Science.gov

Sample records for 2001-2002 national epidemiologic

  1. The State of Our Nation's Youth, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horatio Alger Association of Distinguished Americans, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    This report details 2001-2002 findings of an annual, national survey of the attitudes and plans of American adolescents. Participating in the telephone survey was a nationally representative sample of 1,014 students 13 to 18 years of age in ninth through twelfth grade. The report summarizes findings "at a glance" and discusses findings under the…

  2. Nonradioactive Ambient Air Monitoring at Los Alamos National Laboratory 2001--2002

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gladney; J.Dewart, C.Eberhart; J.Lochamy

    2004-09-01

    During the spring of 2000, the Cerro Grande forest fire reached Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and ignited both above-ground vegetation and disposed materials in several landfills. During and after the fire, there was concern about the potential human health impacts from chemicals emitted by the combustion of these Laboratory materials. Consequently, short-term, intensive air-monitoring studies were performed during and shortly after the fire. Unlike the radiological data from many years of AIRNET sampling, LANL did not have an adequate database of nonradiological species under baseline conditions with which to compare data collected during the fire. Therefore, during 2001 the Meteorology and Air Quality Group designed and implemented a new air-monitoring program, entitled NonRadNET, to provide nonradiological background data under normal conditions. The objectives of NonRadNET were to: (1) develop the capability for collecting nonradiological air-monitoring data, (2) conduct monitoring to develop a database of typical background levels of selected nonradiological species in the communities nearest the Laboratory, and (3) determine LANL's potential contribution to nonradiological air pollution in the surrounding communities. NonRadNET ended in late December 2002 with five quarters of data. The purpose of this paper is to organize and describe the NonRadNET data collected over 2001-2002 to use as baseline data, either for monitoring during a fire, some other abnormal event, or routine use. To achieve that purpose, in this paper we will: (1) document the NonRadNET program procedures, methods, and quality management, (2) describe the usual origins and uses of the species measured, (3) compare the species measured to LANL and other area emissions, (4) present the five quarters of data, (5) compare the data to known typical environmental values, and (6) evaluate the data against exposure standards.

  3. National Association of Child Advocates 2001/2002 Annual Report from the President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copeland, Tamara Lucas

    This annual report details the activities of the National Association of Child Advocates (NACA) from June 2001 to June 2002. The report discusses the efforts of NACA to help members protect funding levels for programs supporting children and their families during the nation's economic downturn, including conducting focus groups to test specific…

  4. The American College Teacher: National Norms for the 2001-2002 HERI Faculty Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindholm, Jennifer A.; Astin, Alexander W.; Sax, Linda J.; Korn, William S.

    This report summarizes the highlights of a national survey of college and university faculty that was conducted by the Higher Education Research Institute (HERI) in fall and winter of 2001-2001. This is the fifth in a series of surveys conducted on a triennial basis. Results are based on the responses of 32,840 full-time college and university…

  5. 2001-2002 Wet Season Branchiopod Survey Report, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Site 300, Alameda and San Joaquin Counties, California

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, W; Woollett, J

    2004-11-16

    Condor County Consulting on behalf of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has performed wet season surveys for listed branchiopods at Site 300, located in eastern Alameda County and western San Joaquin County. LLNL is collecting information for the preparation of an EIS covering ongoing explosives testing and related activities on Site 300. Related activities include maintenance of fire roads and annual control burns of approximately 607 hectares (1500 acres). Control burns typically take place on the northern portion of the site. Because natural branchiopod habitat is sparse on Site 300, it is not surprising that listed branchiopods were not observed during this 2001-2002 wet season survey. Although the site is large, a majority of it has topography and geology that precludes the formation of static seasonal pools. Even the relatively gentle topography of the northern half of the site contains few areas where water pools for more than two weeks. The rock outcrops found on the site did not provide suitable habitat for listed branchiopods. Most of the habitat available to branchiopods on the site is puddles that form in roadbeds and dry quickly. The one persistent pool on the site, the larger of the two modified vernal pools and the only one to fill this season, is occupied by two branchiopod species that require long-lived pools to reach maturity. In short, there is little habitat available on the site for branchiopods and most of the habitat present is generally too short-lived to support the branchiopod species that do occur at Site 300.

  6. Learning for Life: The Role of Adult Literacy and Numeracy in Lifelong Learning and Socio-Economic Well-Being. Executive Summary of the ALNARC National Research Program, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Sue; Searle, Jean; Falk, Ian; Johnston, Betty; Ovens, Carolyn; Riddell, Christine

    In 2001-2002, the Adult Literacy and Numeracy Australian Research Consortium conducted 26 national investigations with findings in the following areas: (1) population competence; (2) linking literacy and numeracy into training; (3) professional support for educators and trainers; and (4) policy and systemic issues. All the projects were intended…

  7. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report : Oleson Tracts of the Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, Donna; Smith, maureen; Schmidt, Peter

    2004-09-01

    Located in the northern Willamette River basin, Tualatin River National Wildlife Refuge (Refuge) was established in 1992 with an approved acquisition boundary to accommodate willing sellers with potentially restorable holdings within the Tualatin River floodplain. The Refuge's floodplain of seasonal and emergent wetlands, Oregon ash riparian hardwood, riparian shrub, coniferous forest, and Garry oak communities are representative of remnant plant communities historically common in the Willamette River valley and offer an opportunity to compensate for wildlife habitat losses associated with the Willamette River basin federal hydroelectric projects. The purchase of the Oleson Units as additions to the Refuge using Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funds will partially mitigate for wildlife habitat and target species losses incurred as a result of construction and inundation activities at Dexter and Detroit Dams. Lands acquired for mitigation of Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) impacts to wildlife are evaluated using the Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) methodology, which quantifies how many Habitat Units (HUs) are to be credited to BPA. HUs or credits gained lessen BPA's debt, which was formally tabulated in the FCRPS Loss Assessments and adopted as part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's Fish and Wildlife Program as a BPA obligation (NWPCC, 1994 and 2000). There are two basic management scenarios to consider for this evaluation: (1) Habitats can be managed without restoration activities to benefit wildlife populations, or (2) Habitats can be restored using a number of techniques to improve habitat values more quickly. Without restoration, upland and wetland areas may be periodically mowed and disced to prevent invasion of exotic vegetation, volunteer trees and shrubs may grow to expand forested areas, and cooperative farming may be employed to provide forage for migrating and wintering waterfowl. Abandoned cropland would comprise

  8. Addendum to: Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population.

    PubMed

    Scott, Laura L F; Unice, Kenneth M; Scott, Paul; Nguyen, Ly M; Haws, Laurie C; Harris, Mark; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2008-09-01

    In 2007, we published a paper in the Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology describing PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data collected for the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Since publication of this paper, several of the 1998 World Health Organization Toxic Equivalency Factors (TEFs), which were used to calculate the summary statistics we presented, have been changed. In this addendum, we publish new reference statistics using the WHO(2006) TEFs in addition to assessing the effect of these new TEFs on total TEQ concentrations for the general US population. We also examined the effect of the limits of detection (LODs) on the calculated TEQ summary statistics for the top seven contributing congeners and completed a missing data analysis to determine whether our estimates were biased by excluding individuals without complete congener profiles. Similar to our previous results, 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD; 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD; 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 8-HxCDD; 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-PeCDF; and PCB 126 contributed the most to total TEQ. However, both PCB 156 and 157 were no longer significant contributors, instead being displaced by 1, 2, 3, 4, 7, 8-HxCDF, and PCB 169. In general, the decrease in TEFs for the mono-ortho-substituted PCBs decreased their contribution to total TEQ appreciably, causing TEQ(17-9) to approximately equal TEQ(17-3). The effect of LODs for five of the top seven contributing congeners was negligible; however, the LODs for 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD and 1, 2, 3, 7, 8-PeCDD were noticeably higher and may impact TEQ estimates primarily for individuals aged 20-29 years. Results from the missing data analysis provide compelling evidence that the summary statistics we reported previously, as well as those described here, were not greatly influenced due to censoring data.

  9. The effects of perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate on free thyroxine for potentially sensitive subpopulations of the 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys.

    PubMed

    Suh, Mina; Abraham, Liz; Hixon, J Gregory; Proctor, Deborah M

    2014-11-01

    Among women with urinary iodine concentration <100 μg/l in the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), urinary perchlorate was associated with significant changes in thyroid stimulating hormone and total thyroxine (T4). Although perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate all potentially act to inhibit iodide uptake, free T4 was not found to be associated with exposure to these chemicals in the same data. Fetuses of pregnant mothers with iodine deficiency are thought to be a sensitive subpopulation for perchlorate exposure, but the potential associations between free T4 and exposure to these chemicals among pregnant mothers in NHANES 2001-2002 and 2007-2008 have not been specifically evaluated to date. This study investigates the potential associations between urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate and serum free T4 in individuals with low urinary iodine levels and pregnant women. Multivariate regression models of free T4 were conducted and included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, thiocyanate, and covariates known to have an impact on the thyroid (anti-thyroid peroxidase (TPO) antibodies, age, race/ethnicity, body mass index, and hours of fasting). Meta-analyses were also conducted on non-pregnant and on pregnant women from the two survey cycles. Urinary nitrate was associated with serum free T4 in non-pregnant women of NHANES 2001-2002 who had urinary iodine ≥100 μg/l. In the meta-analysis, urinary perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate were significant predictors of serum free T4 in non-pregnant women. No association was found in men and pregnant women. TPO antibodies were significant predictors of free T4 among non-pregnant women only when the models included urinary perchlorate, nitrate, or thiocyanate. Risk assessment for perchlorate exposure should consider co-exposure to nitrate and thiocyanate.

  10. Infants and Toddlers, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroenke, Lillian DeVault, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of the 2001-2002 issues of a quarterly journal for teachers and parents of children in Montessori infant and toddler programs. The spring 2001 issue presents articles on the history of infant and toddler programs in Italy and how to fulfill infant needs in Montessori child care, and on learning activities in the kitchen…

  11. ASSOCIATION OF URINARY PERCHLORATE WITH INDIRECT MEASURES OFTHYROID DYSFUNCTION BASED ON NHANES 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background/Aims: Perchlorate is a widespread environmental pollutant. Previous population studies based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002, showed that urinary perchlorate concentrations were associated with increased levels of thyroid stim...

  12. Biomarkers of Exposure to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Cognitive Function among Elderly in the United States (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey: 2001-2002)

    PubMed Central

    Best, Elizabeth A.; Juarez-Colunga, Elizabeth; James, Katherine; LeBlanc, William G.; Serdar, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies report a link between common environmental exposures, such as particulate matter air pollution and tobacco smoke, and decline in cognitive function. The purpose of this study was to assess the association between exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), a selected group of chemicals present in particulate matter and tobacco smoke, and measures of cognitive performance among elderly in the general population. This cross-sectional analysis involved data from 454 individuals aged 60 years and older from the 2001–2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. The association between PAH exposures (as measured by urinary biomarkers) and cognitive function (digit symbol substitution test (DSST)) was assessed using multiple linear regression analyses. After adjusting for age, socio-economic status and diabetes we observed a negative association between urinary 1-hydroxypyrene, the gold standard of PAH exposure biomarkers, and DSST score. A one percent increase in urinary 1-hydroxypyrene resulted in approximately a 1.8 percent poorer performance on the digit symbol substitution test. Our findings are consistent with previous publications and further suggest that PAHs, at least in part may be responsible for the adverse cognitive effects linked to tobacco smoke and particulate matter air pollution. PMID:26849365

  13. Evaluation of PCDD/F and dioxin-like PCB serum concentration data from the 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of the United States population.

    PubMed

    Ferriby, Laura L; Knutsen, Jeffrey S; Harris, Mark; Unice, Kenneth M; Scott, Paul; Nony, Paul; Haws, Laurie C; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2007-07-01

    We analyzed the weighted 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data to assess potential differences in mean total 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) TEQ between various groups of individuals and to determine serum reference concentrations for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the general US population. Differences appeared to exist between female smokers and non-smokers and between non-Hispanic groups and all other races. Potential differences were also observed among the four age groups with an increasing trend in mean total TCDD TEQ with increasing age. Both age and gender appeared to confound the association between smoking status and total TCDD TEQ, dictating the need for further analysis. As anticipated, PCBs contributed appreciably to the total TCDD TEQ levels in the referent population and accounted for 38% to 41% of the total TEQ depending on age. Nearly 80% of the mean total TCDD TEQ was attributable to four PCDD/F congeners and three PCB congeners. In this analysis, two methods were used to assess samples where the concentrations were below the limits of detection (LODs), and this did not have significant impact on the mean total TCDD TEQ at the higher percentiles and for older individuals. Comparison of our results to those from a recent PCDD/F biomonitoring study indicates that the mean TCDD TEQ serum concentration of the individuals studied does not appear to be different from typical levels found in the general US population. Additionally, an assessment of data from the National Human Adipose Tissue Survey using our referent statistics shows that levels of these chemicals have been declining in the general population for at least two decades. The reference TEQs presented in this paper provide relevant, current data that can be used to evaluate biomonitoring results of individuals or groups exposed or potentially exposed to PCDD/Fs and PCBs above

  14. International GPS Service 2001 - 2002 Technical Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gowey, Ken (Editor); Neilan, Ruth (Editor); Moore, Angelyn (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    Applications of the Global Positioning System (GPS) to Earth Science are numerous. The International GPS Service (IGS), a federation of government agencies and universities, plays an increasingly critical role in support of GPS-related research and engineering activities. Contributions from the IGS Governing Board and Central Bureau, analysis and data centers, station operators, and others constitute the 2001 / 2002 Technical Reports. Hard copies of each volume can be obtained by contacting the IGS Central Bureau at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. This report is published in black and white. To view graphs or plots that use color to represent data trends or information, please refer to the online PDF version at http://igscb.jpl.nasa.gov/overview/pubs.html.

  15. Water Science and Technology Board Annual Report 2001-2002

    SciTech Connect

    2002-10-01

    This annual report marks the twentieth anniversary of the Water Science and Technology Board (WSTB) (1982-2002). The WSTB oversees studies of water issues. The principal products of studies are written reports. These reports cover a wide range of water resources issues of national concern. The following three recently issued reports illustrate the scope of the WSTB's studies: Envisioning the Agenda for Water Resources Research in the Twenty-first Century. The Missouri River Ecosystem: Exploring the Prospects for Recovery, and Assessing the TMDL Approach to Water Quality Management. The WSTB generally meets three times each year where discussions are held on ongoing projects, strategic planning, and developing new initiatives. The meetings also foster communication within the water resources community. The annual report includes a discussion on current studies, completed studies 2001-2002, and future plans, as well as a listing of published reports (1983-2002).

  16. The New 2001-2002 Term. Supreme Court Roundup.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Charles F.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the issues addressed during the 2001-2002 term of the U.S. Supreme Court, which convened on October 1, 2001: (1) school vouchers; (2) affirmative action; (3) online pornography; and (4) the death penalty. (CMK)

  17. Foundation for Child Development Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foundation for Child Development, New York, NY.

    This annual report details the activities of the Foundation for Child Development (FCD) for 2001-2002. Beginning the report is a brief description of the Foundations mission, its funding priorities, and application procedures. The report then presents the joint statement of the chair, Karen Gerard, and the president, Ruby Takanishi, focusing on…

  18. Public Education Information Management System Data Standards, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    The submission of Public Education Information Management System (PEIMS) data is required of all Texas school districts. The "Data Standards" document provides instructions regarding the submission of PEIMS data from school districts to the Texas Education Agency. The 2001-2002 standards describe the PEIMS data reporting requirement and provide…

  19. Perkins Core Performance Measures: Results and Targets, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McHewitt, Earl R.; Taylor, Garry

    This report addresses the Virginia Community College System's (VCCS) core performance standards and measures for the years 2001-2002. There are four core indicators through which the VCCS is assessed. They are the following: (1) student attainment including academic and technical skills; (2) completion/graduation rate using first time, full-time…

  20. St. Petersburg College FactBook, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint Petersburg Junior Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    This 2001-2002 fact book for St. Petersburg College (SPC) in Florida provides statistical information to support planning and decision-making. It also offers a historical perspective of the institution. SPC was founded in 1927 as St. Petersburg Junior College, Florida's first two-year institution of higher learning. SPC has evolved from an…

  1. Association between Perchlorate and indirect indicators of thyroid dysfunction in NHANES 2001-2002, a Cross-Sectional, Hypothesis-Generating Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: A previous study observed associations of urinary perchlorate with thyroid hormones based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002. Increased levels of urinary perchlorate were associated with increased levels of thyroid stimulating h...

  2. NOVEL ASSOCIATIONS BETWEEN URINARY PERCHLORATE AND POTENTIALLY RELEVANT EFFECTS ON RISK FACTORS FOR HEART DISEASE BASED ON NHANES 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perchlorate is a widespread environmental pollutant, and is a thyroid hormone disruptor. A previous population study based on the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2001-2002 database showed that urinary perchlorate concentrations were associated with signi...

  3. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kruse, Gretchen

    2002-07-01

    The 2001-2002 Kootenai River Network Annual Report reflects the organization's defined set of goals and objectives, and how by accomplishing these goals, we continue to meet the needs of communities and landowners throughout the Kootenai River Basin by protecting the resource. Our completed and ongoing projects throughout the watershed reflect the cooperation and support received and needed to accomplish the rehabilitation and restoration of critical habitat. They show that our mission of facilitation through collaboration with public and private interests can lead to improved resource management, the restoration of water quality and the preservation of pristine aquatic resources. Our vision to empower local citizens and groups from two states, one province, two countries and affected tribal nations to collaborate in natural resource management within the basin is largely successful due to the engagement of the basin's residents--the landowners, town government, local interest groups, businesses and agency representatives who live and work here. We are proof that forging these types of cooperative relationships, such as those exhibited by the Kootenai River subbasin planning process, leads to a sense of entitlement--that the quality of the river and its resources enriches our quality of life. Communication is essential in maintaining these relationships. Allowing ourselves to network and receive ideas and information, as well as to produce quality, accessible research data such as KRIS, shared with like organizations and individuals, is the hallmark of this facilitative organization. We are fortunate in the ability to contribute such information, and continue to strive to meet the standards and the needs of those who seek us out as a model for watershed rehabilitative planning and restoration. Sharing includes maintaining active, ongoing lines of communication with the public we serve--through our web site, quarterly newsletter, public presentations and stream

  4. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA "Why?" Files Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of the evaluation conducted for the 2001-2002 NASA 'Why?' Files program that was conducted in March 2002. The analysis is based on the results of 139 surveys collected from educators registered for the program. Respondents indicated that (1) the programs in the series are aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (2) the programs are developmentally (grade level) appropriate; and (3) the programs enhance and enrich the teaching and learning of mathematics, science, and technology.

  5. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Frank, Kari Lou; Lambert, Matthew A.; Williams, Amy C.

    2002-01-01

    NASA CONNECT(tm) is a research and standards-based, integrated mathematics, science, and technology series of 30-minute instructional distance learning (television and web-based) programs for students in grades 6-8. Respondents who evaluated the programs in the 2001-2002 NASA CONNECT(tm) series reported that (1) they used the programs in the series; (2) the goals and objectives for the series were met; (3) the programs were aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards; (4) the program content was developmentally appropriate for grade level; and (5) the programs in the series enhanced and enriched the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology.

  6. Educational programs in US medical schools, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Barzansky, Barbara; Etzel, Sylvia I

    2002-09-01

    We used data mainly from the 2001-2002 Liaison Committee on Medical Education Annual Medical School Questionnaire, which had a 100% response rate, to describe the status of US medical education programs. In 2001-2002, the number of full-time medical school faculty members was 104 949, a 2.4% increase from 1999-2000. The 34,859 applicants for the class entering in 2001 represented a 9.5% decrease from the number of applicants in 1999-2000. There were 2 applicants for every acceptance, and the academic qualifications of medical students entering in 2001 were unchanged from 1999. Women comprised 47.8% of entering students in 2001, and 13.1% were members of underrepresented minority groups. Of all first-year students, 67% were in-state residents. Most medical schools had mandatory required night call during at least some required clinical clerkships, but only 17 had formal policies on medical student work hours. In 74 schools (60%), medical students were required to pass Steps 1 and 2 of the United States Medical Licensing Examination to advance or graduate.

  7. Accredited Institutions of Postsecondary Education, Programs, Candidates, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Von Alt, Kenneth A., Ed.

    A comprehensive guide to institutions of higher learning that are accredited by national and regional accrediting agencies, this annual volume has been published since 1964. Data in each entry have been provided by the accrediting bodies. Admissions officers, counselors, and employers rely upon the accurate and up-to-date information in this…

  8. HEALTH EFFECTS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBLETHAL EXPOSURE TO MICROCYSTINS AMONG DIALYSIS PATIENTS, BRAZIL, 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: During winter 2001-2002, an episode of microcystin exposure occurred among dialysis patients in Rio de Janiero, Brazil. During late November 2001, a cyanobacterial water bloom was detected in the Funil reservoir and the Guandu River, both of which supply drinking wate...

  9. Responding to a Strong Economy. Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Apprenticeship and Industry Training.

    In 2001-2002, the Alberta Apprenticeship and Industry Training Board continued its collaboration with industry, government, and educators to maintain high standards of training and improve access to technical training. The board continued to strengthen the network of local and provincial apprenticeship committees, occupational committees, and…

  10. The "Isms" of Art. Introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Guy

    2001-01-01

    Provides an introduction to the 2001-2002 Clip and Save Art Prints that will focus on ten art movements from the past 150 years. Includes information on three art movements, or "isms": Classicism, Romanticism, and Realism. Discusses the Clip and Save Art Print format and provides information on three artists. (CMK)

  11. Yakima Side Channels : Progress Report for 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolai, Scott

    2003-03-01

    The project objectives include habitat protection and restoration in the most productive reaches of the Yakima Subbasin. The geographic focus includes four reaches in the Yakima, and one in the lower Naches. These areas were identified through studies conducted by WDFW, Yakama Nation, Central Washington University and University of Montana. Research on fish populations and densities, water quality, hyporheic and benthic macro invertebrates suggests that the geographic priorities the most important areas for fish production. Physical characteristics include broad floodplains with multiple channels that flow through extensive riparian/wetland complexes. Geologic characteristics are similar among the reaches, in that they all lie upstream of a ridge that acts to delimit groundwater flow down the stream gradient. Groundwater reemerges in the channel, charging the stream with nutrient-rich and thermally stable water. Many areas have lost key habitat features through various human actions. However strongholds of productivity remain, and in many cases restoration can be undertaken to reconnect the features that made these areas productive. Active habitat restoration actions include reconnecting structurally diverse alcoves and side channels, introducing large woody debris, fencing and revegetation of riparian areas. Priority reaches include Easton, Ellensburg, Selah, Union Gap and on the Naches, the Gleed reach.

  12. [Childhood immunization schedule 2001-2002. Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Pediatrics].

    PubMed

    2001-07-01

    In 1994 the Spanish Association of Pediatrics founded the Advisory Committee on Vaccines with the aim of providing advice on matters related to childhood immunizations and of implementing vaccination schedules. The latest recommendations concern the immunization schedule for 2001-2002, in which indications for the inactivated poliovirus vaccine instead of the attenuated poliovirus vaccine are of prime importance. The advisability of including the vaccine against chicken pox in healthy children is stressed.

  13. Reassessment of the 2001-2002 Aseismic Slow Slip Event in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostoglodov, V.; Franco, S. I.; Singh, S. K.; Larson, K. M.; Lowry, A. R.; Santiago, J. A.

    2003-12-01

    In 2001-2002 a network of continuous GPS stations in Mexico recorded an unexpectedly large aseismic slow event (equivalent Mw ~7.4) in Guerrero and in western Oaxaca. This event lasted more than six months and the area involved in the aseismic motion was initially estimated as ~500x250 km2. The event produced a slow thrust slip of ~13-15 cm on the subduction plate interface below the central part of the State of Guerrero. Elastic dislocation models, which fit the observed data, restrict the width of the slip to 150-200 km along the plate interface. This interface was partially locked before, during the steady state interseismic phase associated with the continental plate compression. Unfortunately the GPS network coverage was not sufficient to resolve an important question: Was the seismogenic part of the plate interface involved in the slow thrust slip? A long term record from a permanent GPS station located on the Popocatepetl volcano, POSW, shows unambiguous displacements corresponding to the aseismic slip events of 1997-1998 and 2001-2002. Recent data analysis of 2001, 2002, and 2003 GPS occupation campaigns on 16 sites in Oaxaca reveals that the 2001-2002 slow aseismic slip may have extended SE along almost the entire Pacific coast of Oaxaca. These observations indicate that the total area affected by the last slow aseismic slip event is greater than ~300x700 km2. Most likely the same area was involved in a previous aseismic event of 1972, which is discovered from the analysis of tide gauge data. Frequently occurring aseismic transients should have an important bearing on the recurrence period of large subduction thrust earthquakes in Mexico.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of group A streptococcus causing scarlet fever in northern Taiwan, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Yan; Huang, Chung-Ter; Yao, Shu-Man; Chang, Yi-Ching; Shen, Pei-Wun; Chou, Chen-Ying; Li, Shu-Ying

    2007-07-01

    In this study, 830 Streptococcus pyogenes isolates collected between 2001 and 2002 from patients with scarlet fever in northern Taiwan were analyzed by M protein gene (emm) sequence typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 21 emm types and 56 PFGE patterns were identified. The most frequent emm types were emm1 (29.2%), emm4 (24.1%), emm12 (19.0%), emm6 (15.8%), stIL103 (5.7%), and emm22 (1.9%). Antimicrobial resistance profiles were determined, and resistance to erythromycin (24.6%), clindamycin (2.0%), and chloramphenicol (1.3%) was detected. Five major emm types (emm4, emm12, emm1, emm22, and emm6) accounted for 95.6% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. The decreased prevalence of erythromycin-resistant emm12 strains coincided with the overall decrease in erythromycin resistance from 32.1% in 2001 to 21.1% in 2002 in Taiwan. Five major clones (emm4/2000, emm12/0000, emm4/2010, emm1/1000, and emm22/8100) represented 72.1% of the erythromycin-resistant isolates. The survey of group A Streptococcus emm types, genetic diversity, and antibiotic resistance has direct relevance to current antimicrobial use policies and potential vaccine development strategies.

  15. Trends in Food Habits and Their Relation to Socioeconomic Status among Nordic Adolescents 2001/2002-2009/2010

    PubMed Central

    Fismen, Anne-Siri; Smith, Otto Robert Frans; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Rasmussen, Mette; Pedersen Pagh, Trine; Augustine, Lilly; Ojala, Kristiina; Samdal, Oddrun

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Nordic countries, substantial policy and intervention efforts have been made to increase adolescents' consumption of fruit and vegetables and to reduce their intake of sweets and soft drinks. Some initiatives have been formulated in a Nordic collaboration and implemented at national level. In recent years, social inequalities in food habits have been attracted particular governmental interest and several initiatives addressing the socioeconomic gradient in food habits have been highlighted. However, few internationally published studies have evaluated how trends in adolescents' food habits develop in the context of Nordic nutrition policy, or have compared differences between the Nordic countries. Methods The study was based on Danish, Finnish, Norwegian and Swedish cross-sectional data from the international Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children (HBSC) study, collected via three nationally representative and comparable questionnaire surveys in 2001/2002, 2005/2006 and 2009/2010. Food habits were identified by students' consumption of fruit, vegetables, sweets and sugar sweetened soft drink. Socioeconomic status (SES) was measured with the Family Affluence Scale (FAS). Multilevel logistic regression was used to analyze the data. Results Trends in fruit consumption developed differently across countries, characterized by an increase in Denmark and Norway and more stable trends in Sweden and Finland. Vegetable consumption increased particularly in Denmark and to a lesser extent in Norway, whereas Sweden and Finland displayed stable trends. Decreased trends were observed for sweet and soft drink consumption and were similar in Norway, Sweden and Finland. Sweet consumption decreased across all survey years, whereas soft drink consumption decreased between 2001/2002–2005/2006 and was stable thereafter. Denmark displayed an increase between 2001/2002–2005/2006 followed by a similar decrease between 2005/2006–2009/2010 for both sweet and soft

  16. PCB body burdens in US women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data.

    PubMed

    Axelrad, Daniel A; Goodman, Stephanie; Woodruff, Tracey J

    2009-05-01

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childhood, and adulthood. Although manufacture and use of PCBs were banned in the US in 1977, exposure to PCBs is a continuing concern due to the widespread distribution of these compounds in the environment and their persistence. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey provides PCB body burden measurements representative of the US population for the years 1999-2002. Interpretation of these data is challenging due to the large number of PCB congeners reported. We examined 6 PCB body burden metrics to identify an approach for summarizing the NHANES data and for characterizing changes over time in potential risks to children's health. We focused on women of childbearing age, defined here as 16-39 years, because in utero exposures have been associated with neurodevelopmental effects, and used only the 2001-2002 data because of higher detection rates. The 6 metrics, each consisting of different combinations of the 9 most frequently detected congeners, were as follows: total PCBs (all 9 congeners); highly chlorinated PCBs (2 congeners); dioxin-like PCBs (3 congeners, weighted by toxic equivalency factors); non-dioxin-like PCBs (6 congeners); a 4-congener metric (PCBs 118, 138, 153, and 180); and PCB-153 alone. The PCB metrics were generally highly correlated with each other. There was a strong association of PCB body burdens with age for all metrics. Median body burdens of Mexican American women were lower than those of non-Hispanic White and non-Hispanic Black women for 5 of the 6 metrics, and there were no significant differences in body burdens between the latter two groups. Body burdens of women with incomes above poverty level were greater than those for lower-income women at the

  17. Differences in breast cancer incidence and stage distribution between urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship, Poland in years 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Krzyzak, Michalina; Maslach, Dominik; Juczewska, Marzena; Lasota, Wieslaw; Rabczenko, Daniel; Marcinkowski, Jerzy; Szpak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in breast cancer incidence and stage of disease between the urban and rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002, before the introduction of the Population Screening Programme in 2006. Analysis was based on 696 breast cancer cases diagnosed in years 2001-2002 and registered in the CR in Bialystok (Voivodship Cancer Registry). An average annual number of incidence, as well as crude and standardised incidence rates, were calculated. Age-specific incidence rates for 5-year age groups were also calculated and grouped as follows: < 50, 50-69, > =70 years old. Incidence differences related to place of residence: urban or rural, were presented with the use of u/r (urban/rural) ratio. In order to evaluate the stage of disease, a simplified classification recommended by ENCR (European Network of Cancer Registries) for population registries (localised, regional, metastatic) was applied. The breast cancer incidence rate in the urban population was higher than in rural areas with u/r ratio amounting to 1.4. The highest incidence and largely marked differences between urban and rural areas were among women aged 50-69 years with the u/r ratio amounting to 1.8. Overall, the proportion of stage localised in Podlaskie Voivodship was 33.1 percent and differed between urban and rural areas. The proportion of localised cancer was higher in urban areas, but patients were younger when compared to those living in rural areas. Knowledge of differences in incidence and breast cancer stage in urban and rural women investigated in this research, together with other epidemiological indicators, should be used for monitoring the Population Screening Programmes in these populations.

  18. [Attempted assessment of the incidence and cost of surgical treatment of inginal hernias in Poland in the years 2001-2002].

    PubMed

    Pierściński, Stanisław; Szopinśki, Jacek; Szmytkowski, Jakub; Dabrowiecki, Stanisław

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive, up-to-date assessment of the incidence and treatment cost of inguinal hernias in Poland is made difficult by the lack of a central data registry and insufficient accuracy of the data available. Therefore, research was undertaken in order to evaluate the incidence and cost of inguinal hernia treatment in the years 2001-2002 in Poland. Survey-derived data was collected from Regional Health Funds operating similar data management systems in 2002 and the Regional Branches of the National Health Fund in 2003. The number of inguinal hernia repairs, length of hospital stay, as well as the cost of these procedures and the overall number of insured people in the region were assessed. Data was obtained from 11 units (Regional Health Funds, Branches of the National Health Fund). The length of hospital stay differed between individual Regional Health Funds. The annual cost of inguinal hernia treatment amounts to approximately 100 million PLN.

  19. Learning Languages: The Journal of the National Network for Early Language Learning, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenbusch, Marcia H., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These three journal issues contain the following articles: "Japanese at Mimosa Elementary School" (Azusa Uchihara); "A Successful Keypal Project Using Varied Technologies" (Jean L. Pacheco); "Promoting a Language-Proficient Society: What You Can Do" (Kathleen M. Marcos and Joy Kreeft Peyton); "Journal Reflections of a First-Year Teacher" (Sarah…

  20. Rural, Suburban, and Urban Variations in Alcohol Consumption in the United States: Findings from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borders, Tyrone F.; Booth, Brenda M.

    2007-01-01

    Context: Alcohol consumption is a major public health problem nationally, but little research has investigated drinking patterns by rurality of residence. Purpose: To describe the prevalence of abstinence, alcohol use disorders, and risky drinking in rural, suburban, and urban areas of the United States. Methods: Analyses of the 2001-2002 National…

  1. COPD in Taiwan: a National Epidemiology Survey

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chan, Ming-Cheng; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Ching-Hsiung; Wang, Hao-Chien; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Hang, Liang-Wen; Chang, Chee-Jen; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Yu, Chong-Jen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine the prevalence of COPD in Taiwan and to document the disease characteristics and associated risk factors. Methods We conducted a random cross-sectional national survey of adults older than 40 years in Taiwan. Respiratory health screening questions identified subjects with diagnosed COPD or whose reported symptoms also fulfilled an epidemiological case definition; these were eligible to complete the survey, which also included indices of symptom severity and disability and questions on comorbidities, medical treatments, smoking habits, and occupations potentially harmful to respiratory health. Subjects with diagnosed COPD were subdivided by smoking status. Subjects who fulfilled the case definition of COPD and smoked were designated as “possible COPD”. Participants who did not fit the case definition of COPD were asked only about their personal circumstances and smoking habits. Data from these groups were analyzed and compared. Results Of the 6,600 participants who completed the survey, 404 (6.1%) fulfilled the epidemiological case definition of COPD: 137 with diagnosed COPD and 267 possible COPD. The most common comorbidities of COPD were hypertension or cardiovascular diseases (36.1%). Subjects with definite COPD had significantly higher COPD Assessment Test scores than the possible COPD group (14.6±8.32 vs 12.6±6.49, P=0.01) and significantly more comorbid illnesses (P=0.01). The main risk factors contributing to health care utilization in each COPD cohort were higher COPD Assessment Test scores (odds ratio [OR] 1.15, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04–1.26), higher modified Medical Research Council Breathlessness Scale scores (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.11–3.51), and having more than one comorbidity (OR 5.19, 95% CI 1.05–25.61). Conclusion With estimated prevalence of 6.1% in the general population, COPD in Taiwan has been underdiagnosed. Symptoms and comorbidities were independent risk factors for health care utilization in subjects

  2. Yakima Benthic Index of Biotic Integrity : Progress Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Gayeski, Nick

    2002-09-30

    Sample collections in project-years two and three (2001 & 2002) proceeded as planned. Twenty-eight (28) sites were sampled in 2001 between August 14 and September 12. Sites included two (2) mainstem Yakima River sites between Selah Gap and Union Gap, three (3) Yakima river sites upstream of Roza Dam, and three (3) mainstem Naches River sites between Cliffdell and the Wapatox Canal. The other twenty sites were tributary sites, including the Cle Elum River below Cle Elum Lake, lower Bumping river, and the American River at Pleasant Valley. Six (6) tributaries of second to fourth order were sampled at or near the same location at which they were sampled in 2000, as were two sites on the upper mainstem Yakima and one on the mainstem Naches. Thirty-three (33) sites were sampled in 2002 between August 12 and September 13. These included one (1) mainstem Yakima River site between Selah Gap and Union Gap, four (4) sites in the mainstem Yakima upstream of Roza Dam, and two (2) sites on the mainstem Naches between Naches and Cliffdell. The other twenty-six (26) sites were tributary sites, including one (1) site on the lower Tieton river, three (3) sites on the Bumping River (two downstream of Bumping Reservoir and one upstream), and two sites on the American River. Four (4) other sites were on smaller tributaries to the mainstem Naches, three (3) of which had been sampled in one (1) of the two preceding years, and one (1) (upper Rattlesnake Creek) that has been sampled in all three (3) years. Two (2) tributary sites in the upper Ahtanum subbasin were sampled, one (1) of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which has been sampled in all three (3) years. One tributary (lower Wenas Creek) to the mainstem Yakima upstream of Selah Gap and downstream of Roza Dam was sampled. This was also sampled in 2001. Thirteen (13) sites were sampled in tributaries to the upper Yakima River, including two in the Teanaway subbasin one of which was sampled in 2000 and the other of which

  3. Occurrence, distribution and transport of pesticides into the Salton Sea Basin, California, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, L.A.; Kuivila, K.M.

    2008-01-01

    The Salton Sea is a hypersaline lake located in southeastern California. Concerns over the ecological impacts of sediment quality and potential human exposure to dust emissions from exposed lakebed sediments resulting from anticipated shrinking of shoreline led to a study of pesticide distribution and transport within the Salton Sea Basin, California, in 2001-2002. Three sampling stations-upriver, river mouth, and offshore-were established along each of the three major rivers that discharge into the Salton Sea. Large-volume water samples were collected for analysis of pesticides in water and suspended sediments at the nine sampling stations. Samples of the bottom sediment were also collected at each site for pesticide analysis. Sampling occurred in October 2001, March-April 2002, and October 2002, coinciding with the regional fall and spring peaks in pesticide use in the heavily agricultural watershed. Fourteen current-use pesticides were detected in water and the majority of dissolved concentrations ranged from the limits of detection to 151 ng/l. Diazinon, EPTC and malathion were detected at much higher concentrations (940-3,830 ng/l) at the New and Alamo River upriver and near-shore stations. Concentrations of carbaryl, dacthal, diazinon, and EPTC were higher in the two fall sampling periods, whereas concentrations of atrazine, carbofuran, and trifluralin were higher during the spring, which matched seasonal use patterns of these pesticides. Current-use pesticides were also detected on suspended and bed sediments in concentrations ranging from detection limits to 106 ng/g. Chlorpyrifos, dacthal, EPTC, trifluralin, and DDE were the most frequently detected pesticides on sediments from all three rivers. The number of detections and concentrations of suspended sediment-associated pesticides were often similar for the river upriver and near-shore sites, consistent with downstream transport of pesticides via suspended sediment. While detectable suspended sediment

  4. Recognizing Excellence in Maternal and Child Health (MCH) Epidemiology: The 2014 National MCH Epidemiology Awards

    PubMed Central

    Vladutiu, Catherine J.; Jones, Jessica R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The impact of programs, policies, and practices developed by professionals in the field of maternal and child health (MCH) epidemiology is highlighted biennially by 16 national MCH agencies and organizations, or the Coalition for Excellence in MCH Epidemiology. Description In September 2014, multiple leading agencies in the field of MCH partnered to host the national CityMatCH Leadership and MCH Epidemiology Conference in Phoenix, Arizona. The conference offered opportunities for peer exchange; presentation of new scientific methodologies, programs, and policies; dialogue on changes in the MCH field; and discussion of emerging MCH issues relevant to the work of local, state, and national MCH professionals. During the conference, the National MCH Epidemiology Awards were presented to individuals, teams, institutions, and leaders for significantly contributing to the improved health of women, children, and families. Assessment During the conference, the Coalition presented seven deserving health researchers and research groups with national awards in the areas of advancing knowledge, effective practice, outstanding leadership, young professional achievement, and lifetime achievement. The article highlights the accomplishments of these national-level awardees. Conclusion Recognition of deserving professionals strengthens the field of MCH epidemiology, and sets the standard for exceptional research, mentoring, and practice. PMID:26723200

  5. 1995 Annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at BNL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  6. QED's School Market Trends: Teacher Buying Behavior & Attitudes, 2001-2002. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This study examined teachers' classroom material buying behaviors and trends. Data came from Quality Education Data's National Education Database, which includes U.S. K-12 public, private, and Catholic schools and districts. Researchers surveyed K-8 teachers randomly selected from QED's National Education Database. Results show that teachers spend…

  7. QED's School Market Trends: Internet Usage in Teaching, 2001-2002. QED Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quality Education Data, Inc., Denver, CO.

    This report presents results of a survey of curriculum subject (language arts, math, science, and/or social studies) teachers of grades 1-12 on Internet usage. The sample was public schools in Quality Education Data's National Education Database. A total of 350 surveys were completed in March through May 2001. Findings are reported in the…

  8. A Profile of the Student Support Services Program, 1998-1999 through 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze; Hale, Margaret; Kirshstein, Rita

    2005-01-01

    This report is the third in a series of reports that present a national profile of the Student Support Services (SSS) Program. It presents grantee data from 2000-01 and 2001-02 for the first time and includes data from earlier years for comparison purposes. The following are appended: (1) Response Rates and Data Issues; (2) Risk Factors of 1995-96…

  9. Evaluation of the Impact of the Webster-Stratton Parent-Child Videotape Series on Participants in a Midlands Town in 2001-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manby, Martin

    2005-01-01

    Small groups of parents experiencing problems in managing the behaviour of young children took part in parenting programmes in a Midlands city in 2001-2002 based on the Webster Stratton Parent-Child Videotape Series. Programmes were evaluated using standardised measures and qualitative data. Most participants who completed the programme (N = 29)…

  10. Characteristics of Private Schools in the United States: Results from the 2001?2002 Private School Universe Survey. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-305

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broughman, Steven P.; Pugh, Kathleen W.

    2004-01-01

    This report on the 2001-2002 Private School Universe presents data on private schools in the United States with grades kindergarten through twelve by selected characteristics such as school size, school level, religious orientation, association membership, geographic region, community type, and program emphasis. The number of teachers and students…

  11. Redfish Lake Sockeye Salmon Captive Broodstock Rearing and Research, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Frost, Deborah; McAuley, W.; Maynard, Desmond

    2003-04-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Northwest Fisheries Science Center, in cooperation with the Idaho Department of Fish and Game and the Bonneville Power Administration, has established captive broodstock programs to aid recovery of Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) listed as endangered under the U.S. Endangered Species Act (ESA). Captive broodstock and captive rearing programs are a form of artificial propagation that are emerging as an important component of restoration efforts for ESA-listed salmon populations that are at critically low numbers. Captive broodstocks, reared in captivity for the entire life cycle, couple the salmon's high fecundity with potentially high survival in protective culture to produce large numbers of juveniles in a single generation for supplementation of natural populations. The captive broodstocks discussed in this report were intended to protect the last known remnants of sockeye salmon that return to Redfish Lake in the Sawtooth Basin of Idaho at the headwaters of the Salmon River. This report addresses NMFS activities from 1 September 2001 to 31 August 2002 on the Redfish Lake sockeye salmon captive broodstock and captive rearing program. NMFS currently has broodstocks in culture from year classes 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001 in both the captive breeding and captive rearing programs. Offspring from these programs are being returned to Idaho to aid recovery efforts for the species.

  12. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project: Management, Data and Habitat, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Melvin R.

    2002-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP or Project) is an all stock initiative that is responding to the need for scientific knowledge for rebuilding and maintaining naturally spawning anadromous fish stocks in both basins. The Yakama Nation, as the Lead Agency, in coordination with the co-managers, Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and in cooperation with the Bonneville Power Administration, the funding agency, is pursuing this. We are testing the principles of supplementation as a means to rebuild fish populations through the use of locally adapted broodstock in an artificial production program. This concept is being utilized on the Spring Chinook within the Yakima River Basin. The coho and fall chinook programs were approved and implemented in the Yakima Basin. The coho programs principle objective is to determine if naturally spawning coho populations can be reintroduced throughout their biological range in the basin. The objective of the fall chinook program is to determine if supplementation is a viable strategy to increase fall chinook populations in the Yakima subbasin. The coho and fall chinook programs are under the three step process that was established by the Northwest Power Planning Council. The Klickitat subbasin management program is combined with the Yakima subbasin program. This contract includes the Klickitat Basin Coordinator and operational costs for the basin. The Klickitat Subbasin has separate contracts for Monitoring & Evaluation, Construction, and ultimately, Operation and Maintenance. In the Klickitat subbasin, we propose to use supplementation to increase populations of spring chinook and steelhead. This program is still in the developmental stages consistent with the three step process.

  13. [The epidemic of dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever in the city of Rio de Janeiro, 2001/2002].

    PubMed

    Casali, Clarisse Guimarães; Pereira, Marcelo Ricardo Reis; Santos, Luciana Maria Jabor Garcia; Passos, Maíla Naves Pereira; Fortes, Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond; Ortiz Valencia, Luis Iván; Alexandre, Aline de Jesus; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade

    2004-01-01

    The following study was intended to evaluate the occurrence of typical signs and symptoms in the cases of classic dengue and hemorrhagic dengue fever, during the 2001-2002 epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro. The authors reviewed 155,242 cases notified to the Information System of Notification Diseases, from January/2001 to June/2002: 81,327 cases were classified as classic dengue and 958 as hemorrhagic dengue fever, with a total of 60 deaths. Common symptoms, such as fever, headache, prostration, myalgia, nausea and retro-orbital pain, had a high incidence in both classic and hemorrhagic dengue fever. On the other hand, hemorrhagic signs and other signs of severe disease, such as shock, gastrointestinal bleeding, petechiae, epistaxis, abdominal pain and pleural effusion, were strongly associated to hemorrhagic dengue fever. Besides, the occurrence of death was 34.8 times higher in hemorrhagic dengue fever than in classic dengue (OR = 34.8; CI 19.7-61.3).

  14. [Reliability of the final dengue diagnosis in the epidemic occurring in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001-2002].

    PubMed

    Toledo, Ana Lucia Araujo de; Escosteguy, Claudia Caminha; Medronho, Roberto de Andrade; Andrade, Flávia Coutinho de

    2006-05-01

    This study analyzed the reliability of the final diagnosis in the 155,242 dengue reports during the 2001-2002 epidemic in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, using the official information system on communicable diseases (SINAN). The system allows the following options for the final diagnosis: classic dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever, discarded, inconclusive, and unknown. We built a classification routine in Epi Info to compare the final diagnosis from SINAN with Ministry of Health criteria. According to the final diagnosis, the case breakdown was: 52.4% classic dengue; 0.6% dengue hemorrhagic fever; 0.9% discarded; 46% inconclusive and unknown. The revised diagnosis showed that 78% of classic dengue, 69% of dengue hemorrhagic fever, and 21.1% of discarded cases met the classification criteria. Although the reliability of the SINAN final diagnosis was generally satisfactory (kappa = 0.681; 95%CI: 0.685-0.677), it was worse for fatal cases (kappa = 0.152; 95%CI: 0.046-0.258). Considering the epidemic's magnitude, the final diagnosis of classic dengue and dengue hemorrhagic fever was satisfactory, but the high proportion of inconclusive or unknown cases and the poor quality of information for fatal cases limit the usefulness of SINAN in this context.

  15. Hydrologic Resources Management Program and Underground Test Area Project FY 2001-2002 Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, T P; Kersting, A B; Harris, L J; Hudson, G B; Smith, D K; Williams, R W; Loewen, D R; Nelson, E J; Allen, P G; Ryerson, F J; Pawloski, G A; Laue, C A; Moran, J E

    2003-08-15

    This report contains highlights of FY 2001 and 2002 technical studies conducted by the Analytical and Nuclear Chemistry Division (ANCD) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in support of the Hydrologic Resources Management Program (HRMP) and the Underground Test Area (UGTA) Project. These programs are administered by the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration, Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) through the Defense Programs and Environmental Restoration Divisions, respectively. HRMP-sponsored work emphasizes the Defense Programs goal of responsible management of natural resources at the NTS, while UGTA-funded work focuses on defining the extent of radionuclide contamination in NTS groundwater resulting from underground nuclear testing. The report is organized on a topical basis, and contains eight chapters that reflect the range of technical work performed by LLNL-ANCD in support of HRMP and UGTA. Chapter 1 describes recent hot well sampling efforts at the NTS, and presents the results of chemical and isotopic analyses of groundwater samples from six near-field wells. These include the Cambric (UE-5n), Bilby (U-3cn PS No.2), Bourbon (UE-7nS), Nash (UE-2ce), Tybo/Benham (ER-20-5 No.3), and Almendro (U-19v PS No.1ds) sites. The data generated by the hot well program is vital to the development and validation of contaminant transport models at the NTS. Chapter 2 discusses the results of xenon isotope measurements of groundwater samples from the six near-field wells described in Chapter 1. This work demonstrates that fission xenon is present in the water at levels that are readily measurable and highlights the significant differences in xenon concentrations and isotopic abundances at different sites. These differences provide insight into the early cooling history of nuclear test cavities, and may assist in predicting the distribution of the source term in the near-field environment. Chapter 3 is an investigation of the distribution

  16. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes and Past-Year Physical Health Among Adults in the United States: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Chou, S. Patricia; Ruan, W. June; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; Stinson, Frederick S.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To describe associations of DSM-IV antisocial personality disorder (ASPD), conduct disorder without progression to ASPD (“CD only”), and syndromal antisocial behavior in adulthood without CD before age 15 (AABS, not a DSM-IV diagnosis) with past-year physical health status and hospital care utilization in the general U.S. adult population. Methods This report is based on the 2001-2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=43,093, response rate=81%). Respondents were classified according to whether they met criteria for ASPD, AABS, “CD only,” or no antisocial syndrome. Associations of antisocial syndromes with physical health status and care utilization were examined using normal-theory and logistic regression. Results ASPD and AABS were significantly but modestly associated with total past-year medical conditions, coronary heart and gastrointestinal diseases, and numbers of inpatient hospitalizations, inpatient days, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. ASPD was also associated with liver disease, arthritis, and lower scores on the Short Form-12 version 2 (SF-12v2) Physical Component, Role Physical, and Bodily Pain Scales. AABS was associated with noncoronary heart disease, lower scores on the SF-12v2 General Health and Vitality Scales, and, among men, arthritis. “CD only” was associated with single but not multiple inpatient hospitalizations, emergency department visits, and clinically significant injuries. Conclusions Estimates of burden related to antisocial behavioral syndromes need to consider associated physical health problems. Prevention and treatment guidelines for injuries and common chronic diseases may need to address comorbid antisociality, and interventions targeting antisociality may need to consider general health status, including prevention and management of injuries and chronic diseases. PMID:18348594

  17. Stocking of Offsite Waters for Hungry Horse Dam Mitigation; Creston National Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Maskill, Mark

    2003-03-01

    Mitigation Objective 1: Produce Native Westslope Cutthroat Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire eggs and rear up to 100,000 Westslope Cutthroat trout annually for offsite mitigation stocking. Accomplishments: A total of 150,000 westslope cutthroat eggs (M012 strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Washoe Park State Fish Hatchery in July 2001 for this objective. Another 120,000 westslope cutthroat eggs were taken from feral fish at Rogers Lake in May of 2001 by the Creston Hatchery crew. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring. Mitigation Objective 2: Produce Rainbow Trout at Creston NFH--Task: Acquire and rear up to 100,000 Rainbow trout annually for offsite mitigation in closed basin waters. Accomplishments: A total of 50,500 rainbow trout eggs (Arlee strain) were acquired from the State of Montana Arlee State Fish Hatchery in December 2001 for this objective. The fish were reared using approved fish culture techniques as defined in the U.S. Department of the Interior Fish Hatchery Management guidelines. Arlee rainbow trout are being used for this objective because the stocking locations are terminal basin reservoirs and habitat conditions and returns to creel are unsuitable for native cutthroat. Post release survival and angler success is monitored annually by the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe (CSKT). Stocking numbers and locations may vary yearly based on results of biological monitoring.

  18. Assessment of Fish Habitat, Water Quality, and Selected Contaminants in Streambed Sediments in Noyes Slough, Fairbanks, Alaska, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennedy, Ben W.; Whitman, Matthew S.; Burrows, Robert L.; Richmond, Sharon A.

    2004-01-01

    During 2001-2002, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled streambed sediment at 23 sites, measured water quality at 26 sites, and assessed fish habitat for the entire length of Noyes Slough, a 5.5-mile slough of the Chena River in Fairbanks, Alaska. These studies were undertaken to document the environmental condition of the slough and to provide information to the public for consideration in plans to improve environmental conditions of the waterway. The availability of physical habitat for fish in the slough does not appear to be limited, although some beaver dams and shallow water may restrict movement, particularly during low flow. Elevated water temperatures in summer and low dissolved-oxygen concentrations are the principle factors adversely affecting water quality in Noyes Slough. Increased flow mitigated poor water-quality conditions and reduced the number of possible fish barriers. Flow appears to be the most prominent mechanism shaping water quality and fish habitat in Noyes Slough. Streambed sediment samples collected at 23 sites in 2001 were analyzed for 24 trace elements. Arsenic, lead, and zinc were the only trace elements detected in concentrations that exceed probable effect levels for the protection of aquatic life. The background concentration for arsenic in Noyes Slough is naturally elevated because of significant concentrations of arsenic in local bedrock and ground water. Sources of the zinc and lead contamination are uncertain, however both lead and zinc are common urban contaminants. Streambed-sediment samples from 12 sites in 2002 were analyzed for organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs). The concentration of bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate of 2,600 micrograms per kilogram (?g/kg) for one sample from the site above Aurora Drive approached the aquatic-life criterion of 2,650 ?g/kg. Low concentrations of p-cresol, chrysene, and fluoranthene were detected in most of the sediment samples. The

  19. Preliminary Results of Aster Imagery Application To The Glaciated Regions of Russia (2001-2002) In Frame of Glims Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, G.; Glazovsky, A.; Kotlyakov, V.

    GLIMS project (Global Land Ice Measurement from Space) aims to apply the space images for glacier monitoring for 6-year period of ASTER (scanning radiometer) op- eration installed on the STerraT orbital platform. One of the Regional Center (RC16) & cedil;of the GLIMS has been established in the Institute of Geography, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, and it is responsible for the glaciated areas in Russian Arctic, the Urals, the Caucasus, Siberian mountains, Kamchatka, Altay (including Mongolian part), mountains in southern Kazakhstan. Wide variety of geographical environment and glacial types allows to assess the applicability of ASTER data for different geo- graphical settings and glaciological tasks. The first object of the project is to create a base digital maps of current glacier state and first of all glacier margins, therefore the problem of extraction of these features from ASTER images is of prime impor- tance. Our study concerns with the following topics: assessment of image coverage of different glacier regions in Russia for different seasons, cloudiness, and illumina- tion conditions; analysis of spatial and spectral resolution to interpret the margins and surface morphology of glaciers of different types in various regions. ASTER mission for the period 2001-2002 covered practically all glaciated regions of Russia. However unfavorable cloudiness conditions are rather common and increase northward. That re- duces greatly the number of suitable images. In addition the number of images made in optimal season limits the total useful coverage. Finally some glaciated areas such as the Urals, Suntar-Khayata and some other mountains are not yet available. Use- ful amount of images makes ca. 5 per cent from total. Multi-band option of ASTER data improves the interpretation of glacial features, such as snow line and glacier sur- face topography. High spatial resolution allows to extract the margins of different-type glaciers, and, first of all of polar and

  20. Characterization of winter foraging locations of Adélie penguins along the Western Antarctic Peninsula, 2001-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erdmann, Eric S.; Ribic, Christine A.; Patterson-Fraser, Donna L.; Fraser, William R.

    2011-07-01

    In accord with the hypotheses driving the Southern Ocean Global Ocean Ecosystems Dynamics (SO GLOBEC) program, we tested the hypothesis that the winter foraging ecology of a major top predator in waters off the Western Antarctic Peninsula (WAP), the Adélie penguin ( Pygoscelis adeliae), is constrained by oceanographic features related to the physiography of the region. This hypothesis grew from the supposition that breeding colonies in the WAP during summer are located adjacent to areas of complex bathymetry where circulation and upwelling processes appear to ensure predictable food resources. Therefore, we tested the additional hypothesis that these areas continue to contribute to the foraging strategy of this species throughout the non-breeding winter season. We used satellite telemetry data collected as part of the SO GLOBEC program during the austral winters of 2001 and 2002 to characterize individual penguin foraging locations in relation to bathymetry, sea ice variability within the pack ice, and wind velocity and divergence (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads). We also explored differences between males and females in core foraging area overlap. Ocean depth was the most influential variable in the determination of foraging location, with most birds focusing their effort on shallow (<200 m) waters near land and on mixed-layer (200-500 m) waters near the edge of deep troughs. Within-ice variability and wind (as a proxy for potential areas with cracks and leads) were not found to be influential variables, which is likely because of the low resolution satellite imagery and model outputs that were available. Throughout the study period, all individuals maintained a core foraging area separated from other individuals with very little overlap. However, from a year with light sea ice to one with heavy ice cover (2001-2002), we observed an increase in the overlap of individual female foraging areas with those of other birds, likely due to

  1. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Sandia National Laboratories 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, 1994 morbidity data for the Sandia National Laboratories are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 15-76 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  2. Epidemiologic surveillance. Annual report for Idaho National Engineering Laboratory 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 17-85 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and pay status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  3. Conduct Disorder and Oppositional Defiant Disorder in a National Sample: Developmental Epidemiology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maughan, Barbara; Rowe, Richard; Messer, Julie; Goodman, Robert; Meltzer, Howard

    2004-01-01

    Background: Despite an expanding epidemiological evidence base, uncertainties remain over key aspects of the epidemiology of the "antisocial" disorders in childhood and adolescence. Methods: We used cross-sectional data on a nationally representative sample of 10,438 5-15-year-olds drawn from the 1999 British Child Mental Health Survey to examine…

  4. Dengue hemorrhagic Fever caused by sequential dengue 1-3 virus infections over a long time interval: Havana epidemic, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Mayling; Rodriguez-Roche, Rosmari; Bernardo, Lídice; Vázquez, Susana; Morier, Luis; Gonzalez, Daniel; Castro, Osvaldo; Kouri, Gustavo; Halstead, Scott B; Guzman, Maria G

    2006-12-01

    A dengue epidemic caused by dengue virus 3 (DENV-3) occurred in Cuba in 2001-2002. It included cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). We report neutralizing antibody studies on sera from 54 of 78 DHF/DSS patients that provide evidence of infections occurring in the sequence DENV-1 followed by DENV-3. No sera showed infection in the sequence DENV-2 followed by DENV-3. Some sera showed a pattern of infection in the sequence DENV-1 followed by DENV-2 and then DENV-3. However definitive categorization of a tertiary infection was not possible because of broadly reactive antibodies, which could have been raised by infections in the sequence DENV-1 then DENV-3.

