Biddle, Adrian; Emich, Helena; Mackenzie, Ian C

    2015-12-22

    There is a significant amount of evidence to suggest that human tumors are driven and maintained by a sub-population of cells, known as cancer stem cells (CSC). In the case of head and neck cancer, such cells have been characterised by high expression levels of CD44 cell surface glycoprotein, while we have previously shown the presence of two diverse oral CSC populations in vitro, with different capacities for cell migration and proliferation. Here, we examined the response of oral CSC populations to ionising radiation (IR), a front-line measure for the treatment of head and neck tumors. We show that oral CSC initially display resistance to IR-induced growth arrest as well as relative apoptotic resistance. We propose that this is a result of preferential activation of the DNA damagerepair pathway in oral CSC with increased activation of ATM and BRCA1, elevated levels of DNA repair proteins RAD52, XLF, and a significantly faster rate of DNA double-strand-breaks clearance 24 hours following IR. By visually identifying CSC sub-populations undergoing EMT, we show that EMT-CSC represent the majority of invasive cells, and are more radio-resistant than any other population in re-constructed 3D tissues. We provide evidence that IR is not sufficient to eliminate CSC in vitro, and that sensitization of CD44hi/ESAlow cells to IR, followed by secondary EMT blockade, could be critical in order to reduce primary tumor recurrence, but more importantly to be able to eradicate cells capable of invasion and distant metastasis.

  18. Destruction of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation and the implications for life detection on Mars.

    PubMed

    Dartnell, Lewis R; Page, Kristian; Jorge-Villar, Susana E; Wright, Gary; Munshi, Tasnim; Scowen, Ian J; Ward, John M; Edwards, Howell G M

    2012-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy has proven to be a very effective approach for the detection of microorganisms colonising hostile environments on Earth. The ExoMars rover, due for launch in 2018, will carry a Raman laser spectrometer to analyse samples of the martian subsurface collected by the probe's 2-m drill in a search for similar biosignatures. The martian surface is unprotected from the flux of cosmic rays, an ionising radiation field that will degrade organic molecules and so diminish and distort the detectable Raman signature of potential martian microbial life. This study employs Raman spectroscopy to analyse samples of two model organisms, the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 and the extremely radiation resistant polyextremophile Deinococcus radiodurans, that have been exposed to increasing doses of ionising radiation. The three most prominent peaks in the Raman spectra are from cellular carotenoids: deinoxanthin in D. radiodurans and β-carotene in Synechocystis. The degradative effect of ionising radiation is clearly seen, with significant diminishment of carotenoid spectral peak heights after 15 kGy and complete erasure of Raman biosignatures by 150 kGy of ionising radiation. The Raman signal of carotenoid in D. radiodurans diminishes more rapidly than that of Synechocystis, believed to be due to deinoxanthin acting as a superior scavenger of radiolytically produced reactive oxygen species, and so being destroyed more quickly than the less efficient antioxidant β-carotene. This study highlights the necessity for further experimental work on the manner and rate of degradation of Raman biosignatures by ionising radiation, as this is of prime importance for the successful detection of microbial life in the martian near subsurface.

  19. Educational programs in US medical schools, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, Barbara; Etzel, Sylvia I

    2002-09-01

    We used data mainly from the 2001-2002 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe the status of US medical education programs. In 2001-2002, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 104 949, a 2.4% increase from 1999-2000. The 34,859 applicants for the class entering in 2001 represented a 9.5% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999-2000. There were 2 applicants for every acceptance, and the academic qualifications of medical students entering in 2001 were unchanged from 1999. Women comprised 47.8% of entering students in 2001, and 13.1% were members of underrepresented minority groups. Of all first-year students, 67% were in-state residents. Most medical schools had mandatory required night call during at least some required clinical clerkships, but only 17 had formal policies on medical student work hours. In 74 schools (60%), medical students were required to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination to advance or graduate.

  20. Field calibration studies for ionisation chambers in mixed high-energy radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Theis, C; Forkel-Wirth, D; Fuerstner, M; Mayer, S; Otto, Th; Roesler, S; Vincke, H

    2007-01-01

    The monitoring of ambient doses at work places around high-energy accelerators is a challenging task due the complexity of the mixed stray radiation fields encountered. At CERN, mainly Centronics IG5 high-pressure ionisation chambers are used to monitor radiation exposure in mixed fields. The monitors are calibrated in the operational quantity ambient dose equivalent H*(10) using standard, source-generated photon- and neutron fields. However, the relationship between ionisation chamber reading and ambient dose equivalent in a mixed high-energy radiation field can only be assessed if the spectral response to every component and the field composition is known. Therefore, comprehensive studies were performed at the CERN-EU high-energy reference field facility where the spectral fluence for each particle type has been assessed with Monte Carlo simulations. Moreover, studies have been performed in an accessible controlled radiation area in the vicinity of a beam loss point of CERN's proton synchrotron. The comparison of measurements and calculations has shown reasonable agreement for most exposure conditions. The results indicate that conventionally calibrated ionisation chambers can give satisfactory response in terms of ambient dose equivalent in stray radiation fields at high-energy accelerators in many cases. These studies are one step towards establishing a method of 'field calibration' of radiation protection instruments in which Monte Carlo simulations will be used to establish a correct correlation between the response of specific detectors to a given high-energy radiation field.

  1. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  2. Teaching about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation: An Alternative Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millar, Robin; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Children's ideas about radiation and radioactivity are reviewed and several common areas of misunderstanding are identified. An approach to teaching the topic at the secondary school level which seeks to specifically address known difficulties is outlined. (CW)

  3. EURADOS strategic research agenda: vision for dosimetry of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Rühm, W; Fantuzzi, E; Harrison, R; Schuhmacher, H; Vanhavere, F; Alves, J; Bottollier Depois, J F; Fattibene, P; Knežević, Ž; Lopez, M A; Mayer, S; Miljanić, S; Neumaier, S; Olko, P; Stadtmann, H; Tanner, R; Woda, C

    2016-02-01

    Since autumn 2012, the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has been developing its Strategic Research Agenda (SRA), which is intended to contribute to the identification of future research needs in radiation dosimetry in Europe. The present article summarises-based on input from EURADOS Working Groups (WGs) and Voting Members-five visions in dosimetry and defines key issues in dosimetry research that are considered important for the next decades. The five visions include scientific developments required towards (a) updated fundamental dose concepts and quantities, (b) improved radiation risk estimates deduced from epidemiological cohorts, (c) efficient dose assessment for radiological emergencies, (d) integrated personalised dosimetry in medical applications and (e) improved radiation protection of workers and the public. The SRA of EURADOS will be used as a guideline for future activities of the EURADOS WGs. A detailed version of the SRA can be downloaded as a EURADOS report from the EURADOS website (www.eurados.org). PMID:25752758

  4. Occupational exposure to ionising radiation and mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board.

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez Artalejo, F; Castaño Lara, S; de Andrés Manzano, B; García Ferruelo, M; Iglesias Martín, L; Calero, J R

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Firstly, to ascertain whether mortality among workers of the former Spanish Nuclear Energy Board (Junta de Energía Nuclear-JEN) was higher than that for the Spanish population overall; and secondly, if this were so, to ascertain whether this difference was associated with exposure to ionising radiation. METHODS: A retrospective follow up of a cohort of 5657 workers was carried out for the period 1954-92. Cohort mortality was compared with that for the Spanish population overall, with standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) adjusted for sex, age, and calendar period. Also, Poisson models were used to analyse mortality from lung cancer in the cohort by level of exposure to ionising radiation. RESULTS: Workers' median and mean cumulative exposures were 4.04 and 11.42 mSv, respectively. Mean annual exposure was 1.33 mSv. Excess mortality due to bone tumours was found for the cohort as a whole (six deaths observed; SMR 2.95; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.08 to 6.43). Among miners, excess mortality was found for non-malignant respiratory diseases (SMR 2.94; 95% CI 2.27 to 3.75), and for lung cancer bordering on statistical significance (SMR 1.50; 95% CI 0.96 to 2.23; P = 0.055). Relative risks of dying of lung cancer from ionising radiation in the dose quartiles 2, 3, and 4 versus the lowest dose quartile, were 1.00, 1.64, and 0.94, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Excess mortality from lung cancer was found among JEN miners. Nevertheless, no clear relation was found between mortality from lung cancer and level of exposure to ionising radiation in the JEN cohort. Continued follow up of the cohort is required to confirm excess mortality from bone tumours. PMID:9155782

  5. Comparison of low and high dose ionising radiation using topological analysis of gene coexpression networks

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The growing use of imaging procedures in medicine has raised concerns about exposure to low-dose ionising radiation (LDIR). While the disastrous effects of high dose ionising radiation (HDIR) is well documented, the detrimental effects of LDIR is not well understood and has been a topic of much debate. Since little is known about the effects of LDIR, various kinds of wet-lab and computational analyses are required to advance knowledge in this domain. In this paper we carry out an “upside-down pyramid” form of systems biology analysis of microarray data. We characterised the global genomic response following 10 cGy (low dose) and 100 cGy (high dose) doses of X-ray ionising radiation at four time points by analysing the topology of gene coexpression networks. This study includes a rich experimental design and state-of-the-art computational systems biology methods of analysis to study the differences in the transcriptional response of skin cells exposed to low and high doses of radiation. Results Using this method we found important genes that have been linked to immune response, cell survival and apoptosis. Furthermore, we also were able to identify genes such as BRCA1, ABCA1, TNFRSF1B, MLLT11 that have been associated with various types of cancers. We were also able to detect many genes known to be associated with various medical conditions. Conclusions Our method of applying network topological differences can aid in identifying the differences among similar (eg: radiation effect) yet very different biological conditions (eg: different dose and time) to generate testable hypotheses. This is the first study where a network level analysis was performed across two different radiation doses at various time points, thereby illustrating changes in the cellular response over time. PMID:22594378

  6. EVOLUTION OF THE IEC AND EN STANDARDS FOR INDIVIDUAL MONITORING OF IONISING RADIATION.

    PubMed

    Voytchev, M; Behrens, R; Ambrosi, P; Radev, R; Chiaro, P

    2016-09-01

    This article presents the evolution of the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the European standards for individual monitoring of ionising radiation issued, respectively, from the committees IEC/Sub Committee 45B and European Committee for Electro-technical Standardization/Technical Committee 45B 'Radiation protection instrumentation'. Standards for passive individual photon and beta dosimetry systems as well as those for active individual monitors are discussed. A neutron ambient dose equivalent (rate) meter standard and a technical report concerning the determination of uncertainty in measurement are also covered. PMID:26443545

  7. The effect of non ionising electromagnetic radiation on RAAF personnel during World War II.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, J A

    1994-05-01

    Did exposure to non ionising electromagnetic radiation during World War II in the short term have a stimulating effect on the anterior pituitary gland, and in turn on the gonads of both sexes, since the figures obtained appeared to affect the sexes equally? Is it that the long-term effect of microwave radiation on personnel is to cause adenoma and carcinoma? Is this long-term effect similar to the long-term effect of X-rays on infants, children and adolescents? According to Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine 1980 (page 1710): "X-rays to the head and neck in infancy, childhood or adolescence is associated with a high incidence of thyroid disease later in life. Nodular disease is found to be particularly common on 20% of patients at risk, and may not be apparent until 30 years or more after exposure. One-third of the nodular type are found to be carcinomatous." The effect of non ionising electromagnetic and microwave radiation on those who work in these fields certainly needs much more investigation. What will be the long-term effect of using micro-ovens on the rising generation?

  8. Glioblastoma stem cells: radiobiological response to ionising radiations of different qualities.

    PubMed

    Pecchia, I; Dini, V; Ricci-Vitiani, L; Biffoni, M; Balduzzi, M; Fratini, E; Belli, M; Campa, A; Esposito, G; Cirrone, G; Romano, F; Stancampiano, C; Pelacchi, F; Pallini, R; Tabocchini, M A

    2015-09-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and malignant primary brain tumour, with very poor prognosis. The high recurrence rate and failure of conventional treatments are expected to be related to the presence of radio-resistant cancer stem cells (CSCs) inside the tumour mass. CSCs can both self-renew and differentiate into the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells. Recent evidence showed a higher effectiveness of C-ions and protons in inactivating CSCs, suggesting a potential advantage of Hadrontherapy compared with conventional radiotherapy for GBM treatment. To investigate the mechanisms involved in the molecular and cellular responses of CSCs to ionising radiations, two GBM stem cell (GSC) lines, named lines 1 and 83, which were derived from patients with different clinical outcomes and having different metabolic profiles (as shown by NMR spectroscopy), were irradiated with (137)Cs photons and with protons or C-ions of 62 MeV u(-1) in the dose range of 5-40 Gy. The biological effects investigated were: cell death, cell cycle progression, and DNA damage induction and repair. Preliminary results show a different response to ionising radiation between the two GSC lines for the different end points investigated. Further experiments are in progress to consolidate the data and to get more insights on the influence of radiation quality.

  9. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Gretchen

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and stream

  10. ASSOCIATION OF URINARY PERCHLORATE WITH INDIRECT MEASURES OFTHYROID DYSFUNCTION BASED ON NHANES 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Aims: Perchlorate is a widespread environmental pollutant. Previous population studies based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002, showed that urinary perchlorate concentrations were associated with increased levels of thyroid stim...

  11. Multidisciplinary approach to assess the sensitivity of dwarf tomato plants to low-LET ionising radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Micco, Veronica; De Pascale, Stefania; Aronne, Giovanna; Paradiso, Roberta; Vitaglione, Paola; Turano, Mimmo; Arena, Carmen

    Ionising radiation, acting alone or in interaction with microgravity and other environmental constraints, may affect plant at molecular, morpho-structural and physiological level. The intensity of the plant’s response depends on the properties of radiation and on the features of the plant itself. Indeed, different species are characterised by different susceptibility to radiation which may change during the life course. The aim of this research was to study the radiosensitivity to low-LET ionising radiation of plants of dwarf tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. ‘Microtom’) at two phenological phases (vegetative and reproductive), within the purpose of analysing plants for consideration as candidates for Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS) in Space. To pursue this objective, plants of the cultivar Microtom were irradiated with different doses of X-rays either at the stage of the second true leaf (VP - vegetative phase) or when at least one flower was blossomed (RP - reproductive phase). Plant’s response to ionising radiation was assessed through a multidisciplinary approach combining genetic analyses, ecophysiological measurements, morpho-anatomical characterisation of leaves and fruits, nutritional analyses of fruits. Growth, molecular and morpho-functional traits were measured during plant development up to fruiting in both VP and RP plant groups, and compared with non-irradiated control plants. Plant growth was monitored weekly recording parameters such as plant height, number of leaves, leaf area, flowering and fruiting rate. Potential DNA alterations were explored through Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The efficiency of the photosynthetic apparatus was evaluated by determining photosynthetic pigment composition, photochemistry and leaf gas exchanges. Leaf and fruit structure were analysed through light and epi-fluorescence microscopy. Leaf anatomical traits related to photosynthetic efficiency, and to structural radioprotection

  12. Genotoxicity in earthworm after combined treatment of ionising radiation and mercury.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Tae Ho; An, Kwang-Guk; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2014-06-01

    This study was performed to investigate the acute genotoxic effects of mercury and radiation on earthworms (Eisenia fetida). The levels of DNA damage and the repair kinetics in the coelomocytes of E. fetida treated with mercuric chloride (HgCl₂) and ionising radiation (gamma rays) were analysed by means of the comet assay. For detection of DNA damage and repair, E. fetida was exposed to HgCl₂ (0-160 mg kg(-1)) and irradiated with gamma rays (0-50 Gy) in vivo. The increase in DNA damage depended on the concentration of mercury or dose of radiation. The results showed that the more the oxidative stress induced by mercury and radiation the longer the repair time that was required. When a combination of HgCl₂ and gamma rays was applied, the cell damage was much higher than those treated with HgCl₂ or radiation alone, which indicated that the genotoxic effects were increased after the combined treatment of mercury and radiation. PMID:24870361

  13. Growth alteration and leaf biochemical responses in Phaseolus vulgaris exposed to different doses of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Arena, C; De Micco, V; De Maio, A

    2014-01-01

    Ionising radiation may have different effects on plant metabolism, growth and reproduction, depending on radiation dose, plant species, developmental stage and physiological traits. In this study, exposure of dwarf bean plants to different doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 50, 100 Gy) was investigated with a multidisciplinary approach consisting of morphological, ecophysiological and biochemical analysis. Both mature and young leaves still growing during the X-rays exposure were compared with non-irradiated control leaves. In particular, leaf expansion, leaf anatomy and functional traits, as well as photosynthetic pigment content and Rubisco expression were analysed. Moreover, the activity of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) was also measured as an indicator of radiation-induced DNA damage. Our data showed that leaf growth is affected by high levels of radiation and demonstrate that mature leaves are more radio-resistant than young leaves, which experience severe dose-dependent changes in leaf functional traits. In particular, young leaves exhibited a reduction of area and an increase in specific mass and dry matter content, as well as a decline in Rubisco activity. Moreover, they showed elevated PARP activity and an increase in phenolic compounds in wall cells if compared with mature leaves. Both of these strategies have been interpreted as a way to help developing leaves withstand irradiation.

  14. Age at exposure to ionising radiation and cancer mortality among Hanford workers: follow up through 1994

    PubMed Central

    Wing, S; Richardson, D

    2005-01-01

    Background: Studies of workers at the plutonium production factory in Hanford, WA have led to conflicting conclusions about the role of age at exposure as a modifier of associations between ionising radiation and cancer. Aims: To evaluate the influence of age at exposure on radiation risk estimates in an updated follow up of Hanford workers. Methods: A cohort of 26 389 workers hired between 1944 and 1978 was followed through 1994 to ascertain vital status and causes of death. External radiation dose estimates were derived from personal dosimeters. Poisson regression was used to estimate associations between mortality and cumulative external radiation dose at all ages, and in specific age ranges. Results: A total of 8153 deaths were identified, 2265 of which included cancer as an underlying or contributory cause. Estimates of the excess relative risk per Sievert (ERR/Sv) for cumulative radiation doses at all ages combined were negative for all cause and leukaemia and positive for all cancer and lung cancer. Cumulative doses accrued at ages below 35, 35–44, and 45–54 showed little association with mortality. For cumulative dose accrued at ages 55 and above (10 year lag), the estimated ERR/Sv for all cancers was 3.24 (90% CI: 0.80 to 6.17), primarily due to an association with lung cancer (ERR/Sv: 9.05, 90% CI: 2.96 to 17.92). Conclusions: Associations between radiation and cancer mortality in this cohort are primarily a function of doses at older ages and deaths from lung cancer. The association of older age radiation exposures and cancer mortality is similar to observations from several other occupational studies. PMID:15961623

  15. Low-dose ionising radiation and cardiovascular diseases--Strategies for molecular epidemiological studies in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kreuzer, Michaela; Auvinen, Anssi; Cardis, Elisabeth; Hall, Janet; Jourdain, Jean-Rene; Laurier, Dominique; Little, Mark P; Peters, Annette; Raj, Ken; Russell, Nicola S; Tapio, Soile; Zhang, Wei; Gomolka, Maria

    2015-01-01

    It is well established that high-dose ionising radiation causes cardiovascular diseases. In contrast, the evidence for a causal relationship between long-term risk of cardiovascular diseases after moderate doses (0.5-5 Gy) is suggestive and weak after low doses (<0.5 Gy). However, evidence is emerging that doses under 0.5 Gy may also increase long-term risk of cardiovascular disease. This would have major implications for radiation protection with respect to medical use of radiation for diagnostic purposes and occupational or environmental radiation exposure. Therefore, it is of great importance to gain information about the presence and possible magnitude of radiation-related cardiovascular disease risk at doses of less than 0.5 Gy. The biological mechanisms implicated in any such effects are unclear and results from epidemiological studies are inconsistent. Molecular epidemiological studies can improve the understanding of the pathogenesis and the risk estimation of radiation-induced circulatory disease at low doses. Within the European DoReMi (Low Dose Research towards Multidisciplinary Integration) project, strategies to conduct molecular epidemiological studies in this field have been developed and evaluated. Key potentially useful European cohorts are the Mayak workers, other nuclear workers, uranium miners, Chernobyl liquidators, the Techa river residents and several diagnostic or low-dose radiotherapy patient cohorts. Criteria for informative studies are given and biomarkers to be investigated suggested. A close collaboration between epidemiology, biology and dosimetry is recommended, not only among experts in the radiation field, but also those in cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26041268

  16. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLETHAL EXPOSURE TO MICROCYSTINS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: During winter 2001-2002, an episode of microcystin exposure occurred among dialysis patients in Rio de Janiero, Brazil. During late November 2001, a cyanobacterial water bloom was detected in the Funil reservoir and the Guandu River, both of which supply drinking wate...

  17. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…

  18. The "Isms" of Art. Introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints that will focus on ten art movements from the past 150 years. Includes information on three art movements, or "isms": Classicism, Romanticism, and Realism. Discusses the Clip and Save Art Print format and provides information on three artists. (CMK)

  19. An isotopic analysis of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enghoff, M. B.; Bork, N.; Hattori, S.; Meusinger, C.; Nakagawa, M.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Danielache, S.; Ueno, Y.; Johnson, M. S.; Yoshida, N.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-06-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find an enrichment factor (δ34S) of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation) for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm) produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion.

  20. An isotope view on ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enghoff, M. B.; Bork, N.; Hattori, S.; Meusinger, C.; Nakagawa, M.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Danielache, S.; Ueno, Y.; Johnson, M. S.; Yoshida, N.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-02-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism has remained undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find a δ34S value of 8.7 ± 0.4‰ (1 standard deviation) for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm) produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion.

  1. An isotopic view of ionising radiation as a source of sulphuric acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enghoff, M. B.; Bork, N.; Hattori, S.; Meusinger, C.; Nakagawa, M.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Danielache, S. O.; Ueno, Y.; Johnson, M. S.; Yoshida, N.; Svensmark, H.

    2012-04-01

    Sulphuric acid is an important factor in aerosol nucleation and growth. It has been shown that ions enhance the formation of sulphuric acid aerosols, but the exact mechanism remains undetermined. Furthermore some studies have found a deficiency in the sulphuric acid budget, suggesting a missing source. In this study the production of sulphuric acid from SO2 through a number of different pathways is investigated. The production methods are standard gas phase oxidation by OH radicals produced by ozone photolysis with UV light, liquid phase oxidation by ozone, and gas phase oxidation initiated by gamma rays. The distributions of stable sulphur isotopes in the products and substrate were measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry. All methods produced sulphate enriched in 34S and we find a d34S value of 8.7 ± 0.4 ‰ (1 standard deviation) for the UV-initiated OH reaction. Only UV light (Hg emission at 253.65 nm) produced a clear non-mass-dependent excess of 33S. The pattern of isotopic enrichment produced by gamma rays is similar, but not equal, to that produced by aqueous oxidation of SO2 by ozone. This, combined with the relative yields of the experiments, suggests a mechanism in which ionising radiation may lead to hydrated ion clusters that serve as nanoreactors for S(IV) to S(VI) conversion.

  2. Laser ablation and ionisation by laser plasma radiation in the atmospheric-pressure mass spectrometry of organic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Pento, A V; Nikiforov, S M; Simanovsky, Ya O; Grechnikov, A A; Alimpiev, S S

    2013-01-31

    A new method was developed for the mass spectrometric analysis of organic and bioorganic compounds, which involves laser ablation with the ionisation of its products by laser-plasma radiation and enables analysing gaseous, liquid, and solid substances at atmospheric pressure without sample preparation. The capabilities of this method were demonstrated by the examples of fast pharmaceutical composition screening, real-time atmosphere composition analysis, and construction of the mass spectrometric images of organic compound distributions in biological materials. (interaction of laser radiation with matter)

  3. Leaf Anatomy and Photochemical Behaviour of Solanum lycopersicum L. Plants from Seeds Irradiated with Low-LET Ionising Radiation

    PubMed Central

    De Micco, V.; Paradiso, R.; Aronne, G.; De Pascale, S.; Quarto, M.; Arena, C.

    2014-01-01

    Plants can be exposed to ionising radiation not only in Space but also on Earth, due to specific technological applications or after nuclear disasters. The response of plants to ionising radiation depends on radiation quality/quantity and/or plant characteristics. In this paper, we analyse some growth traits, leaf anatomy, and ecophysiological features of plants of Solanum lycopersicum L. “Microtom” grown from seeds irradiated with increasing doses of X-rays (0.3, 10, 20, 50, and 100 Gy). Both juvenile and compound leaves from plants developed from irradiated and control seeds were analysed through light and epifluorescence microscopy. Digital image analysis allowed quantifying anatomical parameters to detect the occurrence of signs of structural damage. Fluorescence parameters and total photosynthetic pigment content were analysed to evaluate the functioning of the photosynthetic machinery. Radiation did not affect percentage and rate of seed germination. Plants from irradiated seeds accomplished the crop cycle and showed a more compact habitus. Dose-depended tendencies of variations occurred in phenolic content, while other leaf anatomical parameters did not show distinct trends after irradiation. The sporadic perturbations of leaf structure, observed during the vegetative phase, after high levels of radiation were not so severe as to induce any significant alterations in photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:24883400

  4. [Childhood immunization schedule 2001-2002. Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics].

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    In 1994 the Spanish Association of Pediatrics founded the Advisory Committee on Vaccines with the aim of providing advice on matters related to childhood immunizations and of implementing vaccination schedules. The latest recommendations concern the immunization schedule for 2001-2002, in which indications for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine instead of the attenuated poliovirus vaccine are of prime importance. The advisability of including the vaccine against chicken pox in healthy children is stressed.

  5. Reassessment of the 2001-2002 Aseismic Slow Slip Event in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostoglodov, V.; Franco, S. I.; Singh, S. K.; Larson, K. M.; Lowry, A. R.; Santiago, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    In 2001-2002 a network of continuous GPS stations in Mexico recorded an unexpectedly large aseismic slow event (equivalent Mw ~7.4) in Guerrero and in western Oaxaca. This event lasted more than six months and the area involved in the aseismic motion was initially estimated as ~500x250 km2. The event produced a slow thrust slip of ~13-15 cm on the subduction plate interface below the central part of the State of Guerrero. Elastic dislocation models, which fit the observed data, restrict the width of the slip to 150-200 km along the plate interface. This interface was partially locked before, during the steady state interseismic phase associated with the continental plate compression. Unfortunately the GPS network coverage was not sufficient to resolve an important question: Was the seismogenic part of the plate interface involved in the slow thrust slip? A long term record from a permanent GPS station located on the Popocatepetl volcano, POSW, shows unambiguous displacements corresponding to the aseismic slip events of 1997-1998 and 2001-2002. Recent data analysis of 2001, 2002, and 2003 GPS occupation campaigns on 16 sites in Oaxaca reveals that the 2001-2002 slow aseismic slip may have extended SE along almost the entire Pacific coast of Oaxaca. These observations indicate that the total area affected by the last slow aseismic slip event is greater than ~300x700 km2. Most likely the same area was involved in a previous aseismic event of 1972, which is discovered from the analysis of tide gauge data. Frequently occurring aseismic transients should have an important bearing on the recurrence period of large subduction thrust earthquakes in Mexico.

  6. γH2AX Foci Form Preferentially in Euchromatin after Ionising-Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Cowell, Ian G.; Sunter, Nicola J.; Singh, Prim B.; Austin, Caroline A.; Durkacz, Barbara W.; Tilby, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Background The histone variant histone H2A.X comprises up to 25% of the H2A complement in mammalian cells. It is rapidly phosphorylated following exposure of cells to double-strand break (DSB) inducing agents such as ionising radiation. Within minutes of DSB generation, H2AX molecules are phosphorylated in large chromatin domains flanking DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); these domains can be observed by immunofluorescence microscopy and are termed γH2AX foci. H2AX phosphorylation is believed to have a role mounting an efficient cellular response to DNA damage. Theoretical considerations suggest an essentially random chromosomal distribution of X-ray induced DSBs, and experimental evidence does not consistently indicate otherwise. However, we observed an apparently uneven distribution of γH2AX foci following X-irradiation with regions of the nucleus devoid of foci. Methodology/Principle Findings Using immunofluorescence microscopy, we show that focal phosphorylation of histone H2AX occurs preferentially in euchromatic regions of the genome following X-irradiation. H2AX phosphorylation has also been demonstrated previously to occur at stalled replication forks induced by UV radiation or exposure to agents such as hydroxyurea. In this study, treatment of S-phase cells with hydroxyurea lead to efficient H2AX phosphorylation in both euchromatin and heterochromatin at times when these chromatin compartments were undergoing replication. This suggests a block to H2AX phosphorylation in heterochromatin that is at least partially relieved by ongoing DNA replication. Conclusions/Significance We discus a number of possible mechanisms that could account for the observed pattern of H2AX phosphorylation. Since γH2AX is regarded as forming a platform for the recruitment or retention of other DNA repair and signaling molecules, these findings imply that the processing of DSBs in heterochromatin differs from that in euchromatic regions. The differential responses of

  7. Lightning-driven inner radiation belt energy deposition into the atmosphere: implications for ionisation-levels and neutral chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, C. J.; Enell, C.-F.; Turunen, E.; Clilverd, M. A.; Thomson, N. R.; Verronen, P. T.

    2007-08-01

    Lightning-generated whistlers lead to coupling between the troposphere, the Van Allen radiation belts and the lower-ionosphere through Whistler-induced electron precipitation (WEP). Lightning produced whistlers interact with cyclotron resonant radiation belt electrons, leading to pitch-angle scattering into the bounce loss cone and precipitation into the atmosphere. Here we consider the relative significance of WEP to the lower ionosphere and atmosphere by contrasting WEP produced ionisation rate changes with those from Galactic Cosmic Radiation (GCR) and solar photoionisation. During the day, WEP is never a significant source of ionisation in the lower ionosphere for any location or altitude. At nighttime, GCR is more significant than WEP at altitudes <68 km for all locations, above which WEP starts to dominate in North America and Central Europe. Between 75 and 80 km altitude WEP becomes more significant than GCR for the majority of spatial locations at which WEP deposits energy. The size of the regions in which WEP is the most important nighttime ionisation source peaks at ~80 km, depending on the relative contributions of WEP and nighttime solar Lyman-α. We also used the Sodankylä Ion Chemistry (SIC) model to consider the atmospheric consequences of WEP, focusing on a case-study period. Previous studies have also shown that energetic particle precipitation can lead to large-scale changes in the chemical makeup of the neutral atmosphere by enhancing minor chemical species that play a key role in the ozone balance of the middle atmosphere. However, SIC modelling indicates that the neutral atmospheric changes driven by WEP are insignificant due to the short timescale of the WEP bursts. Overall we find that WEP is a significant energy input into some parts of the lower ionosphere, depending on the latitude/longitude and altitude, but does not play a significant role in the neutral chemistry of the mesosphere.

  8. Predicting the effects of ionising radiation on ecosystems by a generic model based on the Lotka-Volterra equations.

    PubMed

    Monte, Luigi

    2009-06-01

    The present work describes a model for predicting the population dynamics of the main components (resources and consumers) of terrestrial ecosystems exposed to ionising radiation. The ecosystem is modelled by the Lotka-Volterra equations with consumer competition. Linear dose-response relationships without threshold are assumed to relate the values of the model parameters to the dose rates. The model accounts for the migration of consumers from areas characterised by different levels of radionuclide contamination. The criteria to select the model parameter values are motivated by accounting for the results of the empirical studies of past decades. Examples of predictions for long-term chronic exposure are reported and discussed.

  9. Internet-based ICRP resource for healthcare providers on the risks and benefits of medical imaging that uses ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Demeter, S; Applegate, K E; Perez, M

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Committee 3 Working Party was to update the 2001 web-based module 'Radiation and your patient: a guide for medical practitioners' from ICRP. The key elements of this task were: to clearly identify the target audience (such as healthcare providers with an emphasis on primary care); to review other reputable sources of information; and to succinctly publish the contribution made by ICRP to the various topics. A 'question-and-answer' format addressing practical topics was adopted. These topics included benefits and risks of imaging using ionising radiation in common medical situations, as well as pertaining to specific populations such as pregnant, breast-feeding, and paediatric patients. In general, the benefits of medical imaging and related procedures far outweigh the potential risks associated with ionising radiation exposure. However, it is still important to ensure that the examinations are clinically justified, that the procedure is optimised to deliver the lowest dose commensurate with the medical purpose, and that consideration is given to diagnostic reference levels for particular classes of examinations.

  10. Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) enhances the oncogenic characteristics of prostate carcinoma cells and reduces sensitivity to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Perera, Omesha; Evans, Angharad; Pertziger, Mikhail; MacDonald, Christa; Chen, Helen; Liu, Dong-Xu; Lobie, Peter E; Perry, Jo K

    2015-05-28

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) is a secreted protein which functions in mucosal repair of the gastrointestinal tract. This is achieved through the combined stimulation of cell migration and prevention of apoptosis and anoikis, thus facilitating repair. Deregulated TFF3 expression at the gene and protein level is implicated in numerous cancers. In prostate cancer TFF3 has previously been reported as a potential biomarker, overexpressed in a subset of primary and metastatic cases. Here we investigated the effect of increased TFF3 expression on prostate cancer cell behaviour. Oncomine analysis demonstrated that TFF3 mRNA expression was upregulated in prostate cancer compared to normal tissue. Forced-expression models were established in the prostate cancer cell lines, DU145 and PC3, by stable transfection of an expression vector containing the TFF3 cDNA. Forced expression of TFF3 significantly increased total cell number and cell viability, cell proliferation and cell survival. In addition, TFF3 enhanced anchorage independent growth, 3-dimensional colony formation, wound healing and cell migration compared to control transfected cell lines. We also observed reduced sensitivity to ionising radiation in stably transfected cell lines. In dose response experiments, forced expression of TFF3 significantly enhanced the regrowth of PC3 cells following ionising radiation compared with control transfected cells. In addition, TFF3 enhanced clonogenic survival of DU145 and PC3 cells. These studies indicate that targeting TFF3 for the treatment of prostate cancer warrants further investigation.

  11. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA "Why?" Files Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of the evaluation conducted for the 2001-2002 NASA 'Why?' Files program that was conducted in March 2002. The analysis is based on the results of 139 surveys collected from educators registered for the program. Respondents indicated that (1) the programs in the series are aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (2) the programs are developmentally (grade level) appropriate; and (3) the programs enhance and enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics, science, and technology.

  12. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT(tm) is a research and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6-8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  13. Determination of relevant parameters for the use of electronic dosemeters in pulsed fields of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Zutz, H; Hupe, O; Ambrosi, P; Klammer, J

    2012-09-01

    Active electronic dosemeters using counting techniques are used for radioprotection purposes in pulsed radiation fields in X-ray diagnostics or therapy. The disadvantage of the limited maximum measurable dose rate becomes significant in these radiation fields and leads to some negative effects. In this study, a set of relevant parameters for a dosemeter is described, which can be used to decide whether it is applicable in a given radiation field or not. The determination of these relevant parameters-maximum measurable dose rate in the radiation pulse, dead time of the dosemeter, indication per counting event and measurement cycle time-is specified. The results of the first measurements on the determination of these parameters for an electronic personal dosemeter of the type Thermo Fisher Scientific EPD Mk2 are shown.

  14. Implications for human and environmental health of low doses of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2014-07-01

    The last 20 years have seen a major paradigm shift in radiation biology. Several discoveries challenge the DNA centric view which holds that DNA damage is the critical effect of radiation irrespective of dose. This theory leads to the assumption that dose and effect are simply linked - the more energy deposition, the more DNA damage and the greater the biological effect. This is embodied in radiation protection (RP) regulations as the linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. However the science underlying the LNT model is being challenged particularly in relation to the environment because it is now clear that at low doses of concern in RP, cells, tissues and organisms respond to radiation by inducing responses which are not readily predictable by dose. These include adaptive responses, bystander effects, genomic instability and low dose hypersensitivity, and are commonly described as stress responses, while recognizing that "stress" can be good as well as bad. The phenomena contribute to observed radiation responses and appear to be influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, meaning that dose and response are not simply related. The question is whether our discovery of these phenomena means that we need to re-evaluate RP approaches. The so-called "non-targeted" mechanisms mean that low dose radiobiology is very complex and supra linear or sub-linear (even hormetic) responses are possible but their occurrence is unpredictable for any given system level. Issues which may need consideration are synergistic or antagonistic effects of other pollutants. RP, at present, only looks at radiation dose but the new (NTE) radiobiology means that chemical or physical agents, which interfere with tissue responses to low doses of radiation, could critically modulate the predicted risk. Similarly, the "health" of the organism could determine the effect of a given low dose by enabling or disabling a critical response. These issues will be discussed.

  15. Implications for human and environmental health of low doses of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Mothersill, Carmel; Seymour, Colin

    2014-07-01

    The last 20 years have seen a major paradigm shift in radiation biology. Several discoveries challenge the DNA centric view which holds that DNA damage is the critical effect of radiation irrespective of dose. This theory leads to the assumption that dose and effect are simply linked - the more energy deposition, the more DNA damage and the greater the biological effect. This is embodied in radiation protection (RP) regulations as the linear-non-threshold (LNT) model. However the science underlying the LNT model is being challenged particularly in relation to the environment because it is now clear that at low doses of concern in RP, cells, tissues and organisms respond to radiation by inducing responses which are not readily predictable by dose. These include adaptive responses, bystander effects, genomic instability and low dose hypersensitivity, and are commonly described as stress responses, while recognizing that "stress" can be good as well as bad. The phenomena contribute to observed radiation responses and appear to be influenced by genetic, epigenetic and environmental factors, meaning that dose and response are not simply related. The question is whether our discovery of these phenomena means that we need to re-evaluate RP approaches. The so-called "non-targeted" mechanisms mean that low dose radiobiology is very complex and supra linear or sub-linear (even hormetic) responses are possible but their occurrence is unpredictable for any given system level. Issues which may need consideration are synergistic or antagonistic effects of other pollutants. RP, at present, only looks at radiation dose but the new (NTE) radiobiology means that chemical or physical agents, which interfere with tissue responses to low doses of radiation, could critically modulate the predicted risk. Similarly, the "health" of the organism could determine the effect of a given low dose by enabling or disabling a critical response. These issues will be discussed. PMID:23664231

  16. Kinetic transcriptomic approach revealed metabolic pathways and genotoxic-related changes implied in the Arabidopsis response to ionising radiations.

    PubMed

    Gicquel, Morgane; Taconnat, Ludivine; Renou, Jean-Pierre; Esnault, Marie-Andrée; Cabello-Hurtado, Francisco

    2012-10-01

    Plants exposed to ionising radiation (IR) have to face direct and indirect (oxidative stress) deleterious effects whose intensity depends on the dose applied and led to differential genome regulation. Transcriptomic analyses were conducted with CATMA microarray technology on Arabidopsis thaliana plantlets, 2 and 26h after exposure to the IR doses 10Gy and 40Gy. 10Gy treatment seemed to enhance antioxidative compound biosynthetic pathways whereas the 40Gy dose up-regulated ROS-scavenging enzyme genes. Transcriptomic data also highlighted a differential regulation of chloroplast constituent genes depending on the IR dose, 10Gy stimulating and 40Gy down-regulating. This probable 40Gy decrease of photosynthesis could help for the limitation of ROS production and may be coupled with programmed cell death (PCD)/senescence phenomena. Comparisons with previous transcriptomic studies on plants exposed to a 100Gy dose revealed 60 dose-dependent up-regulated genes, including notably cell cycle checkpoints to allow DNA repairing phenomena. Furthermore, the alteration of some cellular structure related gene expression corroborated a probable mitotic arrest after 40Gy. Finally, numerous heat-shock protein and chaperonin genes, known to protect proteins against stress-dependent dysfunction, were up-regulated after IR exposure.

  17. Effect of ionising radiation on polyphenolic content and antioxidant potential of parathion-treated sage (Salvia officinalis) leaves.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Issam; Fekih, Sana; Sghaier, Haitham; Bousselmi, Mehrez; Saidi, Mouldi; Landoulsi, Ahmed; Fattouch, Sami

    2013-11-15

    The γ-irradiation effects on polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity of parathion-pretreated leaves of Salvia officinalis plant were investigated. The analysis of phenolic extracts of sage without parathion showed that irradiation decreased polyphenolic content significantly (p<0.05) by 30% and 45% at 2 and 4kGy, respectively, compared to non-irradiated samples. The same trend was observed for the Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), as assessed by the anionic DPPH and cationic ABTS radical-scavenging assays. The antioxidant potential decreased significantly (p<0.01) at 2 and 4kGy, by 11-20% and 40-44%, respectively. The results obtained with a pure chlorogenic acid solution confirmed the degradation of phenols; however, its TEAC was significantly (p<0.01) increased following irradiation. Degradation products of parathion formed by irradiation seem to protect against a decline of antioxidant capacity and reduce polyphenolic loss. Ionising radiation was found to be useful in breaking down pesticide residues without inducing significant losses in polyphenols.

  18. Nucleoplasmic bridges and acrocentric chromosome associations as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation in occupationally exposed hospital workers.

    PubMed

    Caradonna, Fabio

    2015-03-01

    Ionising radiation, with the contribution of telomere shortening, induces DNA double-strand breaks that result in chromosome end fusion, nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and chromosome aberrations (ChAbs) as well as dicentric chromosomes. In order to investigate the chromosomal damage induced by occupational ionising radiation at low exposure levels, and to find early markers of health hazard, peripheral lymphocytes of occupationally exposed hospital workers were cytogenetically analysed. Results showed a significant difference in the frequency of ChAbs in exposed subjects relative to controls. A significant number of NPBs between nuclei of binucleated cultured lymphocytes from exposed subjects were also observed, as well as a consistent amount of acrocentric chromosomes with associations of their short arms. Excluding confounding factors, the frequencies of all these three biological endpoints differed significantly in exposed subjects from those in controls. Because the absence of telomeres and/or their short length could be a common root for both the findings, we utilised fluorescence in situ hybridisation technique with telomeric repeat as probe to demonstrate that, in exposed subjects, chromatin of short arms of involved acrocentric chromosomes did not exhibit a telomeric shortening but appeared strongly decondensed. This finding suggests that NPBs and telomeric acrocentric association should be regarded as early markers of exposure to low levels of ionising radiation and their increase should be seen as an early warning for the health of the involved workers. PMID:25381312

  19. Pre-Service Teachers' Subject Knowledge of and Attitudes about Radioactivity and Ionising Radiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colclough, Nicholas Denys; Lock, Roger; Soares, Allan

    2011-01-01

    This study focussed on secondary school (11-18 years) pre-service teachers' (n = 73) knowledge of and attitudes towards risks associated with alpha, beta, and gamma radiations. A multi-method approach was used with physics, chemistry, biology, and history graduates undertaking the one-year initial teacher training, Post Graduate Certificate in…

  20. Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Preston, R Julian; Boice, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2013-09-01

    The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose

  1. Uncertainties in estimating health risks associated with exposure to ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Preston, R Julian; Boice, John D; Brill, A Bertrand; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Conolly, Rory; Hoffman, F Owen; Hornung, Richard W; Kocher, David C; Land, Charles E; Shore, Roy E; Woloschak, Gayle E

    2013-09-01

    The information for the present discussion on the uncertainties associated with estimation of radiation risks and probability of disease causation was assembled for the recently published NCRP Report No. 171 on this topic. This memorandum provides a timely overview of the topic, given that quantitative uncertainty analysis is the state of the art in health risk assessment and given its potential importance to developments in radiation protection. Over the past decade the increasing volume of epidemiology data and the supporting radiobiology findings have aided in the reduction of uncertainty in the risk estimates derived. However, it is equally apparent that there remain significant uncertainties related to dose assessment, low dose and low dose-rate extrapolation approaches (e.g. the selection of an appropriate dose and dose-rate effectiveness factor), the biological effectiveness where considerations of the health effects of high-LET and lower-energy low-LET radiations are required and the transfer of risks from a population for which health effects data are available to one for which such data are not available. The impact of radiation on human health has focused in recent years on cancer, although there has been a decided increase in the data for noncancer effects together with more reliable estimates of the risk following radiation exposure, even at relatively low doses (notably for cataracts and cardiovascular disease). New approaches for the estimation of hereditary risk have been developed with the use of human data whenever feasible, although the current estimates of heritable radiation effects still are based on mouse data because of an absence of effects in human studies. Uncertainties associated with estimation of these different types of health effects are discussed in a qualitative and semi-quantitative manner as appropriate. The way forward would seem to require additional epidemiological studies, especially studies of low dose and low dose

  2. Inter-comparison of safety culture within selected practices in Ghana utilising ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Faanu, A; Schandorf, C; Darko, E O; Boadu, M; Emi-Reynolds, G; Awudu, A R; Gyekye, P K; Kpeglo, D O

    2010-12-01

    The safety culture of selected practices and facilities in Ghana utilising radiation sources or radiation emitting devices has been assessed using a performance indicator, which provided status information on management and operating staff commitment to safety. The questionnaire was based on the following broad areas: general safety considerations, safety policy at the facility level, safety practices at the facility level, definition of responsibility, staff training, safety of the physical structure of the facility and the emergency plans. The analysis showed that the percentage levels of commitment to safety for the respective practices are as follows: conventional radiography, 23.3-90.0%; research reactor, 73.3%; gamma irradiation facility, 53.3%; radiotherapy, 76.7%; X-ray scanner, 80.0%; gamma scanner, 76.7%; industrial radiography 86.7% and nuclear density practice, 78%. None of the practices or facilities was able to satisfy all the requirements that will ensure a 100% level of safety culture.

  3. Non-fluoroscopic navigation systems for radiofrequency catheter ablation for supraventricular tachycardia reduce ionising radiation exposure

    PubMed Central

    See, Jason; Amora, Jonah L; Lee, Sheldon; Lim, Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lee, Chee Wan; Ching, Chi Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The use of non-fluoroscopic systems (NFS) to guide radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) for the treatment of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is associated with lower radiation exposure. This study aimed to determine if NFS reduces fluoroscopy time, radiation dose and procedure time. METHODS We prospectively enrolled patients undergoing RFCA for SVT. NFS included EnSite™ NavX™ or CARTO® mapping. We compared procedure and fluoroscopy times, and radiation exposure between NFS and conventional fluoroscopy (CF) cohorts. Procedural success, complications and one-year success rates were reported. RESULTS A total of 200 patients over 27 months were included and RFCA was guided by NFS for 79 patients; those with atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia (AVNRT), left-sided atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia (AVRT) and right-sided AVRT were included (n = 101, 63 and 36, respectively). Fluoroscopy times were significantly lower with NFS than with CF (10.8 ± 11.1 minutes vs. 32.0 ± 27.5 minutes; p < 0.001). The mean fluoroscopic dose area product was also significantly reduced with NFS (NSF: 5,382 ± 5,768 mGy*cm2 vs. CF: 21,070 ± 23,311 mGy*cm2; p < 0.001); for all SVT subtypes. There was no significant reduction in procedure time, except for left-sided AVRT ablation (NFS: 79.2 minutes vs. CF: 116.4 minutes; p = 0.001). Procedural success rates were comparable (NFS: 97.5% vs. CF: 98.3%) and at one-year follow-up, there was no significant difference in the recurrence rates (NFS: 5.2% vs. CF: 4.2%). No clinically significant complications were observed in both groups. CONCLUSION The use of NFS for RFCA for SVT is safe, with significantly reduced radiation dose and fluoroscopy time. PMID:26805664

  4. Follow-up of children exposed to ionising radiation from cardiac catheterisation: the Coccinelle study

    PubMed Central

    Baysson, H.; Nkoumazok, B.; Barnaoui, S.; Réhel, J. L.; Girodon, B.; Milani, G.; Boudjemline, Y.; Bonnet, D.; Laurier, D.; Bernier, M. O.

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac catheterisation has become an essential tool in the diagnosis and treatment of children with a wide variety of congenital and acquired forms of cardiovascular disease. Despite the clear clinical benefit to the patient, radiation exposure from paediatric cardiac catheterisation procedures (CCPs) may be substantial. Given children's greater sensitivity to radiation and the longer life span during which radiation health effects can develop, an epidemiological cohort study, named Coccinelle or ‘Ladybird’ (French acronym for ‘Cohorte sur le risque de cancer après cardiologie interventionnelle pédiatrique’), is carried out in France to evaluate the risks of leukaemia and solid cancers in this population. A total number of 8000 included children are expected. Individual CCP-related doses will be assessed for each child included in the cohort. For each CCP performed, dosimetric parameters (dose–area product, fluoroscopy time and total number of cine frames) are retrieved retrospectively. Organ doses, especially to the lung, the oesophagus and the thyroid, are calculated with PCXMC software. The cohort will be followed up through linkage with French paediatric cancer registries. PMID:25833897

  5. [Individual response to ionising radiation: What predictive assay(s) to choose?].

    PubMed

    Granzotto, Adeline; Joubert, Aurélie; Viau, Muriel; Devic, Clément; Maalouf, Mira; Thomas, Charles; Vogin, Guillaume; Malek, Karim; Colin, Catherine; Balosso, Jacques; Foray, Nicolas

    2011-02-01

    Individual response to ionizing radiation is an important information required to apply an efficient radiotherapy treatment against tumour and to avoid any adverse effects in normal tissues. In 1981, Fertil and Malaise have demonstrated that the post-irradiation local tumor control determined in vivo is correlated with clonogenic cell survival assessed in vitro. Furthermore, these authors have reminded the relevance of the concept of intrinsic radiosensitivity that is specific to each individual organ (Fertil and Malaise, 1981) [1]. To date, since clonogenicity assays are too time-consuming and do not provide any other molecular information, a plethora of research groups have attempted to determine the molecular bases of intrinsic radiosensitivity in order to propose reliable and faster predictive assays. To this aim, several approaches have been developed. Notably, the recent revolution in genomic and proteomic technologies is providing a considerable number of data but their link with radiosensitivity still remains to be elucidated. On another hand, the systematic screening of some candidate genes potentially involved in the radiation response is highlighting the complexity of the molecular and cellular mechanisms of DNA damage sensoring and signalling and shows that an abnormal radiation response is not necessarily due to the impairment of one single protein. Finally, more modest approaches consisting in focusing some specific functions of DNA repair seem to provide more reliable clues to predict over-acute reactions caused by radiotherapy. In this review, we endeavoured to analyse the contributions of these major approaches to predict human radiosensitivity. PMID:21333944

  6. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  7. Deterministic effect of lens at leukergy of patients who received low doses of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Yeltokova, M; Zharliganova, D; Shaidarov, M; Bakhtin, M; Kazymbet, P; Tel, L; Dossakhanov, A; Kozhakbayeva, M; Hoshi, M

    2015-09-01

    To explore the possibility to use the lens extract as an in vitro stimulator to conduct a test of stimulated leukergy in liquidators of the accident consequences (LAC) on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) with a cataract in the long-term period. The study sample included 72 men-LAC on CNPP, at the age from 42 to 65 y, who have a cataract. The comparison group consisted of 60 men, with a cataract, of the same age, and who were not exposed to radiation. The control group was composed of 60 men, at the age of 42-58 y without lens pathology. Phenomenon of the stimulated leukergy was revealed in persons who had been exposed to radiation in the dose of 18.2 ± 0.58 cGy and was observed in 5.7-8.05 % (P < 0.001), suggesting a continued high auto-aggression to the lens antigens, and the strength of cell-mediated immunity.

  8. Deterministic effect of lens at leukergy of patients who received low doses of ionising radiation.

    PubMed

    Yeltokova, M; Zharliganova, D; Shaidarov, M; Bakhtin, M; Kazymbet, P; Tel, L; Dossakhanov, A; Kozhakbayeva, M; Hoshi, M

    2015-09-01

    To explore the possibility to use the lens extract as an in vitro stimulator to conduct a test of stimulated leukergy in liquidators of the accident consequences (LAC) on Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant (CNPP) with a cataract in the long-term period. The study sample included 72 men-LAC on CNPP, at the age from 42 to 65 y, who have a cataract. The comparison group consisted of 60 men, with a cataract, of the same age, and who were not exposed to radiation. The control group was composed of 60 men, at the age of 42-58 y without lens pathology. Phenomenon of the stimulated leukergy was revealed in persons who had been exposed to radiation in the dose of 18.2 ± 0.58 cGy and was observed in 5.7-8.05 % (P < 0.001), suggesting a continued high auto-aggression to the lens antigens, and the strength of cell-mediated immunity. PMID:25969524

  9. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Sarapultseva, Elena I; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2016-10-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F0 and F1Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F0Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F2 progeny of irradiated F0Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays.

