Science.gov

Sample records for 2002american meteorological society

  1. European Meteorological Society and Education in Atmospheric Sciences, EWOC 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2008-12-01

    In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. However, the reasonable development of position of these subjects in educational systems in individual countries across Europe is not so fast. The European Meteorological Society is trying to observe this process. Unfortunately the position of meteorology and climatology is not so well developed in framework of these subjects, there are some traces of our science in physics, but most of the small abundance of these topics are covered rather by geography. The low content is in contrary with the overall quite high interest in environmental issues in Europe. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. EMS is performing this task through the Educational Committee which is trying to work under this EMS mission and objectives to help the process by means of its own activities and supporting some activities of EMS as a whole, e.g. organizing educational session of EMS Annual Meetings, cosponsoring other educational meeting etc. One of the elements of its own activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the place of Science education in the system. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view

  2. European Meteorological Society and education in atmospheric sciences, EWOC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2009-04-01

    In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. The European Meteorological Society is trying to follow this process with implication to atmospheric sciences. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. One of the elements of EMS activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the place of Science education in the system. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view EMS is trying to provide the information about the possibility of education in meteorology and climatology in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on national level. EMS is supporting the exchange of information in the area of education in atmospheric sciences, organizing the educational sessions during EMS annual meetings as well as participating in the series of International Conferences on School and Popular Meteorological and Oceanographic Education - EWOC (Education in Weather, Ocean and Climate).

  3. European Meteorological Society and education in atmospheric sciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, T.; Belda, M.

    2010-09-01

    EMS is supporting the exchange of information in the area of education in atmospheric sciences as one of its priority and organizing the educational sessions during EMS annual meetings as a good occasion for such an exchange. Brief thought will be given to the fate of the series of International Conferences on School and Popular Meteorological and Oceanographic Education - EWOC (Education in Weather, Ocean and Climate) and to the project oriented basis of further cooperation in education in atmospheric sciences across Europe. Another tool of EMS is the newly established and developed EDU portal of EMS. In most European countries the process of integration of education at university level was started after Bologna Declaration with the objective to have the system where students on some level could move to another school, or rather university. The goal is to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to have no objections for students when transferring between the European countries. From this point of view EMS is trying to provide the information about the possibility of education in meteorology and climatology in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on national level. In most European countries the necessity of education in Science and Mathematics to achieve higher standard and competitiveness in research and technology development has been formulated after the Lisboa meeting. The European Meteorological Society is trying to follow this process with implication to atmospheric sciences. One of the important task of the EMS is the activity to promote public understanding of meteorology (and sciences related to it), and the ability to make use of it, through schools and more generally. One of the elements of EMS activity is the analysis of the position of atmospheric science in framework of curricula in educational systems of European countries as well as in more general sense, the

  4. The American Meteorological Society Education Program Model for Climate Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Geer, I. W.; Hopkins, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    A guiding principle of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program is that public scientific literacy is most effectively achieved through systemic change in the classroom. The AMS, partnering with NOAA, NSF, NASA, the US Navy, and SUNY Brockport, aims for greater public scientific literacy through its successful distance learning programs that convey to pre-college teachers and undergraduates the fundamentals of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The AMS DataStreme teacher-enhancement courses (Atmosphere, Water in the Earth System, and Ocean) have changed the way thousands of pre-college teachers teach and hundreds of thousands of students learn. Furthermore, teachers trained in this program are positioned to contribute to local and statewide curriculum reform. The AMS Online Weather Studies and Online Ocean Studies courses are providing tens of thousands of college undergraduates with engaging and highly motivational learning experiences. DataStreme courses are offered locally and feature mentoring of teacher participants whereas Online undergraduate courses are licensed by AMS for offering by colleges and universities. Integrated components of the AMS model are course website, investigations manual, and customized textbook. A portion of twice-weekly investigations is written to a near real-time situation and posted on the course website. Through its extensive experience with the DataStreme/Online programs, the AMS Education Program is now uniquely poised to assume a national leadership role in climate education by applying its proven teaching/learning model to climate education at the pre-college and undergraduate levels. The AMS model is ideally suited for delivering to teachers and students nationwide the basic understandings and enduring ideas of climate science and the role of the individual and society in climate variability and change. The AMS teaching/learning model incorporates an Earth system perspective, is problem focused, and

  5. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    To raise climate literacy, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) developed AMS Climate Studies, an innovative, undergraduate-level climate science course. With a focus on real-world climate data, the course is a primer for responsible, scientifically-literate participation in the discussion of climate change. Designed to be adaptable to traditional, hybrid, or online instructional settings, AMS Climate Studies has already been adopted by more than 80 institutions since fall 2010. Course materials include a hardcover textbook, an investigations manual, and an online lab component, Current Climate Studies, which is created weekly throughout the semester utilizing resources from the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. AMS Climate Studies is mutually beneficial because AMS enhances coursework with real-world data while NASA, NOAA, and other government agencies reach a much larger audience with the results of their work. With support from NSF and NASA and in partnership with Second Nature, AMS offers the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project with the goal of training 100 minority-serving institution (MSI) faculty members to implement the climate course on their campus. The Diversity Project consists of an expenses-paid weeklong workshop for MSI faculty members and a follow-up workshop at the next year's AMS Annual Meeting. The initial workshop covers fundamental understandings within AMS Climate Studies and implementation procedures. Highlights of this workshop are presentations from NOAA, NASA, and other government and university climate scientists as well as field trips to science laboratories. In the year following workshop attendance, faculty work within their MSI to implement AMS Climate Studies. Participants are then invited to a second workshop at the AMS Annual Meeting to report back the results of their work. Currently in its second year, the Project has trained 50 MSI faculty members with subsequent workshops to be held throughout

  6. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has

  7. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  8. Basque meteorology monthly meteorological bulletins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, R.; Gaztelumendi, S.; Otxoa de Alda, K.; Egaña, J.; Gelpi, I. R.

    2009-09-01

    In this work we present the monthly meteorological bulletins of the Basque Meteorology Agency (EUSKALMET). This bulletin includes a monthly meteorological summary for Basque Country Area, including some statistical data, graphs and maps for relevant variables, and descriptive test of meteorological situation, including monthly summary and a description for some relevant severe weather cases. An intensive use of Basque Country Automatic Weather Station (AWS) mesonet data is made in its elaboration. The Basque Meteorology Agency has among theirs functions to serve different requests that often include some type of statistical data, the elaboration of monthly bulletins and the meteorological annual bulletin, published by the Direction of Meteorology and Climatology - Department of Transports and Civil Works - Basque Government. For the monthly meteorological summary elaboration, use of data coming from the ten-minutes AWS network available in our territory is made. In this context, ten-minutes data are used for daily and monthly data statistics. Information is presented, for an easy interpretation, using different tabular format and graphics focused on air temperature and precipitation. The monitoring of this last meteorological element is completed with maps of monthly actual precipitation and its anomalies, expressed as the departure from normal precipitation and percent of normal precipitation.

  9. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  10. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  11. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  12. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  13. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  14. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  15. METEOROLOGICAL AND TRANSPORT MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Advanced air quality simulation models, such as CMAQ, as well as other transport and dispersion models, require accurate and detailed meteorology fields. These meteorology fields include primary 3-dimensional dynamical and thermodynamical variables (e.g., winds, temperature, mo...

  16. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  17. PROMET - The Journal of Meteorological Education issued by DWD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.

    2009-09-01

    Promet is published by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) since 1971 to improve meteorologists and weather forecasters skills. The journal comprises mainly contributions to topics like biometeorology, the NAO, or meteorology and insurance business. The science-based articles should illustrate the special issue in an understandable and transparent way. In addition, the journal contains portraits of other national meteorological services and university departments, book reviews, list of university degrees, and other individual papers. Promet is published only in German language, but included English titles and abstracts. The journal is peer-reviewed by renowned external scientists. It is distributed free of charge by DWD to the own meteorological staff. On the other hand, DMG (the German Meteorological Society) hand it out to all members of the society. The current issues deal with "Modern procedures of weather forecasting in DWD” and "E-Learning in Meteorology”.

  18. Final Report: Update of the Glossary of Meteorology, September 1, 1994 - August 3, 1999

    SciTech Connect

    American Meteorological Society

    2000-01-24

    The American Meteorological Society has updated the Glossary of Meteorology from the first addition which was published in 1959. The second edition contains over 12,000 entries in meteorology and related fields. The glossary will be made available in both book and CD-ROM formats. DOE was one of six federal agencies that provided support for this project.

  19. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  20. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  1. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  2. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  3. Meteorological image processing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracken, P. A.; Dalton, J. T.; Hasler, A. F.; Adler, R. F.

    1979-01-01

    Meteorologists at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center are conducting an extensive program of research in weather and climate related phenomena. This paper focuses on meteorological image processing applications directed toward gaining a detailed understanding of severe weather phenomena. In addition, the paper discusses the ground data handling and image processing systems used at the Goddard Space Flight Center to support severe weather research activities and describes three specific meteorological studies which utilized these facilities.

  4. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  5. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  6. Transport and Meteorological Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Legg, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. First, to provide real-time meteorological satellite guidance to airborne field missions for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Global Tropospheric Experiment, and the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. Extensive meteorological satellite datasets were provided for use by the mission scientist and by the science team. These same data were then archived for postdeployment data analysis by the science team. Second, to provide scientific analysis of the data from the airborne field missions supported. The results of these analyses were made public through peer-reviewed publications.

  7. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  8. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  9. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  10. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  11. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  13. Vega balloon meteorological measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crisp, D.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Hildebrand, C. E.; Preston, R. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Vega balloons obtained in situ measurements of pressure, temperature, vertical winds, cloud density, ambient illumination, and the frequency of lightning during their flights in the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements were used to develop a comprehensive description of the meteorology of the Venus middle cloud layer. The Vega measurements provide the following picture: large horizontal temperature gradients near the equator, vigorous convection, and weather conditions that can change dramatically on time scales as short as one hour.

  14. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  15. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  16. Compendium of meteorology scientific issues of 1950 still outstanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Compendium of Meteorology was published in 1951 by the American Meteorological Society. A review was made of the Compendium of Meteorology to identify the studies and future needs which the authors expressed in their papers. The needs as seen by the authors are organized into sections and papers following the format of the Compendium of Meteorology. In some cases the needs they identified are as valid today as they were in 1951. In other cases one will easily be able to identify examples where significant progress has been made. It is left to the individual scientists and scientific program managers to assess whether significant progress has been made over the past thirty-five years on these outstanding scientific issues.

  17. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  18. Agricultural Meteorology in China.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenberg, Norman J.

    1982-03-01

    During nearly five weeks in China (May-June 1981), the author visited scientific institutions and experiment stations engaged in agricultural meterology and climatology research and teaching. The facilities, studies, and research programs at each institution are described and the scientific work in these fields is evaluated. Agricultural meteorology and climatology are faced with some unique problems and opportunities in China and progress in these fields may be of critical importance to that nation in coming years. The author includes culinary notes and comments on protocol in China.

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  20. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  1. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  2. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  3. Meteorological conditions along airways

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, W R

    1927-01-01

    This report is an attempt to show the kind of meteorological information that is needed, and is in part available, for the purpose of determining operating conditions along airways. In general, the same factors affect these operating conditions along all airways though in varying degree, depending upon their topographic, geographic, and other characteristics; but in order to bring out as clearly as possible the nature of the data available, a specific example is taken, that of the Chicago-Dallas airway on which regular flying begins this year (1926).

  4. Meteorological Instruction Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    At Florida State University and the Naval Postgraduate School, meteorology students have the opportunity to apply theoretical studies to current weather phenomena, even prepare forecasts and see how their predictions stand up utilizing GEMPAK. GEMPAK can display data quickly in both conventional and non-traditional ways, allowing students to view multiple perspectives of the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure. With GEMPAK, mathematical equations come alive as students do homework and laboratory assignments on the weather events happening around them. Since GEMPAK provides data on a 'today' basis, each homework assignment is new. At the Naval Postgraduate School, students are now using electronically-managed environmental data in the classroom. The School's Departments of Meteorology and Oceanography have developed the Interactive Digital Environment Analysis (IDEA) Laboratory. GEMPAK is the IDEA Lab's general purpose display package; the IDEA image processing package is a modified version of NASA's Device Management System. Bringing the graphic and image processing packages together is NASA's product, the Transportable Application Executive (TAE).

  5. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  6. Meteorological Sensor Calibration Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.

    1988-01-01

    The meteorological sensor calibration facility is designed to test and assess radiosonde measurement quality through actual flights in the atmosphere. United States radiosonde temperature measurements are deficient in that they require correction for errors introduced by long- and short-wave radiation. The effect of not applying corrections results in a large bias between day time and night time measurements. This day/night bias has serious implications for users of radiosonde data, of which NASA is one. The derivation of corrections for the U.S. radiosonde is quite important. Determination of corrections depends on solving the heat transfer equation of the thermistor using laboratory measurements of the emissivity and absorptivity of the thermistor coating. The U.S. radiosonde observations from the World Meteorological Organization International Radiosonde Intercomparison were used as the data base to test whether the day/night height bias can be removed. Twenty-five noon time and 26 night time observations were used. Corrected temperatures were used to calculate new geopotentials. Day/night bias in the geopotentials decreased significantly when corrections were introduced. Some testing of thermal lag attendant with the standard carbon hygristor took place. Two radiosondes with small bead thermistors imbedded in the hygristor were flown. Detailed analysis was not accomplished; however, cursory examination of the data showed that the hygristor is at a higher temperature than the external thermistor indicates.

  7. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  8. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  9. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  10. Bracknell Meteorological Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Colin R.

    1988-01-01

    The Bracknell (U.K.) Meteorological Office runs a global weather model twice a day, providing the following data: surface and radiosonde; aircraft reports; and satellite soundings and wind. A human forecast is made every six hours. The model runs on a 150 km grid with 15 levels, and takes about four minutes on a Cyber-205. The standard output from the global products are wind, temperature, height, tropopause, and maximum wind. Various experiments have been conducted to see if short-range forecasters could improve on the upper-wind forecasts over the numerical model; the numerical model remains of paramount importance. Small-scale models are being run in the U.S. and the U.K. A fine-mesh model covers Europe and the Atlantic. A mesoscale model is under development. A great deal of verification work is done to see how good the models are.

  11. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  12. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  13. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  14. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  15. Meteorological Observations During CLIMODE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edson, J. B.; Jonathan, W.; Faluotico, S. M.; Weller, R. A.; Plueddemann, A. J.; Lord, J.; Bigorre, S.

    2006-12-01

    The NSF sponsored CLIvar MOde Water Dynamic Experiment (CLIMODE) is designed to investigate the formation, evolution, storage, and dispersal of Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the subtropical mode water of the North Atlantic. A main goal of CLIMODE is to better understand air-sea exchange in the wintertime Gulf Stream region, where EDW is formed. This region of the North Atlantic provides the largest wintertime exchange of heat from the ocean to the atmosphere. Therefore, accurate measurement of the heat, mass and momentum fluxes is of crucial importance to these studies and linkages to the global climate system. This talk provides an overview of the meteorological measurements being made to estimate these fluxes. Additionally, since the spatial distribution of these fluxes is what ultimately controls the formation of EDW, we are working with colleagues using numerical models and remotely sensed products to provide maps of the flux field over the EDW formation region. Additional talks in this session will describe these efforts. During the initial phase of CLIMODE, instruments were deployed aboard three platforms to estimate the heat, mass and momentum fluxes using the direct covariance and bulk aerodynamic methods. These platforms included the R/V Atlantis, an Air-Sea Interaction Spar (ASIS), and a traditional 3-m discus buoy deployed with an untraditional mooring designed to survive a 1-year deployment in the Gulf Stream. The ship and ASIS packages included Direct Covariance Flux Systems (DCFS) used in the development of the TOGA-COARE bulk algorithm. A low-power version of the DCFS was developed at WHOI and deployed on the discus mooring. The buoy was deployed with the DCFS and ASIMET instrumentation in November of 2005 and operates to date. Wind speed in excess of 20 m/s where measured on the buoy. Direct estimates of the drag coefficient are in good agreement with TOGA-COARE estimates with slight discrepancies at the highest wind speeds. The ship-based and ASIS

  16. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  17. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  18. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  19. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  20. The child with immune thrombocytopenic purpura: is pharmacotherapy or watchful waiting the best initial management? A panel discussion from the 2002 meeting of the American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology.