  5. Epidemiology of children with head injury: a national overview

    PubMed Central

    Trefan, L; Houston, R; Pearson, G; Edwards, R; Hyde, P; Maconochie, I; Parslow, RC; Kemp, A

    2016-01-01

    Background The National Confidential Enquiry describes the epidemiology of children admitted to hospital with head injury. Method Children (<15 years old) who died or were admitted for >4 h with head injury were identified from 216 UK hospitals (1 September 2009 to 28 February 2010). Data were collected using standard proformas and entered on to a database. A descriptive analysis of the causal mechanisms, child demographics, neurological impairment, CT findings, and outcome at 72 h are provided. Results Details of 5700 children, median age 4 years (range 0–14.9 years), were analysed; 1093 (19.2%) were <1 year old, 3500 (61.4%) were boys. There was a significant association of head injury with social deprivation 39.7/100 000 (95% CI 37.0 to 42.6) in the least deprived first quintile vs. 55.1 (95% CI 52.1 to 58.2) in the most deprived fifth quintile (p<0.01). Twenty-four children died (0.4%). Most children were admitted for one night or less; 4522 (79%) had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 15 or were Alert (on AVPU (Alert, Voice, Pain, Unresponsive)). The most common causes of head injury were falls (3537 (62.1%); children <5 years), sports-related incidents (783 (13.7%); median age 12.4 years), or motor vehicle accidents (MVAs) (401 (7.1%); primary-school-aged children). CT scans were performed in 1734 (30.4%) children; 536 (30.9%) were abnormal (skull fracture and/or intracranial injury or abnormality): 269 (7.6%) were falls, 82 (10.5%) sports related and 100 (25%). A total of 357 (6.2%) children were referred to social care because of child protection concerns (median age 9 months (range 0–14.9 years)). Conclusions The data described highlight priorities for targeted age-specific head injury prevention and have the potential to provide a baseline to evaluate the effects of regional trauma networks (2012) and National Institute of Health and Care Excellence (NICE) head injury guidelines (2014), which were revised after the study was completed

  6. The NASA "Why?" Files: The Case of the Phenomenal Weather. Program 7 in 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has produced a distance learning series of four 60-minute video programs with an accompanying Web site and companion teacher guides designed for students in grades 3-5. The story lines of each program or episode involve six inquisitive school children who meet in a treehouse. They seek the…

  7. Data Analysis Measurement: Having a Solar Blast! NASA Connect: Program 7 in the 2001-2002 Video Series. [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Hampton, VA. Langley Research Center.

    NASA Connect is an interdisciplinary, instructional distance learning program targeting students in grades 6-8. This videotape explains how engineers and researchers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) use data analysis and measurement to predict solar storms, anticipate how they will affect the Earth, and improve…

  8. Amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory: Epidemiologic surveillance - 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations and do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated work activities. This report provides a final summary for BNL.

  9. Developing national epidemiologic capacity to meet the challenges of emerging infections in Germany.

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, L. R.; Ammon, A.; Hamouda, O.; Breuer, T.; Kiessling, S.; Bellach, B.; Niemer, U.; Bindert, F. J.; Ostroff, S.; Kurth, R.

    2000-01-01

    In January 1996, the Robert Koch Institute, Germany's national public health institute, began strengthening its epidemiologic capacity to respond to emerging and other infectious diseases. Six integrated strategies were initiated: developing employee training, outbreak investigation, and epidemiologic research programs; strengthening surveillance systems; improving communications to program partners and constituents; and building international collaborations. By December 1999, five employees had completed a 2-year applied epidemiology training program, 186 health department personnel had completed a 2-week training course, 27 outbreak investigations had been completed, eight short-term research projects had been initiated, major surveillance and epidemiologic research efforts for foodborne and nosocomial infections had begun, and 16 scientific manuscripts had been published or were in press. The German experience indicates that, with a concerted effort, considerable progress in building a national applied infectious disease program can be achieved in a short time frame. PMID:11076715

  10. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and health conditions that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report summarizes epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at INEEL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out.

  11. 75 FR 79385 - Submission for OMB; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-20

    ... Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III SUMMARY: In compliance with the requirement of Section 3507(a)(1)(D) of the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995, the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and... Collection: Title: National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions--III. Type of...

  12. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Smolts, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achond, Stephen; Hockersmith, Eric E.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2003-07-01

    This report details the 2002 results from an ongoing project to monitor the migration behavior of wild spring/summer chinook salmon smolts in the Snake River Basin. The report also discusses trends in the cumulative data collected for this project from Oregon and Idaho streams since 1989. The project was initiated after detection data from passive-integrated-transponder tags (PIT tags) had shown distinct differences in migration patterns between wild and hatchery fish for three consecutive years. National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) investigators first observed these differences in 1989. The data originated from tagging and interrogation operations begun in 1988 to evaluate smolt transportation for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. In 1991, the Bonneville Power Administration began a cooperative effort with NMFS to expand tagging and interrogation of wild fish. Project goals were to characterize the outmigration timing of these fish, to determine whether consistent migration patterns would emerge, and to investigate the influence of environmental factors on the timing and distribution of these migrations. In 1992, the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) began an independent program of PIT tagging wild chinook salmon parr in the Grande Ronde and Imnaha River Basins in northeast Oregon. Since then, ODFW has reported all tagging, detection, and timing information on fish from these streams. However, with ODFW concurrence, NMFS will continue to report arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam.

  13. Dietary nutrient intake and major food sources: the Nutrition and Health Survey of Taiwan Elementary School Children 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shin-Jiuan; Pan, Wen-Harn; Yeh, Nai-Hua; Chang, Hsing-Yi

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate nutrient intake and their dietary sources in Taiwanese children ages 6-12 years by analyzing the 24-hour recall data of 2386 participants from a nationally representative sample. Results showed that children in Taiwan were slightly lower in mean proportion of energy intake from carbohydrates (53.5% of energy intake) and higher in those from fats (30.8%) and protein (15.8%) as based on the recommendations of Department of Health in Taiwan. The mean intake of vitamins and of minerals by children was equivalent to or exceeded Daily Reference Intake of Taiwan (DRI) or other recommended standards with the exception of a seriously insufficient calcium intake and extremely high sodium intake. A substantial proportion of children in different age/gender/location strata had lower mean vitamin and mineral intake by DRI and other recommended standards. These nutrient profiles were mainly related to dietary patterns with relatively low intake of fruits, vegetables, cereals/grains, and dairy products, but high intake of the protein-rich foods, salt/sauces, and fats/oils. According to the suboptimal dietary nutrient profiles of Taiwanese children, particularly in the underprivileged areas, recommendations are made in this article for policy makers and health practitioners to consider in order to improve dietary quality of elementary school children. PMID:17723992

  14. Annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory 1994 epidemiologic surveillance

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized. These analyses focus on absences of 5 or more consecutive workdays occurring among workers aged 16-80 years. They are arranged in five sets of tables that present: (1) the distribution of the labor force by occupational category and salary status; (2) the absences per person, diagnoses per absence, and diagnosis rates for the whole work force; (3) diagnosis rates by type of disease or injury; (4) diagnosis rates by occupational category; and (5) relative risks for specific types of disease or injury by occupational category.

  15. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2002-10-01

    The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) listed Lower Columbia River chum as threatened under the auspices of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) in March of 1999 (64 FR 14508, March 25, 1999). The listing was in response to reduction in abundance from historical levels of more than half a million returning adults to fewer than 10,000 spawners present day (Johnson et al. 1997). Harvest, loss of habitat, changes in flow regimes, riverbed movement and heavy siltation have been largely responsible for the decline in this species in the Columbia River. The timing of seasonal changes in river flow and water temperatures is perhaps the most critical factor in structuring the freshwater life history of chum salmon (Johnson et al. 1997). This is especially true of the population located directly below Bonneville Dam where hydropower operations can block access to spawning sites, dewater redds, strand fry, cause scour or fill of redds and increase sedimentation of spawning gravels. The recovery strategy for Lower Columbia River chum as outlined in the Hatchery Genetic Management Plan (HGMP) for the Grays River project has four main tasks. First, determine if remnant populations of Lower Columbia River chum salmon exist in Lower Columbia River tributaries. Second, if such populations exist, develop stock-specific recovery plans that would involve habitat restoration including the creation of spawning refugias, supplementation if necessary and a habitat and fish monitoring and evaluation plan. If chum have been extirpated from previously utilized streams, develop re-introduction plans that utilize appropriate genetic donor stock(s) of Lower Columbia River chum salmon and integrate habitat improvement and fry-to-adult survival evaluations. Third, reduce the extinction risk to Grays River chum salmon population by randomly capturing adults in the basin for use in a supplementation program and reintroduction of Lower Columbia River chum salmon into the Chinook River basin. The

  16. Aseismic magma supply inferred from geodetic Finite Element inversions: the case of the 2001-2002 non-eruptive unrest at Cotopaxi volcano

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickey, James; Gottsmann, Jo; Mothes, Patricia

    2015-04-01

    The complex interplay between magma supply, storage and transportation, and how these processes interact with the host rock dictate the unrest signals we observe at the surface. Mechanical modelling allows us to link our recorded geophysical signals to subsurface processes and constrain a causative mechanism. We carry out this analysis for the 2001-2002 non-eruptive unrest episode at Cotopaxi volcano, Ecuador. During this period the volcano underwent a general inflation of its iconic edifice, recorded by an Electronic Distance Meter (EDM) network, and was accompanied by increased seismicity beneath the north-east flank. To solve for the optimum deformation source parameters we use an inverse Finite Element method accounting for subsurface material heterogeneity and surface topography. The model solutions favour a shallow source beneath the south-west flank, in contradiction to the seismicity locations in the north-east. The best-fit deformation model is a small, oblate shaped source approximately 1 km above sea level with a 20 x 106 m3 volume increase. To reconcile the deformation and seismicity simultaneously further Finite Element models were employed, incorporating an additional temperature-dependent rheology. These were used to assess the viscosity of the host rock surrounding the source. By comparing the elastic and viscous timescales associated with a small magma intrusion (implied by the best-fit deformation source in the south-west), we can infer this process occurred aseismically. To explain the recorded seismicity in the north-east we propose a mechanism of fluid migration from the south-west to the north-east along fault systems. Our analysis further shows that if future unrest crises are accompanied by measurable seismicity around the deformation source, this could indicate a higher magma supply rate and a critical level of unrest with increased likelihood of a forthcoming eruption. This research received funding through the EC FP7 "VUELCO" (#282759

  17. Epidemiology of Attention Problems among Turkish Children and Adolescents: A National Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Oner, Ozgur; Munir, Kerim

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method: The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher…

  18. National surveillance data on the epidemiology of cholera in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Djomassi, L Dempouo; Gessner, Bradford D; Andze, G Ondobo; Mballa, G A Etoundi

    2013-11-01

    Background. The cholera burden in Cameroon has increased during the past 2 decades. During 2010 and 2011, the largest number of cholera cases in Cameroon since February 1971 were reported. This article describes cholera outbreaks during 2010-2011. Methods. Data received from the national surveillance system from 2010 and 2011 were compiled and analyzed. Results. The first suspected cholera cases were reported in the Far North region on 6 May 2010. In 2010, 10 759 cholera cases were reported by 8 of the 10 regions in the country, with 657 deaths (case-fatality ratio [CFR], 6.1%). In 2011, through September 22, 17 121 suspected cholera cases, including 636 deaths (CFR, 3.7%), were reported all over the country. During 2010, the Far North region accounted for 87.6% of cases (9421/10 759) and 91.6% of deaths (602/657) recorded. By contrast, during 2011, 5 regions (Far North, North, Center, Southwest, and Littoral) accounted for 90.6% of cases (15 511/17 121) and 84.0% of deaths recorded. Vibrio cholerae was identified in 525 stool specimens, and all organisms were serogroup O1. Conclusions. The ongoing cholera outbreak in Cameroon increased in intensity and geographic spread from 2010 to 2011. Nevertheless, the overall CFR decreased during this period. Strengthening the early warning system and enhancing water, sanitation, and hygiene interventions and sensitization should be considered in addressing cholera outbreaks.

  19. PCB body burdens in U.S. women of childbearing age 2001-2002: An evaluation of alternate summary metrics of NHANES data

    EPA Science Inventory

    An extensive body of epidemiologic data associates prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) with neurodevelopmental deficits and other childhood health effects. Neurological effects and other adverse health effects may also result from exposure during infancy, childh...

  20. Accessing SEER Data: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)

    Cancer.gov

    Cover Page: 'Accessing SEER Data: The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)' showing images of people visiting one another, dining, biking, and working at computers. National Cancer Institute; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services; National Institutes of Health.

  1. Harold Fred Dorn and the First National Cancer Survey (1937-1939): the founding of modern cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lilienfeld, David E

    2008-12-01

    The development of modern epidemiology, particularly cancer epidemiology, is often seen as a post-World War II phenomenon. However, the First National Cancer Survey, conducted from 1937 to 1939 as part of the newly formed National Cancer Institute's initial activities, provided the first data on the occurrence of cancer in the United States. This project was directed by a young sociologist, Harold Fred Dorn. Through Dorn, many of the methodological innovations in sociology, such as the use of surveys and observational study designs, were incorporated into modern epidemiology. I examine Dorn's training and early career in the context of the First National Cancer Survey as a means of investigating the beginnings of modern epidemiology.

  2. Characterizing the Epidemiological Transition in Mexico: National and Subnational Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Gretchen; Dias, Rodrigo H; Thomas, Kevin J. A; Rivera, Juan A; Carvalho, Natalie; Barquera, Simón; Hill, Kenneth; Ezzati, Majid

    2008-01-01

    Background Rates of diseases and injuries and the effects of their risk factors can have substantial subnational heterogeneity, especially in middle-income countries like Mexico. Subnational analysis of the burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors can improve characterization of the epidemiological transition and identify policy priorities. Methods and Findings We estimated deaths and loss of healthy life years (measured in disability-adjusted life years [DALYs]) in 2004 from a comprehensive list of diseases and injuries, and 16 major risk factors, by sex and age for Mexico and its states. Data sources included the vital statistics, national censuses, health examination surveys, and published epidemiological studies. Mortality statistics were adjusted for underreporting, misreporting of age at death, and for misclassification and incomparability of cause-of-death assignment. Nationally, noncommunicable diseases caused 75% of total deaths and 68% of total DALYs, with another 14% of deaths and 18% of DALYs caused by undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases. The leading causes of death were ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, cerebrovascular disease, liver cirrhosis, and road traffic injuries. High body mass index, high blood glucose, and alcohol use were the leading risk factors for disease burden, causing 5.1%, 5.0%, and 7.3% of total burden of disease, respectively. Mexico City had the lowest mortality rates (4.2 per 1,000) and the Southern region the highest (5.0 per 1,000); under-five mortality in the Southern region was nearly twice that of Mexico City. In the Southern region undernutrition and communicable, maternal, and perinatal diseases caused 23% of DALYs; in Chiapas, they caused 29% of DALYs. At the same time, the absolute rates of noncommunicable disease and injury burdens were highest in the Southern region (105 DALYs per 1,000 population versus 97 nationally for noncommunicable diseases; 22 versus 19 for injuries

  3. Novel Phenotype Issues Raised in Cross-National Epidemiological Research on Drug Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Anthony, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Stage-transition models based on the American Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) generally are applied in epidemiology and genetics research on drug dependence syndromes associated with cannabis, cocaine, and other internationally regulated drugs (IRD). Difficulties with DSM stage-transition models have surfaced during cross-national research intended to provide a truly global perspective, such as the work of the World Mental Health Surveys (WMHS) Consortium. Alternative simpler dependence-related phenotypes are possible, including population-level count process models for steps early and before coalescence of clinical features into a coherent syndrome (e.g., zero-inflated Poisson regression). Selected findings are reviewed, based on ZIP modeling of alcohol, tobacco, and IRD count processes, with an illustration that may stimulate new research on genetic susceptibility traits. The annual National Surveys on Drug Use and Health can be readily modified for this purpose, along the lines of a truly anonymous research approach that can help make NSDUH-type cross-national epidemiological surveys more useful in the context of subsequent genome wide association (GWAS) research and post-GWAS investigations with a truly global health perspective. PMID:20201862

  4. Achalasia in Korea: an epidemiologic study using a national healthcare database.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunkyung; Lee, Hongsub; Jung, Hye-Kyung; Lee, Kwang Jae

    2014-04-01

    Owing to the rarity of the disease, epidemiologic information on achalasia is limited. This study aimed to investigate the epidemiology and treatment patterns of achalasia in the population of Korea using a national healthcare database. The diagnostic code K22.0 of the International Classification of Diseases was used to identify cases of achalasia between 2007 and 2011. Treatment modalities for achalasia were identified using the electronic data interchange codes Q7642 or Q7641 for balloon dilation and QA421 or QA422 for esophago-cardiomyotomy. A total of 3,105 patients with achalasia (1,447 men; mean age, 52.5 yr) were identified between 2007 and 2011, indicating a prevalence of 6.29/100,000 (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.94-7.66) during this 5-yr period. A total of 191 incident cases of achalasia (82 men; mean age, 49.5 yr), which were not diagnosed as achalasia in the previous 4 yr, were detected in 2011, indicating an incidence of 0.39/100,000 (95% CI, 0.15-0.63) for that year. During the study period, balloon dilation therapy was performed a total of 975 times in 719 patients, and surgical esophago-cardiomyotomy was performed once per patient in 17 patients. This is the first population-based epidemiologic study of achalasia in Korea. PMID:24753707

  5. Los Alamos National Laboratory: A guide to records series supporting epidemiologic studies conducted for the Department of Energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this guide is to describe each series of records that pertains to the epidemiologic studies conducted by the Epidemiology Section of the Occupational Medicine Group (ESH-2) at the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in Los Alamos, New Mexico. The records described in this guide relate to occupational studies performed by the Epidemiology Section, including those pertaining to workers at LANL, Mound Plant, Oak Ridge Reservation, Pantex Plant, Rocky Flats Plant, and Savannah River Site. Also included are descriptions of other health-related records generated or collected by the Epidemiology Section and a small set of records collected by the Industrial Hygiene and Safety Group. This guide is not designed to describe the universe of records generated by LANL which may be used for epidemiologic studies of the LANL work force. History Associates Incorporated (HAI) prepared this guide as part of its work as the support services contractor for DOE`s Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project. This introduction briefly describes the Epidemiologic Records Inventory Project, HAI`s role in the project, the history of LANL the history and functions of LANL`s Health Division and Epidemiology Section, and the various epidemiologic studies performed by the Epidemiology Section. It provides information on the methodology that HAI used to inventory and describe records housed in the offices of the LANL Epidemiology Section in Technical Area 59 and at the LANL Records Center. Other topics include the methodology used to produce the guide, the arrangement of the detailed record series descriptions, and information concerning access to records repositories.

  6. Existing data sources for clinical epidemiology: the Danish National Pathology Registry and Data Bank

    PubMed Central

    Erichsen, Rune; Lash, Timothy L; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen J; Bjerregaard, Beth; Vyberg, Mogens; Pedersen, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Diagnostic histological and cytological specimens are routinely stored in pathology department archives. These biobanks are a valuable research resource for many diseases, particularly if they can be linked to high quality population-based health registries, allowing large retrospective epidemiological studies to be carried out. Such studies are of significant importance, for example in the search for novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in the era of personalized medicine. Denmark has a wealth of highly-regarded population-based registries that are ideally suited to conduct this type of epidemiological research. We describe two recent additions to these databases: the Danish National Pathology Registry (DNPR) and its underlying national online registration database, the Danish Pathology Data Bank (DPDB). The DNPR and the DPDB contain detailed nationwide records of all pathology specimens analyzed in Denmark since 1997, and an incomplete but nonetheless valuable record of specimens from some pathology departments dating back to the 1970s. The data are of high quality and completeness and are sufficient to allow precise and efficient localization of the specimens. We describe the relatively uncomplicated procedures required to use these pathology databases in clinical research and to gain access to the archived specimens. PMID:20865103

  7. Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: National Consultation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This report provides a description of a national consultation that was undertaken in 2001-2002 to provide feedback on two companion national policy documents: "National Action Plan for Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health 2000" and "Promotion, Prevention and Early Intervention for Mental Health: A Monograph," and to…

  8. 1995 annual epidemiologic surveillance report for Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) conduct of epidemiologic surveillance provides an early warning system for health problems among workers. This program monitors illnesses and injuries that result in an absence of five or more consecutive workdays, occupational injuries and illnesses, and disabilities and deaths among current workers. This report provides a summary of epidemiologic surveillance data collected from the Sandia National Laboratory-Albuquerque (SNL-AL) from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. The data were collected by a coordinator at SNL-AL and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and data analyses were carried out. The annual report for 1995 has been redesigned from reports for previous years. Most of the information in the previous reports is also in this report, but some material now appears in the appendices instead of the main body of the report. The information presented in the main body of the report provides a descriptive analysis of the data collected from the site and the appendices provide more detail. A new section of the report presents trends in health over time. The Glossary and an Explanation of Diagnostic Categories have been expanded with more examples of diagnoses to illustrate the content of each category. The data presented here apply only to SNL-AL. The DOE sites are varied, so comparisons of SNL-AL with other DOE sites should be made with caution. It is important to keep in mind that many factors can affect the completeness and accuracy of health information collected at the sites as well as affect patterns of illness and injury observed.

  9. A national assessment of the epidemiology of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Zhou, Hang; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Yao, Hong-Wu; Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Ping; Mu, Di; Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Gray, Gregory C; Cui, Ning; Yin, Wen-Wu; Fang, Li-Qun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-01-01

    First discovered in rural areas of middle-eastern China in 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis affecting hundreds of cases reported in China each year. Using the national surveillance data from 2010 to 2013, we conducted this retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS in China. We found that the incidence of SFTS and its epidemic areas are continuing to grow, but the case fatality rate (CFR) has steadily decreased. SFTS most commonly affected elderly farmers who acquired infection between May and July in middle-eastern China. However, other epidemiological characteristics such as incidence, sex ratio, CFR, and seasonality differ substantially across the affected provinces, which seem to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks. Spatial scan statistics detected three hot spots of SFTS that accounted for 69.1% of SFTS cases in China. There was a strong association of SFTS incidence with temporal changes in the climate within the clusters. Multivariate modeling identified climate conditions, elevation, forest coverage, cattle density, and the presence of Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks as independent risk factors in the distribution of SFTS, based on which a predicted risk map of the disease was derived. PMID:25902910

  10. A national assessment of the epidemiology of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome, China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Zhou, Hang; Sun, Ruo-Xi; Yao, Hong-Wu; Li, Yu; Wang, Li-Ping; Mu, Di; Li, Xin-Lou; Yang, Yang; Gray, Gregory C; Cui, Ning; Yin, Wen-Wu; Fang, Li-Qun; Yu, Hong-Jie; Cao, Wu-Chun

    2015-04-23

    First discovered in rural areas of middle-eastern China in 2009, severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) is an emerging tick-borne zoonosis affecting hundreds of cases reported in China each year. Using the national surveillance data from 2010 to 2013, we conducted this retrospective epidemiological study and risk assessment of SFTS in China. We found that the incidence of SFTS and its epidemic areas are continuing to grow, but the case fatality rate (CFR) has steadily decreased. SFTS most commonly affected elderly farmers who acquired infection between May and July in middle-eastern China. However, other epidemiological characteristics such as incidence, sex ratio, CFR, and seasonality differ substantially across the affected provinces, which seem to be consistent with local agricultural activities and the seasonal abundance of ticks. Spatial scan statistics detected three hot spots of SFTS that accounted for 69.1% of SFTS cases in China. There was a strong association of SFTS incidence with temporal changes in the climate within the clusters. Multivariate modeling identified climate conditions, elevation, forest coverage, cattle density, and the presence of Haemaphysalis longicornis ticks as independent risk factors in the distribution of SFTS, based on which a predicted risk map of the disease was derived.

  11. Dengue epidemiological trend in Oman: a 13-year national surveillance and strategic proposition of imported cases.

    PubMed

    Al Awaidy, Salah Thabit; Al Obeidani, Idris; Bawikar, Shyam; Al Mahrouqi, Salim; Al Busaidy, Suleiman Salim; Al Baqlani, Said; Patel, Prakash K

    2014-10-01

    Dengue fever has emerged as a major public health problem globally in the past three decades. A 13-year national surveillance data analysis was done to describe the epidemiology and its trend of dengue disease in Oman reported between 2001 and 2013. Laboratory-confirmed dengue virus infections reported were studied retrospectively during the study period. A total of 64 laboratory confirmed cases were reported. All the patients contracted the disease during their visit to South-East Asian countries, hence classified as imported cases. The majority of the cases were reported in the year 2012 (23.4%). The most important clinical characteristics were fever (90.6%), myalgia (35.9%) and rash/petechial rash (20.3%). Thrombocytopenia was seen in 31.2% of the study subjects. The mortality was nearly 4.6% and all other patients made a full recovery. The most effective measure for travellers is taking precautions to avoid mosquito bites.

  12. The Epidemiology and National Trends of Bearing Surface Usage in Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Pil Whan; Kim, Yunjung; Yoo, Seungmi; Lee, Sahnghoon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    Background We analyzed the data for primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) in the Korean nationwide database to assess (1) the epidemiology and national trends of bearing surface usage in THAs and (2) the prevalence of each type of bearing surface according to age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and hospital procedure volume. Methods A total of 30,881 THAs were analyzed using the Korean Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service database for 2007 through 2011. Bearing surfaces were sub-grouped according to device code for national health insurance claims and consisted of ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC), metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP), and metal-on-metal (MoM). The prevalence of each type of bearing surface was calculated and stratified by age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and procedure volume of each hospital. Results CoC was the most frequently used bearing surface (76.7%), followed by MoP (11.9%), CoP (7.3%), and MoM (4.1%). The proportion of THAs using a CoC bearing surface increased steadily from 71.6% in 2007 to 81.4% in 2011, whereas the proportions using CoP, MoP, and MoM bearing surfaces decreased. The order of prevalence was identical to that in the general population regardless of age, gender, hospital type, primary payer, and hospital procedure volume. Conclusions The trends and epidemiology of bearing surface usage in THAs in Korea are different from those in other countries, and the CoC bearing surface is the most prevalent articulation. In future, the results of a large-scale study using nationwide data of THAs involving a CoC bearing surface will be reported in Korea. PMID:26929796

  13. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  14. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters (NEEAR) is a multi-year study of recreational water conducted by the United States Environmental Protection Agency and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), design...

  15. THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL WATERS: RESULTS FROM THE FIRST SUMMER OF FULL-SCALE STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Waters: Results from the first summer of full-scale studies. Timothy J. Wade, Rebecca L. Calderon, Elizabeth Sams, Kristen Brenner, Michael Beach, Ann H. Williams, Al Dufour.

    Abstract

    Introduc...

  16. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study 1998-2007 birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007...

  17. Current trends in Finnish drug abuse: Wastewater based epidemiology combined with other national indicators.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2016-10-15

    No single measure is able to provide a complete picture of population- or community-level drug abuse and its current trends. Therefore, a multi-indicator approach is needed. The aim of this study was to combine wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) with data from other national indicators, namely driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) statistics, drug seizures, and drug use surveys. Furthermore, drug market size estimates and a comparison of confiscated drugs to drugs actually consumed by users were performed using the WBE approach. Samples for wastewater analysis were collected during one-week sampling periods in 2012, 2014 and 2015, with a maximum of 14 cities participating. The samples were analysed with a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) methodology for various common drugs of abuse. The results were then compared with data from other national indicators available. Joint interpretation of the data shows that the use of amphetamine and MDMA has increased in Finland from 2012 to 2014. A similar trend was also observed for cocaine, although its use remains at a very low level compared to many other European countries. Heroin was practically absent from the Finnish drug market during the study period. The retail market for the most common stimulant drugs were estimated to have been worth EUR 70 million for amphetamine and around EUR 10 million for both methamphetamine and cocaine, in 2014 in Finland. PMID:27335163

  18. Current trends in Finnish drug abuse: Wastewater based epidemiology combined with other national indicators.

    PubMed

    Kankaanpää, Aino; Ariniemi, Kari; Heinonen, Mari; Kuoppasalmi, Kimmo; Gunnar, Teemu

    2016-10-15

    No single measure is able to provide a complete picture of population- or community-level drug abuse and its current trends. Therefore, a multi-indicator approach is needed. The aim of this study was to combine wastewater-based epidemiology (WBE) with data from other national indicators, namely driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) statistics, drug seizures, and drug use surveys. Furthermore, drug market size estimates and a comparison of confiscated drugs to drugs actually consumed by users were performed using the WBE approach. Samples for wastewater analysis were collected during one-week sampling periods in 2012, 2014 and 2015, with a maximum of 14 cities participating. The samples were analysed with a validated ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric (UHPLC-MS/MS) methodology for various common drugs of abuse. The results were then compared with data from other national indicators available. Joint interpretation of the data shows that the use of amphetamine and MDMA has increased in Finland from 2012 to 2014. A similar trend was also observed for cocaine, although its use remains at a very low level compared to many other European countries. Heroin was practically absent from the Finnish drug market during the study period. The retail market for the most common stimulant drugs were estimated to have been worth EUR 70 million for amphetamine and around EUR 10 million for both methamphetamine and cocaine, in 2014 in Finland.

  19. Epidemiological findings of hepatitis B infection based on 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey in Korea.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Duk-Hee; Kim, Jin-Ha; Nam, Jung-Ja; Kim, Hye-Reon; Shin, Hai-Rim

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Korea based on the 1998 National Health and Nutrition Survey. Study subjects consisted of 9,771 aged 10 yr or over, who were selected from across Korea using a stratified multistage probability sampling design. The prevalence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was compared by age, sex, residency, household income, education, family history, family size, and frequency of eating out. The prevalence of HBsAg was 5.1% (95% confidence interval (CI): 4.5-5.7) in males and 4.1% (95% CI: 3.6-4.6) in females with a low prevalence in those under 20 yr old. Generally, HBsAg seropositivity by administrative area was similar with the exception of Jeju province. HBsAg seropositivity of Jeju island was approximately three times higher in both men and women, as compared with the national average. HBsAg seropositivity by socioeconomic status unexpectedly showed a very consistent positive association in both gender. Comparing HBsAg seropositivity by the frequency of eating out, in both gender, the more frequent they ate out, the higher it was. Our study suggested that there might be another transmission route of HBV, which is possibly related to diet. PMID:12172038

  20. Gene-Environment Interactions in Cancer Epidemiology: A National Cancer Institute Think Tank Report

    PubMed Central

    Hutter, Carolyn M.; Mechanic, Leah E.; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillander, Elizabeth M.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF]>0.05) and less common (0.01epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a “Gene-Environment Think Tank” on January 10th–011th, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on: 1) the state of the science; 2) the goals of gene-environment interaction studies in cancer epidemiology; and 3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of gene-environment interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors. PMID:24123198

  1. Epidemiology of Moyamoya Disease in Korea: Based on National Health Insurance Service Data.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Bang, Jae Seung; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun; Oh, Chang Wan

    2015-06-01

    There have been a few studies reporting the epidemiology of moyamoya disease in Korea. Previous studies revealed relatively high prevalence and incidence of moyamoya disease in Korea and Japan. This study was designed to provide the latest epidemiologic information of moyamoya disease in Korea. We analyzed a database comprising of 50 million people covered in Korea by the National Health Insurance Service to calculate the prevalence. The incidence was estimated by eliminating the duplicated records of previous 3 years. We summarized the prevalence and incidence according to age, sex, and local distribution. In addition, the chronological changes were demonstrated with direct standardization using the 2010 population structure information. The standardized prevalence was 6.5 per 100000 persons in 2005, which was increased to 18.1 in 2013. In the same period, standardized incidence was increased from 2.7 to 4.3 per 100000 persons. The prevalence for men was 4.9 and 8.3 for women in 2005. In 2013, the prevalence had increased for men and women to 13.8 and 25.3, respectively. The incidence for men and women was 2.2 and 3.2, respectively, in 2005. It had increased to 3.5 and 5.7, respectively. The mean age of patients was 33.5 in 2005 and increased to 42.5 in 2013. The peak prevalent age group had shifted slightly to the older age groups, with chronologically consistent female predominance. The prevalence was highest in Jeollabuk province and lowest in Ulsan city.

  2. Epidemiology of Moyamoya Disease in Korea: Based on National Health Insurance Service Data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tackeun; Lee, Heeyoung; Bang, Jae Seung; Kwon, O-Ki; Hwang, Gyojun

    2015-01-01

    There have been a few studies reporting the epidemiology of moyamoya disease in Korea. Previous studies revealed relatively high prevalence and incidence of moyamoya disease in Korea and Japan. This study was designed to provide the latest epidemiologic information of moyamoya disease in Korea. We analyzed a database comprising of 50 million people covered in Korea by the National Health Insurance Service to calculate the prevalence. The incidence was estimated by eliminating the duplicated records of previous 3 years. We summarized the prevalence and incidence according to age, sex, and local distribution. In addition, the chronological changes were demonstrated with direct standardization using the 2010 population structure information. The standardized prevalence was 6.5 per 100000 persons in 2005, which was increased to 18.1 in 2013. In the same period, standardized incidence was increased from 2.7 to 4.3 per 100000 persons. The prevalence for men was 4.9 and 8.3 for women in 2005. In 2013, the prevalence had increased for men and women to 13.8 and 25.3, respectively. The incidence for men and women was 2.2 and 3.2, respectively, in 2005. It had increased to 3.5 and 5.7, respectively. The mean age of patients was 33.5 in 2005 and increased to 42.5 in 2013. The peak prevalent age group had shifted slightly to the older age groups, with chronologically consistent female predominance. The prevalence was highest in Jeollabuk province and lowest in Ulsan city. PMID:26180604

  3. Gene-environment interactions in cancer epidemiology: a National Cancer Institute Think Tank report.

    PubMed

    Hutter, Carolyn M; Mechanic, Leah E; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Kraft, Peter; Gillanders, Elizabeth M

    2013-11-01

    Cancer risk is determined by a complex interplay of genetic and environmental factors. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified hundreds of common (minor allele frequency [MAF] > 0.05) and less common (0.01 < MAF < 0.05) genetic variants associated with cancer. The marginal effects of most of these variants have been small (odds ratios: 1.1-1.4). There remain unanswered questions on how best to incorporate the joint effects of genes and environment, including gene-environment (G × E) interactions, into epidemiologic studies of cancer. To help address these questions, and to better inform research priorities and allocation of resources, the National Cancer Institute sponsored a "Gene-Environment Think Tank" on January 10-11, 2012. The objective of the Think Tank was to facilitate discussions on (1) the state of the science, (2) the goals of G × E interaction studies in cancer epidemiology, and (3) opportunities for developing novel study designs and analysis tools. This report summarizes the Think Tank discussion, with a focus on contemporary approaches to the analysis of G × E interactions. Selecting the appropriate methods requires first identifying the relevant scientific question and rationale, with an important distinction made between analyses aiming to characterize the joint effects of putative or established genetic and environmental factors and analyses aiming to discover novel risk factors or novel interaction effects. Other discussion items include measurement error, statistical power, significance, and replication. Additional designs, exposure assessments, and analytical approaches need to be considered as we move from the current small number of success stories to a fuller understanding of the interplay of genetic and environmental factors.

  4. Fish communities of the Buffalo River Basin and nearby basins of Arkansas and their relation to selected environmental factors, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River lies in north-central Arkansas and is a tributary of the White River. Most of the length of the Buffalo River lies within the boundaries of Buffalo National River, a unit of the National Park Service; the upper 24 river kilometers lie within the boundary of the Ozark National Forest. Much of the upper and extreme lower parts of the basin on the south side of the Buffalo River is within the Ozark National Forest. During the summers of 2001 and 2002, fish communities were sampled at 52 sites in the study area that included the Buffalo River Basin and selected smaller nearby basins within the White River Basin in north-central Arkansas. Water quality (including nutrient and bacteria concentrations) and several other environmental factors (such as stream size, land use, substrate size, and riparian shading) also were measured. A total of 56 species of fish were collected from sites within the Buffalo River Basin in 2001 and 2002. All 56 species also were collected from within the boundaries of Buffalo National River. Twenty-two species were collected from headwater sites on tributaries of the Buffalo River; 27 species were collected from sites within or immediately adjacent to the Ozark National Forest. The list of species collected from Buffalo National River is similar to the list of species reported by previous investigators. Species richness at sites on the mainstem of the Buffalo River generally increased in a downstream direction. The number of species collected (both years combined) increased from 17 at the most upstream site to 38 near the mouth of the Buffalo River. In 2001 and 2002, a total of 53 species of fish were collected from sites outside the Buffalo River Basin. Several fish community metrics varied among sites in different site categories (mainstem, large tributary, small tributary, headwater, and developed out-of-basin sites). Median relative abundances of stonerollers ranged from about 25 to 55 percent and were highest at

  5. Changes in sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators among young people aged 15-24 years in Zambia: an in-depth analysis of the 2001-2002 and 2007 Zambia Demographic and Health Surveys.

    PubMed

    Kembo, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    HIV and AIDS still pose a major public health problem to most countries in sub-Saharan Africa, Zambia included. The objective of the paper is to determine changes in selected sexual behaviour and practice and HIV prevalence indicators between 2001-2002 and 2007. We used the Demographic and Health Survey Indicators Database for the computation of the selected indicators. We further used STATA 10.0 to compute significance tests to test for statistical difference in the indicators. The results indicate some changes in sexual behaviour, as indicated by an increase in abstinence, use of condoms and the decrease in multiple partnerships. The overall percentage of abstinence among never-married young men and women aged 15-24 years in Zambia increased significantly by 15.2% (p=.000) and 5.9% (p=.001) respectively, between 2001-2002 and 2007. A statistically significant increase of 6.6% (p=.029) was observed in the percentage of young women who reported having used a condom during the last time they had had premarital sex. A statistically significant decrease of 11.0% (p=.000) and 1.4% (p=.000) was observed among young men and women, respectively, who reported having multiple partners in the preceding 12 months. The factorial decomposition using multivariate analysis reveals that the indicators which contributed to the statistically significant 2.6% decline in HIV prevalence among young women aged 15-24 years in Zambia include proportion reporting condom use during premarital sex (+6.6%), abstinence (+5.9%), sex before age 15 (-4.5%), premarital sex (-2.6%), sex before age 18 (-2.4%) and proportion reporting multiple partnerships (-1.4%). Remarkable strides have been achieved towards promoting responsible sexual behaviour and practice among young people in Zambia. Further research focusing on factors that predispose young women in Zambia to higher risk of infection from HIV is required. The results from this paper should be useful in the design of programmes to control the

  6. Descriptive Epidemiology of Musculoskeletal Injuries and Concussions in the National Football League, 2012-2014

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, David W.; Hutchison, Michael G.; Comper, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background: The risk of all-cause injury and concussion associated with football is significant. The National Football League (NFL) has implemented changes to increase player safety warranting investigation into the incidence and patterns of injury. Purpose: To document the incidence and patterns of all-cause injury and concussions in the NFL. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Injury data were collected prospectively from official NFL injury reports over 2 regular seasons from 2012 to 2014, with identification of injury incidence rates and patterns. Concussion rate ratios were calculated using previously reported NFL rates. Results: A total of 4284 injuries were identified, including 301 concussions. The all-cause injury rate was 395.8 per 1000 athletes at risk (AAR) and concussion incidence was 27.8 per 1000 AAR. Only 2.3% of team games were injury free. Wide receivers, tight ends, and defensive backs had the highest incidence of injury and concussion. Concussion incidence was 1.61-fold higher in 2012 to 2014 compared with 2002 to 2007. The knee was injured most frequently, followed by the ankle, hamstring, shoulder, and head. Conclusion: The incidence of all-cause injury and concussion in the NFL is significant. Concussion injury rates are higher than previous reports, potentially reflecting an improvement in recognition and awareness. Injury prevention efforts should continue to reduce the prevalence of injury associated with football. PMID:26675321

  7. Deaths from volatile substance abuse in those under 18 years: results from a national epidemiological study.

    PubMed Central

    Esmail, A; Meyer, L; Pottier, A; Wright, S

    1993-01-01

    The epidemiology of deaths from volatile substance abuse (VSA) in those under 18 years that occurred in the UK from 1981-90 is described. The analysis of deaths is based on a national register, which has information obtained from a regular survey of coroners, the Office of Population Censuses and Surveys, and a press clippings agency. Altogether 605 people under 18 died from VSA during this period. Seventy per cent of deaths occurred between the ages of 14 and 16. The largest number of deaths were attributed to butane gas lighter refills. There was a large north-south gradient in age specific mortality ratios (Scotland 180, south east England 87) and nearly four times as many deaths occurred in social class V compared with social class I. Deaths from VSA are an important and preventable cause of deaths in those under 18. Strategies aimed at prevention should include measures to reduce experimentation, intervention to reduce socioeconomic deprivation, and health education campaigns aimed at schools and parents. PMID:8215546

  8. Epidemiological experience in the mission of the United Nations Transition Assistance Group (UNTAG) in Namibia.

    PubMed Central

    Steffen, R.; Desaules, M.; Nagel, J.; Vuillet, F.; Schubarth, P.; Jeanmaire, C. H.; Huber, A.

    1992-01-01

    Epidemiological data have rarely been generated during United Nations (UN) missions to Third World countries, even in situations where there is hardly any combat involvement. Continuous surveillance was therefore carried out during the 12-month stay of UN personnel in Namibia in 1989-90. In this population of 7114 persons, mostly young men, the mortality rate was 255 per 100,000; death was mainly due to traffic accidents. Hospitalization was chiefly because of fever of unknown origin or trauma. Repatriation to the country of origin was necessary in 46 patients, frequently for psychiatric reasons including alcoholism. Over this one-year period there were, on average, 2.7 new consultations per person for treatment (mostly for dental problems), and 0.8 per person for prophylactic measures. The extremely high mortality due to traffic accidents indicates a need for prevention. In the selection process for future missions, more emphasis should be given to the psychological and dental health of volunteers. All military contingents and civilian groups should learn about effective preventive measures prior to their arrival, and adhere to them. PMID:1568277

  9. Epidemiology and disease burden from allergic disease in Scotland: analyses of national databases

    PubMed Central

    Anandan, C; Gupta, R; Simpson, CR; Fischbacher, C; Sheikh, A

    2009-01-01

    Summary Background There are ongoing concerns about the quality of care provided to patients with allergic disorders in Scotland, but there are relatively few reliable data on the overall disease burden. We sought to: (1) describe the incidence, prevalence and outcome of allergic disorders; (2) estimate healthcare burden and costs; and (3) investigate ethnic variations in the epidemiology and outcomes from allergic disorders in Scotland. Methods Data sources: national surveys; primary care data; prescribing and medication data; hospital admissions data and mortality data. Results Allergic disorders are extremely common in Scotland, affecting about one in three of the population at some time in their lives. Incidence was highest for eczema (10.2 per 1000 registered patients). Over 4% of all GP consultations and 1.5% of hospital admissions were for allergic disorders. There were 100 asthma deaths in 2005 (20 per million people). Direct healthcare costs for allergic disorders were an estimated £130 million per year, the majority of these being incurred in primary care and related to asthma. Conclusions Allergic disorders are common in Scotland and given the very high proportion of children now affected, the high disease burden associated with these conditions is likely to persist for many decades. PMID:19797601

  10. Epidemiology of post-traumatic limb amputation: a National Trauma Databank analysis.

    PubMed

    Barmparas, Galinos; Inaba, Kenji; Teixeira, Pedro G R; Dubose, Joseph J; Criscuoli, Michele; Talving, Peep; Plurad, David; Green, Donald; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the epidemiology and outcomes of posttraumatic upper (UEA) and lower extremity amputations (LEA). The National Trauma Databank version 5 was used to identify all posttraumatic amputations. From 2000 to 2004 there were 8910 amputated patients (1.0% of all trauma patients). Of these, 6855 (76.9%) had digit and 2055 (23.1%) had limb amputation. Of those with limb amputation, 92.7 per cent (1904/2055) had a single limb amputation. LEA were more frequent than UEA among patients in the single limb amputation group (58.9% vs 41.1%). The mechanism of injury was blunt in 83 per cent; most commonly after motor vehicle collisions (51.0%), followed by machinery accidents (19.4%). Motor vehicle collision occupants had more UEA (54.5% vs 45.5%, P < 0.001), whereas motorcyclists (86.2% vs 13.8%, P < 0.001) and pedestrians (91.9% vs 8.1%, P < 0.001) had more LEA. Patients with LEA were more likely to require discharge to a skilled nursing facility; whereas those with UEA were more likely to be discharged home. Traumatic limb amputation is not uncommon after trauma in the civilian population and is associated with significant morbidity. Although single limb amputation did not impact mortality, the need for multiple limb amputation was an independent risk factor for death.

  11. Specific-conductance, water-temperature, and water-level data, San Francisco Bay, California, for water years 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buchanan, P.A.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents time-series plots of specific-conductance, water-temperature, and water-level data collected in San Francisco Bay during water years 2001 and 2002 (October 1, 2000, through September 30, 2002). Specific-conductance and water-temperature data were recorded at 15-minute intervals at the following US Geological Survey (USGS) locations (Figure 1): • Suisun Bay at Benicia Bridge, near Benicia, California (BEN) (site # 11455780) • Carquinez Strait at Carquinez Bridge, near Crockett, California (CARQ) (site # 11455820) • Napa River at Mare Island Causeway, near Vallejo, California (NAP) (site # 11458370) • San Pablo Strait at Point San Pablo, California (PSP) (site # 11181360) • San Pablo Bay at Petaluma River Channel Marker 9, California (SPB) (site # 380519122262901) • San Francisco Bay at Presidio Military Reservation, California (PRES) (site # 11162690) • San Francisco Bay at Pier 24, at San Francisco, California (P24) (site # 11162700) • San Francisco Bay at San Mateo Bridge, near Foster City, California (SMB) (site # 11162765). Water-level data were recorded only at PSP through January 1, 2001. Suspended-sediment concentration data also were collected at most of these sites and were published by Buchanan and Ganju (2003). The data from PSP, PRES, P24, and SMB were recorded by the California Department of Water Resources (DWR) before 1988, by the USGS National Research Program from 1988 to 1989, and by the USGSDWR cooperative program since 1990. BEN, CARQ, NAP, and SPB were established in 1998 by the USGS.

  12. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association Women's Gymnastics Injuries, 2009–2010 Through 2013–2014

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Hayden, Ross; Barr, Megan; Klossner, David A.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent injury-surveillance data for collegiate-level women's gymnastics are limited. In addition, researchers have not captured non–time-loss injuries (ie, injuries resulting in restriction of participation <1 day). Objective To describe the epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) women's gymnastics injuries during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Aggregate injury and exposure data collected from 11 women's gymnastics programs providing 28 seasons of data. Patients or Other Participants Collegiate student-athletes participating in women's gymnastics during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years. Intervention(s) Women's gymnastics data from the NCAA Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009–2010 through 2013–2014 academic years were analyzed. Main Outcome Measure(s) Injury rates; injury rate ratios; injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and apparatus; and injury proportion ratios were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results The ISP captured 418 women's gymnastics injuries, a rate of 9.22/1000 athlete-exposures (AEs; 95% CI = 8.33, 10.10). The competition injury rate (14.49/1000 AEs) was 1.67 times the practice injury rate (8.69/1000 AEs; 95% CI = 1.27, 2.19). When considering time-loss injuries only, the injury rate during this study period (3.62/1000 AEs) was lower than rates reported in earlier NCAA ISP surveillance data. Commonly injured body sites were the ankle (17.9%, n = 75), lower leg/Achilles tendon (13.6%, n = 57), trunk (13.4%, n = 56), and foot (12.4%, n = 52). Common diagnoses were ligament sprain (20.3%, n = 85) and muscle/tendon strain (18.7%, n = 78). Overall, 12.4% (n = 52) of injuries resulted in time loss of more than 3 weeks. Of the 291 injuries reported while a student-athlete used an apparatus (69.6%), most occurred during the floor exercise (41.9%, n = 122) and on the uneven bars (28.2%, n = 82

  13. Hydrologic and Water-Quality Characteristics for Calf Creek Near Silber Hill, Arkansas and Selected Buffalo River Sites, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Green, W. Reed

    2004-01-01

    The Buffalo River and its tributary, Calf Creek, are in the White River Basin in the Ozark Plateaus physiographic province in north-central Arkansas. A better understanding of the hydrology and water quality of Calf Creek is of interest to many, including the National Park Service, which administers the Buffalo National River, to evaluate its effect on the hydrology and water quality of the Buffalo River. The streamflow and water-quality characteristics of Calf Creek near Silver Hill, Arkansas, were compared to two sites on the Buffalo River upstream (near Boxley, Arkansas) and downstream (near St. Joe, Arkansas) from the confluence of Calf Creek for calendar years 2001 and 2002. Annual and seasonal loads were estimated for Calf Creek for nutrients, dissolved organic carbon, and suspended sediment and compared with loads at sites on the Buffalo River. Flow-weighted concentrations and yields were computed from estimated annual loads for comparison with other developed and undeveloped basins. Streamflow varied annually and seasonally at the three sites. The Buffalo River near St. Joe had the largest annual mean streamflow (805 to 1,360 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) compared to the Buffalo River near Boxley (106 and 152 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002) and Calf Creek (39 and 80 cubic feet per second for 2001 and 2002). Concentrations of nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria generally were greater in samples from Calf Creek than in samples collected from both Buffalo River sites. Bacteria and suspended-sediment concentrations were greater in samples collected during high-flow events at all three sites. The Buffalo River near Boxley had the lowest concentrations for nutrients, suspended sediment, and fecal indicator bacteria. Estimated annual loads of the nutrients, suspended sediment, and organic carbon for 2001 and 2002 demonstrated substantial variability between the three sites and through time. Estimated loads for nutrients

  14. Survival Estimates for the Passage of Spring-Migrating Juvenile Salmonids through Snake and Columbia River Dams and Reservoirs, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zabel, Richard; Williams, John G.; Smith, Steven G.

    2002-06-01

    In 2001, the National Marine Fisheries Service and the University of Washington completed the ninth year of a study to estimate survival and travel time of juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp.) passing through dams and reservoirs on the Snake and Columbia Rivers. All estimates were derived from passive integrated transponder (PIT)-tagged fish. We PIT tagged and released at Lower Granite Dam a total of 17,028 hatchery and 3,550 wild steelhead. In addition, we utilized fish PIT tagged by other agencies at traps and hatcheries upstream of the hydropower system and sites within the hydropower system. PIT-tagged smolts were detected at interrogation facilities at Lower Granite, Little Goose, Lower Monumental, McNary, John Day, and Bonneville Dams and in the PIT-tag detector trawl operated in the Columbia River estuary. Survival estimates were calculated using the Single-Release Model. Primary research objectives in 2001 were to: (1) estimate reach and project survival and travel time in the Snake and Columbia Rivers throughout the yearling chinook salmon and steelhead migrations; (2) evaluate relationships between survival estimates and migration conditions; and (3) evaluate the survival-estimation models under prevailing conditions. This report provides reach survival and travel time estimates for 2001 for PIT-tagged yearling chinook salmon and steelhead (hatchery and wild) in the Snake and Columbia Rivers. Results are reported primarily in the form of tables and figures with a minimum of text. More details on methodology and statistical models used are provided in previous reports cited in the text. Results for summer-migrating chinook salmon will be reported separately.

  15. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project; Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Policy/Technical Involvement and Planning, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Easterbrooks, John A.; Pearsons, Todd N.

    2003-03-01

    The Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP) is a supplementation project sponsored by the Northwest Power Planning Council (Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program 1994, Measure 7.4K). The objectives of the YKFP are: (1) to test the hypothesis that new supplementation techniques can be used in the Yakima River Basin to increase natural production and to improve harvest opportunities while maintaining the long-term genetic fitness of the wild and native salmonid populations and keeping adverse ecological interactions within acceptable limits (Yakima Fisheries Project Final Environment Impact Statement, 1996); (2) provide knowledge about the use of supplementation, so that it may be used to mitigate effects on anadromous fisheries throughout the Columbia River Basin; (3) to maintain and improve the quantity and productivity of salmon and steelhead habitat, including those areas made accessible by habitat improvements; (4) to ensure that Project implementation remains consistent with the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program; and (5) to implement the Project in a prudent and environmentally sound manner. Current YKFP operations have been designed to test the principles of supplementation (Busack et al. 1997). The Project's experimental design has focused on the following critical uncertainties affecting supplementation: (1) The survival and reproductive success of hatchery fish after release from the hatchery; (2) The impacts of hatchery fish as they interact with non-target species and stocks; and, (3) The effects of supplementation on the long-term genetic fitness of fish stocks. The YKFP endorses an adaptive management policy applied through a project management framework as described in the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Planning Status Report (1995), Fast and Craig (1997), Clune and Dauble 1991. The project is managed by a Policy Group consisting of a representative of the Yakama Nation (YN, lead agency) and a representative of the Washington

  16. Assess Current and Potential Salmonid Production in Rattlesnake Creek Associated with Restoration Efforts; Underwood Conservation District, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Stampfli, Steve

    2004-02-01

    TAC's determination, the US Geological Survey (USGS), Yakama Nation (YN) and UCD began work to develop the current project that is intended to address the above. The overall goal of the Rattlesnake Creek assessment is to document existing riparian habitat and water quality conditions, native fish populations, and future restoration sites before future return of anadromous fish to the basin above RM 3.2. Since the project is jointly enacted by the USGS, YN and UCD, a high degree of shared planning and joint implementation is applied during completion of tasks. In general, the USGS and YN are cooperatively working to monitor and assess fish populations and riparian habitat conditions within the drainage and adjacent sections of the White Salmon. The UCD is generally responsible for assessing water quality, mapping stream channel geomorphology to enable future restoration planning, and measuring the ratios of carbon and nitrogen isotopes at various trophic levels The remainder of this report provides a summary of significant activities achieved by the UCD under BPA Project 21009 during the first project year. The report follows the FY 2001 UCD/BPA contract Statement of Work (SOW) format. Discussion of major problems encountered, changes in the work plan and schedule deviations are noted in italics after the description of accomplishments for each task.

  17. Testing multicultural robustness of the Child Behavior Checklist in a national epidemiological sample in Uruguay.

    PubMed

    Viola, Laura; Garrido, Gabriela; Rescorla, Leslie

    2011-08-01

    Comparisons of Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) scores from 31 societies (Rescorla et al. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) supported the instrument's multicultural robustness, but none of these societies was in South America. The present study tested the multicultural robustness of the 2001 CBCL using data from a national epidemiological survey in Uruguay. Participants were 1,374 6- to 11-year-olds recruited through 65 schools nationwide; 1,098 (80%) had received no mental health or special education services in the past year (non-referred group), whereas 276 (referred group) had been referred for mental health services, had repeated ≥ 2 grades, or had significant developmental disabilities. Mean item ratings, factor structure, and scale internal consistencies were very similar to findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) and Ivanova et al. (Journal of Clinical Child and Adoloescent Psychology 36: 405-417 2007). Children from low SES school environments obtained higher problem scores, especially in the referred group. Gender, age, and referral status effects paralleled those in the U.S. Non-referred children obtained somewhat higher mean problem scores in Uruguay than in the U.S., but mean score differences between non-referred and referred children were smaller in Uruguay than the U.S. Findings supporting the CBCL's multicultural robustness in a South American country extend the generalizability of findings reported by Rescorla et al. (Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Disorders 15:13-142 2007) for 31 societies.

  18. Epidemiology of 577 pediatric firearm fatalities: a 2-year review of the National Trauma Data Bank.

    PubMed

    Oyetunji, Tolulope A; Haider, Adil H; Obirieze, Augustine C; Fisher, Michael; Cornwell, Edward E; Qureshi, Faisal G; Abdullah, Fizan; Nwomeh, Benedict C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate the epidemiology of pediatric firearm injuries, including ethno-demographic patterns with impact on years of potential life lost (YPLL). A 2-year review of the National Trauma Data Bank (2007 to 2008) was conducted. Firearm fatalities in records of patients younger than 18 years were identified. Data were analyzed by demographic and injury characteristics and YPLL was calculated by ethnicity. A total of 577 deaths were identified in the pediatric group. Blacks accounted for 49.7 per cent of the fatalities; Hispanics, 19.2 per cent; whites, 17.7 per cent, and other ethnicity, 13.4 per cent. Median Injury Severity Score was 25 with a median Glasgow Coma Scale score of 3. Traumatic brain injury was present in 84.2 per cent of the records. Assault accounted for 72.8 per cent, self-inflicted injury 12.7 per cent, and unintentional injuries were 8.2 per cent. Most firearm fatalities occurred at home (33.6%). By emergency department (ED) disposition, 29.3 per cent died in the ED, 32.9 per cent were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 30.0 per cent taken to the operating room. Blacks had a total of 17,446 YPLL, Hispanics 6,776 YPLL, and whites 6,718 YPLL. Pediatric firearm fatalities still remain an important public health concern. Inclusive gun control policies focused on primary prevention of accidental injuries may be more effective in mitigating its impact. PMID:24887667

  19. Academic Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Red River Coll., Winnipeg (Manitoba).

    Red River College, Manitoba, Canada, is the largest and most comprehensive institute of applied learning in the province. It provides education and training to 32,000 full- and part-time enrollees per year, and offers more than 110 diploma, certificate, and apprenticeship programs. The 2000/2001 annual employment and satisfaction survey of College…

  20. EDExpress Packaging Training, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    Packaging is the process of finding the best combination of aid to meet a student's financial need for college, given limited resources and the institutional constraints that vary from school to school. This guide to packaging under the EDExpress software system outlines three steps to packaging. The first is determining the student's need for…

  1. Deaf-Blind Perspectives, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Peggy, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    Three issues of this newsletter on deaf-blind issues include announcements, reviews, news items, and the following articles: "'What's My Role?' A Comparison of the Responsibilities of Interpreters, Interveners, and Support Service Providers" (Susanne Morgan); "A Support Service Provider Program in Utah" (Cordie Weed); "Valued Outcomes for Students…

  2. Breakfast in America, 2001-2002

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study was to identify the demographic characteristics of American breakfast eaters, examine nutrient contributions of breakfast to the average U.S. diet, and identify top reported breakfast foods and beverages. Data were from individuals 2 years of age and older (n=9,033) from t...