  10. Risk of leukaemia mortality from exposure to ionising radiation in US nuclear workers: a pooled case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Robert D; Bertke, Stephen; Waters, Kathleen M; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K

    2015-01-01

    Objective To follow-up on earlier studies of the leukaemogenicity of occupational ionising radiation exposure. Methods We conducted a nested case-control analysis of leukaemia mortality in a pooled cohort of US nuclear workers followed through 2005. Each case was matched to four controls on attained age. Exposures were estimated from available records. General relative risk models were used to estimate the excess relative risk (ERR) of leukaemia, excluding chronic lymphocytic (CLL), acute myeloid leukaemia, chronic myeloid leukaemia and CLL while controlling for potential confounders. Preferred exposure lags and time-windows of risks were calculated using joint maximum likelihood. Dose-response was also examined using linear, linear-quadratic, categorical and restricted cubic spline models. Results There were 369 leukaemia deaths in 105 245 US nuclear workers. The adjusted ERR for non-CLL leukaemia was 0.09 (95% CI −0.17 to 0.65) per 100 mGy. Elevated non-CLL risks were observed from exposures occurring 6–14 years prior to attained age of cases (ERR per 100 mGy=1.9; 95% CI <0 to 8.0). Lagged models indicated non-linearity of risk at very low (<10 mGy) and high (>100 mGy) doses, which contributed to the imprecision of results in linear models. Similar risk attenuation was not evident in time-windows-based models. Conclusions Risk estimates were in reasonable agreement with previous estimates, with the temporality of non-CLL leukaemia risk as a dominant factor in dose-response analyses. Future research should focus on methods that improve evaluations of the dose-response, particularly in the low-dose range. PMID:23000827

  11. The long-term effects of acute exposure to ionising radiation on survival and fertility in Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Sarapultseva, Elena I; Dubrova, Yuri E

    2016-10-01

    The results of recent studies have provided strong evidence for the transgenerational effects of parental exposure to ionising radiation and chemical mutagens. However, the transgenerational effects of parental exposure on survival and fertility remain poorly understood. To establish whether parental irradiation can affect the survival and fertility of directly exposed organisms and their offspring, crustacean Daphnia magna were given 10, 100, 1000 and 10,000mGy of acute γ-rays. Exposure to 1000 and 10,000mGy significantly compromised the viability of irradiated Daphnia and their first-generation progeny, but did not affect the second-generation progeny. The fertility of F0 and F1Daphnia gradually declined with the dose of parental exposure and significantly decreased at dose of 100mGy and at higher doses. The effects of parental irradiation on the number of broods were only observed among the F0Daphnia exposed to 1000 and 10,000mGy, whereas the brood size was equally affected in the two consecutive generations. In contrast, the F2 total fertility was compromised only among progeny of parents that received the highest dose of 10,000mGy. We propose that the decreased fertility observed among the F2 progeny of parents exposed to 10,000mGy is attributed to transgenerational effects of parental irradiation. Our results also indicate a substantial recovery of the F2 progeny of irradiated F0Daphnia exposed to the lower doses of acute γ-rays. PMID:27288911

  12. Chromosome instability of HPRT-mutant subclones induced by ionising radiation of various let

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govorun, R. D.; Koshlan, I. V.; Koshlan, N. A.; Krasavin, E. A.; Shmakova, N. L.

    The induction of HPRT-mutations and survival of Chinese hamster cells (line B11ii-FAF28, clone 431) were studied after irradiation by 4He and 12C-ions of various LET (20 - 360 keV/μm), produced by the U-200 heavy ion accelerator. The RBE increases with LET up to the maximum at 100-200 keV/μm and then decreases. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on the HPRT-mutant subclones selected from unirradiated Chinese hamster V-79 cells and from HPRT- mutant subclones that arose after exposure to γ-rays, 1GeV protons and 14N-ions (LET - 77 keV/μm), produced by the synchrophasotron and the U-400M heavy ion accelerator. Slow growing mutant subclones were observed. The cytogenetic properties of individual clones were highly heterogeneous and chromosome instability was observed in both spontaneous and radiation-induced mutants. Chromosome instability was highest among spontaneous mutants and decreased with increasing LET.

  13. Determination of methemoglobin in human blood after ionising radiation by EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polakovs, M.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Pavlenko, A.; Aboltins, A.

    2015-03-01

    In the present work presents results of investigations of radiation influence on blood of patients examined by radio-isotopes diagnosis (Tc99m), blood of Chernobyl clean-up workers and human blood irradiated by LINAC using Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR). The EPR spectroscopy reveals information on electronic states of transition metal ions, particularly Fe3+ in different spin states. It is shown that EPR spectra of blood of patients before examination has signal from metal-protein transferrin (g=4.3) and after administration of radioisotope proves signal of Fe3+ (methemaglobin) in the high spin state (g=6.0). The EPR spectra of Chernobyl liquidator display number of signals including low and high state of ion Fe3+ (g = 2.0 and g=6.0), and transferrin (g=4.3). The EPR spectra of irradiated human blood by LINAC (linear accelerator) have only signal Fe3+ (methemaglobin) in low-spin state with g = 2.0.

  14. Risk of cancer from occupational exposure to ionising radiation: retrospective cohort study of workers in France, the United Kingdom, and the United States (INWORKS)

    PubMed Central

    Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O’Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Leuraud, Klervi; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Study question Is protracted exposure to low doses of ionising radiation associated with an increased risk of solid cancer? Methods In this cohort study, 308 297 workers in the nuclear industry from France, the United Kingdom, and the United States with detailed monitoring data for external exposure to ionising radiation were linked to death registries. Excess relative rate per Gy of radiation dose for mortality from cancer was estimated. Follow-up encompassed 8.2 million person years. Of 66 632 known deaths by the end of follow-up, 17 957 were due to solid cancers. Study answer and limitations Results suggest a linear increase in the rate of cancer with increasing radiation exposure. The average cumulative colon dose estimated among exposed workers was 20.9 mGy (median 4.1 mGy). The estimated rate of mortality from all cancers excluding leukaemia increased with cumulative dose by 48% per Gy (90% confidence interval 20% to 79%), lagged by 10 years. Similar associations were seen for mortality from all solid cancers (47% (18% to 79%)), and within each country. The estimated association over the dose range of 0-100 mGy was similar in magnitude to that obtained over the entire dose range but less precise. Smoking and occupational asbestos exposure are potential confounders; however, exclusion of deaths from lung cancer and pleural cancer did not affect the estimated association. Despite substantial efforts to characterise the performance of the radiation dosimeters used, the possibility of measurement error remains. What this study adds The study provides a direct estimate of the association between protracted low dose exposure to ionising radiation and solid cancer mortality. Although high dose rate exposures are thought to be more dangerous than low dose rate exposures, the risk per unit of radiation dose for cancer among radiation workers was similar to estimates derived from studies of Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Quantifying the cancer risks associated

  15. Ionising radiation and risk of death from leukaemia and lymphoma in radiation-monitored workers (INWORKS): an international cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Leuraud, Klervi; Richardson, David B; Cardis, Elisabeth; Daniels, Robert D; Gillies, Michael; O'Hagan, Jacqueline A; Hamra, Ghassan B; Haylock, Richard; Laurier, Dominique; Moissonnier, Monika; Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Thierry-Chef, Isabelle; Kesminiene, Ausrele

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background There is much uncertainty about the risks of leukaemia and lymphoma after repeated or protracted low-dose radiation exposure typical of occupational, environmental, and diagnostic medical settings. We quantified associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposures and leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma mortality among radiation-monitored adults employed in France, the UK, and the USA. Methods We assembled a cohort of 308 297 radiation-monitored workers employed for at least 1 year by the Atomic Energy Commission, AREVA Nuclear Cycle, or the National Electricity Company in France, the Departments of Energy and Defence in the USA, and nuclear industry employers included in the National Registry for Radiation Workers in the UK. The cohort was followed up for a total of 8·22 million person-years. We ascertained deaths caused by leukaemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. We used Poisson regression to quantify associations between estimated red bone marrow absorbed dose and leukaemia and lymphoma mortality. Findings Doses were accrued at very low rates (mean 1·1 mGy per year, SD 2·6). The excess relative risk of leukaemia mortality (excluding chronic lymphocytic leukaemia) was 2·96 per Gy (90% CI 1·17–5·21; lagged 2 years), most notably because of an association between radiation dose and mortality from chronic myeloid leukaemia (excess relative risk per Gy 10·45, 90% CI 4·48–19·65). Interpretation This study provides strong evidence of positive associations between protracted low-dose radiation exposure and leukaemia. Funding Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare of Japan, Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire, AREVA, Electricité de France, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, US Department of Energy, US Department of Health and Human Services, University of North Carolina, Public Health England. PMID:26436129

  16. Association between Perchlorate and indirect indicators of thyroid dysfunction in NHANES 2001-2002, a Cross-Sectional, Hypothesis-Generating Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A previous study observed associations of urinary perchlorate with thyroid hormones based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002. Increased levels of urinary perchlorate were associated with increased levels of thyroid stimulating h...

  17. NOVEL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN URINARY PERCHLORATE AND POTENTIALLY RELEVANT EFFECTS ON RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE BASED ON NHANES 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate is a widespread environmental pollutant, and is a thyroid hormone disruptor. A previous population study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002 database showed that urinary perchlorate concentrations were associated with signi...

  18. Yakima Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity : Progress Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gayeski, Nick

    2002-09-30

    Sample collections in project-years two and three (2001 & 2002) proceeded as planned. Twenty-eight (28) sites were sampled in 2001 between August 14 and September 12. Sites included two (2) mainstem Yakima River sites between Selah Gap and Union Gap, three (3) Yakima river sites upstream of Roza Dam, and three (3) mainstem Naches River sites between Cliffdell and the Wapatox Canal. The other twenty sites were tributary sites, including the Cle Elum River below Cle Elum Lake, lower Bumping river, and the American River at Pleasant Valley. Six (6) tributaries of second to fourth order were sampled at or near the same location at which they were sampled in 2000, as were two sites on the upper mainstem Yakima and one on the mainstem Naches. Thirty-three (33) sites were sampled in 2002 between August 12 and September 13. These included one (1) mainstem Yakima River site between Selah Gap and Union Gap, four (4) sites in the mainstem Yakima upstream of Roza Dam, and two (2) sites on the mainstem Naches between Naches and Cliffdell. The other twenty-six (26) sites were tributary sites, including one (1) site on the lower Tieton river, three (3) sites on the Bumping River (two downstream of Bumping Reservoir and one upstream), and two sites on the American River. Four (4) other sites were on smaller tributaries to the mainstem Naches, three (3) of which had been sampled in one (1) of the two preceding years, and one (1) (upper Rattlesnake Creek) that has been sampled in all three (3) years. Two (2) tributary sites in the upper Ahtanum subbasin were sampled, one (1) of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which has been sampled in all three (3) years. One tributary (lower Wenas Creek) to the mainstem Yakima upstream of Selah Gap and downstream of Roza Dam was sampled. This was also sampled in 2001. Thirteen (13) sites were sampled in tributaries to the upper Yakima River, including two in the Teanaway subbasin one of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which

  19. Occurrence, distribution and transport of pesticides into the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, L.A.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Salton Sea is a hypersaline lake located in southeastern California. Concerns over the ecological impacts of sediment quality and potential human exposure to dust emissions from exposed lakebed sediments resulting from anticipated shrinking of shoreline led to a study of pesticide distribution and transport within the Salton Sea Basin, California, in 2001-2002. Three sampling stations-upriver, river mouth, and offshore-were established along each of the three major rivers that discharge into the Salton Sea. Large-volume water samples were collected for analysis of pesticides in water and suspended sediments at the nine sampling stations. Samples of the bottom sediment were also collected at each site for pesticide analysis. Sampling occurred in October 2001, March-April 2002, and October 2002, coinciding with the regional fall and spring peaks in pesticide use in the heavily agricultural watershed. Fourteen current-use pesticides were detected in water and the majority of dissolved concentrations ranged from the limits of detection to 151 ng/l. Diazinon, EPTC and malathion were detected at much higher concentrations (940-3,830 ng/l) at the New and Alamo River upriver and near-shore stations. Concentrations of carbaryl, dacthal, diazinon, and EPTC were higher in the two fall sampling periods, whereas concentrations of atrazine, carbofuran, and trifluralin were higher during the spring, which matched seasonal use patterns of these pesticides. Current-use pesticides were also detected on suspended and bed sediments in concentrations ranging from detection limits to 106 ng/g. Chlorpyrifos, dacthal, EPTC, trifluralin, and DDE were the most frequently detected pesticides on sediments from all three rivers. The number of detections and concentrations of suspended sediment-associated pesticides were often similar for the river upriver and near-shore sites, consistent with downstream transport of pesticides via suspended sediment. While detectable suspended sediment

  20. Evaluation of the Impact of the Webster-Stratton Parent-Child Videotape Series on Participants in a Midlands Town in 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manby, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Small groups of parents experiencing problems in managing the behaviour of young children took part in parenting programmes in a Midlands city in 2001-2002 based on the Webster Stratton Parent-Child Videotape Series. Programmes were evaluated using standardised measures and qualitative data. Most participants who completed the programme (N = 29)…

  1. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results from the 2001?2002 Private School Universe Survey. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Steven P.; Pugh, Kathleen W.

    2004-01-01

    This report on the 2001-2002 Private School Universe presents data on private schools in the United States with grades kindergarten through twelve by selected characteristics such as school size, school level, religious orientation, association membership, geographic region, community type, and program emphasis. The number of teachers and students…

  2. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  3. [The epidemic of dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2001/2002].

    PubMed

    Casali, Clarisse Guimarães; Pereira, Marcelo Ricardo Reis; Santos, Luciana Maria Jabor Garcia; Passos, Maíla Naves Pereira; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Ortiz Valencia, Luis Iván; Alexandre, Aline de Jesus; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2004-01-01

    The following study was intended to evaluate the occurrence of typical signs and symptoms in the cases of classic dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever, during the 2001-2002 epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The authors reviewed 155,242 cases notified to the Information System of Notification Diseases, from January/2001 to June/2002: 81,327 cases were classified as classic dengue and 958 as hemorrhagic dengue fever, with a total of 60 deaths. Common symptoms, such as fever, headache, prostration, myalgia, nausea and retro-orbital pain, had a high incidence in both classic and hemorrhagic dengue fever. On the other hand, hemorrhagic signs and other signs of severe disease, such as shock, gastrointestinal bleeding, petechiae, epistaxis, abdominal pain and pleural effusion, were strongly associated to hemorrhagic dengue fever. Besides, the occurrence of death was 34.8 times higher in hemorrhagic dengue fever than in classic dengue (OR = 34.8; CI 19.7-61.3).

  4. [Reliability of the final dengue diagnosis in the epidemic occurring in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001-2002].

    PubMed

    Toledo, Ana Lucia Araujo de; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Andrade, Flávia Coutinho de

    2006-05-01

    This study analyzed the reliability of the final diagnosis in the 155,242 dengue reports during the 2001-2002 epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the official information system on communicable diseases (SINAN). The system allows the following options for the final diagnosis: classic dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever, discarded, inconclusive, and unknown. We built a classification routine in Epi Info to compare the final diagnosis from SINAN with Ministry of Health criteria. According to the final diagnosis, the case breakdown was: 52.4% classic dengue; 0.6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; 0.9% discarded; 46% inconclusive and unknown. The revised diagnosis showed that 78% of classic dengue, 69% of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 21.1% of discarded cases met the classification criteria. Although the reliability of the SINAN final diagnosis was generally satisfactory (kappa = 0.681; 95%CI: 0.685-0.677), it was worse for fatal cases (kappa = 0.152; 95%CI: 0.046-0.258). Considering the epidemic's magnitude, the final diagnosis of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever was satisfactory, but the high proportion of inconclusive or unknown cases and the poor quality of information for fatal cases limit the usefulness of SINAN in this context.

  5. 2001-2002 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor County Consulting on behalf of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed wet season surveys for listed branchiopods at Site 300, located in eastern Alameda County and western San Joaquin County. LLNL is collecting information for the preparation of an EIS covering ongoing explosives testing and related activities on Site 300. Related activities include maintenance of fire roads and annual control burns of approximately 607 hectares (1500 acres). Control burns typically take place on the northern portion of the site. Because natural branchiopod habitat is sparse on Site 300, it is not surprising that listed branchiopods were not observed during this 2001-2002 wet season survey. Although the site is large, a majority of it has topography and geology that precludes the formation of static seasonal pools. Even the relatively gentle topography of the northern half of the site contains few areas where water pools for more than two weeks. The rock outcrops found on the site did not provide suitable habitat for listed branchiopods. Most of the habitat available to branchiopods on the site is puddles that form in roadbeds and dry quickly. The one persistent pool on the site, the larger of the two modified vernal pools and the only one to fill this season, is occupied by two branchiopod species that require long-lived pools to reach maturity. In short, there is little habitat available on the site for branchiopods and most of the habitat present is generally too short-lived to support the branchiopod species that do occur at Site 300.

  6. Introduction, audit and review of guidelines for delegated authorization of nuclear medicine investigations in compliance with the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000.

    PubMed

    Harris, A M; Greaves, C D; Taylor, C M; Taylor, C; Segasby, C A; Tindale, W B

    2003-08-01

    The introduction of the Ionising Radiation (Medical Exposure) Regulations 2000 in Great Britain required every nuclear medicine investigation to be justified by a practitioner holding an appropriate Administration of Radioactive Substances Committee (ARSAC) certificate. The task of authorizing the radiation exposure may be performed by the practitioner (direct authorization) or delegated to an appropriately trained operator working to written guidelines approved by the practitioner (delegated authorization). In this study, we look at the process of implementation, audit and review of a set of Delegated Authorization Guidelines (DAG). The process of drafting the DAG is outlined. Following the introduction of the DAG, an audit of nuclear medicine referrals was performed at two sites for a period of 3 months. Each referral was compared with the DAG to determine whether it matched the criteria set out. If it did not match, it was further categorized as being due to: (1) insufficient referral information; or (2) clinical indication not included in the DAG. All non-matching requests were reviewed by the practitioner. Four hundred and thirty-seven of 632 (69%) referrals fitted the DAG, 12% (n=75) required clarification from the referrer before fitting with the criteria and 19% (n=120) were directly authorized by the practitioner. From those referrals that were directly authorized, some additional indications were identified and the DAG were subsequently revised. In conclusion, a delegated authorization procedure for nuclear medicine investigations can be implemented successfully. Regular audit is essential. This study identified the need to improve the format of the request card and to obtain additional referral information from the referrer.

  7. The assessment of ionising radiation impact on the cooling pond freshwater ecosystem non-human biota from the Ignalina NPP operation beginning to shut down and initial decommissioning.

    PubMed

    Mazeika, J; Marciulioniene, D; Nedveckaite, T; Jefanova, O

    2016-01-01

    The radiological doses to non-human biota of freshwater ecosystem in the Ignalina NPP cooling pond - Lake Druksiai were evaluated for several cases including the plant's operation period and initial decommissioning activities, using the ERICA 1.2 code with IAEA SRS-19 models integrated approach and tool. Among the Lake Druksiai freshwater ecosystem reference organisms investigated the highest exposure dose rate was determined for bottom fauna - benthic organisms (mollusc-bivalves, crustaceans, mollusc-gastropods, insect larvae), and among the other reference organisms - for vascular plants. The mean and maximum total dose rate values due to anthropogenic radionuclide ionising radiation impact in all investigated cases were lower than the ERICA screening dose rate value of 10 μGy/h. The main exposure of reference organisms as a result of Ignalina NPP former effluent to Lake Druksiai is due to ionizing radiation of radionuclides (60)Co and (137)Cs, of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai during initial decommissioning period - due to radionuclides (60)Co, (134)Cs and (137)Cs, and as a result of predicted releases to Lake Druksiai from low- and intermediate-level short-lived radioactive waste disposal site in 30-100 year period - due to radionuclides (99)Tc and (3)H. The risk quotient expected values in all investigated cases were <1, and therefore the risk to non-human biota can be considered negligible with the exception of a conservative risk quotient for insect larvae. Radiological protection of non-human biota in Lake Druksiai, the Ignalina NPP cooling pond, is both feasible and acceptable. PMID:26397747

  8. A new approach to studying the effects of ionising radiation on single cells using FTIR synchrotron microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipiec, E.; Birarda, G.; Kowalska, J.; Lekki, J.; Vaccari, L.; Wiecheć, A.; Wood, B. R.; Kwiatek, W. M.

    2013-12-01

    The effect of ionizing radiation on single cells using a proton source was investigated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy. The prostate cancer cells (DU-145) were irradiated by a specific number (50, 200, 400, 2000 and 4000) of protons per cell. Next after fixing the cells with 70% ethanol micro-FTIR spectra were obtained using both: (a) the synchrotron radiation source with a Mercury-Cadmium-Telluride (MCT) detector and (b) a globar source with a focal plane array (FPA) detector. FTIR spectra obtained from both instrumental configurations were analyzed independently to investigate the changes in the DNA phosphodiester region (1150-950 cm-1) of irradiated and control (untreated by ionizing radiation) cells. A Principal Component Analysis (PCA) scores plot revealed distinct clusters for all groups of irradiated cells, even for those irradiated by the smallest dose of protons. The dose-dependent changes in the relative intensities of DNA peak at 970 cm-1 (ribose-phosphate skeletal motions), along with a shift of the O-P-O band corresponding to the symmetric phosphodiester stretching mode at 1090 cm-1 were observed. The results demonstrate that FTIR spectroscopy is a promising tool to investigate DNA damage in single cells and may become an important tool in assessing cell damage following radiotherapy.

  9. Assessing the performance under ionising radiation of lead tungstate scintillators for EM calorimetry in the CLAS12 Forward Tagger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fegan, S.; Auffray, E.; Battaglieri, M.; Buchanan, E.; Caiffi, B.; Celentano, A.; Colaneri, L.; D`Angelo, A.; De Vita, R.; Dormenev, V.; Fanchini, E.; Lanza, L.; Novotny, R. W.; Parodi, F.; Rizzo, A.; Sokhan, D.; Tarasov, I.; Zonta, I.

    2015-07-01

    The well-established technology of electromagnetic calorimetry using Lead Tungstate crystals has recently seen an upheaval, with the closure of one of the most experienced large-scale suppliers of such crystals, the Bogoroditsk Technical Chemical Plant (BTCP), which was instrumental in the development of mass production procedures for PWO-II, the current benchmark for this scintillator. Obtaining alternative supplies of Lead Tungstate crystals matching the demanding specifications of contemporary calorimeter devices now presents a significant challenge to detector research and development programmes. In this paper we describe a programme of assessment carried out for the selection, based upon the performance under irradiation, of Lead Tungstate crystals for use in the Forward Tagger device, part of the CLAS12 detector in Hall B at Jefferson Lab. The crystals tested were acquired from SICCAS, the Shanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. The tests performed are intended to maximise the performance of the detector within the practicalities of the crystal manufacturing process. Results of light transmission, before and after gamma ray irradiation, are presented and used to calculate dk, the induced radiation absorption coefficient, at 420 nm, the peak of the Lead Tungstate emission spectrum. Results for the SICCAS crystals are compared with identical measurements carried out on Bogoroditsk samples, which were acquired for the Forward Tagger development program before the closure of the facility. Also presented are a series of tests performed to determine the feasibility of recovering radiation damage to the crystals using illumination from an LED, with such illumination available in the Forward Tagger from a light monitoring system integral to the detector.

  10. Assessment of Fish Habitat, Water Quality, and Selected Contaminants in Streambed Sediments in Noyes Slough, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Burrows, Robert L.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled streambed sediment at 23 sites, measured water quality at 26 sites, and assessed fish habitat for the entire length of Noyes Slough, a 5.5-mile slough of the Chena River in Fairbanks, Alaska. These studies were undertaken to document the environmental condition of the slough and to provide information to the public for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions of the waterway. The availability of physical habitat for fish in the slough does not appear to be limited, although some beaver dams and shallow water may restrict movement, particularly during low flow. Elevated water temperatures in summer and low dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the principle factors adversely affecting water quality in Noyes Slough. Increased flow mitigated poor water-quality conditions and reduced the number of possible fish barriers. Flow appears to be the most prominent mechanism shaping water quality and fish habitat in Noyes Slough. Streambed sediment samples collected at 23 sites in 2001 were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, lead, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceed probable effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. The background concentration for arsenic in Noyes Slough is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of the zinc and lead contamination are uncertain, however both lead and zinc are common urban contaminants. Streambed-sediment samples from 12 sites in 2002 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The concentration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate of 2,600 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg) for one sample from the site above Aurora Drive approached the aquatic-life criterion of 2,650 ?g/kg. Low concentrations of p-cresol, chrysene, and fluoranthene were detected in most of the sediment samples. The

  11. Preliminary Results of Aster Imagery Application To The Glaciated Regions of Russia (2001-2002) In Frame of Glims Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, G.; Glazovsky, A.; Kotlyakov, V.

    GLIMS project (Global Land Ice Measurement from Space) aims to apply the space images for glacier monitoring for 6-year period of ASTER (scanning radiometer) op- eration installed on the STerraT orbital platform. One of the Regional Center (RC16) & cedil;of the GLIMS has been established in the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and it is responsible for the glaciated areas in Russian Arctic, the Urals, the Caucasus, Siberian mountains, Kamchatka, Altay (including Mongolian part), mountains in southern Kazakhstan. Wide variety of geographical environment and glacial types allows to assess the applicability of ASTER data for different geo- graphical settings and glaciological tasks. The first object of the project is to create a base digital maps of current glacier state and first of all glacier margins, therefore the problem of extraction of these features from ASTER images is of prime impor- tance. Our study concerns with the following topics: assessment of image coverage of different glacier regions in Russia for different seasons, cloudiness, and illumina- tion conditions; analysis of spatial and spectral resolution to interpret the margins and surface morphology of glaciers of different types in various regions. ASTER mission for the period 2001-2002 covered practically all glaciated regions of Russia. However unfavorable cloudiness conditions are rather common and increase northward. That re- duces greatly the number of suitable images. In addition the number of images made in optimal season limits the total useful coverage. Finally some glaciated areas such as the Urals, Suntar-Khayata and some other mountains are not yet available. Use- ful amount of images makes ca. 5 per cent from total. Multi-band option of ASTER data improves the interpretation of glacial features, such as snow line and glacier sur- face topography. High spatial resolution allows to extract the margins of different-type glaciers, and, first of all of polar and

  12. Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adélie penguins along the Western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Eric S.; Ribic, Christine A.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-07-01

    In accord with the hypotheses driving the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SO GLOBEC) program, we tested the hypothesis that the winter foraging ecology of a major top predator in waters off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae), is constrained by oceanographic features related to the physiography of the region. This hypothesis grew from the supposition that breeding colonies in the WAP during summer are located adjacent to areas of complex bathymetry where circulation and upwelling processes appear to ensure predictable food resources. Therefore, we tested the additional hypothesis that these areas continue to contribute to the foraging strategy of this species throughout the non-breeding winter season. We used satellite telemetry data collected as part of the SO GLOBEC program during the austral winters of 2001 and 2002 to characterize individual penguin foraging locations in relation to bathymetry, sea ice variability within the pack ice, and wind velocity and divergence (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads). We also explored differences between males and females in core foraging area overlap. Ocean depth was the most influential variable in the determination of foraging location, with most birds focusing their effort on shallow (<200 m) waters near land and on mixed-layer (200-500 m) waters near the edge of deep troughs. Within-ice variability and wind (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads) were not found to be influential variables, which is likely because of the low resolution satellite imagery and model outputs that were available. Throughout the study period, all individuals maintained a core foraging area separated from other individuals with very little overlap. However, from a year with light sea ice to one with heavy ice cover (2001-2002), we observed an increase in the overlap of individual female foraging areas with those of other birds, likely due to

  13. Non-equilibrium calcium ionisation in the solar atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, S.; Carlsson, M.

    2011-04-01

    Context. The chromosphere of the Sun is a temporally and spatially very varying medium for which the assumption of ionisation equilibrium is questionable. Aims: Our aim is to determine the dominant processes and timescales for the ionisation equilibrium of calcium under solar chromospheric conditions. Methods: The study is based on numerical simulations with the RADYN code, which combines hydrodynamics with a detailed solution of the radiative transfer equation. The calculations include a detailed non-equilibrium treatment of hydrogen, calcium, and helium. Next to an hour long simulation sequence, additional simulations are produced, for which the stratification is slightly perturbed so that a ionisation relaxation timescale can be determined. The simulations are characterised by upwards propagating shock waves, which cause strong temperature fluctuations and variations of the (non-equilibrium) ionisation degree of calcium. Results: The passage of a hot shock front leads to a strong net ionisation of Ca II, rapidly followed by net recombination. The relaxation timescale of the calcium ionisation state is found to be of the order of a few seconds at the top of the photosphere and 10 to 30 s in the upper chromosphere. At heights around 1 Mm, we find typical values around 60 s and in extreme cases up to ~150 s. Generally, the timescales are significantly reduced in the wakes of ubiquitous hot shock fronts. The timescales can be reliably determined from a simple analysis of the eigenvalues of the transition rate matrix. The timescales are dominated by the radiative recombination from Ca III into the metastable Ca II energy levels of the 4d 2D term. These transitions depend strongly on the density of free electrons and therefore on the (non-equilibrium) ionisation degree of hydrogen, which is the main electron donor. Conclusions: The ionisation/recombination timescales derived here are too long for the assumption of an instantaneous ionisation equilibrium to be valid

  14. [Attempted assessment of the incidence and cost of surgical treatment of inginal hernias in Poland in the years 2001-2002].

    PubMed

    Pierściński, Stanisław; Szopinśki, Jacek; Szmytkowski, Jakub; Dabrowiecki, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the incidence and treatment cost of inguinal hernias in Poland is made difficult by the lack of a central data registry and insufficient accuracy of the data available. Therefore, research was undertaken in order to evaluate the incidence and cost of inguinal hernia treatment in the years 2001-2002 in Poland. Survey-derived data was collected from Regional Health Funds operating similar data management systems in 2002 and the Regional Branches of the National Health Fund in 2003. The number of inguinal hernia repairs, length of hospital stay, as well as the cost of these procedures and the overall number of insured people in the region were assessed. Data was obtained from 11 units (Regional Health Funds, Branches of the National Health Fund). The length of hospital stay differed between individual Regional Health Funds. The annual cost of inguinal hernia treatment amounts to approximately 100 million PLN.

  15. Dengue hemorrhagic Fever caused by sequential dengue 1-3 virus infections over a long time interval: Havana epidemic, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Mayling; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Bernardo, Lídice; Vázquez, Susana; Morier, Luis; Gonzalez, Daniel; Castro, Osvaldo; Kouri, Gustavo; Halstead, Scott B; Guzman, Maria G

    2006-12-01

    A dengue epidemic caused by dengue virus 3 (DENV-3) occurred in Cuba in 2001-2002. It included cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). We report neutralizing antibody studies on sera from 54 of 78 DHF/DSS patients that provide evidence of infections occurring in the sequence DENV-1 followed by DENV-3. No sera showed infection in the sequence DENV-2 followed by DENV-3. Some sera showed a pattern of infection in the sequence DENV-1 followed by DENV-2 and then DENV-3. However definitive categorization of a tertiary infection was not possible because of broadly reactive antibodies, which could have been raised by infections in the sequence DENV-1 then DENV-3.

  16. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: < 50, 50-69, > =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  17. Positron impact ionisation phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moxom, J.

    A magnetically guided beam of nearly-monoenergetic slow positrons has been used to study positron impact ionisation phenomena in gases. A novel hemispherical scattering cell incorporating an efficient ion extraction and detection system has been developed and has been utilised throughout this work. The energy spectra for the electrons ejected around 0° relative to the incident beam, following positron impact ionisation of Ar, have been measured by a time-of-flight method and a retarding electric field analyzer. The angular acceptance of the electron detection system has been estimated and used to compare the measured spectra with the double differential cross-sections calculated by Mandal et al (1986), Sil et al (1991) and Schultz and Reinhold (1990). The importance of the electron-capture-to-the-continuum process is discussed in this context and found to be minor at small forward angles, in contrast to the case of heavy positively charged projectiles. The apparatus was modified to produce a pulsed beam of slow positrons and utilised to measure in detail the total ionisation cross-section (Qt+) for a variety of atomic and molecular targets. For Ar, He and H2, Qt+ which includes contributions from Ps formation, has been subtracted from corresponding total cross-sections, in order to deduce the behaviour of the elastic scattering cross-section (Qel) in the vicinity of the Ps formation threshold (Eps). Here a small change in the gradient of Qel, has been found. The energy dependencies of the Qt+ for He, Ne and Ar, close to Eps have been interpreted in terms of threshold theory. In the case of Ar the outgoing Ps appears to be predominantly s-wave in character. For He and Ne the analysis suggests that the Ps contains significant contributions from a number of partial waves. In the case of O 2, structure in Qt+ has been found, which is attributed to coupling between two inelastic channels, namely Ps formation and excitation to the Schuman-Runge continuum.

  18. Learning for Life: The Role of Adult Literacy and Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being. Executive Summary of the ALNARC National Research Program, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue; Searle, Jean; Falk, Ian; Johnston, Betty; Ovens, Carolyn; Riddell, Christine

    In 2001-2002, the Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium conducted 26 national investigations with findings in the following areas: (1) population competence; (2) linking literacy and numeracy into training; (3) professional support for educators and trainers; and (4) policy and systemic issues. All the projects were intended…

  19. Ionised Iron Lines in X-ray Reflection Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, D. R.; Ross, R. R.; Fabian, A. C.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from new calculations of the reflected X-ray spectrum from ionised accretion disks in Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). These calculations improve on our previous models by including the condition of hydrostatic balance in the vertical direction, following the work of Nayakshin, Kazanas & Kallman (2000). Our results show that, for gas pressure dominated accretion discs, ionised iron features are found in the reflection spectrum over a range of conditions. We also explore extending our results into radiation pressure dominated discs, and discuss the limitations of the current models.

  20. Aseismic magma supply inferred from geodetic Finite Element inversions: the case of the 2001-2002 non-eruptive unrest at Cotopaxi volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Jo; Mothes, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The complex interplay between magma supply, storage and transportation, and how these processes interact with the host rock dictate the unrest signals we observe at the surface. Mechanical modelling allows us to link our recorded geophysical signals to subsurface processes and constrain a causative mechanism. We carry out this analysis for the 2001-2002 non-eruptive unrest episode at Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador. During this period the volcano underwent a general inflation of its iconic edifice, recorded by an Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) network, and was accompanied by increased seismicity beneath the north-east flank. To solve for the optimum deformation source parameters we use an inverse Finite Element method accounting for subsurface material heterogeneity and surface topography. The model solutions favour a shallow source beneath the south-west flank, in contradiction to the seismicity locations in the north-east. The best-fit deformation model is a small, oblate shaped source approximately 1 km above sea level with a 20 x 106 m3 volume increase. To reconcile the deformation and seismicity simultaneously further Finite Element models were employed, incorporating an additional temperature-dependent rheology. These were used to assess the viscosity of the host rock surrounding the source. By comparing the elastic and viscous timescales associated with a small magma intrusion (implied by the best-fit deformation source in the south-west), we can infer this process occurred aseismically. To explain the recorded seismicity in the north-east we propose a mechanism of fluid migration from the south-west to the north-east along fault systems. Our analysis further shows that if future unrest crises are accompanied by measurable seismicity around the deformation source, this could indicate a higher magma supply rate and a critical level of unrest with increased likelihood of a forthcoming eruption. This research received funding through the EC FP7 "VUELCO" (#282759

  1. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the

  2. Comprehensive data on ionising radiation from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the town of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture: The Misho Project.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Suzuki, Y; Genyu, S; Kobayashi, I; Komori, H; Otsu, H; Sakuma, H; Sakuma, K; Sarausad, E M; Shimada, K; Shinozuka, T; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, T O

    2014-09-01

    Data related to radioactivity released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 15 March 2011 gathered by residents of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture, and by Tohoku University are presented. These data sets consist of (1) the earliest radiation monitoring by a Geiger counter in the town, (2) ratios of radioactivity between (132)Te and (137)Cs for a wide area between Fukushima and Tokyo, (3) radiation measurement of soil samples collected from 18 school grounds, and (4) external radiation exposure of 1400 students using OSL badges. By combining and analysing these various data sets, a curve for the cumulative total external exposure as a function of time, with 16 : 00 h on 15 March 2011 being time zero, is obtained. The average cumulative external dosage is estimated to be 10 mSv (σ = 4.2 mSv) over 10 years. In addition, the initiative that the residents of Miharu took in response to the FDNPP accident, which became known as The Misho Project (MP), is documented; in particular, the time at which the municipality instructed the immediate ingestion of iodine tablets by those under the age of 40, 13 : 00 h on 15 March 2011, is assessed.

  3. Comprehensive data on ionising radiation from Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in the town of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture: The Misho Project.

    PubMed

    Koike, T; Suzuki, Y; Genyu, S; Kobayashi, I; Komori, H; Otsu, H; Sakuma, H; Sakuma, K; Sarausad, E M; Shimada, K; Shinozuka, T; Tamura, H; Tsukada, K; Ukai, M; Yamamoto, T O

    2014-09-01

    Data related to radioactivity released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident on 15 March 2011 gathered by residents of Miharu, Fukushima Prefecture, and by Tohoku University are presented. These data sets consist of (1) the earliest radiation monitoring by a Geiger counter in the town, (2) ratios of radioactivity between (132)Te and (137)Cs for a wide area between Fukushima and Tokyo, (3) radiation measurement of soil samples collected from 18 school grounds, and (4) external radiation exposure of 1400 students using OSL badges. By combining and analysing these various data sets, a curve for the cumulative total external exposure as a function of time, with 16 : 00 h on 15 March 2011 being time zero, is obtained. The average cumulative external dosage is estimated to be 10 mSv (σ = 4.2 mSv) over 10 years. In addition, the initiative that the residents of Miharu took in response to the FDNPP accident, which became known as The Misho Project (MP), is documented; in particular, the time at which the municipality instructed the immediate ingestion of iodine tablets by those under the age of 40, 13 : 00 h on 15 March 2011, is assessed. PMID:25125455

  4. Epidemiological studies of Fukushima residents exposed to ionising radiation from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant prefecture--a preliminary review of current plans.

    PubMed

    Akiba, Suminori

    2012-03-01

    It is now more than six months since the beginning of the accident on 11 March 2011 at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant in Japan. The Japanese government and local health authorities have started to collect the information necessary to estimate radiation doses received by those living in the area around the plant, drafted plans for the health care of residents, and started to implement some of them. This paper reviews and discusses the studies necessary for risk evaluation of cancer and non-cancer diseases, including those already planned, mainly from the view point of evaluating health risk using epidemiological approaches. In the long run, it is important to establish a cohort with a control group. Even if the cumulative doses are estimated to be so low that it is difficult to evaluate the risk of cancer and non-cancer diseases, it is necessary to conduct such a study to reassure residents. The health care programme of the Fukushima Prefecture government, including health check-ups of residents, will help to assess indirect effects of radiation exposure, including psychological problems. The success of any studies of radiation epidemiology depends on the collection of accurate information on radiation doses received by the study subjects. However, some of the dosimetry surveys were not conducted in a timely manner. (It should be recognised, though, that such a problem might have been inevitable, considering the chaotic condition after the nuclear accident.) Accurate estimation of the radiation dose received by each resident is not only important for scientific risk evaluation but also to inform each resident about his or her potential risk. Otherwise, residents will bear an undue psychological burden from uncertainties regarding their radiation exposure and its health consequences. One of other important tasks in Fukushima is the improvement of the quality of the regional cancer registry in this prefecture. It is also important to start thyroid cancer

  5. Monitoring radiation belt particle precipitation - automatic detection of enhanced transient ionisation in the lower plasmasphere using subionospheric narrow band VLF signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinbach, P.; Lichtenberger, J.; Ferencz, Cs.

    2009-04-01

    Signals of naval VLF transmitters, propagating long distances along the Earth-ionosphere waveguide (EIWG) have been widely applied as effective tools for monitoring transient ionization at mesospheric altitudes. Perturbations in recorded amplitude and/or phase data series of stable frequency signals may refer to the effect of transient enhanced ionization in the EIWG, due to e.g. loss-cone precipitation of trapped energetic electrons (Carpenter et al., 1984, Dowden and Adams, 1990), burst of solar plasma particles (Clilverd et al., 2001). The contribution of precipitating particles are thought to be substantial in certain Sun-to-Earth energy flow processes in the upper atmosphere (Rodger et al., 2005). Narrow band VLF measuring network has been set up, developed and operated in Hungary, running in the last decade almost continuously, dedicated to monitor ionization enhancement regions along numerous transmitter-receiver paths. This setup is based on Omnipal and Ultra-MSK equipment, logging amplitude and phase data of received signals, sampled at frequencies of selected VLF transmitters. Signal trajectories, selected for recording represent proper configuration to survey transient ionization caused by energetic particles in the sub-polar region, such as effect of scattered particles of the inner radiation belt. Reprocessing of the mass archived recordings has been started using a newly developed signal processing code, detecting and classifying different sort of perturbations automatically on narrow band VLF series. Occurrence rates, daily and seasonal variation, statistics of transient ionization enhancements, their geographic distribution within the surveyed range and time period, and correlation with intense geomagnetic and/or Solar event is yielded by this analysis. References: Carpenter, D.L., Inan, U.S., Trimpi, M.L., Helliwell, R.A., and Katsufrakis, J.P.: Perturbations of subionospheric LF and MF signals due to whistler-induced electron precipitation burst

  6. Optimisation of radiolysis of Reactive Red 120 dye in aqueous solution using ionising (60)Co gamma radiation by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Padmanaban, V C; Giri Nandagopal, M S; Achary, Anant; Vasudevan, V N; Selvaraju, N

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, employing radiation technology is gaining great interest in degradation of industrial effluents. In this work the possibility of using gamma irradiation to degrade Reactive Red 120 (C.I.292775) was explored. The effects of pH, dose of gamma irradiation and concentration of dye were examined and their interaction were also established based on their response. For the analysis and optimisation of variables, three factor three level Box-Wilson face centred central composite design (CCF) was used. Analysis of variance with R(2) = 0.9988, adjusted R(2) = 0.9981 and the adequate precision value of 122.303 indicates that the CCF model can be used. The coefficient of variation (0.54%) indicates the reliability of the model. The dose of gamma irradiation (kGy) and the concentration of dye (mg/L) showed significant effects on the degradation of RR 120, while a difference of 6 to 10% degradation was observed in extending the pH towards the acid or alkali range from pH 7.00. The maximum concentration of dye degraded was observed as 347.509 mg/L at initial pH: 7.0, dose of gamma irradiation: 5.94 kGy and initial concentration of dye: 500 mg/L. This predicted value was found to be in agreement with the experimental value on the optimised conditions. PMID:27332851

  7. The effects of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate on free thyroxine for potentially sensitive subpopulations of the 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Abraham, Liz; Hixon, J Gregory; Proctor, Deborah M

    2014-11-01

    Among women with urinary iodine concentration <100 μg/l in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), urinary perchlorate was associated with significant changes in thyroid stimulating hormone and total thyroxine (T4). Although perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate all potentially act to inhibit iodide uptake, free T4 was not found to be associated with exposure to these chemicals in the same data. Fetuses of pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency are thought to be a sensitive subpopulation for perchlorate exposure, but the potential associations between free T4 and exposure to these chemicals among pregnant mothers in NHANES 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 have not been specifically evaluated to date. This study investigates the potential associations between urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate and serum free T4 in individuals with low urinary iodine levels and pregnant women. Multivariate regression models of free T4 were conducted and included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, and covariates known to have an impact on the thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hours of fasting). Meta-analyses were also conducted on non-pregnant and on pregnant women from the two survey cycles. Urinary nitrate was associated with serum free T4 in non-pregnant women of NHANES 2001-2002 who had urinary iodine ≥100 μg/l. In the meta-analysis, urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were significant predictors of serum free T4 in non-pregnant women. No association was found in men and pregnant women. TPO antibodies were significant predictors of free T4 among non-pregnant women only when the models included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Risk assessment for perchlorate exposure should consider co-exposure to nitrate and thiocyanate.

  8. Ionisers in the management of bronchial asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Nogrady, S G; Furnass, S B

    1983-01-01

    Because of recent interest in the possible benefits to asthmatic patients of negative ion generators and the largely uncontrolled and inconclusive nature of earlier studies a double blind crossover study of this treatment was carried out in 20 subjects with stable asthma over six months. After an initial two week period without an ioniser, active or placebo ionisers were installed in subjects' bedrooms for two eight week periods separated by a four week "washout" period when no ioniser was present. The study was completed by a final four week period when no ioniser was present. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive an active or a placebo ioniser first. Subjects recorded their peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) twice daily, completed a daily symptom score questionnaire, and noted any treatment they took on a diary card. Recordings were completed throughout the trial. Ion counts and dust concentrations were measured in subjects' bedrooms during the study. Mean ion counts rose considerably when ionisers were activated (p less than 0.001). There were no significant differences in PEFR, symptom score, or consumption of medication between the periods that active ionisers and either no ionisers or placebo ionisers were in operation. This study has failed to show a statistically significant benefit in asthmatic subjects from the use of negative ion generators. PMID:6364442

  9. Ionisation Equilibrium for the Non-Maxwellian Electron n-Distributions in Solar Flares: Updated Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, Elena; Dudík, Jaroslav

    2015-12-01

    We use the latest available atomic data to calculate the ionisation and recombination rates for the non-Maxwellian n-distributions, which were shown previously to provide a good fit to the enhanced intensities of dielectronic satellite lines during solar flares. The ionisation and recombination coefficients are subsequently used to derive the ionisation equilibrium. To do so, we consider odd values of n ranging from 1 to 19, i.e., from Maxwellian to strongly non-Maxwellian cases. These calculations involve all elements with proton number up to 30, i.e., H to Zn. The n-distributions modify both the ionisation and the recombination rates. The ionisation rates decrease more steeply at lower pseudo-temperatures, while the radiative recombination rate is reduced due to a lower number of low-energy electrons. The peaks of the dielectronic recombination rates become narrower. These changes are reflected in the ionisation equilibrium. Ion abundance peaks become narrower and can also be shifted, mostly towards higher temperatures. The He-like ions are an important exception, as they are formed in a larger temperature range than that for the Maxwellian distribution. The ions Si xiii - xiv used previously for the diagnostics of the n-distributions are affected only weakly, confirming the determination of n. The ionisation equilibria are available as the electronic supplementary material in a format compatible with the CHIANTI database.

  10. Electron-impact excited term ionisation along the Boron isonuclear sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, C. P.; Lee, T.; Ludlow, J. A.; Loch, S. D.; Pindzola, M. S.

    2010-03-01

    Non-perturbative theoretical methods over the last decade have mainly focused on electron-impact ionization of the ground and first metastable states for light fusion related species [1]. However, collisional-radiative models predict that effective ionisation rates, which include the ionisation from excited levels of an atom, can be an order of magnitude greater greater than those which include the groundstate alone. For example, this stepwise ionisation has been experimentally confirmed by measurements taken at the DIII-D facility as part of a Li transport study, where excited state ionisation was found to be essential in describing Li transport [2]. We shall present in our poster an overview of excited state ionisation along the boron ionisation sequence. Using boron as a test case, we focus on the most appropriate use of computationally non-perturbative methods and simpler non-pertubative/semi-empirical methods to account for excited ionisation along other iso-nuclear sequences.[4pt] [1] Griffin D C and Pindzola M S, Adv. Atm. Mol. Opt. Phys. 54, 203 (2006)[0pt] [2] Allain J P, Whyte D G and Brooks J N, Nucl. Fusion 44 655 (2004)

  11. Vertical profile measurements of lower troposphere ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.; Nicoll, K. A.; Aplin, K. L.

    2014-11-01

    Vertical soundings of the atmospheric ion production rate have been obtained from Geiger counters integrated with conventional meteorological radiosondes. In launches made from Reading (UK) during 2013-2014, the Regener-Pfotzer ionisation maximum was at an altitude equivalent to a pressure of (63.1±2.4) hPa, or, expressed in terms of the local air density, (0.101±0.005) kg m-3. The measured ionisation profiles have been evaluated against the Usoskin-Kovaltsov model and, separately, surface neutron monitor data from Oulu. Model ionisation rates agree well with the observed cosmic ray ionisation below 20 km altitude. Above 10 km, the measured ionisation rates also correlate well with simultaneous neutron monitor data, although, consistently with previous work, measured variability at the ionisation maximum is greater than that found by the neutron monitor. However, in the lower atmosphere (below 5 km altitude), agreement between the measurements and simultaneous neutron monitor data is poor. For studies of transient lower atmosphere phenomena associated with cosmic ray ionisation, this indicates the need for in situ ionisation measurements and improved lower atmosphere parameterisations.

  12. Adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils.

    PubMed

    Kah, M; Brown, C D

    2006-01-01

    Understanding the fate of a pesticide in soil is fundamental to the accurate assessment of its environmental behaviour and vital in ensuring the safe use of new and existing products. Ionisable pesticides comprise a significant proportion of both existing and new active substances registered for use in agriculture worldwide. This group of pesticides includes chemicals that are frequently found in groundwater and surface waters in many different countries. Despite this, approaches to predict the influence of soil properties on the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils are poorly developed. Current regulatory assessments frequently default to methods developed for nonionic chemicals, although it is evident that ionisable compounds do not often react like neutral molecules. This review presents the state of knowledge on the adsorption of ionisable pesticides in soils. It first introduces the issues concerning adsorption and the characteristics of this particular kind of chemical. The mechanisms postulated for the adsorption of ionisable pesticides are then described: these are hydrophobic partitioning, ionic exchange, charge transfer, ligand exchange, cation or water bridging, and the formation of bound residues. Relatively little experimental evidence is available, and we are still unable to determine the quantitative contribution of each process in a particular situation. Knowledge is still lacking concerning phenomena occurring at the surfaces of soil particles. Measurements do not allow determination of the operative pH at the surface of soil particles or in microenvironments, and the influence of ionic strength or competition effects is difficult to assess. Subsequently, the review focuses on the influence of soil properties on adsorption and on potential to predict the behaviour of ionisable pesticides in soils. Unlike hydrophobic compounds, adsorption of ionisable pesticides is highly sensitive to variation in pH. This relationship mainly derives from the

  13. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  14. Cosmic ray induced ionisation of a molecular cloud shocked by the W28 supernova remnant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaupré, S.; Hily-Blant, P.; Ceccarelli, C.; Dubus, G.; Gabici, S.; Montmerle, T.

    2014-08-01

    Cosmic rays are an essential ingredient in the evolution of the interstellar medium, as they dominate the ionisation of the dense molecular gas, where stars and planets form. However, since they are efficiently scattered by the galactic magnetic fields, many questions remain open, such as where exactly they are accelerated, what is their original energy spectrum, and how they propagate into molecular clouds. In this work we present new observations and discuss in detail a method that allows us to measure the cosmic ray ionisation rate towards the molecular clouds close to the W28 supernova remnant. To perform these measurements, we use CO, HCO+, and DCO+ millimetre line observations and compare them with the predictions of radiative transfer and chemical models away from thermodynamical equilibrium. The CO observations allow us to constrain the density, temperature, and column density towards each observed position, while the DCO+/HCO+ abundance ratios provide us with constraints on the electron fraction and, consequently, on the cosmic ray ionisation rate. Towards positions located close to the supernova remnant, we find cosmic ray ionisation rates much larger (≳100) than those in standard galactic clouds. Conversely, towards one position situated at a larger distance, we derive a standard cosmic ray ionisation rate. Overall, these observations support the hypothesis that the γ rays observed in the region have a hadronic origin. In addition, based on CR diffusion estimates, we find that the ionisation of the gas is likely due to 0.1-1 GeV cosmic rays. Finally, these observations are also in agreement with the global picture of cosmic ray diffusion, in which the low-energy tail of the cosmic ray population diffuses at smaller distances than the high-energy counterpart.

  15. Academic Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red River Coll., Winnipeg (Manitoba).

    Red River College, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest and most comprehensive institute of applied learning in the province. It provides education and training to 32,000 full- and part-time enrollees per year, and offers more than 110 diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs. The 2000/2001 annual employment and satisfaction survey of College…

  16. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  17. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Three issues of this newsletter on deaf-blind issues include announcements, reviews, news items, and the following articles: "'What's My Role?' A Comparison of the Responsibilities of Interpreters, Interveners, and Support Service Providers" (Susanne Morgan); "A Support Service Provider Program in Utah" (Cordie Weed); "Valued Outcomes for Students…

  18. Breakfast in America, 2001-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic characteristics of American breakfast eaters, examine nutrient contributions of breakfast to the average U.S. diet, and identify top reported breakfast foods and beverages. Data were from individuals 2 years of age and older (n=9,033) from t...

  19. Focus on Basics, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This volume of newsletters focuses on connecting research and practice in adult literacy programs. Issue A of August 2001 includes: "Techniques for Teaching Beginning-Level Reading to Adults" (Ashley Hager); "Beginning ESOL Learners' Advice to Their Teachers" (MaryAnn Cunningham Florez); "The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia" (Sally E.…

  20. The President's Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This report is a summary of the state of Los Angeles City College (California) in 2002. It examines past goals and demonstrates completion of each, summarizes the state of the college, and looks ahead to the next 5 years by defining 8 priorities for the future. Los Angeles City College (LACC) President Mary Spangler describes how the College has…

  1. Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

  2. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  3. Cosmic-ray ionisation in collapsing clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padovani, M.; Hennebelle, P.; Galli, D.