    PubMed

    Bolton-Maggs, Paula; Tarantino, Michael D; Buchanan, George R; Bussel, James B; George, James N

    2004-02-01

    The initial management of immune thrombocytopenic purpura is a topic of debate among pediatric hematologists. The decision whether to start a patient on pharmacotherapy or to employ an approach of watchful waiting and patient education is problematic for this group of physicians. A wide variety of research studies and review articles have been published on either side of this debate. Here, the proceedings from a panel discussion, held at the 2002 American Society of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology meeting, are presented. The panel, composed of experts on both sides of the debate, presented the rationale, benefits, and risks of both pharmacotherapy and the watchful waiting strategy. PMID:14767210

  1. Weather Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education (1st, Oxford, England, July 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. M., Ed.

    The First International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education was designed to: (1) examine the need for the general public to be educated in science and mathematics in order to live in today's high technological society; (2) note special attributes that meteorology possesses as a vehicle to teach science and mathematics to all…

  2. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  3. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  4. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  5. Corporate/commuter airlines meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olcott, J. W.

    1985-01-01

    The meteorological information requirements of corporate and commuter airlines are reviewed. The skill level and needs of this class of aviator were assessed. An overview of the methodology by which meteorological data is communicated to these users is presented.

  6. 76 FR 490 - Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ...-2251. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Sheri Edgett-Barron, Obstruction Evaluation Services, Air... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 77 Marking Meteorological Evaluation Towers AGENCY: Federal... to include guidance for Meteorological Evaluation Towers (METs). These towers are erected in...

  7. SELECT RESEARCH GROUP IN AIR POLLUTION METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Six individual investigators, who have conducted different but related meteorological research, present in-depth technical reviews of their work. Prime conclusions are that (1) a scale analysis shows that different models are necessary for meteorological processes on urban, regio...

  8. Meteorological Satellites and Their Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughn, W.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present and reviews plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third-generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational polar-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  9. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  10. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  11. Quality Control of Meteorological Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, William; Dee, Dick; Rukhovets, Leonid

    1999-01-01

    For the first time, a problem of the meteorological observation quality control (QC) was formulated by L.S. Gandin at the Main Geophysical Observatory in the 70's. Later in 1988 L.S. Gandin began adapting his ideas in complex quality control (CQC) to the operational environment at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The CQC was first applied by L.S.Gandin and his colleagues to detection and correction of errors in rawinsonde heights and temperatures using a complex of hydrostatic residuals.Later, a full complex of residuals, vertical and horizontal optimal interpolations and baseline checks were added for the checking and correction of a wide range of meteorological variables. some other of Gandin's ideas were applied and substantially developed at other meteorological centers. A new statistical QC was recently implemented in the Goddard Data Assimilation System. The central component of any quality control is a buddy check which is a test of individual suspect observations against available nearby non-suspect observations. A novel feature of this test is that the error variances which are used for QC decision are re-estimated on-line. As a result, the allowed tolerances for suspect observations can depend on local atmospheric conditions. The system is then better able to accept extreme values observed in deep cyclones, jet streams and so on. The basic statements of this adaptive buddy check are described. Some results of the on-line QC including moisture QC are presented.

  12. Pediatric Endocrinology Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... International Welcome to PENS The Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society (PENS) is committed to the development and advancement ... PENS@kellencompany.com • Copyright © 2016 Pediatric Endocrinology Nursing Society • ALL RIGHTS RESERVED • Privacy Policy • Admin

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    MedlinePlus

    ... Involved Find Local ACS How the American Cancer Society Fights Childhood Cancer Advances in treatment have improved ... long lasting consequences. Learn how the American Cancer Society is working to save more lives from cancer ...

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    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2016 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... how interventional radiology research improves patients’ lives at Society of Interventional Radiology’s 2017 Annual Scientific Meeting; read ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ...

  16. American Society of Transplantation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Trials in Transplantation September 13, 2016 The American Society of Transplantation and its Transplantation & Immunology Research Network ... Learn More Donate Donate Donate to the American Society of Transplantation Advertisement member spotlight View all Joanna ...

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

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  18. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

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  19. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  20. International Transplant Nurses Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Register for the 25th Annual ITNS Symposium The International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS) cordially invites transplant nurses ... Barriers (PDF) This pocket guide, developed by the International Transplant Nurses Society (ITNS), provides an overview of ...

  1. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Content Skip to Navigation National MPS Society joins forces with patient data network MPS organizations and PatientCrossroads ... body. Learn More News National MPS Society joins forces with patient data network Teen's wish is to ...

  2. ACSM Fit Society Page

    MedlinePlus

    ... Physical Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Public Information Newsletters ACSM Blog ACSM Blog Search By ... Activity Marketplace Health & Physical Activity Reference Database Home Public Information Newsletters Fit Society Page ACSM Fit Society ® ...

  3. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  4. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    Home - National Multiple Sclerosis Society Skip to navigation Skip to content Menu Navigation National Multiple Sclerosis Society Sign In In Your Area ... DIAGNOSED IN 2009 You Can Live Well with MS A healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management and ...

  5. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    SciTech Connect

    Pepper, D W

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance.

  6. Website for popularization of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, K.; Rasol, D.

    2012-04-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is an educational project that has started in 2007 at the Science Festival in Zagreb, Croatia. In 2009 began a new phase of the project which was introduction of the LMW as an extracurricular school activity for pupils. To reach more users the authors of the LMW published a booklet of experiments which were conducted at the workshops in schools. Furthermore, a website (www.malameteo.com) that shows how to make those experiments was developed. The website has some more educational information as well. Here, the content of the website will be presented.

  7. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  8. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  9. Update of ECTOM - European catalogue of training opportunities in meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal

    2016-04-01

    After Bologna Declaration (1999) the process of integration of education at university level was started in most European countries with the aim to unify the system and structure of the tertiary education with the option for possibility of transnational mobility of students across the Europe. The goal was to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to help this mobility. To support the effort it is useful to provide the information about the possibility of education in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on a national level. For meteorology and climatology this could be reasonably done on the floor of European Meteorological Society, ideally with contribution of individual National Meteorological Societies and their guidance. Brief history of the original ECTOM I and previous attempts to start ECTOM II is given. Further need of update of the content is discussed with emphasis to several aspects. There are several reasons for such an update of ECTOM 1. First, there are many more new EMS members which could contribute to the catalogue. Second, corrected, new, more precise and expanding information will be available in addition to existing record, particularly in sense of some changes in education systems of EC countries and associated countries approaching the EC following the main goals included in Bologna Declaration. Third, contemporary technology to organize the real database with the possibility of easier navigation and searching of the appropriate information and feasibility to keep them up to date permanently through the WWW interface should be adopted. In this presentation, the engine of ECTOM II database will be shown together with practical information how to find and submit information on access to education or training possibilities. Finally, as we have started with filling the database using freely available information from the web, practical examples of use will

  10. Proceedings of the International Meteorological Satellite Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    International Meteorological Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, presented the results of the meteorological satellite program of the United States and the possibilities for the future, so that-- the weather services of other nations may acquire a working knowledge of meteorological satellite data for assistance in their future analysis programs both in research and in daily synoptic application and guidance in their national observational support efforts; the world meteorological community may become more familiar with the TIROS program.; and the present activity may be put in proper perspective relative to future operational programs.

  11. Military applications evolution and future. [meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaehn, A. J., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program is described with particular emphasis on the military applications of METSAT data. Satellite operational support, data processing and image quality requirements are discussed.

  12. Meteorological annual report for 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.; Leard, L.M.

    1995-12-31

    Meteorology at SRS showed that the year 1994 was slightly warmer and drier than average. In most months, average minimum and maximum temperatures were near or slightly above the average for the 31-year period 1964-1991. Above-average warmth was particulary evident in Nov. and Dec. January 1994 was a relatively cold month because of a major influx of Arctic air during the middle of the month. Observed temperatures for the year ranged from 10 F in Jan. to 98 F in June and August. Although total annual precipitation was slightly below average, monthly total precipitation for October was the second highest since 1964. Observed wind direction for 1994 was consistent with long-term patterns. Persistent high pressure to the north of the area during the autumn months resulted in above average frequencies of NE winds.

  13. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  14. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  15. The Emerging Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ochai, Adakole

    1984-01-01

    Focuses on role of library and agencies charged with provision of information in an environment of technological change. Predictions concerning aspects of the emerging information society (computer literacy, home computers), the death of libraries, and effects of a paperless society on libraries in developing countries are noted. Footnotes are…

  16. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  17. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  18. Teaching a Course on Meteorological Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    A meteorological instruments course that provided undergraduate geography students the opportunity to use and/or observe meteorological equipment while also preparing for possible internships with the National Weather Service is evaluated and suggestions for improving it in the future are offered. The paper first provides a general course…

  19. Geostationary meteorological satellite systems - An overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blersch, Donald J.; Probert, Todd C.

    Past and present geosynchronous meteorological satellites developed in the USA, Europe, Japan, India, and the Soviet Union are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the Applications Technology Satellite Program, GOES and SMS/GOES, METEOSAT, GMS/Himawari, the Indian National Satellite, and a Soviet geostationary meteorological satellite program, GOMS.

  20. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  1. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  2. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  3. Compression of spectral meteorological imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miettinen, Kristo

    1993-01-01

    Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions. Current hardware production and development at Astro-Space Division focuses on discrete cosine transform (DCT) systems implemented with the GE PFFT chip, a 32x32 2D-DCT engine. Spectral relations in the data are exploited through block mean extraction followed by orthonormal transformation. The transformation produces blocks with spatial correlation that are suitable for further compression with any block-oriented spatial compression system, e.g., Astro-Space Division's Laplacian modeler and analytic encoder of DCT coefficients.

  4. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  5. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  6. Advanced information society (12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komatsuzaki, Seisuke

    In this paper, the original Japanese idea of "advanced information society" was reviewed at the first step. Thus, advancement of information/communication technology, advancement of information/communication needs and tendency of industrialization of information" were examined. Next, by comparing studies on advanced information society in various countries, the Japanese characteristics of consensus building was reviewed. Finally, in pursuit of prospect and tasks for the society, advancement of innovation and convergence information/communication technology, information/communication needs, institutional environment for utilization of information/communication and countermeasures against information pollution. Matching of information/communication technology and needs, besides with countermeasures against information pollution were discussed.

  7. North American Menopause Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...

  8. American Society of Hematology

    MedlinePlus

    Main Navigation Account Navigation Main Content American Society of Hematology ASH Store ASH Job Center ASH Apps Share Your Idea Donate My Account Search Show Main Menu + About Awards Membership ASH ...

  9. American Society of Neuroradiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... to announce Mary Beth Hepp, MBA, as the society’s next executive director, replacing James B. Gantenberg, FACHE ... Contact Search form Search 2005-2015 Copyright American Society of Neuroradiology OM Base Theme 2016 | V7.x- ...

  10. North American Spine Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... an appointment Search Don't miss the Largest Spine Meeting and Exhibition in the world. Check it ... committee Coverage Recommendations SpineLine Renew Membership NORTH AMERICAN SPINE SOCIETY BURR RIDGE, IL 7075 Veterans Blvd. Burr ...

  11. American Pain Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Award Recipients Strong Evidence Still Lacking on Medical Marijuana for Pain Fibromyalgia Has Central Nervous System Origins ... Mayday Fund American Pain Society Offers Guidance on Medical Marijuana for Pain Study Shows Pain Often Improves in ...

  12. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    donate Entire Site Down Syndrome Resources Ways to Give #DSWORKS™ Buddy Walk® Advocacy About NDSS The National Advocate for People with Down Syndrome Since 1979 National Down Syndrome Society 8 E ...

  13. Meteorological Annual Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1998-12-17

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were relatively cool and wet. The average temperature for 1997 was 63.7 degree F which is about 1 degree F below the annual average for the 30-year period 1968-97. June 1997 had the lowest average temperature of any June in the 34 years for which temperature records are available at SRS ; moreover, the average temperature for the summer months (June, July, and August) was the third lowest for any summer on record. Conversely, the average temperature for March 1997 was the highest for any March in the 34-year record. Temperature extremes for 1997 ranged from a minimum of 18.6 degree F on January 18 to a maximum of 99.1 degree F on August 15.Wet weather during the last three months of the year was due to the development of a strong El Nino event (NOAA, 1998). Total rainfall for December 1997, 10.19 inches, was the highest for a December in the 46 year period of record for precipitation. Monthly rainfall was above average each month except March, May, and August. The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 2.82 inches on December 24. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on April 28, June 28, and September 25. No snow was recorded.The annual average wind speed at the Central Climatology meteorology tower near N Area was 5.8 mph which is very nearly equal to the average wind speed at that station for the 7-year period 1991-97. The 1997 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to northwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the 5-year period 1992-96. A winter storm which developed over the Mid-Atlantic States March 30-31 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 15.3 miles per hour (mph) and 25.1 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology.Monthly average relative humidity for the year was lowest

  14. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  15. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted. PMID:23456373

  16. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  17. BOREAS TE-21 Daily Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kimball, John; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Papagno, Andrea (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmospheric Study (BOREAS) TE-21 (Terrestrial Ecology) team collected data sets in support of its efforts to characterize and interpret information on the meteorology of boreal forest areas. Daily meteorological data were derived from half-hourly BOREAS tower flux (TF) and Automatic Meteorological Station (AMS) mesonet measurements collected in the Southern and Northern Study Areas (SSA and NSA) for the period of 01 Jan 1994 until 31 Dec 1994. The data were stored in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  18. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  19. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  20. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V. S.; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability. PMID:24790576

  1. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  2. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  3. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  4. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  5. CloudSat and CALIPSO Help Meteorology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The study of meteorology presents significant challenges to scientists. One of the most challenging aspects is the inherent complexity of weather coupled with its high rate of change. In the case o...

  6. Interim report on the meteorological database

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  7. OVERVIEW OF PAMS METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Station (PAMS) requires theincorporation of surface and upper air meteorological instrumentation. he platform for the surface instrumentation is a 10 m tower. he variables to be collected include horizontal wind speed, horizontal wind direc...

  8. Meteorological radar facility. Part 1: System design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brassaw, L. L., Jr.; Hamren, S. D.; Mullins, W. H.; Schweitzer, B. P.

    1976-01-01

    A compilation of information regarding systems design of space shuttles used in meteorological radar probes is presented. Necessary radar equipment is delineated, while space system elements, calibration techniques, antenna systems and other subsystems are reviewed.

  9. Evaporation duct assessment from meteorological buoys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitney, Herbert V.

    2002-07-01

    The evaporation duct over the sea is usually assessed using bulk meteorological measurements. This paper investigates the utility of meteorological buoys as a source for these bulk measurements and compares evaporation duct assessments using two buoys in southern California waters separated by 128 km. A simple radio propagation experiment at 2.4 GHz between one of the buoys and the coast on an 18.2 km path is described. Observed propagation loss from this experiment is compared to modeled loss based on the meteorological measurements at each buoy. The purpose of this paper is to investigate radio propagation effects using established and accepted methods already described in the literature. Accordingly, no discussion of atmospheric surface layer meteorology affecting radio propagation is given.

  10. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  11. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  12. Data Publication in the Meteorological Sciences: the OJIMS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Hewer, Fiona; Pepler, Sam; Hardaker, Paul; Gadian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Historically speaking, scientific publication has mainly focussed on the analysis, interpretation and conclusions drawn from a given dataset, as these are the information that can be easily published in hard copy text format with the aid of diagrams. Examining the raw data that forms the dataset is often difficult to do, as datasets are usually stored in digital media, in a variety of (often proprietary or non-standard) formats. This means that the peer-review process is generally only applied to the methodology and final conclusions of a piece of work, and not the underlying data itself. Yet for the conclusions to stand, the data must be of good quality, and the peer-review process must be used to judge the data quality. Data publication, involving the peer-review of datasets, would be of benefit to many sectors of the academic community. For the data scientists, who often spend considerable time and effort ensuring that their data and metadata is complete, valid and stored in an accredited data repository, this would provide academic credit in the form of extra publications and citations. Data publication would benefit the wider community, allowing discovery and reuse of useful datasets, ensuring their curation and providing the best possible value for money. Overlay journals are a technology which is already being used to facilitate peer review and publication on-line. The Overlay Journal Infrastructure for Meteorological Sciences (OJIMS) Project aimed to develop the mechanisms that could support both a new (overlay) Journal of Meteorological Data and an Open-Access Repository for documents related to the meteorological sciences. The OJIMS project was conducted by a partnership between the UK's Royal Meteorological Society (RMetS) and two members of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and the University of Leeds. Conference delegates at the NCAS Conference in Bristol of 8-10 December 2008 were invited to

  13. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  14. Eighth joint conference on applications of air pollution meteorology with A & WMA

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The eighth Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, held January 23-28, 1994, again brings together the American Meteorological Society and Air and Waste Management Association with a broader scientific community to examine the role of the atmosphere on current air quality issues. The CAA Amendments non-attainment title has brought renewed interest in the pairing of complex dynamical meteorological models with photochemical air quality models. Requirements that future attainment to regulations be demonstrated with these models invite a new look at model evaluation. The CAAA titles addressing air toxics have brought renewed interest in near-source dispersion and deposition of toxic chemicals. Consequently, this conference is divided into sessions focusing on topics related to these issues. They include: The Dispersion Environment; Meteorology in Emissions Determination; Long-Range and Mesoscale Pollutant Transport and Fate; Meteorology and Photochemistry; Advanced Dispersion Models and Modeling Systems; Topics in Model Evaluation; Complex Flow Affecting Dispersion Near Structures; and Coastal and Complex Terrain Issues Evaluation.