  3. Focus on Basics, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Barbara, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This volume of newsletters focuses on connecting research and practice in adult literacy programs. Issue A of August 2001 includes: "Techniques for Teaching Beginning-Level Reading to Adults" (Ashley Hager); "Beginning ESOL Learners' Advice to Their Teachers" (MaryAnn Cunningham Florez); "The Neurobiology of Reading and Dyslexia" (Sally E.…

  4. The President's Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, Mary

    This report is a summary of the state of Los Angeles City College (California) in 2002. It examines past goals and demonstrates completion of each, summarizes the state of the college, and looks ahead to the next 5 years by defining 8 priorities for the future. Los Angeles City College (LACC) President Mary Spangler describes how the College has…

  5. Dengue fever, Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Effler, Paul V; Pang, Lorrin; Kitsutani, Paul; Vorndam, Vance; Nakata, Michele; Ayers, Tracy; Elm, Joe; Tom, Tammy; Reiter, Paul; Rigau-Perez, José G; Hayes, John M; Mills, Kristin; Napier, Mike; Clark, Gary G; Gubler, Duane J

    2005-05-01

    Autochthonous dengue infections were last reported in Hawaii in 1944. In September 2001, the Hawaii Department of Health was notified of an unusual febrile illness in a resident with no travel history; dengue fever was confirmed. During the investigation, 1,644 persons with locally acquired denguelike illness were evaluated, and 122 (7%) laboratory-positive dengue infections were identified; dengue virus serotype 1 was isolated from 15 patients. No cases of dengue hemorrhagic fever or shock syndrome were reported. In 3 instances autochthonous infections were linked to a person who reported denguelike illness after travel to French Polynesia. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Hawaiian isolates were closely associated with contemporaneous isolates from Tahiti. Aedes albopictus was present in all communities surveyed on Oahu, Maui, Molokai, and Kauai; no Ae. aegypti were found. This outbreak underscores the importance of maintaining surveillance and control of potential disease vectors even in the absence of an imminent disease threat.

  6. PTAGIS Annual Progress Report, 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission.

    2002-05-01

    This is the annual report for the PTAGIS project. February 28, 2002 marked the end of the 2001/02 PTAGIS fiscal year. All critical project activities progressed on schedule. However, a number of activities that have been traditionally performed by PTAGIS have been curtailed due to lack of resources. These reduced activities include production and distribution of the ''PTAGIS Newsletter'', development of a robust Web-based interface to PTAGIS data, curtailment efforts to upgrade critical database server hardware systems and processes and other activities. The main reasons for the lack of resources are: (1) In June, 2001, the region made a decision to expedite the installation of PIT tag detection at Bonneville and McNary dams. BPA issued contract 7422 to PSMFC to provide labor and material to install these systems. Nearly every PTAGIS resource was dedicated to this effort; (2) The Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Authority, Northwest Power Planning Council and Bonneville Power Administration have not solicited project proposals and budgets for over two years. Project requirements (represented in increasing scope, scale and complexity) have increased, but funding has not.

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and socioeconomic variables in a nation undergoing epidemiologic transition

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) related deaths is not only the prime cause of mortality in the world, it has also continued to increase in the low and middle income countries. Hence, this study examines the relationship between CVD risk factors and socioeconomic variables in Malaysia, which is a rapidly growing middle income nation undergoing epidemiologic transition. Methods Using data from 11,959 adults aged 30 years and above, and living in urban and rural areas between 2007 and 2010, this study attempts to examine the prevalence of CVD risk factors, and the association between these factors, and socioeconomic and demographic variables in Malaysia. The socioeconomic and demographic, and anthropometric data was obtained with blood pressure and fasting venous blood for glucose and lipids through a community-based survey. Results The association between CVD risk factors, and education and income was mixed. There was a negative association between smoking and hypertension, and education and income. The association between diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and being overweight with education and income was not clear. More men than women smoked in all education and income groups. The remaining consistent results show that the relationship between smoking, and education and income was obvious and inverse among Malays, others, rural women, Western Peninsular Malaysia (WPM) and Eastern Peninsular Malaysia (EPM). Urban men showed higher prevalence of being overweight than rural men in all education and income categories. Except for those with no education more rural men smoked than urban men. Also, Malay men in all education and income categories showed the highest prevalence of smoking among the ethnic groups. Conclusions The association between CVD risk factors and socioeconomic variables should be considered when formulating programmes to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in low and middle income countries. While general awareness programmes should be targeted

  8. Epidemiology and outcome of burns: early experience at the country's first national burns centre.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Tariq; Saaiq, Muhammad; Ali, Zahid

    2013-03-01

    This study aims to document the epidemiologic pattern and outcome of burn injuries in the country's first national burn centre. This case series study was conducted over a 2-year period at Burns Care Centre (BCC), Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences (PIMS), Islamabad. The study included all burn injury patients who primarily presented to and were managed at the centre. Those patients who presented more than 24 h after injury or those who were initially managed at some other hospital were excluded from the study. Initial assessment and diagnosis was made by thorough history, physical examination and necessary investigations. Patients with major burns, high voltage electric burns and those needing any surgical interventions were admitted for indoor management. Patients with minor burns were discharged home after necessary emergency management, home medication and follow-up advice. The sociodemographic profile of the patients, site of sustaining burn injury, type and extent (total body surface area (TBSA), skin thickness involved and associated inhalational injury) of burn and outcome in terms of survival or mortality, etc., were all recorded on a proforma. The data were subjected to statistical analysis. Out of a total of 13,295 patients, there were 7503 (56.43%) males and 5792 (43.56%) females. The mean age for adults was 33.63±10.76 years and for children it was 6.71±3.47 years. The household environment constituted the commonest site of burns (68%). Among all age groups and both genders, scalds were the commonest burns (42.48%), followed by flame burns (39%) and electrical burns (9.96%). The affected mean TBSA was 10.64±11.45% overall, while for the hospitalised subset of patients the mean TBSA was 38.04±15.18%. Most of the burns were partial thickness (67%). Inhalation injury was found among 149 (1.12%) patients. Most of the burns were non-intentional and only 96 (0.72%) were intentional. A total of 1405 patients (10.58%) were admitted while the remainder

  9. Cross-National Measurement Invariance of the Teacher and Classmate Support Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torsheim, Torbjorn; Samdal, Oddrun; Rasmussen, Mette; Freeman, John; Griebler, Robert; Dur, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The cross-national measurement invariance of the teacher and classmate support scale was assessed in a study of 23202 Grade 8 and 10 students from Austria, Canada, England, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, and Slovenia, participating in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2001/2002 study. A multi-group means and covariance analysis…

  10. Changes in time-use and drug use by young adults in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires, Argentina, after the political transitions of 2001-2002: Results of a survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In some countries, "Big Events" like crises and transitions have been followed by large increases in drug use, drug injection and HIV/AIDS. Argentina experienced an economic crisis and political transition in 2001/2002 that affected how people use their time. This paper studies how time use changes between years 2001 and 2004, subsequent to these events, were associated with drug consumption in poor neighbourhoods of Greater Buenos Aires. Methods In 2003-2004, 68 current injecting drug users (IDUs) and 235 young non-IDUs, aged 21-35, who lived in impoverished drug-impacted neighbourhoods in Greater Buenos Aires, were asked about time use then and in 2001. Data on weekly hours spent working or looking for work, doing housework/childcare, consuming drugs, being with friends, and hanging out in the neighbourhood, were studied in relation to time spent using drugs. Field observations and focus groups were also conducted. Results After 2001, among both IDUs and non-IDUs, mean weekly time spent working declined significantly (especially among IDUs); time spent looking for work increased, and time spent with friends and hanging out in the neighbourhood decreased. We found no increase in injecting or non-injecting drug consumption after 2001. Subjects most affected by the way the crises led to decreased work time and/or to increased time looking for work--and by the associated increase in time spent in one's neighbourhood--were most likely to increase their time using drugs. Conclusions Time use methods are useful to study changes in drug use and their relationships to every day life activities. In these previously-drug-impacted neighbourhoods, the Argentinean crisis did not lead to an increase in drug use, which somewhat contradicts our initial expectations. Nevertheless, those for whom the crises led to decreased work time, increased time looking for work, and increased time spent in indoor or outdoor neighbourhood environments, were likely to spend more time

  11. Associations among Trauma, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder, Cannabis Use, and Cannabis Use Disorder in a Nationally Representative Epidemiologic Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kevorkian, Salpi; Bonn-Miller, Marcel O.; Belendiuk, Katherine; Carney, Dever M.; Roberson-Nay, Roxann; Berenz, Erin C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Research in community and clinical samples has documented elevated rates of cannabis use and cannabis use disorders (CUDs) among individuals with trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, there is a lack of research investigating relations between, and correlates of, trauma and cannabis phenotypes in epidemiologic samples. The current study examined associations between trauma (i.e., lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD) and cannabis phenotypes (i.e., lifetime cannabis use and CUD) in a nationally representative sample. Methods Participants were individuals who participated in waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (n=34,396; 52.4% women; Mage=48.0 years, SD=16.9). Results Lifetime DSM-IV Criterion A trauma exposure was significantly associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR=1.215) but was only marginally associated with CUD (OR=0.997). Within the trauma-exposed sample, lifetime PTSD showed a significant association with CUD (OR=1.217) but was only marginally associated with lifetime cannabis use (OR=0.992). Conclusions Partially consistent with hypotheses, lifetime trauma was associated with greater odds of lifetime cannabis use while PTSD was associated with greater odds of CUD. Longitudinal research investigating patterns of onset of these events/disorders is needed. PMID:26415060

  12. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  13. Genomic epidemiology of age-associated meningococcal lineages in national surveillance: an observational cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Dorothea M C; Lucidarme, Jay; Gray, Stephen J; Newbold, Lynne S; Ure, Roisin; Brehony, Carina; Harrison, Odile B; Bray, James E; Jolley, Keith A; Bratcher, Holly B; Parkhill, Julian; Tang, Christoph M; Borrow, Ray; Maiden, Martin C J

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) is a worldwide health issue that is potentially preventable with vaccination. In view of its sporadic nature and the high diversity of Neisseria meningitidis, epidemiological surveillance incorporating detailed isolate characterisation is crucial for effective control and understanding the evolving epidemiology of IMD. The Meningitis Research Foundation Meningococcus Genome Library (MRF-MGL) exploits whole-genome sequencing (WGS) for this purpose and presents data on a comprehensive and coherent IMD isolate collection from England and Wales via the internet. We assessed the contribution of these data to investigating IMD epidemiology. Methods WGS data were obtained for all 899 IMD isolates available for England and Wales in epidemiological years 2010–11 and 2011–12. The data had been annotated at 1720 loci, analysed, and disseminated online. Information was also available on meningococcal population structure and vaccine (Bexsero, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, Middlesex, UK) antigen variants, which enabled the investigation of IMD-associated genotypes over time and by patients' age groups. Population genomic analyses were done with a hierarchical gene-by-gene approach. Findings The methods used by MRF-MGL efficiently characterised IMD isolates and information was provided in plain language. At least 20 meningococcal lineages were identified, three of which (hyperinvasive clonal complexes 41/44 [lineage 3], 269 [lineage 2], and 23 [lineage 23]) were responsible for 528 (59%) of IMD isolates. Lineages were highly diverse and showed evidence of extensive recombination. Specific lineages were associated with IMD in particular age groups, with notable diversity in the youngest and oldest individuals. The increased incidence of IMD from 1984 to 2010 in England and Wales was due to successive and concurrent epidemics of different lineages. Genetically, 74% of isolates were characterised as encoding group B capsules

  14. Epidemiologic surveillance. [1994] amended annual report for Brookhaven National Laboratory. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    Epidemiologic surveillance at DOE facilities consists of regular and systematic collection, analysis, and interpretation of data on absences due to illness and injury in the work force. Its purpose is to provide an early warning system for health problems occurring among employees at participating sites. Data are collected by coordinators at each site and submitted to the Epidemiologic Surveillance Data Center, located at the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, where quality control procedures and analyses are carried out. Rates of absences and rates of diagnoses associated with absences are analyzed by occupation and other relevant variables. They may be compared with the disease experience of different groups within the DOE work force and with populations that do not work for DOE to identify disease patterns or clusters that may be associated with work activities. This amended annual report corrects errors in the initial release of the BNL report for 1994. In this annual report, the 1994 morbidity data for BNL are summarized.

  15. Substance use and abuse by Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders: preliminary results from four national epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed Central

    Price, Rumi Kato; Risk, Nathan K.; Wong, Mamie Mee; Klingle, Renee Storm

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The authors analyzed four recent large national surveys to assess the degree of use and abuse of a wide range of psychoactive substances across subgroups of Asian Americans and Pacific Islanders (AAPIs) and in comparison with whites. METHOD: The surveys analyzed were the 1999 National Household Survey on Drug Abuse, the 1992 National Longitudinal Alcohol Epidemiologic Survey, and the 1995 National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health In-School and In-Home surveys. The AAPI sample sizes varied from 900 to more than 4,500 across the four surveys. RESULTS: Among major racial groups, use of major substances is lowest for AAPIs. Among disaggregated AAPI groups, Japanese Americans have the highest substance use rates. Mixed-heritage AAPIs are at high risk for substance use, even after controlling for cultural protective factors and socioeconomic measures. Differential rates correspond to the ranking of several acculturation and socioeconomic indices. CONCLUSION: The results, while preliminary, point to the importance of rethinking ethnic and racial classifications for estimating substance use and abuse, for studying substance abuse problems in mixed-heritage adolescents, and for studying socioenvironmental and potentially genetic protective factors. PMID:12435826

  16. Comorbidity of social anxiety disorder and antisocial personality disorder in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Galbraith, Todd; Heimberg, Richard G; Wang, Shuai; Schneier, Franklin R; Blanco, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) and antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) are not often thought of as being comorbid. However, recent research suggests the existence of a SAD subtype with characteristics atypical of SAD but common to ASPD. Thus, we explored two competing hypotheses: (1) SAD and ASPD represent opposite ends of a single dimension, or (2) SAD and ASPD exist on two separate dimensions that may be positively correlated. Data were obtained from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. SAD-ASPD was related to greater impairment and psychiatric comorbidity than either disorder alone. The SAD-ASPD group was also more likely to seek treatment for their SAD symptoms and to drink before/during antisocial acts than the SAD only group. The presence of SAD for individuals with ASPD (and vice versa) does not appear to provide any "protective benefits." SAD and ASPD appear to be two separate but correlated disorders.

  17. The Indigenous World, 2001-2002 = El Mundo Indigena, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vinding, Diana, Ed.; Wessendorff, Kathrin, Ed.; Parellada, Alejandro, Ed.; Erni, Christian, Ed.; Jensen, Marianne, Ed.; Garcia-Alix, Lola, Ed.

    This document contains the English and Spanish texts of an annual publication which examines political, social, environmental, and educational issues concerning indigenous peoples around the world in 2001-02. Part 1 describes current situations and events in 11 world regions: the Arctic; North America; Mexico and Central America; South America;…

  18. 75 FR 63490 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-15

    ...; (3) understand treatment utilization, unmet treatment need, barriers to treatment, health disparities... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health Proposed Collection; Comment Request;...

  19. EPIDEMIOLOGY AND EXPOSURE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research collaborations between the National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory (NHEERL) and the National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) centered on the development and application of exposure analysis tools in environmental epidemiology include the El Paso...

  20. Epidemiology of Endometriosis in France: A Large, Nation-Wide Study Based on Hospital Discharge Data.

    PubMed

    von Theobald, Peter; Cottenet, Jonathan; Iacobelli, Silvia; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis in the general population in France and in each French region and to describe temporal trends, rehospitalization rates, and prevalence of the different types of endometriosis. The analyses were carried out on French hospital discharge data and covered the period 2008-2012 and a population of 14,239,197 women of childbearing age. In this population, the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis was 0.9%, ranging from 0.4% to 1.6% between regions. Endometriosis affected 1.5% of hospitalized women of childbearing age, ranging from 1.0% to 2.4% between regions. The number of patients hospitalized for endometriosis significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.01). Of these, 4.2% were rehospitalized at least once at one year: ranging from 2.7% to 6.3% between regions. The cumulative rehospitalization rate at 3 years was 6.9%. The types of endometriosis according to the procedures performed were as follows: ovarian (40-50%), peritoneal (20-30%), intestinal (10-20%), and ureteral or bladder (<10%), with significant differences between regions. This is the first detailed epidemiological study of endometriosis in France. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and for the significant differences in regional prevalence of this disease.

  1. Epidemiology of Endometriosis in France: A Large, Nation-Wide Study Based on Hospital Discharge Data

    PubMed Central

    von Theobald, Peter; Cottenet, Jonathan; Iacobelli, Silvia; Quantin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    We aimed to assess the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis in the general population in France and in each French region and to describe temporal trends, rehospitalization rates, and prevalence of the different types of endometriosis. The analyses were carried out on French hospital discharge data and covered the period 2008–2012 and a population of 14,239,197 women of childbearing age. In this population, the prevalence of hospitalization for endometriosis was 0.9%, ranging from 0.4% to 1.6% between regions. Endometriosis affected 1.5% of hospitalized women of childbearing age, ranging from 1.0% to 2.4% between regions. The number of patients hospitalized for endometriosis significantly increased over the study period (p < 0.01). Of these, 4.2% were rehospitalized at least once at one year: ranging from 2.7% to 6.3% between regions. The cumulative rehospitalization rate at 3 years was 6.9%. The types of endometriosis according to the procedures performed were as follows: ovarian (40–50%), peritoneal (20–30%), intestinal (10–20%), and ureteral or bladder (<10%), with significant differences between regions. This is the first detailed epidemiological study of endometriosis in France. Further studies are needed to assess the reasons for the increasing prevalence of endometriosis and for the significant differences in regional prevalence of this disease. PMID:27148550

  2. Epidemiology of Uromodulin-Associated Kidney Disease – Results from a Nation-Wide Survey

    PubMed Central

    Lhotta, Karl; Piret, Sian E.; Kramar, Reinhard; Thakker, Rajesh V.; Sunder-Plassmann, Gere; Kotanko, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Background/Aims Uromodulin-associated kidney disease (UAKD) is caused by uromodulin mutations and leads to end-stage renal disease. Our objective was to examine the epidemiology of UAKD. Methods Data from all UAKD families in Austria were collected. Patients included in the Austrian Dialysis and Transplantation Registry (OEDTR) with unclear diagnoses or genetic diseases were asked whether they had (1) a family history of kidney disease or (2) had suffered from gout. Patients with gout and autosomal dominant renal disease underwent mutational analysis. Kaplan-Meier and Cox analysis was employed to estimate time to renal failure. Results Of the 6,210 patients in the OEDTR, 541 were approached with a questionnaire; 353 patients answered the questionnaire. Nineteen of them gave two affirmative answers. In 7 patients, an autosomal dominant renal disease was found; in 1 patient a UMOD mutation was identified. One family was diagnosed through increased awareness as a consequence of the study. At present, 14 UAKD patients from 5 families are living in Austria (1.67 cases per million), and 6 of them require renal replacement therapy (0.73 per 1,000 patients). Progression to renal failure was significantly associated with UMOD genotype. Conclusion UAKD patients can be identified by a simple questionnaire. UMOD genotype may affect disease progression. PMID:22740033

  3. [Epidemiological profile of children burns admitted at the National Center for Brules, Morocco].

    PubMed

    Zahid, A; Atannaz, J; Alaoui, M; Rafik, A; Ezzoubi, M; Diouri, M; Chlihi, A; Bahechar, N; Boukind, E H

    2011-12-31

    This retrospective study was performed in order to analyse the epidemiology and aetiology of 543 cases of paediatric burns and to determine the elements that might have contributed to their prevention, which remains the treatment of choice for this pathology. The paediatric hospitalization rate for burns was 45.7% (mean age, 4.25 yr), the highest proportion of patients (42.5%) being in the 1-5 yr age group. The male/female ratio in all age groups was 1.7/1. The environment where burn injury most commonly occurred was the home (85.1%), and with accidental causes, accounting for 96.5% of the causes (mainly liquids, 69.3%). The mean percentage of burned body surface area was 21% with a total burned body surface area of ≥ 20% in 52.3% of cases. The upper limbs (79.1%) were the most affected body site; and the children were referred from other hospitals in more than 6 h in 65.5% of cases. The mortality rate was 13.2%

  4. Continuing the Epidemiological Function of the Addicts Index--Evidence from Matching the Home Office Addicts Index with the National Drug Treatment Monitoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hickman, Matthew; Griffin, Maria; Mott, Joy; Corkery, John; Madden, Peter; Sondhi, Arun; Stimson, Gerry

    2004-01-01

    Aims: We discuss the Addicts Index (AI) and examine whether the epidemiological trends of the AI can be continued by the regional drug misuse databases (DMDs, now known as National Drug Treatment Monitoring System (NDTMS). Methods: (i) Matching individuals recorded as addicted to opiates and/or cocaine in the AI with those reported to the North…

  5. SURVEY OF ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE AND HEALTH OUTCOMES AT BEACHES FOR THE NATIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGICAL A ND ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT OF RECREATIONAL (NEEAR) WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Objective
    In the of summer 2004, the US EPA and the CDC conducted the National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational (NEEAR) Water Study at Silver Beach and Washington Park Beach. This full-scale study is collecting the data necessary fo...

  6. Cross-national epidemiology of DSM-IV major depressive episode

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Major depression is one of the leading causes of disability worldwide, yet epidemiologic data are not available for many countries, particularly low- to middle-income countries. In this paper, we present data on the prevalence, impairment and demographic correlates of depression from 18 high and low- to middle-income countries in the World Mental Health Survey Initiative. Methods Major depressive episodes (MDE) as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition (DMS-IV) were evaluated in face-to-face interviews using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI). Data from 18 countries were analyzed in this report (n = 89,037). All countries surveyed representative, population-based samples of adults. Results The average lifetime and 12-month prevalence estimates of DSM-IV MDE were 14.6% and 5.5% in the ten high-income and 11.1% and 5.9% in the eight low- to middle-income countries. The average age of onset ascertained retrospectively was 25.7 in the high-income and 24.0 in low- to middle-income countries. Functional impairment was associated with recency of MDE. The female: male ratio was about 2:1. In high-income countries, younger age was associated with higher 12-month prevalence; by contrast, in several low- to middle-income countries, older age was associated with greater likelihood of MDE. The strongest demographic correlate in high-income countries was being separated from a partner, and in low- to middle-income countries, was being divorced or widowed. Conclusions MDE is a significant public-health concern across all regions of the world and is strongly linked to social conditions. Future research is needed to investigate the combination of demographic risk factors that are most strongly associated with MDE in the specific countries included in the WMH. PMID:21791035

  7. The epidemiology of geriatric burns in Iran: A national burn registry-based study.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seyed-Abolhassan; Motevalian, Seyed Abbas; Momeni, Mahnoush; Karimi, Hamid

    2016-08-01

    Defining the epidemiology and outcome of geriatric burn patients is critical for specialized burn centers, health-care workers, and governments. Better resource use and effective guidelines are some of the advantages of studies focusing on this aspect. The outcome of these patients serves as an objective criterion for quality control, research, and preventive programs. We used data from the burn registry program in our country. For 2 years, >28,700 burn patients were recorded, 1721 of whom were admitted. Among them, 187 patients were ≥55 years old. Sixty-nine percent of patients were male and 31% female, with a male to female ratio of 2.22:1. The mean±standard deviation (SD) of age was 63.4±8.1. The cause of burns was flame (58.2%) and scalds (20.3%). Most of the burns were sustained at home. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19.5 days (range 3-59 days). The mean (SD) of the total body surface area (TBSA) was 20.3% (8.4%). The median hospital stay (length of stay (LOS)) was 11 days (SD=14). The increase in TBSA was related to a longer LOS (p<0.02). Burn wound infection developed in 44.3% of patients. The presence of inhalation injury was significantly related to mortality (p<0.001). Among the patients, 9% recovered completely, 74.9% recovered partially (requiring further treatment), 1% underwent amputation, and 12.8% died. The lack of insurance coverage did not affect the survival of our geriatric burn patients. However, being alone or single, ignition of clothing, cause of burn, comorbid illnesses, complications following the burn, TBSA, age, and sepsis were positively correlated with mortality. The mean cost of treatment for each patient was about $7450.

  8. The epidemiology of malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) and contribution to cattle losses in farms around Rhodes Matopos National Park, Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Mlilo, Dedani; Mhlanga, Mlamuleli; Mwembe, Richard; Sisito, Givious; Moyo, Busani; Sibanda, Boat

    2015-06-01

    Malignant catarrhal fever (MCF) is a fatal viral disease of cattle prevalent in farms bordering wildlife conservancies and national parks where cattle and wildebeests cohabit. The behaviour of the diseases and its related contribution to cattle mortalities has been poorly studied in the smallholder sector. A study was therefore conducted to established trends of occurrence and contribution to animal losses in 97 smallholder farms and eight commercial farms bordering Rhodes Matopos National Park (RMNP). A structured questionnaire and secondary records were used to gather the data in the smallholder and commercial farms, respectively. In the smallholder sector, cattle farmers from three villages were chosen as respondents in a survey to provide information on the impact and extent of losses in their cattle herds. Epidemiological data from January 2006 to April 2014 was extracted from farm records from two Matopos Research Institute farms. A seasonal pattern in MCF occurrence was observed. Most cattle mortalities were recorded during summer (February to May), with highest mortalities recorded from March to April. Sporadic cases were however recorded in October and November in year 2007, 2010, and 2012. The study further revealed that MCF caused 71 and 21 % of cattle mortalities in the commercial and smallholder sector, respectively. Deferred grazing of wildebeest hotspots by restriction of cattle movement during summer or November to April period avoids wildebeest-cattle contact. This can alleviate cattle mortalities due to MCF.

  9. EPIDEMIOLOGY and Health Care Reform The National Health Survey of 1935-1936

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The National Health Survey undertaken in 1935 and 1936 was the largest morbidity survey until that time. It was also the first national survey to focus on chronic disease and disability. The decision to conduct a survey of this magnitude was part of the larger strategy to reform health care in the United States. The focus on morbidity allowed reformers to argue that the health status of Americans was poor, despite falling mortality rates that suggested the opposite. The focus on chronic disease morbidity proved to be an especially effective way of demonstrating the poor health of the population and the strong links between poverty and illness. The survey, undertaken by a small group of reform-minded epidemiologists led by Edgar Sydenstricker, was made possible by the close interaction during the Depression of agencies and actors in the public health and social welfare sectors, a collaboration which produced new ways of thinking about disease burdens. PMID:21233434

  10. Epidemiology and survival of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from national data in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert B; Burke, Natasha; Fell, Charlene; Dion, Genevieve; Kolb, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare disease, with estimates of prevalence varying considerably across countries due to paucity in data collection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of IPF in Canada using administrative data requiring minimal extrapolation.We used mandatory national administrative data from 2007-2011 to identify IPF cases of all ages with an International Classification of Diseases (Version 10, Canadian) diagnosis code of J84.1. We used a broad definition that excluded cases with subsequent diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases, and a narrow definition that required further diagnostic testing prior to IPF diagnosis. We explored survival and quality of life.For all ages, the broad prevalence of IPF was 41.8 per 100 000 (14 259 cases) and was higher for men. The incidence rate was 18.7 per 100 000 (6390 cases) and was higher for men. The narrow prevalence was 20.0 per 100 000 (6822 cases) and incidence was 9.0 per 100 000 (3057 cases). The 4-year risk of death was 41.0% and the quality of life with IPF after 2 years was lower than for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Using comprehensive national data, the prevalence of IPF in Canada was higher than other national estimates, suggesting that either IPF may be more common in Canada or that data capture may have been previously limited.

  11. Epidemiology and survival of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis from national data in Canada.

    PubMed

    Hopkins, Robert B; Burke, Natasha; Fell, Charlene; Dion, Genevieve; Kolb, Martin

    2016-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a rare disease, with estimates of prevalence varying considerably across countries due to paucity in data collection. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and incidence of IPF in Canada using administrative data requiring minimal extrapolation.We used mandatory national administrative data from 2007-2011 to identify IPF cases of all ages with an International Classification of Diseases (Version 10, Canadian) diagnosis code of J84.1. We used a broad definition that excluded cases with subsequent diagnosis of other interstitial lung diseases, and a narrow definition that required further diagnostic testing prior to IPF diagnosis. We explored survival and quality of life.For all ages, the broad prevalence of IPF was 41.8 per 100 000 (14 259 cases) and was higher for men. The incidence rate was 18.7 per 100 000 (6390 cases) and was higher for men. The narrow prevalence was 20.0 per 100 000 (6822 cases) and incidence was 9.0 per 100 000 (3057 cases). The 4-year risk of death was 41.0% and the quality of life with IPF after 2 years was lower than for Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stage IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.Using comprehensive national data, the prevalence of IPF in Canada was higher than other national estimates, suggesting that either IPF may be more common in Canada or that data capture may have been previously limited. PMID:27230442

  12. Correlates of Later-onset Cannabis Use in the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC)

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Arpana; Lynskey, Michael T.

    2009-01-01

    Background Much of the research surrounding correlates of cannabis initiation has focused on adolescent and young adult populations. However, there is growing evidence that cannabis onset occurs later in life as well and little is known of the risk and protective influences that are associated with late-onset cannabis initiation. Methods We used data on 34,653 individuals that participated in both the first wave and the 3-year follow-up (3YFU) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the association between cannabis initiation at 3YFU and socio-demographic, religious/pro-social and psychiatric measures. Analyses were also conducted in age bands to further distinguish across the lifespan. Results Of the 27,467 lifetime abstainers at wave 1, 509 had initiated cannabis use at 3YFU. Consistent associations between divorce, religious attendance, volunteer/community service, alcohol abuse/dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis initiation were noted in the full sample and across age-bands. Conclusions Religious and pro-social activities are negatively associated with late-onset cannabis onset while divorce and alcohol and nicotine-related problems are positively associated with later onset. PMID:19632792

  13. Sex differences in antisocial personality disorder: results from the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Alegria, Analucia A; Blanco, Carlos; Petry, Nancy M; Skodol, Andrew E; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget; Hasin, Deborah

    2013-07-01

    Despite the 3:1 prevalence ratio of men versus women with Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), research on sex differences on correlates of ASPD in the general population is scarce. The purpose of this study was to examine sex differences in childhood and adult adverse events, lifetime psychiatric comorbidity, and clinical correlates of DSM-IV ASPD. The sample included 819 men and 407 women with DSM-IV ASPD diagnosis. Data were derived from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) (N = 43,093). Compared to men, women with ASPD reported more frequent childhood emotional neglect (AOR = 2.25; 95% CI: 1.52-3.34) and sexual abuse (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 2.78-6.35), any parent-related adverse event during childhood (e.g., parental substance use disorder) (AOR = 2.47; 95% CI: 1.60-3.82), and adverse events during adulthood (AOR = 4.20; 95% CI: 2.78-6.35). Although women with ASPD present less violent antisocial behaviors and higher rates of aggressiveness and irritability (OR = 0.46; 95% CI: 0.31-0.67), they have higher rates of victimization, greater impairment, and lower social support. Our findings suggest increased mental health needs in women with ASPD, meriting development of different treatment programs for women and men.

  14. The Variety of Ecstasy/MDMA Users: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Li-Tzy; Parrott, Andy C.; Ringwalt, Christopher L.; Yang, Chongming; Blazer, Dan G.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the potential heterogeneity of ecstasy or MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine) users. Data came from the 2001–2002 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Latent class analysis (LCA) and multinomial logistic regression procedures were used to identify subtypes of ecstasy users. Approximately 1.6% (n=562) of adult participants (N=43,093) reported lifetime ecstasy use. LCA identified three subtypes of ecstasy users. Class 1 exhibited pervasive use of most drug classes (ecstasy–polydrug users, 37%). Class 2 reported a high rate of use of marijuana and cocaine and a moderate use of amphetamines (ecstasy–marijuana–stimulant users, 29%). Class 3 was characterized by a high rate of use of marijuana and a low use of primarily prescription-type drugs (ecstasy– marijuana users, 34%). Subtypes were distinguished by family income, history of substance abuse treatment, and familial substance abuse. Class 1 exhibited the highest prevalence of disorders related to the use of marijuana (77%), tobacco (66%), amphetamines (36%), opioids (35%), sedatives (31%), and tranquilizers (30%). The recent resurgence in ecstasy use among adults underscores the need to monitor trends in its use. PMID:19874166

  15. Regional Variation in Acute Kidney Injury Requiring Dialysis in the English National Health Service from 2000 to 2015 – A National Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Fluck, Richard J.; Muirhead, Andrew W.; Taal, Maarten W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The absence of effective interventions in presence of increasing national incidence and case-fatality in acute kidney injury requiring dialysis (AKI-D) warrants a study of regional variation to explore any potential for improvement. We therefore studied regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D in English National Health Service over a period of 15 years. Method We analysed Hospital Episode Statistics data for all patients with a diagnosis of AKI-D, using ICD-10-CM codes, in English regions between 2000 and 2015 to study temporal changes in regional incidence and case-fatality. Results Of 203,758,879 completed discharges between 1st April 2000 and 31st March 2015, we identified 54,252 patients who had AKI-D in the nine regions of England. The population incidence of AKI-D increased variably in all regions over 15 years; however, the regional variation decreased from 3·3-fold to 1·3-fold (p<0·01). In a multivariable adjusted model, using London as the reference, in the period of 2000–2005, the North East (odd ratio (OR) 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90), East Midlands (OR 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90) and West Midlands (OR 1·38; 95%CI 1·01, 1·90) had higher odds for death, while East of England had lower odds for death (OR 0·66; 95% CI 0·49, 0·90). The North East had higher OR in all three five-year periods as compared to the other eight regions. Adjusted case-fatality showed significant variability with temporary improvement in some regions but overall there was no significant improvement in any region over 15 years. Conclusions We observed considerable regional variation in the epidemiology of AKI-D that was not entirely attributable to variations in demographic or other identifiable clinical factors. These observations make a compelling case for further research to elucidate the reasons and identify interventions to reduce the incidence and case-fatality in all regions. PMID:27749903

  16. A large outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis on the Navajo Nation Indian Reservation, epidemiology and secondary transmission.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, M A; Pollard, R A; Merson, M H; Martin, S M

    1977-11-01

    In September 1974, the largest outbreak of foodborne salmonellosis ever reported to the Center for Disease Control--affecting an estimated 3,400 persons--occurred on the Navajo Nation Indian Reservation. The responsible agent was Salmonella newport and the vehicle of transmission was potato salad served to an estimated 11,000 persons at a free barbecue. The cooked ingredients of the potato salad had been stored for up to 16 hours at improper holding temperatures. The magnitude of the outbreak allowed us to study secondary transmission by calculating the rates of diarrheal illness during the 2 weeks following the outbreak in persons who did not attend the barbecue and by examining the results of stool cultures obtained after the outbreak. We found no secondary transmission. We conclude that a health official should monitor food preparation and service at large social gatherings and that person-to-person transmission of salmonellosis probably does not normally occur even in settings considered highly conductive to cross-infection. PMID:911019

  17. Towards a US national estimate of the risk of endemic waterborne disease--sero-epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Casemore, David

    2006-01-01

    Worldwide literature on serological methods and sero-surveys on waterborne pathogens has been reviewed. Outbreak investigation and research reports have also been examined to aid understanding of the serological response and transmission dynamics. The aim was to seek an estimate of seroprevalence and to determine if this could inform the US national estimate of risk for endemic waterborne infection associated with public water supplies. Antibody responses indicate infection, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, so probably give a truer indication of prevalence. Outbreak data can probably be regarded as the upper bound for seroprevalence estimations. Antibody is not necessarily protective per se but is a good indicator for at least partial resistance to symptomatic infection; absence of antibody will normally imply susceptibility. Pathogens transmitted by water are commonly transmitted by other routes. However, the fact that other transmission routes are more common does not detract from the potential protective effect of immunity when waterborne transmission occurs. Data indicate that seroprevalence varies widely, reflecting geographic, social and hygiene factors, but is generally greater where surface water sources are used rather than groundwater. Areas of low seroprevalence may expect a high attack rate in the event of contamination of their water supply.

  18. Epidemiology of twinning in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, 1997–2007

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, April L.; Tinker, Sarah C.; Jamieson, Denise J.; Hobbs, Charlotte A.; Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Reefhuis, Jennita

    2015-01-01

    Background Our objective was to evaluate associations between twinning and maternal demographic factors and periconceptional exposures among infants with and without orofacial clefts. Methods We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study; 228 twins and 8,242 singletons without birth defects (controls), and 117 twins and 2,859 singletons with orofacial clefts, born 1997–2007, were included in the analyses. Because of the occurrence of twinning due to the use of assisted reproductive technologies, logistic regression models were computed to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for each exposure, stratified by fertility treatment use. To evaluate factors by zygosity, we used sex-pairing data and a simulation approach to estimate the zygosity of like-sex twin pairs for unassisted conceptions. Results Among control mothers who did not use fertility treatments, predictors of twinning included non-Hispanic black maternal race (adjusted OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0–2.4), and tobacco smoking (1.6, 1.1–2.4). Among control mothers who used fertility treatments, older maternal age, higher income, and state of residence were associated with twinning. Associations were generally stronger among mothers of dizygotic (estimated) twins than monozygotic (estimated) twins. Results for mothers of infants with isolated orofacial clefts were similar to those of controls. Conclusion We observed an increased twinning frequency with increasing maternal age, but factors such as maternal race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status may also contribute. Among women receiving fertility treatments, factors associated with twinning suggested a relation with treatment specifics (e.g., treatment type and number of embryos implanted) and availability of insurance coverage. PMID:25359509

  19. Epidemiology and survivorship of soft tissue sarcomas in adults: a national cancer database reporta

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Robert M; Swett, Katrina; Ward, William G

    2014-01-01

    The National Cancer Data Base (NCDB) of the American College of Surgeons gather demographic and survival data on ∼70% of cancers in the USA. We wanted to investigate the demographic and survivorship data on this potentially more representative cohort of patients with soft tissue sarcomas. We selected 34 of the most commonly encountered soft tissue sarcomas reported to the NCDB, provided that each entity contained a minimum of 50 cases. This report summarizes the demographic and survivorship data on 63,714 patients with these 34 histologically distinct soft tissue sarcomas reported to the NCDB from 1998 to 2010. The overall survivorships of these sarcomas were near the lower limits of many prior reports due to the all-inclusive, minimally biased inclusion criteria. The overall best prognosis was Dermatofibrosarcoma NOS (not otherwise specified). (5-year survivorship 92%). The worst prognosis was Dedifferentiated Chondrosarcoma (5-year survivorship 19%). New observations included Biphasic Synovial Sarcoma demonstrating a better 5-year survivorship (65%) compared to spindle-cell synovial sarcoma (56%, P < 0.031) and Synovial Sarcoma, NOS (52%, P < 0.001). The demographic and 2- and 5-year survivorship data for all 34 soft tissue sarcomas are presented herein. This extent of demographic and survival data in soft tissue sarcomas is unprecedented. Because of the large number of cases and the inclusive nature of the NCDB, without restriction to certain stages, categories, or treatments, it is less subject to selection bias. Therefore, these data are thought to be more reflective of the true overall prognosis given the current management of sarcoma across the NCDB contributing sites. PMID:25044961

  20. Epidemiological and clinical features of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in united nations personnel in Western Bahr el Ghazal State, South Sudan.

    PubMed

    He, Dengming; Zhang, Yuqi; Liu, Xiaofeng; Guo, Shimin; Zhao, Donghong; Zhu, Yunjie; Li, Huaidong; Kong, Li

    2013-01-01

    Western Bahr el Ghazal State is located in northwestern South Sudan, which is a tropical area subject to Plasmodium falciparum malaria epidemics. The aim of this study is to explore the epidemiological and clinical features of Plasmodium falciparum malaria in United Nations personnel stationed in this area. From July 2006 to June 2009, epidemiological data and medical records of 678 patients with Plasmodium falciparum malaria at the U.N. level 2 hospital were analyzed. The U.N. personnel were divided into individuals not immune to Plasmodium falciparum and individuals semi-immune to Plasmodium falciparum. The patients were divided into a chemoprophylaxis group (non-immune individuals who complied with the chemoprophylaxis regimen, 582 cases) and a no/incomplete chemoprophylaxis group (non-immune individuals who either did not fully comply with chemoprophylaxis or did not use it at all and semi-immune individuals who did not use chemoprophylaxis, 96 cases). Overall morbidity was about 11.3%. There was a significant difference in the morbidity of semi-immune and non-immune individuals (1.3% vs. 15.1%, P<0.001). Out of the total, 82.9% of cases occurred during the rainy season. The incidence of fever in the chemoprophylaxis group was significantly lower than in the no/incomplete chemoprophylaxis group (36.8% vs. 96.9%, P<0.001). Significant differences were observed between the two groups with respect to all other malaria-like symptoms except gastrointestinal symptoms, serum glucose level, platelet count, and alanine aminotransferase level. The incidence of complications was 1.2% (chemoprophylaxis group) and 44.8% (no/incomplete chemoprophylaxis group).The most common complication was thrombocytopenia, which was seen in 40.6% of the no/incomplete chemoprophylaxis group. In summary, Plasmodium falciparum malaria mainly occurred in rainy season. Gastrointestinal symptoms are an important precursor of malaria. Blood smears and rapid diagnostic tests should be performed

  1. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotype-phenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples ("Genetic NHANES") from NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic NHANES

  2. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotype–phenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples (“Genetic NHANES”) from NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 1999–2002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic

  3. Cryptic relatedness in epidemiologic collections accessed for genetic association studies: experiences from the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES).

    PubMed

    Malinowski, Jennifer; Goodloe, Robert; Brown-Gentry, Kristin; Crawford, Dana C

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiologic collections have been a major resource for genotype-phenotype studies of complex disease given their large sample size, racial/ethnic diversity, and breadth and depth of phenotypes, traits, and exposures. A major disadvantage of these collections is they often survey households and communities without collecting extensive pedigree data. Failure to account for substantial relatedness can lead to inflated estimates and spurious associations. To examine the extent of cryptic relatedness in an epidemiologic collection, we as the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study accessed the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) linked to DNA samples ("Genetic NHANES") from NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002. NHANES are population-based cross-sectional surveys conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Genome-wide genetic data is not yet available in NHANES, and current data use agreements prohibit the generation of GWAS-level data in NHANES samples due issues in maintaining confidentiality among other ethical concerns. To date, only hundreds of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in a variety of candidate genes are available for analysis in NHANES. We performed identity-by-descent (IBD) estimates in three self-identified subpopulations of Genetic NHANES (non-Hispanic white, non- Hispanic black, and Mexican American) using PLINK software to identify potential familial relationships from presumed unrelated subjects. We then compared the PLINKidentified relationships to those identified by an alternative method implemented in Kinship-based INference for Genome-wide association studies (KING). Overall, both methods identified familial relationships in NHANES III and NHANES 1999-2002 for all three subpopulations, but little concordance was observed between the two methods due in major part to the limited SNP data available in Genetic NHANES

  4. The epidemiology of lion lentivirus infection among a population of free-ranging lions (Panthera leo) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Adams, H; van Vuuren, M; Bosman, A-M; Keet, D; New, J; Kennedy, M

    2009-09-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus is a lentivirus of domestic cats that causes significant lifelong infection. Infection with this or similar lentiviruses has been detected in several nondomestic feline species, including African lions (Panthera leo). Although lion lentivirus (FIVple) infection is endemic in certain lion populations in eastern and southern Africa, little is known about its pathogenic effects or its epidemiological impact in free-ranging lions. This report describes the epidemiological investigation of lentivirus positivity of free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park, South Africa. A nested polymerase chain reaction assay for virus detection was performed on all whole blood samples collected. In addition, serum samples were tested for cross-reactive antibodies to domestic feline lentivirus antigens and to puma lentivirus synthetic envelope peptide antigen. The results were analysed in conjunction with epidemiological data to provide a descriptive epidemiological study on lion lentivirus infection in a free-ranging population of lions. The overall prevalence of lentivirus infection was 69%, with a prevalence of 41% in the north of the park, and 80% in the south. Adult males had the highest prevalence when combining the factors of sex and age: 94%. The lowest prevalences were found among juveniles, with male juveniles at 29%. Adults were 5.58 times more likely to test positive for FIVple than juveniles, with adult males being 35 times more likely to be test positive for FIVple compared with juvenile males. This research represents the 1st epidemiological study of the lion lentivirus among free-ranging lions in the Kruger National Park.

  5. Epidemiology & Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    The Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, in the National Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, funds research in human populations to understand the determinants of cancer occurrence and outcomes.

  6. Laterality Defects in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (1998–2007): Birth Prevalence and Descriptive Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Angela E.; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L.; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D.; Botto, Lorenzo D.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extracardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy-Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies. PMID:25099286

  7. Laterality defects in the national birth defects prevention study (1998-2007): birth prevalence and descriptive epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Angela E; Krikov, Sergey; Riehle-Colarusso, Tiffany; Frías, Jaime L; Belmont, John; Anderka, Marlene; Geva, Tal; Getz, Kelly D; Botto, Lorenzo D

    2014-10-01

    Little is known epidemiologically about laterality defects. Using data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study (NBDPS), a large multi-site case-control study of birth defects, we analyzed prevalence and selected characteristics in children born with laterality defects born from 1998 to 2007. We identified 517 nonsyndromic cases (378 heterotaxy, 73.1%; 139 situs inversus totalis [SIT], 26.9%) resulting in an estimated birth prevalence of 1.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval 1.0–1.2). Prevalence did not differ significantly across sites, over time, or by inclusion of pregnancy termination. Laterality defects were more common among preterm cases compared to term cases, and in children born to mothers who were non-white or younger than 20 years compared to white mothers or those age 25–29 years. The distribution of associated cardiac and extra-cardiac defects, excluding the expected heterotaxy anomalies, varied by type of laterality defect. Cases with heterotaxy were significantly more likely than those with SIT to have double outlet right ventricle, atrioventricular canal defects, pulmonary stenosis, non-tetralogy of Fallot pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, totally and partially anomalous pulmonary venous return; also more likely to have orofacial clefts, esophageal atresia, bowel atresias, and omphalocele, though not reaching statistical significance. Relatively more common among cases with SIT were Dandy- Walker malformation, anotia/microtia, and limb deficiency. The similarity in the demographic characteristics of heterotaxy and SIT supports the hypothesis that they are part of a continuum of abnormal left-right axis patterning. These findings on laterality defects may help guide clinical care, future research, and prevention strategies.

  8. Clinical and epidemiological profile of cases of deaths from stomach cancer in the National Cancer Institute, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Maria Teresa dos Santos; de Jesus, José Paulo; de Souza Filho, Odilon; Fontenele, Raquel Malta; Sousa, Ana Inês

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Stomach cancer is the third most common cause of death worldwide, mainly affecting people with low socioeconomic status. In Brazil, we expect 20,390 new cases of stomach cancer in 2014, in both sexes, and according to the proportional distribution of the ten most prevalent types of cancer (except non-melanoma skin cancer) expected for 2014, this type of cancer was estimated to be the fourth most common in men and sixth in women. Aim To investigate and analyse the clinical and epidemiological profile of deaths caused by stomach adenocarcinoma in patients enrolled in the National Cancer Institute, Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study, with samples which consisted of data from the medical records of deaths from stomach cancer, enrolled in the period from 1 February 2009 to 31 March 2012 and who had died as of 30 April 2012. Statistical Analysis Used The Epi Info ®, version 7 Results We included 264 cases, mostly male. The mean age was 61.7 years. They were smokers, drinkers, white, and married, with elementary education and an income of one minimum salary. They had advanced stage disease (E IV), with symptoms characteristic of this phase, and the majority died within six months. Conclusion The findings are similar to other studies. The advanced stage of the disease at the time of admission of the patients reflects the difficulty for users of the Unified Health System to access early diagnosis, demonstrating the need for efforts to identify groups and risk factors for the development of gastric cancer. Training of health professionals will facilitate planning and implementation of programmes for the prevention and control of disease, considering socioeconomic conditions, as seen in the sample, which is common among most users. PMID:25114717

  9. Dietary patterns and prostate cancer risk in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Epidemiological Follow-up Study cohort.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Marilyn; Breslow, Rosalind A; DeVellis, Robert F; Ziegler, Regina G

    2004-01-01

    Ecological studies implicate a "Western" diet in prostate cancer development, but whether dietary patterns measured in individuals are associated with risk has not been studied previously. We examined this issue using prospective data from the nationally representative United States Health Examination Epidemiological Follow-up Study. Among 3,779 men followed from 1982-84 to 1992, 136 incident cases were identified. Using principal component analysis on responses to a 105-item dietary questionnaire, the following three distinct patterns were identified: a vegetable-fruit pattern; a red meat-starch pattern characterized by red meats, potatoes, cheese, salty snacks, and desserts; and a Southern pattern characterized by such foods as cornbread, grits, sweet potatoes, okra, beans, and rice. In adjusted proportional hazards models, prostate cancer risk was not associated with the vegetable-fruit or red meat-starch pattern, but higher intake of the Southern pattern showed a reduction in risk (3rd versus 1st tertile relative risk, 0.6; 95% confidence interval, 0.4-1.1; trend P = 0.08) that approached statistical significance. The inverse association was observed in black and non-black men and was not attributable to intake of any individual foods or nutrients. A Southern dietary pattern may reflect a history of living in the South and serve as an integrative marker of sunlight exposure and protection through 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D production. Further evaluation and better characterization of the pattern would offer more information on potentially beneficial features of the diet or its associated lifestyle.

  10. Cross-national comparisons of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. WHO International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    2000-01-01

    The International Consortium in Psychiatric Epidemiology (ICPE) was established in 1998 by WHO to carry out cross-national comparative studies of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders. This article describes the findings of ICPE surveys in seven countries in North America (Canada and USA), Latin America (Brazil and Mexico), and Europe (Germany, Netherlands, and Turkey), using a version of the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to generate diagnoses. The results are reported using DSM-III-R and DSM-IV criteria without diagnostic hierarchy rules for mental disorders and with hierarchy rules for substance-use disorders. Prevalence estimates varied widely--from > 40% lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder in Netherlands and the USA to levels of 12% in Turkey and 20% in Mexico. Comparisons of lifetime versus recent prevalence estimates show that mental disorders were often chronic, although chronicity was consistently higher for anxiety disorders than for mood or substance-use disorders. Retrospective reports suggest that mental disorders typically had early ages of onset, with estimated medians of 15 years for anxiety disorders, 26 years for mood disorders, and 21 years for substance-use disorders. All three classes of disorder were positively related to a number of socioeconomic measures of disadvantage (such as low income and education, unemployed, unmarried). Analysis of retrospective age-of-onset reports suggest that lifetime prevalences had increased in recent cohorts, but the increase was less for anxiety disorders than for mood or substance-use disorders. Delays in seeking professional treatment were widespread, especially among early-onset cases, and only a minority of people with prevailing disorders received any treatment. Mental disorders are among the most burdensome of all classes of disease because of their high prevalence and chronicity, early age of onset, and resulting serious impairment. There is a need for

  11. Epidemiology of Football Injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2004-2005 to 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Simon, Janet E.; Grooms, Dustin R.; Roos, Karen G.; Cohen, Randy P.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has found that injury rates in football are higher in competition than during practice. However, there is little research on the association between injury rates and type of football practices and how these specific rates compare with those in competitions. Purpose: This study utilized data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) to describe men’s collegiate football practice injuries (academic years 2004-2005 to 2008-2009) in 4 event types: competitions, scrimmages, regular practices, and walkthroughs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Football data during the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years were analyzed. Annually, an average of 60 men’s football programs provided data (9.7% of all universities sponsoring football). Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), 95% CIs, and injury proportions were reported. Results: The NCAA ISS captured 18,075 football injuries. Most injuries were reported in regular practices (55.9%), followed by competitions (38.8%), scrimmages (4.4%), and walkthroughs (0.8%). Most AEs were reported in regular practices (77.6%), followed by walkthroughs (11.5%), competitions (8.6%), and scrimmages (2.3%). The highest injury rate was found in competitions (36.94/1000 AEs), followed by scrimmages (15.7/1000 AEs), regular practices (5.9/1000 AEs), and walkthroughs (0.6/1000 AEs). These rates were all significantly different from one another. Distributions of injury location and diagnoses were similar across all 4 event types, with most injuries occurring at the lower extremity (56.0%) and consisting of sprains and strains (50.6%). However, injury mechanisms varied. The proportion of injuries due to player contact was greatest in scrimmages (66.8%), followed by regular practices (48.5%) and walkthroughs (34.9%); in contrast, the proportion of injuries due to noncontact/overuse was greatest in walkthroughs (41

  12. Epidemiology of Football Injuries in the National Collegiate Athletic Association, 2004-2005 to 2008-2009

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Simon, Janet E.; Grooms, Dustin R.; Roos, Karen G.; Cohen, Randy P.; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research has found that injury rates in football are higher in competition than during practice. However, there is little research on the association between injury rates and type of football practices and how these specific rates compare with those in competitions. Purpose: This study utilized data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System (NCAA ISS) to describe men’s collegiate football practice injuries (academic years 2004-2005 to 2008-2009) in 4 event types: competitions, scrimmages, regular practices, and walkthroughs. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiological study. Methods: Football data during the 2004-2005 to 2008-2009 academic years were analyzed. Annually, an average of 60 men’s football programs provided data (9.7% of all universities sponsoring football). Injury rates per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), injury rate ratios (RRs), 95% CIs, and injury proportions were reported. Results: The NCAA ISS captured 18,075 football injuries. Most injuries were reported in regular practices (55.9%), followed by competitions (38.8%), scrimmages (4.4%), and walkthroughs (0.8%). Most AEs were reported in regular practices (77.6%), followed by walkthroughs (11.5%), competitions (8.6%), and scrimmages (2.3%). The highest injury rate was found in competitions (36.94/1000 AEs), followed by scrimmages (15.7/1000 AEs), regular practices (5.9/1000 AEs), and walkthroughs (0.6/1000 AEs). These rates were all significantly different from one another. Distributions of injury location and diagnoses were similar across all 4 event types, with most injuries occurring at the lower extremity (56.0%) and consisting of sprains and strains (50.6%). However, injury mechanisms varied. The proportion of injuries due to player contact was greatest in scrimmages (66.8%), followed by regular practices (48.5%) and walkthroughs (34.9%); in contrast, the proportion of injuries due to noncontact/overuse was greatest in walkthroughs (41

  13. Health effects and water quality at marine sites: Results from the National Epidemiologic and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since 2003, we have conducted a series of epidemiological studies at beach sites impacted by treated sewage discharge. The goal was to evaluate the association between swimming-associated illness and novel and faster methods of measuring water quality. In 2005 and 2007, we expand...

  14. Circular epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kuller, L H

    1999-11-01

    Circular epidemiology can be defined as the continuation of specific types of epidemiologic studies beyond the point of reasonable doubt of the true existence of an important association or the absence of such an association. Circular epidemiology is an extreme example of studies of the consistency of associations. A basic problem for epidemiology is the lack of a systematic approach to acquiring new knowledge to reach a goal of improving public health and preventive medicine. For epidemiologists, research support unfortunately is biased toward the continued study of already proven hypotheses. Circular epidemiology, however, freezes at one point in the evolution of epidemiologic studies, failing to move from descriptive to analytical case-control and longitudinal studies, for example, to experimental, clinical trials. Good epidemiology journals are filled with very well-conducted epidemiologic studies that primarily repeat the obvious or are variations on the theme.

  15. Applied field epidemiology programme in Spain.

    PubMed

    Martinez Navarro, J F; Herrera, D; Sanchez Barco, C

    2001-03-01

    In 1994, the Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII; Carlos III Health Institute) of the Spanish Ministry of Health and the Consumer (MSC) created the Programa de Epidemiología Aplicada de Campo (PEAC; Applied Field Epidemiology Programme). The programme is managed by the Centro Nacional de Epidemiología (National Epidemiological Centre) in collaboration with the Escuela Nacional de Sanidad (National School of Health), and supported by General Direction for Health and Consumer of MSC and the Health Councils (Consejerías de Sanidad) of the autonomous regions. The PEAC runs a masters degree programme in applied field epidemiology, in which degrees are conferred by the National School of Health. As PEAC is a national programme, it forms a part of the European Program for Intervention Epidemiology Training (EPIET) and is a member of the Network Training for Epidemiology Public Health Intervention (TEPHINET), the association of 27 regional and national programmes of the acting Intervention Epidemiology Training Programs.

  16. The epidemiology of tuberculosis in free-ranging African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) in the Kruger National Park, South Africa.

    PubMed

    De Vos, V; Bengis, R G; Kriek, N P; Michel, A; Keet, D F; Raath, J P; Huchzermeyer, H F

    2001-06-01

    The presence of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in the Kruger National Park (KNP) was determined for the first time in 1990. It was diagnosed in an African buffalo (Syncerus caffer) bull, which was found recumbent and in an emaciated and moribund state near the south-western boundary fence. This prompted an investigation into the bovine tuberculosis (BTB) status of the KNP, with emphasis on its epidemiological determinants and risk factors. This report documents the findings of surveys that were conducted from 1990 to 1996. It was found that BTB had entered the KNP ecosystem relatively recently (+/- 1960), and has found favourable circumstances for survival and propagation in a fully susceptible and immunologically naive buffalo population. Indications are that it entered the KNP from across the southern river boundary, where the presence of infected domestic cattle herds had been documented. From there the infection spread through the southern buffalo population and is currently spreading in a northward direction. It was estimated that this northward spread took place at a rate of about 6 km per year; the prospect being that, if this rate of spread is maintained, the entire KNP may be affected in less than 30 years from now. Spillover from buffalo had already occurred in species such as chacma baboon (Papio ursinus), lion (Panthera leo), cheetah (Acinonyx jubatus), kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) and leopard (Panthera pardus). Although there is no indication yet that these species act as maintenance hosts, the possibility is raised that these, or an as yet overlooked species, might assume such a role in future. In the KNP, BTB manifests itself as a chronic and predominantly subclinical disease in buffalo. It may take years for clinical signs to develop, and then only at a terminal stage, when emaciation is a constant feature. It is suspected that the time from infection to death is variable and dependent on the animal's immune response, which can be

  17. National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative: integrated epidemiologic and toxicologic studies of the health effects of particulate matter components.