    2013-12-01

    Context. Cosmic rays play an important role in dense molecular cores, affecting their thermal and dynamical evolution and initiating the chemistry. Several studies have shown that the formation of protostellar discs in collapsing clouds is severely hampered by the braking torque exerted by the entrained magnetic field on the infalling gas, as long as the field remains frozen to the gas. Aims: In this paper we examine the possibility that the concentration and twisting of the field lines in the inner region of collapse can produce a significant reduction of the ionisation fraction. Methods: To check whether the cosmic-ray ionisation rate can fall below the critical value required to maintain good coupling, we first study the propagation of cosmic rays in a model of a static magnetised cloud varying the relative strength of the toroidal/poloidal components and the mass-to-flux ratio. We then follow the path of cosmic rays using realistic magnetic field configurations generated by numerical simulations of a rotating collapsing core with different initial conditions. Results: We find that an increment of the toroidal component of the magnetic field, or, in general, a more twisted configuration of the field lines, results in a decrease in the cosmic-ray flux. This is mainly due to the magnetic mirroring effect that is stronger where larger variations in the field direction are present. In particular, we find a decrease of the cosmic-ray ionisation rate below 10-18 s-1 in the central 300-400 AU, where density is higher than about 109 cm-3. This very low value of the ionisation rate is attained in the cases of intermediate and low magnetisation (mass-to-flux ratio λ = 5 and 17, respectively) and for toroidal fields larger than about 40% of the total field. Conclusions: Magnetic field effects can significantly reduce the ionisation fraction in collapsing clouds. We provide a handy fitting formula to compute approximately the attenuation of the cosmic-ray ionisation rate

  4. Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population.

    PubMed

    Ferriby, Laura L; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Harris, Mark; Unice, Kenneth M; Scott, Paul; Nony, Paul; Haws, Laurie C; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the weighted 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to assess potential differences in mean total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) TEQ between various groups of individuals and to determine serum reference concentrations for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the general US population. Differences appeared to exist between female smokers and non-smokers and between non-Hispanic groups and all other races. Potential differences were also observed among the four age groups with an increasing trend in mean total TCDD TEQ with increasing age. Both age and gender appeared to confound the association between smoking status and total TCDD TEQ, dictating the need for further analysis. As anticipated, PCBs contributed appreciably to the total TCDD TEQ levels in the referent population and accounted for 38% to 41% of the total TEQ depending on age. Nearly 80% of the mean total TCDD TEQ was attributable to four PCDD/F congeners and three PCB congeners. In this analysis, two methods were used to assess samples where the concentrations were below the limits of detection (LODs), and this did not have significant impact on the mean total TCDD TEQ at the higher percentiles and for older individuals. Comparison of our results to those from a recent PCDD/F biomonitoring study indicates that the mean TCDD TEQ serum concentration of the individuals studied does not appear to be different from typical levels found in the general US population. Additionally, an assessment of data from the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey using our referent statistics shows that levels of these chemicals have been declining in the general population for at least two decades. The reference TEQs presented in this paper provide relevant, current data that can be used to evaluate biomonitoring results of individuals or groups exposed or potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs and PCBs above

  5. Addendum to: Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura L F; Unice, Kenneth M; Scott, Paul; Nguyen, Ly M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, we published a paper in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology describing PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data collected for the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Since publication of this paper, several of the 1998 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs), which were used to calculate the summary statistics we presented, have been changed. In this addendum, we publish new reference statistics using the WHO(2006) TEFs in addition to assessing the effect of these new TEFs on total TEQ concentrations for the general US population. We also examined the effect of the limits of detection (LODs) on the calculated TEQ summary statistics for the top seven contributing congeners and completed a missing data analysis to determine whether our estimates were biased by excluding individuals without complete congener profiles. Similar to our previous results, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD; 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD; 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD; 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF; and PCB 126 contributed the most to total TEQ. However, both PCB 156 and 157 were no longer significant contributors, instead being displaced by 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-HxCDF, and PCB 169. In general, the decrease in TEFs for the mono-ortho-substituted PCBs decreased their contribution to total TEQ appreciably, causing TEQ(17-9) to approximately equal TEQ(17-3). The effect of LODs for five of the top seven contributing congeners was negligible; however, the LODs for 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD and 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD were noticeably higher and may impact TEQ estimates primarily for individuals aged 20-29 years. Results from the missing data analysis provide compelling evidence that the summary statistics we reported previously, as well as those described here, were not greatly influenced due to censoring data.

  6. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  7. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  8. Ionisation and discharge in cloud-forming atmospheres of brown dwarfs and extrasolar planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helling, Ch; Rimmer, P. B.; Rodriguez-Barrera, I. M.; Wood, Kenneth; Robertson, G. B.; Stark, C. R.

    2016-07-01

    Brown dwarfs and giant gas extrasolar planets have cold atmospheres with rich chemical compositions from which mineral cloud particles form. Their properties, like particle sizes and material composition, vary with height, and the mineral cloud particles are charged due to triboelectric processes in such dynamic atmospheres. The dynamics of the atmospheric gas is driven by the irradiating host star and/or by the rotation of the objects that changes during its lifetime. Thermal gas ionisation in these ultra-cool but dense atmospheres allows electrostatic interactions and magnetic coupling of a substantial atmosphere volume. Combined with a strong magnetic field \\gg {{B}\\text{Earth}} , a chromosphere and aurorae might form as suggested by radio and x-ray observations of brown dwarfs. Non-equilibrium processes like cosmic ray ionisation and discharge processes in clouds will increase the local pool of free electrons in the gas. Cosmic rays and lighting discharges also alter the composition of the local atmospheric gas such that tracer molecules might be identified. Cosmic rays affect the atmosphere through air showers in a certain volume which was modelled with a 3D Monte Carlo radiative transfer code to be able to visualise their spacial extent. Given a certain degree of thermal ionisation of the atmospheric gas, we suggest that electron attachment to charge mineral cloud particles is too inefficient to cause an electrostatic disruption of the cloud particles. Cloud particles will therefore not be destroyed by Coulomb explosion for the local temperature in the collisional dominated brown dwarf and giant gas planet atmospheres. However, the cloud particles are destroyed electrostatically in regions with strong gas ionisation. The potential size of such cloud holes would, however, be too small and might occur too far inside the cloud to mimic the effect of, e.g. magnetic field induced star spots.

  9. Cosmic-ray ionisation of dense molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaupre, Solenn

    2015-07-01

    Cosmic rays (CR) are of tremendous importance in the dynamical and chemical evolution of interstellar molecular clouds, where stars and planets form. CRs are likely accelerated in the shells of supernova remnants (SNR), thus molecular clouds nearby can be irradiated by intense fluxes of CRs. CR protons have two major effects on dense molecular clouds: 1) when they encounter the dense medium, high-energy protons (>280 MeV) create pions that decay into gamma-rays. This process makes SNR-molecular cloud associations intense GeV and/or TeV sources whose spectra mimic the CR spectrum. 2) at lower energies, CRs penetrate the cloud and ionise the gas, leading to the formation of molecular species characteristic of the presence of CRs, called tracers of the ionisation. Studying these tracers gives information on low-energy CRs that are unaccessible to any other observations. I studied the CR ionisation of molecular clouds next to three SNRs: W28, W51C and W44. These SNRs are known to be interacting with the nearby clouds, from the presence of shocked gas, OH masers and pion-decay induced gamma-ray emission. My work includes millimeter observations and chemical modeling of tracers of the ionisation in these dense molecular clouds. In these three regions, we determined an enhanced CR ionisation rate, supporting the hypothesis of an origin of the CRs in the SNR nearby. The evolution of the CR ionisation rate with the distance to the SNR brings valuable constraints on the propagation properties of low-energy CRs. The method used relies on observations of the molecular ions HCO+ and DCO+, which shows crucial limitations at high ionisation. Therefore, I investigated, both through modeling and observations, the chemical abundances of several other species to try and identity alternative tracers of the ionisation. In particular, in the W44 region, observations of N2H+ bring additional constraints on the physical conditions, volatile abundances in the cloud, and the ionisation

  10. The effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation disinfection of filter materials.

    PubMed

    Pietrzak, Katarzyna; Gutarowska, Beata

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of photocatalytic ionisation as a disinfection method for filter materials contaminated by microorganisms, and to assess how air relative humidity (RH), time and microbe type influence the effectiveness of this disinfection. In the quantitative analysis of a used car air filter, bacterial contamination equalled 1.2 x 10(5) cfu/cm2, fungal contamination was 3.8 x 10(6) cfu/cm2, and the isolated microorganisms were Aspergillus niger, Bacillus megaterium, Cladosporium herbarum, Cryptococcus laurenti, Micrococcus sp., Rhodotorula glutinis and Staphylococcus cohnii. In the model experiment, three isolates (C. herbarum, R. glutinis, S. cohnii) and 3 ATCC species (A. niger, E. coli, S. aureus) were used for photocatalytic ionisation disinfection. The conditions of effective photocatalytic ionisation disinfection (R > or = 99.9%) were established as 2-3 h at RH = 77% (bacteria) and 6-24 h at RH = 53% (fungi). RH has an influence on the effectiveness of the photocatalytic disinfection process; the highest effectiveness was obtained for bacteria at RH = 77%, with results 5% higher than for RH = 49%. The studies show that the sensitivity of microorganisms to photocatalytic ionisation disinfection is ordered as follows: Gram-positive bacteria (S. cohnii, S. aureus), Gram-negative bacteria (E. coli), yeasts (R. glutinis), and moulds (C. herbarum, A. niger). Of all the mathematical models used for the description of death dynamics after photocatalytic ionisation disinfection, the Chick-Watson model is the most useful, but for more resistant microorganisms, the delayed Chick-Watson model is highly recommended. It therefore seems, that the presented disinfection method of photocatalytic ionisation can be successfully used to clean filtration materials.

  11. Laser-modified electron scattering from a slowly ionising atom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiordilino, E.; Mittleman, M. H.

    1983-01-01

    When an electron scatters from an atom in the presence of a laser field which is resonant with an atomic transition, off-shell effects enter into the cross section. These only become significant at higher laser intensities where the atom may also be ionised by the laser. Cross-sections are obtained for electron-atom scattering in which these off-shell effects appear and in which the slow ionisation of the atom by the laser is included. Experiments are suggested in which simplifications can occur and which still retain these 'exotic' effects.

  12. Highly ionised absorbers at high redshift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Jacqueline; Herbert-Fort, Stéphane

    2005-03-01

    We build a sample of O VI absorption systems in the redshift range 2.0 ≲ z ≲ 2.6 using high spectral resolution data of ten quasars from the VLT-UVES large programme. We investigate the existence of a metal-rich O VI population and define observational criteria for this class of absorbers under the assumption of photoionisation. The low temperatures of nearly half of all O VI absorbers, implied by their line widths, are too low for collisional ionisation to be a dominant process. We estimate the oxygen abundance under the assumption of photoionisation; a striking result is the bimodal distribution of [o/h] with median values close to 0.01 and 0.5 solar for the metal-poor and metal-rich populations, respectively. Using the line widths to fix the temperature or assuming a constant, low gas density does not drastically change the metallicities of the metal-rich population. We present the first estimate of the O VI column density distribution. Assuming a single power-law distribution, f(n) ∝ n-α, yields α ˜ 1.7 and a normalisation of f(n) =2.3× 10-13 at log n(O VI) ˜ 13.5, both with a ˜30% uncertainty. The value of α is similar to that found for C IV surveys, whereas the normalisation factor is about ten times higher. We use f(n) to derive the number density per unit z and cosmic density ωb(O VI), selecting a limited column density range not strongly affected by incompleteness or sample variance. Comparing our results with those obtained at z˜0.1 for a similar range of column densities implies some decline of dn/dz with z. The cosmic O VI density derived from f(n), ωb(O VI)≈ (3.5± 3.20.9) × 10-7, is 2.3 times higher than the value estimated using the observed O VI sample (of which the metal-rich population contributes ˜35%), easing the problem of missing metals at high z (˜ 1/4 of the produced metals) but not solving it. We find that the majori ty of the metal-rich absorbers are located within ˜ 450 km s-1 of strong Ly-α lines and show that

  13. Analysis of intact bacteria using rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Strittmatter, Nicole; Jones, Emrys A; Veselkov, Kirill A; Rebec, Monica; Bundy, Jacob G; Takats, Zoltan

    2013-07-14

    An identification system for microorganisms based on recently developed rapid evaporative ionisation mass spectrometry (REIMS) is presented. Nine bacterial species cultured on various growth media were correctly identified to family-, genus-, and species-level based on their different mass spectral fingerprints using a cross-validated maximum margin criterion model.

  14. [Ionising rays and laryngeal carcinomas (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Martin, G; Glanz, H; Kleinsasser, O

    1979-03-01

    Review of the literature and report of a new care of laryngeal cancer after irradiation of a benign lesion of the neck. These cases obviously become rare since benign lesions are no longer irradiated. Today the risk of inducing a second carcinoma by a successful irradiation of the first tumor becomes more important. A study of 109 patients, irradiated for laryngeal carcinoma and surviving with no evidence of disease for a period of at least 5 years has been performed. 8 of these patients developed a second primary in the previously irradiated area after 7-15 years. These second carcinomas are not rare if one considers that most patients with laryngeal carcinoma are 60-70 years old and therefore the life expectance on an average is low. These facts should be taken into consideration when deciding between surgical or radiation therapy in younger patients with high life expectance.

  15. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation.

    PubMed

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling. Ionisation of the analyte molecules does not occur in the plasma itself but is induced by interaction with nascent ionic fragments, electrons and/or far ultraviolet photons in the plasma vicinity. At each individual air-spark an audible shockwave is formed, providing new reactive species, which expands concentrically and, thus, prevents direct contact of the analyte with the hot region inside the plasma itself. As a consequence the interaction volume between plasma and analyte does not exceed the threshold temperature for thermal dissociation or fragmentation. Experimentally this indirect ionisation scheme is demonstrated to be widely unspecific to the chemical nature of the analyte and to hardly result in any fragmentation of the studied molecules. A vast ensemble of different test analytes including polar and non-polar hydrocarbons, sugars, low mass active ingredients of pharmaceuticals as well as natural biomolecules in food samples directly out of their complex matrices could be shown to yield easily accessible yet meaningful spectra. Since the plasma medium is humid air, the chemical reaction mechanism of the ionisation is likely to be similar to other ambient ionisation techniques. Wir stellen hier eine neue Ionisationsmethode für die Umgebungsionisation (ambient ionisation) vor. Sowohl die

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF SALTS UPON THE IONISATION OF EGG ALBUMIN

    PubMed Central

    Sørensen, S. P. L.; Linderstrøm-Lang, K.; Lund, Ellen

    1927-01-01

    Introduction. A description is given of the principle followed in the experimental determination of the ionisation of egg albumin, its capacity to combine with acids and bases. Egg albumin is regarded as an ampholyte, and in accordance with J. N. Brønsted's definition of acids and bases, ampholytes are considered as substances capable of both taking up and giving off hydrogen ions. The theoretical treatment of the capacity of ampholytes to combine with acids (and bases) has been carried out on this basis. Section A. Several experimental series are noted, comprising the determination of the activity coefficient of the hydrogen ion (fH) in ammonium chloride solutions of different concentration. Section B. The general method of experimental determination of the ionisation (capacity to combine with adds and bases) of egg albumin in ammonium chloride and potassium chloride solutions is briefly described, and the results of the experiments are compared. Section C. 1). In a brief theoretical survey we have suggested that distinction should be made between isoelectric and isoionic reaction of an ampholyte, the former defined as the hydrogen ion activity (value of paH) at which the mean valency of the ampholyte is 0, the latter as the hydrogen ion activity at which the quantity of acid or base combined with the ampholyte is 0; or, as we prefer to express it, the hydrogen ion activity at which the specific hydrogen ionisation of the ampholyte is 0. If the ampholyte does not combine with other ions than the hydrogen ion, then isoelectric and isoionic reaction coincide. Isoionic reaction is determined by acid-combining experiments. The principle of this determination is briefly described. A theoretical investigation of the alteration with salt concentration of both isoelectric (isoionic) reaction and the shape and direction of the ionisation curves is made, with regard to ampholytes capable only of combining with hydrogen ions, on the basis of the Debye-Hückel formulæ and

  17. High ionisation absorption in low mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, G.; Bianchi, S.; Muñoz-Darias, T.; De, K.; Fender, R.; Merloni, A.

    2016-05-01

    The advent of the new generation of X-ray telescopes yielded a significant step forward in our understanding of ionised absorption generated in the accretion discs of X-ray binaries. It has become evident that these relatively weak and narrow absorption features, sporadically present in the X-ray spectra of some systems, are actually the signature of equatorial outflows, which might carry away more matter than that being accreted. Therefore, they play a major role in the accretion phenomenon. These outflows (or ionised atmospheres) are ubiquitous during the softer states but absent during the power-law dominated, hard states, suggesting a strong link with the state of the inner accretion disc, presence of the radio-jet and the properties of the central source. Here, we discuss the current understanding of this field.

  18. Airborne laser-spark for ambient desorption/ionisation.

    PubMed

    Bierstedt, Andreas; Riedel, Jens

    2016-01-01

    A novel direct sampling ionisation scheme for ambient mass spectrometry is presented. Desorption and ionisation are achieved by a quasi-continuous laser induced plasma in air. Since there are no solid or liquid electrodes involved the ion source does not suffer from chemical interferences or fatigue originating from erosive burning or from electrode consumption. The overall plasma maintains electro-neutrality, minimising charge effects and accompanying long term drift of the charged particles trajectories. In the airborne plasma approach the ambient air not only serves as the plasma medium but at the same time also slows down the nascent ions via collisional cooling. Ionisation of the analyte molecules does not occur in the plasma itself but is induced by interaction with nascent ionic fragments, electrons and/or far ultraviolet photons in the plasma vicinity. At each individual air-spark an audible shockwave is formed, providing new reactive species, which expands concentrically and, thus, prevents direct contact of the analyte with the hot region inside the plasma itself. As a consequence the interaction volume between plasma and analyte does not exceed the threshold temperature for thermal dissociation or fragmentation. Experimentally this indirect ionisation scheme is demonstrated to be widely unspecific to the chemical nature of the analyte and to hardly result in any fragmentation of the studied molecules. A vast ensemble of different test analytes including polar and non-polar hydrocarbons, sugars, low mass active ingredients of pharmaceuticals as well as natural biomolecules in food samples directly out of their complex matrices could be shown to yield easily accessible yet meaningful spectra. Since the plasma medium is humid air, the chemical reaction mechanism of the ionisation is likely to be similar to other ambient ionisation techniques. Wir stellen hier eine neue Ionisationsmethode für die Umgebungsionisation (ambient ionisation) vor. Sowohl die

  19. Electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry: principles and clinical applications.

    PubMed

    Ho, C S; Lam, C W K; Chan, M H M; Cheung, R C K; Law, L K; Lit, L C W; Ng, K F; Suen, M W M; Tai, H L

    2003-01-01

    This mini-review provides a general understanding of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) which has become an increasingly important technique in the clinical laboratory for structural study or quantitative measurement of metabolites in a complex biological sample. The first part of the review explains the electrospray ionisation process, design of mass spectrometers with separation capability, characteristics of the mass spectrum, and practical considerations in quantitative analysis. The second part then focuses on some clinical applications. The capability of ESI-tandem-MS in measuring bio-molecules sharing similar molecular structures makes it particularly useful in screening for inborn errors of amino acid, fatty acid, purine, pyrimidine metabolism and diagnosis of galactosaemia and peroxisomal disorders. Electrospray ionisation is also efficient in generating cluster ions for structural elucidation of macromolecules. This has fostered a new and improved approach (vs electrophoresis) for identification and quantification of haemoglobin variants. With the understanding of glycohaemoglobin structure, an IFCC reference method for glycohaemoglobin assay has been established using ESI-MS. It represents a significant advancement for the standardisation of HbA1c in diabetic monitoring. With its other applications such as in therapeutic drug monitoring, ESI-MS will continue to exert an important influence in the future development and organisation of the clinical laboratory service.

  20. Electron impact ionisation cross sections for atomic and molecular allotropes of phosphorous and arsenic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhutadia, Harshad; Chaudhari, Ashok; Vinodkumar, Minaxi

    2015-12-01

    We report electron impact total ionisation cross sections for phosphorous (P), arsenic (As), diphosphorous (P2), diarsenic (As2), tetra phosphorous (P4) and tetra arsenic (As4) from the threshold of the target to 2000 eV. We employed spherical complex optical potential to compute total inelastic cross sections (Qinel). The total ionisation cross section is extracted from the total inelastic cross section using the complex scattering potential-ionisation contribution method. The results of most of the targets studied here compare well with the measurements and the theoretical data wherever available. The correlation between the peak of ionisation cross sections with the number of target electrons and polarisability is also reported. It is observed that the maximum ionisation cross sections depend linearly on the number of target electrons and polarisability of the target. This linear correlation is used to predict the maximum ionisation cross sections for the targets (I2, HI and PF3) where no experimental data are available.

  1. American Dental Education Association Annual Proceedings, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Reports activities of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) from the end of the 2001 Annual Session and Exposition (March 9, 2001) through the 2002 Annual Session and Exposition (March 7, 2002). Consists of: president's annual report, president-elect's address, executive director's report, proceedings of the 2002 House of Delegates,…

  2. Forrest Ranch Acquisition, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2003-08-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The contract period was the first year of the program with December 2001 through July 2nd 2002 being previous to acquisition of the property. The majority of the activities conducted under the contract period were spent on O&M and pre acquisition activities.

  3. Reference Guide for Integrating Curriculum, 2001-2002. [Grade] 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This reference guide is designed to help seventh grade teachers plan for instruction, providing all of the goals and objectives in one document. The guide can be used to link instructional objectives across disciplines, plan integrated units, and assist in assessing student progress over time. Only the very basic components of each discipline…

  4. Reference Guide for Integrating Curriculum, 2001-2002. [Grade] 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This reference guide is designed to help eighth grade teachers plan for instruction, providing all of the goals and objectives in one document. The guide can be used to link instructional objectives across disciplines, plan integrated units, and assist in assessing student progress over time. Only the very basic components of each discipline…

  5. New Jersey Journal of Professional Counseling, 2001/2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westburg, Nancy G., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal volume focuses on three areas: technology and the appropriate use of the internet for support groups; diversity issues that affect clients and counselors-in-training; and the clinical issues section that provides an integrated view of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and an overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder. It…

  6. Yakima Side Channels : Progress Report for 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolai, Scott

    2003-03-01

    The project objectives include habitat protection and restoration in the most productive reaches of the Yakima Subbasin. The geographic focus includes four reaches in the Yakima, and one in the lower Naches. These areas were identified through studies conducted by WDFW, Yakama Nation, Central Washington University and University of Montana. Research on fish populations and densities, water quality, hyporheic and benthic macro invertebrates suggests that the geographic priorities the most important areas for fish production. Physical characteristics include broad floodplains with multiple channels that flow through extensive riparian/wetland complexes. Geologic characteristics are similar among the reaches, in that they all lie upstream of a ridge that acts to delimit groundwater flow down the stream gradient. Groundwater reemerges in the channel, charging the stream with nutrient-rich and thermally stable water. Many areas have lost key habitat features through various human actions. However strongholds of productivity remain, and in many cases restoration can be undertaken to reconnect the features that made these areas productive. Active habitat restoration actions include reconnecting structurally diverse alcoves and side channels, introducing large woody debris, fencing and revegetation of riparian areas. Priority reaches include Easton, Ellensburg, Selah, Union Gap and on the Naches, the Gleed reach.

  7. Houston Community College System Fact Book, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community Coll. System, TX. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Houston Community College System (HCCS) (Texas) is the third largest community college system in the state of Texas. Its five regional colleges offer workforce training programs, academic transfer courses, and continuing education. HCCS is the state-mandated workforce trainer for the city of Houston. More than 22% of the area's adult…

  8. Project Achieve Evaluation Report: Year One, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol

    This report is an evaluation of the pilot year of Project Achieve, a major local instructional initiative at six elementary schools and two middle schools in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, that was designed to help reach the WCPSS goal of 95% of students at or above grade level. Participating schools had a higher…

  9. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry

    2003-06-09

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the interconnected Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring, for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of potential mitigation strategies. Only Objective 1 in the workplan is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of Objectives 2-6.

  10. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  11. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  12. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  13. Placement Criteria for Academic Year 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report states that since July 1995, the State of Florida has required each public college and university to obtain scores on one of the following test batteries for degree-seeking students prior to registration: Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), American College Testing (ACT), or the Florida College Entry-Level Placement Test (CPT). A…

  14. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be of sufficient quality and quantity to meet specific monitoring and evaluation goals and objectives outlines in the 2002 statement of work (SOW).

  15. NovaNet Student Outcomes, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Kristin; Baenen, Nancy

    NovaNet is an individualized, computer-based instruction program that is used in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, for high school course credit, remediation, and enrichment. NovaNet was first used in WCPSS in 1996, and in 1999 WCPSS received a 3-year federal grant to expand the use of NovaNET to all high schools. In…

  16. Kindergarten Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Violet B., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues of a biannually published journal featuring research studies, theoretical essays, and classroom practice articles about the development and education of kindergarten children as well as occasional articles concerning preschool and the early primary grades. The Spring/Summer 2001 issue contains the…

  17. Implementing Career Academies Schoolwide: 2001-2002 Developments, Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; Dayton, Charles; Lenz, Robert; Tidyman, Susan

    This document, which is based on the findings of case studies of how four high schools from across the country have successfully implemented the schoolwide career academy model, presents recent developments and best practices in schoolwide career academies. The document consists of a brief introduction describing the case studies and one chapter…

  18. JASON XIII: Frozen Worlds (2001-2002). Teacher Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JASON Foundation for Education, Needham Heights, MA.

    This teacher's guide and accompanying videotape present the JASON Project. The guide features a workbook format using an interdisciplinary approach to include geography, climate, biology, history, geology, culture, and literature. The JASON Project targets grades 4-9 and involves real life science with the inquiry approach and multimedia…

  19. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    High school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors. This handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in…

  20. Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education, Programs, Candidates, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Alt, Kenneth A., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide to institutions of higher learning that are accredited by national and regional accrediting agencies, this annual volume has been published since 1964. Data in each entry have been provided by the accrediting bodies. Admissions officers, counselors, and employers rely upon the accurate and up-to-date information in this…

  1. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; encourage cooperation among libraries of all types;…

  2. Increase in imported dengue, Germany, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Schöneberg, Irene; Krause, Gérard; Claus, Hermann; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Dengue fever is a reportable disease in Germany. Surveillance data from 2001 and 2002 were analyzed and compared to travel patterns. Imported dengue fever increased strongly in this time. Most infections were acquired in Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. The 2002 epidemic in Brazil was also reflected in these data.

  3. Practical Applications of Radioactivity and Nuclear Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Gerhart; Airey, Peter

    2005-09-01

    1. Atoms, nuclides and radionuclides; 2. Units and standards for radioactivity and radiation dosimetry and rules for radiation protection; 3. Properties of radiations emitted from radionuclides; 4. Nuclear radiations from a user's perspective; 5. Ionising radiation detectors; 6. Radioactivity and countrate measurements and the presentation of results; 7. Industrial applications of radioisotopes and radiation; 8. Application of tracer technology to industry and the environment; 9. Radionuclides to protect the environment.

  4. Practical Applications of Radioactivity and Nuclear Radiations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowenthal, Gerhart; Airey, Peter

    2001-08-01

    1. Atoms, nuclides and radionuclides; 2. Units and standards for radioactivity and radiation dosimetry and rules for radiation protection; 3. Properties of radiations emitted from radionuclides; 4. Nuclear radiations from a user's perspective; 5. Ionising radiation detectors; 6. Radioactivity and countrate measurements and the presentation of results; 7. Industrial applications of radioisotopes and radiation; 8. Application of tracer technology to industry and the environment; 9. Radionuclides to protect the environment.

  5. The influence of stopping power on the ionisation quench factor.

    PubMed

    García, G; Grau, Malonda A

    2002-01-01

    Stopping power values for high energies have been computed applying the first Born approximation and the Bethe formula. However, this approximation tends to overestimate these cross sections at low energies, reaching discrepancies on the order of 50% at energies below 1 keV for most of the molecular targets of interest. In this paper we propose a method to obtain accurate low energy stopping powers of electrons by combining total cross section measurements with a theoretical treatment of the elastic process. We determine the optimum value of the kB parameter of ionisation quenching for the stopping power obtained in this paper.

  6. NICIL: Non-Ideal magnetohydrodynamics Coefficients and Ionisation Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurster, James

    2016-08-01

    NICIL (Non-Ideal magnetohydrodynamics Coefficients and Ionisation Library) calculates the ionization values and the coefficients of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamics terms of Ohmic resistivity, the Hall effect, and ambipolar diffusion. Written as a standalone Fortran90 module that can be implemented in existing codes, NICIL is fully parameterizable, allowing the user to choose which processes to include and decide the values of the free parameters. The module includes both cosmic ray and thermal ionization; the former includes two ion species and three species of dust grains (positively charged, negatively charged and neutral), and the latter includes five elements which can be doubly ionized.

  7. Non-uniform ionisation of the upper atmosphere due to the electromagnetic pulse from a horizontal lightning discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, M.; Rycroft, M. J.

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model numerically the ionisation created in the mesosphere above a strong horizontal (cloud-to-cloud) lightning discharge, and thus to understand better the formation of elves and related columniform (spatially structured) sprites. Such ionisation depends upon height, via the ratio of the VLF//LF wave electric field (radiated by the current in the discharge) to the atmospheric neutral density. The simulation shows local maxima on the order of 10 km apart due to the interference between direct waves radiated by the discharge current, waves reflected by the ground and waves reflected by the ionosphere. Parametric studies are carried out varying the frequency, amplitude, height, length and duration of the current. For waves >=30kHz generated by a current >=50kA, localised peaks of electron density occur from 75 to 85km altitude, particularly for discharges longer than 15 km. From such peaks, time-varying ``stalactites'' on the bottom of the ionosphere, streamers could develop and propagate downwards. These could become columniform sprites in the presence of the quasi-electrostatic field due to the negative charge remaining in the thundercloud after a positive cloud-to-ground discharge.

  8. Les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux cibles des effets des rayonnements ionisants : altérations fonctionnelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linard, C.; Esposito, V.; Wysocki, J.; Griffiths, N. M.

    1998-04-01

    The symptoms associated with exposure to ionizing radiation are nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea. The response of the gut is complex involving modifications of motility and fluid and electrolyte transport. Gastrointestinal regulatory peptides have an important role in these functions. This study showed that radiation-induced tissue variations of neuropeptides have some repercussions on intestinal biological activity of these peptides soon after irradiation. In addition such modifications are also seen a few years after irradiation. Les symptômes associés à l'exposition aux rayonnements ionisants sont des nausées, vomissements et diarrhées. La réponse du système digestif est complexe, impliquant des modifications de la motilité et du transport d'eau et d'électrolytes. les neuropeptides gastro-intestinaux ont un rôle important dans ces fonctions. Cette étude montre que les variations tissulaires de ces neuropeptides induites par l'irradiation ont des répercussions sur l'activité biologique intestinale pour des temps précoces mais que ces perturbations sont encore visibles quelques années après l'irradiation.

  9. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeH n with n = 1,2, ...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4 s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice.

  10. Photo-ionisation mass spectrometry as detection method for gas chromatography. Optical selectivity and multidimensional comprehensive separations.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, Ralf; Welthagen, Werner; Gröger, Thomas

    2008-03-14

    Mass spectrometry (MS) with soft ionisation techniques (i.e. ionisation without fragmentation of the analyte molecules) for gaseous samples exhibits interesting analytical properties for direct analysis applications (i.e. direct inlet mass spectrometric on-line monitoring) as well as mass spectrometric detection method for gas chromatography (GC-MS). Commonly either chemical ionisation (CI) or field ionisation (FI) is applied as soft ionisation technology for GC-MS. An interesting alternative to the CI and FI technologies methods are photo-ionisation (PI) methods. PI overcomes some of the limitations of CI and FI and furthermore add some unique analytical properties. The resonance enhanced multi-photon ionisation (REMPI) method uses intense UV-laser pulses (wavelength range approximately 350-193 nm) for highly selective, sensitive and soft ionisation of predominately aromatic compounds. The single photon ionisation (SPI) method utilises VUV light (from lamps or laser sources, wavelengths range approximately 150-110 nm) can be used for a universal soft ionisation of organic molecules. In this article the historical development as well as the current status and concepts of gas chromatography hyphenated to photo-ionisation mass spectrometry are reviewed. PMID:17915237

  11. A gas ionisation Direct-STIM detector for MeV ion microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norarat, Rattanaporn; Guibert, Edouard; Jeanneret, Patrick; Dellea, Mario; Jenni, Josef; Roux, Adrien; Stoppini, Luc; Whitlow, Harry J.

    2015-04-01

    Direct-Scanning Transmission Ion Microscopy (Direct-STIM) is a powerful technique that yields structural information in sub-cellular whole cell imaging. Usually, a Si p-i-n diode is used in Direct-STIM measurements as a detector. In order to overcome the detrimental effects of radiation damage which appears as a broadening in the energy resolution, we have developed a gas ionisation detector for use with a focused ion beam. The design is based on the ETH Frisch grid-less off-axis Geiger-Müller geometry. It is developed for use in a MeV ion microscope with a standard Oxford Microbeams triplet lens and scanning system. The design has a large available solid angle for other detectors (e.g. proton induced fluorescence). Here we report the performance for imaging ReNcells VM with μm resolution where energy resolutions of <24 keV fwhm could be achieved for 1 MeV protons using isobutane gas.

  12. Secondary ionisations in a wall-less ion-counting nanodosimeter: quantitative analysis and the effect on the comparison of measured and simulated track structure parameters in nanometric volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilgers, Gerhard; Bug, Marion U.; Gargioni, Elisabetta; Rabus, Hans

    2015-10-01

    The object of investigation in nanodosimetry is the physical characteristics of the microscopic structure of ionising particle tracks, i.e. the sequence of the interaction types and interaction sites of a primary particle and all its secondaries, which reflects the stochastic nature of the radiation interaction. In view of the upcoming radiation therapy with protons and carbon ions, the ionisation structure of the ion track is of particular interest. Owing to limitations in current detector technology, the only way to determine the ionisation cluster size distribution in a DNA segment is to simulate the particle track structure in condensed matter. This is done using dedicated computer programs based on Monte Carlo procedures simulating the interaction of the primary ions with the target. Hence, there is a need to benchmark these computer codes using suitable experimental data. Ionisation cluster size distributions produced in the nanodosimeter's sensitive volume by monoenergetic protons and alpha particles (with energies between 0.1 MeV and 20 MeV) were measured at the PTB ion accelerator facilities. C3H8 and N2 were alternately used as the working gas. The measured data were compared with the simulation results obtained with the PTB Monte-Carlo code PTra [B. Grosswendt, Radiat. Environ. Biophys. 41, 103 (2002); M.U. Bug, E. Gargioni, H. Nettelbeck, W.Y. Baek, G. Hilgers, A.B. Rosenfeld, H. Rabus, Phys. Rev. E 88, 043308 (2013)]. Measured and simulated characteristics of the particle track structure are generally in good agreement for protons over the entire energy range investigated. For alpha particles with energies higher than the Bragg peak energy, a good agreement can also be seen, whereas for energies lower than the Bragg peak energy differences of as much as 25% occur. Significant deviations are only observed for large ionisation cluster sizes. These deviations can be explained by a background consisting of secondary ions. These ions are produced in the

  13. Electron impact ionisation cross sections of iron hydrogen clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Stefan E.; Sukuba, Ivan; Urban, Jan; Limtrakul, Jumras; Probst, Michael

    2016-09-01

    We computed electron impact ionisation cross sections (EICSs) of iron hydrogen clusters, FeHn with n = 1,2,...,10, from the ionisation threshold to 10 keV using the Deutsch-Märk (DM) and the binary-encounter-Bethe (BEB) formalisms. The maxima of the cross sections for the iron hydrogen clusters range from 6.13 × 10-16 cm2 at 60 eV to 8.76 × 10-16 cm2 at 76 eV for BEB-AE (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from all-electron basis sets) calculations, from 4.15 × 10-16 cm2 at 77 eV to 7.61 × 10-16 cm2 at 80 eV for BEB-ECP (BEB method based on quantum-chemical data from effective-core potentials for inner-core electrons) calculations and from 2.49 × 10-16 cm2 at 43.5 eV to 7.04 × 10-16 cm2 at 51 eV for the DM method. Cross sections calculated via the BEB method are substantially higher than the ones obtained via the DM method, up to a factor of about two for FeH and FeH2. The formation of Fe-H bonds depopulates the iron 4s orbital, causing significantly lower cross sections for the small iron hydrides compared to atomic iron. Both the DM and BEB cross sections can be fitted perfectly against a simple expression used in modelling and simulation codes in the framework of nuclear fusion research. The energetics of the iron hydrogen clusters change substantially when exact exchange is present in the density functional, while the cluster geometries do not depend on this choice. Supplementary material in the form of one pdf file available from the Journal web page athttp://dx.doi.org/10.1140/epjd/e2016-70292-4

  14. Radiation-induced cardiovascular effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapio, Soile

    Recent epidemiological studies indicate that exposure to ionising radiation enhances the risk of cardiovascular mortality and morbidity in a moderate but significant manner. Our goal is to identify molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease using cellular and mouse models. Two radiation targets are studied in detail: the vascular endothelium that plays a pivotal role in the regulation of cardiac function, and the myocardium, in particular damage to the cardiac mitochondria. Ionising radiation causes immediate and persistent alterations in several biological pathways in the endothelium in a dose- and dose-rate dependent manner. High acute and cumulative doses result in rapid, non-transient remodelling of the endothelial cytoskeleton, as well as increased lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation of the heart tissue, independent of whether exposure is local or total body. Proteomic and functional changes are observed in lipid metabolism, glycolysis, mitochondrial function (respiration, ROS production etc.), oxidative stress, cellular adhesion, and cellular structure. The transcriptional regulators Akt and PPAR alpha seem to play a central role in the radiation-response of the endothelium and myocardium, respectively. We have recently started co-operation with GSI in Darmstadt to study the effect of heavy ions on the endothelium. Our research will facilitate the identification of biomarkers associated with adverse cardiac effects of ionising radiation and may lead to the development of countermeasures against radiation-induced cardiac damage.

  15. Radiation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Outside the protective cocoon of Earth's atmosphere, the universe is full of harmful radiation. Astronauts who live and work in space are exposed not only to ultraviolet rays but also to space radi...

  16. Polarisation dependences of harmonic generation in the plasma produced in the ionisation of excited-state hydrogen-like atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Viktor P; Silin, Pavel V

    2005-02-28

    An analytic theory of harmonic generation in the plasma produced from the gas of hydrogen-like atoms in excited states is considered for relatively intense radiation. The consideration of l-degeneracy of the electrons in these excited states allowed deriving the dependence of generation efficiency on the principal quantum number. In the context of the Bethe model of gas ionisation, we revealed the threshold nonlinear dependence of the maximum generation efficiency on the degree of circular polarisation of the pump field for its given intensity. Analytic calculations were performed for the fifth and seventh harmonics. The results of these calculations allowed generalising to the case of excited atoms the previously obtained results for the third harmonic in the plasma arising from hydrogen-like atoms in the ground state. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  17. Recombination in liquid filled ionisation chambers with multiple charge carrier species: Theoretical and numerical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, P.; González-Castaño, D. M.; Gómez, F.; Pardo-Montero, J.

    2014-10-01

    Liquid-filled ionisation chambers (LICs) are used in radiotherapy for dosimetry and quality assurance. Volume recombination can be quite important in LICs for moderate dose rates, causing non-linearities in the dose rate response of these detectors, and needs to be corrected for. This effect is usually described with Greening and Boag models for continuous and pulsed radiation respectively. Such models assume that the charge is carried by two different species, positive and negative ions, each of those species with a given mobility. However, LICs operating in non-ultrapure mode can contain different types of electronegative impurities with different mobilities, thus increasing the number of different charge carriers. If this is the case, Greening and Boag models can be no longer valid and need to be reformulated. In this work we present a theoretical and numerical study of volume recombination in parallel-plate LICs with multiple charge carrier species, extending Boag and Greening models. Results from a recent publication that reported three different mobilities in an isooctane-filled LIC have been used to study the effect of extra carrier species on recombination. We have found that in pulsed beams the inclusion of extra mobilities does not affect volume recombination much, a behaviour that was expected because Boag formula for charge collection efficiency does not depend on the mobilities of the charge carriers if the Debye relationship between mobilities and recombination constant holds. This is not the case in continuous radiation, where the presence of extra charge carrier species significantly affects the amount of volume recombination.

  18. Current state of radiation processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pikaev, Alexei K.

    1995-06-01

    A review of common trends in the development of modern radiation processing is presented. The sources of ionising radiation and the most important processes practically induced under the influence of this radiation are discussed. It is shown that radiation methods can be used successfully for the modification of materials, for the sterilisation of medical articles, for the solution of ecological problems, for treatment of food products, in radiation engineering, etc. Special attention is paid to processes at the pilot plant and industrial scales. The bibliography includes 548 references.

  19. Radiographer Delivered Fluoroscopy Reduces Radiation Exposure During Endoscopic Urological Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Hennessey, DB; Young, M; Pahuja, A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The 1999 Ionising Radiation Regulations recommend that medical professionals using ionising radiation should aim to keep exposure as ‘low as reasonably practicable’. Urologists regularly use fluoroscopy during endoscopic surgical procedures. In some institutions, this is delivered by a radiographer whereas in others, it is delivered by the urological surgeon. Objectives To determine if radiographer-delivered fluoroscopy can reduce the exposure to ionising radiation during urological procedures. Methods An analysis of 395 consecutive patients, who underwent endoscopic urological procedures requiring fluoroscopy, was performed simultaneously across two institutions, over a 4 month period. 321 patients were matched and included in the analysis. Results Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy was associated with reduced ionising radiation exposure for retrograde pyelography procedures ED 0.09626 vs. 1.323 mSev, p= 0.0003, and endoscopic stone surgeries ED 0.3066 Vs. 0.5416 mSev, p=0.0039, but not for ureterorenoscopic stone surgeries 0.4880 vs. 0.2213 mSev, p=0.8292. Conclusion Radiographer delivered fluoroscopy could reduce the patient’s exposure to ionising radiation for some urological procedures. PMID:27158158

  20. Excitation and Ionisation dynamics in high-frequency plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connell, D.

    2008-07-01

    Non-thermal low temperature plasmas are widely used for technological applications. Increased demands on plasma technology have resulted in the development of various discharge concepts based on different power coupling mechanisms. Despite this, power dissipation mechanisms in these discharges are not yet fully understood. Of particular interest are low pressure radio-frequency (rf) discharges. The limited understanding of these discharges is predominantly due to the complexity of the underlying mechanisms and difficult diagnostic access to important parameters. Optical measurements are a powerful diagnostic tool offering high spatial and temporal resolution. Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) provides non-intrusive access, to the physics of the plasma, with comparatively simple experimental requirements. Improved advances in technology and modern diagnostics now allow deeper insight into fundamental mechanisms. In low pressure rf discharges insight into the electron dynamics within the rf cycle can yield vital information. This requires high temporal resolution on a nano-second time scale. The optical emission from rf discharges exhibits temporal variations within the rf cycle. These variations are particularly strong, in for example capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs), but also easily observable in inductively coupled plasmas (ICPs), and can be exploited for insight into power dissipation. Interesting kinetic and non-linear coupling effects are revealed in capacitive systems. The electron dynamics exhibits a complex spatio-temporal structure. Excitation and ionisation, and, therefore, plasma sustainment is dominated through directed energetic electrons created through the dynamics of the plasma boundary sheath. In the relatively simple case of an asymmetric capacitively coupled rf plasma the complexity of the power dissipation is exposed and various mode transitions can be clearly observed and investigated. At higher pressure secondary electrons dominate the

  1. Predicted ionisation in mitochondria and observed acute changes in the mitochondrial transcriptome after gamma irradiation: a Monte Carlo simulation and quantitative PCR study.

    PubMed

    Kam, Winnie Wai-Ying; McNamara, Aimee L; Lake, Vanessa; Banos, Connie; Davies, Justin B; Kuncic, Zdenka; Banati, Richard B

    2013-11-01

    It is a widely accepted that the cell nucleus is the primary site of radiation damage while extra-nuclear radiation effects are not yet systematically included into models of radiation damage. We performed Monte Carlo simulations assuming a spherical cell (diameter 11.5 μm) modelled after JURKAT cells with the inclusion of realistic elemental composition data based on published literature. The cell model consists of cytoplasm (density 1g/cm(3)), nucleus (diameter 8.5 μm; 40% of cell volume) as well as cylindrical mitochondria (diameter 1 μm; volume 0.5 μm(3)) of three different densities (1, 2 and 10 g/cm(3)) and total mitochondrial volume relative to the cell volume (10, 20, 30%). Our simulation predicts that if mitochondria take up more than 20% of a cell's volume, ionisation events will be the preferentially located in mitochondria rather than in the cell nucleus. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction, we substantiate in JURKAT cells that human mitochondria respond to gamma radiation with early (within 30 min) differential changes in the expression levels of 18 mitochondrially encoded genes, whereby the number of regulated genes varies in a dose-dependent but non-linear pattern (10 Gy: 1 gene; 50 Gy: 5 genes; 100 Gy: 12 genes). The simulation data as well as the experimental observations suggest that current models of acute radiation effects, which largely focus on nuclear effects, might benefit from more systematic considerations of the early mitochondrial responses and how these may subsequently determine cell response to ionising radiation.

  2. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life.

  3. [Nonionizing radiation and electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, J H

    1991-01-01

    Nonionising radiation comprises all kinds of radiation and fields of the electromagnetic spectrum where biological matter is not ionised, as well as mechanical waves such as infrasound and ultrasound. The electromagnetic spectrum is subdivided into individual sections and includes: Static and low-frequency electric and magnetic fields including technical applications of energy with mains frequency, radio frequency fields, microwaves and optic radiation (infrared, visible light, ultraviolet radiation including laser). The following categories of persons can be affected by emissions by non-ionising radiation: Persons in the environment and in the household, workers, patients undergoing medical diagnosis or treatment. If the radiation is sufficiently intense, or if the fields are of appropriate strength, a multitude of effects can occur (depending on the type of radiation), such as heat and stimulating or irritating action, inflammations of the skin or eyes, changes in the blood picture, burns or in some cases cancer as a late sequel. The ability of radiation to penetrate into the human body, as well as the types of interaction with biological tissue, with organs and organisms, differs significantly for the various kinds of nonionising radiation. The following aspects of nonionising radiation are discussed: protection of humans against excessive sunlight rays when sunbathing and when exposed to UV radiation (e.g. in solaria); health risks of radio and microwaves (safety of microwave cookers and mobile radio units); effects on human health by electric and magnetic fields in everyday life. PMID:1837859

  4. Ionising irradiation alters the dynamics of human long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (LINE1) retrotransposon.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Atsushi; Nakatani, Youko; Hamada, Nobuyuki; Jinno-Oue, Atsushi; Shimizu, Nobuaki; Wada, Seiichi; Funayama, Tomoo; Mori, Takahisa; Islam, Salequl; Hoque, Sheikh Ariful; Shinagawa, Masahiko; Ohtsuki, Takahiro; Kobayashi, Yasuhiko; Hoshino, Hiroo

    2012-09-01

    It is important to identify the mechanism by which ionising irradiation induces various genomic alterations in the progeny of surviving cells. Ionising irradiation activates mobile elements like retrotransposons, although the mechanism of its phenomena consisting of transcriptions and insertions of the products into new sites of the genome remains unclear. In this study, we analysed the effects of sparsely ionising X-rays and densely ionising carbon-ion beams on the activities of a family of active retrotransposons, long interspersed nuclear elements 1 (L1). We used the L1/reporter knock-in human glioma cell line, NP-2/L1RP-enhanced GFP (EGFP), that harbours full-length L1 tagged with EGFP retrotransposition detection cassette (L1RP-EGFP) in the chromosomal DNA. X-rays and carbon-ion beams similarly increased frequencies the transcription from L1RP-EGFP and its retrotransposition. Short-sized de novo L1RP-EGFP insertions with 5'-truncation were induced by X-rays, while full-length or long-sized insertions (>5 kb, containing ORF1 and ORF2) were found only in cell clones irradiated by the carbon-ion beams. These data suggest that X-rays and carbon-ion beams induce different length of de novo L1 insertions, respectively. Our findings thus highlight the necessity to investigate the mechanisms of mutations caused by transposable elements by ionising irradiation.

  5. Total ionisation cross sections for chlorofluoromethanes and CClx radicals by electron impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Dhanoj; Antony, Bobby

    2014-07-01

    We report here the total ionisation cross section for chlorofluoromethanes, namely CCl3F (Freon 11), CCl2F2 (Freon 12), CClF3 (Freon 13), CHCl2F (Freon 21), CHClF2 (Freon 22), CH2ClF (Freon 31), CCl4 and CClx (x = 1-3), radicals by electron impact from ionisation threshold to 2 keV. The total inelastic cross section is obtained employing a complex optical potential formalism and solving the Schrödinger equation through partial wave analysis. Using the complex scattering potential-ionisation contribution method, the total ionisation cross section is derived from the inelastic cross section for these targets. The results obtained are then compared with the existing experimental and theoretical data, wherever available. The present result shows reasonable agreement with previous data. For the CClx radicals, the ionisation cross section is predicted for the first time. The data reported here have immense interest to atmospheric and technological plasma modelling.

  6. Impact ionisation mass spectrometry of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite microparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, Jon K.; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Armes, Steven P.; Fielding, Lee A.; Postberg, Frank; Bugiel, Sebastian; Drake, Keith; Srama, Ralf; Kearsley, Anton T.; Trieloff, Mario

    2014-07-01

    Cation and anion impact ionization mass spectra of polypyrrole-coated pyrrhotite cosmic dust analogue particles are analysed over a range of cosmically relevant impact speeds. Spectra with mass resolutions of 150-300 were generated by hypervelocity impacts of charged particles, accelerated to up to 37 km s-1 in a Van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator, onto a silver target plate in the Large Area Mass Analyzer (LAMA) spectrometer. Ions clearly indicative of the polypyrrole overlayer are identified at masses of 93, 105, 117, 128 and 141 u. Organic species, predominantly derived from the thin (20 nm) polypyrrole layer on the surface of the particles, dominate the anion spectra even at high (>20 km s-1) impact velocities and contribute significantly to the cation spectra at velocities lower than this. Atomic species from the pyrrhotite core (Fe and S) are visible in all spectra at impact velocities above 6 km s-1 for 56Fe+, 9 km s-1 for 32S+ and 16 km s-1 for 32S- ions. Species from the pyrrhotite core are also frequently visible in cation spectra at impact speeds at which surface ionisation is believed to dominate (<10 km s-1), although the large number of organic peaks complicates the identification of characteristic molecular species. A thin oxidised surface layer on the pyrrhotite particles is indicated by weak spectral features assigned to iron oxides and iron oxy-hydroxides, although the definitive identification of sulfates and hydrated sulfates from the oxidation process was not possible. Silver was confirmed as an excellent choice for the target plate of an impact ionization mass spectrometer, as it provided a unique isotope signature for many target-projectile cluster peaks at masses above 107-109 u. The affinity of Ag towards a dominant organic fragment ion (CN-) derived from fragmentation of the polypyrrole component led to molecular cluster formation. This resulted in an enhanced sensitivity to a particular particle component, which may be of great use

  7. Single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer radiocarbon-interference identification and positive-ionisation characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcken, K. M.; Freeman, S. P. H. T.; Xu, S.; Dougans, A.

    2013-01-01

    A single-stage accelerator mass spectrometer (SSAMS) is a good alternative to conventional spectrometers based on tandem electrostatic acceleration for radiocarbon measurement and permits experimentation with both negative and positive carbon ions. However, such 14C AMS of either polarity ions is limited by an interference. In the case of anion acceleration we have newly determined this to be summed 13C and 16O by improvising an additional Wien filter on our SSAMS deck. Also, 14C AMS might be improved by removing its dependency on negative-ionisation in a sputter ion source. This requires negative-ionisation of sample atoms elsewhere to suppress the 14N interference, which we accomplish by transmitting initially positive ions through a thin membrane. The ionisation dependence on ion-energy is found to be consistent with previous experimentation with vapours and thicker foils.