  15. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  16. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-04-25

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  17. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  18. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  19. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  20. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  1. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  2. Society of Mary: Marianists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Habjan, John

    2007-01-01

    The Society of Mary's ministry in education needs to be placed in the context of the Marianist family. The Marianist family is comprised of men and women who are religious brothers, sisters, and priests and vowed and non-vowed members of Marianist lay communities. The implementation of the Marianist mission is the result of the collaboration among…

  3. The School in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the role of school in Tasmania as seen in a report by a committee appointed to determine that question. At present, Tasmanian children are required to attend school between the ages of 6 and 16. About 20% of children attend private schools. The demands of society for…

  4. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  5. Interrogating an insect society

    PubMed Central

    Gadagkar, Raghavendra

    2009-01-01

    Insect societies such as those of ants, bees, and wasps consist of 1 or a small number of fertile queens and a large number of sterile or nearly sterile workers. While the queens engage in laying eggs, workers perform all other tasks such as nest building, acquisition and processing of food, and brood care. How do such societies function in a coordinated and efficient manner? What are the rules that individuals follow? How are these rules made and enforced? These questions are of obvious interest to us as fellow social animals but how do we interrogate an insect society and seek answers to these questions? In this article I will describe my research that was designed to seek answers from an insect society to a series of questions of obvious interest to us. I have chosen the Indian paper wasp Ropalidia marginata for this purpose, a species that is abundantly distributed in peninsular India and serves as an excellent model system. An important feature of this species is that queens and workers are morphologically identical and physiologically nearly so. How then does an individual become a queen? How does the queen suppress worker reproduction? How does the queen regulate the nonreproductive activities of the workers? What is the function of aggression shown by different individuals? How and when is the queen's heir decided? I will show how such questions can indeed be investigated and will emphasize the need for a whole range of different techniques of observation and experimentation. PMID:19487678

  6. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  7. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  8. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  9. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  10. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  11. Astronomy and society.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surdin, V. G.

    1994-01-01

    After the breakdown of the socialist planning economy we have realized that the interaction between science and society is a complicated thing. Astronomers had also to meet with problems, and the experience of foreign colleagues could be useful to solve them.

  12. American Astronomical Society (AAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Founded in 1899, the AAS is a non-profit scientific society created to promote the advancement of astronomy and closely related branches of science. Its membership consists primarily of professional researchers in the astronomical sciences, but also includes educators, students and others interested in the advancement of astronomical research. About 85% of the membership is drawn from North Ame...

  13. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  14. The Duplex Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schorr, Alvin L.

    1984-01-01

    The duplex society, in which the poor live in close proximity to others but in a separate compartment, is already with us. Unless something deeply changes about family income, more than one-third of future generations will come to adulthood having spent a portion of their childhood in official poverty. (RM)

  15. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  16. Art, Society and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)

  17. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  18. BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Heather; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Young, Kim; Wittrock, Virginia; Shewchuck, Stan; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) collected surface meteorological and radiation data from December 1993 until December 1996. The data set comprises Suite A (meteorological and energy balance measurements) and Suite B (diffuse solar and longwave measurements) components. Suite A measurements were taken at each of ten sites, and Suite B measurements were made at five of the Suite A sites. The data cover an approximate area of 500 km (North-South) by 1000 km (East-West) (a large portion of northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan). The measurement network was designed to provide researchers with a sufficient record of near-surface meteorological and radiation measurements. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and were collected by Aircraft Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-7. The surface meteorological and radiation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. OBJECTIVE METEOROLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION SCHEME DESIGNED TO ELUCIDATE OZONE'S DEPENDENCE ON METEOROLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper utilizes a two-stage clustering approach as part of an objective classification scheme designed to elucidate 03's dependence on meteorology. hen applied to ten years (1981-1990) of meteorological data for Birmingham, Alabama, the classification scheme identified seven ...

  20. The initial conceptualization and design of a meteorological satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenfield, S. M.

    1982-01-01

    The meteorological satellite had its substantive origin in the analytical process that helped initiate America's military satellite program. Its impetus lay in the desire to acquire current meteorological information in large areas for which normal meteorological observational data were not available on a day-to-day basis. Serious consideration was given to the feasibility of reconnaissance from meteorological satellites. The conceptualization of a meteorological satellite is discussed along with the early research which gave substance to that concept.

  1. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  2. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  3. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  4. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  5. Meteorological Radar Facility for the Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eckerman, J.

    1975-01-01

    A proposed meteorological radar facility for Space Shuttle missions is described as a device suitable for providing vertical profiles of the precipitation distribution in the atmosphere above land masses and over ocean, thus ensuring three-dimensional mapping of the hydrometeor-precipitation distribution in the atmosphere. Some performance characteristics essential to orbiting meteorological radar systems and typical parameters are discussed, including large swath width, narrow beamwidth, frequency agility, and antenna configuration and orientation. Also discussed are the capabilities of the device as a test bed sensor with multiple mode capability, being able to operate in real aperture/pulse radar, real aperture/pulse Doppler and synthetic azimuth processing modes.

  6. Meteorological Support at the Savanna River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, Robert P.

    2005-10-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates many nuclear facilities on large complexes across the United States in support of national defense. The operation of these many and varied facilities and processes require meteorological support for many purposes, including: for routine operations, to respond to severe weather events, such as lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes, to support the emergency response functions in the event of a release of materials to the environment, for engineering baseline and safety documentation, as well as hazards assessments etc. This paper describes a program of meteorological support to the Savannah River Site, a DOE complex located in South Carolina.

  7. Meteorological satellites in support of weather modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, D. W.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Grant, L. O.

    1978-01-01

    During the past several years, many weather modification programs have been incorporating meteorological satellite data into both the operations and the analysis phase of these projects. This has occurred because of the advancement of the satellite as a mesoscale measurement platform, both temporally and spatially, and as the availability of high quality data has increased. This paper surveys the applications of meteorological satellite data to both summer and winter weather modification programs. A description of the types of observations needed by the programs is given, and an assessment of how accurately satellites can determine these necessary parameters is made.

  8. Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Dennis W. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Reports on aviation meteorology, most of them informal, are presented by representatives of the National Weather Service, the Bracknell (England) Meteorological Office, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab., the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Additional presentations are included on aircraft/lidar turbulence comparison, lightning detection and locating systems, objective detection and forecasting of clear air turbulence, comparative verification between the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Model and official aviation terminal forecasts, the evaluation of the Prototype Regional Observation and Forecast System (PROFS) mesoscale weather products, and the FAA/MIT Lincoln Lab. Doppler Weather Radar Program.

  9. Shrinking societies favor procreation.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1999-12-01

    Low birth rates and unprecedented improvements in life expectancy had brought a shrinking society to a rapidly expanding retirement-age population. In 1999, people aged 65 and older make up 15% or more of the populations in 19 countries. Furthermore, 14 country populations are already experiencing natural decrease, and a lot more will start to decline early in the 21st century. Due to this predicament, concerned countries have created policies that may encourage more childbearing by easing the opportunity costs of raising children. Among the policies are: 1) paid maternity and paternity leaves until a child is 2-3 years; 2) free child care; 3) tax breaks for large families; 4) family housing allowance; 5) cash paid to parents for raising a child. Governments of the shrinking societies believed that these policies could influence fertility because it affects the socioeconomic setting in which childbearing decisions are made. This paper also discusses Hungary, Japan, and Sweden fertility policies. PMID:12295635

  10. A meteorologically driven maize stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A maize soil moisture and temperature stress model is described which was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions in the major maize-producing areas of the world. The model also identifies optimum climatic conditions and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  11. Integrating Meteorology into Research on Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. PMID:20811515

  12. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  13. Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural meteorology as an accepted term is only about 80 years old. The first half of this period saw its development in the western world, Japan, India, and China and this was made possible through the evolving possibilities for quantification of the physical aspects of the production environm...

  14. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  15. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION (AMET): METEOROLOGY MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET), composed of meteorological and air quality components, is being developed to examine the error and uncertainty in the model simulations. AMET matches observations with the corresponding model-estimated values in space and time, and the...

  16. NASA's aviation safety - meteorology research programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The areas covering the meteorological hazards program are: severe storms and the hazards to flight generated by severe storms; clear air turbulence; icing; warm fog dissipation; and landing systems. Remote sensing of ozone by satellites, and the use of satellites as data relays is also discussed.

  17. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  18. Meteorological Input to General Aviation Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colomy, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The meteorological education of general aviation pilots is discussed in terms of the definitions and concepts of learning and good educational procedures. The effectiveness of the metoeorological program in the training of general aviations pilots is questioned. It is suggested that flight instructors provide real experience during low ceilings and visibilities, and that every pilot receiving an instrument rating should experience real instrument flight.

  19. Meteorology experiments - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Kuettner, J.; Leovy, C. B.; Ryan, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The purposes, procedures, and nature of the planned meteorology experiment of Viking, 1976 are described. The elements to be measured are pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The interactions with other Viking experiments are outlined and candidate sensors are described.

  20. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  1. CASTNET METEOROLOGY DATA, 3 SITES IN ALBE

    EPA Science Inventory

    CASTNet hourly meteorology and ozone data for each site and year. Each site/year separated into ZIP file with its documentation. Two sites in North Carolina: Beaufort (BFT142) and Candor (CND125). One site in Virginia: Prince Edward (PED108).

  2. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Koichi; Sakabe, Hideo; Suzuki, Takao; Okawara, Motoi

    This paper describes mission features and development of the Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5). The purpose of GMS series is the improvement of Japan's meteorological services and the development of meteorological satellite technology. The satellites have been used for the World Weather Watch (WWW) program planned by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The first satellite in this series was launched into geosynchronous orbit at 140 E longitude in July 1977. GMS-2 and GMS-3 were launched in August 1981, and August 1984. GMS-4 was launched in September 1989, and is now being operated for weather services. GMS-5 is now being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). GMS-5 is a spin-stabilized satellite. It consists of a despun earth-oriented antenna assembly and a spin section rotating at 100 rpm. The spin section contains the visible and infrared spin scan radiometer (VISSR), electronic devices, batteries, fuel tanks, thrusters and solar panel. The two new infrared channels have been added to the VISSR and the total number of three infrared channels will be used for observation of the atmospheric water vapor distribution, accurate measurement of sea surface temperatures, etc. The mission of GMS-5 are weather watch by VISSR, collection of weather data, distribution of image data and experiment of search and rescue (SAR). GMS-5 will be launched by a H-II launch vehicle from Tanegashima Space Center in 1994.

  3. Using prognostic model-generated meteorological output in the AERMOD dispersion model: an illustrative application in Philadelphia, PA.

    PubMed

    Touma, Jawad S; Isakov, Vlad; Cimorelli, Alan J; Brode, Roger W; Anderson, Bret

    2007-05-01

    In this study, we introduce the prospect of using prognostic model-generated meteorological output as input to steady-state dispersion models by identifying possible advantages and disadvantages and by presenting a comparative analysis. Because output from prognostic meteorological models is now routinely available and is used for Eulerian and Lagrangian air quality modeling applications, we explore the possibility of using such data in lieu of traditional National Weather Service (NWS) data for dispersion models. We apply these data in an urban application where comparisons can be made between the two meteorological input data types. Using the U.S. Environment Protection Agency's American Meteorological Society/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) air quality dispersion model, hourly and annual average concentrations of benzene are estimated for the Philadelphia, PA, area using both hourly MM5 model-generated meteorological output and meteorological data taken from the NWS site at the Philadelphia International Airport. Our intent is to stimulate a discussion of the relevant issues and inspire future work that examines many of the questions raised in this paper. PMID:17518224

  4. American Society for Radiation Oncology

    MedlinePlus

    ... PAC Become an Advocate Log In SNIPEND American Society for Radiation Oncology Plan your time at the ... oncology practices. RO-ILS The only medical specialty society-sponsored incident learning system for radiation oncology. RO ...

  5. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements and Joint Society Statements Member Login Enter Forgot your password? Meetings & ...

  6. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Learn More For First Responders & Medical Professionals Phoenix Society is the leader in connecting the burn recovery ... It can be a... Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, Inc. 1835 RW Berends Dr. SW Grand Rapids, ...

  7. American Society of Plastic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor who is a member of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS®), you can rest assured ... ASPS The Plastic Surgery Foundation Copyright © 2016 American Society of Plastic Surgeons | Privacy Policy | Sitemap | Terms and ...

  8. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Site Terms and Conditions Copyright © 2016 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2016 Board Review ... Membership Membership Information Membership in the Heart Failure Society is open to all health care professionals with ...

  9. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Awards August 9, 2016 Media Advisory: American Society of Human Genetics 2016 Annual Meeting July 26, ... McKusick Leadership Award June 30, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, ...

  10. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  11. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  12. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  13. Measurement and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terence J.; Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In modern society, metrology is a hidden infrastructure, that affects most human activities. Several domains in which measurements, and therefore metrology, play a crucial role are presented and illustrated with examples: manufacturing industries, navigation, telecommunications, medicine, environment, and scientific research. The BIPM and the national metrology institutes are at the top of traceability chains, which guarantee that all measurements are performed in conformity with the International System of Units (SI) and are therefore comparable. Finally, some indications of the economic benefits of metrology are given. To cite this article: T.J. Quinn, J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  14. 'RCHX-1-STORM' first Slovenian meteorological rocket program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerstein, Aleksander; Matko, Drago; Trauner, Amalija; Britovšek, Zvone

    2004-08-01

    Astronautic and Rocket Society Celje (ARSC) formed a special working team for research and development of a small meteorological hail suppression rocket in the 70th. The hail suppression system was established in former Yugoslavia in the late 60th as an attempt to protect important agricultural regions from one of the summer's most vicious storm. In this time Slovenia was a part of Yugoslavia as one of the federal republic with relative high developed agricultural region production. The Rocket program 'RCHX-STORM' was a second attempt, for Slovenia indigenously developed in the production of meteorological hail suppression rocket. ARSC has designed a family of small sounding rocket that were based on highly promising hybrid propellant propulsion. Hybrid propulsion was selected for this family because it was offering low cost, save production and operation and simple logistics. Conventional sounding rockets use solid propellant motor for their propulsion. The introduction of hybrid motors has enabled a considerable decrease in overall cost. The transportation handling and storage procedures were greatly simplified due to the fact that a hybrid motor was not considered as explosive matter. A hybrid motor may also be designed to stand a severe environment without resorting to conditioning arrangements. The program started in the late 70th when the team ARSC was integrated in the Research and Development Institute in Celje (RDIC). The development program aimed to produce three types of meteorological rockets with diameters 76, 120 and 160 mm. Development of the RCHX-76 engine and rocket vehicle including flight certification has been undertaken by a joint team comprising of the ARCS, RDIC and the company Cestno podjetje Celje (CPC), Road building company Celje. Many new techniques and methods were used in this program such as computer simulation of external and internal ballistics, composite materials for rocket construction, intensive static testing of models and

  15. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education American Head & Neck Society | AHNS Head and Neck Cancer Research & Education About AHNS ... and Announcements Copyright ©2016 · American Head and Neck Society · Privacy and Return Policy Managed by BSC Management, ...

  16. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  17. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  18. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  19. The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

  20. Meteorological Station, showing east and south sides; view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, showing east and south sides; view to northwest - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  1. Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north sides; view to southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  2. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  3. PHOTOCHEMICAL URBAN AIRSHED MODELING USING DIAGNOSTIC AND DYNAMIC METEOROLOGICAL FIELDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Spatial pollutant patterns and peak concentrations are strongly influenced by meteorological parameters. herefore, accurate hourly, gridded meteorological data sets are crucial inputs for photochemical modeling. n effort has been underway to apply both diagnostic and dynamic mete...

  4. Integrated Meteorology and Chemistry Modeling: Evaluation and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade several online integrated atmospheric chemical-transport and meteorology modeling systems with varying levels of interactions among different atmospheric processes have been developed. A variety of approaches to meteorology-chemistry integration with differe...

  5. Communicating Science to Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  6. The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite /SMS/ system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fordyce, D. V.; Wirth, R. J.; Shenk, W. E.