    PubMed

    Lippmann, Morton; Chen, Lung-Chi; Gordon, Terry; Ito, Kazuhiko; Thurston, George D

    2013-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM*), an ambient air criteria pollutant, is a complex mixture of chemical components; particle sizes range from nanometer-sized molecular clusters to dust particles that are too large to be aspirated into the lungs. Although particle composition is believed to affect health risks from PM exposure, our current health-based air quality standards for PM are limited to (1) the mass concentrations of PM2.5 (particles 2.5 microm or smaller in aerodynamic diameter), which are largely attributable to combustion products; and (2) PM10 (10 microm or smaller), which includes larger-sized mechanically generated dusts. Both of these particle size fractions are regulated under the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) and both have been associated with excess mortality and morbidity. We conducted four studies as part of HEI's integrated National Particle Component Toxicity (NPACT) Initiative research program. Since 1999, the Chemical Speciation Network (CSN), managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S; EPA), has routinely gathered air monitoring data every third or sixth day for the concentrations of numerous components of PM2.5. Data from the CSN enabled us to conduct a limited time-series epidemiologic study of short-term morbidity and mortality (Ito study); and a study of the associations between long-term average pollutant concentrations and annual mortality (Thurston study). Both have illuminated the roles of PM2.5 chemical components and source-related mixtures as potentially causal agents. We also conducted a series of 6-month subchronic inhalation exposure studies (6 hours/day, 5 days/week) of PM2.5 concentrated (nominally) 10 x from ambient air (CAPs) with apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE(-/-)) mice (a mouse model of atherosclerosis) (Chen study). The CAPs studies were conducted in five different U.S. airsheds; we measured the daily mass concentrations of PM2.5, black carbon (BC), and 16 elemental components in order to

  18. Strategic Transformation of Population Studies: Recommendations of the Working Group on Epidemiology and Population Sciences From the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council and Board of External Experts

    PubMed Central

    Roger, Véronique L.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Crapo, James D.; Douglas, Pamela S.; Epstein, Jonathan A.; Granger, Christopher B.; Greenland, Philip; Kohane, Isaac; Psaty, Bruce M.

    2015-01-01

    In 2013, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute assembled a working group on epidemiology and population sciences from its Advisory Council and Board of External Experts. The working group was charged with making recommendations to the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Advisory Council about how the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute could take advantage of new scientific opportunities and delineate future directions for the epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases. Seven actionable recommendations were proposed for consideration. The themes included 1) defining the compelling scientific questions and challenges in population sciences and epidemiology of heart, lung, blood, and sleep diseases; 2) developing methods and training mechanisms to integrate “big data” science into the practice of epidemiology; 3) creating a cohort consortium and inventory of major studies to optimize the efficient use of data and specimens; and 4) fostering a more open, competitive approach to evaluating large-scale longitudinal epidemiology and population studies. By building on the track record of success of the heart, lung, blood, and sleep cohorts to leverage new data science opportunities and encourage broad research and training partnerships, these recommendations lay a strong foundation for the transformation of heart, lung, blood, and sleep epidemiology. PMID:25743324

  19. [Epidemiological research in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Guimarães, R; Lourenço-De-Oliveira, R; Cosac, S

    2001-08-01

    The current epidemiological research in Brazil is described. Secondary data sources were consulted, such as the year 2000 database of the Brazilian Directory of Research Groups and the National Board of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq). The criterion to identify a group as a research one relies on the existence of at least one research line in the field of epidemiology, as defined by the group leader. After identifying the defined universe of epidemiological research, which included 176 groups and 320 different research lines, the following issues were presented and discussed: the relationships between research financing and health research, focusing on CAPES (Coordination Center for the Advance of University Professionals) graduation programs, public health research and epidemiological research, geographic and institutional distribution and outreach of the current epidemiological research, the researchers and students directly participating in epidemiological research, research topics and patterns of disseminating research findings; the journals where papers in its fullness were published; the financial support of the epidemiological research focusing on the 23 officially recognized graduate programs in public health field. PMID:11600921

  20. Fungal epidemiology and diversity in cystic fibrosis patients over a 5-year period in a national reference center.

    PubMed

    Ziesing, S; Suerbaum, S; Sedlacek, L

    2016-11-01

    The knowledge on prevalence rates of yeasts and moulds in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) in Germany is scarce. The aim of this report is to give an overview of the diversity and epidemiology of fungal species in CF patients. Over a 5-year period, all fungal isolates cultured from microbiological specimen from CF patients were recorded. Beside standard bacteriological culture media two fungal media were used for cultivation. Species were identified by microscopy, biochemical profiling, MALDI-TOF analysis or DNA sequencing methods. In sum, 25,975 clinical samples from CF patients were analyzed. About 75% of CF patients were colonized by yeasts, mainly Candida albicans (38%) and Candida dubliniensis (12%). In 35% of the patients Aspergillus spp. (Aspergillus fumigatus: 29%) were detected, followed by Exophiala dermatitidis and Scedosporium/Lomentospora complex isolates (4% each). Data for other fungal species are shown. Over a 5-year period, the epidemiology of fungal species detected in CF patients was relatively constant. Clinical microbiology laboratories should carefully monitor samples from CF patients for newly occurring fungal pathogens. PMID:27364649

  1. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Raymond F.; Anderson, Henry A.; Birnbaum, Linda S.; Blystone, Chad; DeVito, Michael; Jacobs, David; Köhrle, Josef; Lee, Duk-Hee; Rylander, Lars; Rignell-Hydbom, Anna; Tornero-Velez, Rogelio; Turyk, Mary E.; Boyles, Abee L.; Thayer, Kristina A.; Lind, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health. Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic literature for evidence of associations between persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and type 2 diabetes. Methods: Using a PubMed search and reference lists from relevant studies or review articles, we identified 72 epidemiological studies that investigated associations of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) with diabetes. We evaluated these studies for consistency, strengths and weaknesses of study design (including power and statistical methods), clinical diagnosis, exposure assessment, study population characteristics, and identification of data gaps and areas for future research. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of the studies precluded conducting a meta-analysis, but the overall evidence is sufficient for a positive association of some organochlorine POPs with type 2 diabetes. Collectively, these data are not sufficient to establish causality. Initial data mining revealed that the strongest positive correlation of diabetes with POPs occurred with organochlorine compounds, such as trans-nonachlor, dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals. There is less indication of an association between other nonorganochlorine POPs, such as perfluoroalkyl acids and brominated compounds, and type 2 diabetes. Experimental data are needed to confirm the causality of these POPs, which will shed new light on the pathogenesis of diabetes. This new information should be considered by governmental bodies involved in the regulation of environmental contaminants. PMID:23651634

  2. Comparative epidemiology of atopic and non-atopic wheeze and diagnosed asthma in a national sample of English adults

    PubMed Central

    Court, C; Cook, D; Strachan, D

    2002-01-01

    Background: There is debate as to whether asthma has distinct atopic and non-atopic forms and whether in epidemiological studies asthma cases should be defined by a physician diagnosis or by self-reported asthma symptoms. Methods: A total of 24 952 people aged 11 and over were surveyed as part of the 1995–6 health surveys for England. Participants were asked if they had experienced wheezing in the past year and if they had ever been given a diagnosis of asthma by a doctor. Serum total IgE and house dust mite (HDM) specific IgE were measured. Results: Wheeze in the past year without an asthma diagnosis was more common in men and older age groups, whereas wheeze with an asthma diagnosis was more common in women and younger people. Both types of wheeze were more common in the lower social classes, among ex-smokers and current smokers, and in urban areas. Thirty two percent of people reporting wheezing and 22% of those with diagnosed asthma had neither raised total IgE nor HDM IgE. Among the non-atopic subjects the prevalence of wheeze rose with age and lower social class, largely due to an increase in wheeze without diagnosed asthma. In contrast, among atopic subjects there was no overall trend with age or social class, but wheeze with diagnosed asthma decreased with age. Conclusions: Clear epidemiological differences are evident between adult wheeze with and without an asthma diagnosis and between atopic and non-atopic wheeze. Subjects with diagnosed asthma are more likely to be atopic, but the results challenge the premise that adult asthma is almost always associated with some IgE mediated reaction. PMID:12403877

  3. Epidemiology of foot and ankle fractures in the United States: an analysis of the National Trauma Data Bank (2007 to 2011).

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Davis, Matthew L; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the epidemiology of foot and ankle trauma could be useful in health services research and for policy makers. It can also define practice patterns. Using the National Trauma Data Bank data set from 2007 to 2011, we analyzed the frequency and proportion of each fracture in the foot and ankle in major trauma hospitals in the United States. A total of 280,933 foot and/or ankle fractures or dislocations were identified. Although oversampling of more severe trauma in younger patients might have occurred owing to the nature of the data set, we found that the most common fractures in the foot and ankle were ankle fractures. Midfoot fractures were the least common among all the foot and ankle fractures when categorized by anatomic location. Approximately 20% of all foot and ankle fractures were open.

  4. Making a difference: the construction of ethnicity in HIV and STI epidemiological research by the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment.

    PubMed

    Proctor, Alana; Krumeich, Anja; Meershoek, Agnes

    2011-06-01

    Biomedical and public health researchers and practitioners routinely record and comment on ethnicity: however, the use of this category is often vague and without explicit statement on what ethnicity is or how it correlates to health disparities. Presented here is an inquiry into the case of ethnicity in HIV/STI research in the Netherlands. This paper considers the construction and operationalization of the concept ethnicity in HIV/STI epidemiological research in the Netherlands. The concept ethnicity is followed as it is defined, measured, categorized, communicated and constructed in the annual national HIV/STI surveillance report of the Dutch National Institute for Public Health and the Environment (RIVM) and as this construction co-evolves in society through the Dutch media, politics and prevention practice. The epidemiological work of the RIVM on HIV/STI in The Netherlands has resulted in the materialization of a distinct ethnic construction, the high risk sexual ethnic other, presumed, not only to be at heightened risk for HIV, but also to spread HIV in the Netherlands through promiscuity and absent safe sex practices. This construct is shown to be perpetually self-validating as it informs methodological choices, such that, behavioural studies almost always establish ethnic behavioural differences. The construct and related ethnic rhetoric also allow for the extrapolation of "findings" within a specific ethnic group regarding a specific STI to all groups considered ethnic minorities and so a categorical ethnic minority problem group is constructed within Dutch society. This imagery is disseminated through newspaper articles and dialogue in the Dutch House of Representative and HIV/STI prevention practice, through which the construct is reaffirmed and ascribed scientific and social validity. Knowledge of ethnic minorities' high-risk status and their sexual practices that lead to this become common, and so the construct is further operationalized in government

  5. Prevalence, Correlates, Disability, and Comorbidity of DSM-IV Borderline Personality Disorder: Results from the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Bridget F.; Chou, S. Patricia; Goldstein, Risë B.; Huang, Boji; Stinson, Frederick S.; Saha, Tulshi D.; Smith, Sharon M.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Pulay, Attila J.; Pickering, Roger P.; Ruan, W. June

    2009-01-01

    Objectives To present nationally representative findings on prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, disability, and comorbidity of BPD among men and women. Methods Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 adults participating in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results Prevalence of lifetime BPD was 5.9% (99% CI: 5.4–6.4). There were no differences in the rates of BPD among men (5.6%, 99% CI: 5.0–6.2) and women (6.2%, 99% CI: 5.6–6.9). BPD was more prevalent among Native American men, younger and separated/divorced/widowed adults, and those with lower incomes and education, and less prevalent among Hispanic men and women and Asian women. BPD was associated with substantial mental and physical disability, especially among women. High co-occurrence rates of mood and anxiety disorders with BPD were similar. With additional comorbidity controlled, associations with bipolar disorder and schizotypal and narcissistic PDs remained strong and significant. Associations of BPD with other specific disorders were no longer significant or were considerably weakened. Conclusions Prevalence of BPD in the general population is much greater than previously recognized, equal prevalent among men and women, and associated with considerable mental and physical disability, especially among women. Unique and common factors may differentially contribute to disorder-specific comorbidity with BPD and some of these associations appear to be sex-specific. There is a need for future epidemiologic, clinical and genetically-informed studies to identify unique and common factors that underlie disorder-specific comorbidity with BPD. Important sex differences observed in rates of and associations with BPD can inform more focused, hypothesis-driven investigations of these factors. PMID:18426259

  6. American Dental Education Association Annual Proceedings, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 2002

    2002-01-01

    Reports activities of the American Dental Education Association (ADEA) from the end of the 2001 Annual Session and Exposition (March 9, 2001) through the 2002 Annual Session and Exposition (March 7, 2002). Consists of: president's annual report, president-elect's address, executive director's report, proceedings of the 2002 House of Delegates,…

  7. Forrest Ranch Acquisition, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2003-08-01

    Through their John Day Basin Office, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribes) acquired the Forrest Ranch during July of 2002. The property consists of two parcels located in the John Day subbasin within the Columbia basin. The mainstem parcel consists of 3,503 acres and is located 1/2 mile to the east of Prairie City, Oregon on the mainstem of the John Day River. The middle fork parcel consists of 820 acres and is located one mile to the west of the town of Austin, OR on the middle fork John Day River. The Forrest Ranch Project is under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) to provide an annual written report generally describing the real property interests of the project and management activities undertaken or in progress. The Forrest Ranch acquisition was funded by BPA as part of their program to protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife habitat affected by the operation of their hydroelectric facilities on the Columbia River and its tributaries. Following lengthy negotiations with the BPA and property owner, the Tribes were able to conclude the acquisition of the Forrest Ranch in July of 2002. The intent of the acquisition project was to partially mitigate fish and wildlife impacts for the John Day Dam on the Columbia River as outlined in the Northwest Power Planning Council's Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, section 11.1, section 7.6). While the Tribes hold fee-title to the property, the BPA has assured a level of program funding through a memorandum of agreement and annual statement of work. As early as 1997, the Tribes identified this property as a priority for restoration in the John Day basin. In 2000, the Tribes arranged an agreement with the landowner to seek funds for the acquisition of both the Middle Fork and upper Mainstem John Day River holdings of Mr. John Forrest. This property had been a priority of not only the Tribes, but of many other basin natural resource agencies. The contract period was the first year of the program with December 2001 through July 2nd 2002 being previous to acquisition of the property. The majority of the activities conducted under the contract period were spent on O&M and pre acquisition activities.

  8. Reference Guide for Integrating Curriculum, 2001-2002. [Grade] 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This reference guide is designed to help seventh grade teachers plan for instruction, providing all of the goals and objectives in one document. The guide can be used to link instructional objectives across disciplines, plan integrated units, and assist in assessing student progress over time. Only the very basic components of each discipline…

  9. Reference Guide for Integrating Curriculum, 2001-2002. [Grade] 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Board of Education, Raleigh.

    This reference guide is designed to help eighth grade teachers plan for instruction, providing all of the goals and objectives in one document. The guide can be used to link instructional objectives across disciplines, plan integrated units, and assist in assessing student progress over time. Only the very basic components of each discipline…

  10. New Jersey Journal of Professional Counseling, 2001/2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westburg, Nancy G., Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This journal volume focuses on three areas: technology and the appropriate use of the internet for support groups; diversity issues that affect clients and counselors-in-training; and the clinical issues section that provides an integrated view of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and an overview of Dissociative Identity Disorder. It…

  11. Houston Community College System Fact Book, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston Community Coll. System, TX. Office of Institutional Research.

    The Houston Community College System (HCCS) (Texas) is the third largest community college system in the state of Texas. Its five regional colleges offer workforce training programs, academic transfer courses, and continuing education. HCCS is the state-mandated workforce trainer for the city of Houston. More than 22% of the area's adult…

  12. Project Achieve Evaluation Report: Year One, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol

    This report is an evaluation of the pilot year of Project Achieve, a major local instructional initiative at six elementary schools and two middle schools in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, that was designed to help reach the WCPSS goal of 95% of students at or above grade level. Participating schools had a higher…

  13. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry

    2003-06-09

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the interconnected Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring, for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of potential mitigation strategies. Only Objective 1 in the workplan is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of Objectives 2-6.

  14. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  15. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  16. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon completion…

  17. Placement Criteria for Academic Year 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Community Coll., FL. Office of Institutional Research.

    This report states that since July 1995, the State of Florida has required each public college and university to obtain scores on one of the following test batteries for degree-seeking students prior to registration: Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT), American College Testing (ACT), or the Florida College Entry-Level Placement Test (CPT). A…

  18. Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Arteburn, John; Christensen, David

    2003-03-01

    Federal hydropower projects as well as private power utility systems have had a major negative impact upon anadromous fish resources that once flourished in the Columbia River and it's tributaries. Several areas have been completely blocked to anadromous fish by dams, destroying the primary food resource (salmon) for many native people forcing them to rely heavily upon resident fish to replace these lost resources. The Colville Tribal Fish Hatchery is an artificial production program that addresses the loss of anadromous fish resources in the Upper Columbia Sub-Region within the ''blocked area'' created by the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. This project enhances resident fisheries located in the Intermountain and Columbia Cascade Provinces, specifically within the Colville Reservation portion of the Upper Columbia, SanPoil and Oakanogan Sub-Basins. The project partially mitigates for anadromous fish losses through protection/augmentation of resident fish populations to enhance fishery potential (i.e. in-place, out-of-kind mitigation) pursuant to Resident Fish Substitution Policy of the Northwest Power Planning Councils Fish and Wildlife Program. The hatchery was accepted into the Council's Fish and Wildlife Program in 1984 and the hatchery was completed in 1990. The Colville Tribal Hatchery (CTH) is located on the northern bank of the Columbia River just down stream of the town of Bridgeport, Washington that is just down stream of Chief Joseph Dam. The hatchery is located on land owned by the Colville Tribes. The minimum production quota for this facility is 22,679 kg (50,000 lbs.) of trout annually. All fish produced are released into reservation waters, including boundary waters in an effort to provide a successful subsistence/recreational fishery for Colville Tribal members and provide for a successful nonmember sport fishery. The majority of the fish distributed from the facility are intended to support ''carry-over'' fisheries. Fish produced at the facility are intended to be of sufficient quality and quantity to meet specific monitoring and evaluation goals and objectives outlines in the 2002 statement of work (SOW).

  19. NovaNet Student Outcomes, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harlow, Kristin; Baenen, Nancy

    NovaNet is an individualized, computer-based instruction program that is used in the Wake County Public School System (WCPSS), North Carolina, for high school course credit, remediation, and enrichment. NovaNet was first used in WCPSS in 1996, and in 1999 WCPSS received a 3-year federal grant to expand the use of NovaNET to all high schools. In…

  20. Kindergarten Education: Theory, Research, and Practice, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Violet B., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This document is comprised of the two issues of a biannually published journal featuring research studies, theoretical essays, and classroom practice articles about the development and education of kindergarten children as well as occasional articles concerning preschool and the early primary grades. The Spring/Summer 2001 issue contains the…

  1. Implementing Career Academies Schoolwide: 2001-2002 Developments, Promising Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, David; Dayton, Charles; Lenz, Robert; Tidyman, Susan

    This document, which is based on the findings of case studies of how four high schools from across the country have successfully implemented the schoolwide career academy model, presents recent developments and best practices in schoolwide career academies. The document consists of a brief introduction describing the case studies and one chapter…

  2. JASON XIII: Frozen Worlds (2001-2002). Teacher Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JASON Foundation for Education, Needham Heights, MA.

    This teacher's guide and accompanying videotape present the JASON Project. The guide features a workbook format using an interdisciplinary approach to include geography, climate, biology, history, geology, culture, and literature. The JASON Project targets grades 4-9 and involves real life science with the inquiry approach and multimedia…

  3. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Dept. of Education, Edmonton.

    High school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors. This handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in…

  4. South Carolina State Library Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina State Library, Columbia.

    The current strategic plan of the South Carolina State Library contains five goals: provide information resources and services to meet the needs of the people of South Carolina; provide statewide programs to support local library services; serve as the advocate for libraries in South Carolina; encourage cooperation among libraries of all types;…

  5. Increase in imported dengue, Germany, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Frank, Christina; Schöneberg, Irene; Krause, Gérard; Claus, Hermann; Ammon, Andrea; Stark, Klaus

    2004-05-01

    Dengue fever is a reportable disease in Germany. Surveillance data from 2001 and 2002 were analyzed and compared to travel patterns. Imported dengue fever increased strongly in this time. Most infections were acquired in Southeast Asia, specifically Thailand. The 2002 epidemic in Brazil was also reflected in these data.

  6. Sample Cancer Epidemiology Grant Applications

    Cancer.gov

    The National Cancer Institute frequently receives questions from investigators for examples of successfully funded grant applications. Several investigators agreed to let the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program post excerpts of their grant applications online.

  7. Dynamics of shigellosis epidemics: estimating individual-level transmission and reporting rates from national epidemiologic data sets.

    PubMed

    Joh, Richard I; Hoekstra, Robert M; Barzilay, Ezra J; Bowen, Anna; Mintz, Eric D; Weiss, Howard; Weitz, Joshua S

    2013-10-15

    Shigellosis, a diarrheal disease, is endemic worldwide and is responsible for approximately 15,000 laboratory-confirmed cases in the United States every year. However, patients with shigellosis often do not seek medical care. To estimate the burden of shigellosis, we extended time-series susceptible-infected-recovered models to infer epidemiologic parameters from underreported case data. We applied the time-series susceptible-infected-recovered-based inference schemes to analyze the largest surveillance data set of Shigella sonnei in the United States from 1967 to 2007 with county-level resolution. The dynamics of shigellosis transmission show strong annual and multiyear cycles, as well as seasonality. By using the schemes, we inferred individual-level parameters of shigellosis infection, including seasonal transmissibilities and basic reproductive number (R0). In addition, this study provides quantitative estimates of the reporting rate, suggesting that the shigellosis burden in the United States may be more than 10 times the number of laboratory-confirmed cases. Although the estimated reporting rate is generally under 20%, and R0 is generally under 1.5, there is a strong negative correlation between estimates of the reporting rate and R0. Such negative correlations are likely to pose identifiability problems in underreported diseases. We discuss complementary approaches that might further disentangle the true reporting rate and R0. PMID:24008913

  8. Epidemiologic determinants affecting cigarette smoking cessation: a retrospective study in a National Health System (SSN) treatment service in Rome (Italy).

    PubMed

    Marino, Maria Giulia; Fusconi, Elisabetta; Magnatta, Rosanna; Panà, Augusto; Maurici, Massimo

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study aims to evaluate epidemiologic characteristics of patients attending stop smoking courses, based on group therapy, testing their influence on smoking cessation in univariate and multivariate model. A total of 123 patients were included in this study. Mean age was 53 (+/-11). Sixty-seven percent were women. At the end of the courses 66% of patients stopped smoking, after 12 months only 39% remained abstinent. Patients younger than 50 years statistically tended to continue smoking 6 months (P = .02-R.R. = 1.49, C.I. 95%: 1.06-2.44) and 12 months (P = .03-R.R. = 1.37, C.I. 95%: 1.02-2.52) after the end of the courses. A low self-confidence in quitting smoking was significantly related to continuing tobacco consumption after 6 months (P = .016-R.R. = 1.84, C.I. 95%: 1.14-2.99). Low adherence to therapeutic program was statistically associated to maintenance of tobacco use at 6 months (P = .006-R.R. = 1.76, C.I. 95%: 1.32-2.35) and 12 months (P = .050-R.R. = 1.45, C.I. 95%: 1.11-1.88). This association was confirmed at 6 months in the analysis performed on logistic regression model (P = .013).

  9. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2013 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  10. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2012 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  11. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2015 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  12. Cancer Epidemiology Matters Blog - 2014 Archive

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Epidemiology Matters blog helps foster a dialogue between the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program (EGRP), extramural researchers, and other individuals, such as clinicians, community partners, and advocates, who are interested in cancer epidemiology and genomics.

  13. The EASTR Study: indications for transfusion and estimates of transfusion recipient numbers in hospitals supplied by the National Blood Service.

    PubMed

    Wells, A W; Llewelyn, C A; Casbard, A; Johnson, A J; Amin, M; Ballard, S; Buck, J; Malfroy, M; Murphy, M F; Williamson, L M

    2009-12-01

    This study provides data on National Blood Service (NBS) red blood cell (RBC, n = 9142), platelet (PLT, n = 4232) and fresh frozen plasma (FFP, n = 3584) recipients independently sampled by monthly quota from 29 representative hospitals over 12 months in 2001-2002. Hospitals were stratified by size according to total yearly RBC issues. Transfusion indications were chosen from diagnostic and procedural codes, and recipients grouped into Epidemiology and Survival of Transfusion Recipients Case-mix Groups (E-CMGs). The main E-CMGs were digestive [19% of RBC recipients; including 5% gastrointestinal (GI) bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery], musculoskeletal (15%; 12% hip and knee replacement), haematology (13%) and obstetrics and gynaecology (10%). Renal failure, fractured neck of femur, cardiac artery by-pass grafting (CABG) and paediatrics, each accounted for 3-4% recipients. FFP recipients: the main E-CMGs were digestive (21% of FFP recipients; including 7% GI bleeds and 3% colorectal surgery), hepatobiliary (15%; 7% liver disease and 2% liver transplant), cardiac (12%) and paediatrics (9%) The renal, paediatrics, vascular and haematology E-CMGs each had 6-7% of recipients. PLT recipients: the main E-CMGs were haematology (27% of PLT recipients; including 9% lymphoma and 8% acute leukaemia), cardiac (17%), paediatrics (13%), hepatobiliary (10%) and digestive (9%). Back-weighting gave national estimates of 433 000 RBC, 57 500 FFP and 41 500 PLT recipients/year in England and North Wales, median age 69, 64 and 59 years, respectively. Digestive and hepatobiliary indications emerged as the top reason for transfusion in RBC and FFP recipients, and was also a frequent indication in PLT recipients.

  14. National IQs: A Review of Their Educational, Cognitive, Economic, Political, Demographic, Sociological, Epidemiological, Geographic and Climatic Correlates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynn, Richard; Vanhanen, Tatu

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of 244 correlates of national IQs that have been published from 2002 through 2012 and include educational attainment, cognitive output, educational input, per capita income, economic growth, other economic variables, crime, political institutions, health, fertility, sociological variables, and geographic and…

  15. Epidemiology of Environmental Exposures and Human Autoimmune Diseases: Findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop

    PubMed Central

    Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H.; Kamen, Diane L.; Nelson, Lorene; Norris, Jill M.; De Roos, Anneclaire J.

    2012-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future. PMID:22739348

  16. Epidemiology of environmental exposures and human autoimmune diseases: findings from a National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences Expert Panel Workshop.

    PubMed

    Miller, Frederick W; Alfredsson, Lars; Costenbader, Karen H; Kamen, Diane L; Nelson, Lorene M; Norris, Jill M; De Roos, Anneclaire J

    2012-12-01

    Autoimmune diseases (AID) are a collection of many complex disorders of unknown etiology resulting in immune responses to self-antigens and are thought to result from interactions between genetic and environmental factors. Here we review the epidemiologic evidence for the role of environmental factors in the development of human AID, the conclusions that can be drawn from the existing data, critical knowledge gaps, and research needed to fill these gaps and to resolve uncertainties. We specifically summarize the state of knowledge and our levels of confidence in the role of specific agents in the development of autoimmune diseases, and we define the areas of greatest impact for future investigations. Among our consensus findings we are confident that: 1) crystalline silica exposure can contribute to the development of several AID; 2) solvent exposure can contribute to the development of systemic sclerosis; 3) smoking can contribute to the development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis; and 4) an inverse association exists between ultraviolet radiation exposure and the risk of development of multiple sclerosis. We suggest that more studies of phenotypes, genotypes, and multiple exposures are needed. Additional knowledge gaps needing investigation include: defining important windows in the timing of exposures and latencies relating to age, developmental state, and hormonal changes; understanding dose-response relationships; and elucidating mechanisms for disease development. Addressing these essential issues will require more resources to support research, particularly of rare AID, but knowledge of the risks conferred by environmental factors in specific genetic contexts could pave the way for prevention of AID in the future.

  17. The Epidemiology of Hip/Groin Injuries in National Collegiate Athletic Association Men’s and Women’s Ice Hockey

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Sara L.; Zupon, Alyssa B.; Gardner, Elizabeth C.; Djoko, Aristarque; Dompier, Thomas P.; Kerr, Zachary Y.

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is limited research regarding the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in ice hockey, the majority of which is restricted to time-loss injuries only. Purpose: To describe the epidemiology of hip/groin injuries in collegiate men’s and women’s ice hockey from 2009-2010 through 2014-2015. Study Design: Descriptive epidemiology study. Methods: Hip/groin injury data from the National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance Program (NCAA-ISP) during the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons were analyzed. Injury rates, rate ratios (RRs), and injury proportion ratios (IPRs) were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: During the 2009-2010 through 2014-2015 seasons, 421 and 114 hip/groin injuries were reported in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, leading to injury rates of 1.03 and 0.78 per 1000 athlete-exposures (AEs), respectively. The hip/groin injury rate was greater in men than in women (RR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.08-1.63). In addition, 55.6% and 71.1% of hip/groin injuries in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively, were non–time loss (NTL) injuries (ie, resulted in participation restriction time <24 hours); 7.6% and 0.9%, respectively, were severe (ie, resulted in participation restriction time >3 weeks). The proportion of hip/groin injuries that were NTL injuries was greater in women than in men (IPR, 1.28; 95% CI, 1.11-1.48). Conversely, the proportion of hip/groin injuries that were severe was greater in men than in women (IPR, 8.67; 95% CI, 1.20-62.73). The most common hip/groin injury diagnosis was strain (men, 67.2%; women, 76.3%). Also, 12 (2.9%) and 3 (2.6%) cases of hip impingement were noted in men’s and women’s ice hockey, respectively. Conclusion: Hip/groin injury rates were greater in men’s than in women’s ice hockey. Time loss varied between sexes, with men sustaining more injuries with time loss over 3 weeks. Despite increasing concerns of femoroacetabular impingement in ice hockey

  18. Evaluation and Utilization as a Public Health Tool of a National Molecular Epidemiological Tuberculosis Outbreak Database within the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2001

    PubMed Central

    Drobniewski, F. A.; Gibson, A.; Ruddy, M.; Yates, M. D.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a national model and analyze the value of a molecular epidemiological Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA fingerprint-outbreak database. Incidents were investigated by the United Kingdom PHLS Mycobacterium Reference Unit (MRU) from June 1997 to December 2001, inclusive. A total of 124 incidents involving 972 tuberculosis cases, including 520 patient cultures from referred incidents and 452 patient cultures related to two population studies, were examined by using restriction fragment length polymorphism IS6110 fingerprinting and rapid epidemiological typing. Investigations were divided into the following three categories, reflecting different operational strategies: retrospective passive analysis, retrospective active analysis, and retrospective prospective analysis. The majority of incidents were in the retrospective passive analysis category, i.e., the individual submitting isolates has a suspicion they may be linked. Outbreaks were examined in schools, hospitals, farms, prisons, and public houses, and laboratory cross-contamination events and unusual clinical presentations were investigated. Retrospective active analysis involved a major outbreak centered on a high school. Contact tracing of a teenager with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis matched 14 individuals, including members of his class, and another 60 cases were identified in schools clinically and radiologically and by skin testing. Retrospective prospective analysis involved an outbreak of 94 isoniazid-resistant tuberculosis cases in London, United Kingdom, that began after cases were identified at one hospital in January 2000. Contact tracing and comparison with MRU databases indicated that the earliest matched case had occurred in 1995. Subsequently, the MRU changed to an active prospective analysis targeting linked isoniazid-monoresistant isolates for follow up. The patients were multiethnic, born mainly in the United Kingdom, and included professionals

  19. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study (REDS-III): A research program striving to improve blood donor and transfusion recipient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kleinman, Steven; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Shan, Hua; Ness, Paul; Glynn, Simone A.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study -III (REDS-III) is a 7-year multicenter transfusion safety research initiative launched in 2011 by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. Study design The domestic component involves 4 blood centers, 12 hospitals, a data coordinating center, and a central laboratory. The international component consists of distinct programs in Brazil, China, and South Africa which involve US and in-country investigators. Results REDS-III is using two major methods to address key research priorities in blood banking/transfusion medicine. First, there will be numerous analyses of large “core” databases; the international programs have each constructed a donor/donation database while the domestic program has established a detailed research database that links data from blood donors and their donations, the components made from these donations, and data extracts from the electronic medical records of the recipients of these components. Secondly, there are more than 25 focused research protocols involving transfusion recipients, blood donors, or both that are either in progress or scheduled to begin within the next 3 years. Areas of study include transfusion epidemiology and blood utilization; transfusion outcomes; non-infectious transfusion risks; HIV-related safety issues (particularly in the international programs); emerging infectious agents; blood component quality; donor health and safety; and other donor issues. Conclusions It is intended that REDS-III serve as an impetus for more widespread recipient and linked donor-recipient research in the US as well as to help assure a safe and available blood supply in the US and in international locations. PMID:24188564

  20. Nosologic Comparisons of DSM-IV and DSM-5 Alcohol and Drug Use Disorders: Results From the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Chou, S. Patricia; Smith, Sharon M.; Jung, Jeesun; Zhang, Haitao; Saha, Tulshi D.; Pickering, Roger P.; June Ruan, W.; Huang, Boji; Grant, Bridget F.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to examine prevalences and concordances between Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV), and Fifth Edition (DSM-5) substance use disorders (SUDs) in a newly completed U.S. epidemiologic survey. Method: The National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions–III surveyed 36,309 civilian, noninstitutionalized adults. SUDs were assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule–5. Concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 disorders were assessed using kappa statistics. Results: Prevalences of past-year substance-specific DSM-5 disorders (2+ criteria) were modestly higher than those of DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined for alcohol, sedatives/tranquilizers, opioids, and heroin, but lower for cannabis, cocaine, and stimulants. Lifetime prevalences were lower under DSM-5. Prevalences were similar between moderate to severe (4+ criteria) DSM-5 disorders and dependence, whereas prevalences of DSM-5 disorders at 3+ criteria (DSM-5 [3+]) were higher, particularly for cannabis. Past-year concordances were excellent for DSM-IV dependence and abuse combined versus any DSM-5 and DSM-IV dependence versus DSM-5 moderate to severe disorders; lifetime concordances were fair to excellent. Past-year concordances between DSM-IV and DSM-5 (3+) were generally similar to or modestly higher than those with any DSM-5 disorder; lifetime concordances were mostly lower. Conclusions: Findings are consistent with those informing the development of DSM-5. Future research should examine differences in patterns between past-year and lifetime disorders, particularly for cannabis. Other questions warranting investigation include whether different combinations of the same numbers of criteria carry different clinical or nosologic implications, whether changes innosology yield changes in treatment demand, and whether changes in characteristics of individuals with DSM-5 SUDs

  1. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  2. [Field epidemiology and social epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Segura del Pozo, Javier

    2006-01-01

    Comparing field epidemiology and social epidemiology, we pretend to think about the no explicit images and meanings operating in both necessary convergent fields, about the obstacles present in epidemiological practice to fulfil its social function and about the necessity of changing epistemological, methodological and practice grounds, beginning with field epidemiologists teaching programmes. Field epidemiology would tend to act in an absent theoretical frame. On the other hand, social epidemiology would tend to prioritize theoretical developments (thinking and research about social determinants) without correspondent action, because of the limits to change public policies. Other differences are found at intervention level (micro-macrospace), its aim (outbreak control vs. inequalities control) and the way to communicate with society. They are similar in the methodological concern, the predominance of orientation based on positivism and framed through statistic methods, but in process of epistemological opening, the stress experienced between the alternative relationship to a virtual world of data bases or to the real society, their peripherical situation in relation of the political, social, institutional and professional system and the tendency to professional frustration. Finally, we ask ten questions to the field epidemiologists related with their present practice, in order to consider if they are developing social epidemiology, and propose some changes in epidemiologist teaching and practice.

  3. Testing language effects in psychiatric epidemiology surveys with randomized experiments: results from the National Latino and Asian American Study.

    PubMed

    Shrout, Patrick E; Alegría, Margarita; Canino, Glorisa; Guarnaccia, Peter J; Vega, William A; Duan, Naihua; Cao, Zhun

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of mental disorders for persons of non-English-language origin, it is essential to use translated diagnostic interviews. The equivalence of translated surveys is rarely tested formally. In the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), the authors tested whether a carefully translated mental health survey administered in Spanish produced results equivalent to those obtained by the original English version, using a randomized survey experiment. The NLAAS is a nationally representative survey carried out in the United States in 2002-2003. Bilingual respondents from the Latino section of the NLAAS (n = 332) were randomly assigned to receive either a Spanish- or English-language version of the World Mental Health Survey Composite International Diagnostic Interview. In tests of differences in lifetime and 12-month prevalences of 11 diagnoses and four higher-order aggregate disorder categories, in only one case was there an apparent difference between randomized language groups: Lifetime reports of generalized anxiety disorder were more prevalent in the bilingual group assigned to English than in the group interviewed in Spanish. Detailed follow-up analyses did not implicate any specific question in the generalized anxiety disorder protocol. Translation and back-translation of surveys does not guarantee that response probabilities are exactly equivalent. Randomized survey experiments should be incorporated into cross-cultural psychiatric surveys when possible. PMID:18550562

  4. Cross-national differences in clinically significant cannabis problems: epidemiologic evidence from 'cannabis-only' smokers in the United States, Mexico, and Colombia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies show wide variability in the occurrence of cannabis smoking and related disorders across countries. This study aims to estimate cross-national variation in cannabis users' experience of clinically significant cannabis-related problems in three countries of the Americas, with a focus on cannabis users who may have tried alcohol or tobacco, but who have not used cocaine, heroin, LSD, or other internationally regulated drugs. Methods Data are from the World Mental Health Surveys Initiative and the National Latino and Asian American Study, with probability samples in Mexico (n = 4426), Colombia (n = 5,782) and the United States (USA; n = 8,228). The samples included 212 'cannabis only' users in Mexico, 260 in Colombia and 1,724 in the USA. Conditional GLM with GEE and 'exact' methods were used to estimate variation in the occurrence of clinically significant problems in cannabis only (CO) users across these surveyed populations. Results The experience of cannabis-related problems was quite infrequent among CO users in these countries, with weighted frequencies ranging from 1% to 5% across survey populations, and with no appreciable cross-national variation in general. CO users in Colombia proved to be an exception. As compared to CO users in the USA, the Colombia smokers were more likely to have experienced cannabis-associated 'social problems' (odds ratio, OR = 3.0; 95% CI = 1.4, 6.3; p = 0.004) and 'legal problems' (OR = 9.7; 95% CI = 2.7, 35.2; p = 0.001). Conclusions This study's most remarkable finding may be the similarity in occurrence of cannabis-related problems in this cross-national comparison within the Americas. Wide cross-national variations in estimated population-level cumulative incidence of cannabis use disorders may be traced to large differences in cannabis smoking prevalence, rather than qualitative differences in cannabis experiences. More research is needed to identify conditions that might make cannabis

  5. Molecular epidemiological study of adenovirus infecting western lowland gorillas and humans in and around Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon).

    PubMed

    Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Horie, Masayuki; Fujita, Shiho; Ogino, Michiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Matsuu, Aya; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamato, Osamu; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-10-01

    Adenoviruses are widespread in human population as well as in great apes, although the data about the naturally occurring adenovirus infections remain rare. We conducted the surveillance of adenovirus infection in wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon), in order to investigate naturally occurring adenovirus in target gorillas and tested specifically a possible zoonotic transmission with local people inhabiting the vicinity of the park. Fecal samples were collected from western lowland gorillas and humans, and analyzed by PCR. We detected adenoviral genes in samples from both gorillas and the local people living around the national park, respectively: the overall prevalence rates of adenovirus were 24.1 and 35.0 % in gorillas and humans, respectively. Sequencing revealed that the adenoviruses detected in the gorillas were members of Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B), HAdV-C, or HAdV-E, and those in the humans belonged to HAdV-C or HAdV-D. Although HAdV-C members were detected in both gorillas and humans, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus detected in gorillas are genetically distinct from those detected in humans. The HAdV-C constitutes a single host lineage which is compatible with the host-pathogen divergence. However, HAdV-B and HAdV-E are constituted by multiple host lineages. Moreover, there is no evidence of zoonotic transmission thus far. Since the gorilla-to-human transmission of adenovirus has been shown before, the current monitoring should be continued in a broader scale for getting more insights in the natural history of naturally occurring adenoviruses and for the safe management of gorillas' populations.

  6. Molecular epidemiological study of adenovirus infecting western lowland gorillas and humans in and around Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon).

    PubMed

    Nkogue, Chimène Nze; Horie, Masayuki; Fujita, Shiho; Ogino, Michiko; Kobayashi, Yuki; Mizukami, Keijiro; Masatani, Tatsunori; Ezzikouri, Sayeh; Matsuu, Aya; Mizutani, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamato, Osamu; Ngomanda, Alfred; Yamagiwa, Juichi; Tsukiyama-Kohara, Kyoko

    2016-10-01

    Adenoviruses are widespread in human population as well as in great apes, although the data about the naturally occurring adenovirus infections remain rare. We conducted the surveillance of adenovirus infection in wild western lowland gorillas in Moukalaba-Doudou National Park (Gabon), in order to investigate naturally occurring adenovirus in target gorillas and tested specifically a possible zoonotic transmission with local people inhabiting the vicinity of the park. Fecal samples were collected from western lowland gorillas and humans, and analyzed by PCR. We detected adenoviral genes in samples from both gorillas and the local people living around the national park, respectively: the overall prevalence rates of adenovirus were 24.1 and 35.0 % in gorillas and humans, respectively. Sequencing revealed that the adenoviruses detected in the gorillas were members of Human mastadenovirus B (HAdV-B), HAdV-C, or HAdV-E, and those in the humans belonged to HAdV-C or HAdV-D. Although HAdV-C members were detected in both gorillas and humans, phylogenetic analysis revealed that the virus detected in gorillas are genetically distinct from those detected in humans. The HAdV-C constitutes a single host lineage which is compatible with the host-pathogen divergence. However, HAdV-B and HAdV-E are constituted by multiple host lineages. Moreover, there is no evidence of zoonotic transmission thus far. Since the gorilla-to-human transmission of adenovirus has been shown before, the current monitoring should be continued in a broader scale for getting more insights in the natural history of naturally occurring adenoviruses and for the safe management of gorillas' populations. PMID:27290717

  7. Polygenic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  8. [Occupational epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ahrens, W; Behrens, T; Mester, B; Schmeisser, N

    2008-03-01

    The aim of occupational epidemiology is to describe workplace-related diseases and to identify their underlying causes. Its primary goal is to protect workers from hazardous effects of the working process by applying work-related primary and secondary prevention measures. To assess health risks different study designs and a wide array of complex study instruments and methods are frequently employed that cannot be replaced by toxicological investigations. This paper primarily addresses health risks by agent exposures. In this context a central task of occupational epidemiology is careful assessment of exposure. Different data sources, such as work site measurements, register data, archive material, experts' opinion, and the workers' personal estimates of exposure may be used during this process. In addition, biological markers can complement exposure assessment. Since thorough occupational epidemiologic studies allow assessment of disease risks under realistic exposure conditions, their results should be more frequently used to derive workplace-related threshold limit values. PMID:18311483

  9. Polygenic Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Dudbridge, Frank

    2016-05-01

    Much of the genetic basis of complex traits is present on current genotyping products, but the individual variants that affect the traits have largely not been identified. Several traditional problems in genetic epidemiology have recently been addressed by assuming a polygenic basis for disease and treating it as a single entity. Here I briefly review some of these applications, which collectively may be termed polygenic epidemiology. Methodologies in this area include polygenic scoring, linear mixed models, and linkage disequilibrium scoring. They have been used to establish a polygenic effect, estimate genetic correlation between traits, estimate how many variants affect a trait, stratify cases into subphenotypes, predict individual disease risks, and infer causal effects using Mendelian randomization. Polygenic epidemiology will continue to yield useful applications even while much of the specific variation underlying complex traits remains undiscovered. PMID:27061411

  10. Cognitive epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Deary, Ian J; Batty, G David

    2007-01-01

    This glossary provides a guide to some concepts, findings and issues of discussion in the new field of research in which intelligence test scores are associated with mortality and morbidity. Intelligence tests are devised and studied by differential psychologists. Some of the major concepts in differential psychology are explained, especially those regarding cognitive ability testing. Some aspects of IQ (intelligence) tests are described and some of the major tests are outlined. A short guide is given to the main statistical techniques used by differential psychologists in the study of human mental abilities. There is a discussion of common epidemiological concepts in the context of cognitive epidemiology. PMID:17435201

  11. Epidemiology of tuberculosis and evaluation of treatment outcomes in the national tuberculosis control programme, River Nile state, Sudan, 2011-2013.

    PubMed

    Elmadhoun, W M; Noor, S K; Bushara, S O; Ahmed, E O; Mustafa, H; Sulaiman, A A; Almobarak, A O; Ahmed, M H

    2016-04-28

    Tuberculosis is a major health problem in Sudan, a country that carries 11-15% of the tuberculosis burden in the Eastern Mediterranean Region. This study aimed to describe the epidemiology of tuberculosis in River Nile State and to compare treatment outcomes with WHO recommended indicators. A descriptive study was conducted on data collected from records of 1221 patients registered at tuberculosis management units over the 3 years 2011-2013. The mean age of cases was 37.7 (SD 21.5) years and 65.9% were males; 76.3% were pulmonary tuberculosis and 36.9% were sputum smear-positive cases. Average values for all outcome indicators were suboptimal, notably rates of case notification (30.8 per 100 000), case detection (10.3%), treatment success (79.6%), treatment failure (3.0%), default (8.1%) and death (8.0%). Of the 264 patients tested for HIV, 3.8% were positive. Outcome indicators for the national tuberculosis control programme are lagging behind the required targets.

  12. Cytogenetic and epidemiological findings in Down syndrome, England and Wales 1989 to 1993. National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register and the Association of Clinical Cytogeneticists.

    PubMed Central

    Mutton, D; Alberman, E; Hook, E B

    1996-01-01

    Data from the National Down Syndrome Cytogenetic Register is used to describe the cytogenetics and epidemiology of registered cases. The register comprises notifications from cytogenetics laboratories in England and Wales. This report is of 5737 cases registered between 1989 and 1993: 2169 prenatal and 3436 postnatal diagnoses, and 132 spontaneous abortions. Eighty eight registrations were from multiple pregnancies. Ninety five percent had regular trisomy 21. In 4% there was a translocation, mostly Robertsonian t(14;21) or t(21;21). One percent were mosaics with one normal cell line. Mean maternal age was raised in free trisomy 21, but not in translocations. Where families had been investigated, about a third of translocations were inherited, six to seven times more often from the mother than the father. Associations between free trisomy 21 and structural chromosomal defects in the births were no more common than expected from newborn series. The overall sex ratio was raised (male to female: 1.23 to 1), and there was an excess of associated male sex chromosomal aneuploidy. However, in mosaics with one normal cell line the male to female ratio was 0.8 to 1, and in twins discordant for trisomy 21 there was also a female excess. PMID:8733049

  13. Concordance between gambling disorder diagnoses in the DSM-IV and DSM-5: Results from the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Petry, Nancy M; Blanco, Carlos; Jin, Chelsea; Grant, Bridget F

    2014-06-01

    The fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistic Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) eliminates the committing illegal acts criterion and reduces the threshold for a diagnosis of gambling disorder to 4 of 9 criteria. This study compared the DSM-5 "4 of 9" classification system to the "5 of 10" DSM-IV system, as well as other permutations (i.e., just lowing the threshold to 4 criteria or just eliminating the illegal acts criterion) in 43,093 respondents to the National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions. Subgroups were analyzed to ascertain whether changes will impact differentially diagnoses based on gender, age, or race/ethnicity. In the full sample and each subpopulation, prevalence rates were higher when the DSM-5 classification system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, but the hit rate between the two systems ranged from 99.80% to 99.96%. Across all gender, age, and racial/ethnic subgroups, specificity was greater than 99% when the DSM-5 system was employed relative to the DSM-IV system, and sensitivity was 100%. Results from this study suggest that eliminating the illegal acts criterion has little impact on diagnosis of gambling disorder, but lowering the threshold for diagnosis does increase the base rate in the general population and each subgroup, even though overall rates remain low and sensitivity and specificity are high.

  14. Associations between childhood adversity, adult stressful life events, and past-year drug use disorders in the National Epidemiological Study of Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Myers, Bronwyn; McLaughlin, Katie A; Wang, Shuai; Blanco, Carlos; Stein, Dan J

    2014-12-01

    Stress sensitization, whereby CA lowers tolerance to later stressors, has been proposed as a potential mechanism explaining the association between exposure to childhood adversities (CA) and drug use disorders in adulthood. However, this mechanism remains untested. This paper begins to address this gap through exploring associations between CA exposure and stressful events in adulthood for predicting drug use disorders. We used data drawn from Wave 2 of the U.S. National Epidemiological Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (n = 34,653) to explore whether the association between past-year stressful life events and the 12-month prevalence of disordered cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use varied by the number of types of CA that an individual was exposed to. Past-year stressful life events were associated with an increased risk of cannabis, stimulant, and opiate use disorders among men and women. Exposure to CA was associated with increased risk for disordered cannabis use among men and women and opiate use among men only. Finally, we found significant associations between exposure to CA and past-year stressful life events in predicting disordered drug use, but only for women in relation to disordered stimulant and opiate use. Findings are suggestive of possible stress sensitization effects in predicting disordered stimulant and opiate use among women. Implications of these findings for the prevention and treatment of drug use disorders and for future research are discussed.

  15. Epidemiology and air pollution. A report of the Committee on the Epidemiology of Air Pollutants, Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Commission on Life Sciences, National Research Council

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    This report examines the role of epidemiology in the study of the health effects of air pollution. The four health effects of concern in the report art acute respiratory infection, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, asthma and lung cancer. The five types of pollution said to be of continuing concern are woodsmoke, nitrogen oxides, persistant ozone and acid aerosols, episodic ozone and acid aerosol haze and radon. The advantages of using epidemiological studies are discussed. They include: direct determination of public health problems and estimation of their magnitude; evaluation of the impact of decreases in exposure; and defining characteristics of the problem that can guide intervention even before the mechanics are understood.

  16. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury--Does social support make a difference? An epidemiological investigation of a Danish national sample.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane; Vammen, Katrine Schjødt

    2015-06-01

    Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make a difference? A national representative sample of 4,718 persons born in 1984 were selected for an interview about their childhood, maltreatment, serious life events and social support in order to test if social support during childhood is a statistical mediator between childhood disadvantages and NSSI. The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (p<0.01). The results indicate that social support is a partial mediator for NSSI. The reported low self-esteem indicates the importance of treating adolescents who are engaged in NSSI with respect and dignity when they are treated in the health care system. Results further imply that increasing social support may reduce the likelihood of NSSI. PMID:25435107

  17. Non-Suicidal Self-Injury--Does social support make a difference? An epidemiological investigation of a Danish national sample.

    PubMed

    Christoffersen, Mogens Nygaard; Møhl, Bo; DePanfilis, Diane; Vammen, Katrine Schjødt

    2015-06-01

    Teenagers and young adults who had experienced child maltreatment, being bullied in school and other serious life events have an increased risk of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI), but some individuals manage to escape serious stressful life events. The research question is: does social support make a difference? A national representative sample of 4,718 persons born in 1984 were selected for an interview about their childhood, maltreatment, serious life events and social support in order to test if social support during childhood is a statistical mediator between childhood disadvantages and NSSI. The survey obtained a 67% response rate (N=2,980). The incidence rate of NSSI among this sample was estimated at 2.7% among young adult respondents. Participants with a history of child maltreatment, being bullied in school or other traumatic life events reported a rate of NSSI 6 times greater than participants without this history (odds ratio: 6.0). The correlation between traumatic life events during adolescence and NSSI is reduced when low social support is accounted for in the statistical model (p<0.01). The results indicate that social support is a partial mediator for NSSI. The reported low self-esteem indicates the importance of treating adolescents who are engaged in NSSI with respect and dignity when they are treated in the health care system. Results further imply that increasing social support may reduce the likelihood of NSSI.

  18. An item response theory analysis of DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for personality disorders: findings from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions.

    PubMed

    Harford, Thomas C; Chen, Chiung M; Saha, Tulshi D; Smith, Sharon M; Hasin, Deborah S; Grant, Bridget F

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of DSM-IV symptom criteria for assessing personality disorders (PDs) in a national population and to compare variations in proposed symptom coding for social and/or occupational dysfunction. Data were obtained from a total sample of 34,653 respondents from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). For each personality disorder, confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) established a 1-factor latent factor structure for the respective symptom criteria. A 2-parameter item response theory (IRT) model was applied to the symptom criteria for each PD to assess the probabilities of symptom item endorsements across different values of the underlying trait (latent factor). Findings were compared with a separate IRT model using an alternative coding of symptom criteria that requires distress/impairment to be related to each criterion. The CFAs yielded a good fit for a single underlying latent dimension for each PD. Findings from the IRT indicated that DSM-IV PD symptom criteria are clustered in the moderate to severe range of the underlying latent dimension for each PD and are peaked, indicating high measurement precision only within a narrow range of the underlying trait and lower measurement precision at lower and higher levels of severity. Compared with the NESARC symptom coding, the IRT results for the alternative symptom coding are shifted toward the more severe range of the latent trait but generally have lower measurement precision for each PD. The IRT findings provide support for a reliable assessment of each PD for both NESARC and alternative coding for distress/impairment. The use of symptom dysfunction for each criterion, however, raises a number of issues and implications for the DSM-5 revision currently proposed for Axis II disorders (American Psychiatric Association, 2010).

  19. Medical Comorbidity of Full and Partial Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in United States Adults: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pietrzak, Robert H.; Goldstein, Risë B.; Southwick, Steven M.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examined associations between lifetime trauma exposures, PTSD and partial PTSD, and past-year medical conditions in a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults. Methods Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 34,653 participants in the Wave 2 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Logistic regression analyses evaluated associations of trauma exposure, PTSD and partial PTSD with respondent-reported medical diagnoses. Results After adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics and comorbid Axis I and II disorders, respondents with full PTSD were more likely than traumatized respondents without full or partial PTSD (comparison group) to report diagnoses of diabetes mellitus, noncirrhotic liver disease, angina pectoris, tachycardia, hypercholesterolemia, other heart disease, stomach ulcer, HIV seropositivity, gastritis, and arthritis (odds ratios [ORs]=1.2-2.5). Respondents with partial PTSD were more likely than the comparison group to report past-year diagnoses of stomach ulcer, angina pectoris, tachycardia, and arthritis (ORs=1.3-1.6). Men with full and partial PTSD were more likely than controls to report diagnoses of hypertension (both ORs=1.6), and both men and women with PTSD (ORs=1.8 and 1.6, respectively), and men with partial PTSD (OR=2.0) were more likely to report gastritis. Total number of lifetime traumatic event types was associated with many assessed medical conditions (ORs=1.04-1.16), reducing the magnitudes and rendering non-significant some of the associations between PTSD status and medical conditions. Conclusions Greater lifetime trauma exposure and PTSD are associated with numerous medical conditions, many of which are stress-related and chronic, in U.S. adults. Partial PTSD is associated with intermediate odds of some of these conditions. PMID:21949429

  20. A Prospective Epidemiological Study of Injuries in Japanese National Tournament-Level Badminton Players From Junior High School to University

    PubMed Central

    Miyake, Eiji; Yatsunami, Mitsunobu; Kurabayashi, Jun; Teruya, Koji; Sekine, Yasuhiro; Endo, Tatsuaki; Nishida, Ryuichiro; Takano, Nao; Sato, Seiko; Jae Kyung, Han

    2016-01-01

    Background: Injury prevention programs have recently been created for various sports. However, a longitudinal study on badminton injuries, as assessed by a team’s dedicated medical staff, at the gymnasium has not been performed. Objectives: We aimed to perform the first such study to measure the injury incidence, severity and type as the first step in creating a badminton injury prevention program. Patients and Methods: A prospective, longitudinal survey was conducted between April 2012 and March 2013 with 133 national tournament-level badminton players from junior high school to university in Japan with the teams’ physical therapists at the gymnasium. Injury incidence was measured as the injury rate (IR) for every 1,000 hour (1000 hour) and IR for every 1,000 athlete exposures (1000 AE). Severity was classified in 5 levels by the number of days the athlete was absent from practice or matches. Injury types were categorized as trauma or overuse. Results: Practice (IR) (1,000 hour) was significantly higher in female players than in male players; the rates increased with increasing age. IR (1,000 AE) was significantly higher in matches than in practice in both sexes of all ages, except for female junior high school students and injuries were most frequent for high school students in matches. The majority of the injuries were slight (83.8%); overuse injuries occurred approximately 3 times more than trauma. Conclusions: This is the first study in which medical staff assessed injuries in badminton, providing value through benchmark data. Injury prevention programs are particularly necessary for female university students in practice and high school students in matches. PMID:27217933

  1. Recent Change in Treatment of Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation in Japan: An Epidemiological Study Based on a National Administrative Database.

    PubMed

    Murata, Atsuhiko; Okamoto, Kohji; Mayumi, Toshihiko; Muramatsu, Keiji; Matsuda, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the time trends and hospital factors affecting the use of drugs for infectious disease-associated disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) based on a national administrative database. A total of 14 324 patients with infectious disease-associated DIC were referred to 1041 hospitals from 2010 to 2012 in Japan. Patients' data were collected from the administrative database to determine time trends and hospital factors affecting the use of drugs for DIC. Three study periods were established, namely, the fiscal years 2010 (n = 3308), 2011 (n = 5403), and 2012 (n = 5613). The use of antithrombin, heparin, protease inhibitors, and recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin (rhs-TM) for DIC was evaluated. The frequency of use of antithrombin, heparin, and protease inhibitors decreased while that of rhs-TM significantly increased from 2010 to 2012 in Japan (25.1% in 2010, 43.1% in 2011, and 56.8% in 2012; P < .001, respectively). Logistic regression showed that the study period was associated with the use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC. The odds ratio (OR) for 2011 was 2.34 (95% confidence interval [CI], 2.12-2.58; P < .001) whereas that for 2012 was 4.34 (95% CI, 3.94-4.79; P < .001). A large hospital size was the most significant factor associated with the use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC (OR, 3.14; 95% CI, 2.68-3.66; P < .001). The use of rhs-TM has dramatically increased. A large hospital size was significantly associated with the increased use of rhs-TM in patients with DIC from 2010 to 2012 in Japan.