  8. Molybdic acid ionisation under hydrothermal conditions to 300 °C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minubayeva, Z.; Seward, T. M.

    2010-08-01

    This UV spectrophotometric study was aimed at providing precise, experimentally derived thermodynamic data for the ionisation of molybdic acid (H 2MoO 4) from 30 to 300 °C and at equilibrium saturated vapour pressures. The determination of the equilibrium constants and associated thermodynamic parameters were facilitated by spectrophotometric measurements using a specially designed high temperature optical Ti-Pd flow-through cell with silica glass windows. The following van't Hoff isochore equations describe the temperature dependence of the first and second ionisation constants of molybdic acid up to 300 °C:

  9. Dynamics of ionisation and entanglement in the 'atom + quantum electromagnetic field' system

    SciTech Connect

    Sharapova, P R; Tikhonova, O V

    2012-03-31

    The dynamics of a model Rydberg atom in a strong nonclassical electromagnetic field is investigated. The field-induced transitions to the continuum involving different numbers of photons (with intermediate states in the discrete spectrum) are taken into account and the specific features of ionisation in 'squeezed' field states are considered in comparison with the case of classical light. A significant decrease in the ionisation rate is found, which is caused by the interference stabilisation of the atomic system. The entanglement of the atomic and field subsystems, the temporal dynamics of the correlations found, and the possibility of measuring them are analysed.

  10. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-01

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  11. Fundamentals of Radiation Dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Bos, Adrie J. J.

    2011-05-05

    The basic concepts of radiation dosimetry are reviewed on basis of ICRU reports and text books. The radiation field is described with, among others, the particle fluence. Cross sections for indirectly ionizing radiation are defined and indicated is how they are related to the mass energy transfer and mass energy absorption coefficients. Definitions of total and restricted mass stopping powers of directly ionizing radiation are given. The dosimetric quantities, kerma, absorbed dose and exposure together with the relations between them are discussed in depth. Finally it is indicated how the absorbed dose can be measured with a calorimeter by measuring the temperature increase and with an ionisation chamber measuring the charge produced by the ionizing radiation and making use of the Bragg-Gray relation.

  12. On the bifurcation of the circular polarisation of the fifth and seventh pump-field harmonics generated in the plasma produced by the ionisation of a gas of excited hydrogen-like atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Silin, Viktor P; Silin, Pavel V

    2006-05-31

    Within the framework of the Bethe ionisation model we considered theoretically the dependences of the degree of circular polarisation of the fifth and seventh pump-field harmonics, which are generated due to bremsstrahlung, on the electric intensity of the pump field, the degree of its circular polarisation, and the principal quantum number of the excited states of hydrogen-like atoms of a gas ionised by the pump field. A bifurcation of the circular polarisation of these harmonics was discovered, which confirms our previous hypothesis that this effect is common for harmonics generated due to the bremsstrahlung in the pump field when the plasma electrons oscillate in this field. We determined how the relationships under consideration are scaled with V{sub E}n/V{sub Z}, the product of electron oscillation velocity and the principal quantum number of the excited electron divided by the Coulomb velocity. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  13. Identification of carbohydrates by matrix-free material-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hashir, Muhammad Ahsan; Stecher, Guenther; Bakry, Rania; Kasemsook, Saowapak; Blassnig, Bernhard; Feuerstein, Isabel; Abel, Gudrun; Popp, Michael; Bobleter, Ortwin; Bonn, Guenther K

    2007-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is a sensitive mass spectrometric technique which utilises acidic materials as matrices for laser energy absorption, desorption and ionisation of analytes. These matrix materials produce background signals particularly in the low-mass range and make the detection and identification of small molecules difficult and nearly impossible. To overcome this problem this paper introduces matrix-free material-enhanced laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (mf-MELDI-MS) for the screening and analysis of small molecules such as carbohydrates. For this purpose, 4,4'-azo-dianiline was immobilised on silica gel enabling the absorption of laser energy sufficient for successful desorption and ionisation of low molecular weight compounds. The particle and pore sizes, the solvent system for suspension and the sample preparation procedures have been optimised. The newly synthesised MELDI material delivered excellent spectra with regard to signal-to-noise ratio and detection sensitivity. Finally, wheat straw degradation products and Salix alba L. plant extracts were analysed proving the high performance and excellent behaviour of the introduced material.

  14. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  15. Calculations of electron-impact ionisation of {{Fe}}^{25+} and {{Fe}}^{24+}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursa, Dmitry V.; Bostock, Christopher J.; Bray, Igor; Fontes, Christopher J.

    2016-09-01

    Electron-impact ionisation cross sections for the hydrogen- and helium-like ions of iron are calculated. The convergent close-coupling and distorted-wave methods in the relativistic and nonrelativistic formulations are used. The cross sections are in very good agreement with the results of the corresponding methods, with the relativistic formulation establishing the benchmarks to few percent accuracy.

  16. Statistical fluctuations of the ionisation yield of low-energy electrons in He, Ne and Ar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosswendt, B.

    1984-04-01

    Using the Monte-Carlo method, the statistical fluctuations of the ionisation yield produced during the degradation of low energy electrons in the three noble gases He, Ne and Ar were studied. To do this, the probability P(T(0),j) for exact j ionisations generated upon the complete slowing down of electrons of initial energy T(0) was calculated in the energy range from 20 eV to 5 keV. The probability distributions in the number of ionisations produced were then used to determine moments M(v) and central moments m(v) up to the order v = 5 which is related to such well known quantities as the mean energy expended/ion pair formed, the Fano factor, and the generalised Fano factors introduced by Inokuti et al (1980), all of which are able to characterise a special property of the ionisation number distribution, as for instance its variance, its asymmetry, and its flatness near the center.

  17. Exploring Learners' Conceptual Resources: Singapore a Level Students' Explanations in the Topic of Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes findings from a study to explore Singapore A-level (Grades 11 and 12, 16-19 yr old) students' understanding of ionisation energy, an abstract and complex topic that is featured in school chemistry courses. Previous research had reported that students in the United Kingdom commonly use alternative notions based on the perceived…

  18. Kinetics of the nitrogen first negative system excitation by ionising radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Khasenov, M U

    2005-12-31

    The rate constants of N{sub 2}{sup +}(B) quenching by nitrogen and helium and of two- and three-body charge exchange of He{sub 2}{sup +} on H{sub 2}, D{sub 2}, and Kr are measured from luminescence at the 0-0 transition of the first negative system of nitrogen in mixtures of helium and nitrogen with hydrogen, krypton or deuterium excited by alpha particles emitted by {sup 210}Po . (active media)

  19. Migration and sensory changes of packaging materials caused by ionising radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welle, Frank; Mauer, Alexandra; Franz, Roland

    2002-03-01

    Irradiation of packaging materials—in most cases plastics—generally lead to a formation of free radicals and ions, with secondary effects such as cross-linking as well as oxidative chain scission. These effects result in a formation of volatile radiolysis products which may induce off-odours in the polymers and may change the migration characteristics of packaging materials. Irradiation affect also polymer additives which change the specific migration behaviour of polymer additives and additive related decomposition products. Migration and sensory changes of pre-sterilised packaging materials have consequences on the quality of packaged goods and consumer's safety. Therefore, migration and sensory properties of packaging materials have specific regulations. Within this paper the effects of the formation of radiolysis products on overall migration, specific migration of food additives or radiolysis products as well as on sensory changes are discussed in view of current European food law.

  20. HCO+ and N2H+ as ionisation tracers in the low-mass protostar IRAS16293-2422

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quénard, D.; Bottinelli, S.; Caux, E.

    2016-05-01

    Ionisation in the molecular environment of star-forming regions gives important clues on the chemical processes that take place in the environment of a young protostar. Ionisation can be traced with molecules like HCO+ and N2H+ and it regulates the formation of larger molecules such as complex organic molecules (COMs). The ionisation degree can also play an important role in the free-fall timescale of the protostar since it prevents the neutral material to collapse through collisions with ions and electrons bound to the magnetic field of the central protostar.

  1. Potentiometric titrations in acetonitrile-water mixtures: evaluation of aqueous ionisation constant of ketoprofen.

    PubMed

    Herrador, M Angeles; González, A Gustavo

    2002-03-11

    Non ideality of acetonitrile-water mixtures was studied from data on the excess of molar volumes and viscosities. pH and autoprotolisis constants were evaluated at the standard state of the mixed solvent from titrations of a strong acid with a strong base. In order to illustrate the evaluation of the aqueous ionisation constant of water insoluble compounds from pH titrations in ACN-water mixtures, a typical insoluble arylpropionic acid, ketoprofen, was chosen. Ketoprofen was titrated in mixtures from 10 to 70% w/w of acetonitrile against a strong base. From the titration data, the ionisation constant of ketoprofen was evaluated at the standard state of the solvent mixture (pK(a)(*)). Aqueous pK(a) was determined by extrapolation, as the intercept of the plot of pK(a)(*) versus ACN mole fraction.

  2. Classification of the Spectra of Highly Ionised Atoms During the Last Seven Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, B. C.

    1981-10-01

    This review of recent contributions to the classification of the spectra of highly ionised atoms emphasises how major research projects have influenced progress. These projects include experiments on board orbiting space satellites and SKYLAB, those of fusion research (notably involving TOKAMAK devices), studies with giant pulse laser-produced-plasmas and beam-foil spectroscopy. In addition, the large volume of data gathered through the application of traditional methods and the impact of theoretical calculations are discussed. A comprehensive reference list of papers reporting emission line identifications for elements lighter than nickel and ionisation stages higher than the fourth is included, along with references to other bibliographies and compilations of energy levels, or wavelengths and identifications.

  3. Exploring the Powerful Ionised Wind in the Seyfert Galaxy PG1211+143

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pounds, Ken

    2013-10-01

    Highly-ionised high-speed winds in AGN (UFOs) were first detected with XMM-Newton a decade ago, and are now established as a key factor in the study of SMBH accretion, and in the growth and metal enrichment of their host galaxies. However, information on the ionisation and dynamical structure, and the ultimate fate of UFOs remains very limited. We request a 600ks extended XMM-Newton study of the prototype UFO PG1211+143 in AO-13, to obtain high quality EPIC and RGS spectra, to map the flow structure and variability, while seeking evidence for the anticipated interaction with the ISM and possible conversion of the energetic wind to a momentum-driven flow.

  4. The effect of electrospray solvent composition on desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) efficiency and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Green, F M; Salter, T L; Gilmore, I S; Stokes, P; O'Connor, G

    2010-04-01

    In desorption electrospray ionisation (DESI) the interaction between the electrospray and the surface is key to two important analytical parameters, the spatial resolution and the sensitivity. We evaluate the effect of the electrospray solvent type, organic solvent fraction with water, analyte solubility and substrate wettability on DESI erosion diameter and material transferral into useful ion signal. To do this five amino acids, glycine, alanine, valine, leucine and phenylalanine are prepared as thin films on three substrates, UV/ozone treated glass, glass and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). Four different solvents, acetonitrile (ACN), methanol (MeOH), ethanol (EtOH) and propan-2-ol (IPA), are used with organic solvent fractions with water varying from 0.1 to 1. These model systems allow the solubility or wettability to be kept constant as other parameters are varied. Additionally, comparison with electrospray ionisation (ESI) allows effects of ionisation efficiency to be determined. It is shown that the DESI efficiency is linearly dependent on the solubility (for these materials at least) and for analytes with solubilities below 1.5 g kg(-1), additional strategies may be required for DESI to be effective. We show that the DESI erosion diameter improves linearly with organic solvent fraction, with an organic solvent fraction of 0.9 instead of 0.5 leading to a 2 fold improvement. Furthermore, this leads to a 35 fold increase in DESI efficiency, defined as the molecular ion yield per unit area. It is shown that these improvements correlate with smaller droplet sizes rather than surface wetting or ionisation. PMID:20349538

  5. Determination of sultopride and tiapride in serum by gas chromatography using a surface ionisation detector.

    PubMed

    Kamizono, A; Inotsume, N; Miyamoto, K; Ueda, K; Miyakawa, T; Arimoto, H; Nakano, M

    1991-06-14

    A sensitive and selective method has been developed for the determination of sultopride and tiapride in serum using gas chromatography with a surface ionisation detector. No interfering peaks from endogenous substances were observed. The method showed good reproducibility and accuracy, and the standard curve was linear up to 2 micrograms/ml with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. This method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies and therapeutic drug monitoring of sultopride and tiapride.

  6. Ambient ionisation mass spectrometry for the characterisation of polymers and polymer additives: a review.

    PubMed

    Paine, Martin R L; Barker, Philip J; Blanksby, Stephen J

    2014-01-15

    The purpose of this review is to showcase the present capabilities of ambient sampling and ionisation technologies for the analysis of polymers and polymer additives by mass spectrometry (MS) while simultaneously highlighting their advantages and limitations in a critical fashion. To qualify as an ambient ionisation technique, the method must be able to probe the surface of solid or liquid samples while operating in an open environment, allowing a variety of sample sizes, shapes, and substrate materials to be analysed. The main sections of this review will be guided by the underlying principle governing the desorption/extraction step of the analysis; liquid extraction, laser ablation, or thermal desorption, and the major component investigated, either the polymer itself or exogenous compounds (additives and contaminants) present within or on the polymer substrate. The review will conclude by summarising some of the challenges these technologies still face and possible directions that would further enhance the utility of ambient ionisation mass spectrometry as a tool for polymer analysis.

  7. A Carbon Nano Tube electron impact ionisation source for low-power, compact spacecraft mass spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, S.; Bardwell, M. W.; Morse, A. D.; Morgan, G. H.

    2012-04-01

    A novel ionisation source which uses commercially available Carbon Nano Tube devices is demonstrated as a replacement for a filament based ionisation source in an ion trap mass spectrometer. The carbon nanotube ion source electron emission was characterised and exhibited typical emission of 30 ± 1.7 μA with an applied voltage differential of 300 V between the carbon nanotube tips and the extraction grid. The ion source was tested for longevity and operated under a condition of continuous emission for a period of 44 h; there was an observed reduction in emission current of 26.5% during operation. Spectra were generated by installing the ion source into a Finnigan Mat ITD700 ion trap mass spectrometer; the spectra recorded showed all of the characteristic m/z peaks from m/z 69 to m/z 219. Perfluorotributylamine spectra were collected and averaged contiguously for a period of 48 h with no significant signal loss or peak mass allocation shift. The low power requirements and low mass of this novel ionisation source are considered be of great value to future space missions where mass spectrometric technology will be employed.

  8. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-06-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in J Chem Educ 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by considering which atomic models are used in pre-service teachers' explanations and how that relates to the causality ideas expressed. Thirty-one pre-service teachers were interviewed. Each was asked to describe and explain four different atomic representations (Rutherford, Electron cloud micrograph, Bohr and Schrödinger types) in as much detail as they could. They also provided an explanation for the subsequent ionisation energy values for an oxygen atom and identified which representations were helpful in explaining the values. Significantly, when pre-service teachers only used Bohr type representations, they did not use repelling electron ideas in their explanations. However, arguments that were based on electron-electron repulsion used features from Schrödinger type atoms. These findings suggest that many pre-service teachers need to develop their atomic modelling skills so that they select and use models more expertly and that subsequent ionisation explanations offer a context in which to explore different atomic models' limitations and their deployment as explanatory resources.

  9. Born total ionisation cross sections: An algebraic computing program using Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Philip L.; Stelbovics, Andris T.

    2003-08-01

    The software described in this paper uses the Maple algebraic computing environment to calculate an analytic form for the matrix element of the plane-wave Born approximation of the electron-impact ionisation of an atomic orbital, with arbitrary orbital and angular momentum quantum numbers. The atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater functions, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, made orthogonal to all occupied orbitals of the target atom. Clenshaw-Curtis integration techniques are then used to calculate the total ionisation cross-section. For improved performance, the numerical integrations are performed using FORTRAN by automatically converting the analytic matrix element for each orbital into a FORTRAN subroutine. The results compare favourably with experimental data for a wide range of elements, including the transition metals, with excellent convergence at high energies. Program summaryTitle of program: BIX Catalogue identifier:ADRZ Program summary URL:http://www.cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/cpc/summaries/ADRZ Program obtainable from:CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computers: Platform independent Operating systems: Tested on DEC Alpha Unix, Windows NT 4.0 and Windows XP Professional Edition Programming language used: Maple V Release 5.1 and FORTRAN 90 Memory required: 256 MB No. of processors used: 1 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:61754 Distributed format:tar gzip file Keywords: Born approximation, electron-impact ionisation cross-section, Maple, Hartree-Fock Nature of physical problem: Calculates the total electron impact ionisation cross-section for neutral and ionised atomic species using the first-Born approximation. The scattered electron is modelled by a plane wave, and the ejected electron is modelled by a hydrogenic Coulomb wave, which is made orthogonal to all occupied atomic orbitals, and the atomic orbitals are approximated by Hartree-Fock Slater

  10. The cytoplasm as a radiation target: an in silico study of microbeam cell irradiation.

    PubMed

    Byrne, H L; Domanova, W; McNamara, A L; Incerti, S; Kuncic, Z

    2015-03-21

    We performed in silico microbeam cell irradiation modelling to quantitatively investigate ionisations resulting from soft x-ray and alpha particle microbeams targeting the cytoplasm of a realistic cell model. Our results on the spatial distribution of ionisations show that as x-rays are susceptible to scatter within a cell that can lead to ionisations in the nucleus, soft x-ray microbeams may not be suitable for investigating the DNA damage response to radiation targeting the cytoplasm alone. In contrast, ionisations from an ideal alpha microbeam are tightly confined to the cytoplasm, but a realistic alpha microbeam degrades upon interaction with components upstream of the cellular target. Thus it is difficult to completely rule out a contribution from alpha particle hits to the nucleus when investigating DNA damage response to cytoplasmic irradiation. We find that although the cytoplasm targeting efficiency of an alpha microbeam is better than that of a soft x-ray microbeam (the probability of stray alphas hitting the nucleus is 0.2% compared to 3.6% for x-rays), stray alphas produce more ionisations in the nucleus and thus have greater potential for initiating damage responses therein. Our results suggest that observed biological responses to cytoplasmic irradiation include a small component that can be attributed to stray ionisations in the nucleus resulting from the stochastic nature of particle interactions that cause out-of-beam scatter. This contribution is difficult to isolate experimentally, thus demonstrating the value of the in silico approach.

  11. The cytoplasm as a radiation target: an in silico study of microbeam cell irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, H. L.; Domanova, W.; McNamara, A. L.; Incerti, S.; Kuncic, Z.

    2015-03-01

    We performed in silico microbeam cell irradiation modelling to quantitatively investigate ionisations resulting from soft x-ray and alpha particle microbeams targeting the cytoplasm of a realistic cell model. Our results on the spatial distribution of ionisations show that as x-rays are susceptible to scatter within a cell that can lead to ionisations in the nucleus, soft x-ray microbeams may not be suitable for investigating the DNA damage response to radiation targeting the cytoplasm alone. In contrast, ionisations from an ideal alpha microbeam are tightly confined to the cytoplasm, but a realistic alpha microbeam degrades upon interaction with components upstream of the cellular target. Thus it is difficult to completely rule out a contribution from alpha particle hits to the nucleus when investigating DNA damage response to cytoplasmic irradiation. We find that although the cytoplasm targeting efficiency of an alpha microbeam is better than that of a soft x-ray microbeam (the probability of stray alphas hitting the nucleus is 0.2% compared to 3.6% for x-rays), stray alphas produce more ionisations in the nucleus and thus have greater potential for initiating damage responses therein. Our results suggest that observed biological responses to cytoplasmic irradiation include a small component that can be attributed to stray ionisations in the nucleus resulting from the stochastic nature of particle interactions that cause out-of-beam scatter. This contribution is difficult to isolate experimentally, thus demonstrating the value of the in silico approach.

  12. Design and performance of an ionisation chamber for the measurement of low alpha-activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, A.; Hutsch, J.; Krüger, F.; Sobiella, M.; Wilsenach, H.; Zuber, K.

    2016-04-01

    A new ionisation chamber for alpha-spectroscopy has been built from radio-pure materials for the purpose of investigating long lived alpha-decays. The measurement makes use of pulse shape analysis to discriminate between signal and background events. The design and performance of the chamber is described in this paper. A background rate of (10.9 ± 0.6) counts per day in the energy region of 1-9 MeV was achieved with a run period of 30.8 days. The background is dominantly produced by radon daughters.

  13. Forensic applications of desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Morelato, Marie; Beavis, Alison; Kirkbride, Paul; Roux, Claude

    2013-03-10

    Desorption electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (DESI-MS) is an emerging analytical technique that enables in situ mass spectrometric analysis of specimens under ambient conditions. It has been successfully applied to a large range of forensically relevant materials. This review assesses and highlights forensic applications of DESI-MS including the analysis and detection of illicit drugs, explosives, chemical warfare agents, inks and documents, fingermarks, gunshot residues and drugs of abuse in urine and plasma specimens. The minimal specimen preparation required for analysis and the sensitivity of detection achieved offer great advantages, especially in the field of forensic science.

  14. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, D.; Adey, D.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Back, J.; Barber, G.; Barclay, P.; de Bari, A.; Bayes, R.; Bayliss, V.; Bertoni, R.; Blackmore, V. J.; Blondel, A.; Blot, S.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonesini, M.; Booth, C. N.; Bowring, D.; Boyd, S.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Bravar, U.; Bross, A. D.; Capponi, M.; Carlisle, T.; Cecchet, G.; Charnley, G.; Cobb, J. H.; Colling, D.; Collomb, N.; Coney, L.; Cooke, P.; Courthold, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; DeMello, A.; Dick, A. J.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Filthaut, F.; Fish, A.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Fletcher, R.; Forrest, D.; Francis, V.; Freemire, B.; Fry, L.; Gallagher, A.; Gamet, R.; Gourlay, S.; Grant, A.; Graulich, J. S.; Griffiths, S.; Hanlet, P.; Hansen, O. M.; Hanson, G. G.; Harrison, P.; Hart, T. L.; Hartnett, T.; Hayler, T.; Heidt, C.; Hills, M.; Hodgson, P.; Hunt, C.; Iaciofano, A.; Ishimoto, S.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kim, Y. K.; Kolev, D.; Kuno, Y.; Kyberd, P.; Lau, W.; Leaver, J.; Leonova, M.; Li, D.; Lintern, A.; Littlefield, M.; Long, K.; Lucchini, G.; Luo, T.; Macwaters, C.; Martlew, B.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Moretti, A.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Neuffer, D.; Nichols, A.; Nicholson, R.; Nugent, J. C.; Onel, Y.; Orestano, D.; Overton, E.; Owens, P.; Palladino, V.; Palmer, R. B.; Pasternak, J.; Pastore, F.; Pidcott, C.; Popovic, M.; Preece, R.; Prestemon, S.; Rajaram, D.; Ramberger, S.; Rayner, M. A.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Roberts, T. J.; Robinson, M.; Rogers, C.; Ronald, K.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Rusinov, I.; Sakamoto, H.; Sanders, D. A.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Smith, P. J.; Snopok, P.; Soler, F. J. P.; Stanley, T.; Summers, D. J.; Takahashi, M.; Tarrant, J.; Taylor, I.; Tortora, L.; Torun, Y.; Tsenov, R.; Tunnell, C. D.; Vankova, G.; Verguilov, V.; Virostek, S. P.; Vretenar, M.; Walaron, K.; Watson, S.; White, C.; Whyte, C. G.; Wilson, A.; Wisting, H.; Zisman, M. S.

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/ c, have emittances of approximately 1.2-2.3 π mm-rad horizontally and 0.6-1.0 π mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90-190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/ c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  15. Effet galvanique et spectroscopie d'ionisation multiphotonique à large bande : application à l'uranium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagné, Jean-Marie; Babin, François

    1992-04-01

    The uranium single colour multiphoton ionization spectrum, with high laser bandwidth excitation, was measured, in the spectral range of R6G, using the fast pulsed (sim 10^{-9} s) optogalvanic signal generated by photoionization in the dark space of a hollow cathode discharge. Results indicate that this spectrum is dense in the 570 to 610 nm spectral range. A list of the 74 most intense lines is given. The results of a try at explaining these lines by a three photon resonant or quasi-resonant scheme, using know levels of uranium, are presented. The multiphoton ionization line at 591.54 nm is a special case which is discussed more thoroughly. Grâce à l'effet optogalvanique pulsé rapide (sim 10^{-9} s) généré par la photoionisation dans l'espace sombre d'une décharge en régime cathode creuse, le spectre d'ionisation multiphotonique à large bande de l'uranium, dans le domaine spectral de la rhodamine 6G, a été mesuré. Les résultats indiquent que pour cette bande spectrale du laser, comprise entre 570 et 610 nm, ce spectre optogalvanique d'ionisation multiphotonique est très riche. Une liste de 74 raies photoioniques les plus significatives est présentée. Les résultats préliminaires d'une étude pour expliquer la présence de ces raies, en utilisant des schémas d'ionisation à trois photons résonnants ou quasi-résonnants, à partir d'une liste de niveaux publiés, sont également présentés. La raie d'ionisation associée à la longueur d'oride 591,54 nm est un cas spécial qui est discuté plus longuement.

  16. Characterisation of the muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D.; et al.,

    2013-10-01

    A novel single-particle technique to measure emittance has been developed and used to characterise seventeen different muon beams for the Muon Ionisation Cooling Experiment (MICE). The muon beams, whose mean momenta vary from 171 to 281 MeV/c, have emittances of approximately 1.5--2.3 \\pi mm-rad horizontally and 0.6--1.0 \\pi mm-rad vertically, a horizontal dispersion of 90--190 mm and momentum spreads of about 25 MeV/c. There is reasonable agreement between the measured parameters of the beams and the results of simulations. The beams are found to meet the requirements of MICE.

  17. A novel arsenical in clam kidney identified by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Francesconi, K A; Edmonds, J S

    2001-01-01

    Kidneys of clams of the genus Tridacna accumulate metabolic products from symbiotic unicellular algae that grow in the mantles of the clams. These metabolites include organoarsenic compounds that are biosynthesised by algae from arsenate in seawater. The arsenic compounds in aqueous extracts of the kidney of the giant clam T. derasa were investigated by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. About 50% of the water-soluble arsenic was present as dimethylarsinoylribosides and dimethylarsinate which are common algal metabolites. The major compound in the kidney (50% of water-soluble arsenic) was identified as a 5-dimethylarsinoyl-2,3,4-trihydroxycarboxylic acid, a new natural product.

  18. Age determination of plutonium material in nuclear forensics by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wallenius, M; Mayer, K

    2000-02-01

    Age is a key parameter when deducing the history of plutonium material, i.e. the plutonium produced in the nuclear reactors. This is of vital importance, when a smuggled plutonium sample has been seized and the origin has to be determined. A methodology is described which allows accurately to determine the age of plutonium material by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry using independent parent/daughter relations. This has been demonstrated for Reference Materials of known ages as well as for real samples. The already established method using gamma spectrometry is compared to this.

  19. Chronic lymphocytic leukaemia and radiation: findings among workers at five US nuclear facilities and a review of the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Schubauer-Berigan, Mary K; Daniels, Robert D; Fleming, Donald A; Markey, Andrea M; Couch, James R; Ahrenholz, Steven H; Burphy, Jenneh S; Anderson, Jeri L; Tseng, Chih-Yu

    2007-12-01

    The aetiology of chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) is largely unknown. Despite compelling evidence for ionising radiation as a cause of most forms of leukaemia, CLL was not found to be radiogenic in early studies. Herein we describe the recent evidence for causation of CLL by ionising and non-ionising radiation, including a nested case-control study conducted within a cohort of 94 517 US workers at four nuclear weapons facilities and a nuclear naval shipyard. Forty-three cases of CLL deaths and 172 age-matched controls were identified with follow-up up to between 1990 and 1996. Radiation exposure from external sources and plutonium (lagged 10 years) was assessed for each worker, based on monitoring records. The excess relative rate (ERR) was estimated for workers receiving elevated doses compared to unexposed workers, controlling for possible risk factors. The ERR per 10 mSv was -0.020 (95% confidence interval: <0, 0.14) based on all exposed workers. However, for workers receiving <100 mSv, the ERR per 10 mSv was 0.20 (-0.035, 0.96). Recent studies of uranium miners and other populations have shown elevations of CLL possibly associated with ionising and non-ionising radiation. New studies should use incident cases and sufficient latency to account for the expected lengthy induction period for CLL.

  20. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low. PMID:18486066

  1. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low.

  2. High throughput volatile fatty acid skin metabolite profiling by thermal desorption secondary electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martin, Helen J; Reynolds, James C; Riazanskaia, Svetlana; Thomas, C L Paul

    2014-09-01

    The non-invasive nature of volatile organic compound (VOC) sampling from skin makes this a priority in the development of new screening and diagnostic assays. Evaluation of recent literature highlights the tension between the analytical utility of ambient ionisation approaches for skin profiling and the practicality of undertaking larger campaigns (higher statistical power), or undertaking research in remote locations. This study describes how VOC may be sampled from skin and recovered from a polydimethylsilicone sampling coupon and analysed by thermal desorption (TD) interfaced to secondary electrospray ionisation (SESI) time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MS) for the high throughput screening of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) from human skin. Analysis times were reduced by 79% compared to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry methods (GC-MS) and limits of detection in the range 300 to 900 pg cm(-2) for VFA skin concentrations were obtained. Using body odour as a surrogate model for clinical testing 10 Filipino participants, 5 high and 5 low odour, were sampled in Manilla and the samples returned to the UK and screened by TD-SESI-MS and TD-GC-MS for malodour precursors with greater than >95% agreement between the two analytical techniques. Eight additional VFAs were also identified by both techniques with chains 4 to 15 carbons long being observed. TD-SESI-MS appears to have significant potential for the high throughput targeted screening of volatile biomarkers in human skin.

  3. Studies on thermionic ionisation detection in comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Danielle; Marriott, Philip

    2006-10-01

    This study explores the application of specific thermionic ionisation detection in comprehensive 2-D GC (GC x GC) and represents the first report of GC x GC with nitrogen phosphorus detection (GC x GC-NPD). Of particular interest is the performance of the NPD with respect to peak parameters of asymmetry and sensitivity. Since GC x GC produces much narrower peaks than obtained with fast GC (e.g. 100 ms vs. <1 s) the effect of detector response time and any lack of symmetry arising from the detection step is important if peak separation (resolution) is to be maintained. It was observed that detector gas flows had a significant impact on peak asymmetry and peak magnitude, and that optimisation of the detector was critical, particularly for complex sample analysis by GC x GC-NPD. Peak asymmetries ranging from As = 1.8 to 8.0 were observed under different conditions of detector gas flows. Comparison of GC x GC-NPD with GC x GC-flame ionisation detection (FID) showed the former to be approximately 20 times more sensitive for the detection of nitrogen-containing methoxypyrazines analytes, and GC x GC-NPD had a larger linear detection range compared to GC x GC-FID. Furthermore, comparison of GC x GC-NPD and GC x GC-TOFMS chromatograms for the analysis of coffee head-space demonstrated the benefits of selective detection, ultimately realised in a comparatively simplified contour plot.

  4. High-resolution laser spectroscopy with the Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN-ISOLDE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolios, T. E.; de Groote, R. P.; Billowes, J.; Bissell, M. L.; Budinčević, I.; Day Goodacre, T.; Farooq-Smith, G. J.; Fedosseev, V. N.; Flanagan, K. T.; Franchoo, S.; Garcia Ruiz, R. F.; Gins, W.; Heylen, H.; Kron, T.; Li, R.; Lynch, K. M.; Marsh, B. A.; Neyens, G.; Rossel, R. E.; Rothe, S.; Smith, A. J.; Stroke, H. H.; Wendt, K. D. A.; Wilkins, S. G.; Yang, X.

    2016-06-01

    The Collinear Resonance Ionisation Spectroscopy (CRIS) experiment at CERN has achieved high-resolution resonance ionisation laser spectroscopy with a full width at half maximum linewidth of 20(1) MHz for 219,221 Fr, and has measured isotopes as short lived as 5 ms with 214 Fr. This development allows for greater precision in the study of hyperfine structures and isotope shifts, as well as a higher selectivity of single-isotope, even single-isomer, beams. These achievements are linked with the development of a new laser laboratory and new data-acquisition systems.

  5. Correlation of the ionisation response at selected points of IC sensitive regions with SEE sensitivity parameters under pulsed laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gordienko, A V; Mavritskii, O B; Egorov, A N; Pechenkin, A A; Savchenkov, D V

    2014-12-31

    The statistics of the ionisation response amplitude measured at selected points and their surroundings within sensitive regions of integrated circuits (ICs) under focused femtosecond laser irradiation is obtained for samples chosen from large batches of two types of ICs. A correlation between these data and the results of full-chip scanning is found for each type. The criteria for express validation of IC single-event effect (SEE) hardness based on ionisation response measurements at selected points are discussed. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Effects of ionised or chelated water-soluble mineral mixture supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, meat quality and intestinal microbiota in broilers.

    PubMed

    Upadhaya, S D; Lee, B R; Kim, I H

    2016-04-01

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary supplementation of water-soluble ionised or chelated mineral mixture on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics, relative organ weight, meat quality and excreta microflora in broilers. A total of 408 Arbor Acres broilers (17 birds in 8 replicate pens) were randomly allocated into one of the following three treatments: (1) Control/basal diet (CON), (2) T1 (basal diet + 0.5% ionised mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0) and (3) T2 (basal diet + 0.5% chelated mineral mixture solution, pH 3.0). The body weight gain was greater and feed conversion ratio was lower in broilers supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral liquid complex compared to CON during the grower and overall phase of the experiment. No significant effect in the concentration of Ca and P in the blood was observed in birds supplemented with ionised or chelated mineral mixture solution. No adverse effects were observed in organ weight and meat quality with ionised or chelated mineral mixture supplementation. Regarding intestinal microbiota counts there was a reduction of Escherichia coli counts in the small intestine in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In the large intestine, E. coli as well as Salmonella populations were reduced in ionised mineral supplemented birds. In conclusion, ionised or chelated minerals have partial positive effects in improving growth performance and reducing pathogenic bacteria load in the gastro-intestinal tract. PMID:27088481

  7. Measurements of radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators.

    PubMed

    Agosteo, Stefano; Silari, Marco

    2005-01-01

    Monitoring of ionising radiation around high-energy particle accelerators is a difficult task due to the complexity of the radiation field, which is made up of neutrons, charged hadrons, muons, photons and electrons, with energy spectra extending over a wide energy range. The dose-equivalent outside a thick shield is mainly owing to neutrons, with some contribution from photons and, to a minor extent, the other particles. Neutron dosimetry and spectrometry are thus of primary importance to correctly evaluate the exposure of personnel. This paper reviews the relevant techniques and instrumentation employed for monitoring radiation fields around high-energy proton accelerators, with particular emphasis on the recent development to increase the response of neutron measuring devices > 20 MeV. Rem-counters, pressurised ionisation chambers, superheated emulsions, tissue-equivalent proportional counters and Bonner sphere spectrometers are discussed. PMID:16604662

  8. Probing Radiation Damage at the Molecular Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, N. J.; Smialek, M. A.; Moore, S. A.; Folkard, M.; Hoffmann, S. V.

    2006-12-01

    Radiation damage of DNA and other cellular components has traditionally been attributed to ionisation via direct impact of high-energy quanta or by complex radical chemistry. However recent research has shown that strand breaks in DNA may be initiated by secondary electrons and is strongly dependent upon the target DNA base identity. Such research provides the fascinating perspective that it is possible that radiation damage may be described and understood at an individual molecular level introducing new possibilites for therapy and perhaps providing an insight into the origins of life.

  9. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.; Murohashi, Harumitsu, Ed.; Fujino, Yuki, Ed.

    This annual report presents several articles related to the work of the Clinical Center for Child Development at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. The articles are: (1) "The Functional Uses of Infant-Directed Speech of Fathers and Mothers: A Comparison Study" (Katsuko Niwano); (2) "Are Children 'Among the Gods'?: Parental Images of Children…

  10. 76 FR 7590 - Distribution of 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice announcing commencement of Phase II proceeding with... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  11. Description of Seismicity at Volcan de Colima, MEXICO, in the Period 2001-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Davila, G. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Ramirez-Vazquez, C. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    After the february 2001 explosive activity at Volcan de Colima, Mexico, the seismic activity decreased to its lowest level since november 1997 when the actual period of activity started. However, a few months later several researchers reported important morphologic changes inside of the crater formed by the explosive activity, which did not have related seismic activity. During the rainy season it was not possible to follow the development of the changes inside the crater and no significative seismicity was detected. Starting october 2001, a seismic swarm started to develop consisting mainly by high frecuency, very low amplitude seismic events usually detected by the closest seismic station to the summit, at about 1 km. By the end of the month the seismicity almost disappeared, but then it was possible to view again the volcano and for the first time it was possible to observe a huge spine extrusion. From november and until february 2002 it was possible to visually follow, by flying in helicopter, the process. Asismically, new lava was extruded until it filled the crater and a new lava dome was emplaced on the volcano. On february 5, 2002 the new material started to flow down the slopes of the volcano forming lava fronts mainly toward the southwest sector. Apparently the lava extrusion rate was almost constant. Beginning april, short periods of tremor started to appear sporadically and later it begun increasing continuosly in duration, amplitude and spectral content to levels not previously seen at Volcan de Colima. Such situation prompted a preventive evacuation of the people living close to the volcano and at greater risk. However, ending may, 2002 the seismic activity suddenly decreased in a stepwise way and later slowly decreased until a new minimum was reached by the end of june. However, starting july, seismicity started to increased again until a stable level was reached and continues until now. During the whole process, low level, small explosive type events have been detected.A detailed discussion is presented in that presentation.

  12. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry County Conservation District, and Ferry County. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided project funding support and program integration assistance. A stock of redband rainbow trout, were discovered in 2001 in an isolated section of Bridge Creek above a set of waterfalls. DNA microsatellite analysis was conducted at the University of Idaho and indicated that very little if any hybridization. The targeted species in the genetic analysis was red band/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.). The sub-contract is with Madison Powell and Joyce Faler at the Center for Salmonid and Freshwater Species at Risk at the University of Idaho/HFCES. DNA analysis used mitochondrial and nuclear RFLP markers along with two microsatellite loci. Sample populations were screened for detectable levels of introgressive hybridization arising from possible admixtures of hatchery rainbow trout with native red band trout.

  13. The Perfect Tens: The Top Twenty Books Reviewed in "Voice of Youth Advocates" 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voice of Youth Advocates, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Explains the review procedures and rating system for teen books in "Voice of Youth Advocates" and provides annotated bibliographies for the twenty best books in 2001-2202, including fiction, nonfiction, and science fiction and fantasy. (LRW)

  14. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Notes Plus, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This 19th issue of "Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. Under the Ideas from the Classroom section, the August 2001 issue contains the following materials: "Imitation: The Sincerest Form of Flattery" (Anna M. Parks); "Stories That Make Us Who We Are" (Therese M. Willis and Kathleen…

  15. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  17. Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Melissa, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of 5 issues of Imagine cover the time period from November/December 2001 through May/June 2002. Designed for gifted youth, the issues focus on dramatic arts, physics and astronomy, communications, law and politics, and robotics, and contain the following featured articles: (1) The Story of a Play (Gemma Cooper-Novack); (2)…

  18. Concentration and dry deposition of mercury species in arid south central New Mexico (2001-2002)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Colleen A.; Swartzendruber, Philip; Prestbo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This research was initiated to characterize atmospheric deposition of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), particulate mercury (HgP; <2.5 μm), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) in the arid lands of south central New Mexico. Two methods were field-tested to estimate dry deposition of three mercury species. A manual speciation sampling train consisting of a KCl-coated denuder, 2.5 μm quartz fiber filters, and gold-coated quartz traps and an ion-exchange membrane (as a passive surrogate surface) were deployed concurrently over 24-h intervals for an entire year. The mean 24-h atmospheric concentration for RGM was 6.8 pg m-3 with an estimated deposition of 0.10 ng m-2h-1. The estimated deposition of mercury to the passive surrogate surface was much greater (4.0 ng m-2h-1) but demonstrated a diurnal pattern with elevated deposition from late afternoon to late evening (1400−2200; 8.0 ng m-2h-1) and lowest deposition during the night just prior to sunrise (2200−0600; 1.7 ng m-2h-1). The mean 24-h atmospheric concentrations for HgP and Hg0 were 1.52 pg m-3 and 1.59 ng m-3, respectively. Diurnal patterns were observed for RGM with atmospheric levels lowest during the night prior to sunrise (3.8 pg m-3) and greater during the afternoon and early evening (8.9 pg m-3). Discernible diurnal patterns were not observed for either HgP or Hg0. The total dry deposition of Hg was 5.9 μg m-2 year-1 with the contribution from the three species as follows:  RGM (0.88 μg m-2 year-1), HgP (0.025 μg m-2 year-1), and Hg0 (5.0 μg m-2 year-1). The annual wet deposition for total mercury throughout the same collection duration was 4.2 μg m-2 year-1, resulting in an estimated total deposition of 10.1 μg m-2 year-1 for Hg. On one sampling date, enhanced HgP (12 pg m-3) was observed due to emissions from a wildfire approximately 250 km to the east.

  19. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  20. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This volume discusses the eligibility requirements for student and parent borrowers from federal financial aid programs. It reviews the factors an aid administrator must consider when reviewing a student's application for a loan and outlines the administrator's responsibilities in checking to make sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards.…

  1. Asotin Creek ISCO Water Sample Data Summary: Water Year 2002, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Stacia

    2003-08-01

    The Pomeroy Ranger District operates 3 automated water samplers (ISCOs) in the Asotin Creek drainage in cooperation with the Asotin Model Watershed. The samplers are located on Asotin Creek: Asotin Creek at the mouth, Asotin Creek at Koch site, and South Fork Asotin Creek above the forks. At the end of Water Year (WY) 2001 we decided to sample from Oct. 1 through June 30 of each water year. This decision was based on the difficulty of obtaining good low flow samples, since the shallow depth of water often meant that instrument intakes were on the bed of the river and samples were contaminated with bed sediments. The greatest portion of suspended sediment is transported during the higher flows of fall and especially during the spring snow runoff period, and sampling the shorter season should allow characterization of the sediment load of the river. The ISCO water samplers collected a daily composite sample of 4 samples per day into one bottle at 6-hour intervals until late March when they were reprogrammed to collect 3 samples per day at 8-hour intervals. This was done to reduce battery use since battery failure had become an ongoing problem. The water is picked up on 24-day cycles and brought to the Forest Service Water Lab in Pendleton, OR. The samples are analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), conductivity, and turbidity. A total dissolved solids value is estimated based on conductivity. The USGS gage, Asotin Creek at the mouth, No.13335050 has been discontinued and there are no discharge records available for this period.

  2. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... proceedings relating to cable retransmission royalties for royalty years 2000 through 2003. 76 FR 7590 (Feb... FR 26798 (May 12, 2010). IPG challenged the category definitions; the Judges rejected IPG's challenge..., Order, in Docket No. 2000-2 CARP CD 93-97, 66 FR 66433, 66444 (Dec. 26, 2001) (quoting H.R. Rep....

  3. The American College Teacher: National Norms for the 2001-2002 HERI Faculty Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Jennifer A.; Astin, Alexander W.; Sax, Linda J.; Korn, William S.

    This report summarizes the highlights of a national survey of college and university faculty that was conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) in fall and winter of 2001-2001. This is the fifth in a series of surveys conducted on a triennial basis. Results are based on the responses of 32,840 full-time college and university…

  4. SURVEILLANCE FOR DRINKING WATER-ASSOCIATED OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data related to occurrences and cau...

  5. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2003-02-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, Oregon is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 22, 2001 to September 12, 2002. A total of 5,519 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,146 adult, 1,158 jack, and 970 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 22,792 adult and 80 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 5,058 adult and 188 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 261 adult and 14 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam for release. There were 5,359 summer steelhead; 622 adult, 1,041 jack and 867 subjack fall chinook; 22,513 adult and 76 jack coho; and 4,061 adult and 123 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 462 adult and 24 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 141 days between February 22 and July 12, 2002. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 134 days and were trapped 5 days. An estimated 200 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland. Approximately 90% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened August 16, 2002. The bypass was run until October 31, 2001 with the exception of the period from August 29 to September 16. The bypass was reopened March 7, 2002 and ran until July 8. The juvenile trap was operated from July 8 to July 12 by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation project.

  6. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  7. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian

    2003-04-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first annual report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.

  8. Charting New Paths: Rural Development in the South. 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State.

    The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) seeks to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29 land-grant institutions to address critical, contemporary rural development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South. Work force development, education, leadership training, food security, civic engagement, urban…

  9. Wisconsin Technical College System Board 2001-2002 Graduate Follow-Up Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) conducts an annual Graduate Follow-Up Survey to gather data regarding the activities and perceptions of students approximately 6 months after their graduation from the colleges. The primary objectives of the survey are to identify the current activities of program graduates, to determine the extent to…

  10. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Bunn, Paul; Johnson, June

    2002-06-01

    This report covers the following 3 chapters: Part 1--Improve wild steelhead trout smolt-to-adult survival rate information by PIT tagging additional wild steelhead trout juveniles. Part 2--Estimating the stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon and forecasting wild/natural smolt production. Part 3--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin.

  11. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to redevelop fisheries and fisheries habitat in basin streams and lakes.

  12. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  13. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  14. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  15. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution and abundance of actinides in a nuclear test cavity and chimney. This work demonstrates that early-time processes can widely disperse actinides at low concentrations outside the melt glass, implying that melt glass dissolution may not be the sole mechanism for the release of actinides to groundwater. The study also provides evidence for the isotopic fractionation of plutonium under the extreme conditions accompanying nuclear explosions. In Chapter 4, X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to determine the redox state of Fe and U in nuclear melt glass samples from the NTS. Both elements were found to occur in mixed valence states (Fe{sup 2+}/Fe{sup 3+} and U{sup 5+}/U{sup 6+}) in all samples. Comparison of the Fe and U redox states with published redox studies of synthetic glasses suggests that plutonium is predominantly in the Pu{sup 4+} oxidation state in the melt glasses. In Chapter 5, alpha autoradiography is used in a NTS field study to investigate the spatial distribution and transport of actinides in soils, and to help identify the size distribution and morphology of the actinide particles. It was found that {alpha}-emitting radionuclides have moved to at least 39 cm depth in the soil profile, far deeper than expected. The methodology that was developed could easily be applied to other field locations where actinides are dispersed in the soil zone. Chapter 6 summarizes the development of a method for measuring environmental levels of {sup 241}Am on the multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer. The method detection limit of 0.017 pCi/L is about two times lower than the best analyses possible by alpha spectrometry. Chapter 7 describes a chlorine-36 study of vertical groundwater transport processes in Frenchman Flat. Mass balance calculations developed from a {sup 36}Cl mixing model at well ER-5-3 No.2 are used to estimate vertical transport fluxes and average vertical flow velocities through the thick volcanic section underlying the basin. The study also documents the variations in {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios within the three principal hydrostratigraphic units in Frenchman Flat. Chapter 8 discusses an ongoing stable isotope investigation of precipitation and recharge processes in central Nevada. Precipitation, spring water, and shallow infiltration samples have been collected at four locations on a biannual basis since 1999. The results show that winter precipitation accounts for >90% of the recharge at these sites. Lysimeter data suggest that most of the evaporation occurring during recharge is due to water vapor loss through the soil zone during periods of slow infiltration. In addition to the topical investigations described above, LLNL-ANCD contributed to several other major collaborative technical products during FY 2001 and 2002.

  16. Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal, an official publication of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, was established to provide an interdisciplinary forum on issues related to the acquisition of language, literacy development, and instructional theory and practice. Articles in Volume 6, Number 1 are: "Documenting and Developing Literacy in Deaf…

  17. Book Review: Distant wanderers / Copernicus Books/Springer , 2001/2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, H. C.

    2002-06-01

    Are we alone in the Universe? The Earth, teeming with life, as we know it, is only one amongst the nine planets (wanderers) that wander around the Sun in more or less circular orbits. Do distant stars also have planets circling them? Are some of them similar to Earth and support life? These questions have long occupied the human mind. However, until the closing years of the twentieth century, the idea that there are stars, other than the Sun, that have planets orbiting them, remained a subject of speculation and controversy because the astronomical observing techniques used for the detection of planetary companions of stars did not have the necessary precision. During the past several years, advances in technology and dedicated efforts of planet-hunting astronomers have made it possible to detect Jupiter-like or more massive planets around nearby stars. So far about 70 such extra-solar planets have been discovered indicating that our solar system is not unique and distant wanderers are not uncommon. Distant Wanderers narrates the story of the search for extra-solar planets, even as the search is becoming more vigorous with newer instruments pushing the limits of sensitivity that has often resulted in the detection of planetary systems with totally unexpected characteristics. The book is primarily aimed at non specialists, but practicing scientists, including astronomers, will find the narrative very interesting and sometimes offering a perspective that is unfamiliar to professionals. The book begins with an introduction to some basic astronomical facts about the Universe, evolution of stars, supernovae and formation of pulsars. The first extra-solar planets were discovered in 1992 around a radio pulsar (PSR 1257+12) by measuring the oscillatory perturbations in the pulse arrival times from the pulsar caused by the presence of orbiting earth-sized planets as their gravity forces the pulsar also to move in orbit around the system barycenter. Such planetary systems are, however, very rare and only one other planet around a pulsar has so far been found. The first extra-solar planet around a sun-like star was discovered in 1995 by M. Mayor and D. Queloz circling the star 51 Pegasi by the method of Doppler spectroscopy. Since then about 70 extra-solar planets have been discovered. Most of these have been detected by Doppler spectroscopy, but now newer methods like occultation and gravitational lensing have also begun to reveal extra-solar planets and candidate extra-solar planets. Distant Wanderers gives a brief description of current theories of planet formation in dusty disks around stars as they form by gravitational collapse of rotating interstellar clouds. Various techniques used by astronomers for the detection of extra-solar planets are discussed. Important astrophysical concepts relevant to planet formation and their detection are also explained. The reader is taken to observatories on mountain tops, laboratories where instruments are built and conferences where astronomers announce their discoveries, debate the results and discuss future strategies for the search for distant wanderers. The extra-solar planets discovered so far, around sun-like stars, are similar in mass to Jupiter or more massive. Their orbits show a great variety. Some are in very close orbits (orbital periods of a few days) about the parent star, and are therefore very hot (hot Jupiters), while others are in wider orbits and cold. Some have nearly circular orbits, while many of them have highly eccentric orbits. There are extra-solar planets with masses as large as about 10 times the mass of Jupiter, close to being brown dwarfs. The existence of such planetary systems was never predicted by the standard theories of planet and star formation. As the hunt for extra-solar planets continues with more sophisticated instruments using innovative ideas, astronomers can be sure to be rewarded with more surprises. In Distant Wanderers, these discoveries and technological developments, currently taking place and being planned for the future, in the search for

  18. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  19. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2001-2002 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mattie H.; Sellman, Jake

    2003-03-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservation's Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect critical riparian areas, natural springs, the Owhyee River and its tributaries, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project commenced in 1997 and addresses the Northwest Power Planning Council's measures 10.8C.2, 10.8C.3, and 10.8C.5 of the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The performance period covers dates from April 2001 through August 2002.

  20. FACCCTS: Journal of the Faculty Association of California Community Colleges, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Katherine, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of four Faculty Association of California Community Colleges (FACCC) newsletters. The September 2001 issue is entitled "Many Voices, One Goal," and contains the following articles: "Growing Pains, Faculty's Role in Governance," and "AB 1725 and Other War Stories," among others. The issue focuses largely on the many…

  1. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues contain the following articles: "Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School" (Azusa Uchihara); "A Successful Keypal Project Using Varied Technologies" (Jean L. Pacheco); "Promoting a Language-Proficient Society: What You Can Do" (Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Journal Reflections of a First-Year Teacher" (Sarah…

  2. Econ Ed & the Fed: Resources and Information for Educators, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahm, Sharon, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Fall 2001-Spring 2002 newsletter provides resources and information to educators, particularly economics, history, social studies, and business educators, throughout the western district of the Federal Reserve System. The goal of the newsletter is to highlight new Federal Reserve teaching materials and resources, including Web sites,…

  3. QED's School Market Trends: Internet Usage in Teaching, 2001-2002. QED Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This report presents results of a survey of curriculum subject (language arts, math, science, and/or social studies) teachers of grades 1-12 on Internet usage. The sample was public schools in Quality Education Data's National Education Database. A total of 350 surveys were completed in March through May 2001. Findings are reported in the…

  4. Molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus causing scarlet fever in northern Taiwan, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yan; Huang, Chung-Ter; Yao, Shu-Man; Chang, Yi-Ching; Shen, Pei-Wun; Chou, Chen-Ying; Li, Shu-Ying

    2007-07-01

    In this study, 830 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates collected between 2001 and 2002 from patients with scarlet fever in northern Taiwan were analyzed by M protein gene (emm) sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 21 emm types and 56 PFGE patterns were identified. The most frequent emm types were emm1 (29.2%), emm4 (24.1%), emm12 (19.0%), emm6 (15.8%), stIL103 (5.7%), and emm22 (1.9%). Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined, and resistance to erythromycin (24.6%), clindamycin (2.0%), and chloramphenicol (1.3%) was detected. Five major emm types (emm4, emm12, emm1, emm22, and emm6) accounted for 95.6% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. The decreased prevalence of erythromycin-resistant emm12 strains coincided with the overall decrease in erythromycin resistance from 32.1% in 2001 to 21.1% in 2002 in Taiwan. Five major clones (emm4/2000, emm12/0000, emm4/2010, emm1/1000, and emm22/8100) represented 72.1% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. The survey of group A Streptococcus emm types, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance has direct relevance to current antimicrobial use policies and potential vaccine development strategies.