    1974-01-01

    The Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) system is described which is being utilized in a program to obtain day and night information on the earth's weather by means of earth imaging, retransmission of imaged data, meteorological data collection and relay, and space environment monitoring. The components and functions of the ground system are discussed together with the basic satellite payloads. The launch and orbit of SMS-A are reviewed, and the functions of the visible IR spin-scan radiometer are described in detail. Other systems and units discussed include the data collection system, solar environment monitor, weather-facsimile unit, and central data distribution system. It is noted that SMS-A was used to support the Global Atlantic Tropical Experiment and that the SMS system will be complemented by geostationary environmental satellites from ESRO, Japan, and the USSR.

  7. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser J.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  8. Meteorological services annual data report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser J.; Smith, S.

    2013-02-01

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2012. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  9. The second Geostationary Meteorological Satellite 'Himawari-2'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horikawa, Y.; Saito, M.; Kitahara, S.; Kobayashi, M.; Harada, M.; Usuda, S.

    Design features and performance to date of the Japanese meteorological satellite GMS-2 are presented. The GMS-2 is configured to provide weather imagery with VISSR sensors, collect and distribute meteorological data, and monitor solar particles. GMS-2 is spin-stabilized in GEO and was launched on an N-II rocket. The spacecraft length is 3.45 m on-station, the diameter is 2.15 m, and the mass is 653 kg beginning-of-life. Ground links are maintained through despun S-band and UHF antennas. The actual mission life is 3 yr due to the limitations of the on-board hydrazine fuel supply for station-keeping. Noncritical performance anomalies have been exhibited in the telemetry gating circuitry, S-band transmitters, and the PCM telemetry data control circuitry. Back-up systems have compensated for the failures experienced thus far.

  10. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-07-12

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes.

  11. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  12. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  14. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  15. Advanced information society (1)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, Gosei

    In considering the relationship of informationization and industrial structure, this paper analize some factors such as information revolution, informationization of industries and industrialization of information as background of informationization of Japanese society. Next, some information indicators such as, information coefficient of household which is a share of information related expenditure, information coefficient of industry which is a share of information related cost to total cost of production, and information transmission census developed by Ministry of Post and Telecommunication are introduced. Then new information indicator by Economic Planning Agency, that is, electronic info-communication indicator is showed. In this study, the information activities are defined to produce message or to supply services on process, stores or sale of message using electronic information equipment. International comparisons of information labor force are also presented.

  16. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  17. Behaviorism and Society.

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  18. Advanced information society(5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanizawa, Ippei

    Based on the advancement of information network technology information communication forms informationalized society giving significant impact on business activities and life style in it. The information network has been backed up technologically by development of computer technology and has got great contribution by enhanced computer technology and communication equipments. Information is transferred by digital and analog methods. Technical development which has brought out multifunctioned modems of communication equipments in analog mode, and construction of advanced information communication network which has come out by joint work of computer and communication under digital technique, are described. The trend in institutional matter and standardization of electrical communication is also described showing some examples of value-added network (VAN).

  19. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT`s Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE`s Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT`s ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release.

  20. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  1. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  2. Under the Weather: Legionellosis and Meteorological Factors.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jessie A; Kratz, Natalie R; Greeley, Rebecca D; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of legionellosis, caused by the bacteria Legionella which are commonly found in the environment, has been increasing in New Jersey (NJ) over the last decade. The majority of cases are sporadic with no known source of exposure. Meteorological factors may be associated with increases in legionellosis. Time series and case-crossover study designs were used to evaluate associations of legionellosis and meteorological factors (temperature (daily minimum, maximum, and mean), precipitation, dew point, relative humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed (daily maximum and mean), gust, and visibility). Time series analyses of multi-factor models indicated increases in monthly relative humidity and precipitation were positively associated with monthly legionellosis rate, while maximum temperature and visibility were inversely associated. Case-crossover analyses of multi-factor models indicated increases in relative humidity occurring likely before incubation period was positively associated, while sea level pressure and visibility, also likely preceding incubation period, were inversely associated. It is possible that meteorological factors, such as wet, humid weather with low barometric pressure, allow proliferation of Legionella in natural environments, increasing the rate of legionellosis. PMID:26993637

  3. EUMETCast: The Meteorological Data Dissemination Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaertner, V. K.; Koenig, M.

    2006-05-01

    EUMETCast is EUMETSAT's broadcast system for environmental data. It utilises telecommunications satellites and the services of telecommunication providers to distribute data files using Digital Video Broadcast (DVB) standards to a wide audience located within the combined geographical coverage zones of the individual telecommunication satellites used to transmit the data. The telecommunication zones are now covering Europe, Africa, South America and parts of Asia and North America. This service has been established to provide the meteorological communities with satellite data and other meteorological products in near real-time for operational, but also research, education and training purposes. The following EUMETSAT services are currently available via EUMETCast: - Second Generation Meteosat - High Rate SEVIRI Image Data (every 15 minutes) - First Generation Meteosat - Indian Ocean Data Coverage (IODC) (every 30 minutes) - Other Geostationary Data from NOAA (GOES E/W) and JMA (MTSAT), (every 3 hours) - Data Collection and Retransmission (DCP) and Meteorological Data Dissemination (MDD) - Basic Meteorological Data (BMD) (Ku-band Europe only) - Meteorological Products (including some Satellite Application Facility products) - EUMETSAT Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS) (Ku-band Europe only) - DWDSAT (Ku-band Europe only) - VEGETATION data (C-band Africa only) Progressively during 2006 users will find an increasing amount of polar satellite data and products available on EUMETCast. As part of the extension of the EUMETCast Advanced Retransmission Service (EARS), ERS scatterometer data and NOAA satellite AVHRR data have already been introduced in early 2006. The ERS- SCAT demonstration service is a forerunner for the future pilot EARS-ASCAT service and the pilot EARS- AVHRR service will continue to expand during 2006 with the inclusion of data from additional AVHRR stations in the EARS network. The EUMETCast System will be also be used to provide dissemination of

  4. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  5. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  6. Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology PATIENTS Patient Information What Is SART? Risks of IVF Third Party Reproduction A Patient's Guide to Assisted Reproductive Technology Frequently Asked ...

  7. Knowledge, Society, Higher Education and the Society of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostaker, Roar; Vabo, Agnete

    2008-01-01

    Research and higher education are, to a greater extent, being governed and evaluated by other than fellow scholars. These changes are discussed in relation to Gilles Deleuze's notion of a transition from "societies of discipline" to what he called "societies of control". This involves a shift from pyramid-shaped organisations, built upon…

  8. A new microtelesensor chip for meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Smith, S.F.; Britton, C.L.

    1997-03-04

    A new technology exploiting commercial, micro-sensors developed for atomic force microscopy offers breakthrough capability in high accuracy wireless sensors for meteorological measurements. Historically sensors used in air-borne and buoy-based platforms required compromises in performance to achieve the low-weight and low power requirements of the mobile platforms. Recent innovations in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) provided opportunities to reduce size, weight, and power requirements but each sensor required a specially fabricated device with inherent calibration, repeatability, and traceability problems. This new approach allows identical sensors to be fabricated on the same semiconductor substrate as the conditioning electronics and the telemetry components. Exploiting semiconductor fabrication technology offers the potential to reduce fabrication costs to a few dollars per component. Sensing humidity, temperature and pressure have been demonstrated with plans for meteorological deployment scheduled for later in 1997. Cost, reliability, size, power consumption, and accuracy are key factors in the deployment of advanced meteorological sensor arrays. ORNL is actively integrating the sensing technologies, electronic processing, and telemetry that build a family of sensors with multiple-input capabilities. One of the key elements in ORNL`s sensor technology is coated microcantilever arrays, which form a powerful universal platform for multiple physical and chemical measurements. Telemetry is also being developed to add robust spread-spectrum data transmission capabilities to the necessary signal processing electronics. In collaboration with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Lab, a chip-level temperature/humidity module with onboard telemetry is slated for demonstration later in 1997. Future additions would include sensors for atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, turbulence measurement, and radiometry.

  9. Statistical correlation between meteorological and rockfall databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delonca, A.; Gunzburger, Y.; Verdel, T.

    2014-08-01

    Rockfalls are a major and essentially unpredictable sources of danger, particularly along transportation routes (roads and railways). Thus, the assessment of their probability of occurrence is a major challenge for risk management. From a qualitative perspective, it is known that rockfalls occur mainly during periods of rain, snowmelt, or freeze-thaw. Nevertheless, from a quantitative perspective, these generally assumed correlations between rockfalls and their possible meteorological triggering events are often difficult to identify because (i) rockfalls are too rare for the use of classical statistical analysis techniques and (ii) not all intensities of triggering factors have the same probability. In this study, we propose a new approach for investigating the correlation of rockfalls with rain, freezing periods, and strong temperature variations. This approach is tested on three French rockfall databases, the first of which exhibits a high frequency of rockfalls (approximately 950 events over 11 years), whereas the other two databases are more typical (approximately 140 events over 11 years). These databases come from (1) national highway RN1 on Réunion, (2) a railway in Burgundy, and (3) a railway in Auvergne. Whereas a basic correlation analysis is only able to highlight an already obvious correlation in the case of the "rich" database, the newly suggested method appears to detect correlations even in the "poor" databases. Indeed, the use of this method confirms the positive correlation between rainfall and rockfalls in the Réunion database. This method highlights a correlation between cumulative rainfall and rockfalls in Burgundy, and it detects a correlation between the daily minimum temperature and rockfalls in the Auvergne database. This new approach is easy to use and also serves to determine the conditional probability of rockfall according to a given meteorological factor. The approach will help to optimize risk management in the studied areas based

  10. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  11. Meteorology impact on ATC system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of meteorology on air traffic control (ATC) system design for designs, and for cost benefit evaluations is discussed. The myriad of choices for implementation is a problem of great magnitude, given the economic climate of today. Cost versus benefit requires greater emphasis. Expanding and improving weather data acquisition, increasing the speed of weather data transmission and automating those actions that lend themselves to standardization for automated data processing are outlined. Three programs are mentioned: (1) automated weather observations, (2) weather radar and improvements to the national airspace system as related to the handling of weather data; and (3) products.

  12. A Visualization Tool for Meteorological Data

    1999-09-28

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have been buit to visualize surface and upper-meteorology data for any global location and time of interest. The user selects a domain (geographic location and bounding range) and time of interest using the Gui, and a file containing coded observations is accessed and decoded. two styles of the GUI have been built, depending on whether surface or upper air visualization is desired. The former indicates weather conditions near the earth''s surface,more » while the latter illustrates a vertical profile of atmospheric conditions.« less

  13. Applications of MST radars: Meteorological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar to mesoscale meteorology are discussed. The applications include using the radar either as a research tool to improve our understanding of certain dynamical systems or as part of a network used to provide input data for weather forecasting. The workhorse of the operational observing network is the radiosonde balloon which provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds up to heights of 16 to 20 km. Horizontal and vertical measurement capabilities, reflectivity data, derivable quantities and parameters, and special operational requirements are surveyed.

  14. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  15. 1987 Salaries: Society Membership Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kellman, Dawn; Skelton, W. Keith

    Nationwide data are provided on the 1987 salaries of members of each of the American Institute of Physics' 10 member societies. Of the approximately 13,600 society members who were mailed a questionnaire, 61% responded. Data are presented by: degree level, type of employer, gender, salaries for PhDs by geographic location, PhD salaries by…

  16. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... 16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD Support Groups ... to HD symptoms 08.02.16 Huntington’s Disease Society of America’s 2017 HDSA Center of Excellence Program ...

  17. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…

  18. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  19. Colleges Enter the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Current Issues in Higher Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    The implications for higher education of the U.S. transformation from an industrial to an information society are discussed in six papers. Russell Edgerton provides an overview in "Entering the Information Society: An Introduction." In "The Computer: An Enabling Instrument," Louis Robinson considers the current era of the personalization of the…

  20. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  1. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  2. Education in a Postindustrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatch, Orrin G.

    1982-01-01

    The United States has emerged as the first postindustrial society, that is, one that is organized around information and its codification and the use of that information to guide government employers and the public at large. Because of this evolution, education must change to meet society's changing needs. (JOW)

  3. Social work in postindustrial society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenstein, Edward R.

    1973-01-01

    Two major trends mark the transformation of industrial society into postindustrial society--increased social complexity and rapid social change. This article projects an image of social work in the future by describing some major problems people may face and presenting a model of an agency that might deal with them. (Author)

  4. Psychotherapy in a Pluralistic Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisson, Lee Hansen

    A new model for psychotherapy, mandated by current evolution to a pluralistic society, is proposed in this paper. After describing the Big Island of Hawaii as a microcosm of pluralistic society, the author discusses her clinical and educational practice and explores the multi-ethnic population. An individual assessment and treatment matrix is…

  5. Geostationary Meteorological Satellite-5 (GMS-5)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horii, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Geostationary Meteorological Satellite (GMS-5), which is being developed by the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA), is the fifth geostationary, spin stabilized, weather satellite. Its purposes are to observe cataclysmic events such as hurricanes, typhoons, and regional weather phenomena; to relay meteorological data from surface collection points to the Data Processing Center in Japan; and to transmit processing imaging data for facsimile reproduction. The satellite will be launched from the Tanegashima Space Center (TaSC) in Japan by a type H-II launch vehicle. The Deep Space Network (DSN) will support the transfer and drift orbit mission phases. The coverage will consist of the 26-m antennas as prime and the 34-m antenna at Madrid as backup support for launch through drift orbit. Maximum support will consist of two 8-hour tracks per station for a seven day period, plus 23 days of contingency support from all complexes. Information is given in tabular form for DSN support, frequency assignments, telemetry, command and tracking station responsibility.

  6. Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimešová, Jana; Stŕedová, Hana; Stŕeda, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

  7. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550768

  8. Soil processes parameterization in meteorological model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, Andrzej; Duniec, Grzegorz

    2014-05-01

    In August 2012 Polish Institute Meteorology and Water Management - National Research Institute (IMWM-NRI) started a collaboration with the Institute of Agrophysics - Polish Academy of Science (IA-PAS) in order to improve soil processes parameterization in COSMO meteorological model of high resolution (horizontal grid size equal to 2,8 km). This cooperation turned into a project named "New approach to parameterization of physical processes in soil in numerical model". The new set of soil processes parameterizations is being developed considering many physical and microphysical processes in soil. Currently, main effort is focused on description of bare soil evaporation, soil water transport and the runoff from soil layers. The preliminary results from new mathematical formulation of bare soil evaporation implemented in COSMO model will be presented. Moreover, during the Conference authors (realizing a constant need for further improvement) would like to show future plans and topics for further studies. It is planned to combine the mentioned new approach with TILE and MOSAIC parameterizations, previously investigated as a part of TERRA-MultiLevel module of COSMO model, and to use measurements data received from IA-PAS and from Satellite Remote Sensing Center in soil-related COSMO model numerical experiments.

  9. Meteorological satellite products support for project COHMEX

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Velden, Christopher S.; Goodman, Brian M.; Smith, William L.

    1988-01-01

    The first year effort focussed on real-time support and satellite data collection during the field phase of COHMEX. Work efforts following the field phase of COHMEX concentrated on post-processing of the real-time data sets, and generation of enhanced, research-quality satellite data sets for selected COHMEX core days. These satellite-derived data sets will augment the special COHMEX conventional data base with high horizontal and temporal resolution information. The data sets will be examined for their usefulness in delineating important elements in the meteorological environment leading to convective activity. In addition, a limited research effort was conducted using the Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) 4-d data assimilation system in conjunction with evaluating VISSR Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) and His-resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) data. The need to address the characteristics of the data types, and the problems they introduce into 4-d assimilation procedures is evident. The HIS instrument was flown aboard an ER-2 aircraft on several occasions during COHMEX. One of the flights was chosen for further study. Processed VAS soundings and COHMEX radiosonde data were also collected for this day. The case study included an evaluation of the HIS and VAS data and an impact study of the data on the assimilation system analysis.

  10. Meteosat-8: Europe's new geostationary meteorological satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borde, Regis; Konig, Marianne; Schmetz, Johannes

    2004-11-01

    The first of the new generation of Meteosat satellites, known as Meteosat Second Generation (MSG), was launched in August 2002. From its geostationary orbit, the satellite's radiometer, the spinning enhanced visible and infrared imager (SEVIRI), observes the full disk of the Earth with an unprecedented repeat cycle of 15 minutes in 12 spectral channels, having a sampling distance of three kilometres at nadir (1 km for the high resolution channel). For comparison, the first-generation Meteosat satellite covers only three spectral channels and has an imaging repeat cycle of 30 minutes, with a sampling distance between 2.5 and 5 km. MSG offers a wealth of new observational capabilities that could benefit weather forecasting and support severe weather warnings. Significant indirect benefits will come through improved weather forecasts that predict e.g. wind fields more accurately. With the beginning of MSG's operational phase on 29 January 2004, the satellite was renamed to Meteosat-8. The Meteosat-8 operational system also includes a suite of meteorological data which are extracted from the multi-channel image information, as e.g. winds, cloud analysis, atmospheric humidity and atmospheric instability over the entire field of view. This paper presents a general overview over the Meteosat-8 imagery and will especially focus on the meteorological parameters - including the underlying algorithms - that are extracted at EUMETSAT.