  2. The epidemiology and burden of Alzheimer’s disease in Taiwan utilizing data from the National Health Insurance Research Database

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yen-Ni; Kadziola, Zbigniew; Brnabic, Alan JM; Yeh, Ju-Fen; Fuh, Jong-Ling; Hwang, Jen-Ping; Montgomery, William

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence, cumulative incidence, and economic burden of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in Taiwan, using data from the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Materials and methods This was a retrospective, longitudinal, observational study using data from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database of the NHIRD. Patients were included in this study if they were 50 years of age or older and their records included a primary or secondary diagnosis of AD. New patients who met inclusion criteria were followed up longitudinally from 2005 to 2010. Costs were calculated for the first year following the diagnosis of AD. Results Overall, a higher percentage of women than men were diagnosed with AD (54% vs 46%, respectively). The first AD diagnosis occurred most frequently in the age of 75–84 years. The person-year incidence rate increased from 5.63/1,000 persons (95% CI, 5.32–5.94) in 2005 to 8.17/1,000 persons (95% CI, 7.78–8.57) in 2010. The cumulative incidence rate was 33.54/1,000 persons (95% CI, 32.76–34.33) in 2005–2010. The total mean inflated annual costs per patient in new Taiwan dollars (NT$) in the first year of diagnosis ranged from NT$205,413 (2009) to NT$227,110 (2005), with hospitalization representing the largest component. Conclusion AD represents a substantial burden in Taiwan, and based on the observed increase in incidence rate over time, it is likely that this burden will continue to increase. The findings reported here are consistent with previous research. The NHIRD contains extensive real-world information that can be used to conduct research, allowing us to expand our understanding of the incidence, prevalence, and burden of disease in Taiwan. PMID:27536149

  3. Social Anxiety Disorder and Alcohol Use Disorder Comorbidity in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Schneier, Franklin R.; Foose, Tracy E.; Hasin, Deborah S.; Heimberg, Richard G.; Liu, Shang-Min; Grant, Bridget F.; Blanco, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the prevalence and clinical impact of comorbid Social Anxiety Disorder (SAD) and Alcohol Use Disorders (AUD, i.e., alcohol abuse and alcohol dependence) in a nationally representative sample of adults in the United States. Methods Data came from a large representative sample of the United States population. Face-to-face interviews of 43,093 adults residing in households were conducted during 2001–2002. Diagnoses of mood, anxiety, alcohol and drug use disorders, and personality disorders were based on the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule—DSM-IV Version. Results Lifetime prevalence of comorbid AUD and SAD in the general population was 2.4%. SAD was associated with significantly increased rates of alcohol dependence (OR=2.8) and alcohol abuse (OR=1.2). Among respondents with alcohol dependence, SAD was associated with significantly more mood, anxiety, psychotic, and personality disorders. Among respondents with SAD, alcohol dependence and abuse were most strongly associated with more substance use disorders, pathological gambling, and antisocial personality disorders. SAD occurred before alcohol dependence in 79.7% of comorbid cases, but comorbidity status did not influence age of onset for either disorder. Comorbid SAD was associated with increased severity of alcohol dependence and abuse. Respondents with comorbid SAD and alcohol dependence or abuse reported low rates of treatment-seeking. Conclusions Comorbid lifetime AUD and SAD is a prevalent dual diagnosis, associated with substantial rates of additional comorbidity, but remaining largely untreated. Future research should clarify the etiology of this comorbid presentation to better identify effective means of intervention. PMID:20441690

  4. Nutritional Epidemiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although observations on relationships between diet and health have always been recognized—the systematic science of nutritional epidemiology in populations is relatively recent. Important observations propelling the field of nutrition forward were numerous in the 18th and 19th centuries, as it was...

  5. Epidemiological causality.

    PubMed

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological methods, which combine population thinking and group comparisons, can primarily identify causes of disease in populations. There is therefore a tension between our intuitive notion of a cause, which we want to be deterministic and invariant at the individual level, and the epidemiological notion of causes, which are invariant only at the population level. Epidemiologists have given heretofore a pragmatic solution to this tension. Causal inference in epidemiology consists in checking the logical coherence of a causality statement and determining whether what has been found grossly contradicts what we think we already know: how strong is the association? Is there a dose-response relationship? Does the cause precede the effect? Is the effect biologically plausible? Etc. This approach to causal inference can be traced back to the English philosophers David Hume and John Stuart Mill. On the other hand, the mode of establishing causality, devised by Jakob Henle and Robert Koch, which has been fruitful in bacteriology, requires that in every instance the effect invariably follows the cause (e.g., inoculation of Koch bacillus and tuberculosis). This is incompatible with epidemiological causality which has to deal with probabilistic effects (e.g., smoking and lung cancer), and is therefore invariant only for the population.

  6. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kang, Jun-Myung; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1) WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women; (2) fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3) fasting triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4) HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5) SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 ± 3.4% vs. 34.7 ± 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 ± 2.8% vs. 37.8 ± 0.8%, p = 0.0026). However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.820) only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women. PMID:26859830

  7. Gender Difference in the Epidemiological Association between Metabolic Syndrome and Olfactory Dysfunction: The Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Se-Hwan; Kang, Jun-Myung; Seo, Jae-Hyun; Han, Kyung-do; Joo, Young-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a higher risk of morbidity and/or mortality for various chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships of MetS and its components with olfactory dysfunction in a representative Korean population. We analyzed the data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). A total of 11,609 adults who underwent otolaryngological examination were evaluated. The olfactory function was classified as normosmia or hyposmia by a self-report questionnaire according to the sense problems of smell during the past 3 months. MetS was diagnosed if a participant had at least three of the following: (1) WC ≥90 cm in men and ≥80 cm in women; (2) fasting blood sugar ≥ 100 mg/dL or medication use for elevated glucose; (3) fasting triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL or cholesterol-lowering medication use; (4) HDL-cholesterol <40 mg/dL in men and <50 mg/dL in women or cholesterol-lowering medication use; and (5) SBP ≥ 130 mmHg and/or DBP ≥ 85 mmHg or antihypertensive drug use for patients with a history of hypertension. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction in the study population was 6.3%. The prevalence of olfactory dysfunction was significantly higher in older people with MetS than in those without MetS in both sexes (male, 42.0 ± 3.4% vs. 34.7 ± 0.9%, p = 0.0354; female, 46.2 ± 2.8% vs. 37.8 ± 0.8%, p = 0.0026). However, elevated waist circumference, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, reduced HDL cholesterol, elevated blood pressure, severe stress, depressed mood, and suicidal ideation were significantly associated with olfactory dysfunction only in women. After controlling for confounders, olfactory dysfunction was significantly associated with MetS (odds ratio, 1.352; 95% confidence interval, 1.005-1.820) only in women. MetS are associated with olfactory dysfunction only in Korean women.

  8. U.S.-Based National Sentinel Surveillance Study for the Epidemiology of Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrheal Isolates and Their Susceptibility to Fidaxomicin

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, L. A.; Jacobus, N. V.; Thorpe, C.; Stone, S.; Jenkins, S. G.; Goldstein, E. J. C.; Patel, R.; Forbes, B. A.; Mirrett, S.; Johnson, S.; Gerding, D. N.

    2015-01-01

    In 2011 a surveillance study for the susceptibility to fidaxomicin and epidemiology of Clostridium difficile isolates in the United States was undertaken in seven geographically dispersed medical centers. This report encompasses baseline surveillance in 2011 and 2012 on 925 isolates. A convenience sample of C. difficile isolates or toxin positive stools from patients were referred to a central laboratory. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution (CLSI M11-A8). Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Food and Drug Administration, or European Union of Clinical Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints were applied where applicable. Toxin gene profiles were characterized by multiplex PCR on each isolate. A random sample of 322 strains, stratified by institution, underwent restriction endonuclease analysis (REA). The fidaxomicin MIC90 was 0.5 μg/ml for all isolates regardless of REA type or toxin gene profile, and all isolates were inhibited at ≤1.0 μg/ml. By REA typing, BI strains represented 25.5% of the isolates. The toxin gene profile of tcdA, tcdB, and cdtA/B positive with a tcdC 18-bp deletion correlated with BI REA group. Moxifloxacin and clindamycin resistance was increased among either BI or binary toxin-positive isolates. Metronidazole and vancomycin showed reduced susceptibility (EUCAST criteria) in these isolates. Geographic variations in susceptibility, REA group and binary toxin gene presence were observed. Fidaxomicin activity against C. difficile isolated in a national surveillance study did not change more than 1 year after licensure. This analysis provides baseline results for future comparisons. PMID:26239985

  9. Acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood and anxiety disorders across US Latino subgroups in the National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, S.; Duarte, C. S.; Aggarwal, N. K.; Sánchez-Lacay, J. A.; Blanco, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Individual-level measures of acculturation (e.g. age of immigration) have a complex relationship with psychiatric disorders. Fine-grained analyses that tap various acculturation dimensions and population subgroups are needed to generate hypotheses regarding the mechanisms of action for the association between acculturation and mental health. Method Study participants were US Latinos (N = 6359) from Wave 2 of the 2004–2005 National Epidemiologic Survey of Alcohol and Related Conditions (N = 34 653). We used linear χ2 tests and logistic regression models to analyze the association between five acculturation dimensions and presence of 12-month DSM-IV mood/anxiety disorders across Latino subgroups (Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, ‘Other Latinos’). Results Acculturation dimensions associated linearly with past-year presence of mood/anxiety disorders among Mexicans were: (1) younger age of immigration (linear χ12=11.04, p < 0.001), (2) longer time in the United States (linear χ12=10.52, p < 0.01), (3) greater English-language orientation (linear χ12=14.57, p < 0.001), (4) lower Latino composition of social network (linear χ12=15.03, p < 0.001), and (5) lower Latino ethnic identification (linear χ12=7.29, p < 0.01). However, the associations were less consistent among Cubans and Other Latinos, and no associations with acculturation were found among Puerto Ricans. Conclusions The relationship between different acculturation dimensions and 12-month mood/anxiety disorder varies across ethnic subgroups characterized by cultural and historical differences. The association between acculturation measures and disorder may depend on the extent to which they index protective or pathogenic adaptation pathways (e.g. loss of family support) across population subgroups preceding and/or following immigration. Future research should incorporate direct measures of maladaptive pathways and their relationship to various acculturation dimensions. PMID:27087570

  10. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain.

  11. Investigation into the Epidemiology of African Swine Fever Virus at the Wildlife - Domestic Interface of the Gorongosa National Park, Central Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Quembo, C J; Jori, F; Heath, L; Pérez-Sánchez, R; Vosloo, W

    2016-08-01

    An epidemiological study of African swine fever (ASF) was conducted between March 2006 and September 2007 in a rural area adjacent to the Gorongosa National park (GNP) located in the Central Mozambique. Domestic pigs and warthogs were sampled to determine the prevalence of antibodies against ASF virus and the salivary antigens of Ornithodoros spp. ticks, while ticks collected from pig pens were tested for the presence of ASFV. In addition, 310 framers were interviewed to gain a better understanding of the pig value chain and potential practices that could impact on the spread of the virus. The sero-prevalence to ASFV was 12.6% on farms and 9.1% in pigs, while it reached 75% in warthogs. Approximately 33% of pigs and 78% of warthogs showed antibodies against salivary antigens of ticks. The differences in sero-prevalence between farms close to the GNP, where there is greater chance for the sylvatic cycle to cause outbreaks, and farms located in the rest of the district, where pig to pig transmission is more likely to occur, were marginally significant. Ornithodoros spp. ticks were found in only 2 of 20 pig pens outside the GNP, and both pens had ticks testing positive for ASFV DNA. Interviews carried out among farmers indicated that biosecurity measures were mostly absent. Herd sizes were small with pigs kept in a free-ranging husbandry system (65%). Only 1.6% of farmers slaughtered on their premises, but 51% acknowledged allowing visitors into their farms to purchase pigs. ASF outbreaks seemed to have a severe economic impact with nearly 36% of farmers ceasing pig farming for at least 1 year after a suspected ASF outbreak. This study provides the first evidence of the existence of a sylvatic cycle in Mozambique and confirms the presence of a permanent source of virus for the domestic pig value chain. PMID:25483914

  12. Digital Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Salathé, Marcel; Bengtsson, Linus; Bodnar, Todd J.; Brewer, Devon D.; Brownstein, John S.; Buckee, Caroline; Campbell, Ellsworth M.; Cattuto, Ciro; Khandelwal, Shashank; Mabry, Patricia L.; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    Mobile, social, real-time: the ongoing revolution in the way people communicate has given rise to a new kind of epidemiology. Digital data sources, when harnessed appropriately, can provide local and timely information about disease and health dynamics in populations around the world. The rapid, unprecedented increase in the availability of relevant data from various digital sources creates considerable technical and computational challenges. PMID:22844241

  13. Triparental Families: A New Genetic-Epidemiological Design Applied to Drug Abuse, Alcohol Use Disorders, and Criminal Behavior in a Swedish National Sample

    PubMed Central

    Kendler, Kenneth S.; Ohlsson, Henrik; Sundquist, Jan; Sundquist, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Objective The authors sought to clarify the sources of parent-offspring resemblance for drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, using a novel genetic-epidemiological design. Method Using national registries, the authors identified rates of drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior in 41,360 Swedish individuals born between 1960 and 1990 and raised in triparental families comprising a biological mother who reared them, a “not-lived-with” biological father, and a stepfather. Results When each syndrome was examined individually, hazard rates for drug abuse in offspring of parents with drug abuse were highest for mothers (2.80, 95% CI=2.23–3.38), intermediate for not-lived-with fathers (2.45,95%CI=2.14–2.79), and lowest for stepfathers (1.99, 95% CI=1.55–2.56). The same pattern was seen for alcohol use disorders (2.23, 95% CI=1.93–2.58; 1.84, 95% CI=1.69–2.00; and 1.27, 95% CI=1.12–1.43) and criminal behavior (1.55, 95% CI=1.44–1.66; 1.46, 95%CI=1.40–1.52; and1.30, 95% CI=1.23–1.37). When all three syndromes were examined together, specificity of cross-generational transmission was highest for mothers, intermediate for not-lived-with fathers, and lowest for stepfathers. Analyses of intact families and other not-lived-with parents and stepparents showed similar cross-generation transmission for these syndromes in mothers and fathers, supporting the representativeness of results from triparental families. Conclusions A major strength of the triparental design is its inclusion, within a single family, of parents who provide, to a first approximation, their offspring with genes plus rearing, genes only, and rearing only. For drug abuse, alcohol use disorders, and criminal behavior, the results of this study suggest that parent-offspring transmission involves both genetic and environmental processes, with genetic factors being somewhat more important. These results should be interpreted in the context of the strengths

  14. Epidemiology of National Collegiate Athletic Association men’s and women’s swimming and diving injuries from 2009/10 to 2013/14

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Zachary Y.; Baugh, Christine M.; Hibberd, Elizabeth E.; Snook, Erin M.; Hayden, Ross; Dompier, Thomas P.

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aim Recent injury data for collegiate-level swimming and diving is limited. Previous data is limited to single seasons, elite and national team athletes, or emergency department data. This study describes the epidemiology of men’s and women’s swimming and diving injuries reported by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Injury Surveillance Program (ISP) during the 2009/10-2013/14 academic years. Methods Injuries and athlete-exposure (AE) data reported within nine men’s and 13 women’s swimming and diving programs were analyzed. Injury rates, injury rate ratios (IRR), and injury proportions by body site, diagnosis, and mechanism were reported with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The ISP captured 149 and 208 injuries for men’s and women’s swimming and diving, respectively, leading to injury rates of 1.54/1000AEs and 1.71/1000AEs. Among females, divers had a higher injury rate (2.49/1000AEs) than swimmers (1.63/1000AEs; IRR=1.53; 95%CI: 1.07, 2.19). Injury rates for male divers (1.94/1000AEs) and swimmers (1.48/1000AEs) did not differ (IRR=1.33; 95%CI: 0.85, 2.31). Most injuries occurred to the shoulder and resulted in strains. Many injuries were classified as overuse or non-contact. Female swimmers had a higher overuse injury rate (1.04/1000AEs) than male swimmers (0.66/1000AEs; IRR=1.58; 95%CI: 1.14, 2.19). Overuse injury rates for female divers (0.54/1000AEs) and male divers (0.46/1000AEs) did not differ (IRR=1.16; 95%CI: 0.40, 3.34). Conclusions Shoulder, strain, and overuse injuries were common in collegiate men’s and women’s swimming and diving. In addition, divers may have higher injury rates than swimmers, although small reported numbers in this study warrant additional research. PMID:25633831

  15. Candidate measures of whole plant food intake are related to biomarkers of nutrition and health in the US population (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002).

    PubMed

    Lipsky, Leah M; Cheon, Kyeongmi; Nansel, Tonja R; Albert, Paul S

    2012-04-01

    Indices of overall dietary patterns are used in epidemiologic research to examine the relationship between nutrition and health. The objective of this study was to develop and validate an interpretable summary measure of dietary intake of whole plant foods (WPF; whole grains, vegetables, whole fruit, legumes, nuts, seeds) because of their similar nutritional characteristics and health effects. Six candidate WPF measures were calculated using data from subjects (age ≥ 6 years) participating in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Measures differed by the inclusion or exclusion of potatoes and whether they were expressed as total intake or as a proportion of energy (4180 kJ) or mass (kg) consumed. Both standard and nontruncated (allowed to vary proportionally with intake) Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005) scores were calculated. Regression analysis examined the associations between WPF and HEI-2005 measures, and between all diet measures and serum carotenoid concentration, serum lipids, fasting glucose, insulin, C-peptide, and C-reactive protein. Mean total WPF intake was 3.6 cup/oz equivalents, or 1.7 cup/oz equivalents per 4180 kJ and per kg. The largest R² between WPF and HEI-2005 measures was found for energy-adjusted WPF including potatoes and nontruncated HEI-2005 (R² = 0.50). All diet measures were positively related to serum carotenoids (P <.001) and were similarly related to health indicators (R² range from 0.003 to 0.16, P <.045 for regressions, indicating significant associations between WPF measures and health indicators). Whole plant food measures are interpretable indicators of dietary intake that are significantly related to nutrition and health biomarkers and may be of public health use.

  16. Epidemiology of colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marley, Andrew R; Nan, Hongmei

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is currently the third deadliest cancer in the United States and will claim an estimated 49,190 U.S. lives in 2016. The purpose of this review is to summarize our current understanding of this disease, based on nationally published statistics and information presented in peer-reviewed journal articles. Specifically, this review will cover the following topics: descriptive epidemiology (including time and disease trends both in the United States and abroad), risk factors (environmental, genetic, and gene-environment interactions), screening, prevention and control, and treatment. Landmark discoveries in colorectal cancer risk factor research will also be presented. Based on the information reviewed for this report, we suggest that future U.S. public health efforts aim to increase colorectal cancer screening among African American communities, and that future worldwide colorectal cancer epidemiology studies should focus on researching nutrient-gene interactions towards the goal of improving personalized treatment and prevention strategies. PMID:27766137

  17. Evaluation of the Association between Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)and Diabetes in Epidemiological Studies: A National Toxicology Program Workshop Review

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Diabetes is a major threat to public health in the United States and worldwide. Understanding the role of environmental chemicals in the development or progression of diabetes is an emerging issue in environmental health.Objective: We assessed the epidemiologic litera...

  18. Q&A: Muin Khoury on cancer epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J; Rose, Suzanne

    2014-02-01

    Muin J. Khoury, MD, PhD, director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Office of Public Health Genomics and head of the National Cancer Institute's Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program in the Division of Cancer Control and Population Sciences, talks about challenges and opportunities in cancer epidemiology research and efforts in the epidemiology community to transform the field.

  19. Detection of pleiotropy through a Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) of epidemiologic data as part of the Environmental Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study.

    PubMed

    Hall, Molly A; Verma, Anurag; Brown-Gentry, Kristin D; Goodloe, Robert; Boston, Jonathan; Wilson, Sarah; McClellan, Bob; Sutcliffe, Cara; Dilks, Holly H; Gillani, Nila B; Jin, Hailing; Mayo, Ping; Allen, Melissa; Schnetz-Boutaud, Nathalie; Crawford, Dana C; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Pendergrass, Sarah A

    2014-12-01

    We performed a Phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) utilizing diverse genotypic and phenotypic data existing across multiple populations in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES), conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and accessed by the Epidemiological Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study. We calculated comprehensive tests of association in Genetic NHANES using 80 SNPs and 1,008 phenotypes (grouped into 184 phenotype classes), stratified by race-ethnicity. Genetic NHANES includes three surveys (NHANES III, 1999-2000, and 2001-2002) and three race-ethnicities: non-Hispanic whites (n = 6,634), non-Hispanic blacks (n = 3,458), and Mexican Americans (n = 3,950). We identified 69 PheWAS associations replicating across surveys for the same SNP, phenotype-class, direction of effect, and race-ethnicity at p<0.01, allele frequency >0.01, and sample size >200. Of these 69 PheWAS associations, 39 replicated previously reported SNP-phenotype associations, 9 were related to previously reported associations, and 21 were novel associations. Fourteen results had the same direction of effect across more than one race-ethnicity: one result was novel, 11 replicated previously reported associations, and two were related to previously reported results. Thirteen SNPs showed evidence of pleiotropy. We further explored results with gene-based biological networks, contrasting the direction of effect for pleiotropic associations across phenotypes. One PheWAS result was ABCG2 missense SNP rs2231142, associated with uric acid levels in both non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, protoporphyrin levels in non-Hispanic whites and Mexican Americans, and blood pressure levels in Mexican Americans. Another example was SNP rs1800588 near LIPC, significantly associated with the novel phenotypes of folate levels (Mexican Americans), vitamin E levels (non-Hispanic whites) and triglyceride levels (non-Hispanic whites

  20. International Lymphoma Epidemiology Consortium

    Cancer.gov

    The InterLymph Consortium, or formally the International Consortium of Investigators Working on Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Epidemiologic Studies, is an open scientific forum for epidemiologic research in non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

  1. Ecological and epidemiological aspects of the sand fly (Diptera, Psychodidae) fauna of the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adelson L; Falqueto, Aloisio; Grimaldi, Gabriel; Peixoto, Alexandre A; De S Pinto, Israel

    2013-11-01

    We evaluated the ecological and epidemiological aspects of the sand fly fauna in an area of the Atlantic Forest biome with records of visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis. Sand fly collections at three different localities at the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, State of Espírito Santo, Southeastern Brazil, were conducted by using two Centers of Disease Control and Prevention automatic light traps in the peridomiciliary environment and eight Centers of Disease Control and Prevention automatic light traps in the forested environment. Collections occurred during four consecutive nights within each of the months and locations: São Luiz (December 2009, May 2010, July 2010, and December 2010), Córrego Palmital de Baixo (September 2010 and October 2010), and Córrego São Bento (February 2011 and May 2011). We collected 21,138 sand flies belonging to 31 species and 14 genera. Of this total, 12,412 sand flies were captured in the peridomiciliary environment and 8,726 in the forested environment. All of the vector species, Lutzomyia longipalpis (=Lutzomyia longipalpis, sensu; Young and Duncan), Migonemyia migonei (=Lutzomyia migonei, sensu; Young and Duncan), and Nyssomyia intermedia (=Lutzomyia intermedia, sensu; Young and Duncan), occurred in significantly higher numbers in the peridomiciliary environment than compared with the forested environment. Our results highlight the importance of conservation in the forest remains of the National Monument of Pontões Capixabas, because of higher species richness and diversity. Furthermore, they indicate the epidemiological role of Lu. longipalpis as the vector of Leishmania infantum within the study area, and the no evident role of Mg. migonei.

  2. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases.

  3. Estimated nutrient intakes from food generally do not meet dietary reference intakes among adult members of Pacific Northwest tribal nations.

    PubMed

    Fialkowski, Marie K; McCrory, Megan A; Roberts, Sparkle M; Tracy, J Kathleen; Grattan, Lynn M; Boushey, Carol J

    2010-05-01

    Diet is influential in the etiology of chronic diseases in many populations including Native Americans. The objective of this report is to present the first comprehensive dietary survey, to our knowledge, of a representative sample of nonpregnant adults from Pacific Northwest tribal nations participating in the Communities Advancing the Studies of Tribal Nations Across the Lifespan (CoASTAL) cohort. Only participants who completed 1-4 d of dietary records and had weights and heights measured in the laboratory were eligible for this analysis (n = 418). Mean nutrient intakes were stratified by gender for the total sample, those with plausibly reported energy intakes (rEI), and those with implausibly rEI. Estimates of nutrient intakes were compared with Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Nutrient estimates from NHANES 2001-2002 were used as a reference. Among both men and women, total fat contributed 34-37% of energy intake and saturated fat contributed 11-12% of energy intake. Daily cholesterol intakes ranged from 262 to 442 mg. A majority of men and women were not meeting recommendations for vitamins A, C, and E, magnesium, and sodium. For a majority of the nutrients examined, plausibility resulted in higher mean estimates. The CoASTAL cohort nutrient profile is similar to NHANES 2001-2002, with a majority of DRI recommendations not being met. Adequate dietary intake information may be more important for this population, because Native Americans experience a disproportionate burden for diseases. PMID:20237069

  4. Current Status of the Clinical Epidemiology of Myocardial Infarction in Men and Women: A National Cross-Sectional Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadi, Ali; Soori, Hamid; Sajjadi, Homeira; Nasri, Hamid; Mehrabi, Yadollah; Etemad, Koorosh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease is the main reason for mortality in men and women. Clinical epidemiology of myocardial infarction (MI) in men and women has not been yet studied in Iran, one of the largest Middle East countries in South-Western Asia. This study was conducted to determine the clinical epidemiology of MI in men and women in Iran. Methods: This hospital-based, cross-sectional study used the data of 20,750 MI patients in Iran in 2012 (the codes I22, I21, I24, and I25.2). Univariate comparisons used Chi-square test for categorical variables and t-test for continuous variables. P < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results: Totally, 20,750 MI patients (15,033 men and 5,717 women) with age range of 13–106 (mean; 61.2 ± 13.4) years were enrolled. Only 9 (0.04%) patients (8 men and 1 woman) were ≤18 years (mean age: 14.8 ± 1.9), out of whom only two men were diabetic. 22.2% (18% men and 33.4% women) of the patients had diabetes, 26.2% (28.5% men and 20.1% women) were smoker and 35.5% (28.6% men and 53.7% women) had hypertension. ST-segment elevation MI incidence was 2.8 times higher in men than women. Left bundle branch block was significantly more prevalent in men than women. Men used percutaneous coronary intervention more frequently than women did. No difference in coronary artery bypass graft was noted between men and women. Mortality incidence was approximately twice higher in men than women. The prevalence of chest pain was higher in women than men. Conclusions: The MI incidence pattern, mortality from MI, and risk factors prevalence are significantly different between men and women in Iran. More emphasis on these issues in training people and healthcare professionals seems to contribute partially to patients’ timely referring to health care centers and preventing MI-associated mortalities. PMID:25789146

  5. Overview and quality assurance for the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) oral health component, 1999-2002.

    PubMed

    Dye, B A; Barker, L K; Selwitz, R H; Lewis, B G; Wu, T; Fryar, C D; Ostchega, Y; Beltran, E D; Ley, E

    2007-04-01

    The Oral Health Component of the 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) is a collaborative effort between the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (NIDCR), the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Division of Oral Health (NCCDPHP/DOH), and the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). The current NHANES is designed as a continuous survey with data released on a 2-year cycle to represent the civilian, non-institutionalized population of the US. Oral health data are currently available for 8082 and 9010 persons aged > or =2 years who participated in the 1999-2000 and 2001-2002 NHANES, respectively. This article provides background information on previous national examination surveys with oral health content. It also provides general analytical considerations, oral health content information, and evaluations of data quality in terms of examiner reliability statistics (percent agreements, kappa, and correlation coefficients) for the 1999-2002 NHANES Oral Health Component.

  6. A national survey of the molecular epidemiology of Clostridium difficile in Israel: the dissemination of the ribotype 027 strain with reduced susceptibility to vancomycin and metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Adler, Amos; Miller-Roll, Tamar; Bradenstein, Rita; Block, Colin; Mendelson, Bracha; Parizade, Miriam; Paitan, Yossi; Schwartz, David; Peled, Nehama; Carmeli, Yehuda; Schwaber, Mitchell J

    2015-09-01

    Our goals were to study the molecular epidemiology and antimicrobial susceptibilities of C. difficile strains in Israel. Microbiology laboratories serving 6 general hospitals (GH) and 10 long-term care facilities (LTCF) were asked to submit all stool samples in January-February 2014 that tested positive for C. difficile. Toxigenic C. difficile isolates were recovered in 208 out of 217 samples (95.8%), of which 50 (23.6%) were from LTCFs. Ribotype 027 was the most common type overall, identified in 65 samples (31.8%), and was the predominant strain in the 3 GHs with the highest incidence of C. difficile infections. Other common strains were slpA types cr-02 (n = 45) and hr-02 (n = 18). The proportions of vancomycin and metronidazole MIC values >2mg/L were high in ribotype 027 (87.7% and 44.6%, respectively) and slpA-cr-02 strains (88.8% and 17.8%, respectively). This study demonstrates that the ribotype 027 strain has disseminated across Israel and is now the most common strain.

  7. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Malcolm V.; Ford, Jean G.; Samet, Jonathan M.; Spivack, Simon D.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ever since a lung cancer epidemic emerged in the mid-1900s, the epidemiology of lung cancer has been intensively investigated to characterize its causes and patterns of occurrence. This report summarizes the key findings of this research. Methods: A detailed literature search provided the basis for a narrative review, identifying and summarizing key reports on population patterns and factors that affect lung cancer risk. Results: Established environmental risk factors for lung cancer include smoking cigarettes and other tobacco products and exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke, occupational lung carcinogens, radiation, and indoor and outdoor air pollution. Cigarette smoking is the predominant cause of lung cancer and the leading worldwide cause of cancer death. Smoking prevalence in developing nations has increased, starting new lung cancer epidemics in these nations. A positive family history and acquired lung disease are examples of host factors that are clinically useful risk indicators. Risk prediction models based on lung cancer risk factors have been developed, but further refinement is needed to provide clinically useful risk stratification. Promising biomarkers of lung cancer risk and early detection have been identified, but none are ready for broad clinical application. Conclusions: Almost all lung cancer deaths are caused by cigarette smoking, underscoring the need for ongoing efforts at tobacco control throughout the world. Further research is needed into the reasons underlying lung cancer disparities, the causes of lung cancer in never smokers, the potential role of HIV in lung carcinogenesis, and the development of biomarkers. PMID:23649439

  8. Travel epidemiology: the Saudi perspective.

    PubMed

    Memish, Ziad A; Venkatesh, S; Ahmed, Qanta A

    2003-02-01

    The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia occupies four-fifths of the Arabian Peninsula, with a land area of 2 million square kilometres. Saudi Arabia holds a unique position in the Islamic world, as the custodian of the two holiest places of Islam, in Mecca and Medina. Annually, some 2 million Muslims from over 140 countries embark on Hajj. This extraordinary en masse migration is a unique forum for the study of travel epidemiology since the Hajj carries various health risks, both communicable and non-communicable, often on a colossal scale. Non-communicable hazards of the Hajj include stampede and motor vehicle trauma, fire-related burn injuries and accidental hand injury during animal slaughter. Communicable hazards in the form of outbreaks of multiple infectious diseases have been reported repeatedly, during and following the Hajj. Meningococcal meningitis, gastroenteritis, hepatitis A, B and C, and various zoonotic diseases comprise some of the possible infectious hazards at the Hajj. Many of these infectious and non-infectious hazards can be avoided or averted by adopting appropriate prophylactic measures. Physicians and health personnel must be aware of these risks to appropriately educate, immunize and prepare these travellers facing the unique epidemiological challenges of Hajj in an effort to minimize untoward effects. Travel epidemiology related to the Hajj is a new and exciting area, which offers valuable insights to the travel specialist. The sheer scale of numbers affords a rare view of migration medicine in action. As data is continually gathered and both national and international policy making is tailored to vital insights gained through travel epidemiology, the Hajj will be continually safeguarded. Practitioners will gain from findings of travel related epidemiological changes in evolution at the Hajj: the impact of vaccinating policies, infection control policies and public health are afforded a real-world laboratory setting at each annual Hajj, allowing us to

  9. [Epidemiological and clinical profile of neurocysticercosis patients assisted by the Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá, Paraná, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Benedeti, Márcia Regina; Falavigna, Dina Lúcia Morais; Falavigna-Guilherme, Ana Lúcia; Araújo, Silvana Marques de

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to drawn an epidemiological and clinical profile of the neurocysticercosis (NCC) patients assisted by Hospital Universitário Regional de Maringá. A transversal, retrospective and descriptive study based on 6,100 records of the Neurology, Neuropediatry, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry clinics was done from January/1998 to December/2004. Of these, 48 were selected with diagnosis of NCC. The prevalence was greater in female (p<0.001), 31-60 years (43.7%), and urban zone (93.8%). The number of NCC cases overcame those notified to the Epidemic Surveillance in 1998, 1999, 2001, 2002 and 2004. The epilepsy due to NCC (CI=1.77;16.07; p=0.0024) was generalized and of late onset in 91.7% patients, being associated to headache in 37.5% ones. There was need of hospitalization in 22.9% of the patients (medium time of 3.91+/-3.35 days). It was concluded that the epidemiological and clinical profile observed is peculiar, displaying some common points with other Brazilian studies.

  10. Epidemiology of cancer in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Lo, E K

    1985-12-01

    Some information on cancer in Malaysia are available, and its epidemiology is described. There is a need for systematic and coordinated collection of cancer statistics which are essential to patient management, cancer control programme formulation, implementation and evaluation. The decision of the Ministry of Health to introduce National Cancer Registry and to encourage epidemiological studies, which will ultimately lead to the utilization of data and introduction of control and preventive activities for cancers are positive steps in the right direction. Meanwhile, curative and palliative treatment is available from the existing hospital facilities, and preventive activities such as actions on smoking and health will be continued until such time when a comprehensive prevention and control programme for cancers in the country is evolved.

  11. Library Research and Statistics. Research on Libraries and Librarianship in 2002; Number of Libraries in the United States and Canada; Highlights of NCES Surveys; Library Acquisition Expenditures, 2001-2002: U.S. Public, Academic, Special, and Government Libraries; LJ Budget Report: A Precarious Holding Pattern; Price Indexes for Public and Academic Libraries; Library Buildings 2002: The Building Buck Doesn't Stop Here.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Mary Jo; Oder, Norman; Halstead, Kent; Fox, Bette-Lee

    2003-01-01

    Includes seven reports that discuss research on libraries and librarianship, including academic, public, and school libraries; awards and grants; number of libraries in the United States and Canada; National Center for Education Statistics results; library expenditures for public, academic, special, and government libraries; library budgets; price…

  12. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: A comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data

    PubMed Central

    LIU, ZHEYU; ZHANG, YEFEI; FRANZIN, LUISA; CORMIER, JANICE N.; CHAN, WENYAW; XU, HUA; DU, XIANGLIN L.

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute’s Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute’s SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995–2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995–1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER. PMID:25672365

  13. Quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among regular users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis: An analysis of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC).

    PubMed

    Cougle, Jesse R; Hakes, Jahn K; Macatee, Richard J; Chavarria, Jesus; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    Research is limited on the effects of regular substance use on mental health-related outcomes. We used a large nationally representative survey to examine current and future quality of life and risk of psychiatric disorders among past-year regular (weekly) users of alcohol, nicotine, and cannabis. Data on psychiatric disorders and quality of life from two waves (Wave 1 N = 43,093, Wave 2 N = 34,653) of the National Epidemiological Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC) were used to test study aims. In cross-sectional analyses, regular nicotine and cannabis use were associated with higher rates of psychiatric disorder, though regular alcohol use was associated with lower rates of disorders. Prospective analyses found that regular nicotine use predicted onset of anxiety, depressive, and bipolar disorders. Regular alcohol use predicted lower risk of these disorders. Regular cannabis use uniquely predicted the development of bipolar disorder, panic disorder with agoraphobia, and social phobia. Lastly, regular alcohol use predicted improvements in physical and mental health-related quality of life, whereas nicotine predicted deterioration in these outcomes. Regular cannabis use predicted declines in mental, but not physical health. These data add to the literature on the relations between substance use and mental and physical health and suggest increased risk of mental health problems among regular nicotine and cannabis users and better mental and physical health among regular alcohol users. Examination of mechanisms underlying these relationships is needed. PMID:26022838

  14. Trends and variations in breast and colorectal cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011: a comparative study between Texas Cancer Registry and National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results data.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zheyu; Zhang, Yefei; Franzin, Luisa; Cormier, Janice N; Chan, Wenyaw; Xu, Hua; Du, Xianglin L

    2015-04-01

    Few studies have examined the cancer incidence trends in the state of Texas, and no study has ever been conducted to compare the temporal trends of breast and colorectal cancer incidence in Texas with those of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) in the United States. This study aimed to conduct a parallel comparison between the Texas Cancer Registry and the National Cancer Institute's SEER on cancer incidence from 1995 to 2011. A total of 951,899 breast and colorectal cancer patients were included. Age-adjusted breast cancer incidence was 134.74 per 100,000 in Texas and 131.78 per 100,000 in SEER in 1995-2011, whereas age-adjusted colorectal cancer incidence was 50.52 per 100,000 in Texas and 49.44 per 100,000 in SEER. Breast cancer incidence increased from 1995 to 2001, decreased from 2002 to 2006, and then remained relatively stable from 2007 to 2011. For colorectal cancer, the incidence increased in 1995-1997, and then decreased continuously from 1998 to 2011 in Texas and SEER areas. Incidence rates and relative risks by age, gender and ethnicity were identical between Texas and SEER.

  15. Epidemiology of Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Merikangas, Kathleen R.; McClair, Vetisha L.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies of substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) have provided an abundance of data on the patterns of substance use in nationally representative samples across the world (Degenhardt et al. 2008; Johnston et al. 2011; SAMHSA 2011). This paper presents a summary of the goals, methods and recent findings on the epidemiology of substance use and disorders in the general population of adults and adolescents and describes the methods and findings on the genetic epidemiology of drug use disorders. The high 12 month prevalence rates of substance dependence in U.S. adults (about 12% for alcohol and 2–3% for illicit drugs) approximate those of other mental disorders as well as chronic physical disorders with major public health impact. New findings from the nationally representative samples of U.S. youth reveal that the lifetime prevalence of alcohol use disorders is approximately 8% and illicit drug use disorders is 2–3% (Merikangas et al. 2010; Swendsen et al. in press, SAMSHA, 2011). The striking increase in prevalence rates from ages 13 to 18 highlight adolescence as the key period of development of substance use disorders. The application of genetic epidemiological studies has consistently demonstrated that genetic factors have a major influence on progression of substance use to dependence, whereas environmental factors unique to the individual play an important role in exposure and initial use of substances. Identification of specific susceptibility genes and environmental factors that influence exposure and progression of drug use may enhance our ability to prevent and treat substance use disorders. PMID:22543841

  16. [The epidemiological surveillance of dengue in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Montesano-Castellanos, R; Ruiz-Matus, C

    1995-01-01

    The clinical behavior of dengue fever in Mexico has changed, now with the occurrence of hemorrhagic cases. In response to the emergence of such cases, a specific epidemiologic surveillance system has been designed and implemented. This system includes the means to monitor the factors involved in the evolution of the disease. The identification and analysis of these factors is necessary to implement prevention and control measures. This paper presents the main components and procedures of the epidemiologic surveillance system for common and hemorrhagic dengue fever in Mexico, emphasizing the usefulness of the risk approach to predict the pattern of this disease. The model includes the collaboration of a multidisciplinary group. The Epidemiologic Surveillance State Committee, coordinated by the National Health System, participates in the collection and analysis of epidemiologic data, particularly data related to the population, the individual, the vector, the viruses and the environment. PMID:8599150

  17. [The epidemiological surveillance of dengue in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Montesano-Castellanos, R; Ruiz-Matus, C

    1995-01-01

    The clinical behavior of dengue fever in Mexico has changed, now with the occurrence of hemorrhagic cases. In response to the emergence of such cases, a specific epidemiologic surveillance system has been designed and implemented. This system includes the means to monitor the factors involved in the evolution of the disease. The identification and analysis of these factors is necessary to implement prevention and control measures. This paper presents the main components and procedures of the epidemiologic surveillance system for common and hemorrhagic dengue fever in Mexico, emphasizing the usefulness of the risk approach to predict the pattern of this disease. The model includes the collaboration of a multidisciplinary group. The Epidemiologic Surveillance State Committee, coordinated by the National Health System, participates in the collection and analysis of epidemiologic data, particularly data related to the population, the individual, the vector, the viruses and the environment.

  18. Guidelines for the identification, investigation and treatment of individuals with concomitant tuberculosis and HIV infection. Bureau of Communicable Disease Epidemiology, Canada Department of National Health and Welfare.

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    The following recommended guidelines, jointly prepared by the Canadian Thoracic Society, the Tuberculosis Directors of Canada, and the Department of National Health and Welfare in consultation with the provincial and territorial epidemiologists, AIDS coordinators and HIV caregivers, and approved by the Canadian Lung Association and the Canadian Thoracic Society are provided to assist health care workers who are caring for patients in the overlapping group. PMID:8500033

  19. [Epidemiology of Kawasaki disease].

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yosikazu

    2014-09-01

    Epidemiologic features of Kawasaki disease, in particular in Japan, were summarized. There were three aspects of the epidemiology: (1) frequency(descriptive epidemiology), (2) risk factors(e.g. case-control studies), and (3) natural history(follow-up studies). The nationwide surveys, which was established in 1970, revealed the epidemiologic features of the disease. The number of patients and incidence rate have elevated since mid-1990s. Descriptive features indicates the association between disease onset and both infection and the hosts' factors. A follow-up study over 20 years has been conducted, but it should be continued till all the participants pass away.

  20. [Molecular epidemiology in the epidemiological transition].

    PubMed

    Tapia-Conyer, R

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiological transition describes the changes in the health profile of populations where infectious diseases are substituted by chronic or non-communicable diseases. Even in industrialized countries, infectious diseases emerge as important public health problems and with a very important association with several type of neoplasm. Molecular epidemiology brings in new tools for the study of the epidemiological transition by discovering infectious agents as etiology of diseases, neither of both new. Much has been advanced in the understanding of the virulence and resistance mechanism of different strains, or improving the knowledge on transmission dynamics and dissemination pathways of infectious diseases. As to the non-communicable diseases, molecular epidemiology has enhanced the identification of endogenous risk factors link to alterations, molecular changes in genetic material, that will allow a more detail definition of risk and the identification of individual and groups at risk of several diseases. The potential impact of molecular epidemiology in other areas as environmental, lifestyles and nutritional areas are illustrated with several examples. PMID:9504120

  1. Differences in results of breast cancer curative treatment between urban/rural female population in Podlaskie Voivodship of Poland before introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme.

    PubMed

    Maślach, Dominik; Krzyżak, Michalina; Szpak, Andrzej; Owoc, Alfred; Gębska-Kuczerowska, Anita; Bielska-Lasota, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate differences in the results of the curative treatment received by women with breast cancer in urban and rural area in Podlaskie Voivodship in 2001-2002 before the introduction of the National Cancer Control Programme. The analysis was based on 449 women with breast cancer, who received curative treatment in years 2001-2002. Relative 5-year survival rates as function of age and stage among urban and rural women population were calculated. The results showed that survival rates in Podlaskie Voivodship among curatively treated women with breast cancer were 81.9% but they differed between urban and rural areas. Patients living in rural areas had much lower survivals than those living in urban areas at local and regional stage of disease. In all age groups considered in the study survivals in rural areas were lower than in urban ones in which survivals were higher in 55-64 age group. These results indicated the necessity intervention in order to increase the access to the health care system and effectiveness of early detection and also improved treatment standards for more disadvantaged rural areas. These results should be also considered in monitoring of the National Cancer Control Programme introduction in Poland in 2006.

  2. The Impact on National Death Index Ascertainment of Limiting Submissions to Social Security Administration Death Master File Matches in Epidemiologic Studies of Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Hermansen, Sigurd W.; Leitzmann, Michael F.

    2009-01-01

    Although many epidemiologists use the National Death Index (NDI) as the “gold standard” for ascertainment of US mortality, high search costs per year and per subject for large cohorts warrant consideration of less costly alternatives. In this study, for 1995–2001 deaths, the authors compared matches of a random sample of 11,968 National Institutes of Health (NIH)-AARP Diet and Health Study subjects to the Social Security Administration's Death Master File (DMF) and commercial list updates (CLU) with matches of those subjects to the NDI. They examined how varying the lower limits of estimated DMF match probabilities (m scores of 0.60, 0.20, and 0.05) altered the benefits and costs of mortality ascertainment. Observed DMF/CLU ascertainment of NDI-identified decedents increased from 89.8% to 95.1% as m decreased from 0.60 (stringent) to 0.20 (less stringent) and increased further to 96.4% as m decreased to 0.05 (least stringent). At these same cutpoints, the false-match probability increased from 0.4% of the sample to 0.6% and then 2.3%. Limiting NDI cause-of-death searches to subjects found in DMF searches using less stringent match criteria, further supplemented by CLU vital status updates, improves vital status assessment while increasing substantially the cost-effectiveness of ascertaining mortality in large prospective cohort studies. PMID:19251755

  3. Vaccine epidemiology: A review

    PubMed Central

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  4. The future of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Ness, Roberta B; Andrews, Elizabeth B; Gaudino, James A; Newman, Anne B; Soskolne, Colin L; Stürmer, Til; Wartenberg, Daniel E; Weiss, Stanley H

    2009-11-01

    In this article, the authors discuss current challenges and opportunities in epidemiology that will affect the field's future. Epidemiology is commonly considered the methodologic backbone for the fields of public health and outcomes research because its practitioners describe patterns of disease occurrence, identify risk factors and etiologic determinants, and demonstrate the usefulness of interventions. Like most aspects of science, epidemiology is in rapid flux. Several factors that are influencing and will continue to influence epidemiology and the health of the public include factors fundamental to framing the discipline of epidemiology (i.e., its means of communication, its methodologies, its access to data, its values, its population perspective), factors relating to scientific advances (e.g., genomics, comparative effectiveness in therapeutics), and factors shaping human health (e.g., increasing globalism, the environment, disease and lifestyle, demographics, infectious disease). PMID:19858828

  5. Vaccine epidemiology: A review.

    PubMed

    Lahariya, Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    This review article outlines the key concepts in vaccine epidemiology, such as basic reproductive numbers, force of infection, vaccine efficacy and effectiveness, vaccine failure, herd immunity, herd effect, epidemiological shift, disease modeling, and describes the application of this knowledge both at program levels and in the practice by family physicians, epidemiologists, and pediatricians. A case has been made for increased knowledge and understanding of vaccine epidemiology among key stakeholders including policy makers, immunization program managers, public health experts, pediatricians, family physicians, and other experts/individuals involved in immunization service delivery. It has been argued that knowledge of vaccine epidemiology which is likely to benefit the society through contributions to the informed decision-making and improving vaccination coverage in the low and middle income countries (LMICs). The article ends with suggestions for the provision of systematic training and learning platforms in vaccine epidemiology to save millions of preventable deaths and improve health outcomes through life-course. PMID:27453836

  6. Sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of 3-year incidence of DSM-IV substance use disorders among men and women in the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Risë B; Smith, Sharon M; Dawson, Deborah A; Grant, Bridget F

    2015-12-01

    Incidence rates of alcohol and drug use disorders (AUDs and DUDs) are consistently higher in men than women, but information on whether sociodemographic and psychiatric diagnostic predictors of AUD and DUD incidence differ by sex is limited. Using data from Waves 1 and 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, sex-specific 3-year incidence rates of AUDs and DUDs among United States adults were compared by sociodemographic variables and baseline psychiatric disorders. Sex-specific logistic regression models estimated odds ratios for prediction of incident AUDs and DUDs, adjusting for potentially confounding baseline sociodemographic and diagnostic variables. Few statistically significant sex differences in predictive relationships were identified and those observed were generally modest. Prospective research is needed to identify predictors of incident DSM-5 AUDs and DUDs and their underlying mechanisms, including whether there is sex specificity by developmental phase, in the role of additional comorbidity in etiology and course, and in outcomes of prevention and treatment. PMID:26727008

  7. Antisocial Behavioral Syndromes in Adulthood and Alcohol Use Disorder Treatment over Three-Year Follow-Up: Results from Wave 2 of the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Risë B.; Dawson, Deborah A.; Grant, Bridget F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) is associated with poorer treatment outcomes, but more help seeking, for alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, associations of ASPD with AUD treatment in the general population have not been studied prospectively. Objective To examine prediction of treatment over 3-year follow-up among adults with AUDs by baseline ASPD and syndromal adult antisocial behavior without conduct disorder before age 15 (AABS). Method Face-to-face interviews with 34,653 respondents to the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions, of whom 3875 had prevalent AUDs between Waves 1 and 2 and ASPD, AABS, or no antisocial syndrome at Wave 1. Results In unadjusted analyses, baseline ASPD predicted AUD treatment but AABS did not. After adjustment for additional need, predisposing, and enabling factors, antisocial syndromes did not predict treatment. Baseline predictors of treatment included more past-year AUD symptoms, and past-year nicotine dependence and AUD treatment. Conclusions That baseline antisocial syndrome did not predict AUD treatment may reflect strong associations of antisociality with previously identified predictors of help seeking. PMID:20838468

  8. Centralized databases available for describing primary brain tumor incidence, survival, and treatment: Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States; Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results; and National Cancer Data Base.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, F. G.; McCarthy, B. J.; Berger, M. S.

    1999-01-01

    Characteristics of three databases--the Central Brain Tumor Registry of the United States (CBTRUS) database; the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) database; and the National Cancer Data Base (NCDB)--containing information on primary brain tumors are discussed. The recently developed population-based CBTRUS database comprises incidence data on all primary brain tumors from 11 collaborating state registries; however, follow-up data are not available. SEER, the population-based gold standard for cancer data, collects incidence and follow-up data on malignant brain tumors only. While not population-based, the NCDB identifies newly diagnosed cases and conducts follow-up on all primary brain tumors from hospitals accredited by the American College of Surgeons. The NCDB is the largest of the three databases and also contains more complete information regarding treatment of these tumors than either the SEER or CBTRUS databases. Additional strengths and limitations of each of these are described, and their judicious use for supporting research, education, and health care planning is encouraged. PMID:11554389

  9. An epidemiological study of poisoning cases reported to the National Poisons Information Centre, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Amita; Peshin, Sharda Shah; Kaleekal, Thomas; Gupta, Suresh Kumar

    2005-06-01

    A retrospective analysis of poisoning calls received by the National Poisons Information Centre showed a total of 2719 calls over a period of three years (April 1999-March 2002). The queries were made on poisoning management (92%) and information (8%) about various products and functioning of the centre. The data were analysed with respect to age, sex, mode and type of poisoning. The agents belonged to various groups: household products, agricultural pesticides, industrial chemicals, drugs, plants, animal bites and stings, miscellaneous and unknown groups respectively. The age ranged from less than 1 to 70 years, with the highest incidence in the range of 14-40 years, with males (57%) outnumbering females (43%). The most common mode of poisoning was suicidal (53%), followed by accidental (47%). The route of exposure was mainly oral (88%). Dermal (5%), inhalation and ocular exposure contributed 7% to the total. The highest incidence of poisoning was due to household agents (44.1%) followed by drugs (18.8%), agricultural pesticides (12.8%), industrial chemicals (8.9%), animals bites and stings (4.7%), plants (1.7%), unknown (2.9%) and miscellaneous groups (5.6%). Household products mainly comprised of pyrethroids, rodenticides, carbamates, phenyl, detergents, corrosives etc. Drugs implicated included benzodiazepines, anticonvulsants, analgesics, antihistamines, tricyclic antidepressants, thyroid hormones and oral contraceptives. Among the agricultural pesticides, aluminium phosphide was the most commonly consumed followed by organochlorines, organophosphates, ethylene dibromide, herbicides and fungicides. Copper sulphate and nitrobenzene were common among industrial chemicals. The bites and stings group comprised of snake bites, scorpion, wasp and bee stings. Poisoning due to plants was low, but datura was the most commonly ingested. An alarming feature of the study was the high incidence of poisoning in children (36.5%). The age ranged from less than 1 to 18 years

  10. Traditional epidemiology, modern epidemiology, and public health.

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, N

    1996-01-01

    There have been significant developments in epidemiologic methodology during the past century, including changes in basic concepts, methods of data analysis, and methods of exposure measurement. However, the rise of modern epidemiology has been a mixed blessing, and the new paradigm has major shortcomings, both in public health and in scientific terms. The changes in the paradigm have not been neutral but have rather helped change--and have reflected changes in--the way in which epidemiologists think about health and disease. The key issue has been the shift in the level of analysis from the population to the individual. Epidemiology has largely ceased to function as part of a multidisciplinary approach to understanding the causation of disease in populations and has become a set of generic methods for measuring associations of exposure and disease in individuals. This reductionist approach focuses on the individual, blames the victim, and produces interventions that can be harmful. We seem to be using more and more advanced technology to study more and more trivial issues, while the major causes of disease are ignored. Epidemiology must reintegrate itself into public health and must rediscover the population perspective. PMID:8629719

  11. [Epidemiologic study of anti-HTLV-I/II antibodies in blood donors in metropolitan France. The Retrovirus Working Group of the National Blood Transfusion Society].

    PubMed

    Lemaire, J M; Coste, J; Barin, F; Couroucé, A M

    1991-01-01

    Between march and april 1989, the prevalence of HTLV-I/II antibodies was studied in a non selected population of 45,033 blood donors of Continental France. Serum samples were collected and screened by 12 Blood Banks located in different parts of the country. Screening was performed by 4 ELISAs (Abbott-Du Pont de Nemours-Organon-Pharmacia) and by gelatin particle agglutination (Fujirebio); the sensitivity of these tests was previously evaluated with an HTLV-I/II panel of the French National Society of Transfusion. The reproducibly reactive sera were confirmed by Western-Blot (Du Pont) and radioimmunoprecipitation assay. Five donors were confirmed positive: the global prevalence is 0.011%. This prevalence is one of the highest in Europe. Three of the five positive donors (0.007%) are white subjects. The other two are natives from the French West Indies (0.81%). Since may 1989 the Ministry of Health recommends for Continental France to test donors originating from endemic zones or to use their plasma for fractionation. The results obtained in this study show that the efficacy of these measures are incomplete since 0.007% donors (1 out of 15,000 blood donations) are not tracked down.

  12. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Gymnastics Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Stephen W; Covassin, Tracey; Dick, Randall; Nassar, Lawrence G; Agel, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's gymnastics and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: In the 1988–1989 academic year, 112 schools were sponsoring varsity women's gymnastics teams, with approximately 1550 participants. By 2003–2004, the number of varsity teams had decreased 23% to 86, involving 1380 participants. Significant participation reductions during this time were particularly apparent in Divisions II and III. Main Results: A significant annual average decrease was noted in competition (−4.0%, P < .01) but not in practice (−1.0%, P = .35) injury rates during the sample period. Over the 16 years, the rate of injury in competition was more than 2 times higher than in practice (15.19 versus 6.07 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures; rate ratio = 2.5, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.3, 2.8). A total of 53% of all competition and 69% of all practice injuries were to the lower extremity. A participant was almost 6 times more likely to sustain a knee internal derangement injury in competition than in practice (rate ratio = 5.7, 95% CI = 4.5, 7.3) and almost 3 times more likely to sustain an ankle ligament sprain (rate ratio = 2.7, 95% CI = 2.1, 3.4). The majority of competition injuries (approximately 70%) resulted from either landings in floor exercises or dismounts. Recommendations: Gymnasts with a previous history of ankle sprain should either wear an ankle brace or use prophylactic tape on their ankles to decrease the risk of recurrent injury. Preventive efforts may incorporate more neuromuscular training and core stability programs in the off-season and preseason conditioning to enhance proper landing and skill mechanics. Equipment manufacturers are encouraged to reevaluate the design of the landing mats to allow for better absorption of forces. PMID:17710171

  13. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Men's Baseball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Dick, Randall; Sauers, Eric L; Agel, Julie; Keuter, Greg; Marshall, Stephen W; McCarty, Kenneth; McFarland, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for men's baseball and identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: Prevention and management of collegiate baseball injuries may be facilitated through injury research aimed at defining the nature of injuries inherent in the sport. Through the NCAA Injury Surveillance System, 16 years of collegiate baseball data were collected for the academic years 1988–1989 through 2003–2004. Main Results: College baseball has a relatively low rate of injury compared with other NCAA sports, but 25% of injuries are severe and result in 10+ days of time loss from participation. The rate of injury was 3 times higher in a game situation than in practice (5.78 versus 1.85 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures [A-Es], rate ratio = 3.1, 95% confidence interval = 3.0, 3.3, P < .01). Practice injury rates were almost twice as high in the preseason as in the regular season (2.97 versus 1.58 per 1000 A-Es, rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.8, 2.0, P < .01). A total of 10% of all game injuries occurred from impact with a batted ball, an injury rate of 0.56 injuries per 1000 game A-Es. Sliding was involved in 13% of game injuries. Recommendations: Proper preseason conditioning is important to reduce injuries. Athletic trainers covering practices and games should be prepared to deal with serious, life-threatening injuries from batted balls and other injury mechanisms. Further study of batted-ball injuries is warranted, and the use of breakaway bases to prevent sliding injuries should be supported in college baseball. PMID:17710166

  14. Pop, heavy metal and the blues: secondary analysis of persistent organic pollutants (POP), heavy metals and depressive symptoms in the NHANES National Epidemiological Survey

    PubMed Central

    Berk, Michael; Williams, Lana J; Andreazza, Ana C; Pasco, Julie A; Dodd, Seetal; Jacka, Felice N; Moylan, Steven; Reiner, Eric J; Magalhaes, Pedro V S

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Persistent environmental pollutants, including heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants (POPs), have a ubiquitous presence. Many of these pollutants affect neurobiological processes, either accidentally or by design. The aim of this study was to explore the associations between assayed measures of POPs and heavy metals and depressive symptoms. We hypothesised that higher levels of pollutants and metals would be associated with depressive symptoms. Setting National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Participants A total of 15 140 eligible people were included across the three examined waves of NHANES. Primary and secondary outcome measures Depressive symptoms were assessed using the nine-item version of the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), using a cut-off point of 9/10 as likely depression cases. Organic pollutants and heavy metals, including cadmium, lead and mercury, as well as polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs), pesticides, phenols and phthalates, were measured in blood or urine. Results Higher cadmium was positively associated with depression (adjusted Prevalence Ratios (PR)=1.48, 95% CI 1.16 to 1.90). Higher levels of mercury were negatively associated with depression (adjusted PR=0.62, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.78), and mercury was associated with increased fish consumption (n=5500, r=0.366, p<0.001). In addition, several PFCs (perfluorooctanoic acid, perfluorohexane sulfonic acid, perfluorodecanoic acid and perfluorononanoic acid) were negatively associated with the prevalence of depression. Conclusions Cadmium was associated with an increased likelihood of depression. Contrary to hypotheses, many of persistent environmental pollutants were not associated or negatively associated with depression. While the inverse association between mercury and depressive symptoms may be explained by a protective role for fish consumption, the negative associations with other pollutants remains unclear. This exploratory study suggests the need for

  15. PRELIMINARY HEALTH BURDEN ANALYSIS FOR EPIDEMIOLOGIC RECREATIONAL WATER STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Introduction: The National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water Study (NEEAR) offers a rare opportunity for researchers. The study's design involves the collection of health data before and after visiting the beach in conjunction with water quality...