  5. National Association of Child Advocates 2001/2002 Annual Report from the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Tamara Lucas

    This annual report details the activities of the National Association of Child Advocates (NACA) from June 2001 to June 2002. The report discusses the efforts of NACA to help members protect funding levels for programs supporting children and their families during the nation's economic downturn, including conducting focus groups to test specific…

  6. Alternative Schools Accountability Model: 2001-2002 Indicator Selection and Reporting Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California has developed an alternative accountability system for schools with fewer than 100 students, alternative schools of various kinds, community day schools, and other schools under the jurisdiction of a county board of education or a county superintendent of schools. This document is a guide to assist local administrators in completing the…

  7. Wyoming Community College System 2001-2002 Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This document focuses on the performance of some of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by 13 indicators chosen by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming community college commission use these indicators. The core indicators are as follows: (1) student goal attainment; (2)…

  8. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    High school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors. This handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and…

  9. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  10. Multicentre surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and staphylococci from Colombian hospitals, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Arias, C A; Reyes, J; Zúñiga, M; Cortés, L; Cruz, C; Rico, C L; Panesso, D

    2003-01-01

    Invasive isolates of staphylococci and enterococci were collected from 15 tertiary care centres in five Colombian cities from 2001 to 2002. A total of 597 isolates were available for analysis. Identification was confirmed by both automated methods and multiplex PCR assays in a central laboratory. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) corresponded to 49.6% and 29.6% of isolates, respectively, and 20.8% were identified as enterococci. MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, oxacillin, rifampicin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and vancomycin were determined using an agar dilution method as appropriate. Screening for vancomycin-resistant S. aureus was also carried out on brain-heart infusion agar plates supplemented with vancomycin. The presence of mecA and van genes was investigated in methicillin-resistant staphylococci and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE), respectively. All staphylococci were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. No VISA isolates were found. In S. aureus and CoNS, the lowest rates of resistance were found for SXT (7.4%) and chloramphenicol (10.7%), respectively. Resistance to oxacillin in S. aureus and CoNS was 52% and 73%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 97.5% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. In enterococci, resistance to glycopeptides was 9.7%: vanA (58.3%) and vanB (41.7%) genes were found. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the GRE isolates were closely related. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and high levels of gentamicin and streptomycin were 9.7%, 27.4%, 8.9%, 43%, 17% and 28.2%, respectively. All enterococci were susceptible to linezolid.

  11. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  12. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J.

    2002-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures helpful in evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  13. Underrecognition of leptospirosis during a dengue fever outbreak in Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tania; Imrie, Allison; Katz, Alan R; Effler, Paul V

    2008-08-01

    During the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006, the reported mean annual incidence rate of leptospirosis in the state of Hawaii was 3.3/100,000 with a range of 22-60 infections reported each year. Because the clinical presentation is highly variable, however, leptospirosis illness is challenging to recognize and may be underdiagnosed. To assess whether the incidence may be substantially higher than reported figures indicate, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of anti-Leptospira IgM antibodies among specimens obtained over a 12-month period (May 2001 to April 2002) from patients presenting with febrile illness during a dengue fever outbreak in Hawaii. Of 1206 patients testing negative or indeterminate for dengue, 54 (4.5%; 95% confidence interval: 3.3%-5.7%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibodies using a commercially available dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common clinical symptoms reported by laboratory-positive leptospirosis patients were fever (92%), headache (88%), and myalgia (83%). Three clinical symptoms were significantly less common among persons laboratory positive for leptospirosis when compared with the 122 patients who had been diagnosed with dengue fever during the outbreak: rash (p < 0.0001), chills (p = 0.05), and petechiae (p = 0.0005). Laboratory-positive leptospirosis infections were identified in persons exposed on each of the 5 most populous islands and illness onsets spanned a 10-month period, reflecting an endemic pattern of disease. If added to the figures obtained via routine passive surveillance, the number of leptospirosis infections identified through this study would more than double the annual incidence rate for Hawaii during 2001. These findings indicate that many leptospiral infections in Hawaii go undiagnosed. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for leptospirosis when assessing patients presenting with acute febrile illness among residents and visitors to Hawaii.

  14. Deposition of Saharan Dust in Monaco Rain 2001 2002: Radionuclides and Elemental Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, M. K.; La Rosa, J. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Oregioni, B.; Povinec, P. P.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations and activity ratios of natural and anthropogenic radio-nuclides as well as concentrations of major and trace elements in red-coloured particles (Saharan dusts) collected in Monaco rain in 2001 and 2002 (5 samples from 4 events) are presented. Different distributions of particle size as well as different activities of natural radionuclides and concentrations of trace metals have been observed for two sets of samples. The 235U/238U activity ratio is around 0.04 showing virgin natural terrestrial origin of the particles. The anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am are of global fallout origin and their annual atmospheric input to the ocean in the particulate form is estimated to be 28 37% for 137Cs, 34 45% for 239+240Pu and 36 51% for 241Am of the total annual depositional fluxes of these radionuclides to the northwest Mediterranean.

  15. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period, significant progress was made on acquisition and development of spatial data, monitoring of steelhead spawning, riparian revegetation, streamflow monitoring, completion of maintenance and repair work, completion of a working version of a habitat database, and completion of the Swale Creek assessment.

  16. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  17. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  18. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring & Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  19. Still "A Reasonably Equal Share." Update on Educational Equity in Vermont, Year 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997, "Act 60," was designed to rectify inequities in the state's funding of public education, as determined by the Vermont Supreme Court. This report examines the degree to which Act 60 has improved conditions over the last 5 years, focusing on the 3 main equity goals of Act 60 and the court's…

  20. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:26988473

  1. Beer fingerprinting by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Márová, Ivana; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2012-11-15

    A method allowing parallel fingerprinting of proteins and maltooligosaccharides directly from untreated beer samples is presented. These two classes of compounds were detected by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionisation-Time of Flight-Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis of beer mixed with 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid solution. The maltooligosaccharide profiles acquired from the MALDI sample spot center were not found characteristic for beers of different source and technology. On the other hand, according to profiles containing protein signals acquired from crystals formed on the border of the MALDI sample spot, we were able to distinguish beer samples of the same brand produced by different breweries. The discriminatory abilities of the method were further examined on a set of 17 lager beers, where the fingerprints containing protein signals enabled resolution of majority of examined brands. We propose MALDI-TOF-MS profiling as a rapid tool for beer brewing technology process monitoring, quality control, and determination of beer authenticity.

  2. Determination of potato glycoalkaloids using high-pressure liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Fumio; Morino, Keiko; Miyazawa, Haruna; Miyashita, Masahiro; Miyagawa, Hisashi

    2004-01-01

    A method for quantifying two toxic glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tuber tissue was developed using HPLC-electrospray ionisation (ESI)/MS. Potato samples were extracted with 5% aqueous acetic acid, and the extracts were subjected directly to HPLC-ESI/MS after filtration. By determining the intensities of the protonated molecules of alpha-solanine (m/z 868) and alpha-chaconine (m/z 852) using selected ion monitoring (positive ion mode), a sensitive assay was attained with detection limits of 38 and 14 ppb for the two glycoalkaloids, respectively. The high sensitivity and selectivity of MS detection effectively reduced the time of analysis thus enabling a high throughput assay of glycoalkaloids in potato tubers.

  3. Evidence For The Tongue of Ionisation In The Winter Dayside Ionosphere Over Svalbard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryse, S. E.; Sims, R. W.; Moen, J.

    Results are presented from a multi-instrument investigation of the dayside ionosphere at high latitudes, under conditions of Bz<0, that provide evidence for the tongue- of-ionisation (TOI) in winter over Svalbard. The TOI, transporting photoionisation from sub-auroral latitudes into the polar cap, has been identified in three successive tomography images at latitudes on the equatorward edge of the auroral region in the post-noon sector. Simultaneous observations by the ESR incoherent scatter radar re- veal cold plasma of increased density in the vicinity of the throat region where the TOI enters the polar cap. Supporting evidence for the feature is provided by optical emissions measured by meridian scanning photometers, together with plasma drift and particle observations from DMSP satellites. The observations are discussed in light of earlier modelling studies of the TOI.

  4. Chemical profile of mango (Mangifera indica L.) using electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Bruno G; Costa, Helber B; Ventura, José A; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Barroso, Maria E S; Correia, Radigya M; Pimentel, Elisângela F; Pinto, Fernanda E; Endringer, Denise C; Romão, Wanderson

    2016-08-01

    Mangifera indica L., mango fruit, is consumed as a dietary supplement with purported health benefits; it is widely used in the food industry. Herein, the chemical profile of the Ubá mango at four distinct maturation stages was evaluated during the process of growth and maturity using negative-ion mode electrospray ionisation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI(-)FT-ICR MS) and physicochemical characterisation analysis (total titratable acidity (TA), total soluble solids (TSS), TSS/TA ratio, and total polyphenolic content). Primary (organic acids and sugars) and secondary metabolites (polyphenolic compounds) were mostly identified in the third maturation stage, thus indicating the best stage for harvesting and consuming the fruit. In addition, the potential cancer chemoprevention of the secondary metabolites (phenolic extracts obtained from mango samples) was evaluated using the induction of quinone reductase activity, concluding that fruit polyphenols have the potential for cancer chemoprevention.

  5. Plasma formation on a metal surface under combined action of laser and microwave radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Gavrilyuk, A P; Shaparev, N Ya

    2013-10-31

    By means of numerical modelling of the combined effect of laser (1.06 mm) and microwave (10{sup 10} – 10{sup 13} s{sup -1}) radiation on the aluminium surface in vacuum it is shown that the additional action of microwave radiation with the frequency 10{sup 12} s{sup -1} provides complete ionisation of the metal vapour (for the values of laser radiation duration and intensity used in the calculations), while in the absence of microwave radiation the vapour remains weakly ionised. The mathematical model used accounts for the processes, occurring in the condensed phase (heat conduction, melting), the evaporation and the kinetic processes in the resulting vapour. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  6. Application of Lithium Attachment Mass Spectrometry for Knudsen Evaporation and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, Thomas; Booth, A. Murray; Alfarra, Rami; Bacak, Asan; Pericval, Carl

    2016-04-01

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting and sensitive method for detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture, and results from lithium ion attachment ionisation sources for two mass spectrometry systems are presented. Trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure (VP) measurements using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The Li+ modified CIMS provided limits of detection of 4 ppt for acetone, 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt from ammonia. Despite improvements, the problem of burnout remained persistent. The Li+ CIMS would unlikely be suitable for field or aircraft work, but could be appropriate for certain lab applications. The KEMS currently utilizes an electron impact (EI) ionisation source which provides a highly sensitive source, with the drawback of fragmentation of ionized molecules (Booth et al., 2009). Using Li+ KEMS the VP of samples can be measured without fragmentation and can therefore be used to identify VPs of individual components in mixtures. The validity of using Li+ for determining the VP of mixtures was tested by making single component VP measurements, which showed good agreement with EI measurements of Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 3 and PEG 4, both when individually measured and when mixed. The Li+ KEMS was then used to investigate a system of atmospheric relevance, α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, generated in a reaction chamber (Alfarra et al., 2012). The VPs of the individual components from this generated sample are within the range we expect for compounds capable of partitioning between the particle and gas phase of an aerosol (0.1-10-5 Pa). Li+ source has a calculated sensitivity approximately 75 times less than that of EI, but the lack of fragmentation using the Li+ source is a significant advantage.

  7. Application of Lithium Attachment Mass Spectrometry for Knudsen Evaporation and Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometry (KEMS, CIMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannan, T.; Booth, M.; Benyezzar, M.; Bacak, A.; Alfarra, M. R. R.; Topping, D. O.; Percival, C.

    2015-12-01

    Lithium ion attachment mass spectrometry provides a non-specific, non-fragmenting and sensitive method for detection of volatile species in the gas phase. The design, manufacture, and results from lithium ion attachment ionisation sources for two mass spectrometry systems are presented. Trace gas analysis is investigated using a modified Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) and vapour pressure (VP) measurements using a modified Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometer (KEMS) are presented. The Li+ modified CIMS provided limits of detection of 4 ppt for acetone, 0.2 ppt for formic acid, 15 ppt for nitric acid and 120 ppt from ammonia. Despite improvements, the problem of burnout remained persistent. The Li+ CIMS would unlikely be suitable for field or aircraft work, but could be appropriate for certain lab applications. The KEMS currently utilizes an electron impact (EI) ionisation source which provides a highly sensitive source, with the drawback of fragmentation of ionized molecules (Booth et al., 2009). Using Li+ KEMS the VP of samples can be measured without fragmentation and can therefore be used to identify VPs of individual components in mixtures. The validity of using Li+ for determining the VP of mixtures was tested by making single component VP measurements, which showed good agreement with EI measurements of Poly ethylene glycol (PEG) 3 and PEG 4, both when individually measured and when mixed. The Li+ KEMS was then used to investigate a system of atmospheric relevance, α-pinene secondary organic aerosol, generated in a reaction chamber (Alfarra et al., 2012). The VPs of the individual components from this generated sample are within the range we expect for compounds capable of partitioning between the particle and gas phase of an aerosol (0.1-10-5 Pa). Li+ source has a calculated sensitivity approximately 75 times less than that of EI, but the lack of fragmentation using the Li+ source is a significant advantage.

  8. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Granby, K

    2014-02-21

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg(-1) range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a small volume of organic solvent. Separation and quantification were performed by the developed LC-(APCI/ESI)MS/MS method. The method was validated using spiked samples of three different processed meat products. Satisfactory recoveries (50-130%) and precisions (2-23%) were obtained for eight VNA and six NVNAs with LODs generally between 0.2 and 1μgkg(-1), though for a few analyte/matrix combinations higher LODs were obtained (3 to 18μgkg(-1)). The validation results show that results obtained for one meat product is not always valid for other meat products. We were not able to obtain satisfactory results for N-nitrosohydroxyproline (NHPRO), N-nitrosodibenzylamine (NDBzA) and N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NDPhA). Application of the APCI interface improved the sensitivity of the method, because of less matrix interference, and gave the method a wider scope, as some NAs were ionisable only by APCI. However, it was only possible to ionize N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) and N-nitroso-2-methyl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NMTCA) by ESI. The validated method was applied for the analysis of processed meat products and contents of N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), N-nitrosopyrrolidine (NPYR), N-nitrosomethylaniline (NMA), N-nitrosoproline (NPRO), NTCA, and NMTCA were found in one or several nitrite cured meat products, whereas none were detected in non-nitrite cured bacon.

  9. Radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, D T

    2004-01-01

    Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to elevated levels of cosmic radiation of galactic and solar origin and secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere, the aircraft structure and its contents. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in Publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standards Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiation, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. The revised Directive has been incorporated into laws and regulations in the European Union Member States. Where the assessment of the occupational exposure of aircraft crew is necessary, the preferred approach to monitoring is by the recording of staff flying times and calculated route doses. Route doses are to be validated by measurements. This paper gives the general background, and considers the radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure of aircraft crew, with the focus on the situation in Europe.

  10. The features of radiation dose variations onboard ISS and Mir space station: comparative study.

    PubMed

    Tverskaya, L V; Panasyuk, M I; Reizman, S Ya; Sosnovets, E N; Teltsov, M V; Tsetlin, V V

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the ISS-measured radiation dose variations since August 2000 is studied. Use is made of the data obtained with the R-16 instrument, which consists of two ionization chambers behind different shielding thicknesses. The doses recorded during solar energetic particle (SEP) events are compared with the data obtained also by R-16 on Mir space station. The SEP events in the solar maximum of the current cycle make a much smaller contribution to the radiation dose compared with the October 1989 event recorded on Mir space station. In the latter event, the proton intensity was peaking during a strong magnetic storm. The storm-time effect of solar proton geomagnetic cutoff decreases on dose variations is estimated. The dose variations on Mir space stations due to formation of a new radiation belt of high-energy protons and electrons during a sudden commencement of March 24, 1991 storm are also studied. It was for the first time throughout the ISS and Mir dose measurement period that the counting rates recorded by both R-16 channels on ISS in 2001-2002 were nearly the same during some time intervals. This effect may arise from the decreases of relativistic electron fluxes in the outer radiation belt.

  11. A miniaturised laser ablation/ionisation analyser for investigation of elemental/isotopic composition with the sub-ppm detection sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulej, M.; Riedo, A.; Meyer, S.; Iakovleva, M.; Neuland, M.; Wurz, P.

    2012-04-01

    analysis of solid materials on the planetary surfaces (Rohner et al., 2003). Initial laboratory tests that were conducted with an IR laser radiation for the ablation, atomisation and ionisation of the material, indicated a high performance of the instrument in terms of sensitivity, dynamic range and mass resolution (Tulej et al., 2011). After some technical improvements and implementation of a computer-controlled performance optimiser we have achieved further improvements of both, the instrumental sensitivity down to sub-ppm level and reproducibility of the measurements. We will demonstrate the potential of the mass analyser to perform the quantitative elemental analysis of solids with a spatial (vertical, lateral) resolution commensurate with typical grain sizes, and its capabilities for investigation of isotopic patterns with accuracy and precision comparable to that of large analytical laboratory instruments, e.g., TIMS, SIMS, LA-ICP-MS. The results can be of considerable interest for in situ dating or investigation of other fine isotopic fractionation effects including studies of bio-markers.

  12. Pooled Bayesian meta-analysis of two Polish studies on radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Fornalski, Krzysztof W

    2015-11-01

    The robust Bayesian regression method was applied to perform meta-analysis of two independent studies on influence of low ionising radiation doses on the occurrence of fatal cancers. The re-analysed data come from occupational exposure analysis of nuclear workers in Świerk (Poland) and from ecological study of cancer risk from natural background radiation in Poland. Such two different types of data were analysed, and three popular models were tested: constant, linear and quadratic dose-response dependencies. The Bayesian model selection algorithm was used for all models. The Bayesian statistics clearly indicates that the popular linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is not valid for presented cancer risks in the range of low doses of ionising radiation. The subject of LNT hypothesis use in radiation risk prediction and assessment is also discussed. PMID:25956788

  13. Ionisation differential cross section measurements for N2 at low incident energy in coplanar and non-coplanar geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaamini, Ahmad; Amami, Sadek; Murray, Andrew James; Ning, Chuangang; Madison, Don

    2016-10-01

    Ionisation triple differential cross sections have been determined experimentally and theoretically for the neutral molecule N2 over a range of geometries from coplanar to the perpendicular plane. Data were obtained at incident electron energies ∼10 and ∼20 eV above the ionisation potential of the 3σ g, 1π u and 2σ g states, using both equal and non-equal outgoing electron energies. The data were taken with the incident electron beam in the scattering plane (ψ = 0°), at 45° to this plane and orthogonal to the plane (ψ = 90°). The set of nine measured differential cross sections at a given energy were then inter-normalised to each other. The data are compared to new calculations using various distorted wave methods, and differences between theory and experiment are discussed.

  14. Assessment of radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Eze, Cletus Uche; Abonyi, Livinus Chibuzo; Njoku, Jerome; Irurhe, Nicholas Kayode; Olowu, Oluwabola

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of ionising radiation in diagnostic radiography could lead to hazards such as somatic and genetic damages. Compliance to safe work and radiation protection practices could mitigate such risks. The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge and radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: The study was a prospective cross sectional survey. Convenience sampling technique was used to select four x-ray diagnostic centres in four tertiary hospitals in Lagos metropolis. Data were analysed with Epi- info software, version 3.5.1. Results: Average score on assessment of knowledge was 73%. Most modern radiation protection instruments were lacking in all the centres studied. Application of shielding devices such as gonad shield for protection was neglected mostly in government hospitals. Most x-ray machines were quite old and evidence of quality assurance tests performed on such machines were lacking. Conclusion: Radiographers within Lagos metropolis showed an excellent knowledge of radiation protection within the study period. Adherence to radiation protection practices among radiographers in Lagos metropolis during the period studied was, however, poor. Radiographers in Lagos, Nigeria should embrace current trends in radiation protection and make more concerted efforts to apply their knowledge in protecting themselves and patients from harmful effects of ionising radiation. PMID:24665152

  15. Biological microdosimetry based on radiation cytotoxicity data.

    PubMed

    Scott, B R; Hutt, J; Lin, Y; Padilla, M T; Gott, K M; Potter, C A

    2013-01-01

    Researchers in the field of radiation microdosimetry have attempted to explain the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of different ionising photon radiation sources on the basis of the singly stochastic, microdose metric lineal energy y, which only addresses physical stochasticity related to energy (ε) deposition via single events in the critical targets (cell nuclei assumed here). Biological stochasticity related to variable nuclei geometries and cell orientations (relative to the incoming radiation) is usually not addressed. Here a doubly stochastic microdose metric, the single-event hit size q (=ε/T), is introduced which allows the track length T to be stochastic. The new metric is used in a plausible model of metabolic-activity-based in vitro cytotoxicity of low-dose ionising photon radiation. The cytotoxicity model has parameters E{q} (average single-event hit size with q assumed to be exponentially distributed) and E{α}, which is the average value of the cellular response parameter α. E{α} is referred to as the biological signature and it is independent of q. Only E{q} is needed for determination of RBE. The model is used to obtain biological-microdosimetry-based q spectra for 320-kV X-rays and (137)Cs gamma rays and the related RBE for cytotoxicity. The spectra are similar to published lineal energy y spectra for 200-kV X-rays and (60)Co gamma rays for 1-μm biological targets.

  16. Radiation induced effects in segmented poly(siloxaneurethaneureas) based on aliphatic and aromatic diisocyanates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Przybytniak, Grażyna; Kornacka, Ewa; Kozakiewicz, Janusz; Przybylski, Jarosław

    2007-12-01

    Poly(siloxaneurethaneureas) (PSURURs) prepared from aromatic and aliphatic isocyanates were investigated upon exposure to ionising radiation. Radicals are formed both in siloxane and urethane segments. In comparison with aliphatic analogues it was found that in aromatic PSURURs: (1) concentration of all radicals is lower, (2) relative concentration of methylene radicals formed in siloxane units is higher, (3) the radiation yield of H 2 is more than three times smaller and (4) it seems that efficiency of cross-linking is less significant.

  17. Radiosensitization of Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum using basil essential oil and ionizing radiation for food decontamination.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of basil oil, was determined for two pathogenic fungi of rice, Aspergillus niger and Penicillium chrysogenum. The antifungal activity of the basil oil in combination with ionising radiation was then investigated to determine if basil oil caused radiosensit...

  18. Formation of 2-propanol in condensed molecular films of acetaldehyde following electron impact ionisation-induced proton transfer*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrmann, Tobias; Swiderek, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental studies on thin condensed layers of acetaldehyde have previously revealed that electron exposure at an energy above the ionisation threshold leads to formation of 2-propanol. However, the mechanism of this reaction remained unclear. Therefore, a computational approach is used to explore the electron-induced reactions of acetaldehyde yielding 2-propanol. Starting from hydrogen-bonded dimers of acetaldehyde we show that the initial ionisation event triggers proton transfer between the two acetaldehyde moieties resulting in a hydrogen-bonded complex of a [OCCH3] radical and a protonated acetaldehyde cation. Given an excess energy of up to 0.75 eV and a favourable arrangement, a methyl radical released upon dissociation of the CC bond within the [OCCH3] radical can migrate to the carbonyl carbon of the protonated acetaldehyde cation. This produces a 2-propanol radical cation and CO. Neutral 2-propanol is then obtained by recombination with a second electron. A mechanism involving ionisation-driven proton transfer is thus proposed as pathway to the formation of 2-propanol during electron exposure of condensed layers of acetaldehyde.

  19. Quantitative analysis of clenbuterol in meat products using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Guy, P A; Savoy, M C; Stadler, R H

    1999-12-24

    A method is presented that allows quantitation of clenbuterol in meat and liver products at the ng/kg level by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESIMS-MS) using a stable isotopically labeled internal standard. The practical procedure involves acid extraction followed by two solid-phase clean-up steps with C18 and strong cation-exchange (SCX) resins. The typical recovery of the analyte spiked at 0.4 microg/kg in meat and liver samples was at 63+/-7%. Mass spectral acquisition was done in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) to provide a high degree of sensitivity, achieving a limit of detection and quantitation at 10 and 15 ng/kg, respectively. Two precursor ions at m/z 277 and 279, corresponding to the characteristic isotopic cluster of the two chlorine atoms of clenbuterol, were monitored by LC-ESIMS-MS to provide unambiguous identity of the analyte. Samples of meat and liver of various origins with either incurred residues or spiked with known amounts of clenbuterol were used to validate the method.

  20. Artificially-aged cachaça samples characterised by direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patterson P; Resende, Ana M M; Augusti, Daniella V; Badotti, Fernanda; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei

    2014-01-15

    Direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode [ESI(-)-MS] was employed to evaluate the authenticity of aged cachaças, a traditional and valuable Brazilian alcoholic beverage prepared from the distillation of brewed sugarcane juice and aged in barrels made of common woods. Counterfeit samples were prepared by adding dyes, sawdust or essences to a freshly-distiled, much less valuable sample (white cachaça) to simulate the 1-2years long natural ageing in wooden barrels. A simple visual inspection revealed remarkable differences between the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples (aged in oak or amburana casks) and the artificially-aged counterfeit samples. A set of diagnostic ions were detectable in the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples aged in oak (m/z 197, 241, 301 and 307) and amburana (m/z 271 and 377/379). This fast and direct methodology seems useful as a routine procedure to monitor this highly profitable and common counterfeit practice. PMID:24054215

  1. Artificially-aged cachaça samples characterised by direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Patterson P; Resende, Ana M M; Augusti, Daniella V; Badotti, Fernanda; Gomes, Fátima de Cássia O; Catharino, Rodrigo R; Eberlin, Marcos N; Augusti, Rodinei

    2014-01-15

    Direct infusion electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode [ESI(-)-MS] was employed to evaluate the authenticity of aged cachaças, a traditional and valuable Brazilian alcoholic beverage prepared from the distillation of brewed sugarcane juice and aged in barrels made of common woods. Counterfeit samples were prepared by adding dyes, sawdust or essences to a freshly-distiled, much less valuable sample (white cachaça) to simulate the 1-2years long natural ageing in wooden barrels. A simple visual inspection revealed remarkable differences between the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples (aged in oak or amburana casks) and the artificially-aged counterfeit samples. A set of diagnostic ions were detectable in the ESI(-)-MS of the authentic samples aged in oak (m/z 197, 241, 301 and 307) and amburana (m/z 271 and 377/379). This fast and direct methodology seems useful as a routine procedure to monitor this highly profitable and common counterfeit practice.

  2. Ion-pair states of the ClO radical observed by multiphoton ionisation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Martin J.; Diez-Rojo, Trinidad; Rogers, Leon J.; Western, Colin M.; Ashfold, Michael N. R.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.

    1997-06-01

    We present isotopically selected multiphoton ionisation spectra of the CIO radical following excitation in the wavelength range 276-261 nm, obtained using both a room-temperature sample and under the rotationally cold conditions in a pulsed molecular beam. In both cases high-resolution rotationally resolved spectra were obtained, with the 'cold' spectra showing discrete rovibrational bands. Analysis of the rotational structure leads to the identification of excited levels of ClO of 2Π symmetry resonant at the two-photon energy (72200-76200 cm -1). These we deduce to possess extended equilibrium bond lengths ( R ≈ 2.4 Å), and thus associate with one or more ion-pair states. Full interpretation of the observed spectra is complicated by the effects of additional wavelength-dependent intensity enhancements due to predissociated levels of the A 2Π state accidentally resonant at the energy of one absorbed photon. We report an isotopically resolved room-temperature 2 + 1 REMPI spectrum, involving a progression of vibrational levels of the previously documented C 2ɛ state of ClO. The observed CX two-photon transitions are well reproduced using known spectroscopic constants.

  3. Resolving Ionisation and Metallicity on Parsec Scales Across Primordial Analogues with HST-WFC3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, B. L.; Auger, M.; Calzetti, D.; Kewley, L.; Aloisi, A.; Pettini, M.; Trussler, J.

    2016-06-01

    Nearby Blue Compact Dwarf (BCD) galaxies are excellent laboratories for conducting detailed spatially resolved spectroscopic analyses of star-formation (SF), feedback, and chemical evolution in relatively pristine, low-metallicity environments analogous to those thought to exist in the early Universe. In this talk I will show a new, extensive dataset of narrow-band HST-WFC3 imaging where I essentially use HST as a high-spatial-resolution IFU to map six major emission lines in unprecedented detail, including HeII emission from WR stars. In this pioneering study, I spatially resolve diagnostic line ratios on sub-pc scales in two BCDs and deduce which ionisation mechanisms (e.g. shocks and/or photoionisation) are at work and assess their role in shaping the global galaxy properties. Moreover, I will present the first 'metallicity image' of a star-forming galaxy, revealing inhomogeneities on scales as small as <50~pc. This work not only demonstrates the benefits of high-resolution spatially-resolved observations in assessing the effects of feedback mechanisms and accurate chemical abundances, but also the limitations of emission line diagnostic tools which can break down on scales smaller than a H II region. Both aspects are especially relevant as we enter the era of extremely large telescopes, when observing structure on ˜~10~pc scales will no longer be limited to the local universe.

  4. Detection of ultraviolet radiation using tissue equivalent radiochromic gel materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bero, M. A.; Abukassem, I.

    2009-05-01

    Ferrous Xylenol-orange Gelatin gel (FXG) is known to be sensitive to ionising radiation such as γ and X-rays. The effect of ionising radiation is to produce an increase in the absorption over a wide region of the visible spectrum, which is proportional to the absorbed dose. This study demonstrates that FXG gel is sensitive to ultraviolet radiation and therefore it could functions as UV detector. Short exposure to UV radiation produces linear increase in absorption measured at 550nm, however high doses of UV cause the ion indicator colour to fad away in a manner proportional to the incident UV energy. Light absorbance increase at the rate of 1.1% per minute of irradiation was monitored. The exposure level at which the detector has linear response is comparable to the natural summer UV radiation. Evaluating the UV ability to pass through tissue equivalent gel materials shows that most of the UV gets absorbed in the first 5mm of the gel materials, which demonstrate the damaging effects of this radiation type on human skin and eyes. It was concluded that FXG gel dosimeter has the potential to offer a simple, passive ultraviolet radiation detector with sensitivity suitable to measure and visualises the natural sunlight UV exposure directly by watching the materials colour changes.

  5. Ionised concentrations in calcium and magnesium buffers: Standards and precise measurement are mandatory.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, John A S; Kay, James W; Elder, Hugh Y

    2016-09-01

    In Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffer solutions the ionised concentrations ([X(2+)]) are either calculated or measured. Calculated values vary by up to a factor of seven due to the following four problems: 1) There is no agreement amongst the tabulated constants in the literature. These constants have usually to be corrected for ionic strength and temperature. 2) The ionic strength correction entails the calculation of the single ion activity coefficient, which involves non-thermodynamic assumptions; the data for temperature correction is not always available. 3) Measured pH is in terms of activity i.e. pHa. pHa measurements are complicated by the change in the liquid junction potentials at the reference electrode making an accurate conversion from H(+) activity to H(+) concentration uncertain. 4) Ligands such as EGTA bind water and are not 100% pure. Ligand purity has to be measured, even when the [X(2+)] are calculated. The calculated [X(2+)] in buffers are so inconsistent that calculation is not an option. Until standards are available, the [X(2+)] in the buffers must be measured. The Ligand Optimisation Method is an accurate and independently verified method of doing this (McGuigan & Stumpff, Anal. Biochem. 436, 29, 2013). Lack of standards means it is not possible to compare the published [Ca(2+)] in the nmolar range, and the apparent constant (K(/)) values for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding to intracellular ligands amongst different laboratories. Standardisation of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffers is now essential. The parameters to achieve this are proposed. PMID:26975789

  6. The Vertical Structure of Warm Ionised Gas in the Milky Way

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaensler, B. M.; Madsen, G. J.; Chatterjee, S.; Mao, S. A.

    2008-11-01

    We present a new joint analysis of pulsar dispersion measures and diffuse Hα emission in the Milky Way, which we use to derive the density, pressure and filling factor of the thick disk component of the warm ionised medium (WIM) as a function of height above the Galactic disk. By excluding sightlines at low Galactic latitude that are contaminated by Hii regions and spiral arms, we find that the exponential scale-height of free electrons in the diffuse WIM is 1830-250+120 pc, a factor of two larger than has been derived in previous studies. The corresponding inconsistent scale heights for dispersion measure and emission measure imply that the vertical profiles of mass and pressure in the WIM are decoupled, and that the filling factor of WIM clouds is a geometric response to the competing environmental influences of thermal and non-thermal processes. Extrapolating the properties of the thick-disk WIM to mid-plane, we infer a volume-averaged electron density 0.014 +/- 0.001 cm-3, produced by clouds of typical electron density 0.34 +/- 0.06 cm-3 with a volume filling factor 0.04 +/- 0.01. As one moves off the plane, the filling factor increases to a maximum of ~30% at a height of ~1-1.5 kpc, before then declining to accommodate the increasing presence of hot, coronal gas. Since models for the WIM with a ~1 kpc scale-height have been widely used to estimate distances to radio pulsars, our revised parameters suggest that the distances to many high-latitude pulsars have been substantially underestimated.

  7. On the determination of underivatised fatty alcohol ethoxylates by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Bernabé-Zafón, Virginia; Simó-Alfonso, Ernesto F; Ramis-Ramos, Guillermo

    2006-06-23

    The oligomers of fatty alcohol ethoxylates (FAEs) exhibit large sensitivity differences in mass spectrometry with electrospray ionisation (ESI-MS) and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Standards of the oligomers from m=1 to 7 ethylene oxide units (EOs) and linear alkyl chains from n=10 to 18 carbon atoms were infused to examine the relative sensitivities or response factors in several media. The response factors of the [M+H]+ and [M+Na]+ peaks in 9:1 acetonitrile/water and methanol/water media containing acid buffers increased following irregular patterns when n and m increased. In methanol/water the response factors depended on the parity of m, being larger than the average trend for the oligomers with an even value of m with respect to those having an odd value. This was attributed to the presence of an uncompensated C-O-C or C-O-H dipole in the former oligomers. The advantages of using ESI over APCI and of measuring the [M+H]+ peaks in an acid methanol/water medium containing 0.1 M HCl are discussed. The advantages and limitations of using models of the response factors to evaluate oligomer concentrations with a reduced set of selected standards are examined. The determination of underivatised FAEs using acid media was made compatible with previous HPLC separation by implementing either a triconcentric nebulizer fed with an acid liquid sheath, or a capillary T-union inserted between the column outlet and the biconcentric nebulizer, and fed with an acid stream provided by a syringe pump.

  8. Ionised concentrations in calcium and magnesium buffers: Standards and precise measurement are mandatory.

    PubMed

    McGuigan, John A S; Kay, James W; Elder, Hugh Y

    2016-09-01

    In Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) buffer solutions the ionised concentrations ([X(2+)]) are either calculated or measured. Calculated values vary by up to a factor of seven due to the following four problems: 1) There is no agreement amongst the tabulated constants in the literature. These constants have usually to be corrected for ionic strength and temperature. 2) The ionic strength correction entails the calculation of the single ion activity coefficient, which involves non-thermodynamic assumptions; the data for temperature correction is not always available. 3) Measured pH is in terms of activity i.e. pHa. pHa measurements are complicated by the change in the liquid junction potentials at the reference electrode making an accurate conversion from H(+) activity to H(+) concentration uncertain. 4) Ligands such as EGTA bind water and are not 100% pure. Ligand purity has to be measured, even when the [X(2+)] are calculated. The calculated [X(2+)] in buffers are so inconsistent that calculation is not an option. Until standards are available, the [X(2+)] in the buffers must be measured. The Ligand Optimisation Method is an accurate and independently verified method of doing this (McGuigan & Stumpff, Anal. Biochem. 436, 29, 2013). Lack of standards means it is not possible to compare the published [Ca(2+)] in the nmolar range, and the apparent constant (K(/)) values for Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) binding to intracellular ligands amongst different laboratories. Standardisation of Ca(2+)/Mg(2+) buffers is now essential. The parameters to achieve this are proposed.

  9. Some characteristics and effects of natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, J P

    2015-11-01

    Since life first appeared on the Earth, it has, in all its subsequent evolved forms including human, been exposed to natural radiation in the environment both from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. Being an environmental mutagen, ionising natural radiation may have played a role of some significance in the evolution of early life forms on Earth. It has been estimated by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation that at the present time, exposure to natural radiation globally results in an annual average individual effective dose of about 2.4 mSv. This represents about 80 % of the total dose from all sources. The three most important components of natural radiation exposure are cosmic radiation, terrestrial radioactivity and indoor radon. Each of these components exhibits both geographical and temporal variabilities with indoor radon exposure being the most variable and also the largest contributor to dose for most people. In this account, an overview is given of the characteristics of the main components of the natural radiation environment and some of their effects on humans. In the case of cosmic radiation, these range from radiation doses to aircrew and astronauts to the controversial topic of its possible effect on climate change. In the case of terrestrial natural radiation, accounts are given of a number of human exposure scenarios.

  10. Some characteristics and effects of natural radiation.

    PubMed

    Mc Laughlin, J P

    2015-11-01

    Since life first appeared on the Earth, it has, in all its subsequent evolved forms including human, been exposed to natural radiation in the environment both from terrestrial and extra-terrestrial sources. Being an environmental mutagen, ionising natural radiation may have played a role of some significance in the evolution of early life forms on Earth. It has been estimated by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation that at the present time, exposure to natural radiation globally results in an annual average individual effective dose of about 2.4 mSv. This represents about 80 % of the total dose from all sources. The three most important components of natural radiation exposure are cosmic radiation, terrestrial radioactivity and indoor radon. Each of these components exhibits both geographical and temporal variabilities with indoor radon exposure being the most variable and also the largest contributor to dose for most people. In this account, an overview is given of the characteristics of the main components of the natural radiation environment and some of their effects on humans. In the case of cosmic radiation, these range from radiation doses to aircrew and astronauts to the controversial topic of its possible effect on climate change. In the case of terrestrial natural radiation, accounts are given of a number of human exposure scenarios. PMID:25904693

  11. IAEA experience in communicating radiation risks through the RPOP website.

    PubMed

    Rehani, M M; Holmberg, O

    2015-07-01

    The authors report here their successful experience of communicating information to health professionals, patients and the public on benefits and risks of ionising radiation in medical applications. The approaches used have been based on giving importance to clinical benefits against risks, as well as safety in use against risk of use. Communicating brief messages against catchy questions with positive and pragmatic approach resulted in making website on radiation protection of patients (RPOP) as the top website of the world in this area. Credibility of information has been maintained. The results show immense outreach in 213 countries/territories. PMID:25813478

  12. Liquid chromatography-flame ionisation detection using a nebuliser/spray chamber interface. Part 1. Design and testing.

    PubMed

    Young, Erepamowei; Smith, Roger M; Sharp, Barry L; Bone, Joanne R

    2012-05-01

    A nebuliser and spray chamber have been used to link a flow injection analyser to a flame ionisation detector, with the potential for the combination to be used as a universal detector for liquid chromatography. The hydrogen and air flows were adjusted to achieve a stable system. The detector responded to both volatile and involatile analytes and to compounds with and without chromophores, including alkanes, alkanols, aromatic amides and acids, phenols, amino-acids and carbohydrates and gave a linear response for many analytes. However, for involatile polar analytes it was necessary to add traces of acid or salt to the carrier stream to obtain a linear response. PMID:22410156

  13. Liquid chromatography-flame ionisation detection using a nebuliser/spray chamber interface. Part 2. Comparison of functional group responses.

    PubMed

    Young, Erepamowei; Smith, Roger M; Sharp, Barry L; Bone, Joanne R

    2012-05-01

    The application of a LC-nebuliser/spray chamber interface-flame ionisation detection has been demonstrated for the superheated water liquid chromatography of a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic analytes. The linearity and sensitivity of the response of volatile and involatile analytes have been compared. The response of the detector toward different analytes is similar to that in GC-FID and for volatile analytes was comparable to UV detection. However, the responses from involatile analytes, such as amino acids and carbohydrates, were poor and often lower than for a refractive index detector. PMID:22420954

  14. Nanostructured weathering steel for matrix-free laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry and imaging of metabolites, drugs and complex glycans.

    PubMed

    Etxebarria, Juan; Calvo, Javier; Reichardt, Niels-Christian

    2014-06-01

    Weathering steel has been employed for the first time to prepare sample plates for matrix-free laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry (LDI-MS) of small molecules up to a mass range of around 1500 Da. The effective UV absorption, heat conductivity and porosity of the nanostructured inner rust layer formed during passivation determine the excellent performance in LDI-MS for a broad range of different analyte classes. The inexpensive material was evaluated in a series of relevant analytical applications ranging from the matrix-free detection of serum metabolites, lactose quantification, lipid analysis in milk to the glycoprofiling of antibodies and imaging mass spectrometry of brain tissue samples. PMID:24737011

  15. Quantum-mechanical calculations of residual current density excited during gas ionisation by an intense two-colour laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedenskii, N. V.; Romanov, A. A.; Silaev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    By solving analytically and numerically the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation, we have studied the excitation of a residual current density during gas ionisation by a two-colour laser pulse containing a field at the fundamental frequency and an additional field at the doubled frequency. We have found the dependences of the residual current density on the phase shift between the components of the field and on the intensity of the fundamental harmonic. It is shown that the strong-field approximation taking into account the interaction of freed electrons with the parent ion yields a good quantitative agreement with the results of direct numerical simulation.

  16. Capillary electrophoresis with electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry for the characterisation of degradation products in aged papers.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Anne-Laurence; Seemann, Agathe; Lavédrine, Bertrand

    2012-01-30

    A methodology for capillary electrophoresis/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (CE/ESI-MS) was developed for the simultaneous analysis of degradation products from paper among two families of compounds: low molar mass aliphatic organic acids, and aromatic (phenolic and furanic) compounds. The work comprises the optimisation of the CE separation and the ESI-MS parameters for improved sensitivity with model compounds using two successive designs of experiments. The method was applied to the analysis of lignocellulosic paper at different stages of accelerated hygrothermal ageing. The compounds of interest were identified. Most of them could be quantified and several additional analytes were separated.

  17. Current status of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

    PubMed

    Kok, Jen; Chen, Sharon C A; Dwyer, Dominic E; Iredell, Jonathan R

    2013-01-01

    The integration of matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) into many clinical microbiology laboratories has revolutionised routine pathogen identification. MALDI-TOF MS complements and has good potential to replace existing phenotypic identification methods. Results are available in a more clinically relevant timeframe, particularly in bacteraemic septic shock. Novel applications include strain typing and the detection of antimicrobial resistance, but these are not widely used. This review discusses the technical aspects, current applications, and limitations of MALDI-TOF MS.

  18. Simulation of ultra thin film SOI transistors using a non-local ballistic model for impact ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, G. A.; French, W. D.

    1992-12-01

    To model bipolar snapback in thin film SOI transistors accurately, it is necessary to employ a non-local model of impact ionisation. Such a model, based on the "Lucky electron" theory, has been incorporated in a two-dimensional device simulator. Accurate prediction of bipolar holding voltage has been obtained for SOI transistors with sub-micron gate lengths. The model has been applied to analyse separately the effects of both lightly doped source and lightly doped drain in maximising the holding voltage. The advantage of using ultra thin highly doped SOI films in conjunction with a lightly doped drain is discussed.

  19. New laboratory atomic data for neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements for astrophysics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickering, Juliet C.; Nave, Gillian; Liggins, Florence; Clear, Christian; Ruffoni, Matthew; Sansonetti, Craig

    2015-08-01

    We present new laboratory spectroscopic measurements to produce atomic data for astrophysically important species: neutral, singly and doubly ionised iron group elements.We use high resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometry (FTS) (resolving power up to 2x106 at 200nm) to measure atomic spectra, giving accurate line wavelengths (to a few parts in 108), atomic energy levels, hyperfine structure splitting and log gfs (accurate to a few %) (Ruffoni et al this meeting). These data are vital for astrophysical spectral analyses for: line identification, spectrum synthesis, elemental abundance determinations [eg 1], and disentangling of blends etc. It is not possible to theoretically calculate these atomic data to the accuracy needed for modern astrophysics applications.At Imperial College we have a unique visible-VUV FT spectrometer with short wavelength cut-off of 135nm. We supplement FTS data at shorter wavelengths with spectra recorded on the NIST 10.7m grating spectrograph (with phosphor image or photographic plates) and at longer wavelengths in the IR we use the NIST IR FT spectrometer.An elemental spectrum may contain thousands of spectral lines from the IR to VUV. We use these wavelengths to correct known atomic energy levels, and search for new atomic levels. The result is a classified linelist and accurate atomic energy levels.We present progress on iron group element atomic energy levels and wavelengths for V I and V II [2,3], Co III [4], Cr I, Mn I and Mn II, and Ni II.This work is supported by STFC(UK), The Leverhulme Trust, The Royal Society and NASA.References[1] Bergemann M, Pickering JC & Gehren T,“NLTE analysis of Co I/Co II lines in spectra of cool stars with new laboratory hyperfine splitting constants",MNRAS 401(2) 1334 (2010)[2] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V II”, ApJS 207,13 (2013)[3] Thorne AP, Pickering JC & Semeniuk J,“The spectrum and term analysis of V I",ApJS 192,11 (2011)[4] Smillie DG

  20. Letter: characterisation and identification of spermine and spermidine derivatives in Microdesmis keayana and Microdesmis puberula roots by electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Roumy, Vincent; Hennebelle, Thierry; Zamblé, Alexis; Zamblé Yao, Jacques; Sahpaz, Sevser; Bailleul, François

    2008-01-01

    Three new N(1),N(5),N(14)-tris(4- hydroxycinnamoyl)spermines were identified in hydromethanolic root extracts of Microdesmis keayana J. Léonard and Microdesmis puberula Hook f. The electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) technique with specific nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of hydrolysed products made it possible to identify N(1),N(5),N(14)-tris(p-coumaroyl)spermine, N(1)-feruloyl,N(5),N(14)-di(p-coumaroyl)spermine and N(1),N(5),N(14)-tris(feruloyl)spermine, named keayanines B, C and D, respectively. ESI-MS/MS analysis most effectively provided structural data although high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry was also used to characterise four other compounds from Microdesmis puberula-keayanidines A, B, C and keayanine A-which had already been identified in M. keayana. This chemical data is the first to be published for M. puberula which is a commonly used plant in Central African traditional medicine. PMID:18493101

  1. A numerical tool for the calculation of non-equilibrium ionisation states in the solar corona and other astrophysical plasma environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, S. J.

    2009-07-01

    Context: The effects of non-equilibrium processes on the ionisation state of strongly emitting elements in the solar corona can be extremely difficult to assess and yet they are critically important. For example, there is much interest in dynamic heating events localised in the solar corona because they are believed to be responsible for its high temperature and yet recent work has shown that the hottest (≥107 K) emission predicted to be associated with these events can be observationally elusive due to the difficulty of creating the highly ionised states from which the expected emission arises. This leads to the possibility of observing instruments missing such heating events entirely. Aims: The equations describing the evolution of the ionisaton state are a very stiff system of coupled, partial differential equations whose solution can be numerically challenging and time-consuming. Without access to specialised codes and significant computational resources it is extremely difficult to avoid the assumption of an equilibrium ionisation state even when it clearly cannot be justified. The aim of the current work is to develop a computational tool to allow straightforward calculation of the time-dependent ionisation state for a wide variety of physical circumstances. Methods: A numerical model comprising the system of time-dependent ionisation equations for a particular element and tabulated values of plasma temperature as a function of time is developed. The tabulated values can be the solutions of an analytical model, the output from a numerical code or a set of observational measurements. An efficient numerical method to solve the ionisation equations is implemented. Results: A suite of tests is designed and run to demonstrate that the code provides reliable and accurate solutions for a number of scenarios including equilibration of the ion population and rapid heating followed by thermal conductive cooling. It is found that the solver can evolve the ionisation

  2. Multi-directional radiation detector using photographic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junet, L. K.; Majid, Z. A. Abdul; Sapuan, A. H.; Sayed, I. S.; Pauzi, N. F.

    2014-11-01

    Ionising radiation has always been part of our surrounding and people are continuously exposed to it. Ionising radiation is harmful to human health, thus it is vital to monitor the radiation. To monitor radiation, there are three main points that should be observed cautiously, which are energy, quantity, and direction of the radiation sources. A three dimensional (3D) dosimeter is an example of a radiation detector that provide these three main points. This dosimeter is able to record the radiation dose distribution in 3D. Applying the concept of dose detection distribution, study has been done to design a multi-directional radiation detector of different filter thicknesses. This is obtained by designing a cylinder shaped aluminum filter with several layers of different thickness. Black and white photographic material is used as a radiation-sensitive material and a PVC material has been used as the enclosure. The device is then exposed to a radiation source with different exposure factors. For exposure factor 70 kVp, 16 mAs; the results have shown that optical density (OD) value at 135° is 1.86 higher compared with an OD value at 315° which is 0.71 as the 135° area received more radiation compare to 315° region. Furthermore, with an evidence of different angle of film give different value of OD shows that this device has a multidirectional ability. Materials used to develop this device are widely available in the market, thus reducing the cost of development and making it suitable for commercialisation.

  3. Capillary zone electrophoresis of basic analytes in methanol as non-aqueous solvent mobility and ionisation constant.

    PubMed

    Porras, S P; Riekkola, M L; Kenndler, E

    2001-01-01

    The electrophoretically relevant properties of monoacidic 21 bases (including common drugs) containing aliphatic or aromatic amino groups were determined in methanol as solvent. These properties are the actual mobilities (that of the fully ionised weak bases), and their pKa values. Actual mobilities were measured in acidic methanolic solutions containing perchloric acid. The ionisation constants of the amines were derived from the dependence of the ionic mobilities on the pH of the background electrolyte solution. The pH scale in methanol was established from acids with known conventional pK*a values in this solvent used as buffers, avoiding thus further adjustment with a pH sensitive electrode that might bias the scale. Actual mobilities in methanol were found larger than in water, and do not correlate well with the solvent's viscosity. The pK*a values of the cation acids, HB-, the corresponding form of the base, B, are higher in methanol, whereas a less pronounced shift was found than for neutral acids of type HA. The mean increase (compared to pure aqueous solution) for aliphatic ammonium type analytes is 1.8, for substituted anilinium 1.1, and for aromatic ammonium from pyridinium type 0.5 units. The interpretation of this shift was undertaken with the concept of the medium effect on the particles involved in the acid-base equilibrium: the proton, the molecular base, B, and the cation HB+. PMID:11206793

  4. Solvent Separating Secondary Metabolites Directly from Biosynthetic Tissue for Surface-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Rudd, David; Benkendorff, Kirsten; Voelcker, Nicolas H.

    2015-01-01

    Marine bioactive metabolites are often heterogeneously expressed in tissues both spatially and over time. Therefore, traditional solvent extraction methods benefit from an understanding of the in situ sites of biosynthesis and storage to deal with heterogeneity and maximize yield. Recently, surface-assisted mass spectrometry (MS) methods namely nanostructure-assisted laser desorption ionisation (NALDI) and desorption ionisation on porous silicon (DIOS) surfaces have been developed to enable the direct detection of low molecular weight metabolites. Since direct tissue NALDI-MS or DIOS-MS produce complex spectra due to the wide variety of other metabolites and fragments present in the low mass range, we report here the use of “on surface” solvent separation directly from mollusc tissue onto nanostructured surfaces for MS analysis, as a mechanism for simplifying data annotation and detecting possible artefacts from compound delocalization during the preparative steps. Water, ethanol, chloroform and hexane selectively extracted a range of choline esters, brominated indoles and lipids from Dicathais orbita hypobranchial tissue imprints. These compounds could be quantified on the nanostructured surfaces by comparison to standard curves generated from the pure compounds. Surface-assisted MS could have broad utility for detecting a broad range of secondary metabolites in complex marine tissue samples. PMID:25786067

  5. Optimized conditions for hydrocarbon group type analysis of base oils by thin-layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection.