  11. Paperless or vanishing society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner Luke, Joy

    2002-06-01

    In the 1940s color photography became available and within a few years, extremely popular. As people switched from black and white photographs made with the old metallic silver process to the new color films, pictures taken to record their lives and families began a slow disappearing act. The various color processes, coupled with the substrates they were printed on, affected their longevity, but many color photographs taken from the late 1950s through the 1970s, and even into the 1980s, faded not only when exposed to the light, but also when stored in the dark. Henry Wilhelm's excellent book 'The Permanence and Care of Color Photographs' documents this history in detail. Today we are making another transition in the storage of pictures and information. There are questions about the longevity of different types of digital storage, and also of the images printed by various types of inkjet printers, or by laser printers using colored toners. Very expensive and very beautiful works of art produced on Iris printers are appearing in art exhibitions. Some of these are referred to as Giclee prints and are offered on excellent papers. Artists are told the prints will last a lifetime; and if by change they don't it is only necessary to make another print. Henry Wilhelm has begun to test and rate these images for lightfastness; however, his test method was developed for examining longevity in colored photographs. It is of interest to find out how these prints will hold up in the tests required for fine art materials. Thus far companies producing digital inks and printers have not invested the time and money necessary to develop an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard method for evaluating the lightfastness of digital prints. However, it is possible to use ASTM D 5383, Standard Practice for Visual Determination of the Lightfastness of Art Materials by Art Technologists, to pinpoint colors that will fade in a short time, even though the test is not as

  12. The DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council Perspective on the Application to Meteorological Software of DOE's Software Quality Assurance Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzola, Carl; Schalk, Walt; Glantz, Clifford S.

    2008-03-12

    Since 1994, the DOE Meteorological Coordinating Council (DMCC) has been addressing meteorological monitoring and meteorological applications program issues at U.S. Department of Energy/National Nuclear Safety Administration (DOE/NNSA) sites and providing solutions to these issues. The fundamental objectives of the DMCC include promoting cost-effective meteorological support and facilitating the use of common meteorological methods, procedures, and standards at all DOE/NNSA sites. In 2005, the DOE established strict software quality assurance (SQA) requirements for safety software, including consequence assessment software used for hazard assessments and safety analyses. These evaluations often utilize meteorological data supplied by DOE/NNSA site-based meteorological programs. However, the DOE has not established SQA guidance for this type of safety-related meteorological software. To address this gap, the DMCC is developing this guidance for the use of both public- and private-sector organizations. The goal for the DMCC is to mimic the SQA requirements for safety software but allow a much greater degree of “grading” in determining exactly what specific activities are needed. The emphasis of the DMCC SQA guidelines is on three key elements: 1) design and implementation documentation, 2) configuration management, and 3) verification and validation testing. These SQA guidelines should provide owners and users of meteorological software with a fair degree of assurance that their software is reliable, documented, and tested without putting an undue burden on meteorological system software developers.

  13. Compendium of Training Facilities for Meteorology and Operational Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information is provided on training courses available in about 96 countries in applied meteorology (including agrometeorology, air pollution meteorology, cloud physics, weather modification, and satellite meteorology) and hydrology. The location is given as well as the nature and language of instruction. Course duration, starting dates, entrance qualifications, and tuition fees are listed. A condensed syllabus is provided. Information on accomodation, and the number of students admitted to the courses is included.

  14. Satellite Meteorology Education & Training Resources from COMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.; Lee, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. These materials focus on the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of satellite data observations and products. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts in the area of polar orbiting satellites. COMET has a new module on Suomi NPP, which describes the satellite system and discusses the improvements that it is bringing to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. COMET has also published an updated version of its module on the VIIRS instrument. "Imaging with VIIRS: A Convergence of Technologies and Experience, 2nd Edition" covers the instrument's enhanced capabilities by examining the systems that contributed to its development. Special attention is paid to the Day/Night Visible channel as VIIRS is the first instrument on a civilian satellite to image atmospheric and terrestrial features with and without moonlight. An upcoming module will exclusively focus on nighttime imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB). "Applications of the VIIRS Day-Night Band" will introduce the capabilities of DNB imagery to a wide audience ranging from forecasters and emergency managers to wildfire fighters and oceanographers. DNB products will be compared to traditional satellite products made from infrared data, including the "fog" product. Users will learn how DNB

  15. Research in dynamic meteorology in Russia in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, M. V.; Krupchatnikov, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    This review outlines the most significant results of research in dynamic meteorology performed by Russian scientists in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences submitted to the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). The report was considered and approved at the 26th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).1 The review is followed by a list of key publications on dynamic meteorology of Russian scientists in 2011-2014.

  16. Visibility characteristics and the impacts of air pollutants and meteorological conditions over Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Li, Chengfan; Liu, Qian

    2015-06-01

    In China, visibility condition has become an important issue that concerns both society and the scientific community. In order to study visibility characteristics and its influencing factors, visibility data, air pollutants, and meteorological data during the year 2013 were obtained over Shanghai. The temporal variation of atmospheric visibility was analyzed. The mean value of daily visibility of Shanghai was 19.1 km. Visibility exhibited an obvious seasonal cycle. The maximum and minimum visibility occurred in September and December with the values of 27.5 and 7.7 km, respectively. The relationships between the visibility and air pollutant data were calculated. The visibility had negative correlation with NO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 and weak positive correlation with O3. Meteorological data were clustered into four groups to reveal the joint contribution of meteorological variables to the daily average visibility. Usually, under the meteorological condition of high temperature and wind speed, the visibility of Shanghai reached about 25 km, while visibility decreased to 16 km under the weather type of low wind speed and temperature and high relative humid. Principle component analysis was also applied to identify the main cause of visibility variance. The results showed that the low visibility over Shanghai was mainly due to the high air pollution concentrations associated with low wind speed, which explained the total variance of 44.99 %. These results provide new knowledge for better understanding the variations of visibility and have direct implications to supply sound policy on visibility improvement in Shanghai. PMID:25980729

  17. Meteorological analysis of MAPS first shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, M.; Newell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The data from the MAPS radiometer launched on board the first shuttle flight was analyzed. The meteorological data relevant to the MAPS measurements was also analyzed so that the in situ calibration measurements and any anomalous features within the data set can be evaluated in the context of the atmospheric circulation during the period of observation. The three dimensioned isentropic analysis scheme was used as the main analytical tool. A graphical output of the N and delta channel signals, black body reference temperatures, reduced CO concentrations and ground tracks for orbits 15 and 16 were provided. The insentropic trajectory methods was emphasized because it is a basic requirement that the analysis be extended to incorporate daily data within the tropics.

  18. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  19. Meteorological radar facility (MRF) slot conductance investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ratkevich, A. E.

    1977-01-01

    A preliminary meteorological radar facility (MRF) array design was completed in support of the slot conductance measurement program. Three different slot measurement techniques were evaluated. The selection of the probe comparison measurement technique was selected as the principal experimental method with the impedance measurement technique chosen to measure a few higher conductance slots to be used as reference slots. The impedance of 43 slots in 0.9 x 0.4 inch standard waveguide and of 40 slots in 0.835 x 0.4 inch waveguide was measured. Also, impedance measurements were made of a few slots using image planes to simulate mutual coupling effects. The measured and theoretical conductance, susceptance, and radiation phase data are presented in graphic form as a function of slot displacement for constant slot length, and of slot length for constant slot displacement. It is concluded that the proposed MRF array design approach is a feasible one.

  20. A Mars Micro-Meteorological Station Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merrihew, Steven C.; Haberle, Robert; Lemke, Lawrence G.

    1995-01-01

    The Mars Micro-Meteorological Station (Micro-Met) Mission is designed to provide the global surface pressure measurements required to help characterize the martian general circulation and climate system. Measurements of surface pressure distributed both spatially and temporally, coupled with simultaneous measurements from orbit, will enable the determination of the general circulation, structure and driving factors of the martian atmosphere as well as the seasonal CO2 cycle. The influence of these atmospheric factors will in turn provide insight into the overall martian climate system. With the science objective defined as the long term (at least one Mars year) globally distributed measurement of surface atmospheric pressure, a straightforward, near term and low cost network mission has been designed. The Micro-Met mission utilizes a unique silicon micro-machined pressure sensor coupled with a robust and lightweight surface station to deliver to Mars 16 Micro-Met stations via a Med-Lite launch vehicle. The battery powered Micro-Met surface stations are designed to autonomously measure, record and transmit the science data via a UHF relay satellite. Entry, descent and landing is provided by an aeroshell with a new lightweight ceramic thermal protection system, a parachute and an impact absorbing structure. The robust lander is capable of surviving the landing loads imposed by the high altitude landing sites required in a global network. By trading the ability to make many measurements at a single site for the ability to make a single measurement at several sites, the Micro-Met mission design satisfies the requirement for truly global meteorological science.

  1. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  2. Uncertainty in Dispersion Forecasting Using Meteorological Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M J; Chin, H-N

    2000-03-23

    A approach for quantifying meteorological uncertainty is via development of an ensemble of forecasts from slightly perturbed initial conditions (Sivillo et al., 1997) to predict the time evolution of the probability density function of atmospheric variables (Mullen and Baurnhefner, 1994). We create an ensemble of forecasts by varying the initial (and boundary) conditions for the COAMPS meteorological model. The variations in the initial conditions must be consistent with analysis error. Optimally, the range of initial conditions would encompass the ''true'' atmospheric state, but which is never actually known. Our method for creating varying initial conditions is to use different global data sets to derive the necessary data. We use two models from the National Weather Service (the AVN and ETA models) and one from the Navy (the NOGAPS model). In addition to those data sets we perturb the data from those models, using a normally distributed random number at each grid point in the COAMPS model. We perturb the (u,v) wind components, the temperature and the moisture. The size of the perturbation is determined by the variability within that variable field. The forecasts are run for 48 hours. We then use the output from the COAMPS model to drive a Lagrangian dispersion model (LODI) for simulated releases. The results from a simulated release from hour 33 are shown in Figure 1. The center of the domain is Oakland airport and the basic on-shore wind is from the southwest. In three of the simulations, the plume goes over the top of the hills to the northeast, and in the other three the plume hugs the coastline and goes around those hills The two solutions reflect a dependence on the Froude number, a ratio of the Kinetic energy to Potential energy. Higher Kinetic energy flow (Higher Froude number) flow goes over the top of the mountain, while lower Kinetic energy flow goes around the hills.

  3. The DECAFE Experiments: Overview and Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontan, Jacques; Druilhet, Aimé; Benech, Bruno; Lyra, Roberto; Cros, Bernard

    1992-04-01

    The objective of the Dynamique et Chimie de l'Atmosphère en Forêt Equatoriale (DECAFE) program is to determine the influence of African tropics on atmospheric chemistry. Savannas and forests constitute the main ecosystems in this area. Because of the occurrence of biomass burning during the dry season, savannas of the northern and southern hemispheres are active sources of many constituents which are of interest to atmospheric chemistry. The rain forest, with its important biomass activity is also a source or sink for gases and aerosols. Man's impact on this ecosystem is important since the rate of deforestation is about 0.5% per year. Furthermore, a general air motion from savanna regions toward the tropical rain forest is observable in most parts of Africa, leading to important interactions between the respective emissions of these two ecosystems. The DECAFE experiments presented in this issue were located in the Mayombe forest (southern Congo) and in the forest of the northen Congo. A study of rain chemistry was undertaken in 1986 in the Mayombe forest, then continued in the northern forest. In February 1988 a coordinated experiment was held in the tropical rain forest of the north, near Impfondo. The paper presents an overview of the general meteorological and climatological situation in the African tropics, a study of the climatological features of the sites, and a short description of the Impfondo experiment, which is the subject of most of the contributions to this special issue. The local meteorological situation during the time of the experiment is analyzed.

  4. ISS Update: American Physical Society

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Becky Thompson, head of Public Outreach for the American Physical Society, a professional organization for physicists whose web site hosts astronaut ...

  5. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... With the National Cancer Institute for Inaugural Global Pathology Conference March 2016 OneLab Memo ASCP Action Alert - ... 2016 Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  6. American Society for Clinical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Science Letter to Council of Deans: State of Pathology Training in Medical School Help Chart the Future ... Need Copyright © 2016 by American Society for Clinical Pathology. All Rights Reserved. Terms of Use About ASCP ...

  7. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  8. XXXVI Polish Astronomical Society Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Różańska, Agata; Bejger, Michał

    2014-12-01

    XXXVI meeting of Polish Astronomical Society was held in Warsaw on Sept. 11-14, 2013. The conference brought together 150 astronomers working in different institutes in Poland and abroad. The highlight of the Congress was the first awarding of the Paczynski's Medal. The first laureate of the Medal is Professor Martin Rees from University of Cambridge. Medal was given by the President of the Polish Astronomical Society prof. Bozena Czerny.

  9. Society Membership 1980 Profile: Stability and Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Beverly Fearn; Czujko, Roman

    This 1980 profile provides an overview of employment stability and change among a small random sample of U.S. and Canadian members of The American Institute of Physics (AIP) member societies: The American Physical Society; Optical Society of America; Acoustical Society of America; The Society of Rheology; American Association of Physics Teachers;…

  10. Meteorological and Wave Measurements for Improving Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, J.; MacDonald, C.; Ray, A.; Fairall, C. W.; Pezoa, S.; Gibson, B.; Huang, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    A unique collaboration between corporate, government, and university researchers have teamed up to develop a marine environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The meteorological and oceanographic sensors have been deployed for an extended period (12-24 months) on a Chevron service platform (90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to improve dispersion modeling in and around the Gulf of Mexico. This task has recently been provided significant import, given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, the large regional population, and the recognized need for precise and accurate dispersion forecasts. Observations include marine boundary layer winds, height, and temperature, sea surface temperature and current, wave height, downwelling solar and infrared radiation, air-sea momentum and heat fluxes, and mean meteorological parameters. We will present a summary of the instrument deployment, show the initial time series of the observations, and provide context for the experimental outcomes.

  11. A new challenge for meteorological measurements: The "MeteoMet" project - Metrology for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, A.; Lopardo, G.; Antonsen, I.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Boese, N.; del Campo, D.; Dobre, M.; Drnovšek, J.; Elkatmis, A.; Georgin, E.; Grudniewicz, E.; Heinonen, M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Johansson, J.; Klason, P.; Knorova, R.; Melvad, C.; Merrison, J.; Migała, K.; de Podesta, M.; Saathoff, H.; Smorgon, D.; Sparasci, F.; Strnad, R.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and its consequences require immediate actions in order to safeguard the environment and economy in Europe and in the rest of world. Aiming to enhance data reliability and reduce uncertainties in climate observations, a joint research project called "MeteoMet - Metrology for Meteorology" started in October 2011 coordinated by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM). The project is focused on the traceability of measurements involved in climate change: surface and upper air measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance and reciprocal influences between measurands. This project will provide the first definition at the European level of validated climate parameters with associated uncertainty budgets and novel criteria for interpretation of historical data series. The big challenge is the propagation of a metrological measurement perspective to meteorological observations. When such an approach will be adopted the requirement of reliable data and robust datasets over wide scales and long terms could be better met.

  12. Meteorological-physical Limitations of Icing in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findeisen, W

    1939-01-01

    The icing hazard can, in most cases, be avoided by correct execution of the flights according to meteorological viewpoints and by meteorologically correct navigation (horizontal and, above all, vertical). The zones of icing hazard are usually narrowly confined. Their location can be ascertained with, in most cases, sufficient accuracy before take-off.

  13. The Practice of English Teaching in the Meteorological Correspondence Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Shaohui

    2010-01-01

    The correspondence education is the important part of the national education, and its education objects give priority to working staffs. The objects of the meteorological correspondence education are working staffs in the meteorological departments, and most of these students have engaged in the operation work for a long time, keeping at a…

  14. Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment switch box on east wall; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  15. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  16. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  17. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  18. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  19. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  20. Compendium of Lecture Notes for Training Class III Meteorological Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallack, B. J.