  16. Descriptive Epidemiology of Collegiate Women's Basketball Injuries: National Collegiate Athletic Association Injury Surveillance System, 1988–1989 Through 2003–2004

    PubMed Central

    Agel, Julie; Olson, David E; Dick, Randall; Arendt, Elizabeth A; Marshall, Stephen W; Sikka, Robby S

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To review 16 years of National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) injury surveillance data for women's basketball and to identify potential areas for injury prevention initiatives. Background: The number of colleges participating in women's college basketball has grown over the past 25 years. The Injury Surveillance System (ISS) has enabled the NCAA to collect and report injury trends over an extended period of time. This has allowed certified athletic trainers and coaches to be more informed regarding injuries and to adjust training regimens to reduce the risk of injury. It also has encouraged administrators to make rule changes that attempt to reduce the risk of injury. Main Results: From 1988–1989 through 2003–2004, 12.4% of schools across Divisions I, II, and III that sponsor varsity women's basketball programs participated in annual ISS data collection. Game and practice injury rates exhibited significant decreases over the study period. The rate of injury in a game situation was almost 2 times higher than in a practice (7.68 versus 3.99 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 1.9, 95% confidence interval = 1.9, 2.0). Preseason-practice injury rates were more than twice as high as regular-season practice injury rates (6.75 versus 2.84 injuries per 1000 athlete-exposures, rate ratio = 2.4, 95% confidence interval = 2.2, 2.4). More than 60% of all game and practice injuries were to the lower extremity, with the most common game injuries being ankle ligament sprains, knee injuries (internal derangements and patellar conditions), and concussions. In practices, ankle ligament sprains, knee injuries (internal derangements and patellar conditions), upper leg muscle-tendon strains, and concussions were the most common injuries. Recommendations: Appropriate preseason conditioning and an emphasis on proper training may reduce the risk of injury and can optimize performance. As both player size and the speed of the women's game continue to

  17. Epidemiology of Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Sandler, R S; Golden, A L

    1986-04-01

    Although our current understanding is limited, epidemiologic investigation of Crohn's disease holds great promise. Certain aspects of the epidemiology are clear. The incidence of Crohn's disease, which has increased over the past few decades, may have reached a plateau. The disease has its peak onset in early life, with a second peak among the elderly. It is more common in the developed countries and among Jews. Whether the disease is related to occupation, social class, marital status, stress, infection, diet, smoking, and oral contraceptives is less certain. This paper reviews the epidemiology of Crohn's disease and proposes areas in which further research is needed.

  18. Evolution and social epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Akihiro

    2015-11-01

    Evolutionary biology, which aims to explain the dynamic process of shaping the diversity of life, has not yet significantly affected thinking in social epidemiology. Current challenges in social epidemiology include understanding how social exposures can affect our biology, explaining the dynamics of society and health, and designing better interventions that are mindful of the impact of exposures during critical periods. I review how evolutionary concepts and tools, such as fitness gradient in cultural evolution, evolutionary game theory, and contemporary evolution in cancer, can provide helpful insights regarding social epidemiology.

  19. Epidemiological measures in planning: observations from Sweden.

    PubMed

    Rosén, M

    1988-01-01

    This article reviews how epidemiological measures can be used in health planning. Theoretical considerations are discussed together with empirical data from Sweden. Formulation of targets, priority settings, resource allocation and monitoring systems are some ways in which epidemiological data can improve health planning. One important lesson for planning is that problems related to health, inequalities in health, and access to care, must be made visible to politicians, health personnel and the public. Further, there is a need to complement a national health policy with a decentralized planning system that takes local conditions and needs into consideration.

  20. Epidemiology of Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC)1

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, William F.; Schairer, Catherine; Chen, Bingshu E.; Hance, Kenneth W.; Levine, Paul H.

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare and aggressive form of breast cancer with unknown etiology and generally poor outcome. It is characterized by diffuse edema (peau d'orange) and redness (erythema), although either the disease itself or case definitions have varied over time and place, confounding temporal trends and geographic variations. In this review, we discuss case definitions for IBC and its clinical characteristics; describe its geographic variation, age and racial distribution, incidence and survival patterns, and summarize the very limited information on its epidemiologic risk factors. We also incorporate emerging data from the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program. PMID:16735783

  1. Epidemiology of varicocele

    PubMed Central

    Alsaikhan, Bader; Alrabeeah, Khalid; Delouya, Guila; Zini, Armand

    2016-01-01

    Varicocele is a common problem in reproductive medicine practice. A varicocele is identified in 15% of healthy men and up to 35% of men with primary infertility. The exact pathophysiology of varicoceles is not very well understood, especially regarding its effect on male infertility. We have conducted a systematic review of studies evaluating the epidemiology of varicocele in the general population and in men presenting with infertility. In this article, we have identified some of the factors that can influence the epidemiological aspects of varicoceles. We also recognize that varicocele epidemiology remains incompletely understood, and there is a need for well-designed, large-scale studies to fully define the epidemiological aspects of this condition. PMID:26763551

  2. Epidemiology of Lice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juranek, Dennis D.

    1977-01-01

    Research into the epidemiology of lice indicates that infestation is uncommon in blacks, more common in females than males, significantly higher in low income groups, and transmission is by way of articles of clothing. (JD)

  3. Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts

    Cancer.gov

    Cohort studies are fundamental for epidemiological research by helping researchers better understand the etiology of cancer and provide insights into the key determinants of this disease and its outcomes.

  4. [Molecular and genetic epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Kang, D H

    2001-04-21

    Molecular epidemiology is defined as "the use of biological markers in epidemiologic research" and genetic epidemiology is defined as "the study of the interaction between genetic and environmental factors in epidemiologic research". Traditional epidemiologic approaches defined as "the study of the distribution and determinants of disease frequency in human population" could not address the importance of genetic susceptibility of humans in disease occurrence. However, the use of biological or genetic markers identified and characterized by the help of advance in molecular biology and human genetics now can provide us better understanding of multi-factorial or multistep disease occurrence in humans. Biological markers used in molecular epidemiology are classified into three groups: biomarkers of exposure (i.e., carcinogen metabolites in human urine, DNA-adducts, etc.), biomarkers of effects (i.e., oncoproteins, tumor markers, etc.), and biomarkers of susceptibility (i.e., genetic polymorphisms of carcinogen metabolism enzymes, DNA repair, etc.). Susceptibility genes involved in disease pathogenesis are categorized into two groups: high penetrance genes (i.e., BRAC1, RB, etc.) and low penetrance genes (i.e., GSTs, XRCC1, etc.). This paper will address the usefulnesses of bomarkers in edpidemiologic research and will show the examples of the use of selected low penetrance genes involved in human carcinogenesis. The importance of multidisciplinary approaches among epidemiologists, molecular biologists, and human geneticists will also be discussed.

  5. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    PubMed

    Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking.

  6. The association between post-traumatic stress disorder and lifetime DSM-5 psychiatric disorders among veterans: Data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (NESARC-III).

    PubMed

    Smith, Sharon M; Goldstein, Rise B; Grant, Bridget F

    2016-11-01

    This study examined the prevalence, correlates and psychiatric comorbidity of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in a nationally representative sample of U.S. veterans using data from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions-III (n = 3119 veteran respondents). The overall prevalence of lifetime PTSD was 6.9%. Lifetime PTSD prevalence was higher among veterans who were female (13.2%), aged 18-29 years (15.3%), Native American (24.1%) or Black (11.0%), previously or never married (9.6% and 11.2, respectively), had incomes less than $70,000 (7.2%-10.1%) and had >2 traumatic events (5.2%-14.7%). After adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, comorbidity between lifetime PTSD and other psychiatric disorders was highest for any personality disorder (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11.1, 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.7, 21.5), any mood disorder (AOR = 9.7, 95% CI, 4.6, 20.4) and any anxiety disorder (AOR = 9.6, 95% CI, 5.1, 17.7), followed by nicotine, drug, and alcohol use disorders (AOR = 3.4, 95% CI, 1.8, 6.5; AOR = 3.1, 95% CI, 2.0, 5.9; 2.1, 95% CI, 1.5, 3.1, respectively). Associations remained with any mood, anxiety, and personality disorders after controlling for other psychiatric disorders (AOR = 3.7, 95% CI, 1.2, 10.9; AOR = 3.5, 95% CI, 1.6, 7.4; AOR = 4.5, 95% CI, 2.3, 8.7, respectively). Veterans who sought treatment for PTSD had more comorbid conditions, although treatment was only associated with comorbid drug use disorder (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI, 1.0, 5.7). In U.S. veterans, PTSD is highly comorbid with other psychiatric disorders. Although many veterans remain untreated, comorbidity may influence treatment seeking. PMID:27455424

  7. Research and Clinical Center for Child Development Annual Report, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Shing-Jen, Ed.; Murohashi, Harumitsu, Ed.; Fujino, Yuki, Ed.

    This annual report presents several articles related to the work of the Clinical Center for Child Development at Hokkaido University in Sapporo, Japan. The articles are: (1) "The Functional Uses of Infant-Directed Speech of Fathers and Mothers: A Comparison Study" (Katsuko Niwano); (2) "Are Children 'Among the Gods'?: Parental Images of Children…

  8. 76 FR 7590 - Distribution of 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice announcing commencement of Phase II proceeding with... brought to the Library of Congress, James Madison Memorial Building, LM-401, 101 Independence Avenue,...

  9. Description of Seismicity at Volcan de Colima, MEXICO, in the Period 2001-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Davila, G. A.; Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Ramirez-Vazquez, C. A.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    After the february 2001 explosive activity at Volcan de Colima, Mexico, the seismic activity decreased to its lowest level since november 1997 when the actual period of activity started. However, a few months later several researchers reported important morphologic changes inside of the crater formed by the explosive activity, which did not have related seismic activity. During the rainy season it was not possible to follow the development of the changes inside the crater and no significative seismicity was detected. Starting october 2001, a seismic swarm started to develop consisting mainly by high frecuency, very low amplitude seismic events usually detected by the closest seismic station to the summit, at about 1 km. By the end of the month the seismicity almost disappeared, but then it was possible to view again the volcano and for the first time it was possible to observe a huge spine extrusion. From november and until february 2002 it was possible to visually follow, by flying in helicopter, the process. Asismically, new lava was extruded until it filled the crater and a new lava dome was emplaced on the volcano. On february 5, 2002 the new material started to flow down the slopes of the volcano forming lava fronts mainly toward the southwest sector. Apparently the lava extrusion rate was almost constant. Beginning april, short periods of tremor started to appear sporadically and later it begun increasing continuosly in duration, amplitude and spectral content to levels not previously seen at Volcan de Colima. Such situation prompted a preventive evacuation of the people living close to the volcano and at greater risk. However, ending may, 2002 the seismic activity suddenly decreased in a stepwise way and later slowly decreased until a new minimum was reached by the end of june. However, starting july, seismicity started to increased again until a stable level was reached and continues until now. During the whole process, low level, small explosive type events have been detected.A detailed discussion is presented in that presentation.

  10. Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Sears, Sheryl

    2003-01-01

    The construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams completely and irrevocably blocked anadromous fish migrations to the Upper Columbia River. Historically this area hosted vast numbers of salmon returning to their natal waters to reproduce and die. For the native peoples of the region, salmon and steelhead were a principle food source, providing physical nourishment and spiritual sustenance, and contributing to the religious practices and the cultural basis of tribal communities. The decaying remains of spawned-out salmon carcasses contributed untold amounts of nutrients into the aquatic, aerial, and terrestrial ecosystems of tributary habitats in the upper basin. Near the present site of Kettle Falls, Washington, the second largest Indian fishery in the state existed for thousands of years. Returning salmon were caught in nets and baskets or speared on their migration to the headwater of the Columbia River in British Columbia. Catch estimates at Kettle Falls range from 600,000 in 1940 to two (2) million around the turn of the century (UCUT, Report No.2). The loss of anadromous fish limited the opportunities for fisheries management and enhancement exclusively to those actions addressed to resident fish. The Lake Roosevelt Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project is a mitigation project intended to enhance resident fish populations and to partially mitigate for anadromous fish losses caused by hydropower system impacts. This substitution of resident fish for anadromous fish losses is considered in-place and out-of-kind mitigation. Upstream migration and passage barriers limit the amount of spawning and rearing habitat that might otherwise be utilized by rainbow trout. The results of even limited stream surveys and habitat inventories indicated that a potential for increased natural production exists. However, the lack of any comprehensive enhancement measures prompted the Upper Columbia United Tribes Fisheries Center (UCUT), Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Spokane Tribe of Indians (STI) and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) to develop and propose a comprehensive fishery management plan for Lake Roosevelt. The Rainbow Trout Habitat/Passage Improvement Project (LRHIP) was designed with goals directed towards increasing natural production while maintaining genetic integrity among current tributary stocks. The initial phase of the Lake Roosevelt Habitat Improvement Project (Phase I, baseline data collection: 1990-91) was focused on the assessment of limiting factors, including the quality and quantity of available spawning gravel, identification of passage barriers, and assessment of other constraints. After the initial assessment of stream parameters, five streams meeting specific criteria were selected for habitat/passage improvement projects (Phase II, implementation -1992-1995). Four of these projects were on the Colville Indian Reservation South Nanamkin, North Nanamkin, Louie and Iron Creeks and one Blue Creek was on the Spokane Indian Reservation. At the completion of project habitat improvements, the final phase (Phase III, monitoring-1996-2000) began. This phase assessed the changes and determined the success achieved through the improvements. Data analysis showed that passage improvements are successful for increasing habitat availability and use. The results of in-stream habitat improvements were inconclusive. Project streams, to the last monitoring date, have shown increases in fish density following implementation of the improvements. In 2000 Bridge Creek, on the Colville Reservation was selected for the next phase of improvements. Data collection, including baseline stream survey and population data collection, was carried out during 2001 in preparation for the design and implementation of stream habitat/passage improvements. Agencies cooperating on the project include the Colville Confederated Tribes (CCT), Natural Resource Conservation Service (NRCS, Ferry County District), Ferry County Conservation District, and Ferry County. The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) provided project funding support and program integration assistance. A stock of redband rainbow trout, were discovered in 2001 in an isolated section of Bridge Creek above a set of waterfalls. DNA microsatellite analysis was conducted at the University of Idaho and indicated that very little if any hybridization. The targeted species in the genetic analysis was red band/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss spp.). The sub-contract is with Madison Powell and Joyce Faler at the Center for Salmonid and Freshwater Species at Risk at the University of Idaho/HFCES. DNA analysis used mitochondrial and nuclear RFLP markers along with two microsatellite loci. Sample populations were screened for detectable levels of introgressive hybridization arising from possible admixtures of hatchery rainbow trout with native red band trout.

  11. The Perfect Tens: The Top Twenty Books Reviewed in "Voice of Youth Advocates" 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voice of Youth Advocates, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Explains the review procedures and rating system for teen books in "Voice of Youth Advocates" and provides annotated bibliographies for the twenty best books in 2001-2202, including fiction, nonfiction, and science fiction and fantasy. (LRW)

  12. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Classroom Notes Plus, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This 19th issue of "Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. Under the Ideas from the Classroom section, the August 2001 issue contains the following materials: "Imitation: The Sincerest Form of Flattery" (Anna M. Parks); "Stories That Make Us Who We Are" (Therese M. Willis and Kathleen…

  13. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry; Tezak, E.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    The efficacy of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival and the fitness of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. The following summarizes some of the work performed and results from the FY 2001 performance period: (1) The incidence of male maturation of age-1 chinook salmon was significantly reduced by reducing growth in the first year of rearing. (2) Experimentally manipulated growth rates of captively-reared coho salmon had significant effects on female maturation rate, egg size, and fecundity, and the effects were stage-specific (i.e., pre-smolt vs. post-smolt). (3) A combination of Renogen and MT239 vaccination of yearling chinook salmon given an acute R. salmoninarum challenge had a significantly longer survival time than the mock-vaccinated group. The survival time was marginally higher than was seen in acutely challenged fish vaccinated with either Renogen or MT239 alone and suggests that a combination vaccine of Renogen and MT239 may be useful as both a prophylactic and therapeutic agent against BKD. (4) Full-sib (inbred) groups of chinook salmon have thus far exhibited lower ocean survival than half-sib and non-related groups. Effects of inbreeding on fluctuating asymmetry did not follow expected patterns. (5) Sockeye salmon were exposed to specific odorants at either the alevin/emergent fry stage or the smolt stage to determine the relative importance of odorant exposure during key developmental periods and the importance of exposure duration. (6) Experimental studies to determine the effects of exercise conditioning on steelhead reproductive behavior and the effects of male body size on chinook salmon fertilization success during natural spawning were completed.

  14. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Tezak, E.P.; Endicott, Rick

    2002-08-01

    In the 2000 Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion, NMFS identified six populations of steelhead and several salmon populations that had dropped to critically low levels and continue to decline. Following thorough risk-benefit analyses, captive propagation programs for some or all of the steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations may be required to reduce the risk of extinction, and more programs may be required in the future. Thus, captive propagation programs designed to maintain or rebuild steelhead populations require intensive and rigorous scientific evaluation, much like the other objectives of BPA Project 1993-056-00 currently underway for chinook (O. tshawytscha) and sockeye salmon (O. nerka). Pacific salmon reared to the adult stage in captivity exhibit poor reproductive performance when released to spawn naturally. Poor fin quality and swimming performance, incomplete development of secondary sex characteristics, changes in maturation timing, and other factors may contribute to reduced spawning success. Improving natural reproductive performance is critical for the success of captive broodstock programs in which adult-release is a primary reintroduction strategy for maintaining ESA-listed populations.

  15. Imagine...Opportunities and Resources for Academically Talented Youth, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartman, Melissa, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This collection of 5 issues of Imagine cover the time period from November/December 2001 through May/June 2002. Designed for gifted youth, the issues focus on dramatic arts, physics and astronomy, communications, law and politics, and robotics, and contain the following featured articles: (1) The Story of a Play (Gemma Cooper-Novack); (2)…

  16. Concentration and dry deposition of mercury species in arid south central New Mexico (2001-2002)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Caldwell, Colleen A.; Swartzendruber, Philip; Prestbo, Eric

    2006-01-01

    This research was initiated to characterize atmospheric deposition of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), particulate mercury (HgP; <2.5 μm), and gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) in the arid lands of south central New Mexico. Two methods were field-tested to estimate dry deposition of three mercury species. A manual speciation sampling train consisting of a KCl-coated denuder, 2.5 μm quartz fiber filters, and gold-coated quartz traps and an ion-exchange membrane (as a passive surrogate surface) were deployed concurrently over 24-h intervals for an entire year. The mean 24-h atmospheric concentration for RGM was 6.8 pg m-3 with an estimated deposition of 0.10 ng m-2h-1. The estimated deposition of mercury to the passive surrogate surface was much greater (4.0 ng m-2h-1) but demonstrated a diurnal pattern with elevated deposition from late afternoon to late evening (1400−2200; 8.0 ng m-2h-1) and lowest deposition during the night just prior to sunrise (2200−0600; 1.7 ng m-2h-1). The mean 24-h atmospheric concentrations for HgP and Hg0 were 1.52 pg m-3 and 1.59 ng m-3, respectively. Diurnal patterns were observed for RGM with atmospheric levels lowest during the night prior to sunrise (3.8 pg m-3) and greater during the afternoon and early evening (8.9 pg m-3). Discernible diurnal patterns were not observed for either HgP or Hg0. The total dry deposition of Hg was 5.9 μg m-2 year-1 with the contribution from the three species as follows:  RGM (0.88 μg m-2 year-1), HgP (0.025 μg m-2 year-1), and Hg0 (5.0 μg m-2 year-1). The annual wet deposition for total mercury throughout the same collection duration was 4.2 μg m-2 year-1, resulting in an estimated total deposition of 10.1 μg m-2 year-1 for Hg. On one sampling date, enhanced HgP (12 pg m-3) was observed due to emissions from a wildfire approximately 250 km to the east.

  17. Evaluate Bull Trout Movements in the Tucannon and Lower Snake Rivers, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faler, Michael P.; Mendel, Glen W.; Fulton, Carl

    2003-06-01

    We collected, radio-tagged, and PIT-tagged 41 bull trout at the Tucannon River Hatchery trap from May 17, through June 14, 2002. An additional 65 bull trout were also collected and PIT tagged by June 24, at which time we ceased PIT tagging operations because water temperatures were reaching 16.0 C or higher on a regular basis. Six radio-tags were recovered shortly after tagging, and as a result, 35 remained in the river through November 30, 2002. During the month of July, radio-tagged bull trout exhibited a general upstream movement into the upper reaches of the Tucannon Subbasin. We began to observe some downstream movements of radio-tagged bull trout in mid to late September and throughout October. These movements appeared to be associated with post spawning migrations. As of November 30, radio tagged bull trout were relatively stationary, and distributed from the headwaters downstream to river mile 11.3, near Pataha Creek. None of the radio-tagged bull trout left the Tucannon Subbasin and entered the federal hydropower system on the mainstem Snake River. We conducted some initial transmission tests of submerged radio tags at depths of 25, 35, 45, and 55 ft. in Lower Monumental Pool to test our capability of detection at these depths. Equipment used included Lotek model MCFT-3A transmitters, an SRX 400 receiver, a 4 element Yagi antenna, and a Lotek ''H'' antenna. Test results indicated that depth transmission of these tags was poor; only the transmitter placed at 25 ft. was audibly detectable.

  18. Student Financial Aid Handbook, 2001-2002. Volume 1: Student Eligibility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Education, Washington, DC. Student Financial Assistance.

    This volume discusses the eligibility requirements for student and parent borrowers from federal financial aid programs. It reviews the factors an aid administrator must consider when reviewing a student's application for a loan and outlines the administrator's responsibilities in checking to make sure that recipients qualify for their aid awards.…

  19. Asotin Creek ISCO Water Sample Data Summary: Water Year 2002, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Stacia

    2003-08-01

    The Pomeroy Ranger District operates 3 automated water samplers (ISCOs) in the Asotin Creek drainage in cooperation with the Asotin Model Watershed. The samplers are located on Asotin Creek: Asotin Creek at the mouth, Asotin Creek at Koch site, and South Fork Asotin Creek above the forks. At the end of Water Year (WY) 2001 we decided to sample from Oct. 1 through June 30 of each water year. This decision was based on the difficulty of obtaining good low flow samples, since the shallow depth of water often meant that instrument intakes were on the bed of the river and samples were contaminated with bed sediments. The greatest portion of suspended sediment is transported during the higher flows of fall and especially during the spring snow runoff period, and sampling the shorter season should allow characterization of the sediment load of the river. The ISCO water samplers collected a daily composite sample of 4 samples per day into one bottle at 6-hour intervals until late March when they were reprogrammed to collect 3 samples per day at 8-hour intervals. This was done to reduce battery use since battery failure had become an ongoing problem. The water is picked up on 24-day cycles and brought to the Forest Service Water Lab in Pendleton, OR. The samples are analyzed for total suspended solids (TSS), conductivity, and turbidity. A total dissolved solids value is estimated based on conductivity. The USGS gage, Asotin Creek at the mouth, No.13335050 has been discontinued and there are no discharge records available for this period.

  20. 78 FR 64984 - Distribution of the 2000, 2001, 2002 and 2003 Cable Royalty Funds

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... proceedings relating to cable retransmission royalties for royalty years 2000 through 2003. 76 FR 7590 (Feb... FR 26798 (May 12, 2010). IPG challenged the category definitions; the Judges rejected IPG's challenge..., Order, in Docket No. 2000-2 CARP CD 93-97, 66 FR 66433, 66444 (Dec. 26, 2001) (quoting H.R. Rep....

  1. SURVEILLANCE FOR DRINKING WATER-ASSOCIATED OUTBREAKS-UNITED STATES, 2001-2002

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, CDC, the U.S. Environmental Protection
    Agency (EPA), and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists CSTE) have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting data related to occurrences and cau...

  2. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, Brian C.; Duke, Bill B.

    2003-02-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, Oregon is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 22, 2001 to September 12, 2002. A total of 5,519 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,146 adult, 1,158 jack, and 970 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 22,792 adult and 80 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 5,058 adult and 188 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 261 adult and 14 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam for release. There were 5,359 summer steelhead; 622 adult, 1,041 jack and 867 subjack fall chinook; 22,513 adult and 76 jack coho; and 4,061 adult and 123 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. In addition, 110 summer steelhead; 462 adult and 24 jack fall chinook; and 560 adult and 28 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 141 days between February 22 and July 12, 2002. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 134 days and were trapped 5 days. An estimated 200 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland. Approximately 90% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened August 16, 2002. The bypass was run until October 31, 2001 with the exception of the period from August 29 to September 16. The bypass was reopened March 7, 2002 and ran until July 8. The juvenile trap was operated from July 8 to July 12 by the Umatilla Passage Evaluation project.

  3. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Shaun; Smith, Brent; Cochran, Brian

    2003-04-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Middle Fork Oxbow Ranch. Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. This report is to be provided to the BPA by 30 April of each year. This is the first annual report filed for the Oxbow Ranch property.

  4. Charting New Paths: Rural Development in the South. 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southern Rural Development Center, Mississippi State.

    The Southern Rural Development Center (SRDC) seeks to strengthen the capacity of the region's 29 land-grant institutions to address critical, contemporary rural development issues impacting the well-being of people and communities in the rural South. Work force development, education, leadership training, food security, civic engagement, urban…

  5. Wisconsin Technical College System Board 2001-2002 Graduate Follow-Up Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Technical Coll. System Board, Madison.

    The Wisconsin Technical College System (WTCS) conducts an annual Graduate Follow-Up Survey to gather data regarding the activities and perceptions of students approximately 6 months after their graduation from the colleges. The primary objectives of the survey are to identify the current activities of program graduates, to determine the extent to…

  6. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kiefer, Russell B.; Bunn, Paul; Johnson, June

    2002-06-01

    This report covers the following 3 chapters: Part 1--Improve wild steelhead trout smolt-to-adult survival rate information by PIT tagging additional wild steelhead trout juveniles. Part 2--Estimating the stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer chinook salmon and forecasting wild/natural smolt production. Part 3--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin.

  7. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James L.; Marotz, Brian L.; DeShazer, Jay

    2003-06-01

    Libby Reservoir was created under an International Columbia River Treaty between the United States and Canada for cooperative water development of the Columbia River Basin (Columbia River Treaty 1964). Libby Reservoir inundated 109 stream miles of the mainstem Kootenai River in the United States and Canada, and 40 miles of tributary streams in the U.S. that provided habitat for spawning, juvenile rearing, and migratory passage (Figure 1). The authorized purpose of the dam is to provide power (91.5%), flood control (8.3%), and navigation and other benefits (0.2%; Storm et al. 1982). The Pacific Northwest Power Act of 1980 recognized possible conflicts stemming from hydroelectric projects in the northwest and directed Bonneville Power Administration to ''protect, mitigate, and enhance fish and wildlife to the extent affected by the development and operation of any hydroelectric project of the Columbia River and its tributaries...'' (4(h)(10)(A)). Under the Act, the Northwest Power Planning Council was created and recommendations for a comprehensive fish and wildlife program were solicited from the region's federal, state, and tribal fish and wildlife agencies. Among Montana's recommendations was the proposal that research be initiated to quantify acceptable seasonal minimum pool elevations to maintain or enhance the existing fisheries (Graham et al. 1982). Research to determine how operations of Libby Dam affect the reservoir and river fishery and to suggest ways to lessen these effects began in May, 1983. The framework for the Libby Reservoir Model (LRMOD) was completed in 1989. Development of Integrated Rule Curves (IRCs) for Libby Dam operation was completed in 1996 (Marotz et al. 1996). The Libby Reservoir Model and the IRCs continue to be refined (Marotz et al 1999). Initiation of mitigation projects such as lake rehabilitation and stream restoration began in 1996. The primary focus of the Libby Mitigation project now is to redevelop fisheries and fisheries habitat in basin streams and lakes.

  8. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  9. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  10. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Parents are vital partners in the educational system. This handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in Alberta are…

  11. Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Literacy Teaching and Learning: An International Journal of Early Reading and Writing, 2002

    2002-01-01

    This scholarly journal, an official publication of the Reading Recovery Council of North America, was established to provide an interdisciplinary forum on issues related to the acquisition of language, literacy development, and instructional theory and practice. Articles in Volume 6, Number 1 are: "Documenting and Developing Literacy in Deaf…

  12. Book Review: Distant wanderers / Copernicus Books/Springer , 2001/2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatt, H. C.

    2002-06-01

    Are we alone in the Universe? The Earth, teeming with life, as we know it, is only one amongst the nine planets (wanderers) that wander around the Sun in more or less circular orbits. Do distant stars also have planets circling them? Are some of them similar to Earth and support life? These questions have long occupied the human mind. However, until the closing years of the twentieth century, the idea that there are stars, other than the Sun, that have planets orbiting them, remained a subject of speculation and controversy because the astronomical observing techniques used for the detection of planetary companions of stars did not have the necessary precision. During the past several years, advances in technology and dedicated efforts of planet-hunting astronomers have made it possible to detect Jupiter-like or more massive planets around nearby stars. So far about 70 such extra-solar planets have been discovered indicating that our solar system is not unique and distant wanderers are not uncommon. Distant Wanderers narrates the story of the search for extra-solar planets, even as the search is becoming more vigorous with newer instruments pushing the limits of sensitivity that has often resulted in the detection of planetary systems with totally unexpected characteristics. The book is primarily aimed at non specialists, but practicing scientists, including astronomers, will find the narrative very interesting and sometimes offering a perspective that is unfamiliar to professionals. The book begins with an introduction to some basic astronomical facts about the Universe, evolution of stars, supernovae and formation of pulsars. The first extra-solar planets were discovered in 1992 around a radio pulsar (PSR 1257+12) by measuring the oscillatory perturbations in the pulse arrival times from the pulsar caused by the presence of orbiting earth-sized planets as their gravity forces the pulsar also to move in orbit around the system barycenter. Such planetary systems are, however, very rare and only one other planet around a pulsar has so far been found. The first extra-solar planet around a sun-like star was discovered in 1995 by M. Mayor and D. Queloz circling the star 51 Pegasi by the method of Doppler spectroscopy. Since then about 70 extra-solar planets have been discovered. Most of these have been detected by Doppler spectroscopy, but now newer methods like occultation and gravitational lensing have also begun to reveal extra-solar planets and candidate extra-solar planets. Distant Wanderers gives a brief description of current theories of planet formation in dusty disks around stars as they form by gravitational collapse of rotating interstellar clouds. Various techniques used by astronomers for the detection of extra-solar planets are discussed. Important astrophysical concepts relevant to planet formation and their detection are also explained. The reader is taken to observatories on mountain tops, laboratories where instruments are built and conferences where astronomers announce their discoveries, debate the results and discuss future strategies for the search for distant wanderers. The extra-solar planets discovered so far, around sun-like stars, are similar in mass to Jupiter or more massive. Their orbits show a great variety. Some are in very close orbits (orbital periods of a few days) about the parent star, and are therefore very hot (hot Jupiters), while others are in wider orbits and cold. Some have nearly circular orbits, while many of them have highly eccentric orbits. There are extra-solar planets with masses as large as about 10 times the mass of Jupiter, close to being brown dwarfs. The existence of such planetary systems was never predicted by the standard theories of planet and star formation. As the hunt for extra-solar planets continues with more sophisticated instruments using innovative ideas, astronomers can be sure to be rewarded with more surprises. In Distant Wanderers, these discoveries and technological developments, currently taking place and being planned for the future, in the search for

  13. Duck Valley Habitat Enhancement and Protection, 2001-2002 Progress Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Mattie H.; Sellman, Jake

    2003-03-01

    The Duck Valley Indian Reservation's Habitat Enhancement project is an ongoing project designed to enhance and protect critical riparian areas, natural springs, the Owhyee River and its tributaries, and native fish spawning areas on the Reservation. The project commenced in 1997 and addresses the Northwest Power Planning Council's measures 10.8C.2, 10.8C.3, and 10.8C.5 of the 1994 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program. The performance period covers dates from April 2001 through August 2002.

  14. FACCCTS: Journal of the Faculty Association of California Community Colleges, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez, Katherine, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    This document is comprised of four Faculty Association of California Community Colleges (FACCC) newsletters. The September 2001 issue is entitled "Many Voices, One Goal," and contains the following articles: "Growing Pains, Faculty's Role in Governance," and "AB 1725 and Other War Stories," among others. The issue focuses largely on the many…

  15. Econ Ed & the Fed: Resources and Information for Educators, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strahm, Sharon, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This Fall 2001-Spring 2002 newsletter provides resources and information to educators, particularly economics, history, social studies, and business educators, throughout the western district of the Federal Reserve System. The goal of the newsletter is to highlight new Federal Reserve teaching materials and resources, including Web sites,…

  16. Alternative Schools Accountability Model: 2001-2002 Indicator Selection and Reporting Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    California has developed an alternative accountability system for schools with fewer than 100 students, alternative schools of various kinds, community day schools, and other schools under the jurisdiction of a county board of education or a county superintendent of schools. This document is a guide to assist local administrators in completing the…

  17. Wyoming Community College System 2001-2002 Performance Report: Core Indicators of Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wyoming Community Coll. Commission, Cheyenne.

    This document focuses on the performance of some of Wyoming's community colleges as measured by 13 indicators chosen by the American Association of Community Colleges (AACC). Seven Wyoming community colleges and the Wyoming community college commission use these indicators. The core indicators are as follows: (1) student goal attainment; (2)…

  18. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Catholic School Version, Senior High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    High school students are faced with decisions that will determine future opportunities and endeavors. This handbook provides parents with information about the high school curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Senior High School," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and…

  19. High Resolution Doppler Imager FY 2001,2002,2003 Operations and Algorithm Maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skinner, Wilbert

    2004-01-01

    During the performance period of this grant HRDI (High Resolution Doppler Imager) operations remained nominal. The instrument has suffered no loss of scientific capability and operates whenever sufficient power is available. Generally, there are approximately 5-7 days per month when the power level is too low to permit observations. The daily latitude coverage for HRDI measurements in the mesosphere, lower thermosphere (MLT) region are shown.It shows that during the time of this grant, HRDI operations collected data at a rate comparable to that achieved during the UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) prime mission (1991 -1995). Data collection emphasized MLT wind to support the validation efforts of the TIDI instrument on TIMED, therefore fulfilling one of the primary objectives of this phase of the UARS mission. Skinner et al., (2003) present a summary of the instrument performance during this period.

  20. Multicentre surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in enterococci and staphylococci from Colombian hospitals, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Arias, C A; Reyes, J; Zúñiga, M; Cortés, L; Cruz, C; Rico, C L; Panesso, D

    2003-01-01

    Invasive isolates of staphylococci and enterococci were collected from 15 tertiary care centres in five Colombian cities from 2001 to 2002. A total of 597 isolates were available for analysis. Identification was confirmed by both automated methods and multiplex PCR assays in a central laboratory. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) corresponded to 49.6% and 29.6% of isolates, respectively, and 20.8% were identified as enterococci. MICs of ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamicin, linezolid, oxacillin, rifampicin, teicoplanin, tetracycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) and vancomycin were determined using an agar dilution method as appropriate. Screening for vancomycin-resistant S. aureus was also carried out on brain-heart infusion agar plates supplemented with vancomycin. The presence of mecA and van genes was investigated in methicillin-resistant staphylococci and glycopeptide-resistant enterococci (GRE), respectively. All staphylococci were susceptible to vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid. No VISA isolates were found. In S. aureus and CoNS, the lowest rates of resistance were found for SXT (7.4%) and chloramphenicol (10.7%), respectively. Resistance to oxacillin in S. aureus and CoNS was 52% and 73%, respectively. The mecA gene was detected in 97.5% of methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates. In enterococci, resistance to glycopeptides was 9.7%: vanA (58.3%) and vanB (41.7%) genes were found. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis indicated that the GRE isolates were closely related. Rates of resistance to ampicillin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, rifampicin and high levels of gentamicin and streptomycin were 9.7%, 27.4%, 8.9%, 43%, 17% and 28.2%, respectively. All enterococci were susceptible to linezolid.

  1. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Holmes, Chris; Muongchanh, Christine; Anderson, James J.

    2002-11-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Realtime (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures helpful in evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks.

  2. Underrecognition of leptospirosis during a dengue fever outbreak in Hawaii, 2001-2002.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Tania; Imrie, Allison; Katz, Alan R; Effler, Paul V

    2008-08-01

    During the 10-year period from 1997 through 2006, the reported mean annual incidence rate of leptospirosis in the state of Hawaii was 3.3/100,000 with a range of 22-60 infections reported each year. Because the clinical presentation is highly variable, however, leptospirosis illness is challenging to recognize and may be underdiagnosed. To assess whether the incidence may be substantially higher than reported figures indicate, we retrospectively studied the prevalence of anti-Leptospira IgM antibodies among specimens obtained over a 12-month period (May 2001 to April 2002) from patients presenting with febrile illness during a dengue fever outbreak in Hawaii. Of 1206 patients testing negative or indeterminate for dengue, 54 (4.5%; 95% confidence interval: 3.3%-5.7%) were positive for anti-Leptospira IgM antibodies using a commercially available dipstick enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The most common clinical symptoms reported by laboratory-positive leptospirosis patients were fever (92%), headache (88%), and myalgia (83%). Three clinical symptoms were significantly less common among persons laboratory positive for leptospirosis when compared with the 122 patients who had been diagnosed with dengue fever during the outbreak: rash (p < 0.0001), chills (p = 0.05), and petechiae (p = 0.0005). Laboratory-positive leptospirosis infections were identified in persons exposed on each of the 5 most populous islands and illness onsets spanned a 10-month period, reflecting an endemic pattern of disease. If added to the figures obtained via routine passive surveillance, the number of leptospirosis infections identified through this study would more than double the annual incidence rate for Hawaii during 2001. These findings indicate that many leptospiral infections in Hawaii go undiagnosed. Physicians should maintain a high index of suspicion for leptospirosis when assessing patients presenting with acute febrile illness among residents and visitors to Hawaii.

  3. Deposition of Saharan Dust in Monaco Rain 2001 2002: Radionuclides and Elemental Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, M. K.; La Rosa, J. J.; Lee, S.-H.; Oregioni, B.; Povinec, P. P.

    2005-01-01

    Data on concentrations and activity ratios of natural and anthropogenic radio-nuclides as well as concentrations of major and trace elements in red-coloured particles (Saharan dusts) collected in Monaco rain in 2001 and 2002 (5 samples from 4 events) are presented. Different distributions of particle size as well as different activities of natural radionuclides and concentrations of trace metals have been observed for two sets of samples. The 235U/238U activity ratio is around 0.04 showing virgin natural terrestrial origin of the particles. The anthropogenic radionuclides 137Cs, 238Pu, 239+240Pu and 241Am are of global fallout origin and their annual atmospheric input to the ocean in the particulate form is estimated to be 28 37% for 137Cs, 34 45% for 239+240Pu and 36 51% for 241Am of the total annual depositional fluxes of these radionuclides to the northwest Mediterranean.

  4. Lower Klickitat Riparian and In-channel Habitat Restoration Project, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, Will

    2003-10-01

    This project focuses on the lower Klickitat River and its tributaries that provide or affect salmonid habitat. The overall goal is to restore watershed health to aid recovery of salmonid stocks in the Klickitat subbasin. An emphasis is placed on restoration and protection of watersheds supporting anadromous fish production, particularly steelhead (Oncorhyncus mykiss) which are listed as 'Threatened' within the Mid-Columbia ESU. Restoration activities are aimed at restoring stream processes by removing or mitigating watershed perturbances and improving habitat conditions and water quality. In addition to steelhead, habitat improvements benefit Chinook (O. tshawytscha) and coho (O. kisutch) salmon, resident rainbow trout, and enhance habitat for many terrestrial and amphibian wildlife species. Protection activities compliment restoration efforts within the subbasin by securing refugia and preventing degradation. Since 90% of the project area is in private ownership, maximum effectiveness will be accomplished via cooperation with state, federal, tribal, and private entities. The project addresses goals and objectives presented in the Klickitat Subbasin Summary and the 1994 NWPPC Fish and Wildlife Program. Feedback from the 2000 Provincial Review process indicated a need for better information management to aid development of geographic priorities. Thus, an emphasis has been placed on database development and a review of existing information prior to pursuing more extensive implementation. Planning and design was initiated on several restoration projects. These priorities will be refined in future reports as the additional data is collected and analyzed. Tasks listed are for the April 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 contract cycle, for which work was delayed during the summer of 2001 because the contract was not finalized until mid-August 2001. Accomplishments are provided for the September 1, 2001 to August 31, 2002 reporting period. During this reporting period, significant progress was made on acquisition and development of spatial data, monitoring of steelhead spawning, riparian revegetation, streamflow monitoring, completion of maintenance and repair work, completion of a working version of a habitat database, and completion of the Swale Creek assessment.

  5. Walla Walla River Basin Fish Habitat Enhancement Project, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Volkman, Jed; Sexton, Amy D.

    2003-04-01

    In 2001, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) Fisheries Habitat Program implemented stream habitat restoration and protection efforts in the Walla Walla River Basin with funding from Bonneville Power Administration (BPA). The objective of these efforts is to protect and restore habitat critical to the recovery of weak or reintroduced populations of salmonid fish. The CTUIR has currently enrolled six properties into this program: two on Couse Creek, two adjacent properties on Blue Creek, one on Patit Creek, and one property on the mainstem Walla Walla River. Since 1997, approximately 7 miles of critical salmonid habitat has been secured for restoration and protection under this project. Major accomplishments to date include the following: Secured approximately $250,000 in cost share; Secured 7 easements; Planted 30,000+ native plants; Installed 50,000+ cuttings; and Seeded 18 acres to native grass. Pre and post-project monitoring efforts were included for all projects, incorporating methodologies from CTUIR's Draft Monitoring Plan. Basin-wide monitoring also included the deployment of 6 thermographs to collect summer stream temperatures.

  6. McKenzie River Watershed Coordination, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Thrailkil, Jim

    2003-11-01

    BPA funding, in conjunction with contributions from numerous partners organizations and grant funds supports the McKenzie Watershed Council's (MWC) efforts to coordinate restoration and monitoring programs of federal, state, local government, and residents within the watershed. Primary goals of the MWC are to improve resource stewardship and conserve fish, wildlife, and water quality resources. Underpinning the goals is the MWC's baseline program centered on relationship building and information sharing. Objectives for FY02 included: (1) Continue to coordinate McKenzie Watershed activities among diverse groups to restore fish and wildlife habitat in the watershed, with a focus on the middle to lower McKenzie, including private lands and the McKenzie-Willamette confluence area; (2) Influence behavior of watershed residents to benefit watershed function though an outreach and education program, utilizing (BPA funded) Assessment and Conservation Strategy information to provide a context for prioritized action; (3) Continue to maintain and sustain a highly functional watershed council; (4) Maintain and improve water quality concerns through the continuation of Council-sponsored monitoring and evaluation programs; and (5) Continue to secure other funding for watershed restoration and protection projects and Council operations.

  7. Still "A Reasonably Equal Share." Update on Educational Equity in Vermont, Year 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jimerson, Lorna

    Vermont's Equal Educational Opportunity Act of 1997, "Act 60," was designed to rectify inequities in the state's funding of public education, as determined by the Vermont Supreme Court. This report examines the degree to which Act 60 has improved conditions over the last 5 years, focusing on the 3 main equity goals of Act 60 and the court's…

  8. Shifting epidemiology of Flaviviridae.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Lyle R; Marfin, Anthony A

    2005-04-01

    The dengue, West Nile, Japanese encephalitis and yellow fever viruses are important mosquito-borne viruses whose epidemiology is shifting in response to changing societal factors, such as increasing commerce, urbanization of rural areas, and population growth. All four viruses are expanding geographically, as exemplified by the emergence of West Nile virus in the Americas and Japanese encephalitis virus in Australasia. The large, recent global outbreaks of severe neurological disease caused by West Nile virus, the increasing frequency of dengue hemorrhagic fever outbreaks in the Americas, and the emergence of yellow fever virus vaccination-associated viscerotropic disease, are new clinical epidemiologic trends. These worrisome epidemiologic trends will probably continue in coming decades, as a reversal of their societal and biological drivers is not in sight. Nevertheless, the substantial reductions in Japanese encephalitis virus incidence resulting from vaccination programs and economic development in some Asian countries provide some encouragement within this overall guarded outlook.

  9. Whose epidemiology, whose health?

    PubMed

    Wing, S

    1998-01-01

    Simplistic claims about the objectivity of science have been challenged from a variety of perspectives. Evaluation of the external context of production of knowledge and the methodological approaches to posing questions and assembling evidence shows that there is no pure "science"; rather, all scientific knowledge is shaped by the social history of its production. Examples are given of how quantitative concepts in modern epidemiology influence the recognition of the causes of disease. The author uses the phenomenon of intensive swine production by vertically integrated agribusiness to illustrate how broad problems such as environmental racism, agricultural determinants of nutrition, loss of natural resources, and conditions conducive to emergence of new diseases are hidden by epidemiological approaches that fit into corporate policy perspectives. It is critically important to ask who produces epidemiological knowledge, and whose health is promoted by that knowledge.

  10. Epidemiology of Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Mao, Yousheng; Yang, Ding; He, Jie; Krasna, Mark J

    2016-07-01

    Lung cancer has been transformed from a rare disease into a global problem and public health issue. The etiologic factors of lung cancer become more complex along with industrialization, urbanization, and environmental pollution around the world. Currently, the control of lung cancer has attracted worldwide attention. Studies on the epidemiologic characteristics of lung cancer and its relative risk factors have played an important role in the tertiary prevention of lung cancer and in exploring new ways of diagnosis and treatment. This article reviews the current evolution of the epidemiology of lung cancer. PMID:27261907

  11. Molecular Epidemiology of Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Conway, David J.

    2007-01-01

    Malaria persists as an undiminished global problem, but the resources available to address it have increased. Many tools for understanding its biology and epidemiology are well developed, with a particular richness of comparative genome sequences. Targeted genetic manipulation is now effectively combined with in vitro culture assays on the most important human parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and with in vivo analysis of rodent and monkey malaria parasites in their laboratory hosts. Studies of the epidemiology, prevention, and treatment of human malaria have already been influenced by the availability of molecular methods, and analyses of parasite polymorphisms have long had useful and highly informative applications. However, the molecular epidemiology of malaria is currently undergoing its most substantial revolution as a result of the genomic information and technologies that are available in well-resourced centers. It is a challenge for research agendas to face the real needs presented by a disease that largely exists in extremely resource-poor settings, but it is one that there appears to be an increased willingness to undertake. To this end, developments in the molecular epidemiology of malaria are reviewed here, emphasizing aspects that may be current and future priorities. PMID:17223628

  12. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    DOE PAGES

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-02-22

    The use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, but their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the truemore » transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. Moreover, we confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results.« less

  13. Causality in epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Kamangar, Farin

    2012-10-01

    This article provides an introduction to the meaning of causality in epidemiology and methods that epidemiologists use to distinguish causal associations from non-causal ones. Alternatives to causal association are discussed in detail. Hill's guidelines, set forth approximately 50 years ago, and more recent developments are reviewed. The role of religious and philosophic views in our understanding of causality is briefly discussed.

  14. Epidemiology of Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherman, Stephanie L.; Allen, Emily G.; Bean, Lora H.; Freeman, Sallie B.

    2007-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is the most commonly identified genetic form of mental retardation and the leading cause of specific birth defects and medical conditions. Traditional epidemiological studies to determine the prevalence, cause, and clinical significance of the syndrome have been conducted over the last 100 years. DS has been estimated to occur…

  15. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage.

    PubMed

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals' HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  16. Phylogenetically resolving epidemiologic linkage

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Severson, Ethan O.; Bulla, Ingo; Leitner, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Although the use of phylogenetic trees in epidemiological investigations has become commonplace, their epidemiological interpretation has not been systematically evaluated. Here, we use an HIV-1 within-host coalescent model to probabilistically evaluate transmission histories of two epidemiologically linked hosts. Previous critique of phylogenetic reconstruction has claimed that direction of transmission is difficult to infer, and that the existence of unsampled intermediary links or common sources can never be excluded. The phylogenetic relationship between the HIV populations of epidemiologically linked hosts can be classified into six types of trees, based on cladistic relationships and whether the reconstruction is consistent with the true transmission history or not. We show that the direction of transmission and whether unsampled intermediary links or common sources existed make very different predictions about expected phylogenetic relationships: (i) Direction of transmission can often be established when paraphyly exists, (ii) intermediary links can be excluded when multiple lineages were transmitted, and (iii) when the sampled individuals’ HIV populations both are monophyletic a common source was likely the origin. Inconsistent results, suggesting the wrong transmission direction, were generally rare. In addition, the expected tree topology also depends on the number of transmitted lineages, the sample size, the time of the sample relative to transmission, and how fast the diversity increases after infection. Typically, 20 or more sequences per subject give robust results. We confirm our theoretical evaluations with analyses of real transmission histories and discuss how our findings should aid in interpreting phylogenetic results. PMID:26903617

  17. [Toxoplasmosis: Epidemiology, Diagnosis, Treatment].

    PubMed

    Khryanin, A A; Reshetnikov, O V; Kuvshinova, I N

    2015-01-01

    The up-to-date literature and original data on the epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of toxoplasmosis are presented. Particular attention is paid to the parasite infection during pregnancy. Spiramycin is the drug of choice for acute toxoplasmosis in pregnant women.

  18. Epidemiology of Cardiovascular Diseases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, C. David

    1988-01-01

    Reviews epidemiological studies of cardiovascular diseases especially coronary heart disease (CHD), to document their major public health importance, changes in mortality during this century, and international comparisons of trends. Finds major risk factors for CHD are determined in large part by psychosocial and behavioral mechanisms. Asserts…

  19. Racial and Ethnic Profiles of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Among Young Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health.

    PubMed

    Upchurch, Dawn M; Wexler Rainisch, Bethany K

    2012-10-01

    This study describes complementary and alternative medicine use among a national sample of young adults, with an emphasis on characterizing racial and ethnic differences, highlighting variation across subgroups of Hispanics. The authors examined young adults ages 18 to 27 years (n = 14 128) from wave III (2001-2002) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Prevalence estimates and logistic regression results were weighted and adjusted for complex sample design. The study examined recent complementary and alternative medicine use in the past 12 months, recent use for each of 15 specific complementary and alternative medicine modalities, and the 5 most commonly used modalities (herbs, massage, chiropractic, relaxation, and vitamins). Results showed that 29% of young adults aged 18 to 27 years recently used complementary and alternative medicine. Prevalence was highest among Cuban Americans (42%) and lowest among blacks (22%). Young adults used a diversity of complementary and alternative medicine modalities and there were substantial differences in use across racial and ethnic groups.

  20. Flow Velocity, Water Temperature, and Conductivity in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida: August 2001-June 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Schaffranek, Raymond W.

    2003-01-01

    The data-collection effort described in this report is in support of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Place-Based Studies project investigating 'Forcing Effects on Flow Structure in Vegetated Wetlands of the Everglades.' Data collected at four locations in Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, during the 2001-2002 wet season are documented in the report and methods used to process the data are described. Daily mean flow velocities, water temperatures, and specific conductance values are presented in the appendices of the report. The quality-checked and edited data have been compiled and stored on the USGS South Florida Information Access (SOFIA) website http://sofia.usgs.gov.

  1. Molecular Epidemiology of Foodborne Pathogens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Brown, Eric; Knabel, Stephen J.

    The purpose of this chapter is to describe the basic principles and advancements in the molecular epidemiology of foodborne pathogens. Epidemiology is the study of the distribution and determinants of infectious diseases and/or the dynamics of disease transmission. The goals of epidemiology include the identification of physical sources, routes of transmission of infectious agents, and distribution and relationships of different subgroups. Molecular epidemiology is the study of epidemiology at the molecular level. It has been defined as "a science that focuses on the contribution of potential genetic and environmental risk factors, identified at the molecular level, to the etiology, distribution and prevention of diseases within families and across populations".

  2. [Epidemiological situation of Chad].

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof

    2008-10-01

    Chad, the land located in Central Africa nowadays is one of the poorest countries in the world, what is connected with catastrophic demographic indicators and numerous cases of infectious diseases among local population as well as external and internal refugees. Epidemiologic profile is dominated by vector-, water-, food-borne, respiratory, and sexually transmitted diseases. Environmental factors, such as an effect of high temperature, sand and dust storms also pose essential threat. This is related to location of majority of Chad territory in the area of Sahara and Sahel. The article presents information concerning current epidemiological hazards encountered by visitors in this country. This knowledge is essential for Polish health service and armed forces in the context of forming of EUFOR mission in Chad with participation of our soldiers.

  3. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    PubMed Central

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justice). The other dimension specifies the groups of persons involved in the conflict under consideration (for example: the study-population, individuals who may benefit from the results, the researchers and their personnel, the community at large). The model has been applied to the problem of legitimacy of case-register research and to problems in psychiatric health services research as well as epidemiological research. PMID:1460647

  4. Dengue: update on epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary Elizabeth; Chen, Lin H

    2015-01-01

    The epidemiology of dengue fever has undergone major shifts in recent decades. The global distribution has expanded to include more geographic areas. The intensity of transmission and the severity of infections have increased in areas where infection was already endemic. Multiple studies provide a clearer picture of the epidemiology and allow mapping of its distribution and change over time. Despite major efforts to control transmission, competent vectors now infest most tropical and subtropical regions; Aedes albopictus, also a competent vector, is able to survive in temperate areas, placing parts of Europe and North America at risk for local transmission. Many research teams in dengue-endemic areas are working to identify key local weather, vector, and other variables that would allow prediction of a likely epidemic early enough to permit interventions to avert it or blunt its impact.

  5. Epidemiology of venous thromboembolism.

    PubMed Central

    Coon, W W

    1977-01-01

    This review of the epidemiology of venous thromboembolism includes estimates of incidence and prevalence of venous thrombosis and its sequelae, a discussion geographical, annual and seasonal variations and data concerning possible risk factors. Selection of patients at increased risk for development of deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism for specific diagnostic screening or for prophylactic therapy with low-dose heparin may be a more effective approach to lowering morbidity and mortality from this disease. PMID:329779

  6. [Acute coronary syndromes: epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Ozkan, Alev Arat

    2013-04-01

    Coronary heart disease is the main cause of death in the world as well as in Turkey. It's not only a health issue but also a social problem with a high economic burden and negative impact on quality of life. The majority of deaths are attributable to acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and their complications.This review summarizes some important facts regarding ACS epidemiology in the world and in Turkey. PMID:27323430

  7. Epidemiology of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Abramovici, S; Bagić, A

    2016-01-01

    Modern epidemiology of epilepsy maximizes the benefits of advanced diagnostic methods and sophisticated techniques for case ascertainment in order to increase the diagnostic accuracy and representativeness of the cases and cohorts studied, resulting in better comparability of similarly performed studies. Overall, these advanced epidemiologic methods are expected to yield a better understanding of diverse risk factors, high-risk populations, seizure triggers, multiple and poorly understood causes of epilepsy, including the increasing and complex role of genetics, and establish the natural course of treated and untreated epilepsy and syndromes - all of which form the foundation of an attempt to prevent epileptogenesis as the primary prophylaxis of epilepsy. Although data collection continues to improve, epidemiologists still need to overcome definition and coding variability, insufficient documentation, as well as the interplay of socioeconomic factors and stigma. As most of the 65-70 million people with epilepsy live outside of resource-rich countries, extensive underdiagnosis, misdiagnosis, and undertreatment are likely. Epidemiology will continue to provide the necessary information to the medical community, public, and regulators as the foundation for improved health policies, targeted education, and advanced measures of prevention and prognostication of the most common severe brain disorder. PMID:27637958

  8. 77 FR 43097 - National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Eye Institute; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant... Committee: National Eye Institute Special Emphasis Panel; NEI Epidemiology Applications. Date: August 13... Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health, 5635 Fishers Lane, Suite 1300, MSC 9300,...

  9. Transforming Epidemiology for 21st Century Medicine and Public Health

    SciTech Connect

    Khoury, Muin J; Lam, Tram Kim; Ioannidis, John; Hartge, Patricia; Spitz, Margaret R.; Buring, Julie E.; Chanock, Stephen J.; Tourassi, Georgia; Zauber, Ann; Schully, Sheri D

    2013-01-01

    n 2012, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) engaged the scientific community to provide a vision for cancer epidemiology in the 21st century. Eight overarching thematic recommendations, with proposed corresponding actions for consideration by funding agencies, professional societies, and the research community emerged from the collective intellectual discourse. The themes are (i) extending the reach of epidemiology beyond discovery and etiologic research to include multilevel analysis, intervention evaluation, implementation, and outcomes research; (ii) transforming the practice of epidemiology by moving toward more access and sharing of protocols, data, metadata, and specimens to foster collaboration, to ensure reproducibility and replication, and accelerate translation; (iii) expanding cohort studies to collect exposure, clinical, and other information across the life course and examining multiple health-related endpoints; (iv) developing and validating reliable methods and technologies to quantify exposures and outcomes on a massive scale, and to assess concomitantly the role of multiple factors in complex diseases; (v) integrating big data science into the practice of epidemiology; (vi) expanding knowledge integration to drive research, policy, and practice; (vii) transforming training of 21st century epidemiologists to address interdisciplinary and translational research; and (viii) optimizing the use of resources and infrastructure for epidemiologic studies. These recommendations can transform cancer epidemiology and the field of epidemiology, in general, by enhancing transparency, interdisciplinary collaboration, and strategic applications of new technologies. They should lay a strong scientific foundation for accelerated translation of scientific discoveries into individual and population health benefits.