    PubMed

    Kamiński, Marian; Gudebska, Joanna; Górecki, Tadeusz; Kartanowicz, Rafał

    2003-04-01

    The results of research on the optimization of the thin-layer chromatography-flame ionisation detection for the determination of group composition of natural base oils, including separation of the aromatics into subgroups, are presented. Neutral base oils obtained in several steps of refining from vacuum distillation petroleum fractions are the most difficult to analyze by hydrocarbon group type analysis (HGTA) because of the high content of aliphatic fragments in their molecules. Factors affecting the accuracy and precision of the results were identified. The paper presents the analytical procedure, including two different calibration methods, as well as the results of studies on the reproducibility of HGTA of typical base oils of different viscosity classes under the optimized conditions. The same conditions were found suitable for HGTA of other high-boiling petroleum fractions by TLC with flame ionisation detection. The paper also introduces a new procedure for reproducible determination of polar fractions in base oils utilizing solid-phase extraction columns, and presents a corrected procedure for the determination of saturated compounds and aromatics (mono-, bi- and polycyclic) in base oils by column liquid chromatography.

  6. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-09-01

    A chemical ionisation mass spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume-defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6-sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A normalised excess mixing ratio (NEMR) of 3.68 ± 0.149 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated, which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work, the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  7. Airborne hydrogen cyanide measurements using a chemical ionisation mass spectrometer for the plume identification of biomass burning forest fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Breton, M.; Bacak, A.; Muller, J. B. A.; O'Shea, S. J.; Xiao, P.; Ashfold, M. N. R.; Cooke, M. C.; Batt, R.; Shallcross, D. E.; Oram, D. E.; Forster, G.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Percival, C. J.

    2013-02-01

    A Chemical Ionisation Mass Spectrometer (CIMS) was developed for measuring hydrogen cyanide (HCN) from biomass burning events in Canada using I- reagent ions on board the FAAM BAe-146 research aircraft during the BORTAS campaign in 2011. The ionisation scheme enabled highly sensitive measurements at 1 Hz frequency through biomass burning plumes in the troposphere. A strong correlation between the HCN, carbon monoxide (CO) and acetonitrile (CH3CN) was observed, indicating the potential of HCN as a biomass burning (BB) marker. A plume was defined as being 6 standard deviations above background for the flights. This method was compared with a number of alternative plume defining techniques employing CO and CH3CN measurements. The 6 sigma technique produced the highest R2 values for correlations with CO. A Normalised Excess Mixing Ratio (NEMR) of 3.76 ± 0.022 pptv ppbv-1 was calculated which is within the range quoted in previous research (Hornbrook et al., 2011). The global tropospheric model STOCHEM-CRI incorporated both the observed ratio and extreme ratios derived from other studies to generate global emission totals of HCN via biomass burning. Using the ratio derived from this work the emission total for HCN from BB was 0.92 Tg (N) yr-1.

  8. Optimisation of the quantitative determination of chlormequat by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Horak, J; Werther, W; Schmid, E R

    2001-01-01

    The plant growth regulator chlormequat, an involatile quaternary ammonium salt, has been quantified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Restrictions for quantitative MALDI-TOFMS analysis, such as irreproducible crystallisation and unsatisfactory laser stability, have been overcome by the application of two synthesised isotopically labelled standards and the optimisation of the measurement protocol. Data acquisition at constant laser power was compared to data acquisition at approximately constant ion abundance of the relevant ions (analyte and internal standards). Data acquisition at constant ion abundance performed better and enabled a high number of consecutive firings to the same sample deposition area. Furthermore an increased sample-to-sample repeatability and a high reproducibility over several weeks without re-calibration have been attained by this method. Linearity over three orders of magnitude (0.05 to 30 ng/microL chlormequat), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, was achieved using [13C3]-chlormequat as internal standard. Limit of detection and limit of determination were determined to be in the low pg/microL range for pure standard solutions. Thin-layer chromatography was applied for the removal of high amounts of choline, which is often present in plant tissue extracts and can adversely affect the ionisation and detection of chlormequat by MALDI-TOFMS. The use of two internal standards ([13C3]- and [2H9]-chlormequat) enabled direct quantification and simultaneous control of the recovery. PMID:11223954

  9. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber.

  10. Study on the influence of the B4C layer thickness on the neutron flux and energy distribution shape in multi-electrode ionisation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tymińska, K; Maciak, M; Ośko, J; Tulik, P; Zielczyński, M; Gryziński, M A

    2014-10-01

    A model of a multi-electrode ionisation chamber, with polypropylene electrodes coated with a thin layer of B4C was created within Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code (MCNPX) and Fluktuierende Kaskade (FLUKA) codes. The influence of the layer thickness on neutron absorption in B4C and on the neutron spectra in the consecutive intra-electrode gas volumes has been studied using the MCNPX and FLUKA codes. The results will be used for designing the new type of the ionisation chamber. PMID:24729596

  11. Survey of Natural Cadmium Isotope Fractionation by Double Spike Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, A.; Galer, S. J.; Abouchami, W.

    2006-12-01

    Wombacher et al. (2003) have shown recently that natural Cd isotope fractionations in terrestrial materials are extremely limited (~100 ppm/amu or less). Thus, excellent external precision is absolutely paramount if Cd isotope fractionations are to be adequately quantified. Here we present a new high-precision double spike (DS) technique for Cd isotopes in which the Cd is measured by thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (TIMS, ThermoElectron Triton), which draws on the pioneering work of Rosman et al. (1980). We observe pronounced anomalous odd-even isotope mass bias during TIMS measurement of Cd with silica gel activator, and avoid such effects by utilizing even isotopes of Cd only. The double spike and its composition were carefully optimized (cf. Galer, 1999), and the "natural" Cd isotope fractionation is expressed as the relative deviations in ^{112}Cd/^{110}Cd (in parts per 104) from our JMC Cd shelf standard. The external reproducibility for 100 ng loads of double-spiked JMC Cd shelf is ± 0.14 ɛ^{112/110}Cd (2SD, N=57) -- i.e. ±7 ppm/amu -- which is a factor of 4 to 10 times better than that reported in published studies using MC-ICP-MS techniques (e.g. Wombacher et al., 2003; Cloquet et al., 2005). The DS-TIMS method offers further benefits in terms of superior sensitivity, while Cd abundances are obtained as a biproduct by isotope dilution. We have analyzed ɛ^{112/110}Cd in over sixty samples from different terrestrial reservoirs and environments in order to delimit the extent of natural isotope fractionation of Cd. Most samples were duplicated or triplicated. To facilitate inter-lab comparison, our measured ɛ^{112/110}Cd for the standards "Münster Cd" and BAM-1012 averaged +21.46 and -7.42, respectively. On the whole, our study confirms the conclusions of Wombacher et al. (2003) that Cd isotope variations in terrestrial materials are limited -- nearly all samples fall within the range -1.0 to +1.0 in ɛ^{112/110}Cd. Nevertheless, we are able for the

  12. In situ analysis of Titan's tholins by Laser 2 steps Desorption Ionisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benilan, Y.; Carrasco, N.; Cernogora, G.; Gazeau, M.; Mahjoub, A.; Szopa, C.; Schwell, M.

    2013-12-01

    The main objective of the whole project developed in collaboration (LISA/LATMOS) is to provide a better understanding of the chemical composition of Titan aerosols laboratory analogs, called tholins, and thereby of their formation pathways. The tholins are produced in the PAMPRE reactor (French acronyme for Aerosols Microgravity Production by Reactives Plasmas) developed at LATMOS. These tholins are generated in levitation (wall effects are thus limited) in a low pressure radiofrequency plasma. Up to now, the determination of the physical and chemical properties of these tholins was achieved after their collection and ex-situ analysis by several methods. Their bulk composition was then determined but their insoluble part is still unknown. Other studies were performed after the transfer of the soluble part of the aerosols to different analytical instruments. Therefore, possible artifacts could have influenced the results. We present the SMARD (a French acronym for Mass Spectrometry of Aerosols by InfraRed Laser Desorption) program. A challenging issue of our work is to perform the soluble and unsoluble parts of PAMPRE tholins' analysis in real time and in situ. The coupling of the PAMPRE reactor to a unique instrument (Single Particle Laser Ablation Mass Spectrometry) developed at LISA should allow determining in real time and in situ the characteristics (chemical composition together with granulometry) of the nanometric aerosols. The later are introduced in the analytical instrument using an aerodynamic lens device. Their detection and aerodynamic diameter are determined using two continuous diode lasers operating at λ = 403 nm. Then, the L2DI (Laser 2 steps Desorption Ionisation) technique is used in order to access to the chemical composition of individual particles: they are vaporized using a 10 μm CO2 pulsed laser and the gas produced is then ionized by a 248 nm KrF Excimer laser. Finally, the molecular ions are analyzed by a 1 m linear time-of-flight mass

  13. Current status of medical radiation exposure in Korea - recent efforts to develop a radiation exposure control system focussed on justification and optimisation.

    PubMed

    Do, K-H; Jung, S E

    2016-06-01

    Radiation exposure from diagnostic medical imaging has increased in Korea. Radiological societies play a key role in radiation safety issues in Korea, including guidelines, accreditation, advocacy, scientific activity, and education. Any medical radiation exposure must be justified, and examinations using ionising radiation must be optimised. Education of referring physicians and radiologists is also important for justification. Medical physicists and radiographers have an important role to play in quality management and optimisation. Regulations are essential to control medical radiation exposure. Therefore, national organisations have made a significant effort to regulate and monitor medical radiation exposure using guidelines, accreditation, and even the law. Medical radiation exposure must be controlled, and this could be achieved by continuous interest from health professionals and organisations. PMID:27026586

  14. Further considerations of cosmic ray modulation of infra-red radiation in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aplin, K. L.; Lockwood, M.

    2015-08-01

    Understanding effects of ionisation in the lower atmosphere is a new interdisciplinary area, crossing the traditionally distinct scientific boundaries between astro-particle and atmospheric physics and also requiring understanding of both heliospheric and magnetospheric influences on cosmic rays. Following the paper of Erlykin et al. (2014) we develop further the interpretation of our observed changes in long-wave (LW) radiation, Aplin and Lockwood (2013) by taking account of both cosmic ray ionisation yields and atmospheric radiative transfer. To demonstrate this, we show that the thermal structure of the whole atmosphere needs to be considered along with the vertical profile of ionisation. Allowing for, in particular, ionisation by all components of a cosmic ray shower and not just by the muons, reveals that the effect we have detected is certainly not inconsistent with laboratory observations of the LW absorption cross section. The analysis presented here, although very different from that of Erlykin et al., does come to the same conclusion that the events detected by AL were not caused by individual cosmic ray primaries - not because it is impossible on energetic grounds, but because events of the required energy are too infrequent for the 12 h-1 rate at which they were seen by the AL experiment. The present paper numerically models the effect of three different scenario changes to the primary GCR spectrum which all reproduce the required magnitude of the effect observed by AL. However, they cannot solely explain the observed delay in the peak effect which, if confirmed, would appear to open up a whole new and interesting area in the study of water oligomers and their effects on LW radiation. We argue that a technical artefact in the AL experiment is highly unlikely and that our initial observations merit both a wide-ranging follow-up experiment and more rigorous, self-consistent, three-dimensional radiative transfer modelling.

  15. Neutral and ionised gas around the post-red supergiant IRC +10 420 at AU size scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudmaijer, R. D.; de Wit, W. J.

    2013-03-01

    Context. IRC +10 420 is one of the few known massive stars in rapid transition from the red supergiant phase to the Wolf-Rayet or luminous blue variable phase. Aims: The star has an ionised wind and using the Brγ line we assess the mass-loss on spatial scales of ~1 AU. Methods: We present new VLT Interferometer AMBER data which are combined with all other AMBER data present in the literature. The final dataset covers a position angle range of ~180° and baselines up to 110 m. The spectrally dispersed visibilities, differential phases and line flux are conjointly analysed and modelled. We also present the first AMBER/FINITO observations which cover a larger wavelength range and allow us to observe the Na i doublet at 2.2 μm. The data are complemented by X-Shooter data, which provide a higher spectral resolution view. Results: The Brγ emission line and the Na i doublet are both spatially resolved. After correcting the AMBER data for the fact that the lines are not spectrally resolved, we find that Brγ traces a ring with a diameter of 4.18 mas, in agreement with higher spectral resolution data. We consider a geometric model in which the Brγ emission emerges from the top and bottom rings of an hour-glass shaped structure, viewed almost pole-on. It provides satisfactory fits to most visibilities and differential phases. The fact that we detect line emission from a neutral metal like Na i within the ionised region, a very unusual occurrence, suggests the presence of a dense pseudo-photosphere. Conclusions: The ionised wind can be reproduced with a polar wind, which could well have the shape of an hour-glass. Closer in, the resolved Na i emission is found to occur on scales barely larger than the continuum. This fact and that many yellow hypergiants exhibit this comparatively rare emission hints at the presence of a "Yellow" or even "White Wall" in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, preventing them from visibly evolving to the blue. Based on observations at ESO, and in

  16. Formation of aluminium, aluminium nitride and nitrogen clusters via laser ablation of nano aluminium nitride. Laser Desorption Ionisation and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Panyala, Nagender Reddy; Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Slavíček, Pavel; Černák, Mirko; Havel, Josef

    2011-06-30

    Laser Desorption Ionisation (LDI) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation (MALDI) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) were used to study the pulsed laser ablation of aluminium nitride (AlN) nano powder. The formation of Al(m)(+) (m=1-3), N(n)(+) (n=4, 5), AlN(n)(+) (n=1-5, 19, 21), Al(m)N(+) (m=2-3), Al(3)N(2)(+), Al(9)N(n)(+) (n=5, 7, 9, 11 and 15), Al(11)N(n)(+) (n=4, 6, 10, 12, 19, 21, 23, and 25), and Al(13)N(n)(+) (n=25, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36) clusters was detected in positive ion mode. Similarly, Al(m)(-) (m=1-3), AlN(n)(-) (n=1-3, 5), Al(m)N(-) (n=2, 3), Al(2)N(n)(-) (n=2-4, 28, 30), N(n)(-) (n=2, 3), Al(4)N(7)(-) Al(8)N(n)(-) (n=1-6), and Al(13)N(n)(-) (n=9, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41 and 43) clusters were observed in negative ion mode. The formation of the stoichiometric Al(10) N(10) cluster was shown to be of low abundance. On the contrary, the laser ablation of nano-AlN led mainly to the formation of nitrogen-rich Al(m)N(n) clusters in both negative and positive ion mode. The stoichiometry of the Al(m)N(n) clusters was determined via isotopic envelope analysis and computer modelling. PMID:21598328

  17. Formation of aluminium, aluminium nitride and nitrogen clusters via laser ablation of nano aluminium nitride. Laser Desorption Ionisation and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Panyala, Nagender Reddy; Prysiazhnyi, Vadym; Slavíček, Pavel; Černák, Mirko; Havel, Josef

    2011-06-30

    Laser Desorption Ionisation (LDI) and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation (MALDI) Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry (TOFMS) were used to study the pulsed laser ablation of aluminium nitride (AlN) nano powder. The formation of Al(m)(+) (m=1-3), N(n)(+) (n=4, 5), AlN(n)(+) (n=1-5, 19, 21), Al(m)N(+) (m=2-3), Al(3)N(2)(+), Al(9)N(n)(+) (n=5, 7, 9, 11 and 15), Al(11)N(n)(+) (n=4, 6, 10, 12, 19, 21, 23, and 25), and Al(13)N(n)(+) (n=25, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, and 36) clusters was detected in positive ion mode. Similarly, Al(m)(-) (m=1-3), AlN(n)(-) (n=1-3, 5), Al(m)N(-) (n=2, 3), Al(2)N(n)(-) (n=2-4, 28, 30), N(n)(-) (n=2, 3), Al(4)N(7)(-) Al(8)N(n)(-) (n=1-6), and Al(13)N(n)(-) (n=9, 18, 20, 22, 24, 26, 28, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41 and 43) clusters were observed in negative ion mode. The formation of the stoichiometric Al(10) N(10) cluster was shown to be of low abundance. On the contrary, the laser ablation of nano-AlN led mainly to the formation of nitrogen-rich Al(m)N(n) clusters in both negative and positive ion mode. The stoichiometry of the Al(m)N(n) clusters was determined via isotopic envelope analysis and computer modelling.

  18. Pelvic radiation therapy: Between delight and disaster

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kirsten AL; Haboubi, Najib Y

    2015-01-01

    In the last few decades radiotherapy was established as one of the best and most widely used treatment modalities for certain tumours. Unfortunately that came with a price. As more people with cancer survive longer an ever increasing number of patients are living with the complications of radiotherapy and have become, in certain cases, difficult to manage. Pelvic radiation disease (PRD) can result from ionising radiation-induced damage to surrounding non-cancerous tissues resulting in disruption of normal physiological functions and symptoms such as diarrhoea, tenesmus, incontinence and rectal bleeding. The burden of PRD-related symptoms, which impact on a patient’s quality of life, has been under appreciated and sub-optimally managed. This article serves to promote awareness of PRD and the vast potential there is to improve current service provision and research activities. PMID:26649150

  19. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Investigation of colloidal graphite as a matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry of low molecular weight analytes.

    PubMed

    Warren, Alexander D; Conway, Ulric; Arthur, Christopher J; Gates, Paul J

    2016-07-01

    The analysis of low molecular weight compounds by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry is problematic due to the interference and suppression of analyte ionisation by the matrices typically employed - which are themselves low molecular weight compounds. The application of colloidal graphite is demonstrated here as an easy to use matrix that can promote the ionisation of a wide range of analytes including low molecular weight organic compounds, complex natural products and inorganic complexes. Analyte ionisation with colloidal graphite is compared with traditional organic matrices along with various other sources of graphite (e.g. graphite rods and charcoal pencils). Factors such as ease of application, spectra reproducibility, spot longevity, spot-to-spot reproducibility and spot homogeneity (through single spot imaging) are explored. For some analytes, considerable matrix suppression effects are observed resulting in spectra completely devoid of matrix ions. We also report the observation of radical molecular ions [M(-●) ] in the negative ion mode, particularly with some aromatic analytes. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27434807

  1. Excitation of low-frequency residual currents at combination frequencies of an ionising two-colour laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vvedenskii, N. V.; Kostin, V. A.; Laryushin, I. D.; Silaev, A. A.

    2016-05-01

    We have studied the processes of excitation of low-frequency residual currents in a plasma produced through ionisation of gases by two-colour laser pulses in laser-plasma schemes for THz generation. We have developed an analytical approach that allows one to find residual currents in the case when one of the components of a two-colour pulse is weak enough. The derived analytical expressions show that the effective generation of the residual current (and hence the effective THz generation) is possible if the ratio of the frequencies in the two-colour laser pulse is close to a rational fraction with a not very big odd sum of the numerator and denominator. The results of numerical calculations (including those based on the solution of the three-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation) agree well with the analytical results.

  2. Application of thoron interference as a tool for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron with a pulse ionisation chamber.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, R M; Sumesh, C G; Vinod Kumar, A; Puranik, V D

    2013-07-01

    Pulse ionisation chamber (PIC)-based monitors measuring radioactive gas radon ((222)Rn) without energy discrimination will have interference due to thoron ((220)Rn) present in the atmosphere. A technique has been developed to use this property of interference for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron gas. These monitors work on the principle of counting of gross alphas emitted from radon and its progeny. A theoretical model has been developed for the variation of thoron sensitivity with respect to the flow rate of gas through the monitor. The thoron sensitivity of the monitor is found to vary with the flow rate of gas through the monitor. Using this sensitivity, the sampling procedure has been developed and verified for simultaneous measurement of radon and thoron. The PIC-measured radon and thoron concentration using this procedure agrees well with those measured by using standard radon and thoron discriminating monitor.

  3. Surface analysis using a new plasma assisted desorption/ionisation source for mass spectrometry in ambient air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowfield, A.; Barrett, D. A.; Alexander, M. R.; Ortori, C. A.; Rutten, F. M.; Salter, T. L.; Gilmore, I. S.; Bradley, J. W.

    2012-06-01

    The authors report on a modified micro-plasma assisted desorption/ionisation (PADI) device which creates plasma through the breakdown of ambient air rather than utilising an independent noble gas flow. This new micro-PADI device is used as an ion source for ambient mass spectrometry to analyse species released from the surfaces of polytetrafluoroethylene, and generic ibuprofen and paracetamol tablets through remote activation of the surface by the plasma. The mass spectra from these surfaces compare favourably to those produced by a PADI device constructed using an earlier design and confirm that the new ion source is an effective device which can be used to achieve ambient mass spectrometry with improved spatial resolution.

  4. Role of the resistivity of insulating field emitters on the energy of field-ionised and field-evaporated atoms.

    PubMed

    Arnoldi, L; Silaeva, E P; Vurpillot, F; Deconihout, B; Cadel, E; Blum, I; Vella, A

    2015-12-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of laser atom probe analyses, it is important to understand all the physical processes induced by the combination of the high electrical field and the femtosecond laser beam during field evaporation. New information can be accessed from the energy of evaporated surface atoms or field-ionised atoms of an imaging gas. In order to study the ions energy, we combine La-APT and FIM analyses in a new experimental setup equipped with electrostatic lenses. We report measurements for semiconductors and oxides and we study the influence of the illumination conditions (laser power and wavelength), the evaporation rate, the sample geometry and the tip preparation processes. The results are discussed taking into account the resistive properties of non-metallic samples and the photo-stimulated conductivity. This work clarifies the role of the laser and DC field in the energy deficit of field evaporated ions. PMID:25484362

  5. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry imaging and its development for plant protein imaging

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation (MALDI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) uses the power of high mass resolution time of flight (ToF) mass spectrometry coupled to the raster of lasers shots across the cut surface of tissues to provide new insights into the spatial distribution of biomolecules within biological tissues. The history of this technique in animals and plants is considered and the potential for analysis of proteins by this technique in plants is discussed. Protein biomarker identification from MALDI-MSI is a challenge and a number of different approaches to address this bottleneck are discussed. The technical considerations needed for MALDI-MSI are reviewed and these are presented alongside examples from our own work and a protocol for MALDI-MSI of proteins in plant samples. PMID:21726462

  6. Detection of drugs in lifted cyanoacrylate-developed latent fingermarks using two laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometric methods.

    PubMed

    Sundar, Latha; Rowell, Frederick

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes a method for lifting cyanoacrylate (CNA)-developed latent fingermarks from a glass surface and the detection of five drugs in lifted marks from fingers that had been in contact with the drugs, using Surface Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (SALDI-TOF-MS) or Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation TOF-MS (MALDI-TOF-MS). Two drugs of abuse (cocaine and methadone) and three therapeutic drugs (aspirin, paracetamol and caffeine) were used as contact residues. Latent fingermarks spiked with the drugs were subjected to CNA fuming followed by dusting with ARRO SupraNano™ MS black magnetic powder (SALDI-TOF-MS) or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) (MALDI-TOF-MS). The dusted mark was then exposed to solvent vapour before lifting with a commercial fingerprint lifting tape following established procedures. The presence of the drugs was then confirmed by direct analysis on the tape without further processing using SALDI- or MALDI-TOF-MS. The black magnetic fingerprint powder provided visual enhancement of the CNA-fingermark while no visual enhancement was observed for marks dusted with DHB powder. Similar [M + H](+) peaks for all the drug analytes were observed for both methods along with some sodium and potassium adducts for SALDI-MS and some major fragment ions but the SALDI signals were generally more intense. Simple exposure to acetone vapour of the CNA-developed marks enabled their effective transfer onto the tape which was crucial for subsequent MS detection of the analytes.

  7. Measurement of natural background radiation intensity on a train.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yen-Fu; Lin, Jeng-Wei; Sheu, Rong-Jiun; Lin, Uei-Tyng; Jiang, Shiang-Huei

    2011-03-01

    This work aims to measure different components of natural background radiation on a train. A radiation measurement system consisting of four types of radiation detectors, namely, a Berkeley Lab cosmic-ray detector, moderated (3)He detector, high-pressure ionisation chamber and NaI(Tl) spectrometer, associated with a global positioning system unit was established for this purpose. For the commissioning of the system, a test measurement on a train along the railway around the northern Taiwan coast from Hsinchu to Hualien with a distance of ∼ 275 km was carried out. No significant variation of the intensities of the different components of natural background radiation was observed, except when the train went underground or in the tunnels. The average external dose rate received by the crew of the train was estimated to be 62 nSv h(-1).

  8. A reassessment of Galileo radiation exposures in the Jupiter magnetosphere.

    PubMed

    Atwell, William; Townsend, Lawrence; Miller, Thomas; Campbell, Christina

    2005-01-01

    Earlier particle experiments in the 1970s on Pioneer-10 and -11 and Voyager-1 and -2 provided Jupiter flyby particle data, which were used by Divine and Garrett to develop the first Jupiter trapped radiation environment model. This model was used to establish a baseline radiation effects design limit for the Galileo onboard electronics. Recently, Garrett et al. have developed an updated Galileo Interim Radiation Environment (GIRE) model based on Galileo electron data. In this paper, we have used the GIRE model to reassess the computed radiation exposures and dose effects for Galileo. The 34-orbit 'as flown' Galileo trajectory data and the updated GIRE model were used to compute the electron and proton spectra for each of the 34 orbits. The total ionisation doses of electrons and protons have been computed based on a parametric shielding configuration, and these results are compared with previously published results.

  9. The development and purpose of the FREDERICA radiation effects database.

    PubMed

    Copplestone, D; Hingston, J; Real, A

    2008-09-01

    Any system for assessing the impact of a contaminant on the environment requires an analysis of the possible effects on the organisms and ecosystems concerned. To facilitate this, the FREDERICA radiation effects database has been developed to provide an online search of the known effects of ionising radiation on non-human species, taken from papers in the scientific peer reviewed literature. The FREDERICA radiation effects database has been produced by merging the work done on radiation effects under two European funded projects (FASSET and EPIC) and making the database available online. This paper highlights applications for the database, gaps in the available data and explains the use of quality scores to help users of the database determine which papers may benefit their research in terms of techniques and reproducibility.

  10. Radiation environment at aviation altitudes and in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, L; Ploc, O; Puchalska, M; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Kyselová, D; Shurshakov, V

    2015-06-01

    On the Earth, protection from cosmic radiation is provided by the magnetosphere and the atmosphere, but the radiation exposure increases with increasing altitude. Aircrew and especially space crew members are therefore exposed to an increased level of ionising radiation. Dosimetry onboard aircraft and spacecraft is however complicated by the presence of neutrons and high linear energy transfer particles. Film and thermoluminescent dosimeters, routinely used for ground-based personnel, do not reliably cover the range of particle types and energies found in cosmic radiation. Further, the radiation field onboard aircraft and spacecraft is not constant; its intensity and composition change mainly with altitude, geomagnetic position and solar activity (marginally also with the aircraft/spacecraft type, number of people aboard, amount of fuel etc.). The European Union Council directive 96/29/Euroatom of 1996 specifies that aircrews that could receive dose of >1 mSv y(-1) must be evaluated. The dose evaluation is routinely performed by computer programs, e.g. CARI-6, EPCARD, SIEVERT, PCAire, JISCARD and AVIDOS. Such calculations should however be carefully verified and validated. Measurements of the radiation field in aircraft are thus of a great importance. A promising option is the long-term deployment of active detectors, e.g. silicon spectrometer Liulin, TEPC Hawk and pixel detector Timepix. Outside the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere, the environment is much harsher than at aviation altitudes. In addition to the exposure to high energetic ionising cosmic radiation, there are microgravity, lack of atmosphere, psychological and psychosocial components etc. The milieu is therefore very unfriendly for any living organism. In case of solar flares, exposures of spacecraft crews may even be lethal. In this paper, long-term measurements of the radiation environment onboard Czech aircraft performed with the Liulin since 2001, as well as measurements and

  11. Radiation environment at aviation altitudes and in space.

    PubMed

    Sihver, L; Ploc, O; Puchalska, M; Ambrožová, I; Kubančák, J; Kyselová, D; Shurshakov, V

    2015-06-01

    On the Earth, protection from cosmic radiation is provided by the magnetosphere and the atmosphere, but the radiation exposure increases with increasing altitude. Aircrew and especially space crew members are therefore exposed to an increased level of ionising radiation. Dosimetry onboard aircraft and spacecraft is however complicated by the presence of neutrons and high linear energy transfer particles. Film and thermoluminescent dosimeters, routinely used for ground-based personnel, do not reliably cover the range of particle types and energies found in cosmic radiation. Further, the radiation field onboard aircraft and spacecraft is not constant; its intensity and composition change mainly with altitude, geomagnetic position and solar activity (marginally also with the aircraft/spacecraft type, number of people aboard, amount of fuel etc.). The European Union Council directive 96/29/Euroatom of 1996 specifies that aircrews that could receive dose of >1 mSv y(-1) must be evaluated. The dose evaluation is routinely performed by computer programs, e.g. CARI-6, EPCARD, SIEVERT, PCAire, JISCARD and AVIDOS. Such calculations should however be carefully verified and validated. Measurements of the radiation field in aircraft are thus of a great importance. A promising option is the long-term deployment of active detectors, e.g. silicon spectrometer Liulin, TEPC Hawk and pixel detector Timepix. Outside the Earth's protective atmosphere and magnetosphere, the environment is much harsher than at aviation altitudes. In addition to the exposure to high energetic ionising cosmic radiation, there are microgravity, lack of atmosphere, psychological and psychosocial components etc. The milieu is therefore very unfriendly for any living organism. In case of solar flares, exposures of spacecraft crews may even be lethal. In this paper, long-term measurements of the radiation environment onboard Czech aircraft performed with the Liulin since 2001, as well as measurements and

  12. A meta-analysis of leukaemia risk from protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation

    PubMed Central

    Schubauer-Berigan, M K

    2010-01-01

    Context More than 400 000 workers annually receive a measurable radiation dose and may be at increased risk of radiation-induced leukaemia. It is unclear whether leukaemia risk is elevated with protracted, low-dose exposure. Objective We conducted a meta-analysis examining the relationship between protracted low-dose ionising radiation exposure and leukaemia. Data sources Reviews by the National Academies and United Nations provided a summary of informative studies published before 2005. PubMed and Embase databases were searched for additional occupational and environmental studies published between 2005 and 2009. Study selection We selected 23 studies that: (1) examined the association between protracted exposures to ionising radiation and leukaemia excluding chronic lymphocytic subtype; (2) were a cohort or nested case–control design without major bias; (3) reported quantitative estimates of exposure; and (4) conducted exposure–response analyses using relative or excess RR per unit exposure. Methods Studies were further screened to reduce information overlap. Random effects models were developed to summarise between-study variance and obtain an aggregate estimate of the excess RR at 100 mGy. Publication bias was assessed by trim and fill and Rosenthal's file drawer methods. Results We found an ERR at 100 mGy of 0.19 (95% CI 0.07 to 0.32) by modelling results from 10 studies and adjusting for publication bias. Between-study variance was not evident (p=0.99). Conclusions Protracted exposure to low-dose gamma radiation is significantly associated with leukaemia. Our estimate agreed well with the leukaemia risk observed among exposed adults in the Life Span Study (LSS) of atomic bomb survivors, providing increased confidence in the current understanding of leukaemia risk from ionising radiation. However, unlike the estimates obtained from the LSS, our model provides a precise, quantitative summary of the direct estimates of excess risk from studies of

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  18. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  19. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. [Health promotion and computer science in radiation protection].

    PubMed

    Pennarola, R; Porzio, G; Cavaliere, L

    2007-01-01

    An automatic system of clinical-diagnostic information has been applied to workers exposed to ionising radiation at the University of Naples Federico II with reference to the last 5 years. For every person exposed a computerized case sheet was elaborated recording clinical, biological, dosimetric and other preventive data. In the localized risk, capillaroscopic monitoring was used. This research has highlighted the role of medical surveillance in developing health promotion criteria and the planning of the interventions with the complete control of all data in real time.

  3. [Ionizing radiation in the aeronautics industry. Non-destructive testing].

    PubMed

    La Verde, R; Travaglini, C

    1983-08-25

    The constant increase in the non-military use of nuclear energy in various fields induced this study of one particular field: the aero industry. Alitalia has been using gammagraphy and industrial metallography for nondestructive testing for over 20 years. Workers exposed to ionising radiations at work are protected by precisely detailed standards based on extremely rigorous national and international legislation. The health and protection of these workers is entrusted to a Company Doctor and a Qualified Specialist. The latter is thought to be indispensable since he is responsible for primary preventions as well as prompt diagnosis.

  4. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  5. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  6. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  7. Aquifer characteristics, water availability, and water quality of the Quaternary aquifer, Osage County, northeastern Oklahoma, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Cope, Caleb C.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2003-01-01

    Additional sources of water are needed on the Osage Reservation for future growth and development. The Quaternary aquifer along the Arkansas River in the Osage Reservation may represent a substantial water resource, but limited amounts of hydrogeologic data were available for the aquifer. The study area is about 116 square miles of the Quaternary aquifer in the Arkansas River valley and the nearby upland areas along the Osage Reservation. The study area included the Arkansas River reach downstream from Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma to upstream from Keystone Lake near Cleveland, Oklahoma. Electrical conductivity logs were produced for 103 test holes. Water levels were determined for 49 test holes, and 105 water samples were collected for water-quality field analyses at 46 test holes. Water-quality data included field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen). Sediment cores were extracted from 20 of the 103 test holes. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial and terrace deposits of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The measured thickness of the alluvium ranged from 13.7 to 49.8 feet. The measured thickness of the terrace sediments ranged from 7 to 93.8 feet. The saturated thickness of all sediments ranged from 0 to 38.2 feet with a median of 24.8 feet. The weighted-mean grain size for cores from the alluvium ranged from 3.69 to 0.64 f, (0.08- 0.64 millimeter), and ranged from 4.02 to 2.01 f (0.06-0.25 millimeter) for the cores from terrace deposits. The mean of the weighted-mean grain sizes for cores from the alluvium was 1.67 f (0.31 millimeter), and the terrace deposits was 2.73 f (0.15 millimeter). The hydraulic conductivity calculated from grain size of the alluvium ranged from 2.9 to 6,000 feet per day and of the terrace deposits ranged from 2.9 to 430 feet per day. The calculated transmissivity of the alluvium ranged from 2,000 to 26,000 feet squared per day with a median of 5,100 feet squared per day. Water in storage in the alluvium was estimated to be approximately 200,000 acre-feet. The amount of water annually recharging the aquifer was estimated to be approximately 4,800 acre-feet. Specific conductance for all water samples ranged from 161 to 6,650 microsiemens per centimeter. Median specific conductance for the alluvium was 683 microsiemens per centimeter and for the terrace deposits was 263 microsiemens per centimeter. Dissolved-solids concentrations, estimated from specific conductance, for water samples from the aquifer ranged from 88 to 3,658 milligrams per liter. Estimated median dissolved- solids concentration for the alluvium was 376 milligrams per liter and for the terrace deposits was 145 milligrams per liter. More than half of the samples from the Quaternary aquifer were estimated to contain less than 500 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Field-screened nitrate concentrations for the sampling in December 2001-August 2002 ranged from 0 to 15 milligrams per liter. The field-screened nitrate concentrations for the second sampling in September 2002 were less than corresponding laboratory reported values.

  8. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maskill, Mark

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  9. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Loxterman, Janet

    2003-05-01

    In chapter 1 we report on studies of the population genetic structure, using DNA microsatellites, of steelhead collected from different locations in the Yakima River basin (Roza Dam, Ahtanum Creek, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek) in 2000 and 2001. Of 28 pairwise tests of genotypic differentiation, only the 2000 and 2001 Roza Dam collections and the 2000 and 2001 Satus Creek collections did not exhibit significant differences. Similarly, pairwise tests of genetic differentiation (FST) were significant for all comparisons except the between-years comparisons of Roza Dam, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek collections. All tests between populations sampled from different localities were significant, indicating that these collections represent genetically differentiated stocks. In chapter 2 we report on genetic comparisons, again using microsatellites, of the three spring chinook populations in the Yakima basin (Upper Yakima, Naches, and American) with respect to our ability to be able to estimate the proportions of the three populations in mixed smolt samples collected at Chandler. We evaluated this both in terms of mixed fishery analysis, where proportions are estimated, but the likely provenance of any particular fish is unknown, and classification, where an attempt is made to assign individual fish to their population of origin. Simulations were done over the entire ranged of stock proportions observed in the Yakima basin in the last 20+ years. Stock proportions can be estimated very accurately by either method. Chapter 3 reports on our ongoing effort at cryopreserving semen from wild Upper Yakima spring chinook. In 2002, semen from 91 males, more than 50% of those spawned, was cryopreserved. Representation over the spawning season was excellent. Chapters 4,5, and 6 all relate to the continuing development of the domestication study design. Chapter 4 details the ISRP consultations and evolution of the design from last year's preferred alternative to the current plan of using the Naches population as a wild control, and maintaining a hatchery-only control line alongside the supplemented line. During discussions this year a major issue was the possible impact to the research and to the supplementation effort, of gene flow from precocious males from the hatchery control line into the supplemented line. At the end of the contracting period, this issue still had not been resolved. Along with the discussion of development of the domestication research design, chapter 4 presents the current monitoring plan document, with discussion of the approach to the various traits to be analyzed. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with experimental power of the domestication monitoring design. There is still much work to be done on power, but in chapter 5 we explore our power to detect differences among the three lines for traits measured on individual adults. Power was found to be quite good for effects of 5% per generation over three generations for traits having a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10-20%, but low if the CV was 50%. Power is higher for comparisons between the hatchery control line and supplemented line than between the supplemented line and the wild control, a consequence of trying to avoid heavy impacts to the Naches population. Power could be improved considerably improved by sampling more Naches fish in years of high abundance. Chapter 6 presents the same power analysis, but attempts to explore the effect of precocious males from the hatchery control line spawning in the wild. It is clear that if gene flow from precocious males is more than one or two percent that the between line comparisons will be biased, making the supplemented line appear to be more similar to the hatchery control line than it should and more different from the wild control line than it should. However, it was also clear that more analysis is desirable, as the heightened or diminished power is really just an enhancement or reduction of a real difference. A more straightforward analysis of the proportion of observed differences that can be attributed to precocious gene flow needs to be done.

  10. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  11. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2003-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements and exploitation in lower Deschutes River tributaries is extremely limited. To assess the status of lampreys in the Deschutes River subbasin, baseline information is needed. We operated to rotary screw traps in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek to gain an understanding of species composition, migration time and production. We identified Pacific lampreys in two life stages, ammocoete and macropthalmia. It appears that Pacific lamprey macropthalmia out-migrate during winter in the Warm Springs River. We saw peak movements by ammocoetes in the spring in Shitike Creek and winter in the Warm Springs River. We found no relationship between stream discharge and the number of lamprey collected. Very few macropthalmia were collected in Shitike Creek. Ammocoete size in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek were different. The ammocoetes in the Shitike Creek trap were close in size to the macropthalmia collected in the Warm Springs River trap. We also completed planning and preparation for larval and associated habitat data collection. This preparation included purchasing necessary field equipment, selecting and marking sampling areas and attending training with US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Because lamprey identification is difficult we met with US Geological Survey (USGS) to assist us with larval lamprey identification techniques. We have also been working in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to prepare and implement creel surveys and a mark-recapture study at Sherar's Falls to estimate adult lamprey escapement.

  12. Discourse analysis of newspaper coverage of the 2001/2002 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses' strike.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tony L; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2005-09-01

    In late 2001 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses undertook a variety of strike actions after stalled industrial negotiations with the local district health board. One response to these actions was the temporary reduction of many of the regions metal health services. Unsurprisingly, the print media responded by publicizing the crisis in mental health services on an almost daily basis. This paper reports on subsequent research into these print media representations of the industrial disputes, identifying themes of juxtaposed but largely deprecatory images of both mental health nursing and of consumers of services. Some professional nursing voices were given print space during the strike; however, these were largely incorporated into existing discourses rather than offering a nursing viewpoint on the strike. We, therefore, conclude by suggesting organizational efforts to focus on ways of ensuring that mental health nurses are seen as a legitimate authority by the media. PMID:16181156

  13. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  14. The NASA "Why?" Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Program 7 in 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has produced a distance learning series of four 60-minute video programs with an accompanying Web site and companion teacher guides designed for students in grades 3-5. The story lines of each program or episode involve six inquisitive school children who meet in a treehouse. They seek the…

  15. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

  16. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  17. Measurement of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in air-filter samples from Seville (2001-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Enamorado, S. M.; Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; Wacker, L.

    2010-05-01

    Since the last nuclear atmospheric test carried out by the People Republic of China in 1980 and since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the plutonium hasn't been directly released into the atmosphere. However, nowadays, it is still present in the troposphere. This is due to plutonium-bearing soil particles physical resuspension processes. In this work, we study for the first time the temporal variation of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, baseline concentrations on a monthly basis in surface air from Seville (Spain), and their correlation with some tracers of mineral dust, during 2001 and 2002. The Pu analyses were performed by low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The 239Pu plus 240Pu ( 239+240Pu) activity levels achieved maximums during the summer period, characterized by the absence of rains, and minimums during the rainy seasons, laying in the range 1-20 nBq m -3. The 240Pu/ 239Pu two-year average atomic ratio was 0.18 ± 0.03, in agreement with the fallout plutonium. A good correlation with Pu and Al and Ti levels is observed. They are crustal components usually used as tracers of African dust over European countries. The hypothesis of the influence of the Saharan dust intrusions is supported as well through the study of Total Ozone Mass Spectrometer (TOMS) daily images.

  18. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H.

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  19. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These six issues of the periodical offer teachers and tutors practical ideas for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults. The publications include such teaching activities as multilevel crossword puzzles, multilevel dictation, a grammar grab-bag, role play games, an ESL board game, and a newspaper search activity. They also offer…

  20. Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve…

  1. Dissolved Pesticide and Organic Carbon Concentrations Detected in Surface Waters, Northern Central Valley, California, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of pesticide mixtures on Chinook salmon under various environmental conditions in surface waters of the northern Central Valley of California. This project was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California. The project focused on understanding the environmental factors that influence the toxicity of pesticides to juvenile salmon and their prey. During the periods January through March 2001 and January through May 2002, water samples were collected at eight surface water sites in the northern Central Valley of California and analyzed by the USGS for dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Water samples were also collected by the USGS at the same sites for aquatic toxicity testing by the Aquatic Toxicity Laboratory at the University of California Davis; however, presentation of the results of these toxicity tests is beyond the scope of this report. Samples were collected to characterize dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and aquatic toxicity, associated with winter storm runoff concurrent with winter run Chinook salmon out-migration. Sites were selected that represented the primary habitat of juvenile Chinook salmon and included major tributaries within the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins and the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. Water samples were collected daily for a period of seven days during two winter storm events in each year. Additional samples were collected weekly during January through April or May in both years. Concentrations of 31 currently used pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey's organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were analyzed in filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-5000A total organic carbon analyzer.

  2. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland would comprise over half the total acreage and may be mowed or hayed to reduce exotic vegetation. Grasslands and wetlands may similarly be mowed or hayed, or left fallow. Wetlands would be subject to periodic flooding from the Tualatin River, but would drain quickly and promote undesirable vegetation. Riverine, forested wetland, and mixed forest habitats would likely change little from their current condition. Active restoration would include restoring wetlands with limited use of dikes and water control structures; planting and maintaining native grass, trees, and shrubs; and aggressive management of non-native invasive vegetation. Hydrology would be restored to emergent wetlands mimicking natural cycles thus promoting hydrophytic vegetation beneficial to fish and wildlife. Grassland and former crop areas would be planted with native grasses and trees to recreate prairie and savanna habitat types. Riverine riparian and forested wetland areas would be expanded by planting native trees and shrubs benefiting a multitude of species. Although a 'hands off' approach may provide habitat benefits after many decades, a more proactive approach would provide far more benefits to fish and wildlife, and thus would provide additional habitat credits more quickly.

  3. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The Duncan Creek project has two goals: (1) re-introduction of chum into Duncan Creek by providing off channel high quality spawning and incubation areas and (2) to simultaneously evaluate natural re-colonization and a supplementation strategy where adults are collected and spawned artificially at a hatchery. The eggs from these artificial crossings are then either incubated at Duncan Creek or incubated and the fry reared at the hatchery to be released back into Duncan Creek. Tasks associated with the first goal include: (1) removing mud, sand and organics present in four of the creek branches and replace with gravels expected to provide maximum egg-to-fry survival rates to a depth of at least two feet; (2) armoring the sides of these channels to reduce importation of sediment by fish spawning on the margins; (3) planting native vegetation adjacent to these channels to stabilize the banks, trap silt and provide shade; (4) annual sampling of gravel in the spawning channels to detect changes in gravel composition and sedimentation levels.

  4. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  5. Discourse analysis of newspaper coverage of the 2001/2002 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses' strike.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tony L; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2005-09-01

    In late 2001 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses undertook a variety of strike actions after stalled industrial negotiations with the local district health board. One response to these actions was the temporary reduction of many of the regions metal health services. Unsurprisingly, the print media responded by publicizing the crisis in mental health services on an almost daily basis. This paper reports on subsequent research into these print media representations of the industrial disputes, identifying themes of juxtaposed but largely deprecatory images of both mental health nursing and of consumers of services. Some professional nursing voices were given print space during the strike; however, these were largely incorporated into existing discourses rather than offering a nursing viewpoint on the strike. We, therefore, conclude by suggesting organizational efforts to focus on ways of ensuring that mental health nurses are seen as a legitimate authority by the media.

  6. Dietary nutrient intake and major food sources: the Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nutrient intake and their dietary sources in Taiwanese children ages 6-12 years by analyzing the 24-hour recall data of 2386 participants from a nationally representative sample. Results showed that children in Taiwan were slightly lower in mean proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates (53.5% of energy intake) and higher in those from fats (30.8%) and protein (15.8%) as based on the recommendations of Department of Health in Taiwan. The mean intake of vitamins and of minerals by children was equivalent to or exceeded Daily Reference Intake of Taiwan (DRI) or other recommended standards with the exception of a seriously insufficient calcium intake and extremely high sodium intake. A substantial proportion of children in different age/gender/location strata had lower mean vitamin and mineral intake by DRI and other recommended standards. These nutrient profiles were mainly related to dietary patterns with relatively low intake of fruits, vegetables, cereals/grains, and dairy products, but high intake of the protein-rich foods, salt/sauces, and fats/oils. According to the suboptimal dietary nutrient profiles of Taiwanese children, particularly in the underprivileged areas, recommendations are made in this article for policy makers and health practitioners to consider in order to improve dietary quality of elementary school children. PMID:17723992

  7. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species; and (9) Participation in planning and coordination activities within the basin and dissemination of results. Key findings for 2002 revealed: (1) Migrant abundance of natural fish was roughly 10% that of hatchery produced fish; (2) An undetermined number of hatchery summer steelhead are residualizing in the upper Umatilla basin and potentially overwintering and migrating out as 2 year old smolts; (3) Transported fish may have a survival advantage over non-transported fish; (4) The later release of hatchery summer steelhead resulted in emigration timing that differed from that of naturally-produced fish; (5) Large-grade summer steelhead released lower in the river displayed improved survival over fish released higher; (6) Extended reared steelhead did not exhibit a survival advantage over standard reared fish; (7) Second year evaluation following reduction in the subyearling fall chinook program revealed survival to be similar to pre-reduction estimates; (8) Migration success was not improved nor in-river residence time reduced by acclimation of coho salmon at RM 56; (9) Early released spring chinook salmon migration and survival was unable to be evaluated due downstream monitoring facilities being in-operable during the early migration.

  8. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the project implementation and monitoring of all habitat activities that occurred over Fiscal Year 2002 (FY 02). Some of the objectives in the corresponding statement of work for this contract were not completed within FY 02. A description of the progress during FY 02 and reasoning for deviation from the original tasks and timeline are given. OBJECTIVE 1--Provide coordination of all activities, administrative oversight and assist in project implementation and monitoring activities. Administration oversight and coordination of the habitat statement of work, budget, subcontracts and personnel was provided. OBJECTIVE 2--Develop, coordinate, and implement the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan. The Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was completed in 2000 (Coccoli et al., 2000). This document is utilized for many purposes including: drafting the Watershed Action Plan, ranking projects for funding, and prioritizing projects to target in the future. This document was updated and revised to reflect changes to fish habitat and needs in the Hood River basin based upon other documents and actions taken in the basin. OBJECTIVE 3--Assist Middle Fork Irrigation District in developing an alternative irrigation water source on Evans Creek (Hutson pond and Evans Creek diversion), eliminating the need for irrigation diversion dams which happen to be partial fish barriers. Upon completion, this project will restore 2.5 miles of access for winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout habitat. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. During FY 02 the final engineering was completed on this project. However, due to a lengthy permitting process and NMFS consultation, this project was inadvertently delayed. Project completion is expected in July 2003. OBJECTIVE 4--Assist the Farmers Irrigation District (FID) in construction and installation of a new fish screen and bypass system on the mainstem Hood River (Farmers Canal). Final engineering and design for the horizontal screen was completed during the winter of 2001. In December 2001 and January 2002, the concrete work was completed and the head gates were mounted. During the spring the secondary head level control gates were installed. In September 2002, the jersey barriers and vortex tubes were installed. These are located upstream of the old drum screen, and are the primary means of dealing with bedload and suspended load from the diversion. The screen surface was also installed in September 2002 and the system accommodated water soon after. Monitoring of these structures in regards to efficiency and possible effects to fish migration is scheduled to occur in spring 2003. The transition from the old canal to the new screen is smooth and currently does not present any problems. The old drum screen is going to remain in place until all the biological and hydrological monitoring is complete to ensure compliance and satisfaction of all agencies involved. OBJECTIVE 5--Assist the East Fork Irrigation District (EFID) in final engineering design and construction of the Central Lateral Canal upgrade and invert siphon. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. During FY 02, a significant portion of the engineering and design work was completed on the EFID Central Lateral Canal upgrade and invert siphon. There were some changes in canal alignment that required further design work and easement acquisition. Time was also spent looking for matching funds and securing a loan by the EFID. Construction initiation is now scheduled for summer 2003. OBJECTIVE 6--Modify and/or eliminate five culverts, three on Baldwin Creek, one on Graham Creek, and one on Evans Creek, which function as barriers to upstream and downstream fish migration. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. There are only two culverts on Baldwin Creek that will be eliminated or modified. Work was initiated on the removal of one of these culverts, and the replacement of the other. The landowner was agreeable and NEPA was initiated. The modification/elimination of these culverts is scheduled for FY 04. The culvert on Graham Creek is a county road, and will be addressed as a fish passage barrier by Hood River County. The Evans Creek culvert was prepared for modification in FY 02, however due to a lengthy permitting process the instream work period was missed. This project is on the schedule for the instream work period of 2003. OBJECTIVE 7--Construct riparian fence to stabilize and improve the riparian zone along the East Fork Hood River and tributaries. Two riparian fencing projects were completed on East Fork Hood River tributaries. The first was on Baldwin Creek, and the second was on Shelly Creek.

  9. Radiation enteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation enteropathy; Radiation-induced small bowel injury; Post-radiation enteritis ... Radiation therapy uses high-powered x-rays, particles, or radioactive seeds to kill cancer cells. The therapy ...

  10. Determination of alkyl benzyl and dialkyl dimethyl quaternary ammonium biocides in occupational hygiene and environmental media by liquid chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Tetler, Lee W; White, John; Rimmer, Duncan

    2002-04-01

    A new method for the simultaneous qualitative and quantitative determination of alkyl benzyl and dialkyl quaternary ammonium compounds (QACs) has been developed. Analysis is by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry. QACs are extremely amenable to the electrospray ionisation technique (limit of detection of BAC C12 homologue 3 ng ml(-1)). The selectivity of mass spectrometric detection allows simultaneous determination of benzyl and dialkyl dimethyl ammonium compounds. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of real samples (occupational hygiene sampling devices, products and swimming pool water). Structural information was obtained by MS-MS and cone voltage ion dissociation techniques. Ion dissociation enabled the structural elucidation of an unknown quaternary ammonium compound present in a commercial formulation.

  11. Monte Carlo simulation for energy deposition of an ionisation chamber based on the equivalent electron source theory and experimental verification for the theory.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaona; Zhang, Aiming; Song, Hailong; Hu, Zunsu; Chen, Mingjun; Wang, Guolin

    2011-07-01

    The main research described in this paper includes three sections. First, research on the response of the stainless steel ball-shaped ionisation chamber by experimental methods. Secondly, calculation of the response of the chamber with the general Monte Carlo EGS4 code in order to compare with the equivalent electron source theory by calculation methods. Finally, calculation of the response of the ionisation chamber with the equivalent electron source theory. The results show that the calculated results of the equivalent electron source theory coincide very well with those of the experiments when the atomic number of the chamber wall is close to one of the gases (such as Ar and Kr), and the calculated results coincide with those of the experiments to a certain extent when the atomic number of the chamber wall is not close to one of the gases (such as He and Xe).