    This compendium of lecture notes provides a course of study for persons who may be involved in a variety of specialized meteorological tasks. The course is considered to be advanced and assumes students have had introductory experiences in meteorology and earth science (covered in a similar compendium). The material is presented in seven units…

  1. Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Course in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Julia; Reynolds, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Describes the formative-evaluation process for the EuroMET (European Meteorological Education and Training) project, Web-Based university courses in meteorology that were created to address the education and training needs of professional meteorologists and students throughout Europe. Usability and interactive and multimedia elements are…

  2. USDA-ARS METEOROLOGICAL MONITORING IN NORTHEASTERN OREGON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to collect accurate and reliable meteorological data for research purposes, a well-designed monitoring plan must be implemented. The Agricultural Research Service Columbia Plateau Conservation Research Center (ARS-CPCRC) meteorological monitoring network was designed and developed in order...

  3. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  4. A glossary of selected meteorology terms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-09-01

    The atmospheric, oceanographic, nuclear, and electro-optical terminology contained in this publication was compiled by the Ad Hoc Glossary Committee of the Meteorology Group (MG) of the Range Commanders Council. Much of the material appearing in this glossary was developed using information from several U.S. Government publications and the Glossary of Meteorology.

  5. MPDA-1: METEOROLOGICAL PROCESSOR FOR DIFFUSION ANALYSIS - USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Version I of the Meteorological Processor for Diffusion Analysis (MPDA-1) is a first attempt to provide a processor that can organize available meteorological data into a format accessible to diffusion analysis. MPDA-1 provides methods for preparing three types of data: National ...

  6. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  7. American Society for Surgery of the Hand

    MedlinePlus

    ... Welcome to ASSH.org Home of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand. The American Society for Surgery of the Hand is the oldest and most prestigious medical society dedicated to the hand and upper extremity. Our ...

  8. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  9. The Outlook for U.S. Meteorological Research in a Commercializing World: Fair Early, but Clouds Moving in?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morss, Rebecca E.; Hooke, William H.

    2005-07-01

    In many respects, the prospects for U.S. meteorological research have never been brighter. Knowledge is advancing rapidly, as are supporting observing and information technologies. The accuracy, timeliness, and information content of forecasts are improving year by year. As a result, new and growing markets eagerly await the products of weather research, and opportunities for commercialization abound. Furthermore, no end to the progress of knowledge is in sight; there is plenty of interesting research left to do.Other trends, however, give cause for concern. In particular, the growing value of weather services and science is straining long-established public private and international partnerships, vital to our field. Closer to home, the meteorological community can see nascent signs of some of the same commercialization-related difficulties that now challenge biotechnology.In fact, the biotechnology community's experience with commercialization of research teaches valuable lessons. Attention to these issues now, and appropriate early action, may help the meteorological community benefit from commercialization while avoiding similar pitfalls. This would not only serve our field well, it would also ensure that society continues to benefit from meteorological research advances in the decades to come.


  10. An Operational Environmental Meteorology Forecasting system for Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangqiang; Xu, Jianming; Xie, Ying; Wu, Jianbin; Yu, Zhongqi; Chang, Luyu

    2015-04-01

    Since 2012 an operational environmental meteorology forecasting system was setup to provide daily forecasts of environmental meteorology pollutants for the Eastern China region. Initialized with 0.5 degree GFS meteorological fields, the system uses the WRF-Chem model to provide daily 96-hour forecasts. Model forecasts for meteorological fields and pollutants concentrations (e.g. PM2.5 and O3) as well as haze conditions are displayed through an open platform. Verifications of the model results in terms of statistical and graphical products are also displayed at the website. Currently, the modeling system provides strong support for the daily AQI forecasting of Shanghai, and it also provides guidance products for other meteorological agencies in the Eastern China region. Here the modeling system design will be presented, together with long-term verification results for PM2.5 and O3forecasts.

  11. Applications of Meteorological Tower Data at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) design and operation communities rely on meteorological information collected at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located near Cape Canaveral, Florida, to correctly apply the ambient environment to various tasks. The Natural Environments Branch/EV44, located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for providing its NASA customers with meteorological data using various climatological data sources including balloons, surface stations, aircraft, hindcast models, and meteorological towers. Of the many resources available within the KSC region, meteorological towers are preferred for near-surface applications because they record data at regular, frequent intervals over an extensive period of record at a single location. This paper discusses the uses of data measured at several different meteorological towers for a common period of record and how the data can be applied to various engineering decisions for the new Constellation Program Ares and Orion space vehicles.

  12. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  13. A popular web interface to access local meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minardi, G. P.; Lussana, C.; Ranci, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Regional Meteorological Service of Lombardia, Italy, manages a high resolution meteorological network which consists of about three hundred stations. Therefore, a large amount of data is available both as raw observations of the atmospheric state at the surface and as analysed fields obtained through postprocessing of observations and of model outputs. Meteorological information is of interest to a wide range of users, spanning from amateur meteorologists to specialized civil protection operators. It is then necessary to set up a simple and efficient tool to meet all the users requirements. A suitable solution, reported in this work, is based on the well known Google® Maps geographical interface and the related Google® Maps API and Google® Chart API. At present, several types of meteorological products are available through this interface (http://www.arpalombardia.it/meteo): near real-time local weather data, weather stations metadata, interpolated maps of meteorological fields, observed and forecast indexes.

  14. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  15. Savannah River Site Annual Meteorology Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    HUNTER, CHARLESH.

    2004-04-30

    Summaries of meteorological observations collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 reveal a year that was unusually cool and wet. The annual rainfall of 61.2 inches was the third highest of all the years in a period of record that began in 1952. Higher amounts were recorded only in 1964 (73.5 in) and 1971 (68.2 in). Rainfall of 0.01 inch or more occurred on 119 days during the year. Furthermore, the annual average temperature of 62.2 degrees Fahrenheit was the coldest of any year in an available record that dates to 1964. Cool and wet conditions were most pronounced in the spring and summer months. Unusually cold weather also occurred in January and December. The coldest temperature for the year was 12.5 degrees Fahrenheit (Jan 24) and the warmest temperature was 92.4 degrees Fahrenheit (Aug 27). There were no significant occurrences of severe weather (ice/snow, tornado, sustained high wind) during the year. The heavy rain that occurred on April 7 (3.5 inches) was due to an active stationary front over the area and strong southwesterly wind aloft. The remnants of Tropical Storm Bill produced 2.36 inches of rain on July 1. Hurricane Isabelle, which struck the North Carolina coast mid September, did not have a significant affect on the SRS. A thunderstorm on May 3 produced a surface (4-meter) wind gust of 41.7 miles per hour.

  16. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-12-31

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  17. BOREAS HYD-3 Subcanopy Meteorological Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set includes measurements of wind speed and direction; air temperature; relative humidity; and canopy, trunk, and snow surface temperatures within three forest types. The data were collected in the southern study area/Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) (1994), and SSA-OBS (Old Black Spruce), and SSA-OA (Old Aspen) (1996). Measurements were taken for three days in 1994 and four days at each site in 1996. These measurements were intended to be short term to allow the relationship between subcanopy measurements and those collected above the forest canopy to be determined. The subcanopy estimates of wind speed were used in a snow melt model to help predict the timing of snow ablation. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy meteorological measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  18. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  19. Ensemble Prediction at the Canadian Meteorological Centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellerin, G.; Lefaivre, L.; Houtekamer, P. L.; Mitchell, H.

    2004-05-01

    A global ensemble prediction system (EPS) is running operationally at the Canadian Meteorological Centre (CMC) since February 1998. The number of members was increased from 8 to 16 members in august 1999 and the resolution was increased from 250km to 150km in June 2001. A multi-model approach is used to produce 10 day forecasts once a day. The Spectral Finite Element model (SEF) is used at TL149 and the Global Environment Multi-scale (GEM) model is used at the equivalent 1.2 degree resolution. The initial analyses are produced from an Optimal Interpolation (OI) technique developed at CMC in the early seventies is currently being replaced by an Ensemble Kalman Filter approach developed by Houtekamer and Mitchell. We will describe the new method to obtain the perturbed analyses using the Ensemble Kalman Filter and the verifications obtained to phase out the old OI technique. The ensemble approach is a natural tool to forecast the probability of precipitation (POP). Classes can be defined for different thresholds of 2, 5, 10 and 25 mm of precipitation of 24 hour periods. Improving the resolution of the EPS models has resulted in improvement of the POP over Canadian stations. Results of this evaluation as compared to the operational deterministic model will be shown.

  20. Sea-air boundary meteorological sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, Jose G.

    2015-05-01

    The atmospheric environment can significantly affect radio frequency and optical propagation. In the RF spectrum refraction and ducting can degrade or enhance communications and radar coverage. Platforms in or beneath refractive boundaries can exploit the benefits or suffer the effects of the atmospheric boundary layers. Evaporative ducts and surface-base ducts are of most concern for ocean surface platforms and evaporative ducts are almost always present along the sea-air interface. The atmospheric environment also degrades electro-optical systems resolution and visibility. The atmospheric environment has been proven not to be uniform and under heterogeneous conditions substantial propagation errors may be present for large distances from homogeneous models. An accurate and portable atmospheric sensor to profile the vertical index of refraction is needed for mission planning, post analysis, and in-situ performance assessment. The meteorological instrument used in conjunction with a radio frequency and electro-optical propagation prediction tactical decision aid tool would give military platforms, in real time, the ability to make assessments on communication systems propagation ranges, radar detection and vulnerability ranges, satellite communications vulnerability, laser range finder performance, and imaging system performance predictions. Raman lidar has been shown to be capable of measuring the required atmospheric parameters needed to profile the atmospheric environment. The atmospheric profile could then be used as input to a tactical decision aid tool to make propagation predictions.

  1. Radiometric Meteorology: radon progeny as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Mark; Iwata, Atsushi; Ito, Nahoko; Kubo, Kenya; Komura, Kazu; Ishizaki, Miho

    2008-10-01

    In-situ measurement of atmospheric γ radiation from radon progeny determine rain and snow rates to better accuracy than standard rain gauges and gives a handle on how droplets are formed. The measured γ ray rates (GRR) have been shown to be proportional to a power of radiometric precipitation rates (RPR)^α, α giving a handle on the extent to which radon progeny are surface adsorbed or volume absorbed.ootnotetextM. B. Greenfield et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, (2003) pp 5733-5741. More recently time dependent ratios of GRR from ^214Pb and ^214Bi, concentrated from collected rainwater, have been used to determine the elapsed time since activity from RPR, adhered to rain droplets, was removed from secular equilibrium. Ion exchange resins precipitate out the ^214Pb and ^214Bi ions, which are then filtered from 10s of liters of rainwater or snowmelt. A portable Ge detector is used to integrate the resulting activity over 5-10 min intervals. The measured evolution of these two activities from secular equilibrium to transient equilibrium has meteorological applications enabling both the determination of average elapsed times between the formation of raindrops and the time they reach the ground, as well as an estimate of the initial activity at the source of droplet formation.

  2. Professional Societies of Minority Scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stassun, K. G.

    2003-12-01

    This session will highlight professional organizations that serve minorities in physics, astronomy, and space science, such as the National Society of Black Physicists (NSBP), the National Society of Hispanic Physicists (NSHP), and the Society for the Advancement of Chicanos and Native Americans in Science (SACNAS). These organizations represent and serve minority colleagues and students at both majority and minority-serving institutions. A panel of representatives from these organizations---as well as AAS members who are presently working with them---will discuss these groups' activities and will offer suggestions for how AAS members can better connect with their constituencies. The panel will also include representatives from APS and NASA who will discuss programmatic efforts being developed in partnership with these groups to better engage minority scientists in the research enterprise. Specific funding opportunities will also be presented, including support for minority outreach, undergraduate scholarships, and research grants.

  3. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  4. The Big Society Must Be a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…

  5. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  6. Evolutionary Forecast Engines for Solar Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed comparison of non-stationary regression and stochastic learning methods based on k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches is carried out in order to develop high-fidelity solar forecast engines for several time horizons of interest. A hybrid GA/ANN method emerges as the most robust stochastic learning candidate. The GA/ANN approach In general the following decisions need to be made when creating an ANN-based solar forecast model: the ANN architecture: number of layers, numbers of neurons per layer; the preprocessing scheme; the fraction and distribution between training and testing data, and the meteorological and radiometric inputs. ANNs are very well suited to handle multivariate forecasting models due to their overall flexibility and nonlinear pattern recognition abilities. However, the forecasting skill of ANNs depends on a new set of parameters to be optimized within the context of the forecast model, which is the selection of input variables that most directly impact the fidelity of the forecasts. In a data rich scenario where irradiation, meteorological, and cloud cover data are available, it is not always evident which variables to include in the model a priori. New variables can also arise from data preprocessing such as smoothing or spectral decomposition. One way to avoid time-consuming trial-and-error approaches that have limited chance to result in optimal ANN topology and input selection is to couple the ANN with some optimization algorithm that scans the solution space and "evolves" the ANN structure. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are well suited for this task. Results and Discussion The models built upon the historical data of 2009 and 2010 are applied to the 2011 data without modifications or retraining. We consider 3 solar variability seasons or periods, which are subsets of the total error evaluation data set. The 3 periods are defined based on the solar variability study as: - a high

  7. USER'S GUIDE TO THE CTDM (COMPLEX TERRAIN DISPERSION MODEL) METEOROLOGICAL PREPROCESSOR (METPRO) PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The User's Guide presents a review of the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer and its implications for the design of CTDM and its meteorological preprocessor (METRPO). The CTDM meteorological preprocessor calculates required meteorological variables that are derived from ...

  8. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  9. The sixth conference on satellite meteorology and oceanography

    SciTech Connect

    Hauth, F.F.; Purdom, J.F.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Sixth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography was held in conjunction with the AMS Annual Meeting in Atlanta, Georgia, the week of 6 January 1992. Over 150 scientific papers were presented orally or in poster sessions. Joint sessions were held with the Symposium on Weather Forecasting and the Eighth International Conference on Interactive Information and Processing Systems for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology. The quality of the papers in the preprint volume, as well as in the presentations at both oral and poster sessions, reflects the robustness of national and international operational and research interests in satellite meteorology and oceanography. A preprint volume for this conference is available through the AMS.

  10. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Chemical society hosts biotech gathering

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.

    1992-08-28

    Last week more than 1,200 scientists attended the Ninth International Biotechnology Symposium sponsored by the American Chemical Society (ACS) in Crystal City, Virginia. The conference, held every 4 years, ranged from basic science topics (such as finding structural motifs in protein data banks) to applied work (including the latest advances in making human proteins in transgenic animals).

  12. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  13. The American Montessori Society, Inc.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Gilbert E.

    2010-01-01

    This article offers a brief history of the establishment of the American Montessori Society (AMS) and takes a closer look at its structure. The history of AMS has essentially been a search for standards and a search for community in its efforts to further the welfare of children in America. It has been an indigenous effort by American parents, and…

  14. Credentialism in Our Ignorant Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…

  15. Values in Education and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feather, Norman T.

    Based on six years of research, this book is an interdisciplinary investigation of human values and value systems. The author believes that the concept of values enables the social scientist to bridge the gap between the analysis of the individual and the analysis of the society in which that individual lives. Chapter 1 discusses value systems and…

  16. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  17. Information Epochs and Human Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masuda, Yoneji

    1982-01-01

    Mankind has experienced three societal transformations in the course of history. A new information epoch has served as a precondition for social change. The current information society is post-industrial and will lead to change in the socioeconomic structure and in social values. (KC)

  18. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  19. The Society and the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Gilbert M.

    1985-01-01

    In this speech delivered at the 1984 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, the president of the National Geographic Society (NGS) discusses what geography needs to stay on its feet as an independent and useful discipline and what the NGS is doing to support geography. (RM)

  20. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  1. Science in Society, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    This teacher's guide was designed for use in a course developed by The Science in Society Project. The aims of the project, course description and content, and suggestions for introducing the course are included in a general introduction. Objectives, content, commentary on supplementary reading materials developed specifically for the course,…

  2. American Chemical Society, Preprints symposia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The Division of Petroleum Chemistry of the American Chemical Society met August 30-September 4, 1987, in New Orleans and presented symposia on advances in fluid cracking catalysts, advances in naphtha reforming, refinery waste cleanup, hydrocarbon oxidation, and methane conversion. Forty-two abstracts were prepared.

  3. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  4. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  5. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  6. Consideration of meteorological factors when calculating large canals

    SciTech Connect

    Girgidov, A.D.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of meteorological factors on the dynamics of open-channel flows is taken into account, as a rule, when studying unsteady fluid flows. In shallow-water equations for unsteady flow in open channels the meteorological factors are included as normal and shear stresses on the free surface. The use of dynamic shallow-water equations makes it possible to obtain diverse information about the effect of the atmosphere on the structure of the open-channel flow. The approach presented in this article, based on the equation of balance of mechanical energy and ultimately on the Bernoulli equation, does not permit obtaining detailed information about the interaction of meteorological and hydraulic factors. It permits obtaining mainly simple estimates which can establish when the effect of meteorological factors on the hydraulic characteristics of the flows in canals should be taken into consideration.