  10. Epidemiologic clues to inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Charles N

    2010-12-01

    In this article, the recent literature exploring the epidemiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is reviewed. Epidemiologic studies present data on disease burden, but may also provide clues to disease etiology. The emergence of IBD in developing nations warrants a systematic search for environmental changes in those countries to explain the evolution of IBD. The hygiene hypothesis suggests that an alteration in the microbial environment experienced by the host facilitates the evolution of chronic immune-mediated diseases. One complex database study suggested that areas with high species richness of human intestinal helminthes are areas with genetic changes in interleukin gene loci. In other words, over the years, the microbial ecology has affected human genetics, which in turn would have an impact on immune responses. Other factors affect the gut microbiome, and several studies have explored the increase in incidence of IBD in relation to such factors as exogenous infections, use of antibiotics, and diet.

  11. Role of data warehousing in healthcare epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Wyllie, D; Davies, J

    2015-04-01

    Electronic storage of healthcare data, including individual-level risk factors for both infectious and other diseases, is increasing. These data can be integrated at hospital, regional and national levels. Data sources that contain risk factor and outcome information for a wide range of conditions offer the potential for efficient epidemiological analysis of multiple diseases. Opportunities may also arise for monitoring healthcare processes. Integrating diverse data sources presents epidemiological, practical, and ethical challenges. For example, diagnostic criteria, outcome definitions, and ascertainment methods may differ across the data sources. Data volumes may be very large, requiring sophisticated computing technology. Given the large populations involved, perhaps the most challenging aspect is how informed consent can be obtained for the development of integrated databases, particularly when it is not easy to demonstrate their potential. In this article, we discuss some of the ups and downs of recent projects as well as the potential of data warehousing for antimicrobial resistance monitoring. PMID:25737091

  12. Culturally Safe Epidemiology: Oxymoron or Scientific Imperative1

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Mary; Andersson, Neil; McDowell, Ian; Ledogar, Robert J

    2010-01-01

    Since the early 20th Century, epidemiological research has brought benefits and burdens to Aboriginal communities in Canada. Many First Nations, Métis, and Inuit continue to view Western research with distrust; quantitative methods are perceived as especially inconsistent with indigenous ways of knowing. There is increasing recognition, however, that rigorous epidemiological research can produce evidence that draws attention and resources to pressing health issues in Aboriginal communities. We present a framework for culturally safe epidemiology, from the identification of research priorities, through fieldwork and analysis, to communication and use of evidence. Modern epidemiology and indigenous knowledge are not inherently discordant; many public health opportunities arise at this interface and good science must begin here too. PMID:20975852

  13. Trichinosis: Epidemiology in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kaewpitoon, Soraya Jatesadapattaya; Philasri, Chutikan; Leksomboon, Ratana; Maneenin, Chanvit; Sirilaph, Samaporn; Pengsaa, Prasit

    2006-01-01

    Trichinosis is one of the most common food-borne parasitic zoonoses in Thailand and many outbreaks are reported each year. This paper reviews the history, species, and epidemiology of the disease and food habits of the people with an emphasis on the north, northeast, central and south regions of Thailand. The earliest record of trichinosis in Thailand was in 1962 in the Mae Sariang District, Mae Hong Son Province. Since then, about 130 outbreaks have been reported involving 7392 patients and 97 deaths (1962-2005). The highest number of cases, 557, was recorded in 1983. The annual epidemiological surveillance reports of the Bureau of Epidemiology, Department of Disease Control, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand, show that trichinosis cases increased from 61 in 1997 to 351 in 1998. In contrast to these figures, the number of reported cases decreased to 16 in 1999 and 128 cases in 2000. There was no record of trichinosis in 2001, but then the figures for 2002, 2003 and 2004 were 289, 126 and 212 respectively. The infected patients were mostly in the 35-44 years age group and the disease occurred more frequently in men than women at a ratio of 1.7-2.0:1. There were 84 reported cases of trichinosis in Chiang Rai, Nan, Chiang Mai, Si Sa ket, Nakhon Phanom, Kalasin, Nakhon Ratchasima, Nakhon Nayok, Nakhon Pathom and Surat Thani, provinces located in different parts of Thailand in 2005. The outbreaks were more common in the northern areas, especially in rural areas where people ate raw or under-cooked pork and/or wild animals. This indicates the need for health education programs to prevent and control trichinosis as soon as possible in the high-risk areas. PMID:17072975

  14. Epidemiologic research in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    A study of epidemiology of respiratory viruses that was begun in the early 1960's is described. Locations selected for the study included a Wisconsin University housing village, a second grade school population, individual volunteers who associated socially, married couples, and the winter-over population at McMurdo Bay and at Scott Base in the Antarctic. It was concluded that most rhinovirus transmission is through aerosolized particles. Air filtration and careful nasal sanitation with virucidal tissues are determined to be effective in blocking rhinovirus transmission and should be useful in both isolated space colonies and in ordinary earth-bound populations.

  15. Migraine headache: epidemiologic perspectives.

    PubMed

    Linet, M S; Stewart, W F

    1984-01-01

    Clinical and epidemiologic studies suggest that a number of factors are associated with the risk of migraine and precipitation of an attack. However, the degree to which causal associations can be inferred from reported studies is very limited and is a result of the methodological problems discussed throughout this review. The study of migraine in many ways parallels the pattern seen in early investigations of other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus, because a number of methodological problems had to be resolved in the study of these conditions before significant progress could be made. To achieve significant advances in the improvement of our understanding of the causes of migraine, a number of related issues must be addressed and resolved in future studies. Most noteworthy among these are Recognition of the probable heterogeneity of migraine, not merely in the manifestation of symptoms but, more importantly, in the existence of distinct etiologic subtypes. A number of findings suggest that some migraine subtypes are sensitive to certain precipitants, some appear to be a part of a more generalized constitutional disorder, and some are accompanied by a higher prevalence of migraine among family members. Efforts should be made in understanding the relationship between specific biochemical markers and traits (such as monoamine oxidase deficiency and tyramine sensitivity); precipitants related to the migraine attack; and epidemiologic characteristics such as age at onset and sex. Creation of a more precise, reliable, and practically useful definition of migraine. Without such a definition, it is difficult, if not impossible, to compare results between studies, to understand the relationship between risk factors and migraine subtypes, to understand properly associations identified in selected clinic populations, and, in general, to understand the epidemiology of migraine. More accurate characterization of the case group under

  16. Is there epidemiology in Russia?

    PubMed Central

    Vlassov, V.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To examine the current state of epidemiology in Russia.
DESIGN—The structure of clinical research and statistical methods was used to shed light on the epidemiology in Russia. The frequencies of specific study designs were evaluated using Medline data for 1970-1997. To determine the proportion of advanced design clinical studies the frequency of cohort, prospective, follow up, or longitudinal studies, and controlled trials was evaluated. All diagnosis related studies were found to determine the usage of advanced statistical technique (ROC analysis). The adequacy of Medline information was checked by hand search of journals. All dissertations in epidemiology defended in Russia in 1995 and 1996 were evaluated for their methodology. The curriculum recommended by Ministry of Health to Medical Universities was evaluated. Available literature and library indexing of epidemiological terms examined.
MAIN RESULTS—Russian medical research uses less frequently advanced study designs and methods of data analysis. Medical students are taught epidemiology as a science of spread of infectious diseases. There is no department of epidemiology in Russian universities where epidemiology is taught in the modern sense and no epidemiological and biostatistical periodicals available in Russia.
CONCLUSION—Epidemiology in Russia remains in an archaic state of science of the spread of infectious diseases and it is detrimental to methodology of medical research in Russia.


Keywords: Soviet Union; Russia; study design; comparative studies PMID:10990475

  17. The People's Library of Epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Last, John M

    2012-03-01

    The People's Library of Epidemiology is in the process of development. It consists of a website (http://www.jameslindlibrary.org) with links to online excerpts of papers and monographs of historical and scientific importance in epidemiology and related public health sciences that are held by the library of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. This paper reflects the lively panel discussion which took place on 9 August 2011. The panel members who opened the discussion were Alfredo Morabia, Anne Hardy, Roger Bernier, Jan Vandenbroucke, George Davey Smith, Esther Villalonga and Stephen Walter, who had won the prize awarded by Epidemiology Monitor for an essay on the People's Library of Epidemiology.

  18. Epidemiology of rickettsial diseases.

    PubMed

    Walker, D H; Fishbein, D B

    1991-05-01

    Rickettsial diseases have a diversity of epidemiologic characteristics reflective of the variety of ecologic situations in which the obligate intracellular bacteria are transmitted to humans. For the spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsiae, Rickettsia typhi, R. tsutsugamushi, Coxiella burnetii, and the human ehrlichial agent, humans are a dead-end host who plays no role in the maintenance of the organism in nature. All rickettsioses exist as zoonoses. Moreover, all rickettsiae are found in infected arthopods, which generally serve as the natural hosts and can transmit the infection to the next generation of ticks, mites, chiggers, or fleas. From our anthropocentric viewpoint, Q fever aerosol infection from parturient animals and Brill-Zinsser disease ignited epidemics of louse-borne epidemic typhus are exceptions. However, silent cycles of C. burnetii in ticks and R. prowazekii in the flying squirrel flea may have maintained these agents in transovarial or enzootic cycles for eons before humans and their domestic animals arrived on the scene. Thus, the epidemiology of rickettsial diseases must be recognized as an unfortunate aberration of the rickettsial economy. Several excellent reviews of rickettsial ecology contain a wealth of useful information. PMID:1884775

  19. The Epidemiology of Sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Dodds, Richard Matthew; Roberts, Helen Clare; Cooper, Cyrus; Sayer, Avan Aihie

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this review is to describe the epidemiology of sarcopenia, specifically prevalence, health outcomes, and factors across the life course that have been linked to its development. Sarcopenia definitions involve a range of measures (muscle mass, strength, and physical performance), which tend to decline with age, and hence sarcopenia becomes increasingly prevalent with age. Less is known about prevalence in older people in hospital and care homes, although it is likely to be higher than in community settings. The range of measures used, and the cutpoints suggested for each, presents a challenge for comparing prevalence estimates between studies. The importance of sarcopenia is highlighted by the range of adverse health outcomes that strength and physical performance (and to a lesser extent, muscle mass) have been linked to. This is shown most strikingly by the finding of increased all-cause mortality rates among those with weaker grip strength and slower gait speed. A life course approach broadens the window for our understanding of the etiology of sarcopenia and hence the potential intervention. An example is physical activity, with increased levels across midadulthood appearing to increase muscle mass and strength in early old age. Epidemiologic studies will continue to make an important contribution to our understanding of sarcopenia and possible avenues for intervention and prevention.

  20. Molecular Epidemiology of Amebiasis

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Ibne Karim M.; Clark, C. Graham; Petri, William A.

    2008-01-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, the causative agent of human amebiasis, remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries and is responsible for up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. Entamoeba dispar, morphologically indistinguishable from E. histolytica, is more common in humans in many parts of the world. Similarly Entamoeba moshkovskii, which was long considered to be a free-living ameba, is also morphologically identical to E. histolytica and E. dispar, and is highly prevalent in some E. histolytica endemic countries. However, the only species to cause disease in humans is E. histolytica. Most old epidemiological data on E. histolytica are unusable as the techniques employed do not differentiate between the above three Entamoeba species. Molecular tools are now available not only to diagnose these species accurately but also to study intra-species genetic diversity. Recent studies suggest that only a minority of all E. histolytica infections progress to development of clinical symptoms in the host and there exist population level differences between the E. histolytica strains isolated from the asymptomatic and symptomatic individuals. Nevertheless the underlying factors responsible for variable clinical outcome of infection by E. histolytica remain largely unknown. We anticipate that the recently completed E. histolytica genome sequence and new molecular techniques will rapidly advance our understanding of the epidemiology and pathogenicity of amebiasis. PMID:18571478

  1. Epidemiology, austerity, and innovation.

    PubMed

    Samet, Jonathan M; Ness, Roberta B

    2012-05-15

    In considering the state of epidemiologic research, these are the "best" and the "worst" of times-the "best" from the perspective of scientific opportunities and the "worst" from the perspective of funding. In this commentary, the authors address this time of funding austerity from the points of view of individual researchers and research institutions. For researchers, the new tools of "-omics," large databases, communication by means of the World Wide Web, and global access offer ever-expanding scientific opportunities. The authors comment on research directions for which there is an enhanced likelihood of funding success: clinical and translational research, outcomes and effectiveness research, and global health research. The authors emphasize the need to be innovative and not bound by the conventional. For institutions, the authors suggest attention to innovation and impact, social networking, and finding the "right size" for training programs. Academic institutions also need to invest, supporting researchers and their ideas. Epidemiologists need to be true to their mission and prove that they can use innovation to advance health and welfare in a measurable way. Doing so will ensure that over the long term, epidemiologic research will remain a cornerstone for advancing population health.

  2. Ecogeographic Genetic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Sloan, Chantel D.; Duell, Eric J.; Shi, Xun; Irwin, Rebecca; Andrew, Angeline S.; Williams, Scott M.; Moore, Jason H.

    2009-01-01

    Complex diseases such as cancer and heart disease result from interactions between an individual's genetics and environment, i.e. their human ecology. Rates of complex diseases have consistently demonstrated geographic patterns of incidence, or spatial “clusters” of increased incidence relative to the general population. Likewise, genetic subpopulations and environmental influences are not evenly distributed across space. Merging appropriate methods from genetic epidemiology, ecology and geography will provide a more complete understanding of the spatial interactions between genetics and environment that result in spatial patterning of disease rates. Geographic Information Systems (GIS), which are tools designed specifically for dealing with geographic data and performing spatial analyses to determine their relationship, are key to this kind of data integration. Here the authors introduce a new interdisciplinary paradigm, ecogeographic genetic epidemiology, which uses GIS and spatial statistical analyses to layer genetic subpopulation and environmental data with disease rates and thereby discern the complex gene-environment interactions which result in spatial patterns of incidence. PMID:19025788

  3. Global epidemiology of sporotrichosis.

    PubMed

    Chakrabarti, Arunaloke; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Gutierrez-Galhardo, Maria Clara; Mochizuki, Takashi; Li, Shanshan

    2015-01-01

    Sporotrichosis is an endemic mycosis caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii sensu lato. It has gained importance in recent years due to its worldwide prevalence, recognition of multiple cryptic species within the originally described species, and its distinctive ecology, distribution, and epidemiology across the globe. In this review, we describe the current knowledge of the taxonomy, ecology, prevalence, molecular epidemiology, and outbreaks due to S. schenckii sensu lato. Despite its omnipresence in the environment, this fungus has remarkably diverse modes of infection and distribution patterns across the world. We have delved into the nuances of how sporotrichosis is intimately linked to different forms of human activities, habitats, lifestyles, and environmental and zoonotic interactions. The purpose of this review is to stimulate discussion about the peculiarities of this unique fungal pathogen and increase the awareness of clinicians and microbiologists, especially in regions of high endemicity, to its emergence and evolving presentations and to kindle further research into understanding the unorthodox mechanisms by which this fungus afflicts different human populations.

  4. Epidemiology of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Falk, R T; Pickle, L W; Fontham, E T; Greenberg, S D; Jacobs, H L; Correa, P; Fraumeni, J F

    1992-01-01

    Descriptive features of bronchioloalveolar carcinoma (BAC) are presented using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program population-based incidence data from 1973 through 1987, along with risk factors from histologically confirmed cases of BAC identified in a hospital-based case-control study conducted in Louisiana between 1979 and 1982. Compared to the rising incidence of lung cancer overall, BAC rates have remained relatively constant, accounting for less than 3% of all lung cancer. BAC incidence rates were higher in males, yet it explained proportionately more of the total lung cancer incidence in females. In the case-control study, 21 of the 33 cases originally ascertained from hospital pathology records were histologically confirmed as BAC. Most cases smoked cigarettes, with a 4-fold risk for ever smoking. Risks tended to increase with smoking intensity (reaching 10-fold for more than 1.5 packs/day) and duration (reaching 5-fold for more than 45 years of smoking). Following 10 or more years of employment, there was a 4-fold risk associated with motor freight occupations, along with nonsignificant excesses among construction workers, petroleum manufacturers, and sugar cane farmers. Cases were more likely than controls to have had emphysema or to have had a close family member with lung cancer. Although based on small numbers, this study suggests that BAC shares many of the epidemiological characteristics of lung adenocarcinoma.

  5. Epidemiology of Neuroendocrine Tumors.

    PubMed

    Fraenkel, Merav; Faggiano, Antongiulio; Valk, Gerlof D

    2015-01-01

    Formerly named carcinoids, neuroendocrine tumors originate from diffuse endocrine cells, can involve any part of the gastrointestinal tract, endocrine pancreas and bronchopulmonary (BP) tree, and have a wide range of malignant potential. This chapter summarizes the data available on the epidemiology of neuroendocrine neoplasia (NEN) from around the world, including the relative frequency according to organ of origin, annual incidence rates (IR) and trends in IR at the various anatomic sites, age and stage at presentation, racial and gender differences in IR and 5-year survival rates. Over time, changes have been made in the classification and registration of NEN, both in the same registry and across the globe, thus confounding the possibility to draw conclusions as to the true rise in IR of NEN that is observed all over the world. BP NEN has become the most common site in many western countries, while NEN of the rectum is more common in the Far East. In some countries, appendiceal NEN is the most common site in females. When compared to adenocarcinoma of the same location, the prognosis of NEN patients is better. Five-year survival rates are highest for NEN originating in the rectum and appendix, but lower in small intestinal and pancreatic NEN. Future research is needed to understand the contribution of genetic and environmental factors to NEN epidemiology. PMID:26303701

  6. Current issues in perinatal epidemiology.

    PubMed Central

    Berendes, H. W.

    1987-01-01

    The main national data sources for perinatal epidemiology are birth and death certificates, yet routinely linked birth and death certificate data are still not available in the U.S. Completeness and quality of the reporting of perinatal events should be considered in examining trends over time and between jurisdictions. The U.S. has experienced a marked decline in its infant mortality rate, but only a very modest decline in the rate of low birth weight. Research must focus more on studies of pre-term labor, rather than low birth weight, which include children who are underground or who are born too early and who, therefore, may represent different etiologies. Sensitive hormonal tests may provide more precise estimates of the rate of very early fetal loss. Management of labor and delivery and of the high-risk newborn have undergone marked changes during the last 15 years, and yet clinical trials have not played a major role in the evaluation of these changes. The difference in reproductive outcomes between whites and blacks, especially in the rate of low birth weight, have persisted and are not understood. Data bases are becoming available for intergenerational studies to determine whether nature or nurture accounts for this difference. PMID:3660860

  7. A Survey of Epidemiology and Biostatistical Offerings in Health Education Professional Preparation Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rainey, Jacquie L.; Lewers, Gary A.

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed college and university health education degree granting programs to investigate the status of training in epidemiology and biostatistics for health education students. Surveys of all schools from a national directory of programs indicated that programs were offering training in epidemiology and biostatistics for community/public health…

  8. The new epidemiology of nephrolithiasis.

    PubMed

    Shoag, Jonathan; Tasian, Greg E; Goldfarb, David S; Eisner, Brian H

    2015-07-01

    Historically nephrolithiasis was considered a disease of dehydration and abnormal urine composition. However, over the past several decades, much has been learned about the epidemiology of this disease and its relation to patient demographic characteristics and common systemic diseases. Here we review the latest epidemiologic studies in the field. PMID:26088071

  9. Ethical issues in epidemiological research.

    PubMed

    Hessel, P A; Fourie, P B

    1987-12-19

    Ethical concerns pervade all aspects of epidemiological investigations. Ethical issues, including planning, carrying out, analysing and presenting the results of a study, are discussed. In southern Africa, where many community-based epidemiological surveys are undertaken, issues relating specifically to the conduct of such studies are especially relevant. These include informed consent, confidentiality and privacy.

  10. CEDR: Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessor agencies have a long history of epidemiologic research programs. The main focus of these programs has been the Health and Mortality Study of the DOE work force. This epidemiologic study began in 1964 with a feasibility study of workers at the Hanford facility. Studies of other populations exposed to radiation have also been supported, including the classic epidemiologic study of radium dial painters and studies of atomic bomb survivors. From a scientific perspective, these epidemiologic research program have been productive, highly credible, and formed the bases for many radiological protection standards. Recently, there has been concern that, although research results were available, the data on which these results were based were not easily obtained by interested investigators outside DOE. Therefore, as part of an effort to integrate and broaden access to its epidemiologic information, the DOE has developed the Comprehensive Epidemiologic Data Resource (CEDR) Program. Included in this effort is the development of a computer information system for accessing the collection of CEDR data and its related descriptive information. The epidemiologic data currently available through the CEDAR Program consist of analytic data sets, working data sets, and their associated documentation files. In general, data sets are the result of epidemiologic studies that have been conducted on various groups of workers at different DOE facilities during the past 30 years.

  11. Epidemiological evidence in forensic pharmacovigilance.

    PubMed

    Persaud, Nav; Healy, David

    2012-01-01

    Until recently epidemiological evidence was not regarded as helpful in determining cause and effect. It generated associations that then had to be explained in terms of bio-mechanisms and applied to individual patients. A series of legal cases surrounding possible birth defects triggered by doxylamine (Bendectin) and connective tissue disorders linked to breast implants made it clear that in some instances epidemiological evidence might have a more important role, but the pendulum swung too far so that epidemiological evidence has in recent decades been given an unwarranted primacy, partly perhaps because it suits the interests of certain stakeholders. Older and more recent epidemiological studies on doxylamine and other antihistamines are reviewed to bring out the ambiguities and pitfalls of an undue reliance on epidemiological studies.

  12. [Epidemiological problems of obesity].

    PubMed

    Beiul, E A; Oleneva, V A; Mühr, M; Heller, G M; Popova, Iu P

    1980-01-01

    The results of epidemiological survey of the population living in the middle zone of the Soviet Union and in the GDR are considered. Comparison of the data obtained shows that overweight is a very prevalent abnormal condition among the test population groups in both countries and amounts to 26% (USSR) and 30% (GDR). Excess animal fat consumption in the presence of a decreased quota of vegetable oil has been established and a significant increase in monosaccharides intake noted. Attention is attracted by insufficient quota of fresh vegetables and fruit in the diets of the population of both countries. Qualitative and quantitative nutritional pitfalls were shown to be aggravated in obese people. Violation of dietetic regimens and decreased physical activity play a definite role in the development of overweight. A program on primary and secondary prevention of overweight has been established. It includes a number of measures both common and specific to the GDR and the USSR.

  13. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    PubMed

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  14. Cancer epidemiology of woodworking.

    PubMed

    Mohtashamipur, E; Norpoth, K; Lühmann, F

    1989-01-01

    The literature published between 1965 and 1989 on the cancer epidemiology of woodworking in furniture industries and carpentry shops in 17 countries is reviewed. Included are some unpublished data obtained through personal communication with epidemiologists or collected from doctoral dissertations. Of 5,785 cases with sino-nasal cancers, about 23% were found to be woodworkers. Dusty jobs, especially wood processing using high-speed machines, are mainly associated with the enhanced incidence of nasal adenocarcinomas. The latency periods of the latter tumors ranged from 7 to 69 years in five European countries. A variety of neoplasias of the respiratory, digestive, and urinary tracts as well as the hemopoietic and lymphatic systems, including Hodgkin's disease are reported to be significantly associated with occupational exposure to wood dust. These data suggest that the exposure to some types of wood dust might cause a systemic rather than local neoplastic disorder.

  15. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF PARACOCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS

    PubMed Central

    MARTINEZ, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The epidemiological characteristics of paracoccidioidomycosis were reviewed and updated. The new endemic areas in Brazil were discussed in the section regarding the geographic distribution of the mycosis. Subclinical infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis was discussed on the basis of skin test surveys with antigens of the fungus, seroepidemiological studies, and disease cases outside Latin America. Large case series permitted a comparison of the prevalence of the mycosis in different regions, its estimated incidence and risk factors for the development of the disease. Aspects modulating the expression of the clinical forms of paracoccidioidomycosis are also presented. This review also deals with diseases associated with the mycosis, opportunistic paracoccidioidomycosis, lethality, mortality and infection and disease in animals. PMID:26465364

  16. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis].

    PubMed

    Mjid, M; Cherif, J; Ben Salah, N; Toujani, S; Ouahchi, Y; Zakhama, H; Louzir, B; Mehiri-Ben Rhouma, N; Beji, M

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is a contagious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It represents, according to World Health Organization (WHO), one of the most leading causes of death worldwide. With nearly 8 million new cases each year and more than 1 million deaths per year, tuberculosis is still a public health problem. Despite of the decrease in incidence, morbidity and mortality remain important partially due to co-infection with human immunodeficiency virus and emergence of resistant bacilli. All WHO regions are not uniformly affected by TB. Africa's region has the highest rates of morbidity and mortality. The epidemiological situation is also worrying in Eastern European countries where the proportion of drug-resistant tuberculosis is increasing. These regional disparities emphasize to develop screening, diagnosis and monitoring to the most vulnerable populations. In this context, the Stop TB program, developed by the WHO and its partner's, aims to reduce the burden of disease in accordance with the global targets set for 2015.

  17. Epidemiology of HCV infection.

    PubMed

    Baldo, V; Baldovin, T; Trivello, R; Floreani, A

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that approximately 130-170 million people worldwide are infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). According to data from WHO community and blood donor surveys, the African and Eastern Mediterranean countries report the highest prevalence rates (>10%). The rates of infection in the general population and the incidence of newly-acquired cases indicate an appreciable change in the epidemiology of the infection in recent years. Prior to the widespread screening of blood donations, infected blood and blood products represented a common source of infection. On the other hand, the high peak in HCV antibodies among the elderly in Italian epidemiological studies on the population at large reflects a cohort effect due to an epidemic of HCV infection occurring after the Second World War. According to data reported by the CDC Surveillance System, the incidence of acute hepatitis C has declined since the late 1980s. In 2005, as in previous years, the majority of such cases in North America and Northern Europe occurred among young adults and injected drug use was the most common risk factor. Other, less commonly reported modes of HCV acquisition are occupational exposure to blood, high-risk sexual activity, tattooing, body piercing and other forms of skin penetration. Finally, the overall rate of mother-to-child transmission from HCV-infected, HIV-negative mothers has been estimated at around 5% (coinfection with HIV raises this figure to 19.4%). HCV prevention relies on identifying and counseling uninfected persons at risk of contracting hepatitis C. PMID:18673187

  18. Epidemiology of acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Bhate, K; Williams, H C

    2013-03-01

    Despite acne being an almost universal condition in younger people, relatively little is known about its epidemiology. We sought to review what is known about the distribution and causes of acne by conducting a systematic review of relevant epidemiological studies. We searched Medline and Embase to the end of November 2011. The role of Propionibacterium acnes in pathogenesis is unclear: antibiotics have a direct antimicrobial as well as an anti-inflammatory effect. Moderate-to-severe acne affects around 20% of young people and severity correlates with pubertal maturity. Acne may be presenting at a younger age because of earlier puberty. It is unclear if ethnicity is truly associated with acne. Black individuals are more prone to postinflammatory hyperpigmentation and specific subtypes such as 'pomade acne'. Acne persists into the 20s and 30s in around 64% and 43% of individuals, respectively. The heritability of acne is almost 80% in first-degree relatives. Acne occurs earlier and is more severe in those with a positive family history. Suicidal ideation is more common in those with severe compared with mild acne. In the U.S.A., the cost of acne is over 3 billion dollars per year in terms of treatment and loss of productivity. A systematic review in 2005 found no clear evidence of dietary components increasing acne risk. One small randomized controlled trial showed that low glycaemic index (GI) diets can lower acne severity. A possible association between dairy food intake and acne requires closer scrutiny. Natural sunlight or poor hygiene are not associated. The association between smoking and acne is probably due to confounding. Validated core outcomes in future studies will help in combining future evidence.

  19. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  20. Epidemiologic studies based on the Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, G.

    1996-12-31

    There are great opportunities in the post-Chernobyl experience for significant epidemiologic research, perhaps even more in the area of disaster research than in the area of the human health effects of ionizing radiation. But the potential opportunity for learning the effects of radioiodine on the thyroid is very great and has aroused widespread national and international investigative interest. The opportunities for significant epidemiologic research are, however, severely limited currently by the worsening economic situation in Belarus and Ukraine, where the greatest exposure occurred, and by the lack of personnel trained in appropriate methods of study, the lack of modern equipment, the lack of supplies, the poor communication facilities, and the difficulties of accurate dose estimation. the disadvantages may or may not outweigh the obvious advantages of large numbers, the extensive direct thyroidal measurements made shortly after the accident in 1986, the magnitude of the releases of radioiodine, and the retention of the former Soviet system of universal medical care. Both the European Commission (EC) and the World Health Organization (WHO) have been working actively to strengthen the infrastructure of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine. New scientific knowledge has yet to emerge from the extensive epidemiologic work but information of considerable public health significance has begun to accumulate. The bulk of the thyroid cancer has been shown to be valid by international pathology review; both EC and WHO representatives have declared the increase in thyroid cancer among children to have been caused in large part by Chernobyl. No increase in leukemia has been seen in the general population. The WHO pilot studies have shown no evidence of an increase in psychologic or neurologic complications among those exposed in utero. Ongoing epidemiologic work can be described by review of the inventory that the WHO has begun to maintain and publish. 20 refs., 7 tabs.

  1. Statistics and Epidemiology of Lead Poisoning (FY 72-L1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, John H., Jr.; And Others

    This report is the first in a quarterly series which will contain statistics and epidemiologic notes on lead poisoning at both the national and local levels. This report contains (a) statistics on childhood lead poisoning; (b) a status report on the Community Lead Poisoning Data System, which was designed to assist local lead control programs and…

  2. Use of Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment to Improve Interpretation of a Recreational Water Epidemiological Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a supplemental water quality monitoring study and quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to complement the United States Environmental Protection Agency’s (U.S. EPA) National Epidemiological and Environmental Assessment of Recreational Water study at Boq...

  3. Evaluation and Application of Alternative Air Pollution Exposure Metrics in Air Pollution Epidemiology Studies

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Periodic review, revision and subsequent implementation of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for criteria air pollutants rely upon various types of scientific air quality, exposure, toxicological dose-response and epidemiological information. Exposure assessmen...

  4. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  5. Epidemiology of IBD

    MedlinePlus

    ... the United States have examined the relationship between socioeconomic factors and IBD. One study found both ulcerative colitis ... source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Email ...

  6. 76 FR 57748 - National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute Notice of Closed Meetings... clearly unwarranted invasion of personal privacy. Name of Committee: National Cancer Institute Special Emphasis Panel; Core Infrastructure and Methodological Research for Cancer Epidemiology Cohorts (UM1)....

  7. Intelligent management of epidemiologic data.

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, F.; Evoli, L. M.; Pisanelli, D. M.; Ricci, F. L.

    1991-01-01

    In the lifecycle of epidemiologic data three steps can be identified: production, interpretation and exploitation for decision. Computerized support can be precious, if not indispensable, at any of the three levels, therefore several epidemiologic data management systems were developed. In this paper we focus on intelligent management of epidemiologic data, where intelligence is needed in order to analyze trends or to compare observed with reference value and possibly detect abnormalities. After having outlined the problems involved in such a task, we show the features of ADAMS, a system realized to manage aggregated data and implemented in a personal computer environment. PMID:1807619

  8. Contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization of necrotizing fasciitis in Texas: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There are limited population-level reports on the contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Methods. We conducted a cohort study of Texas inpatient population, identifying hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001-2010. The incidence, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of NF hospitalizations were examined. Results. There were 12,172 NF hospitalizations during study period, with ICU admission in 50.3%. The incidence of NF rose 2.7%/year (P = 0.0001). Key changes between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of NF (5.9 versus 7.6 per 100,000 [P < 0.0001]), chronic comorbidities (69.4% versus 76.7% [P < 0.0001]), and development of ≥1 organ failure (28.5% versus 51.7% [P < 0.0001]). Inflation-adjusted hospital charges rose 37% (P < 0.0001). Hospital mortality (9.3%) remained unchanged during study period. Discharges to long-term care facilities rose from 12.2 to 30% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The present cohort of NF is the largest reported to date. There has been increasing incidence, chronic illness, and severity of illness of NF over the past decade, with half of NF hospitalizations admitted to ICU. Hospital mortality remained unchanged, while need for long-term care rose nearly 2.5-fold among survivors, suggesting increasing residual morbidity. The sources of the observed findings require further study.

  9. Contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical characteristics, and resource utilization of necrotizing fasciitis in Texas: a population-based cohort study.

    PubMed

    Oud, Lavi; Watkins, Phillip

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. There are limited population-level reports on the contemporary trends of the epidemiology, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of necrotizing fasciitis (NF). Methods. We conducted a cohort study of Texas inpatient population, identifying hospitalizations with a diagnosis of NF during the years 2001-2010. The incidence, clinical features, resource utilization, and outcomes of NF hospitalizations were examined. Results. There were 12,172 NF hospitalizations during study period, with ICU admission in 50.3%. The incidence of NF rose 2.7%/year (P = 0.0001). Key changes between 2001-2002 and 2009-2010 included rising incidence of NF (5.9 versus 7.6 per 100,000 [P < 0.0001]), chronic comorbidities (69.4% versus 76.7% [P < 0.0001]), and development of ≥1 organ failure (28.5% versus 51.7% [P < 0.0001]). Inflation-adjusted hospital charges rose 37% (P < 0.0001). Hospital mortality (9.3%) remained unchanged during study period. Discharges to long-term care facilities rose from 12.2 to 30% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. The present cohort of NF is the largest reported to date. There has been increasing incidence, chronic illness, and severity of illness of NF over the past decade, with half of NF hospitalizations admitted to ICU. Hospital mortality remained unchanged, while need for long-term care rose nearly 2.5-fold among survivors, suggesting increasing residual morbidity. The sources of the observed findings require further study. PMID:25893115

  10. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern. PMID:24850143

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder in a nationally representative mexican community sample.

    PubMed

    Borges, Guilherme; Benjet, Corina; Petukhova, Maria; Medina-Mora, Maria Elena

    2014-06-01

    This study describes the public health burden of trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in relation to the full range of traumatic events to identify the conditional risk of PTSD from each traumatic event experienced in the Mexican population and other risk factors. The representative sample comprised a subsample (N = 2,362) of the urban participants of the Mexican National Comorbidity Survey (2001-2002). We used the World Health Organization's Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) to assess exposure to trauma and the presence of PTSD according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV; American Psychiatric Association, ) in each respondents' self-reported worst traumatic event, as well as a randomly selected lifetime trauma. The results showed that traumatic events were extremely common in Mexico (68.8%). The estimate of lifetime PTSD in the whole population was 1.5%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 2.1%. The 12-month prevalence of PTSD in the whole population was 0.6%; among only those with a traumatic event it was 0.8%. Violence-related events were responsible for a large share of PTSD. Sexual violence, in particular, was one of the greatest risks for developing PTSD. These findings support the idea that trauma in Mexico should be considered a public health concern.

  12. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care.

  13. [Epidemiological data on scorpion envenomation in Algeria].

    PubMed

    Hellal, H; Guerinik, M; Griene, L; Laid, Y; Mesbah, S; Merad, R; Alamir, B

    2012-08-01

    The scorpion envenomation is a major public health problem in Algeria. Given this fact, the Ministry of Health has developed a national strategy for prevention and control based on the training of health personnel, information, education and communication, and standardization of care on the basis of a therapeutic consensus. The monitoring and evaluation activities are carried out by epidemiological indicators through the implementation of an information system based in the services of Epidemiology, INSP (National Institute of Public Health) and Prevention Department of the Health Ministry. The information carriers are report cards implemented in different health facilities that collect data on bites and deaths from scorpion envenomation. Summaries of notifications from the wilayas are collected monthly, and processed by the Epi info software using monitoring indicators. From 1991 to 2010, there has been a stagnation in the number of stings with an average of 50,000 cases per year, but mortality decreased from more than 100 deaths in the last fifty years to 50 nowadays. The higher proportion of stings was recorded during the summer period. The most affected group is from 15 to 49 years which constitute the workforce, but children from 5 to 14 years rank first in terms of mortality. But these rates vary across years and regions. Despite all these efforts, the scorpion envenomation in Algeria remains of concern and our main challenges are to strengthen cross-sectional actions at the local level and improving the quality of care. PMID:22555670

  14. Evaluation of endometrial cancer epidemiology in Romania.

    PubMed

    Bohîlțea, R E; Furtunescu, F; Dosius, M; Cîrstoiu, M; Radoi, V; Baroș, A; Bohîlțea, L C

    2015-01-01

    Endometrial cancer represents the most frequent gynecological malignant affection in the developed countries, in which the incidence of cervical cancer has significantly decreased due to the rigorous application of screening methods and prophylaxis. According to its frequency, endometrial cancer is situated on the fourth place in the category of women's genital-mammary malignant diseases, after breast, cervical and ovarian cancer in Romania. The incidence and mortality rates due to endometrial cancer have registered an increasing trend worldwide and also in Romania, a significant decrease of the age of appearance for the entire endometrial pathology sphere being noticed. At the national level, the maximum incidence is situated between 60 and 64 years old, the mortality rate of the women under 65 years old being high in Romania. The study evaluates endometrial cancer, from an epidemiologic point of view, at the national level compared to the international statistic data.

  15. Unique patient concept: a key choice for European epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Quantin, Catherine; Cohen, Olivier; Riandey, Benoît; Allaert, François-André

    2007-01-01

    The French Ministry of Health is setting up the personal medical record (PMR or DMP for Dossier Médical Personnel in French). This innovating tool is highly expected and will be extremely useful for the therapeutic follow-up as well as for epidemiological studies on which public health policies are based. Therefore the currently planned identifying process should prevent any epidemiological use of these data. Numerous scientific organisations have alerted government powers about the threat that this impairment represents, and they wish to promote some secure procedures that exist, which have already proved their efficiency at the national and international level.

  16. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India

    PubMed Central

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-01-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food-borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. This review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  17. The epidemiology of favism.

    PubMed

    Belsey, M A

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism.

  18. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions.

  19. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency. PMID:27652226

  20. The epidemiology of favism

    PubMed Central

    Belsey, Mark A.

    1973-01-01

    Favism is a potential obstacle to the use of the fava bean in the development of a locally produced, inexpensive weaning food for the Middle East and North Africa. The purposes of this study were to define the epidemiology of favism, to evaluate the advisability of using the fava bean in a weaning food, and to suggest ways of avoiding or eliminating the toxic factor in the bean. Field observations, locally acquired data, and a literature review suggested that the use of the fava bean in a weaning food would be hazardous, but that the hazard might be overcome by using certain strains of the bean or, more particularly, by using old dried beans. The disease is usually directly related in time to the harvesting and availability of fresh beans, but it is also associated with fresh dried beans. On the basis of the age distribution of the disease, patterns of bean consumption, and local food taboos it appears that the toxic factor is concentrated in the skin of the bean, that it is heat-stable, that in dried beans it decreases with age, and that it crosses into the breast milk of lactating mothers. It also appears that disease expression may be a result of the interaction of several host factors, such as nutritional status and the consumption of other foods. These observations are consistent with the results of laboratory studies, which incriminate vicine, divicine, and DOPA in the etiology of favism. PMID:4541143

  1. Epidemiology of severe trauma.

    PubMed

    Alberdi, F; García, I; Atutxa, L; Zabarte, M

    2014-12-01

    Major injury is the sixth leading cause of death worldwide. Among those under 35 years of age, it is the leading cause of death and disability. Traffic accidents alone are the main cause, fundamentally in low- and middle-income countries. Patients over 65 years of age are an increasingly affected group. For similar levels of injury, these patients have twice the mortality rate of young individuals, due to the existence of important comorbidities and associated treatments, and are more likely to die of medical complications late during hospital admission. No worldwide, standardized definitions exist for documenting, reporting and comparing data on severely injured trauma patients. The most common trauma scores are the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), the Injury Severity Score (ISS) and the Trauma and Injury severity Score (TRISS). Documenting the burden of injury also requires evaluation of the impact of post-trauma impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Trauma epidemiology helps define health service and research priorities, contributes to identify disadvantaged groups, and also facilitates the elaboration of comparable measures for outcome predictions. PMID:25241267

  2. AIDS in women: epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, A

    1989-09-01

    Several facts concerning the distribution of AIDS in U.S. female populations are clear. This disease has made significant inroads, in a quantitative sense, into the female segment of our society as documented by AIDS surveillance data, information on pregnant women and parturients, and by screening data from the military. The impact on women in the reproductive years, on the reproductive health of these women, and on the reproductive outcome of their pregnancies is of substantial concern. Monitoring epidemiologic trends in certain groups will require clever and creative strategies like those of Hoff and colleagues. Additional data may be derived from the CDC's Family of Surveys that will examine HIV prevalence in five groups (in addition to the newborn infant survey described above): intravenous drug users, patients admitted to hospitals, sexually transmitted disease clinic patients, women's health and reproductive health clinics, and tuberculosis clinics. It is hoped that the data obtained from these studies, as well as data gathered on college students and Job Corps applicants, will contribute additional information on HIV infection in women. Monitoring the progress of the AIDS epidemic in women will be difficult. Even more difficult will be the effort to respond to the epidemic in the women it most frequently affects: the poor, minority, disenfranchised women who may be involved in illegal activities (drug use, prostitution, illegal immigration) who are not well networked into the medical and social services of our society. PMID:2776374

  3. Shigellosis: Epidemiology in India.

    PubMed

    Taneja, Neelam; Mewara, Abhishek

    2016-05-01

    Shigellosis is one of the major causes of diarrhoea in India. The accurate estimates of morbidity and mortality due to shigellosis are lacking, though it is endemic in the country and has been reported to cause many outbreaks. The limited information available indicates Shigella to be an important food- borne pathogen in India. S. flexneri is the most common species, S. sonnei and non-agglutinable Shigellae seem to be steadily surfacing, while S. dysenteriae has temporarily disappeared from the northern and eastern regions. Antibiotic-resistant strains of different Shigella species and serotypes have emerged all over the world. Especially important is the global emergence of multidrug resistant Shigellae, notably the increasing resistance to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones, and also azithromycin. This calls for a continuous and strong surveillance of antibiotic resistance across the country for periodic updation of the local antibiograms. The prevention of shigellosis is desirable as it will substantially reduce the morbidity associated with diarrhoea in the country. Public health measures like provision of safe water and adequate sanitation are of immense importance to reduce the burden of shigellosis, however, the provision of resources to develop such an infrastructure in India is a complex issue and will take time to resolve. Thus, the scientific thrust should be focused towards development of a safe and affordable multivalent vaccine. this review is focused upon the epidemiology, disease burden and the therapeutic challenges of shigellosis in Indian perspective. PMID:27487999

  4. Epidemiology of clavicle fractures.

    PubMed

    Postacchini, Franco; Gumina, Stefano; De Santis, Pierfrancesco; Albo, Francesco

    2002-01-01

    An epidemiologic study of 535 isolated clavicle fractures treated in a hospital of a large metropolis during an 11-year period was performed. Data regarding patient's age and sex, side involved, mechanism of injury, and season in which the fracture occurred were obtained from the clinical records. Radiographic classification was performed with the Allman system. Clavicle fractures represented 2.6% of all fractures and 44% of those in the shoulder girdle. Most patients were men (68%), and the left side was involved in 61% of cases. Fractures of the middle third of the clavicle, which were the most common (81%), were displaced in 48% of cases and comminuted in 19%. Fractures of the medial third were the least common (2%). The prevalence of midclavicular fractures was found to decrease progressively with age, starting from the first decade of life when they represented 88.2% of all clavicle fractures and were undisplaced in 55.5% of cases. In adults, the incidence of displaced fractures, independent of location, was higher than that of undisplaced fractures. Traffic accidents were the most common cause of the injury. In the period under study, the incidence of fractures showed no significant change over time and no seasonal variation. PMID:12378163

  5. [Epidemiology of teeth hypersensitivity].

    PubMed

    Lutskaia, I K; Zinovenko, O G; Kovalenko, I P

    2015-01-01

    A clinical examination of 98 patients aged 20 to 75 years was carried out to identifyclinical and epidemiological features of hard tooth tissueshypersensitivity. The survey found out what stimuli (cold, hot, sour, mechanical, chemical) cause the appearance of dental hyperesthesia. The detailed survey of the affected area aimed to determine the presence of dental caries, gingival recession, wedge-shaped defects, erosions, microcracks and chipped enamel, as well as wear of the tooth crown. Forty-threepatients of 98 (43.88%) had tooth sensitivity. Most affected age group was 25-34 years (33%). Among patients studied with hyperesthesia 86% complained of pain. It was establishedthat dental hyperesthesia most often causes an intense, but quickly passing pain response, wherein upon exposure of several types of stimuli. Teeth with high sensitivity showed signs of abrasion (74.1%), most often--on the vestibular surface (44.4%). Patients under 45 years had notable cracks and wedge-shaped defects. In patients 45 years and older cracks and increased abrasion of hard dental tissues was seen. PMID:26271696

  6. Epidemiology of delayed ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Di Sante, Stefania; Mollaioli, Daniele; Gravina, Giovanni Luca; Ciocca, Giacomo; Limoncin, Erika; Carosa, Eleonora; Lenzi, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    A large body of literature on diminished ejaculatory disorders has been generated without the use of a clear diagnostic definition. Many studies have not distinguished between the orgasm and ejaculation disorders leading to doubtful results. Delayed ejaculation (DE) is one of the diminished ejaculatory disorders, which range from varying delays in ejaculatory latency to a complete inability to ejaculate. The present review is aimed at providing a comprehensive overview of the current knowledge on the definition and epidemiology of diminished ejaculatory disorders. We focus on the acquired diseases, such as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and specific drug regimens that may cause an iatrogenic form of ejaculatory disorder. In addition, the impact of aging is discussed since the prevalence of DE appears to be moderately but positively related to age. Finally, we also focus on the importance of the hormonal milieu on male ejaculation. To date, evidence on the endocrine control of ejaculation is derived from small clinical trials, but the evidence suggests that hormones modulate the ejaculatory process by altering its overall latency.

  7. Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990–2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age–sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development. Methods We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time. Findings Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6–6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0–65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0–71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9–5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5–59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7

  8. Metabolomics and Epidemiology Working Group

    Cancer.gov

    The Metabolomics and Epidemiology (MetEpi) Working Group promotes metabolomics analyses in population-based studies, as well as advancement in the field of metabolomics for broader biomedical and public health research.

  9. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research.

  10. Genomic Resources for Cancer Epidemiology

    Cancer.gov

    This page provides links to research resources, complied by the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program, that may be of interest to genetic epidemiologists conducting cancer research, but is not exhaustive.

  11. [Epidemiology between ethics and politics].

    PubMed

    Saracci, R

    1999-01-01

    Over the last two decades ethics in epidemiology has been the subject of a substantial number of conferences, books, articles, guidelines as well as training courses. The relevance of ethics for epidemiology does not make the ethical approach sufficient to exhaust the analysis of the relationship between epidemiology and society: on one side the ethical assessment of an epidemiological investigation is not self-sufficient but depends on the evaluation of the scientific worth of the study (a planned study involving humans is automatically unethical if scientifically unsound) and, on the other side, to be of practical value it needs expanding as to its policy implications. A few remarks on two issues, ethics committees and human reproductive cloning, support the general contention that translating knowledge into effective public health actions may be grounded in ethical considerations but necessitates a substantial development at political level.

  12. Rosacea: current state of epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jerry; Berg, Mats

    2013-12-01

    Case definitions are critical in epidemiologic research. However, modern disease indicators must now consider complex data from gene-based research along with traditional clinical parameters. Rosacea is a skin disorder with multiple signs and symptoms. In individuals, these features may be multiple or one may predominate. While studies on the epidemiology of rosacea have previously been sparse, there has been a recent increase in research activity. A broader body of epidemiological information that includes a greater variety of countries beyond Northern Europe and general population-based demographics is needed. As there are operational issues in current case definitions of rosacea subtypes--rationalization and standardization--universal consistent applications in future research is also imperative. Further improvement in disease definition combining new research information along with clinical pragmatism should increase the accuracy of rosacea case ascertainment and facilitate further epidemiological research. PMID:24229634

  13. 77 FR 6130 - National Cancer Institute; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... hereby given of a meeting of the Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology... privacy. Name of Committee: Board of Scientific Counselors for Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology; National Cancer Institute; Board of Scientific Counselors--Clinical Sciences and Epidemiology. Date:...

  14. [Sociocultural epidemiology: an essential aproach].

    PubMed

    Hersch-Martínez, Paul

    2013-01-01

    The necessity of an inclusive epidemiological approach, capable to attend the diverse dimensions involved in health damage as a reflective phenomenon of society is analyzed. The range of perspectives involved requires an inclusive methodological scope and applicative channels, in order to deal with sanitary realities systematically related to culture and social organization. Some constitutive elements of sociocultural epidemiology are underlined, shaping an operative proposal that can enhance the relationship between disciplines and sectors regarding specific outstanding public health problems.

  15. Epidemiology of waterskiing injuries.

    PubMed

    Banta, J V

    1979-06-01

    Coast Guard statistics indicate a national boating fatality rate of 9.6 deaths per 100,000 crafts. In 1977 in California, five fatalities and 70 serious injuries were directly attributable to waterskiing. The four cases reported here include three patients with propeller injuries, including one nearly fatal amputation. In each case basic measures for boating safety were overlooked.

  16. [Opportunity and challenge on molecular epidemiology].

    PubMed

    Duan, G C; Chen, S Y

    2016-08-10

    Molecular epidemiology, a branch of epidemiology, combines the theories and methods, both in epidemiology and molecular biology. Molecular epidemiology mainly focuses on biological markers, describing the distribution, occurrence, development and prognosis of diseases at the molecular level. The completion of Human Genome Project and rapid development of Precision Medicine and Big Data not only offer the new development opportunities but also bring about a higher demand and new challenge for molecular epidemiology. PMID:27539332

  17. Psychiatric epidemiology: selected recent advances and future directions.

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, R. C.

    2000-01-01

    Reviewed in this article are selected recent advances and future challenges for psychiatric epidemiology. Major advances in descriptive psychiatric epidemiology in recent years include the development of reliable and valid fully structured diagnostic interviews, the implementation of parallel cross-national surveys of the prevalences and correlates of mental disorders, and the initiation of research in clinical epidemiology. Remaining challenges include the refinement of diagnostic categories and criteria, recognition and evaluation of systematic underreporting bias in surveys of mental disorders, creation and use of accurate assessment tools for studying disorders of children, adolescents, the elderly, and people in less developed countries, and setting up systems to carry out small area estimations for needs assessment and programme planning. Advances in analytical and experimental epidemiology have been more modest. A major challenge is for psychiatric epidemiologists to increase the relevance of their analytical research to their colleagues in preventative psychiatry as well as to social policy analysts. Another challenge is to develop interventions aimed at increasing the proportion of people with mental disorders who receive treatment. Despite encouraging advances, much work still needs to be conducted before psychiatric epidemiology can realize its potential to improve the mental health of populations. PMID:10885165

  18. The global epidemiology of waterpipe smoking

    PubMed Central

    Maziak, Wasim; Taleb, Ziyad Ben; Bahelah, Raed; Islam, Farahnaz; Jaber, Rana; Auf, Rehab; Salloum, Ramzi G

    2015-01-01

    Objectives In the past decade, waterpipe smoking (a.k.a. hookah, shisha, narghile) has become a global phenomenon. In this review, we provide an updated picture of the main epidemiological trends in waterpipe smoking globally. Data sources Peer-reviewed publications indexed in major biomedical databases between 2004 and 2014. Search keywords included a combination of: waterpipe, hookah, shisha along with epidemiology, patterns, prevalence and predictors. We also used different spellings of waterpipe terms commonly used. Study selection The focus was on studies with large representative samples, national data or high-quality reports that illuminated aspects of the epidemiology and trends in waterpipe smoking. Data extraction Multiple researchers extracted the data independently and collectively decided on the most important and pertinent studies to include in the review. Data synthesis Waterpipe smoking has become a global phenomenon among youth. The global waterpipe epidemic is likely driven by (1) the introduction of manufactured flavoured tobacco (Maassel); (2) the intersection between waterpipe's social dimension and thriving café culture; (3) the evolution of mass communication media; (4) the lack of regulatory/policy framework specific to the waterpipe. Waterpipe smoking is becoming the most popular tobacco use method among youth in the Middle East, and is quickly gaining popularity elsewhere. Important patterns of waterpipe smoking include the predominance among younger, male, high socioeconomic, and urban groups. Intermittent and social use are also noted patterns. Conclusions Waterpipe smoking has become a global public health problem. Developing surveillance, intervention and regulatory/policy frameworks specific to the waterpipe has become a public health priority. PMID:25298368

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A BIOMARKERS DATABASE FOR THE NATIONAL CHILDREN'S STUDY, PROCEEDINGS TO BE PUBLISEHD FROM THE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON BIOMARKERS FOR TOXICOLOGY AND MOLECULAR EPIDEMIOLOGY, ATLANTA, GA, MARCH 15-17, 2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Children's Study (NCS) is a federally-sponsored, longitudinal study of environmental influences on the health and development of children across the United States (www.nationalchildrensstudy.gov). Current plans are to study approximately 100,000 children and their f...

  20. Epidemiology of oral cancer in Arab countries

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jaber, Abeer; Al-Nasser, Lubna; El-Metwally, Ashraf

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To review the oral cancer (OC) studies that were conducted in Arab countries with regard to epidemiology, risk factors, and prognosis. Methods: A computer-based PubMed literature search was performed to retrieve studies conducted in the Arab world on epidemiology of OC. After screening for exclusion criteria, cross-referencing, and searching local journals, a total of 19 articles were included. Results: Eight prevalence studies found an OC prevalence ranging from 1.8 to 2.13 per 100,000 persons. Oral cancer patients were mostly in their fifth to sixth decade of life, and the incidence in younger age was reported in some Arab countries. Yemenis have an alarming high prevalence of OC among people younger than 45 years. Eleven studies explored determinants or prognosis of OC. Behavioral determinants such as smokeless tobacco (Shamma and Qat), and cigarette smoking were strongly associated with OC. Alcohol drinking and solar radiation exposures were cited as possible risk factors. The most affected sites were tongue, floor of the mouth, and lower lip variations in the affected site were attributed to the socio-cultural behavior of the populations under study. Squamous cell carcinoma was the most frequently detected cancer, and usually patients were in late stages (III and IV) at the time of diagnosis. Conclusion: No solid evidence exists regarding the true OC prevalence/incidence in most Arab countries due to the lack of national cancer registries and population-based studies. PMID:26905345

  1. Epidemiology of headache in Arab countries.

    PubMed

    Benamer, Hani T S; Deleu, Dirk; Grosset, Donald

    2010-02-01

    The epidemiology of headache in Arab countries was systematically reviewed through Medline identification of four papers reporting headache prevalence in the Arab nations of Qatar, Saudi Arabia (2 papers) and Oman. The prevalence of headache varied from 8 to 12% in Saudi Arabia to 72.5% in Qatar and 83.6% in Oman. Headache was commoner in females and younger people. The prevalence of tension headache was 3.1-9.5% in Saudi Arabia and the 1-year prevalence in Qatar was 11.2%. The migraine prevalence was 2.6-5% in Saudi Arabia and 7.9% in Qatar, while the 1-year migraine prevalence was 10.1% in Oman. The results show a migraine prevalence within that estimated worldwide. However, it is clear that epidemiological data from Arab countries are lacking, and there is disparity in the reported prevalence from Saudi Arabia when compared with its two neighbours, Qatar and Oman. Wider study adopting the same methodology in the six Gulf countries (Saudi Arabia, Qatar, Oman, Bahrain, United Arab Emirates and Kuwait) is needed to examine variations in headache and migraine prevalence.

  2. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  3. Clinical epidemiology of human AE in Europe.

    PubMed

    Vuitton, D A; Demonmerot, F; Knapp, J; Richou, C; Grenouillet, F; Chauchet, A; Vuitton, L; Bresson-Hadni, S; Millon, L

    2015-10-30

    This review gives a critical update of the situation regarding alveolar echinococcosis (AE) in Europe in humans, based on existing publications and on findings of national and European surveillance systems. All sources point to an increase in human cases of AE in the "historic endemic areas" of Europe, namely Germany, Switzerland, Austria and France and to the emergence of human cases in countries where the disease had never been recognised until the end of the 20th century, especially in central-eastern and Baltic countries. Both increase and emergence could be only due to methodological biases; this point is discussed in the review. One explanation may be given by changes in the animal reservoir of the parasite, Echinococcus multilocularis (increase in the global population of foxes in Europe and its urbanisation, as well as a possible increased involvement of pet animals as definitive infectious hosts). The review also focuses onto 2 more original approaches: (1) how changes in therapeutic attitudes toward malignant and chronic inflammatory diseases may affect the epidemiology of AE in the future in Europe, since a recent survey of such cases in France showed the emergence of AE in patients with immune suppression since the beginning of the 21st century; (2) how setting a network of referral centres in Europe based on common studies on the care management of patients might contribute to a better knowledge of AE epidemiology in the future. PMID:26346900

  4. Epidemiology of human African trypanosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Jose R; Simarro, Pere P; Diarra, Abdoulaye; Jannin, Jean G

    2014-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), or sleeping sickness, is caused by Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, which is a chronic form of the disease present in western and central Africa, and by Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, which is an acute disease located in eastern and southern Africa. The rhodesiense form is a zoonosis, with the occasional infection of humans, but in the gambiense form, the human being is regarded as the main reservoir that plays a key role in the transmission cycle of the disease. The gambiense form currently assumes that 98% of the cases are declared; the Democratic Republic of the Congo is the most affected country, with more than 75% of the gambiense cases declared. The epidemiology of the disease is mediated by the interaction of the parasite (trypanosome) with the vectors (tsetse flies), as well as with the human and animal hosts within a particular environment. Related to these interactions, the disease is confined in spatially limited areas called “foci”, which are located in Sub-Saharan Africa, mainly in remote rural areas. The risk of contracting HAT is, therefore, determined by the possibility of contact of a human being with an infected tsetse fly. Epidemics of HAT were described at the beginning of the 20th century; intensive activities have been set up to confront the disease, and it was under control in the 1960s, with fewer than 5,000 cases reported in the whole continent. The disease resurged at the end of the 1990s, but renewed efforts from endemic countries, cooperation agencies, and nongovernmental organizations led by the World Health Organization succeeded to raise awareness and resources, while reinforcing national programs, reversing the trend of the cases reported, and bringing the disease under control again. In this context, sustainable elimination of the gambiense HAT, defined as the interruption of the transmission of the disease, was considered as a feasible target for 2030. Since rhodesiense HAT is a zoonosis

  5. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Muin J.