  12. Online antioxidant activity and ultra-performance LC-electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-fight mass spectrometry for chemical fingerprinting of Indian polyherbal formulations.

    PubMed

    Bhandari, Pamita; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Shahid M; Bhutani, Kamlesh K

    2016-01-01

    A HPLC-DAD-DPPH method was developed for evaluating the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical scavenging activity of ethylacetate extracts of different polyherbal formulations (draksarista, draksava, lohasava and arvindasava) by using RP-18e column. The ethylacetate extract from polyherbal, 'draksarista' exhibited maximum free radical scavenging activity (99.9 ± 0.38%) followed by draksava (99.8 ± 0.34%), lohasava (98.5 ± 0.30%) and arvindasava (42.3 ± 0.34%) at 100 μg mL(-1). Simultaneously, ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionisation-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was used to study chemical composition of the ethylacetate extracts of formulations. The characteristic electrospray mass ionisation reveals the dominance of polyphenols and their glycosides in the four polyherbal formulations.

  13. Analysis of triacetone triperoxide complexes with alkali metal ions by electrospray and extractive electrospray ionisation combined with ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alex R; Edgar, Mark; Chatzigeorgiou, Maria; Reynolds, James C; Kelly, Paul F; Creaser, Colin S

    2015-01-01

    The complexation of triacetone triperoxide (TATP) with a range of alkali metals has been studied by electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry yield [M+Cat](+) ions for all of the alkali metals. The formation of [2TATP+Li+LiX](+) (X = Br, Cl) sandwich complexes was also observed. Collision cross- sections for the lithium-containing complexes of TATP were measured by travelling wave ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry, and compared well with computationally determined structures. Extractive electrospray ionisation (EESI) using a lithium doped electrospray is demonstrated for the detection of TATP vapours desorbed from a metal surface. The limit of detection for EESI was shown to be 20 ng using the [TATP+Li](+) ion. PMID:26307706

  14. Gamma radiation-induced blue shift of resonance peaks of Bragg gratings in pure silica fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faustov, A. V.; Gusarov, A. I.; Mégret, P.; Wuilpart, M.; Kinet, D.; Zhukov, A. V.; Novikov, S. G.; Svetukhin, V. V.; Fotiadi, A. A.

    2016-02-01

    We report the first observation of a significant gamma radiation-induced blue shift of the reflection/transmission peak of fibre Bragg gratings inscribed into pure-silica core fibres via multiphoton absorption of femtosecond pulses. At a total dose of ~100 kGy, the shift is ~20 pm. The observed effect is attributable to the ionising radiation-induced decrease in the density of the silica glass when the rate of colour centre formation is slow. We present results of experimental measurements that provide the key parameters of the dynamics of the gratings for remote dosimetry and temperature sensing.

  15. The Photoevaporation of a Neutral Structure by an EUV+FUV Radiation Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Veronica; Vasconcelos, M. J.; Raga, A. C.; Cerqueira, A. H.; Esquivel, A.

    The expansion of an HII region into a surrounding inhomogeneous molecular cloud, leads to the formation of elongated "elephant trunk" structures. The EUV photo-ionising radiation and FUV dissociating radiation from newly born stars photo-evaporate their parental neutral cloud, leading to the formation of dense clumps in the tips of elephant trunks, that could in principle eventually form stars. We study th effects of including a photo-dissociating FUV flux in models of fragmentation of a photo-evaporating, self-gravitating molecular cloud.

  16. Effect of Irrigation to Winter Wheat on the Radiation Use Efficiency and Yield of Summer Maize in a Double Cropping System

    PubMed Central

    Quanqi, Li; Yuhai, Chen; Xunbo, Zhou; Songlie, Yu; Changcheng, Guo

    2012-01-01

    In north China, double cropping of winter wheat and summer maize is a widely adopted agricultural practice, and irrigation is required to obtain a high yield from winter wheat, which results in rapid aquifer depletion. In this experiment conducted in 2001-2002, 2002-2003, and 2004-2005, we studied the effects of irrigation regimes during specific winter wheat growing stage with winter wheat and summer maize double cropping systems; we measured soil moisture before sowing (SMBS), the photosynthetic active radiation (PAR) capture ratio, grain yield, and the radiation use efficiency (RUE) of summer maize. During the winter wheat growing season, irrigation was applied at the jointing, heading, or milking stage, respectively. The results showed that increased amounts of irrigation and irrigation later in the winter wheat growing season improved SMBS for summer maize. The PAR capture ratio significantly (LSD, P < 0.05) increased with increased SMBS, primarily in the 3 spikes leaves. With improved SMBS, both the grain yield and RUE increased in all the treatments. These results indicate that winter wheat should be irrigated in later stages to achieve reasonable grain yield for both crops. PMID:22654613

  17. Evidence for a Circum-Nuclear and Ionised Absorber in the X-ray Obscured Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braito, V.; Reeves, J. N.; Sambruna, R. M.; Gofford, J.

    2012-01-01

    Here we present the results of a Suzaku observation of the Broad Line Radio Galaxy 3C 445. We confirm the results obtained with the previous X-ray observations which unveiled the presence of several soft X-ray emission lines and an overall X-ray emission which strongly resembles a typical Seyfert 2 despite of the optical classification as an unobscured AGN. The broad band spectrum allowed us to measure for the first time the amount of reflection (R approximately 0.9) which together with the relatively strong neutral Fe Ka emission line (EW approximately 100 eV) strongly supports a scenario where a Compton-thick mirror is present. The primary X ray continuum is strongly obscured by an absorber with a column density of NH = 2 - 3 x 10(exp 23) per square centimeter. Two possible scenarios are proposed for the absorber: a neutral partial covering or a mildly ionised absorber with an ionisation parameter log xi approximately 1.0 erg centimeter per second. A comparison with the past and more recent X-ray observations of 3C 445 performed with XMM-Newton and Chandra is presented, which provided tentative evidence that the ionised and outflowing absorber varied. We argue that the absorber is probably associated with an equatorial diskwind located within the parsec scale molecular torus.

  18. Rapid assignment of malting barley varieties by matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - Time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Šedo, Ondrej; Kořán, Michal; Jakešová, Michaela; Mikulíková, Renata; Boháč, Michal; Zdráhal, Zbyněk

    2016-09-01

    A method for discriminating malting barley varieties based on direct matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionisation - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) fingerprinting of proteins was developed. Signals corresponding to hordeins were obtained by simple mixing of powdered barley grain with a MALDI matrix solution containing 12.5mgmL(-1) of ferulic acid in an acetonitrile:water:formic acid 50:33:17 v/v/v mixture. Compared to previous attempts at MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of barley proteins, the extraction and fractionation steps were practically omitted, resulting in a significant reduction in analytical time and costs. The discriminatory power was examined on twenty malting barley varieties and the practicability of the method was tested on sixty barley samples acquired from Pilsner Urquell Brewery. The method is proposed as a rapid tool for variety assignment and purity determination of malting barley that may replace gel electrophoresis currently used for this purpose. PMID:27041307

  19. Towards the integration of matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation mass spectrometry imaging into the current fingermark examination workflow.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Robert; Bleay, Stephen; Wolstenholme, Rosalind; Clench, Malcolm Ronald; Francese, Simona

    2013-10-10

    A wide range of fingermark enhancement techniques (FET) is currently employed to visualise latent fingermarks at crime scenes. However, if smudged, partial, distorted or absent in the National Fingerprint Database, crime scene marks may be not useful for identification purposes. In these circumstances, a technology enabling chemical imaging of both endogenous and exogenous species contained within the fingermark could provide additional and associative investigative information, to profile the suspect's activities prior to the crime. Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionisation Mass Spectrometry Imaging (MALDI MSI) has proven to be such a technique, enabling investigative information to be gathered, for example, on what substances the donor has come in contact with and what they have ingested. Nonetheless, to be employed, MALDI MSI has to be validated and its compatibility with FET tested for integration into the standard fingermark examination workflow. For the first time, a direct comparison has been made between the efficiency of a range of FET and MALDI MSI under different conditions. This information will build towards validation of the technology. Also, for the first time, MALDI MSI has been successfully employed as a sequential step following fingermark enhancement using many of the currently employed FET. Additionally, known enhancers have been "re-visited" by combining them with a MALDI matrix, providing both improved fingermark development and chemical species detection via MALDI MSI. The result reported here are good indication in favour of the integration of MALDI MSI into the current fingermark examination workflow for gathering additional investigative information.

  20. Fragmentation of mycosporine-like amino acids by hydrogen/deuterium exchange and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cardozo, Karina H M; Carvalho, Valdemir M; Pinto, Ernani; Colepicolo, Pio

    2006-01-01

    The determination and identification of mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) from algae remain a major challenge due to the low concentration. Mass spectrometry (MS) can make an invaluable contribution in the search and identification of MAAs because of its high sensitivity, possibility of coupling with liquid chromatography, and the availability of powerful tandem mass spectrometric techniques. However, the unequivocal determination of the presence and location of important functional groups present on the basic skeleton of the MAAs is often elusive due to their inherent instability under MS conditions. In this study, the use of hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange and electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) for characterisation of four MAAs (palythine, asterina, palythinol and shinorine) isolated from the macroalgae Gracilaria tenuistipitata Chang et Xia was investigated. The accurate-mass confirmation of the protonated molecules was performed on a Q-TOF instrument. We demonstrate that employing deuterium labelling in ESI-MS/MS analysis provides a convenient tool for the determination of new MAAs. Although the fragmentation patterns of MAAs were discussed earlier, to our knowledge, this is the first time that mechanisms are proposed.

  1. Analysis of oilfield produced waters and production chemicals by electrospray ionisation multi-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn).

    PubMed

    McCormack, P; Jones, P; Hetheridge, M J; Rowland, S J

    2001-10-01

    Large quantities of diverse polar organic chemicals are routinely discharged from oil production platforms in so-called produced waters. The environmental fate of many of these is unknown since few methods exist for their characterisation. Preliminary investigations into the use of multistage electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MSn) show its potential for the identification and quantification of compounds in specialty oilfield chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, scale inhibitors, biocides and demulsifiers) and produced waters. Multiple stage mass spectrometry (MSn) with both positive and negative ion detection allows high specificity detection and characterisation of a wide range of polar and charged molecules. For example, linear alkylbenzenesulfonates (LAS), alkyldimethylbenzylammonium compounds, 2-alkyl-1-ethylamine-2-imidazolines, 2-alkyl-1-[N-ethylalkylamide]-2-imidazolines and a di-[alkyldimethylammonium-ethyl]ether were all identified and characterised in commercial formulations and/or North Sea oilfield produced waters. The technique should allow the marine environmental effects and fates of some of these polar compounds to be studied.

  2. Analysis of organophosphate flame retardants and plasticisers in water by isotope dilution gas chromatography-electron ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Teo, Tiffany L L; McDonald, James A; Coleman, Heather M; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-10-01

    The widespread use of organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) in commercial products have led to their increased presence in the environment. In this study, a rapid and reliable analytical method was developed for the analysis of five PFRs in water using gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) with electron ionisation (EI) and a run time of 13 min. The PFRs investigated were tributyl phosphate (TBP), tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), tris(1-chloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TCPP), tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPP). Solid phase extraction (SPE) was undertaken to extract and concentrate target analytes from aqueous matrices. All water samples were extracted from a volume of 500 mL. Isotopically labelled compounds were used to account for analytical variability and for accurate quantification by isotope dilution. Method recoveries for all compounds were above 80% in all tested water samples. Method detection limits for all target analytes ranged from 0.3 to 24 ng/L in ultrapure water, tap water, seawater, surface water, secondary effluent and swimming pool water. Validation of this method confirmed satisfactory method stability with less than 1% coefficients of variation, verifying that this approach produced good reproducibility. PMID:26078137

  3. Analysis of wax ester molecular species by high performance liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vrkoslav, Vladimír; Urbanová, Klára; Cvacka, Josef

    2010-06-18

    High chromatographic resolution of wax esters (WEs) was achieved by non-aqueous reversed-phase liquid chromatography on a Nova-Pak C18 column by optimising the acetonitrile/ethyl acetate mobile phase gradient. The retention behaviour of WEs was studied in this chromatographic system. The WEs eluted according to their equivalent carbon number (ECN) values; within the group of WEs with the identical ECN, the most unsaturated species tended to elute first. The isobaric WEs with different positions of the ester moiety were separated from each other whenever the lengths of the chains were sufficiently different. The methyl-branched esters eluted at shorter retention times than the straight-chained analogues, and the resolution among methyl-branched WEs depended on the position of the branching. The analytes were detected by atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation mass spectrometry (APCI-MS) using data-dependent scanning. WEs provided simple full-scan spectra with abundant protonated molecules and low-intensity fragments. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) promoted identification of the WE molecular species. The responses of WEs were found to be dependent on the number of double bonds and on the alkyl-chain length; the limits of the detection ranged from 20micromol/L to 200nmol/L. The HPLC/APCI-MS was applied for the analysis of the WEs isolated from honeycomb beeswax, jojoba oil and human hair. Good agreement between reported results and the literature data was achieved, with several novel polyunsaturated WEs also being found.

  4. Neutral and acidic products derived from hydroxyl radical-induced oxidation of arabinotriose assessed by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Ana S P; da Costa, Elisabete V; Evtuguin, Dmitry V; Coimbra, Manuel A; Nunes, Fernando M; Domingues, M Rosário M

    2014-04-01

    The oxidation of α-(1 → 5)-L-arabinotriose (Ara3), an oligosaccharide structurally related to side chains of coffee arabinogalactans, was studied in reaction with hydroxyl radicals generated under conditions of Fenton reaction (Fe(2+)/H2O2). The acidic and neutral oxidation products were separated by ligand exchange/size-exclusion chromatography, subsequently identified by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and structurally characterised by tandem MS (ESI-MS/MS). In acidic fraction were identified several oxidation products containing an acidic residue at the corresponding reducing end of Ara3, namely arabinonic acid, and erythronic, glyceric and glycolic acids formed by oxidative scission of the furanose ring. In neutral fractions were identified derivatives containing keto, hydroxy and hydroperoxy moieties, as well as derivatives resulting from the ring scission at the reducing end of Ara3. In both acidic and neutral fractions, beyond the trisaccharide derivatives, the corresponding di- and monosaccharide derivatives were identified indicating the occurrence of oxidative depolymerisation. The structural characterisation of these oxidation products by ESI-MS/MS allowed the differentiation of isobaric and isomeric species of acidic and neutral character. The species identified in this study may help in detection of roasting products associated with the free radical-mediated oxidation of coffee arabinogalactans.

  5. Characterisation of a proposed internet synthesis of N,N-dimethyltryptamine using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Martins, Cláudia P B; Freeman, Sally; Alder, John F; Brandt, Simon D

    2009-08-14

    The psychoactive properties of N,N-dimethyltryptamine (DMT) are known to induce altered states of consciousness in humans. These properties attract great interest from clinical, neuroscientific, clandestine and forensic communities. The Breath of Hope Synthesis was reported on an internet website as a convenient two-step methodology for the preparation of DMT. The analytical characterisation of the first stage was the subject of previous publications by the authors and involved the thermal decarboxylation of tryptophan and the formation of tryptamine. The present study reports on the characterisation of the second step of this procedure which was based on the methylation of tryptamine. This employed methyl iodide and benzyltriethylammonium chloride/sodium hydroxide as a phase transfer catalyst. The reaction product was characterised by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry and orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Quantitative evaluation was carried out in positive multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM), which included synthesis of the identified reaction products. MRM screening of the product did not lead to the detection of DMT. Instead, 11.1% tryptamine starting material, 21.0% N,N,N-trimethyltryptammonium iodide (TMT) and 47.4% 1-N-methyl-TMT were detected. A 0.5% trace of the monomethylated N-methyltryptamine was also detected. This study demonstrated the impact on product purity of doubtful synthetic methodologies discussed on the internet. PMID:19592003

  6. An investigation of the matrix sensitivity of refinery gas analysis using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Valerio; Brown, Andrew S; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-02-27

    The response of a flame ionisation detector (FID) on a gas chromatograph to methane, ethane, propane, i-butane and n-butane in a series of multi-component refinery gas standards was investigated to assess the matrix sensitivity of the instrument. High-accuracy synthetic gas standards, traceable to the International System of Units, were used to minimise uncertainties. The instrument response exhibited a small dependence on the component amount fraction: this behaviour, consistent with that of another FID, was thoroughly characterised over a wide range of component amount fractions and was shown to introduce a negligible bias in the analysis of refinery gas samples, provided a suitable reference standard is employed. No significant effects of the molar volume, density and viscosity of the gas mixtures on the instrument response were observed, indicating that the FID is suitable for the analysis of refinery gas mixtures over a wide range of component amount fractions provided that appropriate drift-correction procedures are employed.

  7. An investigation of the matrix sensitivity of refinery gas analysis using gas chromatography with flame ionisation detection.

    PubMed

    Ferracci, Valerio; Brown, Andrew S; Harris, Peter M; Brown, Richard J C

    2015-02-27

    The response of a flame ionisation detector (FID) on a gas chromatograph to methane, ethane, propane, i-butane and n-butane in a series of multi-component refinery gas standards was investigated to assess the matrix sensitivity of the instrument. High-accuracy synthetic gas standards, traceable to the International System of Units, were used to minimise uncertainties. The instrument response exhibited a small dependence on the component amount fraction: this behaviour, consistent with that of another FID, was thoroughly characterised over a wide range of component amount fractions and was shown to introduce a negligible bias in the analysis of refinery gas samples, provided a suitable reference standard is employed. No significant effects of the molar volume, density and viscosity of the gas mixtures on the instrument response were observed, indicating that the FID is suitable for the analysis of refinery gas mixtures over a wide range of component amount fractions provided that appropriate drift-correction procedures are employed. PMID:25620742

  8. Radiation a new paradigm...Societal impacts.

    PubMed

    Sutcliffe, Jill

    2010-05-01

    Latency is associated with the time lag it takes for the health effects resulting from exposure to ionising radiation to show up. However, the term latency can also be applied to the time it takes for a policy to be implemented. This length of time has been suggested as broadly 40-year process. Given that radioactivity was identified and named in 1896, three paradigms are identified and examined from 1896 to 2016 and the criteria for a 4th paradigm suggested for the period 2017-2056. The review examines the changes that have taken place in scientific understanding and in public trust, a few key developments and the associated establishment of the related organisational infrastructure designed to collate and assess the evidence. PMID:20100500

  9. Estimates of cosmic radiation exposure on Tunisian passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    Zarrouk, Neïla; Bennaceur, Raouf

    2008-01-01

    Radiation field produced by cosmic radiations in the earth's atmosphere is very complex and is significantly different from that found in the nuclear industry and other environments at ground level. Aircraft crew and frequent flyers are exposed to high levels of cosmic radiations of galactic and solar origin and to secondary radiation produced in the atmosphere. Following recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection in publication 60, the European Union introduced a revised Basic Safety Standard Directive, which included exposure to natural sources of ionising radiations, including cosmic radiation, as occupational exposure. We computed the dose received by some Tunisian flights, using CARI-6, EPCARD, PCAIRE, and SIEVERT codes. Calculations performed during the year 2007, on mostly regular passenger flights of the Nouvelair Tunisian Company, indicate a mean effective dose rate ranging between 3 and 4 microSv/h. We give the general background and details, focusing on the situation in Tunisia with respect to radiation protection aspects of the cosmic radiation exposure. As far as we know, such a study has not previously been carried out.

  10. Mouse models for radiation-induced cancers.

    PubMed

    Rivina, Leena; Davoren, Michael J; Schiestl, Robert H

    2016-09-01

    Potential ionising radiation exposure scenarios are varied, but all bring risks beyond the simple issues of short-term survival. Whether accidentally exposed to a single, whole-body dose in an act of terrorism or purposefully exposed to fractionated doses as part of a therapeutic regimen, radiation exposure carries the consequence of elevated cancer risk. The long-term impact of both intentional and unintentional exposure could potentially be mitigated by treatments specifically developed to limit the mutations and precancerous replication that ensue in the wake of irradiation The development of such agents would undoubtedly require a substantial degree of in vitro testing, but in order to accurately recapitulate the complex process of radiation-induced carcinogenesis, well-understood animal models are necessary. Inbred strains of the laboratory mouse, Mus musculus, present the most logical choice due to the high number of molecular and physiological similarities they share with humans. Their small size, high rate of breeding and fully sequenced genome further increase its value for use in cancer research. This chapter will review relevant m. musculus inbred and F1 hybrid animals of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia, thymic lymphoma, breast and lung cancers. Method of cancer induction and associated molecular pathologies will also be described for each model. PMID:27209205

  11. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation therapy is a cancer treatment. It uses high doses of radiation to kill cancer cells and stop them from ... half of all cancer patients receive it. The radiation may be external, from special machines, or internal, ...

  12. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have radiation therapy may feel more tired than usual, not feel hungry, or lose their ... of radiation therapy include: Fatigue. Fatigue, or feeling tired, is the most common side effect of radiation ...

  13. Radiation therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Because radiation is most harmful to quickly growing cells, radiation therapy damages cancer cells more than normal cells. ... cells from growing and dividing, and leads to cell death. Radiation therapy is used to fight many types of ...

  14. Atmospheric radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Harshvardhan, M.R. )

    1991-01-01

    Studies of atmospheric radiative processes are summarized for the period 1987-1990. Topics discussed include radiation modeling; clouds and radiation; radiative effects in dynamics and climate; radiation budget and aerosol effects; and gaseous absorption, particulate scattering and surface reflection. It is concluded that the key developments of the period are a defining of the radiative forcing to the climate system by trace gases and clouds, the recognition that cloud microphysics and morphology need to be incorporated not only into radiation models but also climate models, and the isolation of a few important unsolved theoretical problems in atmospheric radiation.

  15. Identification of Tsetse (Glossina spp.) Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Hoppenheit, Antje; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Bauer, Burkhard; Steuber, Stephan; Clausen, Peter-Henning; Roesler, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Glossina (G.) spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae), known as tsetse flies, are vectors of African trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic livestock. Knowledge on tsetse distribution and accurate species identification help identify potential vector intervention sites. Morphological species identification of tsetse is challenging and sometimes not accurate. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) technique, already standardised for microbial identification, could become a standard method for tsetse fly diagnostics. Therefore, a unique spectra reference database was created for five lab-reared species of riverine-, savannah- and forest- type tsetse flies and incorporated with the commercial Biotyper 3.0 database. The standard formic acid/acetonitrile extraction of male and female whole insects and their body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs) was used to obtain the flies' proteins. The computed composite correlation index and cluster analysis revealed the suitability of any tsetse body part for a rapid taxonomical identification. Phyloproteomic analysis revealed that the peak patterns of G. brevipalpis differed greatly from the other tsetse. This outcome was comparable to previous theories that they might be considered as a sister group to other tsetse spp. Freshly extracted samples were found to be matched at the species level. However, sex differentiation proved to be less reliable. Similarly processed samples of the common house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae; strain: Lei) did not yield any match with the tsetse reference database. The inclusion of additional strains of morphologically defined wild caught flies of known origin and the availability of large-scale mass spectrometry data could facilitate rapid tsetse species identification in the future. PMID:23875040

  16. The formation and evolution of reconnection-driven, slow-mode shocks in a partially ionised plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, A.; Takasao, S.; Nakamura, N.

    2016-06-01

    The role of slow-mode magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) shocks in magnetic reconnection is of great importance for energy conversion and transport, but in many astrophysical plasmas the plasma is not fully ionised. In this paper, we use numerical simulations to investigate the role of collisional coupling between a proton-electron, charge-neutral fluid and a neutral hydrogen fluid for the one-dimensional (1D) Riemann problem initiated in a constant pressure and density background state by a discontinuity in the magnetic field. This system, in the MHD limit, is characterised by two waves. The first is a fast-mode rarefaction wave that drives a flow towards a slow-mode MHD shock wave. The system evolves through four stages: initiation, weak coupling, intermediate coupling, and a quasi-steady state. The initial stages are characterised by an over-pressured neutral region that expands with characteristics of a blast wave. In the later stages, the system tends towards a self-similar solution where the main drift velocity is concentrated in the thin region of the shock front. Because of the nature of the system, the neutral fluid is overpressured by the shock when compared to a purely hydrodynamic shock, which results in the neutral fluid expanding to form the shock precursor. Once it has formed, the thickness of the shock front is proportional to ξ i-1.2 , which is a smaller exponent than would be naively expected from simple scaling arguments. One interesting result is that the shock front is a continuous transition of the physical variables of subsonic velocity upstream of the shock front (a c-shock) to a sharp jump in the physical variables followed by a relaxation to the downstream values for supersonic upstream velocity (a j-shock). The frictional heating that results from the velocity drift across the shock front can amount to ~2 per cent of the reference magnetic energy.

  17. A simple protocol for combinatorial cyclic depsipeptide libraries sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Gurevich-Messina, Juan M; Giudicessi, Silvana L; Martínez-Ceron, María C; Acosta, Gerardo; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Cascone, Osvaldo; Albericio, Fernando; Camperi, Silvia A

    2015-01-01

    Short cyclic peptides have a great interest in therapeutic, diagnostic and affinity chromatography applications. The screening of 'one-bead-one-peptide' combinatorial libraries combined with mass spectrometry (MS) is an excellent tool to find peptides with affinity for any target protein. The fragmentation patterns of cyclic peptides are quite more complex than those of their linear counterparts, and the elucidation of the resulting tandem mass spectra is rather more difficult. Here, we propose a simple protocol for combinatorial cyclic libraries synthesis and ring opening before MS analysis. In this strategy, 4-hydroxymethylbenzoic acid, which forms a benzyl ester with the first amino acid, was used as the linker. A glycolamidic ester group was incorporated after the combinatorial positions by adding glycolic acid. The library synthesis protocol consisted in the following: (i) incorporation of Fmoc-Asp[2-phenylisopropyl (OPp)]-OH to Ala-Gly-oxymethylbenzamide-ChemMatrix, (ii) synthesis of the combinatorial library, (iii) assembly of a glycolic acid, (iv) couple of an Ala residue in the N-terminal, (v) removal of OPp, (vi) peptide cyclisation through side chain Asp and N-Ala amino terminus and (vii) removal of side chain protecting groups. In order to simultaneously open the ring and release each peptide, benzyl and glycolamidic esters were cleaved with ammonia. Peptide sequences could be deduced from the tandem mass spectra of each single bead evaluated. The strategy herein proposed is suitable for the preparation of one-bead-one-cyclic depsipeptide libraries that can be easily open for its sequencing by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation MS. It employs techniques and reagents frequently used in a broad range of laboratories without special expertise in organic synthesis.

  18. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines using gas chromatography-negative chemical ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nie, Jing; Miao, Shui; Lehotay, Steven J; Li, Wen-Ting; Zhou, Heng; Mao, Xiu-Hong; Lu, Ji-Wei; Lan, Lan; Ji, Shen

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a residue analysis method for the simultaneous determination of 107 pesticides in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), Angelica sinensis, A. dahurica, Leonurus heterophyllus Sweet, Pogostemon cablin and Lonicera japonica Thunb., was developed using gas chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry in negative chemical ionisation mode (GC-NCI-MS/MS). NCI has advantages of high sensitivity and selectivity to chemicals with electron-withdrawing groups, and yields low background interference. For sample preparation, QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) was applied. Due to the unique characteristics of TCMs, the clean-up step was optimised by adjusting amounts of primary secondary amine, C18, graphitised carbon black and silica sorbents. Validation was mainly performed by determining analyte recoveries at four different spiking concentrations of 10, 50, 100 and 200 ng g(-1), with seven replicates at each concentration. Method trueness, precision, linearity of calibration curves, lowest calibrated levels (LCLs) and matrix effects were determined to demonstrate method and instrument performance. Among the 107 pesticides tested, approximately 80% gave recoveries from 80% to 110% and < 10% relative standard deviation (RSD). The LCLs for nearly all pesticides were 5 ng g(-1), and as low as 0.1 ng g(-1) for dichlofenthion, endosulfan sulphate, flumetralin, isofenphos-methyl, methyl-pentachlorophenyl sulphide and trifluralin. The results indicate that GC-NCI-MS/MS is an excellent technique for quantitative and qualitative analysis of targeted GC-amenable pesticides at ultra-trace levels, especially in complex matrices such as TCMs. PMID:26125677

  19. Simulation and measurement of the radiation field of the 1.4-GeV electron beam dump of the FERMI free-electron laser.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Lars; Casarin, Katia; Vascotto, Alessandro

    2015-02-01

    The authors examine the radiation field produced in the vicinity of the main beam dump of the FERMI free-electron laser under the impact of a 1.4-GeV electron beam. Electromagnetic and neutron dose rates are calculated with the Fluka Monte Carlo code and compared with ionisation chamber and superheated drop detector measurements in various positions around the dump. Experimental data and simulation results are in good agreement with a maximum deviation of 25 % in a single location.

  20. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fliedner, T. M.; Nothdurft, W.; Tibken, B.; Hofer, E.; Weiss, M.; Kindler, H.

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a ``turbulence region'' for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a ``blood stem cell bank'' might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container.

  1. Haemopoietic cell renewal in radiation fields.

    PubMed

    Fliedner, T M; Nothdurft, W; Tibken, B; Hofer, E; Weiss, M; Kindler, H

    1994-10-01

    Space flight activities are inevitably associated with a chronic exposure of astronauts to a complex mixture of ionising radiation. Although no acute radiation consequences are to be expected as a rule, the possibility of Solar Particle Events (SPE) associated with relatively high doses of radiation (1 or more Gray) cannot be excluded. It is the responsibility of physicians in charge of the health of astronauts to evaluate before, during and after space flight activities the functional status of haemopoietic cell renewal. Chronic low level exposure of dogs indicate that daily gamma-exposure doses below about 2 cGy are tolerated for several years as far as blood cell concentrations are concerned. However, the stem cell pool may be severely affected. The maintenance of sufficient blood cell counts is possible only through increased cell production to compensate for the radiation inflicted excess cell loss. This behaviour of haemopoietic cell renewal during chronic low level exposure can be simulated by bioengineering models of granulocytopoiesis. It is possible to define a "turbulence region" for cell loss rates, below which an prolonged adaptation to increased radiation fields can be expected to be tolerated. On the basis of these experimental results, it is recommended to develop new biological indicators to monitor haemopoietic cell renewal at the level of the stem cell pool using blood stem cells in addition to the determination of cytokine concentrations in the serum (and other novel approaches). To prepare for unexpected haemopoietic effects during prolonged space missions, research should be increased to modify the radiation sensitivity of haemopoietic stem cells (for instance by the application of certain regulatory molecules). In addition, a "blood stem cell bank" might be established for the autologous storage of stem cells and for use in space activities keeping them in a radiation protected container. PMID:11539991

  2. Pelvic radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation of the pelvis - discharge; Cancer treatment - pelvic radiation; Prostate cancer - pelvic radiation; Ovarian cancer - pelvic radiation; Cervical cancer - pelvic radiation; Uterine cancer - pelvic radiation; Rectal cancer - ...

  3. Fragmentation, auto-modification and post ionisation proton bound dimer ion formation: the differential mobility spectrometry of low molecular weight alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, D M; Thomas, C L P; Eiceman, G A

    2016-08-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is currently being used for environmental monitoring of space craft atmospheres and has been proposed for the rapid assessment of patients at accident and emergency receptions. Three studies investigated hitherto undescribed complexity in the DMS spectra of methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol product ions formed from a (63)Ni ionisation source. 54 000 DMS spectra obtained over a concentration range of 0.01 mg m(-3)(g) to 1.80 g m(-3)(g) revealed the phenomenon of auto-modification of the product ions. This occurred when the neutral vapour concentration exceeded the level required to induce a neutral-ion collision during the low field portion of the dispersion field waveform. Further, post-ionisation cluster-ion formation or protonated monomer/proton bound dimer inter-conversion within the ion-filter was indicated by apparent shifts in the values of the protonated monomer compensation field maximum; indicative of post-ionisation conversion of the protonated monomer to a proton-bound dimer. APCI-DMS-quadrupole mass spectrometry studies enabled the ion dissociation products from dispersion-field heating to be monitored and product ion fragmentation relationships to be proposed. Methanol was not observed to dissociate, while propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol underwent dissociation reactions consistent with dehydration processes that led ultimately to the generation of what is tentatively assigned as a cyclo-C3H3(+) ion (m/z 39) and hydrated protons. Studies of the interaction of ion filter temperature with dispersion-field heating of product ions isolated dissociation/fragmentation product ions that have not been previously described in DMS. The implications of these combined findings with regard to data sharing and data interpretation were highlighted. PMID:27227997

  4. Fragmentation, auto-modification and post ionisation proton bound dimer ion formation: the differential mobility spectrometry of low molecular weight alcohols.

    PubMed

    Ruszkiewicz, D M; Thomas, C L P; Eiceman, G A

    2016-08-01

    Differential mobility spectrometry (DMS) is currently being used for environmental monitoring of space craft atmospheres and has been proposed for the rapid assessment of patients at accident and emergency receptions. Three studies investigated hitherto undescribed complexity in the DMS spectra of methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol product ions formed from a (63)Ni ionisation source. 54 000 DMS spectra obtained over a concentration range of 0.01 mg m(-3)(g) to 1.80 g m(-3)(g) revealed the phenomenon of auto-modification of the product ions. This occurred when the neutral vapour concentration exceeded the level required to induce a neutral-ion collision during the low field portion of the dispersion field waveform. Further, post-ionisation cluster-ion formation or protonated monomer/proton bound dimer inter-conversion within the ion-filter was indicated by apparent shifts in the values of the protonated monomer compensation field maximum; indicative of post-ionisation conversion of the protonated monomer to a proton-bound dimer. APCI-DMS-quadrupole mass spectrometry studies enabled the ion dissociation products from dispersion-field heating to be monitored and product ion fragmentation relationships to be proposed. Methanol was not observed to dissociate, while propan-1-ol and butan-1-ol underwent dissociation reactions consistent with dehydration processes that led ultimately to the generation of what is tentatively assigned as a cyclo-C3H3(+) ion (m/z 39) and hydrated protons. Studies of the interaction of ion filter temperature with dispersion-field heating of product ions isolated dissociation/fragmentation product ions that have not been previously described in DMS. The implications of these combined findings with regard to data sharing and data interpretation were highlighted.

  5. Evaluation of the ability of a 2D ionisation chamber array and an EPID to detect systematic delivery errors in IMRT plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bawazeer, Omemh; Gray, Alison; Arumugam, Sankar; Vial, Philip; Thwaites, David; Descallar, Joseph; Holloway, Lois

    2014-03-01

    Two clinical intensity modulated radiotherapy plans were selected. Eleven plan variations were created with systematic errors introduced: Multi-Leaf Collimator (MLC) positional errors with all leaf pairs shifted in the same or the opposite direction, and collimator rotation offsets. Plans were measured using an Electronic Portal Imaging Device (EPID) and an ionisation chamber array. The plans were evaluated using gamma analysis with different criteria. The gamma pass rates remained around 95% or higher for most cases with MLC positional errors of 1 mm and 2 mm with 3%/3mm criteria. The ability of both devices to detect delivery errors was similar.

  6. Thermoluminescence glow-curve characteristics of LiF phosphors at high doses of gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benny, P. G.; Khader, S. A.; Sarma, K. S. S.

    2013-05-01

    High doses of ionising radiation are becoming increasingly common for radiation-processing applications of various medical, agricultural and polymer products using gamma and electron beams. The objective of this work was to study thermoluminescence (TL) glow-curve characteristics of commonly used commercial LiF TL phosphors at high doses of radiation with a view to use them in dosimetry of radiation-processing applications. The TL properties of TLD 100 and 700 phosphors, procured from the Thermo-Scientific (previously Harshaw) company, have been studied in the dose range of 1-60 kGy. The shift in glow peaks was observed in this dose range. Integral TL responses of TLD 100 and TLD 700 were found to decrease as a linear function of dose in the range of 5-50 kGy. The paper describes initial results related to the glow-curve characteristics of these phosphors.

  7. Cosmic Radiation and Cataracts in Airline Pilots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafnsson, V.; Olafsdottir, E.; Hrafnkelsson, J.; de Angelis, G.; Sasaki, H.; Arnarson, A.; Jonasson, F.

    Nuclear cataracts have been associated with ionising radiation exposure in previous studies. A population based case-control study on airline pilots has been performed to investigate whether employment as a commercial pilot and consequent exposure to cosmic radiation were associated to lens opacification, when adjusted for known risk factors for cataracts. Cases of opacification of the ocular lens were found in surveys among pilots and a random sample of the Icelandic population. Altogether 445 male subjects underwent a detailed eye examination and answered a questionnaire. Information from the airline company on the 79 pilots employment time, annual hours flown per aircraft type, the timetables and the flight profiles made calculation of individual cumulated radiation dose (mSv) possible. Lens opacification were classified and graded according to WHO simplified cataracts grading system using slit lamp. The odds ratio from logistic regression of nuclear cataracts risk among cases and controls was 3.02 (95% CI 1.44 to 6.35) for pilots compared with non-pilots, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, whereas that of cortical cataracts risk among cases and controls was lower than unity (non significant) for pilots compared with non-pilots in a logistic regression analysis adjusted for same factors. Length of employment as a pilot and cumulated radiation dose (mSv) were significantly related to the risk of nuclear cataracts. So the association between radiation exposure of pilots and the risk of nuclear cataracts, adjusted for age, smoking and sunbathing habits, indicates that cosmic radiation may be cause of nuclear cataract among commercial pilots.

  8. Space Radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Honglu

    2006-01-01

    Astronauts receive the highest occupational radiation exposure. Effective protections are needed to ensure the safety of astronauts on long duration space missions. Increased cancer morbidity or mortality risk in astronauts may be caused by occupational radiation exposure. Acute and late radiation damage to the central nervous system (CNS) may lead to changes in motor function and behavior, or neurological disorders. Radiation exposure may result in degenerative tissue diseases (non-cancer or non-CNS) such as cardiac, circulatory, or digestive diseases, as well as cataracts. Acute radiation syndromes may occur due to occupational radiation exposure.

  9. Non ionising radiation as a non chemical strategy in regenerative medicine: Ca(2+)-ICR "In Vitro" effect on neuronal differentiation and tumorigenicity modulation in NT2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ledda, Mario; Megiorni, Francesca; Pozzi, Deleana; Giuliani, Livio; D'Emilia, Enrico; Piccirillo, Sara; Mattei, Cristiana; Grimaldi, Settimio; Lisi, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In regenerative medicine finding a new method for cell differentiation without pharmacological treatment or gene modification and minimal cell manipulation is a challenging goal. In this work we reported a neuronal induced differentiation and consequent reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 human pluripotent embryonal carcinoma cells exposed to an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF), matching the cyclotron frequency corresponding to the charge/mass ratio of calcium ion (Ca(2+)-ICR). These cells, capable of differentiating into post-mitotic neurons following treatment with Retinoic Acid (RA), were placed in a solenoid and exposed for 5 weeks to Ca(2+)-ICR. The solenoid was installed in a μ-metal shielded room to avoid the effect of the geomagnetic field and obtained totally controlled and reproducible conditions. Contrast microscopy analysis reveled, in the NT2 exposed cells, an important change in shape and morphology with the outgrowth of neuritic-like structures together with a lower proliferation rate and metabolic activity alike those found in the RA treated cells. A significant up-regulation of early and late neuronal differentiation markers and a significant down-regulation of the transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α) and the fibroblast growth factor-4 (FGF-4) were also observed in the exposed cells. The decreased protein expression of the transforming gene Cripto-1 and the reduced capability of the exposed NT2 cells to form colonies in soft agar supported these last results. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that the Ca(2+)-ICR frequency is able to induce differentiation and reduction of tumorigenicity in NT2 exposed cells suggesting a new potential therapeutic use in regenerative medicine.

  10. Assessment of RF radiation levels in the vicinity of 60 GSM mobile phone base stations in Iran.

    PubMed

    Nayyeri, Vahid; Hashemi, Seyed Mohammad; Borna, Maryam; Jalilian, Hamid-Reza; Soleimani, Mohammad

    2013-07-01

    Increasing development of mobile communication infrastructure while enhancing availability of the technology raises concerns among the public, who see more cell towers erected each day, about possible health effects of electromagnetic radiations. Thereon, a survey of radio-frequency radiation from 60 GSM base stations was carried out in Tehran, Iran at several places mostly located in major medical and educational centres. Measurements were performed at 15 locations near each base station site, i.e. 900 locations in total. Since there are other RF radiation sources such as broadcasting services whose carrier frequencies are <3 GHz, the whole band of 27 MHz to 3 GHz has been assessed for hazardous exposures as well. The results were compared with the relevant guideline of International Commission on Non-Ionising Radiation Protection and that of Iran, confirming radiation exposure levels being satisfactorily below defined limits and non-detrimental.

  11. A miniaturised electron ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometer that uses a unique helium ion removal pulsing technique specifically for gas analysis.

    PubMed

    Qing, Jiang; Huang, Zhengxu; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Hui; Tan, Guobin; Gao, Wei; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2013-06-21

    A miniaturised reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer combined with an electron ionisation ion source has been developed for the analysis of gases. An entirely new helium ion removal pulsing technique in this mass spectrometer is used to achieve an improved performance for the first time. The helium carrier gas, which enters into the source along with the gaseous sample, is simultaneously ionised and then orthogonally introduced into the time-of-fight mass analyser. Once the relatively light helium ions in the ion packet become extremely close to the reflectron plate (B-plate for short in this article), a modulated pulse is instantaneously applied on the B-plate and a negative reflectron voltage is set to the B-plate and lasts for a very short period, during which all the helium ions are directly bumped into the B-plate and subsequently removed. The helium ion removal pulsing technique can efficiently avoid saturation of the micro-channel plate caused by too many helium ions. A compact and durable instrument is designed, which has a mass resolving resolution greater than 400 FWHM for online gas analysis. The technology may also be further developed to remove other ions for TOF mass spectrometry.

  12. Identification of sulfoglycolipids from the alga Porphyridium purpureum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Ivonne; Darsow, Kai H; Walter, Christian; Lange, Harald A; Buchholz, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Sulfoglycolipids, isolated from different phototrophic organisms, particularly plants and algae, have already been identified as bioactive compounds. In addition to their antiviral activity their influence on the immune response in mammalian cells is the focus of many studies. For the first time it has been possible to investigate purified sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the microalga Porphyridium purpureum by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation (MALDI) in the negative ion reflectron mode. Thereby, different solid and ionic liquid matrices have been tested to improve signal intensity during the laser ionisation. By using the MALDI Trap time-of-flight (ToF) multiple-stage (MS(n)) hybrid mass spectrometer the fatty acid compositions of the SQDGs were analysed by MS, and confirmed by MS(2) and MS(3) experiments. Thereby, hexadecanoic acid (C16:0), octadecadienoic acid (C18:2), eicosatetraenoic acid (C20:4), and eicosapentaenoic acid (C20:5) were detected in the purified fraction of SQDGs. The localisation of hexadecanoic acid (C16:0) at the sn-2 position, and unsaturated fatty acids at the sn-1 position of the SQDGs, determined by specific enzymatic hydrolysis, marks a procaryotic biosynthesis of SQDGs in the eucaryotic alga cells.

  13. Intrinsic radio-sensitivity of tumours to low let radiations: a mathematical model in LQ formalism.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Sk Ayasuddin

    2013-12-01

    Intrinsic radio-sensitivity is the determinant of differential response of tumours to low LET ionising radiations. The probabilistic DNA fibril both model shows intrinsic radio-sensitivity factor [I] as function of nuclear diameter (Nd) and intra cellular hydrogen ion concentration [H+]. Linking probabilities of lethal and sub-lethal events to [I] further results in equations which show the LQ parameters namely alpha and beta are functions of (Nd), [H+] and repair constant (μ) mu. This model is able to explain radiobiological phenomena of OER and Do value of lymphocytes.

  14. Radiation Exposure

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation is energy that travels in the form of waves or high-speed particles. It occurs naturally in sunlight. Man-made radiation is used in X-rays, nuclear weapons, nuclear power plants and cancer treatment. If you are exposed to small amounts of radiation over a ...

  15. Recent studies on the exposure of aircrew to cosmic and solar radiation.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, D; Bartlett, D T; Beck, P; Bottollier, J-F; Schrewe, U; Lindborg, L; Tommasino, L; Zhou, D

    2002-01-01

    Investigations of the impact of cosmic and solar radiation on aircrew involve many challenges. The great variety of primary and secondary ionising and non-ionising radiation, the wide range of energies involved and the role played by the Earth's atmosphere and magnetic field and the Sun combine to produce a very complicated scenario. These factors are reflected in conditions on aviation routes where exposure to radiation varies with altitude, latitude and stage of solar cycle. The great increase in air travel and consequent rise in numbers of aircrew whose occupation requires them to work in this environment has prompted new concern about exposure risks at aviation altitudes. The situation has also been highlighted by the tendency for aircraft to fly at higher altitudes in recent years and by the 1990 recommendations of the ICRP that exposure of civil aircrew be considered as being occupational. These have recently been translated into a legal requirement in the European Union. Several studies have been completed using a very wide range of detectors on subsonic and supersonic routes and new investigations are underway. With the completion of the DOSMAX project in another three years or so. world data for a whole solar cycle will be more complete than ever before. Results indicate that for most routes investigated during solar minimum, aircrew are unlikely to receive doses in excess of 6 mSv.y(-1).

  16. Revealing the underlying mechanism of microbeam radiation therapy with low energy Monte Carlo simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, A. L.; Oelfke, U.; Kuncic, Z.

    2014-03-01

    Microbeam radiation therapy (MRT) is a new experimental oncological modality, intended for the treatment of inoperable brain tumours, particularly in difficult cases where conventional radiation therapy can cause irreversible damage. MRT consists of an array of highly collimated, quasi-parallel x-ray microbeams aimed at the tumour tissue, delivering high dose within the beam path and low doses in regions between the beams. For reasons still not fully understood, healthy tissue exposed to the microbeam array is able to regenerate while tumour volumes are significantly reduced. Low energy Monte Carlo radiative transport simulations provide new insight into understanding the underlying mechanisms of MRT. In particular, predicting the ionisation cluster distribution, which is a significant cause of lethal damage to cells, would provide insight into the biological responses. Geant4-DNA was used to model an x-ray microbeam of width 20 μm in liquid water. Secondary electrons, predominately responsible for ionisation clustering, were tracked to predict damage to cells within and adjacent to the beams. We find that higher energy beams (100 keV) produce less secondary electrons in the regions outside the beam than low energy beams (30-50 keV).

  17. Biophysical modelling of early and delayed radiation damage at chromosome level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreev, S.; Eidelman, Y.

    Exposure by ionising radiation increases cancer risk in human population Cancer is thought to originate from an altered expression of certain number of specific genes It is now widely recognised that chromosome aberrations CA are involved in stable change in expression of genes by gain or loss of their functions Thus CA can contribute to initiation or progression of cancer Therefore understanding mechanisms of CA formation in the course of cancer development might be valuable tool for quantification and prognosis of different stages of radiation carcinogenesis Early CA are defined as aberrations induced in first post-irradiation mitotic cycle The present work describes the original biophysical technique for early CA modelling It includes the following simulation steps the ionising particle track structure the structural organisation of all chromosomes in G 0 G 1 cell nucleus spatial distribution of radiation induced DNA double-strand breaks dsb within chromosomes dsb rejoining and misrejoining modelling cell cycle taking into account mitotic delay which results in complex time dependence of aberrant cells in first mitosis The results on prediction of dose-response curves for simple and complex CA measured in cells undergoing first division cycle are presented in comparison with recent experimental data There is increasing evidence that CA are also observed in descendents of irradiated cells many generations after direct DNA damage These delayed CA or chromosome instability CI are thought to be a manifestation of genome

  18. 900 MHz radiation does not induce micronucleus formation in different cell types.

    PubMed

    Hintzsche, Henning; Jastrow, Christian; Kleine-Ostmann, Thomas; Schrader, Thorsten; Stopper, Helga

    2012-07-01

    The exposure of the population to non-ionising electromagnetic radiation is still increasing, mainly due to mobile communication. Whether low-intensity electromagnetic fields can cause other effects apart from heating has been a subject of debate. One of the effects, which were proposed to be caused by mobile phone radiation, is the occurrence of mitotic disturbances. The aim of this study was to investigate possible consequences of these mitotic disturbances as manifest genomic damage, i.e. micronucleus induction. Cells were irradiated at a frequency of 900 MHz, which is located in one of the main frequency bands applied for mobile communication. Two cell types were used, HaCaT cells as human cells and A(L) cells (human-hamster hybrid cells), in which mitotic disturbances had been reported to occur. After different post-exposure incubation periods, cells were fixed and micronucleus frequencies were evaluated. Both cell types did not show any genomic damage after exposure. To adapt the protocol for the micronucleus test into the direction of the protocol for mitotic disturbances, the post-exposure incubation period was reduced and exposure time was extended to one cell cycle length. This did not result in any increase of the genomic damage. In conclusion, micronucleus induction was not observed as a consequence of exposure to non-ionising radiation, even though this agent was reported to cause mitotic disturbances under similar experimental conditions.

  19. Improved radiation tolerance of MAPS using a depleted epitaxial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhov, A.; Bertolone, G.; Baudot, J.; Brogna, A. S.; Colledani, C.; Claus, G.; De Masi, R.; Deveaux, M.; Dozière, G.; Dulinski, W.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Goffe, M.; Himmi, A.; Hu-Guo, Ch.; Jaaskelainen, K.; Koziel, M.; Morel, F.; Santos, C.; Specht, M.; Valin, I.; Voutsinas, G.; Wagner, F. M.; Winter, M.

    2010-12-01

    Tracking performance of Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) developed at IPHC (Turchetta, et al., 2001) [1] have been extensively studied (Winter, et al., 2001; Gornushkin, et al., 2002) [2,3]. Numerous sensor prototypes, called MIMOSA, were fabricated and tested since 1999 in order to optimise the charge collection efficiency and power dissipation, to minimise the noise and to increase the readout speed. The radiation tolerance was also investigated. The highest fluence tolerable for a 10 μm pitch device was found to be ˜1013 neq/cm2, while it was only 2×1012 neq/cm2 for a 20 μm pitch device. The purpose of this paper is to show that the tolerance to non-ionising radiation may be extended up to O(10 14) n eq/cm 2. This goal relies on a fabrication process featuring a 15 μm thin, high resistivity ( ˜1 kΩ cm) epitaxial layer. A sensor prototype (MIMOSA-25) was fabricated in this process to explore its detection performance. The depletion depth of the epitaxial layer at standard CMOS voltages ( <5 V) is similar to the layer thickness. Measurements with m.i.p.s show that the charge collected in the seed pixel is at least twice larger for the depleted epitaxial layer than for the undepleted one, translating into a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ˜50. Tests after irradiation have shown that this excellent performance is maintained up to the highest fluence considered ( 3×1013 neq/cm2), making evidence of a significant extension of the radiation tolerance limits of MAPS. Standing for minimum ionising particle.

  20. Cytogenetic effects of ionizing radiation in peripheral lymphocytes of ISS crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannes, Christian; Goedecke, Wolfgang; Antonopoulos, Alexandra; Obe, Günter; Horstmann, Markus

    High energy radiation is a major risk factor in manned space missions. Astronauts and cosmonauts are exposed to ionising radiations of cosmic and solar origin, while on the Earth's surface people are well protected by the atmosphere and a deflecting magnetic field. There are now data available describing the dose and the quality of ionising radiation on-board of the International Space Station (ISS). The effect of the increased radiation dose on mutation rates of ISS crew members are hard to predict. Therefore, direct measurements of mutation rates are required.The analysis of chromosomal aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes is a well established method to measure radiation-induced mutations. We present data of chromosome aberration analyses from lymphocyte metaphase spreads of ISS crew members participating in short term (10-14 days) or long term (6 months) missions. From each subject we received two blood samples. The first sample was drawn about 10 days before launch and a second sample was drawn within 3 days after return from their flights. From lymphocyte cultures metaphase plates were prepared on glass slides. Metaphases were Giemsa stained or hybridised using multicolour FISH probes. All types of chromosome changes were scored in pre-flight and post-flight blood samples and the mutation rates were compared. Results obtained in chromosomal studies on long-term flight crew members showed pronounced inter-individual differences in the response to cosmic radiation exposure. Overall significant elevations of typical radiation induced aberrations, i.e., dicentric chromosomes and reciprocal translocations have been observed in long-term crew members. Our data indicate no elevation of mutation rates due to short-term stays on-board the ISS.

  1. Radiation Proctopathy

    PubMed Central

    Grodsky, Marc B.; Sidani, Shafik M.