  7. Micro-meteorology monitoring system over Nakdong river in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changbum, Cho; jae-young, Byon; rang, Kim kyu; byoung-cheol, Choi

    2014-05-01

    National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  8. Meteorological data collection via ERTS-A data retransmission facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vockeroth, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Robinson, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two meteorological data acquisition systems were built to support hydrometeorological programs related to flow forecasting. Data errors were detected in the stream level formation; these errors were caused by sensor difficulties.

  9. The meteorological advisor in a nuclear generation station emergency plan

    SciTech Connect

    Caiazza, R.

    1985-01-01

    Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation (NMPC) has developed an extensive emergency response plan for the Nine Mile Point Nuclear Generating Station, located near Oswego, New York, in response to requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). If an emergency involving actual or potential release of radioactivity occurs, meteorological conditions in the vicinity of the plant are an extremely important factor in the emergency response. In recognition of this, NMPC has included a Meteorological Advisor position in its Technical Support Center (TSC)/Emergency Operations Facility (HOF) support staffing plans. The Meteorological Advisor is responsible for verification of meteorological measurements, interpretation and dissemination of weather forecasts, dose projection verification, and monitoring team direction. This paper describes those responsibilities as they are integrated into the emergency plan.

  10. Computer Code Systems for Use with Meteorological Data.

    1983-09-14

    Version 00 The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the computer codes in this collection to examine, assess, and utilize the hourly values of meteorological data which are received on magnetic tapes in a specified format.

  11. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  12. The Genesis of Meteorology at the University of Chicago.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Douglas R.

    2001-09-01

    The genesis of meteorology at the University of Chicago is reviewed in commemoration of the 60th anniversary of the founding of the Institute of Meteorology. The Institute of Meteorology was founded in October 1940 under the leadership of Carl Rossby and Horace Byers. Although previous attempts failed due to lack of resources, the imminent need for meteorologists in aviation and long-range weather forecasting, particularly for the nation's military needs, provided sufficient motivation for the program, and a $15,000 donation by Sewell Avery provided the necessary funds to get the program started. This article adds to Byers' 1975 account of the founding of the Institute by documenting the exchange of letters in 1939 between C. Rossby, Karl T. Compton (president of Massachusetts Institute of Technology), Arthur H. Compton (professor of Physics at Chicago), and Henry Gale (dean of Physical Sciences at Chicago) regarding the possibility of establishing a meteorology program at Chicago.

  13. Possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R. (Editor); Maran, S. P. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted in which the following questions were discussed: (1) the evidence concerning possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena; (2) plausible physical mechanisms to explain these relationships; and (3) kinds of critical measurements needed to determine the nature of solar/meteorological relationships and/or the mechanisms to explain them, and which of these measurements can be accomplished best from space.

  14. Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, L P

    1946-01-01

    A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.

  15. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  16. Extreme Weather Events on the Last Frontier: Meteorological Analyses and Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuromski, L.; Walsh, J. E.; Thoman, R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service lacks a comprehensive compilation of major weather events in Alaska. Creating a repository of the effects of past storms and other extreme weather events on society, together with documentation of the meteorological evolution of the events, will facilitate the NWS and other government agencies to analyze this data. Such analysis will improve their strategies, such as sharpening local and state responses to extreme weather and enhancing forecasts for the events, to create a more weather-ready society in Alaska. This research examines six high-impact weather events in Alaska, ranging in dates from 1974 until 2012. Atmospheric data was gathered from the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)'s 6-Hour National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Reanalysis Composites and from 3-Hour NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Composites. Reanalysis composites of sea-level pressure, temperature, geopotential height, and vector wind allowed for the storms to be tracked and for weather pattern anomalies to be recognized. Societal impacts were investigated by using the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC)'s online Storm Events Database and by utilizing microfilms of Alaskan newspapers detailing the events. Synthesizing facts from NCDC and newspapers, along with incorporating meteorological knowledge from the atmospheric reanalysis composites, summaries of the events could then be created. In the future, this research will be continued to include a broader range of high-impact Alaskan weather events. This work will further serve as a basis for analysis for decision-makers to better plan for extreme events and their aftermath. The completed research, though a small portion of the anticipated project, provides a template for future data assimilation, and it initiates the efforts towards a more weather-prepared Alaska.

  17. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  18. Phenological observations made by the I. R. Bohemian Patriotic-Economic Society, 1828-1847

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brázdil, Rudolf; Bělínová, Monika; Rožnovský, Jaroslav

    2011-08-01

    Scholarly and economic management societies played an important role in the beginnings of meteorological observations in Central Europe. In Bohemia, one such was the "Imperial Royal Patriotic-Economic Society of Bohemia" which, as well as making meteorological observations, organised a network of phenological stations and published the results of their observations from 1828 to 1847. The phenological observations covered 31 different forest plants, fruit trees and field-crops. Some of the phenological stations continued to make observations within the network of the Central Institute for Meteorology and Earth Magnetism established in Vienna in 1851. Analysis of the above observations led to the collation of information on the temporal and spatial distribution of the observed phenological characteristics (beginning of budding and/or foliage, beginning and end of flowering, ripeness of seeds and fruits) in the 1828-1847 period, which was cooler and generally wetter with respect to more recent temperature and precipitation patterns (1961-1990) in the study area. Phenophases of flowering and ripeness for selected plants are presented for the Hradec Králové and Loket stations, showing late onsets in this period in comparison with recent phenological stations located nearby and taking measurements in 1993-2009. Working up this topic makes a contribution to the historical phenology of the nineteenth century in the Czech Lands and in Central Europe as well.

  19. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks. PMID:11147209

  20. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional...

  1. Defining New Roles for Scientific Professional Organizations in Society?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Byrne, J.

    2007-12-01

    The obfuscation of authentic science information in North America has reached epidemic proportions. The global warming debate is a classic example - there are a virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, partly as a result of disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters. Should the role of scientists in informing the public change in response to this? What should be the role of scientific societies, such as the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, or the American Association for the Advancement of Science? Should we continue doing what we are doing, or be more proactive in using new technology to educate the public on important scientific issues? Should we devote resources to television advertisements? Should we support ads in the print media? This talk will discuss the pros and cons of individual and group actions in making the case in public for science, and suggest some new directions.

  2. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Operations § 27.1135 Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees... to meteorological-satellite earth receivers operating in the Meteorological-Satellite Service in...

  3. Joseph Henry and the American Philosophical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the extent to which Henry was affiliated with the Society and its influence on his work including his evolving relationship with the Society in the scope of the changing nature of American scientific institutions. (DF)

  4. American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of the American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society. Patients Visit the official patient education site of ...

  5. Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions

    MedlinePlus

    ... jointly produced, collaborated with, or endorsed by the Society of Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions. Press & News » Review ... SCAI Member? Create an Account Advertisement Advertisement The Society for Cardiovascular Angiography and Interventions Foundation, 1100 17th ...

  6. Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... membership and to apply online. SNIS Mission The Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery is dedicated to excellence in ... 703-691-2272 Fax 703-537-0650 © 2016 Society of NeuroInterventional Surgery. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Science in Its Confrontation with Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvora, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the issue of society-controlled science. Analyzes the present state of science with respect to society, including moral issues, attitude differences between nineteenth century scientists and contemporary ones, risk management, and reductionism. (YP)

  8. The Impact of Science on Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J.; Bergman, J.; Asimov, I.

    1985-01-01

    Four speeches delivered as part of a public lecture series to assess the impact of science on society are presented. The computerization of society, space exploration and habitation, the mechanisms of technological change, and cultural responses are addressed.

  9. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes. PMID:21736277

  10. Allgemeinbildung: Readiness for Living in Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmose, Steffen; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    Sociologists increasingly note that one lives in a risk society, characterized by the unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovation and production and by increasing complexity. Life in risk society, particularly in truly democratic societies, increasingly requires competencies not only to understand and change one's own circumstances…

  11. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  12. 77 FR 47544 - Approval of Classification Societies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... procedures by which classification societies could apply for approval with the Coast Guard. See 69 FR 63548... ``Approval of Classification Societies'' (75 FR 21212), outlined the procedures and criteria we would use to... FR page 21215), we will ``annually reevaluate the records of approved classification societies...

  13. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  14. Nationalistic Education in a Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The appropriateness of nationalistic education in the modern global society is questioned since nation-states may be superceded by supra-national or global structures. Schools provide a place for society to prepare younger generations to cherish and protect the interests of that society. Human history reflects this trend as it moves from parental…

  15. Management of meteorological data at a former nuclear weapons facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.L.; Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    The purposes of the Climatological Data Management and Meteorological Monitoring programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to support Emergency Response (ER) programs at the Site for use in assessing the transport, diffusion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations, to provide information for on-site and off-site projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. Also, maintenance of a meteorological monitoring network, which includes measuring, archiving, analyzing, interpreting, and summarizing resulting data is required for successfully generating monthly and annual environmental monitoring reports and for providing assistance for on-site and off-site projects. Finally, the Meteorological Monitoring Program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Response operations.

  16. The Meteorological Monitoring program at a former nuclear weapons plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Meteorological Monitoring program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is to provide meteorological information for use in assessing the transport, and diffusion, and deposition of effluent actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by plant operations. Achievement of this objective aids in protecting health and safety of the public, employees, and environment, and directly supports Emergency Response programs at RFP. Meteorological information supports the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, remediation activities, and emergency responses. As the mission of the plant changes from production of nuclear weapons parts to environmental cleanup and economic development, smaller releases resulting from remediation activities become more likely. These possible releases could result from airborne fugitive dust, evaporation from collection ponds, or grass fires.

  17. Large scale meteorological influence during the Geysers 1979 field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.

    1980-01-01

    A series of meteorological field measurements conducted during July 1979 near Cobb Mountain in Northern California reveals evidence of several scales of atmospheric circulation consistent with the climatic pattern of the area. The scales of influence are reflected in the structure of wind and temperature in vertically stratified layers at a given observation site. Large scale synoptic gradient flow dominates the wind field above about twice the height of the topographic ridge. Below that there is a mixture of effects with evidence of a diurnal sea breeze influence and a sublayer of katabatic winds. The July observations demonstrate that weak migratory circulations in the large scale synoptic meteorological pattern have a significant influence on the day-to-day gradient winds and must be accounted for in planning meteorological programs including tracer experiments.

  18. Association of Meteorological Variables and Coronary Blood Flow.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ali; Sezen, Yusuf; Gunebakmaz, Ozgur; Kaya, Zekeriya; Altiparmak, Ibrahim Halil; Erkus, Emre; Demirbag, Recep; Yilmaz, Remzi

    2015-09-01

    We aimed to assess the impact of meteorological variables on coronary blood flow (CBF). Coronary blood flow was evaluated using the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction frame count (TFC). The association of CBF with meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, total solar radiation, atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, and total sunshine duration were investigated as well as demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics. Assessment of 1206 patients (median age = 53 years, 723 females) revealed the presence of slow coronary flow (SCF) in 196 patients. Daily maximum temperature [odds ratio = 0.951, 95% confidence interval = 0.916-0.986, P = .007] was the only independent predictor of the presence of SCF, whereas systolic blood pressure (β = -0.139, P = .026), hematocrit level (β = 0.128, P = .044), and daily maximum temperature (β = -1.479, P = .049) were independent predictors of log10 (mean TFC). Findings of the present study suggest a role of meteorological parameters in CBF regulation. PMID:25313313

  19. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  20. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena has to date foundered on the two difficulties of (1) devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system; and (2) determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-year cycle, while meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, or an 11-year variation, or a 22-year variation.

  1. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena is hindered by the difficulties of devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system, and determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-yr cycle, and meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, an 11-yr variation, or a 22-yr variation.

  2. A competitive neural network approach for meteorological situation clustering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turias, Ignacio J.; González, Francisco J.; Martín, M. a. Luz; Galindo, Pedro L.

    A complete competitive scheme is proposed in this work in order to perform a classification analysis of meteorological data in the 'Campo de Gibraltar' region (in the South of Spain) from 1999 to 2002. The main objectives of the study presented here have been the characterization of the meteorological conditions in the area, using a competitive neural network based on Kohonen learning rule. Standard Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and VARIMAX rotation have allowed interpreting the physical meaning of the classes obtained from the competitive scheme. Quantitative (using three quality indices) and qualitative (from the analysis of the data projection) criteria based on Fisher Discriminant Analysis were introduced to verify the results of the clustering. A randomized procedure is developed to assure the best performance of the models and to select the best model in the experiments. The different experiments developed extracted five classes, which were related to typical meteorological conditions in the area.

  3. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Dominik; Savage, Nicholas; Jorba, Oriol; Eder, Brian; Giordano, Lea; Badia, Alba; Balzarini, Alessandra; Baró, Rocío; Bianconi, Roberto; Chemel, Charles; Curci, Gabriele; Forkel, Renate; Jiménez-Guerrero, Pedro; Hirtl, Marcus; Hodzic, Alma; Honzak, Luka; Im, Ulas; Knote, Christoph; Makar, Paul; Manders-Groot, Astrid; van Meijgaard, Erik; Neal, Lucy; Pérez, Juan L.; Pirovano, Guido; San Jose, Roberto; Schröder, Wolfram; Sokhi, Ranjeet S.; Syrakov, Dimiter; Torian, Alfreida; Tuccella, Paolo; Werhahn, Johannes; Wolke, Ralf; Yahya, Khairunnisa; Zabkar, Rahela; Zhang, Yang; Hogrefe, Christian; Galmarini, Stefano

    2015-08-01

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional coupled chemistry and meteorology models participated in a coordinated model evaluation exercise. Each group simulated the year 2010 for a domain covering either Europe or North America or both. Here were present an operational analysis of model performance with respect to key meteorological variables relevant for atmospheric chemistry processes and air quality. These parameters include temperature and wind speed at the surface and in the vertical profile, incoming solar radiation at the ground, precipitation, and planetary boundary layer heights. A similar analysis was performed during AQMEII phase 1 (Vautard et al., 2012) for offline air quality models not directly coupled to the meteorological model core as the model systems investigated here. Similar to phase 1, we found significant overpredictions of 10-m wind speeds by most models, more pronounced during night than during daytime. The seasonal evolution of temperature was well captured with monthly mean biases below 2 K over all domains. Solar incoming radiation, precipitation and PBL heights, on the other hand, showed significant spread between models and observations suggesting that major challenges still remain in the simulation of meteorological parameters relevant for air quality and for chemistry-climate interactions at the regional scale.

  4. Technical Work Plan For: Meteorological Monitoring Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2006-02-06

    The meteorological monitoring and analysis program has five objectives. (1) Acquire qualified meteorological data from YMP meteorological monitoring network using appropriate controls on measuring and test equipment. Because this activity is monitoring (i.e., recording naturally occurring events) pre-test predictions are not applicable. All work will be completed in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Repository Development (ORD) administrative procedures and Bechtel SAIC Co., LLC (BSC) line procedures. The meteorological monitoring program includes measuring and test equipment calibrations, operational checks, preventive and corrective maintenance, and data collection. (2) Process the raw monitoring data collected in the field and submit technically reviewed, traceable data to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS) and the Records Processing Center. (3) Develop analyses or calculations to provide information to data requesters and provide data sets as requested. (4) Provide precipitation amounts to Site Operations to support requirements to perform inspections in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (implemented in LP-OM-050Q-BSC) following storm events of greater than 0.5 inches. The program also provides meteorological data during extreme weather conditions (e.g., high winds, rainstorms, etc.) to support decisions regarding worker safety. (5) Collect samples of precipitation for chemical and isotopic analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The BSC ES&H Environmental Compliance organization is responsible for performing this work. Data from calendar-year periods are submitted to the TDMS to provide YMP users with qualified meteorological data for scientific modeling and analyses, engineering designs of surface facilities, performance assessment analyses, and operational safety issues.

  5. Cal Tech's Program in Meteorology: 1933-1948.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) established a course of study in meteorology in 1933. It was intimately tied to the upsurge of activity in commercial and military aviation that occurred in the period between the world wars. The tragic crash of the airship U.S.S. Akron provided the stimulus for including meteorology as a subprogram in the aeronautics department at Cal Tech. Thoodore von K´rm´n, head of the department and director of the school's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory, masterminded the design of the program and geared it toward the solution of practical problems using the principles of dynamic meteorology. One of his doctoral students, Irving Krick, was groomed to develop the program.Robert Millikan, head of the institute, fostered an approach to science that encouraged the faculty to consuit and work with industry. In this environment, Krick established links with aviation, motion picture studios, and public utilities that would set the stage for the research thrust in meteorology. The program was primarily designed for training at the master' degree level, and a significant number of the graduates became entrepreneurs in meteorology. Based on letters of reminiscence and oral histories from some of these consulting meteorologists, it has been concluded that the Millikan/von K´rm´n philosophy of science played an important part in directing the meteorologists into the private sector.Following World War II, Lee DuBridge replaced Millikan as head of the institute. DuBridge's efforts were directed toward making the small elite school scientifically competitive in the changed conditions of a postwar world. In this climate, the merging of private business with academic work fell into disfavor. Without champions such as Millikan and von K´rm´n,the meteorology program was unable to survive.