    2015-01-01

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology. PMID:26628513

  6. Planning for the Future of Epidemiology in the Era of Big Data and Precision Medicine.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Muin J

    2015-12-15

    We live in the era of genomics and big data. Evaluating the impact on health of large-scale biological, social, and environmental data is an emerging challenge in the field of epidemiology. In the past 3 years, major discussions and plans for the future of epidemiology, including with several recommendations for actions to transform the field, have been launched by 2 institutes within the National Institutes of Health. In the present commentary, I briefly explore the themes of these recommendations and their effects on leadership, resources, cohort infrastructure, and training. Ongoing engagement within the epidemiology community is needed to determine how to shape the evolution of the field and what truly matters for changing population health. We also need to assess how to leverage existing epidemiology resources and develop new studies to improve human health. Readers are invited to examine these recommendations, consider others that might be important, and join in the conversation about the future of epidemiology.

  7. Sarcopenia: definition, epidemiology, and pathophysiology.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Nyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2013-05-01

    The epidemiological trends that characterize our generation are the aging of the population. Aging results in a progressive loss of muscle mass and strength called sarcopenia, which is Greek for 'poverty of flesh'. Sarcopenia could lead to functional impairment, physical disability, and even mortality. Today, sarcopenia is a matter of immense public concern for aging prevention. Its prevalence continues to rise, probably as a result of increasing elderly populations all over the world. This paper addressed the definition and epidemiology of sarcopenia and its underlying pathophysiology. In addition, we summarized the abundant information available in the literature related to sarcopenia, together with results from Korean sarcopenic obesity study (KSOS) that we performed.

  8. Epidemiology, Molecular Epidemiology and Evolution of Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento-Silva, Rosa Elena; Nakamura-Lopez, Yuko; Vaughan, Gilberto

    2012-01-01

    The bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is an enveloped, negative sense, single-stranded RNA virus belonging to the pneumovirus genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. BRSV has been recognized as a major cause of respiratory disease in young calves since the early 1970s. The analysis of BRSV infection was originally hampered by its characteristic lability and poor growth in vitro. However, the advent of numerous immunological and molecular methods has facilitated the study of BRSV enormously. The knowledge gained from these studies has also provided the opportunity to develop safe, stable, attenuated virus vaccine candidates. Nonetheless, many aspects of the epidemiology, molecular epidemiology and evolution of the virus are still not fully understood. The natural course of infection is rather complex and further complicates diagnosis, treatment and the implementation of preventive measures aimed to control the disease. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which BRSV is able to establish infection is needed to prevent viral and disease spread. This review discusses important information regarding the epidemiology and molecular epidemiology of BRSV worldwide, and it highlights the importance of viral evolution in virus transmission. PMID:23202546

  9. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  10. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  11. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  12. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  13. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  14. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  15. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  16. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  17. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2001-2002: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2001-2002: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton. Direction de l'education francaise.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Program of Studies: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  18. Epidemiology of Attention Problems Among Turkish Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Erol, Nese; Simsek, Zeynep; Öner, Özgür; Munir, Kerim

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the epidemiology of attention problems using parent, teacher, and youth informants among a nationally representative Turkish sample. Method The children and adolescents, 4 to 18 years old, were selected from a random household survey. Attention problems derived from the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) (N = 4,488), Teacher Report Form (TRF) (N = 2,360), and the Youth Self Report (YSR) (N = 2,206) were examined. Results The CBCL and TRF attention problems scores were higher among young male children, whereas the YSR reported scores were higher among older adolescents without a gender effect. The CBCL and YSR scores were also higher by urban residence. Conclusion Compared with other European samples, our national sample had higher mean attention problems scores than the Scandinavian but lower mean scores than the former Soviet Union samples. In addition to elucidating the profile of attention problems in Turkey, our results also contribute to understanding the comparative global epidemiology of attention problems. PMID:18192617

  19. Rabies Epidemiology and Control in Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Prado, Esteban; Ponce-Zea, Jorge; Ramirez, Dario; Stewart-Ibarra, Anna M.; Armijos, Luciana; Yockteng, Jaime; Cárdenas, Washington B.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Describe the epidemiology and the control effort for rabies in Ecuador. Methods: This observational study included data from the Ecuadorian National Institute of Census and Statistics (INEC), and mortality and morbidity data reported by the Ministry of Public Health and the National Institute for Social Security. We conducted a phylogeny analyses to compare the N gene from the Challenge Virus Standard (CVS) vaccine strain used in Ecuador with published Cosmopolitan, Asian and Sylvatic strains. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to determine the significance of the data. Results: In 1996 Ecuador suffered the highest rate of rabies per capita in the Americas, with an incidence rate of 0.56 cases per 100 000 people per year. Human and canine rabies showed a sharp decline until 2012. Between 1994 and 2014, we found a correlation of 0.925 (p<0.01) between annual cases of dog and human rabies. In 2011, there was an epidemic of sylvatic rabies transmitted to people by vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) in the Amazon region, specifically in Morona Santiago, leading to 11 fatalities. Phylogenetic analyses of the CVS vaccine N gene showed an association with urban canine rabies strains (the Cosmopolitan lineage and Asian strains), whereas sylvatic rabies, like those reported in the Amazon region, were found to be grouped in a different clade represented mainly by bat-derived strains. Conclusions: This study presents the first compilation of epidemiological data on rabies in Ecuador. The incidence of human and canine rabies, also known as urban rabies, has clearly decreased due to massive canine vaccination campaigns. Phylogenetic analysis of the prevailing vaccine used in the country showed a clear separation from bat-derived rabies, the source of recent rabies outbreaks. Efforts are ongoing to develop rabies vaccines that are highly specific to the rabies virus genotype circulating in the region, including sylvatic rabies. These efforts include the

  20. About the Epidemiology and Genomics Research Program

    Cancer.gov

    Epidemiology is the scientific study of the causes and distribution of disease in populations. NCI-funded epidemiology research is conducted through research at institutions in the United States and internationally.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA and Cancer Epidemiology Workshop

    Cancer.gov

    A workshop to review the state-of-the science in the mitochondrial DNA field and its use in cancer epidemiology, and to develop a concept for a research initiative on mitochondrial DNA and cancer epidemiology.

  2. The CONSTANCES cohort: an open epidemiological laboratory

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Prospective cohorts represent an essential design for epidemiological studies and allow for the study of the combined effects of lifestyle, environment, genetic predisposition, and other risk factors on a large variety of disease endpoints. The CONSTANCES cohort is intended to provide public health information and to serve as an "open epidemiologic laboratory" accessible to the epidemiologic research community. Although designed as a "general-purpose" cohort with very broad coverage, it will particularly focus on occupational and social determinants of health, and on aging. Methods/Design The CONSTANCES cohort is designed as a randomly selected representative sample of French adults aged 18-69 years at inception; 200,000 subjects will be included over a five-year period. At inclusion, the selected subjects will be invited to fill a questionnaire and to attend a Health Screening Center (HSC) for a comprehensive health examination: weight, height, blood pressure, electrocardiogram, vision, auditory, spirometry, and biological parameters; for those aged 45 years and older, a specific work-up of functional, physical, and cognitive capacities will be performed. A biobank will be set up. The follow-up includes a yearly self-administered questionnaire, and a periodic visit to an HSC. Social and work-related events and health data will be collected from the French national retirement, health and death databases. The data that will be collected include social and demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, life events, behaviors, and occupational factors. The health data will cover a wide spectrum: self-reported health scales, reported prevalent and incident diseases, long-term chronic diseases and hospitalizations, sick-leaves, handicaps, limitations, disabilities and injuries, healthcare utilization and services provided, and causes of death. To take into account non-participation at inclusion and attrition throughout the longitudinal follow-up, a cohort

  3. The epidemiology of revision total knee and hip arthroplasty in England and Wales: a comparative analysis with projections for the United States. A study using the National Joint Registry dataset.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Pavlou, G; Mújica-Mota, R E; Toms, A D

    2015-08-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) and total hip arthroplasty (THA) are recognised and proven interventions for patients with advanced arthritis. Studies to date have demonstrated a steady increase in the requirement for primary and revision procedures. Projected estimates made for the United States show that by 2030 the demand for primary TKA will grow by 673% and for revision TKA by 601% from the level in 2005. For THA the projected estimates are 174% and 137% for primary and revision surgery, respectively. The purpose of this study was to see if those predictions were similar for England and Wales using data from the National Joint Registry and the Office of National Statistics. Analysis of data for England and Wales suggest that by 2030, the volume of primary and revision TKAs will have increased by 117% and 332%, respectively between 2012 and 2030. The data for the United States translates to a 306% cumulative rate of increase between 2012 and 2030 for revision surgery, which is similar to our predictions for England and Wales. The predictions from the United States for primary TKA were similar to our upper limit projections. For THA, we predicted an increase of 134% and 31% for primary and revision hip surgery, respectively. Our model has limitations, however, it highlights the economic burden of arthroplasty in the future in England and Wales as a real and unaddressed problem. This will have significant implications for the provision of health care and the management of orthopaedic services in the future. PMID:26224824

  4. Molecular epidemiology of glanders, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Hornstra, Heidie; Pearson, Talima; Georgia, Shalamar; Liguori, Andrew; Dale, Julia; Price, Erin; O'Neill, Matthew; Deshazer, David; Muhammad, Ghulam; Saqib, Muhammad; Naureen, Abeera; Keim, Paul

    2009-12-01

    We collected epidemiologic and molecular data from Burkholderia mallei isolates from equines in Punjab, Pakistan from 1999 through 2007. We show that recent outbreaks are genetically distinct from available whole genome sequences and that these genotypes are persistent and ubiquitous in Punjab, probably due to human-mediated movement of equines.

  5. Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium (BTEC)

    Cancer.gov

    The Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium is an open scientific forum organized to foster the development of multi-center, international and inter-disciplinary collaborations that will lead to a better understanding of the etiology, outcomes, and prevention of brain tumors.

  6. Regression Discontinuity Designs in Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Moscoe, Ellen; Mutevedzi, Portia; Newell, Marie-Louise; Bärnighausen, Till

    2014-01-01

    When patients receive an intervention based on whether they score below or above some threshold value on a continuously measured random variable, the intervention will be randomly assigned for patients close to the threshold. The regression discontinuity design exploits this fact to estimate causal treatment effects. In spite of its recent proliferation in economics, the regression discontinuity design has not been widely adopted in epidemiology. We describe regression discontinuity, its implementation, and the assumptions required for causal inference. We show that regression discontinuity is generalizable to the survival and nonlinear models that are mainstays of epidemiologic analysis. We then present an application of regression discontinuity to the much-debated epidemiologic question of when to start HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Using data from a large South African cohort (2007–2011), we estimate the causal effect of early versus deferred treatment eligibility on mortality. Patients whose first CD4 count was just below the 200 cells/μL CD4 count threshold had a 35% lower hazard of death (hazard ratio = 0.65 [95% confidence interval = 0.45–0.94]) than patients presenting with CD4 counts just above the threshold. We close by discussing the strengths and limitations of regression discontinuity designs for epidemiology. PMID:25061922

  7. Epidemiology for the clinical neurologist.

    PubMed

    Jacob, M E; Ganguli, M

    2016-01-01

    Epidemiology is a foundation of all clinical and public health research and practice. Epidemiology serves seven important uses for the advancement of medicine and public health. It enables community diagnosis by quantifying risk factors and diseases in the community; completes the clinical picture of disease by revealing the entire distribution of disease and presenting meaningful population averages from representative samples; identifies risk factors for disease by detecting and quantifying associations between exposures and disease and evaluating causal hypotheses; computes individual risk to identify high-risk groups to whom preventive interventions can be targeted; evaluates historic trends that monitor disease over time and provide clues to etiology; delineates new syndromes and disease subtypes not previously apparent in clinical settings, helping to streamline effective disease management; and investigates the effects of health services on population health to identify effective public health interventions. The clinician with a grasp of epidemiologic principles is in a position to critically evaluate the research literature, to apply it to clinical practice, and to undertake valid clinical epidemiology research with patients in clinical settings. PMID:27637949

  8. Quantifying Uncertainty in Epidemiological Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ramanathan, Arvind; Jha, Sumit Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Modern epidemiology has made use of a number of mathematical models, including ordinary differential equation (ODE) based models and agent based models (ABMs) to describe the dynamics of how a disease may spread within a population and enable the rational design of strategies for intervention that effectively contain the spread of the disease. Although such predictions are of fundamental importance in preventing the next global pandemic, there is a significant gap in trusting the outcomes/predictions solely based on such models. Hence, there is a need to develop approaches such that mathematical models can be calibrated against historical data. In addition, there is a need to develop rigorous uncertainty quantification approaches that can provide insights into when a model will fail and characterize the confidence in the (possibly multiple) model outcomes/predictions, when such retrospective analysis cannot be performed. In this paper, we outline an approach to develop uncertainty quantification approaches for epidemiological models using formal methods and model checking. By specifying the outcomes expected from a model in a suitable spatio-temporal logic, we use probabilistic model checking methods to quantify the probability with which the epidemiological model satisfies the specification. We argue that statistical model checking methods can solve the uncertainty quantification problem for complex epidemiological models.

  9. Mistrust of numbers: the difficult development of psychiatric epidemiology in France, 1940-80.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    This article uses archival as well as published materials to trace the development of psychiatric epidemiology in France from 1945 to 1980. Although a research programme in this field was launched in the early 1960s at the National Institute of Medical Research (INH, later renamed INSERM), psychiatric epidemiology remained an embryonic field in France during the next two decades. French researchers in this field were hampered by limited resources, but their work was primarily characterized by a deep engagement with the epistemological challenges of psychiatric epidemiology. The history of French psychiatric epidemiology in the 1960s and 1970s can be seen as an attempt to create a specifically French way of doing psychiatric epidemiology research. In the first part of this article, the author relates this unique history to internal professional dynamics during the development of psychiatric research and, more broadly, to the biomedical institutional context in which epidemiological work was being done. The next part of this article examines the conditions under which the INH research team framed epidemiological research in psychiatry in the 1960s. The last part focuses on INH's flagship psychiatric epidemiology programme, developed in cooperation with pioneers of French community psychiatry in Paris's 13th arrondissement in the 1960s.

  10. Molecular Epidemiology of Brucella abortus in Northern Ireland—1991 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Andrew; Mallon, Thomas; Skuce, Robin; Groussaud, Pauline; Dainty, Amanda; Graham, Judith; Jones, Kerri; Pollock, Lorraine; Whatmore, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Background Brucellosis is the most common bacterial zoonoses worldwide. Bovine brucellosis caused by Brucella abortus has far reaching animal health and economic impacts at both the local and national levels. Alongside traditional veterinary epidemiology, the use of molecular typing has recently been applied to inform on bacterial population structure and identify epidemiologically-linked cases of infection. Multi-locus variable number tandem repeat VNTR analysis (MLVA) was used to investigate the molecular epidemiology of a well-characterised Brucella abortus epidemic in Northern Ireland involving 387 herds between 1991 and 2012. Results MLVA identified 98 unique B. abortus genotypes from disclosing isolates in the 387 herds involved in the epidemic. Clustering algorithms revealed the relatedness of many of these genotypes. Combined with epidemiological information on chronology of infection and geographic location, these genotype data helped to identify 7 clonal complexes which underpinned the outbreak over the defined period. Hyper-variability of some VNTR loci both within herds and individual animals led to detection of multiple genotypes associated with single outbreaks. However with dense sampling, these genotypes could still be associated with specific clonal complexes thereby permitting inference of epidemiological links. MLVA- based epidemiological monitoring data were congruent with an independent classical veterinary epidemiology study carried out in the same territory. Conclusions MLVA is a useful tool in ongoing disease surveillance of B. abortus outbreaks, especially when combined with accurate epidemiological information on disease tracings, geographical clustering of cases and chronology of infection. PMID:26325586

  11. Epidemiologic Analysis of Diverticulitis.

    PubMed

    Jena, Marie D; Marcello, Peter W; Roberts, Patricia L; Read, Thomas E; Schoetz, David J; Hall, Jason F; Francone, Todd; Ricciardi, Rocco

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this article is to evaluate geographic variation in the incidence of diverticulitis and examine behavioral and environmental factors associated with high rates of diverticulitis across the United States. We used state hospital discharge data from 20 states to determine rates of inpatient diverticulitis from January 2002 to December 2004 at patient's county of residence. Next, we merged the county level data with behavioral and environmental survey data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Finally, we determined the association between behavioral and environmental factors (i.e., teeth removal, dental cleaning, air quality, smoking, alcohol, vaccine, vitamins, and mental health) and high rates of diverticulitis. From January 1, 2002, to December 31, 2004, a total of 345,216 hospitalizations for acute diverticulitis were recorded for 1,055 counties. We identified rates of diverticulitis that ranged from 35.4 to 332.7 per 100,000 population. On univariate analysis, high diverticulitis burden was associated with regions of the country with substantial tooth loss from dental disease (45.8% for high diverticulitis counties vs. 37.5% for low diverticulitis counties; p = 0.0001). There is considerable variability in diverticulitis cases by county of residence across the nation. Potential triggers of diverticulitis may be associated with tooth removal and sun exposure. PMID:27582652

  12. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  13. Concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and inorganic constituents in ambient surface soils, Chicago, Illinois: 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kay, R.T.; Arnold, T.L.; Cannon, W.F.; Graham, D.

    2008-01-01

    Samples of ambient surface soils were collected from 56 locations in Chicago, Illinois, using stratified random sampling techniques and analyzed for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds and inorganic constituents. PAHs appear to be derived primarily from combustion of fossil fuels and may be affected by proximity to industrial operations, but do not appear to be substantially affected by the organic carbon content of the soil, proximity to nonindustrial land uses, or proximity to a roadway. Atmospheric settling of particulate matter appears to be an important mechanism for the placement of PAH compounds into soils. Concentrations of most inorganic constituents are affected primarily by soil-forming processes. Concentrations of lead, arsenic, mercury, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, molybdenum, zinc, and selenium are elevated in ambient surface soils in Chicago in comparison to the surrounding area, indicating anthropogenic sources for these elements in Chicago soils. Concentrations of calcium and magnesium in Chicago soils appear to reflect the influence of the carbonate bedrock parent material on the chemical composition of the soil, although the effects of concrete and road fill cannot be discounted. Concentrations of inorganic constituents appear to be largely unaffected by the type of nearby land use. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  14. Smolt Monitoring Program Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS); Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Jonasson, Brian; Carmichael, Richard

    2003-05-01

    We PIT-tagged juvenile spring chinook salmon reared at Lookingglass Hatchery in October 2001 as part of the Comparative Survival Rate Study (CSS) for migratory year (MY) 2002. We tagged 20,998 Imnaha stock spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,920 fish to leave the acclimation pond at our Imnaha River satellite facility beginning 21 March 2002 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the pond were forced out on 17 April 2002. We tagged 20,973 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny spring chinook salmon, and after mortality and tag loss, we allowed the remaining 20,796 fish to leave the acclimation ponds at our Catherine Creek satellite facility beginning 1 April 2001 to begin their seaward migration. The fish remaining in the ponds were forced out on 15 April 2001. We estimated survival rates, from release to Lower Granite Dam in MY 2002, for three stocks of hatchery spring chinook salmon tagged at Lookingglass Hatchery to determine their relative migration performance. Imnaha River stock and Lostine River stock survival rates were similar and were higher than the survival rate of Catherine Creek stock. We PIT-tagged 20,950 BY 2001 Imnaha River stock and 20,820 BY 2001 Catherine Creek stock captive brood progeny in October 2002 as part of the CSS for MY 2003. At the time the fish were transferred from Lookingglass Hatchery to the acclimation site, the rates of mortality and tag loss for Imnaha River stock were 0.14% and 0.06%, respectively. Catherine Creek stock, during the same period, had rates of mortality and tag loss of 0.57% and 0.31%, respectively. There was slightly elevated mortality, primarily from BKD, in one raceway of Catherine Creek stock at Lookingglass Hatchery for BY 2001.

  15. Aquifer characteristics, water availability, and water quality of the Quaternary aquifer, Osage County, northeastern Oklahoma, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mashburn, Shana L.; Cope, Caleb C.; Abbott, Marvin M.

    2003-01-01

    Additional sources of water are needed on the Osage Reservation for future growth and development. The Quaternary aquifer along the Arkansas River in the Osage Reservation may represent a substantial water resource, but limited amounts of hydrogeologic data were available for the aquifer. The study area is about 116 square miles of the Quaternary aquifer in the Arkansas River valley and the nearby upland areas along the Osage Reservation. The study area included the Arkansas River reach downstream from Kaw Lake near Ponca City, Oklahoma to upstream from Keystone Lake near Cleveland, Oklahoma. Electrical conductivity logs were produced for 103 test holes. Water levels were determined for 49 test holes, and 105 water samples were collected for water-quality field analyses at 46 test holes. Water-quality data included field measurements of specific conductance, pH, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, and nitrate (nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen). Sediment cores were extracted from 20 of the 103 test holes. The Quaternary aquifer consists of alluvial and terrace deposits of sand, silt, clay, and gravel. The measured thickness of the alluvium ranged from 13.7 to 49.8 feet. The measured thickness of the terrace sediments ranged from 7 to 93.8 feet. The saturated thickness of all sediments ranged from 0 to 38.2 feet with a median of 24.8 feet. The weighted-mean grain size for cores from the alluvium ranged from 3.69 to 0.64 f, (0.08- 0.64 millimeter), and ranged from 4.02 to 2.01 f (0.06-0.25 millimeter) for the cores from terrace deposits. The mean of the weighted-mean grain sizes for cores from the alluvium was 1.67 f (0.31 millimeter), and the terrace deposits was 2.73 f (0.15 millimeter). The hydraulic conductivity calculated from grain size of the alluvium ranged from 2.9 to 6,000 feet per day and of the terrace deposits ranged from 2.9 to 430 feet per day. The calculated transmissivity of the alluvium ranged from 2,000 to 26,000 feet squared per day with a median of 5,100 feet squared per day. Water in storage in the alluvium was estimated to be approximately 200,000 acre-feet. The amount of water annually recharging the aquifer was estimated to be approximately 4,800 acre-feet. Specific conductance for all water samples ranged from 161 to 6,650 microsiemens per centimeter. Median specific conductance for the alluvium was 683 microsiemens per centimeter and for the terrace deposits was 263 microsiemens per centimeter. Dissolved-solids concentrations, estimated from specific conductance, for water samples from the aquifer ranged from 88 to 3,658 milligrams per liter. Estimated median dissolved- solids concentration for the alluvium was 376 milligrams per liter and for the terrace deposits was 145 milligrams per liter. More than half of the samples from the Quaternary aquifer were estimated to contain less than 500 milligrams per liter dissolved solids. Field-screened nitrate concentrations for the sampling in December 2001-August 2002 ranged from 0 to 15 milligrams per liter. The field-screened nitrate concentrations for the second sampling in September 2002 were less than corresponding laboratory reported values.

  16. Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Genetic Studies; Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project Monitoring and Evaluation, 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Busack, Craig A.; Fritts, Anthony L.; Loxterman, Janet

    2003-05-01

    In chapter 1 we report on studies of the population genetic structure, using DNA microsatellites, of steelhead collected from different locations in the Yakima River basin (Roza Dam, Ahtanum Creek, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek) in 2000 and 2001. Of 28 pairwise tests of genotypic differentiation, only the 2000 and 2001 Roza Dam collections and the 2000 and 2001 Satus Creek collections did not exhibit significant differences. Similarly, pairwise tests of genetic differentiation (FST) were significant for all comparisons except the between-years comparisons of Roza Dam, Toppenish Creek, and Satus Creek collections. All tests between populations sampled from different localities were significant, indicating that these collections represent genetically differentiated stocks. In chapter 2 we report on genetic comparisons, again using microsatellites, of the three spring chinook populations in the Yakima basin (Upper Yakima, Naches, and American) with respect to our ability to be able to estimate the proportions of the three populations in mixed smolt samples collected at Chandler. We evaluated this both in terms of mixed fishery analysis, where proportions are estimated, but the likely provenance of any particular fish is unknown, and classification, where an attempt is made to assign individual fish to their population of origin. Simulations were done over the entire ranged of stock proportions observed in the Yakima basin in the last 20+ years. Stock proportions can be estimated very accurately by either method. Chapter 3 reports on our ongoing effort at cryopreserving semen from wild Upper Yakima spring chinook. In 2002, semen from 91 males, more than 50% of those spawned, was cryopreserved. Representation over the spawning season was excellent. Chapters 4,5, and 6 all relate to the continuing development of the domestication study design. Chapter 4 details the ISRP consultations and evolution of the design from last year's preferred alternative to the current plan of using the Naches population as a wild control, and maintaining a hatchery-only control line alongside the supplemented line. During discussions this year a major issue was the possible impact to the research and to the supplementation effort, of gene flow from precocious males from the hatchery control line into the supplemented line. At the end of the contracting period, this issue still had not been resolved. Along with the discussion of development of the domestication research design, chapter 4 presents the current monitoring plan document, with discussion of the approach to the various traits to be analyzed. Chapters 5 and 6 deal with experimental power of the domestication monitoring design. There is still much work to be done on power, but in chapter 5 we explore our power to detect differences among the three lines for traits measured on individual adults. Power was found to be quite good for effects of 5% per generation over three generations for traits having a coefficient of variation (CV) of 10-20%, but low if the CV was 50%. Power is higher for comparisons between the hatchery control line and supplemented line than between the supplemented line and the wild control, a consequence of trying to avoid heavy impacts to the Naches population. Power could be improved considerably improved by sampling more Naches fish in years of high abundance. Chapter 6 presents the same power analysis, but attempts to explore the effect of precocious males from the hatchery control line spawning in the wild. It is clear that if gene flow from precocious males is more than one or two percent that the between line comparisons will be biased, making the supplemented line appear to be more similar to the hatchery control line than it should and more different from the wild control line than it should. However, it was also clear that more analysis is desirable, as the heightened or diminished power is really just an enhancement or reduction of a real difference. A more straightforward analysis of the proportion of observed differences that can be attributed to precocious gene flow needs to be done.

  17. Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife Fish Program Hatcheries Division: Ford Hatchery, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Mike; Polacek, Matt; Knuttgen, Kamia

    2002-11-01

    The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife implemented the Banks Lake Fishery Evaluation Project (BLFEP) in September 2001 with funds from the Bonneville Power Administration. The first year of the BLFEP was used to gather historic information, establish methods and protocols, collect limnology data, and conduct the first seasonal fish surveys. Water quality parameters were collected monthly from February to May and bi-monthly from June to August. Banks Lake water temperatures began to increase in April and stratification was apparent by June at all 3 limnology collection sites. By late August, the thermocline had dropped to nearly 20 m deep, with 19-20 C temperatures throughout the epilimnion. Dissolved oxygen levels were generally above 10 mg/L until mid summer when dissolved oxygen dropped near or below 5 mg/L below 20-m deep. Secchi depths ranged from 3-10 m and varied by location and date. Nearshore and offshore fish surveys were conducted in May and July using boat electrofishing, fyke net, gill net, and hydroacoustic surveys. Smallmouth bass Micropterous dolomieui (24%) and lake whitefish Coregonus clupeaformis (20%) dominated the nearshore species composition in May; however, by July yellow perch Perca flavescens (26%) were the second most common species to smallmouth bass (30%). Lake whitefish dominated the offshore catch during May (72%) and July (90%). The May hydroacoustic survey revealed highest densities of fish in the upper 1/3 of the water column in the mid- to northern sections of the reservoir near Steamboat Rock. In the future, data from seasonal surveys will be used to identify potential factors that may limit the production and harvest of kokanee, rainbow trout, and various spiny-rayed fishes in Banks Lake. The limiting factors that will be examined consist of: abiotic factors including water temperature, dissolved oxygen levels, habitat, exploitation and entrainment; and biotic factors including food limitation and predation. The BLFEP will also evaluate the success of several rearing and stocking strategies for hatchery kokanee in Banks Lake.

  18. Determing Lamprey Species Composition, Larval Distribution, and Adult Abundance in the Deschutes River, Oregon, Subbasin; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Jennifer C.; Brun, Christopher V.

    2003-05-01

    Information about lamprey species composition, distribution, life history, abundance, habitat requirements and exploitation in lower Deschutes River tributaries is extremely limited. To assess the status of lampreys in the Deschutes River subbasin, baseline information is needed. We operated to rotary screw traps in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek to gain an understanding of species composition, migration time and production. We identified Pacific lampreys in two life stages, ammocoete and macropthalmia. It appears that Pacific lamprey macropthalmia out-migrate during winter in the Warm Springs River. We saw peak movements by ammocoetes in the spring in Shitike Creek and winter in the Warm Springs River. We found no relationship between stream discharge and the number of lamprey collected. Very few macropthalmia were collected in Shitike Creek. Ammocoete size in the Warm Springs River and Shitike Creek were different. The ammocoetes in the Shitike Creek trap were close in size to the macropthalmia collected in the Warm Springs River trap. We also completed planning and preparation for larval and associated habitat data collection. This preparation included purchasing necessary field equipment, selecting and marking sampling areas and attending training with US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and the Confederated Tribes of Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). Because lamprey identification is difficult we met with US Geological Survey (USGS) to assist us with larval lamprey identification techniques. We have also been working in coordination with the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) to prepare and implement creel surveys and a mark-recapture study at Sherar's Falls to estimate adult lamprey escapement.

  19. Discourse analysis of newspaper coverage of the 2001/2002 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses' strike.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tony L; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2005-09-01

    In late 2001 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses undertook a variety of strike actions after stalled industrial negotiations with the local district health board. One response to these actions was the temporary reduction of many of the regions metal health services. Unsurprisingly, the print media responded by publicizing the crisis in mental health services on an almost daily basis. This paper reports on subsequent research into these print media representations of the industrial disputes, identifying themes of juxtaposed but largely deprecatory images of both mental health nursing and of consumers of services. Some professional nursing voices were given print space during the strike; however, these were largely incorporated into existing discourses rather than offering a nursing viewpoint on the strike. We, therefore, conclude by suggesting organizational efforts to focus on ways of ensuring that mental health nurses are seen as a legitimate authority by the media. PMID:16181156

  20. White Sturgeon Mitigation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2001-2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, David L.; Kern, J. Chris; Hughes, Michele L.

    2003-12-01

    We report on our progress from April 2001 through March 2002 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam.

  1. Influences of Stocking Salmon Carcass Analogs on Salmonids in Yakima River Tributaries, 2001-2002 Technical Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Pearsons, Todd N.; Johnson, Christopher L.

    2003-04-01

    The benefits that marine derived nutrients from adult salmon carcasses provide to juvenile salmonids are increasingly being recognized. Current estimates suggest that only 6-7% of marine-derived nitrogen and phosphorus that were historically available to salmonids in the Pacific Northwest are currently available. Food limitation may be a major constraint limiting the restoration of salmonids. A variety of methods have been proposed to offset this nutrient deficit including: allowing greater salmon spawning escapement, stocking hatchery salmon carcasses, and stocking inorganic nutrients. Unfortunately, each of these methods has some ecological or socio-economic shortcoming. We intend to overcome many of these shortcomings by making and evaluating a pathogen free product that simulates a salmon carcass (analog). Abundant sources of marine derived nutrients are available such as fish offal from commercial fishing and salmon carcasses from hatcheries. However, a method for recycling these nutrients into a pathogen free analog that degrades at a similar rate as a natural salmon carcass has never been developed. We endeavored to (1) develop a salmon carcass analog that will increase the food available to salmonids, (2) determine the pathways that salmonids use to acquire food from analogs, and (3) determine the benefits to salmonids and the potential for application to salmonid restoration. We used a before-after-control-impact-paired design in six tributaries of the upper Yakima basin to determine the utility of stocking carcass analogs. Our preliminary results suggest that the introduction of carcass analogs into food-limited streams can be used to restore food pathways previously provided by anadromous salmon. The analogs probably reproduced both of the major food pathways that salmon carcasses produce: direct consumption and food chain enhancement. Trout and salmon fed directly on the carcass analogs during the late summer and presumably benefited from the increased invertebrate biomass later in the year. Future reports will analyze whether any benefits are statistically detectable. The risks of using carcass analogs also appear to be low. Pathogens appear to be killed in the manufacturing process of the analogs. In addition, preliminary results suggest that fish exposed to the analogs did not have higher incidences of pathogens. The water quality was also not degraded by the analog additions with the exception of a temporary surface film. Finally, our anecdotal observations, suggested that there was not an increase in the number of predators during the first year of analog distribution. In summary, the risks of analog placement appear to be low but the benefits appear to be high. All results should be considered preliminary until further analyses and field work are conducted.

  2. Fisheries Enhancement on the Coeur d'Alene Indian Reservation; Hangman Creek, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Ronald; Kinkead, Bruce; Stanger, Mark

    2003-07-01

    Historically, Hangman Creek produced Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and Steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) for the Upper Columbia Basin Tribes. One weir, located at the mouth of Hangman Creek was reported to catch 1,000 salmon a day for a period of 30 days a year (Scholz et al. 1985). The current town of Tekoa, Washington, near the state border with Idaho, was the location of one of the principle anadromous fisheries for the Coeur d'Alene Tribe (Scholz et al. 1985). The construction, in 1909, of Little Falls Dam, which was not equipped with a fish passage system, blocked anadromous fish access to the Hangman Watershed. The fisheries were further removed with the construction of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams. As a result, the Coeur d'Alene Indian Tribe was forced to rely more heavily on native fish stocks such as Redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri), Westslope Cutthroat trout (O. clarki lewisii), Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and other terrestrial wildlife. Historically, Redband and Cutthroat trout comprised a great deal of the Coeur d'Alene Tribe's diet (Power 1997).

  3. Measurement of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, in air-filter samples from Seville (2001-2002)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamizo, E.; García-León, M.; Enamorado, S. M.; Jiménez-Ramos, M. C.; Wacker, L.

    2010-05-01

    Since the last nuclear atmospheric test carried out by the People Republic of China in 1980 and since the Chernobyl accident in 1986, the plutonium hasn't been directly released into the atmosphere. However, nowadays, it is still present in the troposphere. This is due to plutonium-bearing soil particles physical resuspension processes. In this work, we study for the first time the temporal variation of plutonium isotopes, 239Pu and 240Pu, baseline concentrations on a monthly basis in surface air from Seville (Spain), and their correlation with some tracers of mineral dust, during 2001 and 2002. The Pu analyses were performed by low-energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The 239Pu plus 240Pu ( 239+240Pu) activity levels achieved maximums during the summer period, characterized by the absence of rains, and minimums during the rainy seasons, laying in the range 1-20 nBq m -3. The 240Pu/ 239Pu two-year average atomic ratio was 0.18 ± 0.03, in agreement with the fallout plutonium. A good correlation with Pu and Al and Ti levels is observed. They are crustal components usually used as tracers of African dust over European countries. The hypothesis of the influence of the Saharan dust intrusions is supported as well through the study of Total Ozone Mass Spectrometer (TOMS) daily images.

  4. Turbulence Investigation and Reproduction for Assisting Downstream Migrating Juvenile Salmonids, Part I of II, 2001-2002 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hotchkiss, Rollin H.

    2002-12-01

    Turbulence in gravel bed rivers plays a critical role in most stream processes including contaminant and nutrient transport, aquatic habitat selection, and natural channel design. While most hydraulic designs and fluid models are based on bulk velocity, migrating juvenile salmon experience and react to the temporally varied turbulent fluctuations. Without properly understanding and accounting for the continuous turbulent motions proper fishway design and guidance are impossible. Matching temporally varied flow to fish reactions is the key to guiding juvenile salmonids to safe passageways. While the ideal solution to fish guidance design would be to use specific fluid action-fish reaction mechanisms, such concrete cause and effect relations have not been established. One way to approach the problem of guidance is to hypothesize that in an environment lacking obvious bulk flow cues (like the reservoir environment), turbulent flow conditions similar to those experienced by juvenile salmonids in natural migration corridors will be attractive to juvenile salmonids. Proof of this hypothesis requires three steps: (1) gathering data on turbulence characteristics in natural migration corridors, (2) reproduction of the turbulence parameters in a controlled environment, and (3) testing the reproduced turbulence on actively migrating juvenile salmonids for increased passage efficiencies. The results from the third step have not been finalized, therefore this report will focus on understanding turbulent processes in gravel bed rivers and reproduction of turbulence in controlled environments for use in fish passage technologies. The purposes of this report are to (1) present data collected in natural gravel bed rivers, (2) present a simple method for reproduction of appropriate turbulence levels in a controlled environment, (3) compare these results to those from one prototype surface collector (PSC), and (4) discuss the implications on fish passage design.

  5. Hands-On English: A Periodical for Teachers and Tutors of Adult English as a Second Language, 2001-2002.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silliman, Anna, Ed.

    2002-01-01

    These six issues of the periodical offer teachers and tutors practical ideas for teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) to adults. The publications include such teaching activities as multilevel crossword puzzles, multilevel dictation, a grammar grab-bag, role play games, an ESL board game, and a newspaper search activity. They also offer…

  6. Dissolved Pesticide and Organic Carbon Concentrations Detected in Surface Waters, Northern Central Valley, California, 2001-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlando, James L.; Jacobson, Lisa A.; Kuivila, Kathryn M.

    2004-01-01

    Field and laboratory studies were conducted to determine the effects of pesticide mixtures on Chinook salmon under various environmental conditions in surface waters of the northern Central Valley of California. This project was a collaborative effort between the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the University of California. The project focused on understanding the environmental factors that influence the toxicity of pesticides to juvenile salmon and their prey. During the periods January through March 2001 and January through May 2002, water samples were collected at eight surface water sites in the northern Central Valley of California and analyzed by the USGS for dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations. Water samples were also collected by the USGS at the same sites for aquatic toxicity testing by the Aquatic Toxicity Laboratory at the University of California Davis; however, presentation of the results of these toxicity tests is beyond the scope of this report. Samples were collected to characterize dissolved pesticide and dissolved organic carbon concentrations, and aquatic toxicity, associated with winter storm runoff concurrent with winter run Chinook salmon out-migration. Sites were selected that represented the primary habitat of juvenile Chinook salmon and included major tributaries within the Sacramento and San Joaquin River Basins and the Sacramento?San Joaquin Delta. Water samples were collected daily for a period of seven days during two winter storm events in each year. Additional samples were collected weekly during January through April or May in both years. Concentrations of 31 currently used pesticides were measured in filtered water samples using solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry at the U.S. Geological Survey's organic chemistry laboratory in Sacramento, California. Dissolved organic carbon concentrations were analyzed in filtered water samples using a Shimadzu TOC-5000A total organic carbon analyzer.

  7. Discourse analysis of newspaper coverage of the 2001/2002 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses' strike.

    PubMed

    Farrow, Tony L; O'Brien, Anthony J

    2005-09-01

    In late 2001 Canterbury, New Zealand mental health nurses undertook a variety of strike actions after stalled industrial negotiations with the local district health board. One response to these actions was the temporary reduction of many of the regions metal health services. Unsurprisingly, the print media responded by publicizing the crisis in mental health services on an almost daily basis. This paper reports on subsequent research into these print media representations of the industrial disputes, identifying themes of juxtaposed but largely deprecatory images of both mental health nursing and of consumers of services. Some professional nursing voices were given print space during the strike; however, these were largely incorporated into existing discourses rather than offering a nursing viewpoint on the strike. We, therefore, conclude by suggesting organizational efforts to focus on ways of ensuring that mental health nurses are seen as a legitimate authority by the media.

  8. Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River Basin, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    White, Tara C.; Hanson, Josh T.; Jewett, Shannon M.

    2004-01-01

    The year of 2002 represented the eighth year of a multi-year project, monitoring the outmigration and survival of juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River. This project both supplements and complements various ongoing and completed work within the Umatilla River basin. Knowledge gained on juvenile outmigration and survival assists researchers and managers in adapting hatchery practices, flow enhancement strategies, canal and fish ladder operations, and supplementation and enhancement efforts of natural and restored fish populations. Findings from this study also assist in assessment of the success of upriver habitat improvement projects and provide an overall evaluation of the Umatilla River fisheries restoration program. General project objectives include: Evaluation of the outmigration and survival of natural and hatchery juvenile salmonids in the lower Umatilla River, in an effort to enhance the understanding of migration characteristics, survival bottlenecks, species interactions and effects of management strategies. Specific objectives for 2002 included: (1) Operation of the remote interrogation system at Three Mile Falls Dam, West Extension Canal; (2) Design of improved PIT tag detection capabilities at Three Mile Falls Dam east bank adult fish ladder; (3) Estimates of migrant abundance, migration timing and in-basin survival of tagged juvenile salmonids representing various hatchery, rearing, acclimation and release strategies; (4) Monitoring of abundance and trends in natural production of salmon, steelhead and pacific lamprey; (5) Continuation of transport evaluation studies to evaluate the relative survival between transported and nontransported fish; (6) Assessment of the condition, health, size, growth and smolt status of hatchery and natural migrants; (7) Investigation of the effects of canal and fishway operations and environmental conditions on fish migration and survival; (8) Documentation of temporal distribution and diversity of resident fish species; and (9) Participation in planning and coordination activities within the basin and dissemination of results. Key findings for 2002 revealed: (1) Migrant abundance of natural fish was roughly 10% that of hatchery produced fish; (2) An undetermined number of hatchery summer steelhead are residualizing in the upper Umatilla basin and potentially overwintering and migrating out as 2 year old smolts; (3) Transported fish may have a survival advantage over non-transported fish; (4) The later release of hatchery summer steelhead resulted in emigration timing that differed from that of naturally-produced fish; (5) Large-grade summer steelhead released lower in the river displayed improved survival over fish released higher; (6) Extended reared steelhead did not exhibit a survival advantage over standard reared fish; (7) Second year evaluation following reduction in the subyearling fall chinook program revealed survival to be similar to pre-reduction estimates; (8) Migration success was not improved nor in-river residence time reduced by acclimation of coho salmon at RM 56; (9) Early released spring chinook salmon migration and survival was unable to be evaluated due downstream monitoring facilities being in-operable during the early migration.

  9. Hood River Fish Habitat Project; Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon, Annual Report 2001-2002.

    SciTech Connect

    Vaivoda, Alexis

    2003-11-01

    This report summarizes the project implementation and monitoring of all habitat activities that occurred over Fiscal Year 2002 (FY 02). Some of the objectives in the corresponding statement of work for this contract were not completed within FY 02. A description of the progress during FY 02 and reasoning for deviation from the original tasks and timeline are given. OBJECTIVE 1--Provide coordination of all activities, administrative oversight and assist in project implementation and monitoring activities. Administration oversight and coordination of the habitat statement of work, budget, subcontracts and personnel was provided. OBJECTIVE 2--Develop, coordinate, and implement the Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan. The Hood River Fish Habitat Protection, Restoration, and Monitoring Plan was completed in 2000 (Coccoli et al., 2000). This document is utilized for many purposes including: drafting the Watershed Action Plan, ranking projects for funding, and prioritizing projects to target in the future. This document was updated and revised to reflect changes to fish habitat and needs in the Hood River basin based upon other documents and actions taken in the basin. OBJECTIVE 3--Assist Middle Fork Irrigation District in developing an alternative irrigation water source on Evans Creek (Hutson pond and Evans Creek diversion), eliminating the need for irrigation diversion dams which happen to be partial fish barriers. Upon completion, this project will restore 2.5 miles of access for winter steelhead, coho salmon, and resident trout habitat. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. During FY 02 the final engineering was completed on this project. However, due to a lengthy permitting process and NMFS consultation, this project was inadvertently delayed. Project completion is expected in July 2003. OBJECTIVE 4--Assist the Farmers Irrigation District (FID) in construction and installation of a new fish screen and bypass system on the mainstem Hood River (Farmers Canal). Final engineering and design for the horizontal screen was completed during the winter of 2001. In December 2001 and January 2002, the concrete work was completed and the head gates were mounted. During the spring the secondary head level control gates were installed. In September 2002, the jersey barriers and vortex tubes were installed. These are located upstream of the old drum screen, and are the primary means of dealing with bedload and suspended load from the diversion. The screen surface was also installed in September 2002 and the system accommodated water soon after. Monitoring of these structures in regards to efficiency and possible effects to fish migration is scheduled to occur in spring 2003. The transition from the old canal to the new screen is smooth and currently does not present any problems. The old drum screen is going to remain in place until all the biological and hydrological monitoring is complete to ensure compliance and satisfaction of all agencies involved. OBJECTIVE 5--Assist the East Fork Irrigation District (EFID) in final engineering design and construction of the Central Lateral Canal upgrade and invert siphon. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. During FY 02, a significant portion of the engineering and design work was completed on the EFID Central Lateral Canal upgrade and invert siphon. There were some changes in canal alignment that required further design work and easement acquisition. Time was also spent looking for matching funds and securing a loan by the EFID. Construction initiation is now scheduled for summer 2003. OBJECTIVE 6--Modify and/or eliminate five culverts, three on Baldwin Creek, one on Graham Creek, and one on Evans Creek, which function as barriers to upstream and downstream fish migration. This objective was revised and included in the FY 03 Statement of Work for Project No. 1998-021-00. There are only two culverts on Baldwin Creek that will be eliminated or modified. Work was initiated on the removal of one of these culverts, and the replacement of the other. The landowner was agreeable and NEPA was initiated. The modification/elimination of these culverts is scheduled for FY 04. The culvert on Graham Creek is a county road, and will be addressed as a fish passage barrier by Hood River County. The Evans Creek culvert was prepared for modification in FY 02, however due to a lengthy permitting process the instream work period was missed. This project is on the schedule for the instream work period of 2003. OBJECTIVE 7--Construct riparian fence to stabilize and improve the riparian zone along the East Fork Hood River and tributaries. Two riparian fencing projects were completed on East Fork Hood River tributaries. The first was on Baldwin Creek, and the second was on Shelly Creek.

  10. 76 FR 19102 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request; Short Follow-Up Questionnaire for the National...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-06

    ... information collection was previously published in the Federal Register on February 4, 2011 (76 FR 6485) and... Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) to establish and..., Nutritional Epidemiology Branch, Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute,...

  11. Childhood Brain Tumor Epidemiology: A Brain Tumor Epidemiology Consortium Review

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kimberly J.; Cullen, Jennifer; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Ostrom, Quinn T.; Langer, Chelsea E.; Turner, Michelle C.; McKean-Cowdin, Roberta; Fisher, James L.; Lupo, Philip J.; Partap, Sonia; Schwartzbaum, Judith A.; Scheurer, Michael E.

    2014-01-01

    Childhood brain tumors are the most common pediatric solid tumor and include several histological subtypes. Although progress has been made in improving survival rates for some subtypes, understanding of risk factors for childhood brain tumors remains limited to a few genetic syndromes and ionizing radiation to the head and neck. In this report, we review descriptive and analytical epidemiology childhood brain tumor studies from the past decade and highlight priority areas for future epidemiology investigations and methodological work that is needed to advance our understanding of childhood brain tumor causes. Specifically, we summarize the results of a review of studies published since 2004 that have analyzed incidence and survival in different international regions and that have examined potential genetic, immune system, developmental and birth characteristics, and environmental risk factors. PMID:25192704

  12. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  13. [Epidemiological imaginary in Campania Region].

    PubMed

    Greco, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    The interviews on the epidemiological imaginary, collected within the framework of the project Sebiorec,(1) clearly demonstrate that also in Campania, on the border between the provinces of Naples and Caserta - where the issue of waste and land devastation take forms that are unprecedented compared to any other part of Europe - there is a widespread, strong, sacrosanct demand of participation in environment and health management. The request of deliberative ecological democracy is pressing.(2) There is an urgent need to meet that plethora of rights emerging in the "knowledge society" and in the "risk society" that someone has called "rights for scientific citizenship."(3) This request of the population of Campania, net of local cultural specificity, it is quite similar to that of the people of any other region of Europe. The context in which this request of participation is expressed, however, is quite different. Not only and not just for that real or perceived social pre-modern and familist web that would replace a modern civil society in Campania and all across the Southern Italian regions, but also and especially for some structural causes that we here try to list. Campania is a unique region in Europe - in many ways different even from other regions of southern Italy - due to the conjunction of at least five factors, not independent from each other. 1) The presence of a widespread organized crime which, in many areas, metropolitan and non-metropolitan alike, and especially in the provinces of Naples and Caserta, is a sort of state against the State and has one of its main levers of power and a major source of its wealth in the illegal control of the territory, in its different dimensions (military, but also economic, social and even cultural). 2) A huge social and economic disintegration, exacerbated in the last twenty years by a process of deindustrialization (until the early nineties Naples was the fifth industrial city of Italy, today it is a desert where

  14. Epidemiology of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Leray, E; Moreau, T; Fromont, A; Edan, G

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most frequently seen demyelinating disease, with a prevalence that varies considerably, from high levels in North America and Europe (>100/100,000 inhabitants) to low rates in Eastern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa (2/100,000 population). Knowledge of the geographical distribution of the disease and its survival data, and a better understanding of the natural history of the disease, have improved our understanding of the respective roles of endogenous and exogenous causes of MS. Concerning mortality, in a large French cohort of 27,603 patients, there was no difference between MS patients and controls in the first 20 years of the disease, although life expectancy was reduced by 6-7 years in MS patients. In 2004, the prevalence of MS in France was 94.7/100,000 population, according to data from the French National Health Insurance Agency for Salaried Workers (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs Salariés [CNAM-TS]), which insures 87% of the French population. This prevalence was higher in the North and East of France. In several countries, including France, the gender ratio for MS incidence (women/men) went from 2/1 to 3/1 from the 1950s to the 2000s, but only for the relapsing-remitting form. As for risk factors of MS, the most pertinent environmental factors are infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), especially if it arises after childhood and is symptomatic. The role of smoking in MS risk has been confirmed, but is modest. In contrast, vaccines, stress, traumatic events and allergies have not been identified as risk factors, while the involvement of vitamin D has yet to be confirmed. From a genetic point of view, the association between HLA-DRB1*15:01 and a high risk of MS has been known for decades. More recently, immunogenetic markers have been identified (IL2RA, IL7RA) and, in particular thanks to studies of genome-wide associations, more than 100 genetic variants have been reported. Most of these are involved in

  15. An epidemiological analysis of potential associations between C-reactive protein, inflammation, and prostate cancer in the male US population using the 2009 - 2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    St. Hill, Catherine; Lutfiyya, M. Nawal

    2015-08-01

    Prostate cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in US males, yet much remains to be learned about the role of inflammation in its etiology. We hypothesized that preexisting exposure to chronic inflammatory conditions caused by infectious agents or inflammatory diseases increase the risk of prostate cancer. Using the 2009-2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we examined the relationships between demographic variables, inflammation, infection, circulating plasma C-reactive protein (CRP), and the risk of occurrence of prostate cancer in US men over 18 years of age. Using IBM SPSS, we performed bivariate and logistic regression analyses using high CRP values as the dependent variable and five study covariates including prostate cancer status. From 2009 - 2010, an estimated 5,448,373 men reported having prostate cancer of which the majority were Caucasian (70.1%) and were aged 40 years and older (62.7%). Bivariate analyses demonstrated that high CRP was not associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer. Greater odds of having prostate cancer were revealed for men that had inflammation related to disease (OR = 1.029, CI 1.029-1.029) and those who were not taking drugs to control inflammation (OR = 1.330, CI 1.324-1.336). Men who did not have inflammation resulting from non-infectious diseases had greater odds of not having prostate cancer (OR = 1.031, CI 1.030-1.031). Logistic regression analysis yielded that men with the highest CRP values had greater odds of having higher household incomes and lower odds of having received higher education, being aged 40 years or older, being of a race or ethnicity different from other, and of having prostate cancer. Our results show that chronic inflammation of multiple etiologies is a risk factor for prostate cancer and that CRP is not associated with this increased risk. Further research is needed to elucidate the complex interactions between inflammation and prostate cancer.

  16. Gene-carbohydrate and gene-fiber interactions and type 2 diabetes in diverse populations from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) as part of the Epidemiologic Architecture for Genes Linked to Environment (EAGLE) study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Both environmental and genetic factors impact type 2 diabetes (T2D). To identify such modifiers, we genotyped 15 T2D-associated variants from genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in 6,414 non-Hispanic whites, 3,073 non-Hispanic blacks, and 3,633 Mexican American participants from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) and evaluated interactions between these variants and carbohydrate intake and fiber intake. Results We calculated a genetic risk score (GRS) with the 15 SNPs. The odds ratio for T2D with each GRS point was 1.10 (95% CI: 1.05-1.14) for non-Hispanic whites, 1.07 (95% CI: 1.02-1.13) for non-Hispanic blacks, and 1.11 (95% CI: 1.06-1.17) for Mexican Americans. We identified two gene-carbohydrate interactions (P < 0.05) in non-Hispanic whites (with CDKAL1 rs471253 and FTO rs8050136), two in non-Hispanic blacks (with IGFBP2 rs4402960 and THADA rs7578597), and two in Mexican Americans (with NOTCH2 rs1092398 and TSPAN8-LGRS rs7961581). We found three gene-fiber interactions in non-Hispanic whites (with ADAMT59 rs4607103, CDKN2A/2B rs1801282, and FTO rs8050136), two in non-Hispanic blacks (with ADAMT59 rs4607103 and THADA rs7578597), and two in Mexican Americans (with THADA rs7578597 and TSPAN8-LGRS rs796158) at the P < 0.05 level. Interactions between the GRS and nutrients failed to reach significance in all the racial/ethnic groups. Conclusion Our results suggest that dietary carbohydrates and fiber may modify T2D-associated variants, highlighting the importance of dietary nutrients in predicting T2D risk. PMID:24929251

  17. Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Korea through an Investigation of the National Registration Project of Type 1 Diabetes for the Reimbursement of Glucometer Strips with Additional Analyses Using Claims Data

    PubMed Central

    Song, Sun Ok; Nam, Joo Young; Park, Kyeong Hye; Yoon, Ji-Hae; Son, Kyung-Mi; Ko, Young; Lim, Dong-Ha

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and incidence of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in Korea. In addition, we planned to do a performance analysis of the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes for the reimbursement of consumable materials. Methods To obtain nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of T1DM, we extracted claims data from July 2011 to August 2013 from the Registration Project of Type 1 diabetes on the reimbursement of consumable materials in the National Health Insurance (NHI) Database. For a more detailed analysis of the T1DM population in Korea, stratification by gender, age, and area was performed, and prevalence and incidence were calculated. Results Of the 8,256 subjects enrolled over the 26 months, the male to female ratio was 1 to 1.12, the median age was 37.1 years, and an average of 136 new T1DM patients were registered to the T1DM registry each month, resulting in 1,632 newly diagnosed T1DM patients each year. We found that the incidence rate of new T1DM cases was 3.28 per 100,000 people. The average proportion of T1DM patients compared with each region's population was 0.0125%. The total number of insurance subscribers under the universal compulsory NHI in Korea was 49,662,097, and the total number of diabetes patients, excluding duplication, was 3,762,332. Conclusion The prevalence of T1DM over the course of the study was approximately 0.017% to 0.021% of the entire population of Korea, and the annual incidence of T1DM was 3.28:100,000 overall and 3.25:100,000 for Koreans under 20 years old. PMID:26912154

  18. "Epidemiological criminology": coming full circle.

    PubMed

    Akers, Timothy A; Lanier, Mark M

    2009-03-01

    Members of the public health and criminal justice disciplines often work with marginalized populations: people at high risk of drug use, health problems, incarceration, and other difficulties. As these fields increasingly overlap, distinctions between them are blurred, as numerous research reports and funding trends document. However, explicit theoretical and methodological linkages between the 2 disciplines remain rare. A new paradigm that links methods and statistical models of public health with those of their criminal justice counterparts is needed, as are increased linkages between epidemiological analogies, theories, and models and the corresponding tools of criminology. We outline disciplinary commonalities and distinctions, present policy examples that integrate similarities, and propose "epidemiological criminology" as a bridging framework.

  19. Epidemiology of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ley, Brett; Collard, Harold R

    2013-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic fibrotic lung disease of unknown cause that occurs in adults and has a poor prognosis. Its epidemiology has been difficult to study because of its rarity and evolution in diagnostic and coding practices. Though uncommon, it is likely underappreciated both in terms of its occurrence (ie, incidence, prevalence) and public health impact (ie, health care costs and resource utilization). Incidence and mortality appear to be on the rise, and prevalence is expected to increase with the aging population. Potential risk factors include occupational and environmental exposures, tobacco smoking, gastroesophageal reflux, and genetic factors. An accurate understanding of its epidemiology is important, especially as novel therapies are emerging. PMID:24348069

  20. Epidemiology of psoriasis: clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Krueger, G G; Duvic, M

    1994-06-01

    Psoriasis is a genetically inherited spectrum of skin diseases characterized by epidermal proliferation and inflammation, which are reversible. Although many have reported that psoriasis is triggered by trauma, infections, stress, drugs, etc., the epidemiology of psoriasis remains poorly understood. Linkage to human leukocyte antigen-(HLA)-Cw6 and DR7 is strong in people with early onset disease, but concordance in monozygotic twins is only 67%, emphasizing the importance of a triggering event. Other factors that have been reported to affect the course of psoriasis include upper respiratory infections, smoking, obesity, alcohol ingestion, regional enteritis, and human immunodeficiency virus infection. This manuscript reviews the clinical epidemiology of psoriasis and highlights some of the needs for further investigation into specific areas of the disease.