    2015-01-01

    Radiation therapy is a widely utilized treatment modality for pelvic malignancies, including prostate cancer, rectal cancer, and cervical cancer. Given its fixed position in the pelvis, the rectum is at a high risk for injury secondary to ionizing radiation. Despite advances made in radiation science, up to 75% of the patients will suffer from acute radiation proctitis and up to 20% may experience chronic symptoms. Symptoms can be variable and include diarrhea, bleeding, incontinence, and fistulization. A multitude of treatment options exist. This article summarizes the latest knowledge relating to radiation proctopathy focusing on the vast array of treatment options. PMID:26034407

  2. Radiation proctopathy.

    PubMed

    Grodsky, Marc B; Sidani, Shafik M

    2015-06-01

    Radiation therapy is a widely utilized treatment modality for pelvic malignancies, including prostate cancer, rectal cancer, and cervical cancer. Given its fixed position in the pelvis, the rectum is at a high risk for injury secondary to ionizing radiation. Despite advances made in radiation science, up to 75% of the patients will suffer from acute radiation proctitis and up to 20% may experience chronic symptoms. Symptoms can be variable and include diarrhea, bleeding, incontinence, and fistulization. A multitude of treatment options exist. This article summarizes the latest knowledge relating to radiation proctopathy focusing on the vast array of treatment options. PMID:26034407

  3. Human exposure to high natural background radiation: what can it teach us about radiation risks?

    PubMed Central

    Hendry, Jolyon H; Simon, Steven L; Wojcik, Andrzej; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Burkart, Werner; Cardis, Elisabeth; Laurier, Dominique; Tirmarche, Margot; Hayata, Isamu

    2014-01-01

    Natural radiation is the major source of human exposure to ionising radiation, and its largest contributing component to effective dose arises from inhalation of 222Rn and its radioactive progeny. However, despite extensive knowledge of radiation risks gained through epidemiologic investigations and mechanistic considerations, the health effects of chronic low-level radiation exposure are still poorly understood. The present paper reviews the possible contribution of studies of populations living in high natural background radiation (HNBR) areas (Guarapari, Brazil; Kerala, India; Ramsar, Iran; Yangjiang, China), including radon-prone areas, to low dose risk estimation. Much of the direct information about risk related to HNBR comes from case–control studies of radon and lung cancer, which provide convincing evidence of an association between long-term protracted radiation exposures in the general population and disease incidence. The success of these studies is mainly due to the careful organ dose reconstruction (with relatively high doses to the lung), and to the fact that large-scale collaborative studies have been conducted to maximise the statistical power and to ensure the systematic collection of information on potential confounding factors. In contrast, studies in other (non-radon) HNBR areas have provided little information, relying mainly on ecological designs and very rough effective dose categorisations. Recent steps taken in China and India to establish cohorts for follow-up and to conduct nested case–control studies may provide useful information about risks in the future, provided that careful organ dose reconstruction is possible and information is collected on potential confounding factors. PMID:19454802

  4. Scatter radiation intensities around full-field digital mammography units.

    PubMed

    Judge, M A; Keavey, E; Phelan, N

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the scatter radiation intensity around digital mammography systems and apply these data to standard shielding calculations to reveal whether shielding design of existing breast screening rooms is adequate for the use of digital mammography systems. Three digital mammography systems from GE Healthcare, Hologic and Philips were employed in the study. A breast-equivalent phantom was imaged under clinical workload conditions and scatter radiation intensities around the digital mammography systems were measured for a range of angles in three planes using an ionisation chamber. The results were compared with those from previous studies of film-screen systems. It may be deduced from the results that scattering in the backward direction is significant for all three systems, while scattering in the forward direction can be significant for some planes around the GE and Hologic systems. Measurements at typical clinical settings on each system revealed the Philips system to have markedly lower scatter radiation intensities than the other systems. Substituting the measured scattered radiation intensity into shielding calculations yielded barrier requirements similar to those already in place at the screening centres operating these systems. Current radiation protection requirements based on film-screen technology remain sufficient when applied to rooms with digital mammography installations and no alteration is required to the structural shielding.

  5. (Effects of ionizing radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors)

    SciTech Connect

    Proudfoot, J.

    1992-01-01

    It is my task to summarise the great variety of topics (covering a refreshing mix of physics, chemistry and technology) presented at this conference, which has focused on the effects of ionising radiation on scintillators and other particle detectors. One of the reasons and the central interest of many of the participants was the use of such detectors in experiments at two future large hadron colliders: the Superconducting Super Collider to be operating outside of Dallas in the United States by the turn of the decade and its European counterpart the Large Hadron Collider to be operating outside of Geneva in Switzerland on a similar time scale. These accelerators are the apple of the high energy physicist's eye.'' Their goal is to uncover the elusive Higgs particle and thereby set the cornerstone in our current knowledge of elementary particle interactions. This is the Quest, and from this lofty height the presentations rapidly moved on to the specific questions of experimental science: how such an experiment is carried out; why radiation damage is an issue; how radiation damage affects detectors; which factors affect radiation damage characteristics; which factors are not affected by radiation damage; and how better detectors may be constructed. These were the substance of this conference.

  6. The application of gas chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry to impurity identification in Pharmaceutical Development.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Tony; Harrison, Mark; Sims, Martin

    2010-06-15

    Accurate mass measurement (used to determine elemental formulae) is an essential tool for impurity identification in pharmaceutical development for process understanding. Accurate mass liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) is used widely for these types of analyses; however, there are still many occasions when gas chromatography (GC)/MS is the appropriate technique. Therefore, the provision of robust technology to provide accurate mass GC/MS (and GC/MS/MS) for this type of activity is essential. In this report we describe the optimisation and application of a newly available atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation (APCI) interface to couple GC to time-of-flight (TOF) MS.To fully test the potential of the new interface the APCI source conditions were optimised, using a number of standard compounds, with a variety of structures, as used in synthesis at AstraZeneca. These compounds were subsequently analysed by GC/APCI-TOF MS. This study was carried out to evaluate the range of compounds that are amenable to analysis using this technique. The range of compounds that can be detected and characterised using the technique was found to be extremely broad and include apolar hydrocarbons such as toluene. Both protonated molecules ([M + H](+)) and radical cations (M(+.)) were observed in the mass spectra produced by APCI, along with additional ion signals such as [M + H + O](+).The technique has been successfully applied to the identification of impurities in reaction mixtures from organic synthesis in process development. A typical mass accuracy of 1-2 mm/zunits (m/z 80-500) was achieved allowing the reaction impurities to be identified based on their elemental formulae. These results clearly demonstrate the potential of the technique as a tool for problem solving and process understanding in pharmaceutical development. The reaction mixtures were also analysed by GC/electron ionisation (EI)-MS and GC/chemical ionisation (CI)-MS to understand the capability of GC

  7. Radiation Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojnárovits, L.

    Ionizing radiation causes chemical changes in the molecules of the interacting medium. The initial molecules change to new molecules, resulting in changes of the physical, chemical, and eventually biological properties of the material. For instance, water decomposes to its elements H2 and O2. In polymers, degradation and crosslinking take place. In biopolymers, e.g., DNS strand breaks and other alterations occur. Such changes are to be avoided in some cases (radiation protection), however, in other cases they are used for technological purposes (radiation processing). This chapter introduces radiation chemistry by discussing the sources of ionizing radiation (radionuclide sources, machine sources), absorption of radiation energy, techniques used in radiation chemistry research, and methods of absorbed energy (absorbed dose) measurements. Radiation chemistry of different classes of inorganic (water and aqueous solutions, inorganic solids, ionic liquids (ILs)) and organic substances (hydrocarbons, halogenated compounds, polymers, and biomolecules) is discussed in concise form together with theoretical and experimental backgrounds. An essential part of the chapter is the introduction of radiation processing technologies in the fields of polymer chemistry, food processing, and sterilization. The application of radiation chemistry to nuclear technology and to protection of environment (flue gas treatment, wastewater treatment) is also discussed.

  8. Response of TL dosemeters to cosmic radiation on board passenger aircraft.

    PubMed

    Bilski, P; Budzanowski, M; Marczewska, B; Olko, P

    2002-01-01

    Measurements were performed with various LiF based TLDs on board seven Polish aircraft, flying long-distance or middle-distance routes. All of the 7LiF detectors used (various types of 7LiF:Mg,Ti and 7LiF:Mg,Cu,P detectors), which measure the non-neutron component of the radiation field, produced consistent results. It was found that the characteristics of the TLD response (ratio of different detector responses, glow curve shapes) after doses of radiation at flying altitudes differ from those obtained after exposure at the CERN facility (CERF), suggesting a lower contribution of densely ionising radiation. The neutron induced TL signal was also more affected by the thickness of the holder, suggesting the presence of a softer neutron energy spectrum at flight altitudes. Further in-flight and CERF exposures of detectors are planned to resolve these issues.

  9. The Insidious Nature of "Hard-Core" Alternative Conceptions: Implications for the Constructivist Research Programme of Patterns in High School Students' and Pre-Service Teachers' Thinking about Ionisation Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Keith S.; Tan, Kim Chwee Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The present study contributes to the constructivist research programme (RP) into learning science by comparing patterns in responses from two groups of learners--senior high school students and pre-service teachers--in the same educational context (Singapore), to a diagnostic instrument relating to the topic of ionisation energies. This topic is…

  10. Are passive smoking, air pollution and obesity a greater mortality risk than major radiation incidents?

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jim T

    2007-01-01

    Background Following a nuclear incident, the communication and perception of radiation risk becomes a (perhaps the) major public health issue. In response to such incidents it is therefore crucial to communicate radiation health risks in the context of other more common environmental and lifestyle risk factors. This study compares the risk of mortality from past radiation exposures (to people who survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs and those exposed after the Chernobyl accident) with risks arising from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Methods A comparative assessment of mortality risks from ionising radiation was carried out by estimating radiation risks for realistic exposure scenarios and assessing those risks in comparison with risks from air pollution, obesity and passive and active smoking. Results The mortality risk to populations exposed to radiation from the Chernobyl accident may be no higher than that for other more common risk factors such as air pollution or passive smoking. Radiation exposures experienced by the most exposed group of survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki led to an average loss of life expectancy significantly lower than that caused by severe obesity or active smoking. Conclusion Population-averaged risks from exposures following major radiation incidents are clearly significant, but may be no greater than those from other much more common environmental and lifestyle factors. This comparative analysis, whilst highlighting inevitable uncertainties in risk quantification and comparison, helps place the potential consequences of radiation exposures in the context of other public health risks. PMID:17407581

  11. Radiator technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.

    1993-01-01

    Radiator technology is discussed in the context of the Civilian Space Technology Initiative's (CSTI's) high capacity power-thermal management project. The CSTI project is a subset of a project to develop a piloted Mars nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) vehicle. The following topics are presented in vugraph form: advanced radiator concepts; heat pipe codes and testing; composite materials; radiator design and integration; and surface morphology.

  12. Hawking radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parentani, Renaud; Spindel, Philippe

    2011-12-01

    Hawking radiation is the thermal radiation predicted to be spontaneously emitted by black holes. It arises from the steady conversion of quantum vacuum fluctuations into pairs of particles, one of which escaping at infinity while the other is trapped inside the black hole horizon. It is named after the physicist Stephen Hawking who derived its existence in 1974. This radiation reduces the mass of black holes and is therefore also known as black hole evaporation.

  13. Method development for the determination of selected pesticides on tobacco by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Helm, Bernhard; Hofbauer, Ludwig; Müller, Jutta

    2008-02-15

    A method was developed for the quantitative determination of alachlor, benalaxyl, clomazone, diflubenzuron, dimethomorph, diphenamid, ethofumesate, metalaxyl, methoprene, metobromuron and piperonyl butoxide on tobacco. The pesticides were extracted with water and methanol from five different types of tobacco. The extracts were purified by partition on an extraction cartridge containing diatomaceous earth. The purified extracts were analysed by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography connected to an atmospheric pressure ionisation-electrospray-triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in the positive ion mode. Two different transitions and their relative intensities were monitored for unambiguous identification. All pesticides presented overall recovery rates between 35% and 110%. The trueness is near 100% and the interday precision is below 15%. The limits of quantifications are equal or below the guidance residue levels proposed by the Agrochemical Advisory Committee of CORESTA, an association of organisations having scientific research relative to tobacco.

  14. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of natural and synthetic desulphoglucosinolates and their chemical validation by UV, NMR and chemical ionisation-MS methods.

    PubMed

    Kiddle, G; Bennett, R N; Botting, N P; Davidson, N E; Robertson, A A; Wallsgrove, R M

    2001-01-01

    Methods are described for the optimised extraction, desulphation and HPLC separation of desulphoglucosinolates. These methods provide rapid separation, identification and quantitative measurements of glucosinolates extracted from Brassica napus L and related crops, of unusual glucosinolates found in crucifer weed species, and also of synthetic alkylglucosinolates. The desulphoglucosinolates used in these studies were either chemically synthesised (at least one example from each major structural class), or purified from various plant sources. Validation of the identities of the desulphoglucosinolates was by comparison of retention times with standards, and by UV, 1H- and 13C-NMR and chemical ionisation MS analysis. A list of useful species, and the specific tissues, from which high concentrations of standards can be extracted is included. PMID:11705329

  15. Development of novel guanidino-labelling derivatisation (GLaD) reagents for liquid chromatography/matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation analysis.

    PubMed

    Brancia, Francesco L; Bereszczak, Jessica Z; Piatkowska, Elzbieta; Delneri, Daniela

    2007-01-01

    A new generation of guanidino-labelling (GLaD) reagents were developed for quantitative proteomics using offline microcapillary liquid chromatography (LC) matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). In order to reduce the unwanted overlapping between the isotopic envelopes of the two differentially labelled peptide ions, a novel synthetic route was described for production of both (13)C- and (15)N-containing isotopomers of N,O-dimethylisourea. The use of these types of isotopes has no deleterious effect on the retention times of both differentially labelled peptides during offline microbore reversed-phase LC. In addition, the possibility to incorporate a mass difference of 4 Da can be exploited during post-source decay analysis to generate product ion spectra in which fragment ions containing the modifications appear as doublets in the corresponding product ion spectra, thus facilitating identification of the C-terminal fragment ions.

  16. Influence of higher atmospheric pressure on the Martian radiation environment: Implications for possible habitability in the Noachian epoch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehresmann, B.; Burmeister, S.; Wimmer-Schweingruber, R. F.; Reitz, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Noachian epoch (˜4.5-3.5 billion years ago) is a promising era for a possible emergence of life on Mars. The presence of runoff channels in areas formed during the Noachian suggests that liquid water existed at least sporadically during that time, with liquid water being regarded as a prerequisite for life. To have sustained liquid water, the atmospheric pressure on Noachian Mars must have been significantly higher than in the present. When considering the possibility of life on Noachian Mars, one conceivable restriction is given by the ionising radiation environment. Using PLANETOCOSMICS- and Geant4-simulation codes, we calculate the radiation environment on the Martian surface and the resulting radiation exposure for different atmospheric conditions. Here, we present absorbed dose and dose equivalent rates resulting from galactic-cosmic-proton and alpha-particle-induced radiation environments, as well as changes of these rates caused by an increase of atmospheric pressure.

  17. Comparative study of matrices for their use in the rapid screening of anabolic steroids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Galesio, M; Rial-Otero, R; Capelo-Martínez, J-L

    2009-06-01

    New data on sample preparation and matrix selection for the fast screening of androgenic anabolic steroids (AAS) by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) is presented. The rapid screening of 15 steroids included in the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) prohibited list using MALDI was evaluated. Nine organic and two inorganic matrices were assessed in order to determine the best matrix for steroid identification in terms of ionisation yield and interference by characteristic matrix ions. The best results were achieved for the organic matrices 2-(4-hydroxyphenylazo)benzoic acid (HABA) and trans-3-indoleacrylic acid (IAA). Good signals for all the steroids studied were obtained for concentrations as low as 0.010 and 0.050 microg/mL on the MALDI sample plate for the HABA and IAA matrices, respectively. For these two matrices, the sensitivity achieved by MALDI is comparable with the sensitivity achieved by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), which is the conventional technique used for AAS detection. Furthermore, the accuracy and precision obtained with MALDI are very good, since an internal mass calibration is performed with the matrix ions. For the inorganic matrices, laser fluences higher than those used with organic matrices are required to obtain good MALDI signals. When inorganic matrices were used in combination with glycerol as a dispersing agent, an important reduction of the background noise was observed. Urine samples spiked with the study compounds were processed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and the screening was consistently positive.

  18. Characterisation of legumes by enzymatic hydrolysis, microdialysis sampling, and micro-high-performance anion-exchange chromatography with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Okatch, Harriet; Torto, Nelson; Armateifio, Joan

    2003-04-11

    An assay based on enzymatic hydrolysisand microdialysis sampling, micro-high-performance anion-exchange chromatography (micro-HPAEC) with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) for the characterisation of legumes is presented. Characterisation of two bean varieties; Phaseolus mungo and P. acutifilous was based upon enzymatic hydrolysis using an endo-beta-mannanase from Aspergillus niger with subsequent analysis of the hydrolysates with HPAEC-MS. The hydrolysates were detected in the positive ionisation mode after desalting the chromatographic effluent, employing a cation-exchange membrane desalting device with water as the regenerating liquid. Mass chromatograms, acquiredafter hydrolysis of both bean samples for 12 h, showed two different profiles of hydrolysates. The P. mungo bean hydrolysate showed the presence of saccharides with a degree of polymerisation (DP) in the range of 2-6, whereas that of P. acutifilous showed only DPs of 2-5. Both bean samples had one type of DP 2, but showed different types of DPs 3, 4 and 5. Only the P. mungo sample showed the presence of DP 6. The most abundant fraction for P. mungo was DP 4, whereas that for P. acutifilous was DP 5. Tandem MS of the hydrolysates showed that the DP 2 hydrolysates observed for the samples were of the same type, having a 1,6 linkage. Also tandem MS data for DPs 3, 4, and 5 showed that similar hydrolysates were present within the same sample as well as among the two samples. The data also showed the existence of 1,6 linkages for DP 3, 4, and 5 hydrolysates. The single enzymatic hydrolysis in combination with microdialysis and HPAEC with ESI-MS proved to be sufficient and reproducible for profiling and showing the difference between the two bean samples. PMID:12735463

  19. Understanding Radiation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    Radiation is a natural energy force that has been a part of the environment since the Earth was formed. It takes various forms, none of which can be smelled, tasted, seen, heard, or felt. Nevertheless, scientists know what it is, where it comes from, how to measure and detect it, and how it affects people. Cosmic radiation from outer space and…

  20. Space radiation measurements on-board ISS--the DOSMAP experiment.

    PubMed

    Reitz, G; Beaujean, R; Benton, E; Burmeister, S; Dachev, Ts; Deme, S; Luszik-Bhadra, M; Olko, P

    2005-01-01

    The experiment 'Dosimetric Mapping' conducted as part of the science program of NASA's Human Research Facility (HRF) between March and August 2001 was designed to measure integrated total absorbed doses (ionising radiation and neutrons), heavy ion fluxes and its energy, mass and linear energy transfer (LET) spectra, time-dependent count rates of charged particles and their corresponding dose rates at different locations inside the US Lab at the International Space Station. Owing to the variety of particles and energies, a dosimetry package consisting of thermoluminescence dosemeter (TLD) chips and nuclear track detectors with and without converters (NTDPs), a silicon dosimetry telescope (DOSTEL), four mobile silicon detector units (MDUs) and a TLD reader unit (PILLE) with 12 TLD bulbs as dosemeters was used. Dose rates of the ionising part of the radiation field measured with TLD bulbs applying the PILLE readout system at different locations varied between 153 and 231 microGy d(-1). The dose rate received by the active devices fits excellent to the TLD measurements and is significantly lower compared with measurements for the Shuttle (STS) to MIR missions. The comparison of the absorbed doses from passive and active devices showed an agreement within +/- 10%. The DOSTEL measurements in the HRF location yielded a mean dose equivalent rate of 535 microSv d(-1). DOSTEL measurements were also obtained during the Solar Particle Event on 15 April 2001. PMID:16604663

  1. Study of the dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation at civil aviation altitudes.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, A; Pellicioni, M; Rancati, T

    2002-01-01

    The dependence of the doses on solar activity for intermediate levels of the solar modulation parameter has been studied by means of simulations carried out by the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA. The vertical cut-off rigidities investigated lie between 0.4 and 6.1 GV. The calculated results show that the linear dependence proposed in a previous work, for the effective dose rate as a function of the solar modulation parameter, can be considered as an acceptable approximation. In addition, some dosimetric characteristics of cosmic radiation and some properties of the dosemeters in use for monitoring in the cosmic ray environment have been analysed with a view to simplifying measurements. The depth-dose curves in the ICRU sphere and the response of a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber have been determined by the FLUKA code for a number of cosmic ray spectra On the basis of the calculated results, it is concluded that a value of the depth. d, which would make the ambient dose equivalent a conservative predictor of the effective dose, cannot be specified for cosmic radiation. However, the operational quantity can be useful in order to verify the predictions of Monte Carlo calculations. It is demonstrated that a crude approximation of the ambient dose equivalent could be obtained by multiplying by 2 the absorbed dose measured by a tissue-equivalent ionisation chamber with wall thickness of 10 mm.

  2. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, B.T.

    1980-12-05

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and x-rays generated in backscatter Moessbauer effect spectroscopy and x-ray spectrometry, which has a large window for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  3. Radiation detector

    DOEpatents

    Fultz, Brent T.

    1983-01-01

    Apparatus is provided for detecting radiation such as gamma rays and X-rays generated in backscatter Mossbauer effect spectroscopy and X-ray spectrometry, which has a large "window" for detecting radiation emanating over a wide solid angle from a specimen and which generates substantially the same output pulse height for monoenergetic radiation that passes through any portion of the detection chamber. The apparatus includes a substantially toroidal chamber with conductive walls forming a cathode, and a wire anode extending in a circle within the chamber with the anode lying closer to the inner side of the toroid which has the least diameter than to the outer side. The placement of the anode produces an electric field, in a region close to the anode, which has substantially the same gradient in all directions extending radially from the anode, so that the number of avalanche electrons generated by ionizing radiation is independent of the path of the radiation through the chamber.

  4. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  5. [Participation of final products of lipid peroxidation in the anticancer mechanism of ionizing radiation and radiomimetic cytostatics].

    PubMed

    Przybyszewski, W M

    2001-01-01

    This review reports the evidence for the participation of final products of lipid peroxidation in the anticancer mechanism of ionising radiation and radiomimetic cytostatics. Processes of lipid peroxidation occur endogenously in response to oxidative stress and great diversity of reactive metabolites is formed. However, direct observation of radical reaction in pathophysiology of cells, tissues and organs is limited technically. Most investigations focused on the indirect assessment of their final products, aldehydes. The peroxidative breakdown of polyunsaturated fatty acids is believed to be involved in the regulation of cell division, and antitumor effect through biochemical and genetic processes.

  6. Automated systems to monitor space radiation effect on photosynthetic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, D.; di Costa, F.; Faraloni, C.; Fasolo, F.; Pace, E.; Perosino, M.; Torzillo, G.; Touloupakis, E.; Zanini, A.; Giardi, M. T.

    We developed automated biodevices to obtain, automatically, measures about the space radiation effect on living photosynthetic organisms, which can be used as biomass and oxygen-producing system on shuttles or ISS. Vitality measurements were performed by optical devices (fluorimeters) measuring fluorescence emission. Fluorescence methodology is a well known applied technique for studying photosynthetic activity, and in particular the oxygen-evolving process of photosynthetic organisms. Different strains of unicellular green algae are properly immobilized on agar growth medium and kept under survial light. The biodevices are characterised by the sensibility and selectivity of the biological component response, together with easy use, versatility, miniature size and low cost. We performed experiments in some facilities, in order to understand separately the effect of radiation of different LET, on the biochemical activity (gamma rays at Joint Research Centre -Varese, Italy; fast neutrons at CERF -- SPS beam at CERN -Geneva, Switzerland). The exposure to different radiation beams of the automatic devices, allowed us to test them under stress condition. In one year, these instrument are expected to be sent to space, inside a spacecraft, in order to study the effect of ionising cosmic radiation during an ESA flight.

  7. The role of pyrimidine and water as underlying molecular constituents for describing radiation damage in living tissue: A comparative study

    SciTech Connect

    Fuss, M. C.; Ellis-Gibbings, L.; Jones, D. B.; Brunger, M. J.; Blanco, F.; Muñoz, A.; Limão-Vieira, P.; García, G.

    2015-06-07

    Water is often used as the medium for characterizing the effects of radiation on living tissue. However, in this study, charged-particle track simulations are employed to quantify the induced physicochemical and potential biological implications when a primary ionising particle with energy 10 keV strikes a medium made up entirely of water or pyrimidine. Note that pyrimidine was chosen as the DNA/RNA bases cytosine, thymine, and uracil can be considered pyrimidine derivatives. This study aims to assess the influence of the choice of medium on the charged-particle transport, and identify how appropriate it is to use water as the default medium to describe the effects of ionising radiation on living tissue. Based on the respective electron interaction cross sections, we provide a model, which allows the study of radiation effects not only in terms of energy deposition (absorbed dose and stopping power) but also in terms of the number of induced molecular processes. Results of these parameters for water and pyrimidine are presented and compared.

  8. Medical exposure to radiation and thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Schonfeld, S J; Lee, C; Berrington de González, A

    2011-05-01

    In 2008, the worldwide estimated age-standardised incidence rates for thyroid cancer incidence were 4.7 and 1.5 per 100,000 women and men, respectively. Thyroid cancer's overall contribution to the worldwide cancer burden is relatively small, but incidence rates have increased over the last three decades throughout the world. This trend has been hypothesised to reflect a combination of technological advances enabling increased detection, but also changes in environmental factors, including population exposure to ionising radiation from fallout, diagnostic tests and treatment for benign and malignant conditions. Studies of the atomic bomb survivors and populations treated with radiotherapy have established radiation as a risk factor for thyroid cancer, particularly from early life exposure. About 0.62 mSv (20%) of the global annual per caput effective radiation dose comes from diagnostic medical and dental radiation for the period of 1997-2007, increased from 0.4 mSv for the years 1991-1996. This international trend of increasing population exposure to medical diagnostic sources of radiation, attributed in large part to the growing use of computed tomography scans, but also interventional radiology procedures, has raised concerns about exposure to radiosensitive organs such as the thyroid. Worldwide, medical and dental X-rays constitute the most common type of diagnostic medical exposures, but their contribution to the cumulative effective dose is relatively low, whereas computed tomography scans account for 7.9% of diagnostic radiology examinations but 47% of the collective effective dose from diagnostic radiation procedures in parts of the world. Although the radiation exposure from computed tomography scans is substantially lower than that from radiotherapy, multiple computed tomography scans could result in non-trivial cumulative doses to the thyroid. Studies are currently underway to assess the incidence of cancer in large cohorts of children who received

  9. Radiation dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Fox, Richard J.

    1983-01-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even though the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  10. Radiation dosimeter

    DOEpatents

    Fox, R.J.

    1981-09-01

    A radiation detector readout circuit is provided which produces a radiation dose-rate readout from a detector even through the detector output may be highly energy dependent. A linear charge amplifier including an output charge pump circuit amplifies the charge signal pulses from the detector and pumps the charge into a charge storage capacitor. The discharge rate of the capacitor through a resistor is controlled to provide a time-dependent voltage which when integrated provides an output proportional to the dose-rate of radiation detected by the detector. This output may be converted to digital form for readout on a digital display.

  11. Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2003-10-16

    The discipline of radiation hydrodynamics is the branch of hydrodynamics in which the moving fluid absorbs and emits electromagnetic radiation, and in so doing modifies its dynamical behavior. That is, the net gain or loss of energy by parcels of the fluid material through absorption or emission of radiation are sufficient to change the pressure of the material, and therefore change its motion; alternatively, the net momentum exchange between radiation and matter may alter the motion of the matter directly. Ignoring the radiation contributions to energy and momentum will give a wrong prediction of the hydrodynamic motion when the correct description is radiation hydrodynamics. Of course, there are circumstances when a large quantity of radiation is present, yet can be ignored without causing the model to be in error. This happens when radiation from an exterior source streams through the problem, but the latter is so transparent that the energy and momentum coupling is negligible. Everything we say about radiation hydrodynamics applies equally well to neutrinos and photons (apart from the Einstein relations, specific to bosons), but in almost every area of astrophysics neutrino hydrodynamics is ignored, simply because the systems are exceedingly transparent to neutrinos, even though the energy flux in neutrinos may be substantial. Another place where we can do ''radiation hydrodynamics'' without using any sophisticated theory is deep within stars or other bodies, where the material is so opaque to the radiation that the mean free path of photons is entirely negligible compared with the size of the system, the distance over which any fluid quantity varies, and so on. In this case we can suppose that the radiation is in equilibrium with the matter locally, and its energy, pressure and momentum can be lumped in with those of the rest of the fluid. That is, it is no more necessary to distinguish photons from atoms, nuclei and electrons, than it is to distinguish

  12. Biodosimetry and assessment of radiation dose

    PubMed Central

    Crespo, Rafael Herranz; Domene, Mercedes Moreno; Rodríguez, María Jesús Prieto

    2011-01-01

    Aim When investigating radiation accidents, it is very important to determine the exposition dose to the individuals. In the case of exposures over 1 Gy, clinicians may expect deterministic effects arising the following weeks and months, in these cases dose estimation will help physicians in the planning of therapy. Nevertheless, for doses below 1 Gy, biodosimetry data are important due to the risk of developing late stochastic effects. Finally, some accidental overexposures are lack of physical measurements and the only way of quantifying dose is by biological dosimetry. Background The analysis of chromosomal aberrations by different techniques is the most developed method of quantifying dose to individuals exposed to ionising radiations.1,2 Furthermore, the analysis of dicentric chromosomes observed in metaphases from peripheral lymphocytes is the routine technique used in case of acute exposures to assess radiation doses. Materials and methods Solid stain of chromosomes is used to determine dicentric yields for dose estimation. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) for translocations analysis is used when delayed sampling or suspected chronically irradiation dose assessment. Recommendations in technical considerations are based mainly in the IAEA Technical Report No. 405.2 Results Experience in biological dosimetry at Gregorio Marañón General Hospital is described, including own calibration curves used for dose estimation, background studies and real cases of overexposition. Conclusion Dose assessment by biological dosimeters requires a large previous standardization work and a continuous update. Individual dose assessment involves high qualification professionals and its long time consuming, therefore requires specific Centres. For large mass casualties cooperation among specialized Institutions is needed. PMID:24376970

  13. First field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer for the on-line detection of particle-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Oster, Markus; Elsasser, Michael; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-12-01

    The on-line analysis of single aerosol particles with mass spectrometrical methods is an important tool for the investigation of aerosols. Often, a single laser pulse is used for one-step laser desorption/ionisation of aerosol particles. Resulting ions are detected with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. With this method, the detection of inorganic compounds is possible. The detection of more fragile organic compounds and carbon clusters can be accomplished by separating the desorption and the ionisation in two steps, e.g. by using two laser pulses. A further method is, using a heated metal surface for thermal desorption of aerosol particles. If an ultraviolet laser is used for ionisation, a selective ionisation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and alkylated PAH is possible via a resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation process. Laser velocimetry allows individual laser triggering for single particles and additionally delivers information on aerodynamic particle diameters. It was shown that particles deriving from different combustion sources can be differentiated according to their PAH patterns. For example, retene, a C(4)-alkylated phenanthrene derivative, is a marker for the combustion of coniferous wood. In this paper, the first field application of a thermal desorption resonance-enhanced multiphoton-ionisation single particle time-of-flight mass spectrometer during a measurement campaign in Augsburg, Germany in winter 2010 is presented. Larger PAH-containing particles (i.e. with aerodynamic diameters larger than 1 μm), which are suspected to be originated by re-suspension processes of agglomerated material, were in the focus of the investigation. Due to the low concentration of these particles, an on-line virtual impactor enrichment system was used. The detection of particle-bound PAH in ambient particles in this larger size region was possible and in addition, retene could be detected on several particles, which allows to identify wood combustion as

  14. Healthful radiation.

    PubMed

    Agard, E T

    1997-01-01

    This title of this article sounds paradoxical to most people because the general public is not fully aware of the many benefits radiation has brought to people's healthcare. Radiation has provided the most effective means of noninvasive diagnosis of many diseases, thus reducing the need for exploratory surgery, at significantly reduced risks. Furthermore, radiotherapy has been effective in treating many diseases without surgical removal of the diseased part. The breast is one excellent example of the benefits of radiation in both diagnosis and treatment with preservation. Yet the public still regards radiation as mysterious and dangerous, while trained experts regard it as beneficial with manageable risks. This article suggests ways of presenting this material to the public in a manner that is interesting and informative. PMID:8972833

  15. Radiation sickness

    MedlinePlus

    ... process so that they do not cause radiation injury to others. This may complicate the first aid and resuscitation process. Check the person's breathing and pulse. Start CPR , if necessary. Remove the person's clothing and place ...

  16. Healthful radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Agard, E.T.

    1997-01-01

    This title of this article sounds paradoxical to most people because the general public is not fully aware of the many benefits radiation has brought to people`s healthcare. Radiation has provided the most effective means of noninvasive diagnosis of many diseases, thus reducing the need for exploratory surgery, at significantly reduced risks. Furthermore, radiotherapy has been effective in treating many diseases without surgical removal of the diseased part. The breast is one excellent example of the benefits of radiation in both diagnosis and treatment with preservation. Yet the public still regards radiation as mysterious and dangerous, while trained experts regard it as beneficial with manageable risks. This article suggests ways of presenting this material to the public in a manner that is interesting and informative. 11 refs.

  17. Radiation Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Radiation (also called x-rays, gamma rays, or photons) either kills tumor cells directly or interferes with ... treatment per day, five days a week, for two to seven weeks. Potiential Side Effects Most people ...

  18. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established.

  19. Long-term effects of radiation exposure on health.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Kenji; Ozasa, Kotaro; Akiba, Suminori; Niwa, Ohstura; Kodama, Kazunori; Takamura, Noboru; Zaharieva, Elena K; Kimura, Yuko; Wakeford, Richard

    2015-08-01

    Late-onset effects of exposure to ionising radiation on the human body have been identified by long-term, large-scale epidemiological studies. The cohort study of Japanese survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (the Life Span Study) is thought to be the most reliable source of information about these health effects because of the size of the cohort, the exposure of a general population of both sexes and all ages, and the wide range of individually assessed doses. For this reason, the Life Span Study has become fundamental to risk assessment in the radiation protection system of the International Commission on Radiological Protection and other authorities. Radiation exposure increases the risk of cancer throughout life, so continued follow-up of survivors is essential. Overall, survivors have a clear radiation-related excess risk of cancer, and people exposed as children have a higher risk of radiation-induced cancer than those exposed at older ages. At high doses, and possibly at low doses, radiation might increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and some other non-cancer diseases. Hereditary effects in the children of atomic bomb survivors have not been detected. The dose-response relation for cancer at low doses is assumed, for purposes of radiological protection, to be linear without a threshold, but has not been shown definitively. This outstanding issue is not only a problem when dealing appropriately with potential health effects of nuclear accidents, such as at Fukushima and Chernobyl, but is of growing concern in occupational and medical exposure. Therefore, the appropriate dose-response relation for effects of low doses of radiation needs to be established. PMID:26251392

  20. Radiation Transport

    SciTech Connect

    Urbatsch, Todd James

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  1. Radiation Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    Claypack is a cost-effective portable system developed by Barringer Research Ltd. for rapid on-site analysis of clay minerals. It is an adaptation of a hand-held rationing radiometer. By measuring the intensity of reflected radiation, the device discriminates among different minerals present in a sample. It simultaneously analyzes radiation intensities in two separate bands of the spectrum, and calculates the ratio of one to the other. The "reflectance ratio" is computer processed and displayed in digital form.

  2. Radiation enteritis.

    PubMed

    Harb, Ali H; Abou Fadel, Carla; Sharara, Ala I

    2014-01-01

    Radiation enteritis continues to be a major health concern in recipients of radiation therapy. The incidence of radiation enteritis is expected to continue to rise during the coming years paralleling the unprecedented use of radiotherapy in pelvic cancers. Radiation enteritis can present as either an acute or chronic syndrome. The acute form presents within hours to days of radiation exposure and typically resolves within few weeks. The chronic form may present as early as 2 months or as long as 30 years after exposure. Risk factors can be divided into patient and treatment-related factors. Chronic radiation enteritis is characterized by progressive obliterative endarteritis with exaggerated submucosal fibrosis and can manifest by stricturing, formation of fistulae, local abscesses, perforation, and bleeding. In the right clinical context, diagnosis can be confirmed by cross-sectional imaging, flexible or video capsule endoscopy. Present treatment strategies are directed primarily towards symptom relief and management of emerging complications. Recently, however, there has been a shift towards rational drug design based on improved understanding of the molecular basis of disease in an effort to limit the fibrotic process and prevent organ damage.

  3. A new approach for plasma (xeno)metabolomics based on solid-phase extraction and nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    David, Arthur; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Lange, Anke; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-10-24

    Current metabolite profiling methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platforms do not detect many of the components present at trace concentrations in extracts of plasma due to their low ionisation efficiency or to interference from highly abundant compounds. Nanoflow LC-nanospray MS platforms, which are commonly used in proteomics, could overcome these limitations and significantly increase analytical sensitivity and coverage of the plasma (xeno)metabolome (i.e., metabolites and xenobiotics), but require small injection volumes (<0.5μL). In this study, we developed sample preparation methods to remove ion suppressive phospholipids and concentrate remaining components of the plasma (xeno)metabolome in order to analyse sub-microliter volumes of plasma extracts for nanoflow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS). These methods use phospholipid filtration plates in combination with polymeric or mixed mode exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE). The phospholipid filtration plates removed >94% of the predominant phospholipid/lysophospholipid species from plasma, whilst absolute recoveries of 63 selected (xeno)metabolites from spiked plasma were generally between 60 and 104%. After a further SPE step, recoveries of test compounds were between 50 and 81%. Studies revealed that both the sample preparation methodology and nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS analyses gave acceptable repeatability. A qualitative comparison of SPE methods revealed that sample concentration by either polymer or mixed mode ion-exchange SPE gave comprehensive metabolite coverage of plasma extracts, but the use of cation exchange SPE significantly increased detection of many cationic compounds in the sample extracts. Method detection limits for steroid, eicosanoid and bile metabolites were <1.0ng/mL plasma and for pharmaceutical contaminants were between 0.01 and 30ng/mL plasma. Comparison of the

  4. A new approach for plasma (xeno)metabolomics based on solid-phase extraction and nanoflow liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    David, Arthur; Abdul-Sada, Alaa; Lange, Anke; Tyler, Charles R; Hill, Elizabeth M

    2014-10-24

    Current metabolite profiling methods based on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) platforms do not detect many of the components present at trace concentrations in extracts of plasma due to their low ionisation efficiency or to interference from highly abundant compounds. Nanoflow LC-nanospray MS platforms, which are commonly used in proteomics, could overcome these limitations and significantly increase analytical sensitivity and coverage of the plasma (xeno)metabolome (i.e., metabolites and xenobiotics), but require small injection volumes (<0.5μL). In this study, we developed sample preparation methods to remove ion suppressive phospholipids and concentrate remaining components of the plasma (xeno)metabolome in order to analyse sub-microliter volumes of plasma extracts for nanoflow ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-nanoelectrospray ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS). These methods use phospholipid filtration plates in combination with polymeric or mixed mode exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE). The phospholipid filtration plates removed >94% of the predominant phospholipid/lysophospholipid species from plasma, whilst absolute recoveries of 63 selected (xeno)metabolites from spiked plasma were generally between 60 and 104%. After a further SPE step, recoveries of test compounds were between 50 and 81%. Studies revealed that both the sample preparation methodology and nUHPLC-nESI-TOFMS analyses gave acceptable repeatability. A qualitative comparison of SPE methods revealed that sample concentration by either polymer or mixed mode ion-exchange SPE gave comprehensive metabolite coverage of plasma extracts, but the use of cation exchange SPE significantly increased detection of many cationic compounds in the sample extracts. Method detection limits for steroid, eicosanoid and bile metabolites were <1.0ng/mL plasma and for pharmaceutical contaminants were between 0.01 and 30ng/mL plasma. Comparison of the

  5. Radiation enteritis and radiation scoliosis

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, M.; Eng, K.; Engler, G.L.

    1980-09-01

    Any patient with radiation scoliosis should be suspected of having a visceral lesion as well. Chronic radiation enteritis may be manifested by intestinal obstruction, fistulas, perforation, and hemorrhage. Intestinal obstruction is the most common complication, and must be differentiated from postoperative cast or from spinal-traction syndrome. Obstruction that does not respond promptly to conservative measures must be treated surgically. Irradiated bowel is ischemic, and necrosis with spontaneous perforation can only be avoided with early diagnosis and surgical intervention.

  6. A study of the analytical behaviour of selected synthetic and naturally occurring quinolines using electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry, liquid chromatography and gas chromatography and the construction of an appropriate database for quinoline characterisation.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, F; Ramachandran, V N; Smyth, W F; Hack, C J; Patton, E

    2006-07-14

    Mass spectral fragmentation of quinoline alkaloids of significance in plants has been investigated using electrospray ionisation ion trap mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)) with a view to characterisation of molecules of unknown structure isolated from these natural sources. This investigation has led to the generation of an appropriate database incorporating data from ESI-MS(n) and also from gas liquid chromatography (GLC) and liquid chromatography (HPLC) for these low molecular mass quinolines. This has been put to practical application in the identification of quinoline alkaloids in a plant extract. Thus, an acid extraction of the leaves of Choisya ternata containing such tertiary alkaloids was analysed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and the resulting behaviour of the quinolines was compared with that of the quinoline alkaloids in the database.

  7. Radiation Oncology Treatment Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Upper GI What is Radiation Therapy? Find a Radiation Oncologist Last Name: Facility: City: State: Zip Code: ... who specializes in using radiation to treat cancer . Radiation Oncologists Radiation oncologists are the doctors who will ...

  8. Radiation Therapy (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Radiation Therapy KidsHealth > For Parents > Radiation Therapy Print A A ... many questions and concerns about it. About Radiation Therapy In radiation therapy, high-energy radiation from X- ...

  9. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  10. Cancer in the offspring of radiation workers: a record linkage study.

    PubMed Central

    Draper, G. J.; Little, M. P.; Sorahan, T.; Kinlen, L. J.; Bunch, K. J.; Conquest, A. J.; Kendall, G. M.; Kneale, G. W.; Lancashire, R. J.; Muirhead, C. R.; O'Connor, C. M.; Vincent, T. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To test the "Gardner hypothesis" that childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma can be caused by fathers' exposure to ionising radiation before the conception of the child, and, more generally, to investigate whether such radiation exposure of either parent is a cause of childhood cancer. DESIGN: Case-control study. SETTING: Great Britain. SUBJECTS: 35,949 children diagnosed as having cancer, together with matched controls. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parental employment as radiation worker as defined by inclusion in the National Registry for Radiation Workers and being monitored for external radiation before conception of child; cumulative dose of external ionising radiation for various periods of employment before conception; dose during pregnancy. RESULTS: After cases studied by Gardner and colleagues were excluded, fathers of children with leukaemia or non-Hodgkin lymphoma were significantly more likely than fathers of controls to have been radiation workers (relative risk 1.77, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 3.03) but there was no dose-response relation for any of the exposure periods studied; indeed, the association was greatest for those with doses below the level of detection. No increased risk was found for fathers with a lifetime preconception dose of 100 mSv or more, or with a dose in the 6 months before conception of 10 mSv or more. There was no increased risk for the group of other childhood cancers. Mothers' radiation work was associated with a significant increase of childhood cancer (relative risk 5.00, 1.42 to 26.94; based on 15 cases and 3 controls). Only four of the case mothers and no controls were radiation workers during pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS: These results do not support the hypothesis that paternal preconception irradiation is a cause of childhood leukaemia and non-Hodgkin lymphoma; the observed associations may be chance findings or results from exposure to infective or other agents. If there is any increased risk for the

  11. Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures.

    PubMed

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-03-01

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology. PMID:24487195

  12. Radiation cataract.

    PubMed

    Kleiman, N J

    2012-01-01

    Until very recently, ocular exposure guidelines were based on the assumption that radiation cataract is a deterministic event requiring threshold doses generally greater than 2 Gy. This view was, in part, based on older studies which generally had short follow-up periods, failed to take into account increasing latency as dose decreased, had relatively few subjects with doses below a few Gy, and were not designed to detect early lens changes. Newer findings, including those in populations exposed to much lower radiation doses and in subjects as diverse as astronauts, medical workers, atomic bomb survivors, accidentally exposed individuals, and those undergoing diagnostic or radiotherapeutic procedures, strongly suggest dose-related lens opacification at significantly lower doses. These observations resulted in a recent re-evaluation of current lens occupational exposure guidelines, and a proposed lowering of the presumptive radiation cataract threshold to 0.5 Gy/year and the occupational lens exposure limit to 20 mSv/year, regardless of whether received as an acute, protracted, or chronic exposure. Experimental animal studies support these conclusions and suggest a role for genotoxicity in the development of radiation cataract. Recent findings of a low or even zero threshold for radiation-induced lens opacification are likely to influence current research efforts and directions concerning the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this pathology. Furthermore, new guidelines are likely to have significant implications for occupational and/or accidental exposure, and the need for occupational eye protection (e.g. in fields such as interventional medicine).

  13. [The opportunity to use combined stem cells transplantation for haemopoesis activation in the old and mature laboratory animals under the conditions of ionizing radiation].

    PubMed

    Grebnev, D Iu; Maklakova, I Iu; Iastrebov, A P

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to study the influence of combined transplantation of stem cells (multypotent mesenchimal stromal and haemopoetic stem cells) on the haemopoesis of old and mature laboratory animals under the condition of ionizing radiation. The result of the experiment shows that under physiological conditions the combined transplantation brings the erithropoesis activation, under the ionizing radiation conditions it brings the erythroid and granulocytopoesis activation. Moreover the combined MMSC and HSC transplantation gives cytoprotective action on the myeloid tissue due to decrease of cyto genically changed cells in the mature animals under the condition of ionizing radiation, but in the old animals this effect can be seen even under physiological condition. Combined transplantation of MMSC and GSC can be used in the mature and old laboratory animals under the conditions of ionising radiation for the haemopoesis activation.

  14. Retention of ionisable compounds on high-performance liquid chromatography XVII. Estimation of the pH variation of aqueous buffers with the change of the methanol fraction of the mobile phase.

    PubMed

    Subirats, Xavier; Bosch, Elisabeth; Rosés, Martí

    2007-01-01

    The use of methanol-aqueous buffer mobile phases in HPLC is a common election when performing chromatographic separations of ionisable analytes. The addition of methanol to the aqueous buffer to prepare such a mobile phase changes the buffer capacity and the pH of the solution. In the present work, the variation of these buffer properties is studied for acetic acid-acetate, phosphoric acid-dihydrogenphosphate-hydrogenphosphate, citric acid-dihydrogencitrate-hydrogencitrate-citrate, and ammonium-ammonia buffers. It is well established that the pH change of the buffers depends on the initial concentration and aqueous pH of the buffer, on the percentage of methanol added, and on the particular buffer used. The proposed equations allow the pH estimation of methanol-water buffered mobile phases up to 80% in volume of organic modifier from initial aqueous buffer pH and buffer concentration (before adding methanol) between 0.001 and 0.01 mol L(-1). From both the estimated pH values of the mobile phase and the estimated pKa of the ionisable analytes, it is possible to predict the degree of ionisation of the analytes and therefore, the interpretation of acid-base analytes behaviour in a particular methanol-water buffered mobile phase.

  15. Synchrotron radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Knotek, M.L.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation has had a revolutionary effect on a broad range of scientific studies, from physics, chemistry and metallurgy to biology, medicine and geoscience. The situation during the last decade has been one of very rapid growth, there is a great vitality to the field and a capability has been given to a very broad range of scientific disciplines which was undreamed of just a decade or so ago. Here we will discuss some of the properties of synchrotron radiation that makes it so interesting and something of the sources in existence today including the National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS). The NSLS is one of the new facilities built specifically for synchrotron radiation research and the model that was developed there for involvement of the scientific community is a good one which provides some good lessons for these facilities and others.

  16. RADIATION INTEGRATOR

    DOEpatents

    Glass, F.M.; Wilson, H.N.

    1959-02-17

    Radiation detecting and measuring systems, particularly a compact, integrating, background monitor, are discussed. One of the principal features of the system is the use of an electrometer tube where the input of the tube is directly connected to an electrode of the radiation detector and a capacitor is coupled to the tube input. When a predetermined quantity of radiation has been integrated, a trigger signal is fed to a recorder and a charge is delivered to the capacitor to render the tube inoperative. The capacitor is then recharged for the next period of operation. With this arrangement there is a substantial reduction in lead lengths and the principal components may be enclosed and hermetically sealed to insure low leakage.

  17. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, Arlon J.

    1983-01-01

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles.

  18. Radiation receiver

    DOEpatents

    Hunt, A.J.

    1983-09-13

    The apparatus for collecting radiant energy and converting same to alternate energy form includes a housing having an interior space and a radiation transparent window allowing, for example, solar radiation to be received in the interior space of the housing. Means are provided for passing a stream of fluid past said window and for injecting radiation absorbent particles in said fluid stream. The particles absorb the radiation and because of their very large surface area, quickly release the heat to the surrounding fluid stream. The fluid stream particle mixture is heated until the particles vaporize. The fluid stream is then allowed to expand in, for example, a gas turbine to produce mechanical energy. In an aspect of the present invention properly sized particles need not be vaporized prior to the entrance of the fluid stream into the turbine, as the particles will not damage the turbine blades. In yet another aspect of the invention, conventional fuel injectors are provided to inject fuel into the fluid stream to maintain the proper temperature and pressure of the fluid stream should the source of radiant energy be interrupted. In yet another aspect of the invention, an apparatus is provided which includes means for providing a hot fluid stream having hot particles disbursed therein which can radiate energy, means for providing a cooler fluid stream having cooler particles disbursed therein, which particles can absorb radiant energy and means for passing the hot fluid stream adjacent the cooler fluid stream to warm the cooler fluid and cooler particles by the radiation from the hot fluid and hot particles. 5 figs.

  19. Development of Ionisation Chambers for the Simultaneous Measurement of the Neutron-induced Capture and Fission Cross Section of 233U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathieu, L.; Companis, I.; Aiche, M.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Heyse, J.; Barreau, G.; Boutoux, G.; Czajkowski, S.; Gunsing, F.; Jurado, B.; Kessedjian, G.; Plompen, A. J. M.; Tsekhanovitch, I.

    2014-05-01

    A new simultaneous measurement of σ(n,f) and σ(n, γ) will be performed at the neutron time-of-flight facility GELINA in Geel (Belgium). The fission events will be detected by a multi-plate high-efficiency ionisation chamber (IC). An efficient array of C6D6 scintillators will be used for the detection of gamma-rays. The disentanglement between fission and capture gamma-rays can be achieved by using anticoincidence events between the IC and the C6D6 detectors. Given the difference in the fission and capture cross sections, the assignment of a gamma-ray to one or the other reaction type has to be very efficient and reliable. The IC efficiency is not 100 % and a correction has to be applied to take into account the undetected fission events. To keep this correction factor low and reliable, the efficiency parameter of the IC should be high and known with a high degree of accuracy. The IC efficiency towards fission can be defined as a ratio between the number of detected neutrons in coincidence or not with fission fragments. It is therefore a value directly extractable from the experimental data. Results from test experiments of the IC will be presented and discussed, along with IC MCNPX simulations.

  20. Simultaneous determination of 16 brominated flame retardants in food and feed of animal origin by fast gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation.

    PubMed

    Bichon, E; Guiffard, I; Vénisseau, A; Lesquin, E; Vaccher, V; Brosseaud, A; Marchand, P; Le Bizec, B

    2016-08-12

    A gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry method using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation was developed for the monitoring of 16 brominated flame retardants (7 usually monitored polybromodiphenylethers (PBDEs) and BDE #209 and 8 additional emerging and novel BFRs) in food and feed of animal origin. The developed analytical method has decreased the run time by three compared to conventional strategies, using a 2.5m column length (5% phenyl stationary phase, 0.1mm i.d., 0.1μmf.t.), a pulsed split injection (1:5) with carrier gas helium flow rate at 0.48mLmin(-1) in one run of 20 min. For most BFRs, analytical data were compared with the current analytical strategy relying on GC/EI/HRMS (double sector, R=10000 at 10% valley). Performances in terms of sensitivity were found to meet the Commission recommendation (118/2014/EC) for nBFRs. GC/APCI/MS/MS represents a promising alternative for multi-BFRs analysis in complex matrices, in that it allows the monitoring of a wider list of contaminants in a single injection and a shorter run time.