  6. Making OGC standards work - interoperability testing between meteorological web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemen, Stephan; Little, Chris; Voidrot, Marie-Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The Meteorology and Oceanography Domain Working Group (Met Ocean DWG) is a community orientated working group of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The group does not directly revise OGC standards, but rather enables collaboration and communication between groups with meteorological and oceanographic interests. The Met Ocean DWG maintains a list of topics of interest to the meteorological and oceanographic communities for discussion, prioritises activities, defining feedback to the OGC Standards Working Groups (SWG), and performing interoperability experiments. One of the activities of the MetOcean DWG is the definition of Best Practices documents for common OGC standards, such as WMS and WCS. This is necessary since meteorological data has additional complexities in time, elevation and multi models runs including ensembles. To guarantee interoperability in practice it is important to test each other systems and ensure standards are implemented correctly, but also make recommendations to the DWG on the establishment of Best Practices guides. The European Working Group on Operational meteorological Workstations (EGOWS) was founded in 1990 as an informal forum for people working in the development field of operational meteorological workstations. The annual EGOWS meeting offers an excellent platform for exchanging information and furthering co-operation among the experts from NMS's, ECMWF and other institutes in the work with OGC standards. The presentation will give an update of the testing, which was being done during the June 2014 EGOWS meeting in Oslo and what has happen since. The presenter will also give an overview of the online resources to follow the tests and how interested parties can contribute to future interoperability tests.

  7. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  8. Analysis of nuclear test TRINITY radiological and meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) analyses of the radiological and meteorological data collected for the TRINITY nuclear test. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of normalizing the radiological data to a standard time and estimating fallout-arrival times are presented. The meteorological situations on event day and the following day are described. Comparisons of the WSNSO fallout analyses with analyses performed in the 1940s are presented. The radiological data used to derive the WSNSO 1987 fallout patterns are tabulated in appendices.

  9. Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind turbine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Major difficulties associated with meteorological measurments such as the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next are discussed. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. Some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.

  10. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  11. Passive optical detection of meteorological parameters in launch vehicle environments.

    PubMed

    Krause, F R; Su, M Y; Klugman, E H

    1970-05-01

    New optical detection systems are being developed which combine conventional passive photometry with advanced data processing and statistical analysis methods. These crossed-beam detection systems can continuously monitor meteorological parameters in rocket or aircraft environments. The outputs from several photometers are analyzed by cross correlation techniques to retrieve the transit times or transit distance of light emitting, absorbing, or scattering particles between the photometer lines of sight. These transit times and distances are then transformed into wind components and turbulence levels for preselected altitudes. A continuous near real time display of these meteorological parameters is also under development. PMID:20076328

  12. Meteosat Third Generation - the future European geostationary meteorological satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bézy, Jean-Loup; Aminou, Donny; Bensi, Paolo; Stuhlman, Rolf; Tjemkes, Stephen; Rodriguez, Antonio

    2005-08-01

    Today, the Meteosat geostationary meteorological satellites play a key role in providing continuous atmospheric observations both for weather forecasting and for monitoring a wide variety of environmental phenomena. Following the successful commissioning of the first satellite in the Meteosat Second Generation (MSG) series, Eumetsat and ESA are already actively planning the next European operational geostationary meteorological satellite system in the form of the Meteosat Third Generation (MTG). Being considered for launch in 2015, MTG will revolutionise weather forecasting and environmental monitoring as we now know them, by providing a very significant improvement over the capabilities of the current Meteosats.

  13. Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind-turbine design

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J.C.

    1981-08-01

    One of the major difficulties associated with meteorological measurements is the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. In this paper some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.

  14. Catalog of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Meteorological Tape Library

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    This report gives a complete inventory of the data tapes in the ORNL Meteorological Tape Library (OMTL). The attributes of each tape, including location of the weather station (city and state), station number, standard data format, dates covered, data set name(s), and job control language considerations (record format, record length, blocksize, tape label, and tape density), are listed for each tape. In addition, a description of some of the special characteristics of each of the available standard meteorological data formats is presented.

  15. Marine meteorology research progress of China from 2003 to 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dongxiao; Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Lili; Luo, Lin

    2009-01-01

    The progress in marine meteorology research achieved by scientists in China during the four-year period from 2003 to 2006 is summarized under four categories: marine disaster study, typhoon over the ocean, ocean-atmosphere monitoring technology, and ocean-atmosphere forecasting technology. Compared to the previous four years, many more first-hand datasets have been obtained and more scientific issues have been addressed. In particular, many contributions have been made by young scientists. A brief statement on the research strategy of marine meteorology in China for the coming years is given at the end.

  16. Meteorological data assimilation for real-time emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G.; Chan, S.T.

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. Diverse data assimilation techniques are required to meet the needs of a new generation of ARAC models and to take advantage of the rapidly expanding availability of meteorological data. We are developing a hierarchy of algorithms to provide gridded meteorological fields which can be used to drive dispersion codes or to provide initial fields for mesoscale models. Data to be processed include winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence.

  17. Atmospheric measurements on Mars - The Viking meteorology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, T. E.; Cole, H. L.; Dutton, R. G.; Greene, G. C.; Tillman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking meteorology experiment is one of nine experiments to be carried out on the surface of Mars by each of two Viking Landers positioned at different latitudes and longitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The meteorology experiment will measure pressure, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction at 1.5-hr intervals throughout the Martian day. The duration of each measurement period, the interval between data samples for a measurement period, and the time at which the measurement period is started will be varied throughout the mission. The scientific investigation and the sensors and electronics used for making the atmospheric measurement are discussed.

  18. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  19. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  20. From GNSS and meteorological data to NRT 4D water vapour distribution - GNSS meteorology activities at WUELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Sierny, Jan; Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The GNSS and Meteo group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS), Poland is continuously working on GNSS meteorology since 2010. Currently group maintain real-time (RT) service collecting GNSS and meteorological data and near real-time (NRT) services for estimation of Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and GNSS tomography over the territory of Poland. Data are obtained with high resolution from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations and Ground Base Augmentation System (GBAS) called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). The GNSS data are available from 124 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries, with the average 70km distance between stations. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from: ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), airport meteorological stations (METAR messages stations) and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). The first part of the paper presents the methodology of ASG-EUPOS GNSS data processing for NRT ZTD and ZTD horizontal gradients estimation in double-differenced mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.0) as well as new results from PPP mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.2) and their validation with respect to Rapid and Final troposphere products. The second part is describing the quality assessment of meteorological parameters interpolation methods for determination of ZHD at GNSS sites performed on GNSS stations equipped with meteorological sensors. The third part concerns on the comparisons of ZTD from GNSS data and meteorological parameters from SYNOP stations with data from COAMPS numerical weather prediction system (NWP) and IWV calculation. The fourth part presents the development of GNSS tomography model TOMO2. The last part describes methods of above products validation and visualization over the

  1. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  2. A meteorologically driven grain sorghum stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A grain sorghum soil moisture and temperature stress model is described. It was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions and crop phenology in selected grain sorghum production areas. The model also identifies optimum conditions on a daily basis and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  3. University of Utah (Wallops) precision meteorological data digitizer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Staffanson, F. L.

    1975-01-01

    The data digitizing system takes pulsed signals from meteorological rocket sondes and radiosondes and converts the information (the time interval between pulses) into a digital form for magnetic recording and further processing by digital computer. The basic digitizer configuration contains a master sequencer that allows for data storage and release in an accumulator. Thus, the digitizer provides for convenient interfacing in real time monitoring.

  4. Simulation of meteorological satellite (METSAT) data using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Ryland, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The information content which can be expected from the advanced very high resolution radiometer system, AVHRR, on the NOAA-6 satellite was assessed, and systematic techniques of data interpretation for use with meteorological satellite data were defined. In-house data from LANDSAT 2 and 3 were used to simulate the spatial, spectral, and sampling methods of the NOAA-6 satellite data.

  5. RESUSPENSION OF PLUTONIUM FROM CONTAMINATED LAND SURFACES: METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A literature review is presented in a discussion of the relevance of meteorological factors on the resuspension of plutonium from contaminated land surfaces. The physical processes of resuspension based on soil erosion work are described. Some of the models developed to simulate ...

  6. Meteorological and constituent data for January and February 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Balloon data consisting of a plot showing the mixing ratio of ozone partial pressure in micromillibors and temperature in degrees centigrade versus pressure altitude in millibars is presented. An accompanying tabulation of meteorological and constituent data is also presented. The total overburden was aquired by Dobson Spectrophotometer 72.

  7. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  8. Meteorology--An Interdisciplinary Base for Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a freshman science program at Deerfield Academy (Deerfield, Mass.) in meteorology, designed as the first part of a three-year unified science sequence. Merits of the course, in which particular emphasis is placed on observation skills and making predictions, are enumerated. (CS)

  9. Weather or Not To Teach Junior High Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knorr, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for teaching meteorology allowing students to observe and analyze consecutive weather maps and relate local conditions; a model illustrating the three-dimensional nature of the atmosphere is employed. Instructional methods based on studies of daily weather maps to trace systems sweeping across the United States are discussed.…

  10. Meteorological support for space operations: Review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The current meteorological support provided to NASA by NOAA, Air Weather Service, and other contractors is reviewed and suggestions are offered for its improvement. These recommendations include improvement in NASA's internal management organizational structure that would accommodate continued improvement in operational weather support, installation of new observing systems, improvement in analysis and forecasting procedures, and the establishment of an Applied Research and Forecasting Facility.

  11. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  12. SOLAR AND METEOROLOGICAL SURFACE OBSERVATION NETWORK (SAMSON) FOR NC, VA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Solar and Meteorological Surface Observational Network (SAMSON) v1.0 data for 6 NWS stations in North Carolina and 4 in Virginia. Hourly solar elements are: extraterrestrial horizontal and extraterrestrial direct normal radiation; global, diffuse, and direct normal radiation. Met...

  13. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  14. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, B.K.; Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  15. Comparison of Meteorological Service Calibration Laboratories in Southeastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groselj, D.; Bojkovski, J.

    2012-09-01

    Interlaboratory comparisons serve as tools for assessment of measurement results performed by calibration laboratories in the relevant field of measurement. They are effective means to demonstrate technical competence of the participant and are used as a technical base for accreditation. However, in the network of meteorological services calibration laboratories, comparisons among laboratories are still rare. Some laboratories are still not evaluating measurement uncertainty, thus causing problems when comparing meteorological data from different countries. The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (EARS), serving in the frame of the World Meteorological Organization as a Regional Instrument Centre, has organized a round-robin comparison of calibration laboratories of meteorological services in the southeastern part of Europe using instruments for temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Each participant laboratory had to calibrate a set of instruments at defined calibration points, to evaluate the measurement uncertainty (if possible), and to report the results. EARS RIC invited the National Hydrometeorological Services in the southeastern part of Europe to take part in the intercomparison. In addition, the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality (MIRS/UL-FE/LMK), which holds the Slovenian national standard for temperature and relative humidity, was also invited to participate in the comparison and in the data analysis. Results from MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and EARS were used to calculate the temperature and humidity comparison reference values, while the EARS results were taken as reference values for barometric pressure.

  16. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  17. Modelling the Meteorological Forest Fire Niche in Heterogeneous Pyrologic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition. PMID:25679957

  18. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  19. METEOROLOGICAL FACTORS IN THE FORMATION OF REGIONAL HAZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this research project was to determine the role of meteorological factors in the formation of widespread areas of haze in the eastern United States. Three case studies were made: A summer haze episode, an off-season haze episode and a non-haze episode.

  20. METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS DURING A SULFATE EPISODE IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorological conditions are characterized for a prolonged period in which an air mass contained high concentrations of sulfate pollutants. The period occurred in the Los Angeles area from February 26 to March 5, 1975. In addition, the episode occurred during the off-season and ...

  1. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Hogrefe, Christian; Godowitch, James M.; Napelenok, Sergey; Mathur, Rohit; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10-20 ppb or 20-30% in areas that typically have higher pollution levels.

  2. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  3. Development of Graphical User Interfaces to Visualize Meteorological Data

    SciTech Connect

    Buckley, R.L.

    1998-10-06

    The availability of meteorological data in various forms has increased in recent years due to improved communication and expanded computational storage. At the Savannah River Technology Center of the Savannah River Site, a considerable amount of data form Weather Services International is collected and archived on a daily basis.

  4. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism.

    PubMed

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y(n) = α ⋅ n (β) where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism. PMID:26178756

  5. Linking Hydro-Meteorological Hazards, Climate and Food Security: an Initiative of International Scientific Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail-Zadeh, A.; Beer, T.

    2013-05-01

    Humans face climatic and hydro-meteorological hazards on different scales in time and space. In particular natural hazards can have disastrous impact in the short term (flood) and in the long term (drought) as they affect human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. They represent a pending danger for vulnerable lifelines, infrastructure and the agricultural systems that depend on the water supply, reservoirs, pipelines, and power plants. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Extreme natural events such as extreme floods or prolonged drought can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. The beginning of the XX1st century has been marked by a significant number of natural disasters, such as floods, severe storms, wildfires, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Extreme natural events cause devastation resulting in loss of human life, large environmental damage, and partial or total loss of infrastructure that, in the longer time, will affect the potential for agricultural recovery. Recent catastrophic events of the early 21st century (e.g. floods in Pakistan and Thailand, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami) remind us once again that there is a strong coupling between complex solid Earth, oceanic, and atmospheric processes and that even developed countries such as Japan are subject to agricultural declines as a result of disastrous hydro-meteorological events. Scientific community recognizes that communication between the groups of experts of various international organizations dealing with natural hazards and their activity in disaster risk reduction and food security needs to be strengthened. Several international scientific unions and intergovernmental institutions set up a consortium of experts to promote studies of weather, climate and their interaction with agriculture, food and their socio

  6. Observed Trends in Subtropical Stratocumulus and Associated Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappan, S.; Norris, J. R.; Myers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of low-level cloud feedbacks to climate sensitivity motivates an investigation of how low-level cloud amount, liquid water path, and related meteorological conditions have changed in recent decades in subtropical stratocumulus regions. Using a satellite cloud dataset corrected for inhomogeneities, we find that during 1984-2009 low-level cloud amount significantly increased over the northeast and southeast Pacific, significantly decreased over the northeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Atlantic and southeast Indian oceans. During 1988-2012, liquid water path decreased over the northeast Pacific, significantly increased over the southeast Pacific and northeast and southeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Indian oceans. Examination of meteorological parameters from four re-analyses indicates that positive trends in low-level cloud amount are associated with decreasing trends in sea surface temperature and increasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. Relationships between liquid water path and meteorological conditions are weaker, but increasing trends in liquid water path are associated with increasing trends in sea surface temperature and decreasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence, and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. A multi-linear regression model based on these four meteorological variables well captures the sign and to certain extent magnitude of observed cloud amount trends in almost all stratocumulus regions, but a similarly constructed model largely fails to reproduce the observed liquid water path trends. Differing signs of cloud trends and differing contributions from meteorological parameters between regions suggest that observed changes in subtropical stratocumulus since the 1980s are primarily due to natural variability rather than a systematic response to climate change.

  7. Probabilistic aspects of meteorological and ozone regional ensemble forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Monache, L D; Hacker, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, X; Stull, R

    2006-03-20

    This study investigates whether probabilistic ozone forecasts from an ensemble can be made with skill; i.e., high verification resolution and reliability. Twenty-eight ozone forecasts were generated over the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada, for the 5-day period 11-15 August 2004, and compared with 1-hour averaged measurements of ozone concentrations at five stations. The forecasts were obtained by driving the CMAQ model with four meteorological forecasts and seven emission scenarios: a control run, {+-} 50% NO{sub x}, {+-} 50% VOC, and {+-} 50% NO{sub x} combined with VOC. Probabilistic forecast quality is verified using relative operating characteristic curves, Talagrand diagrams, and a new reliability index. Results show that both meteorology and emission perturbations are needed to have a skillful probabilistic forecast system--the meteorology perturbation is important to capture the ozone temporal and spatial distribution, and the emission perturbation is needed to span the range of ozone-concentration magnitudes. Emission perturbations are more important than meteorology perturbations for capturing the likelihood of high ozone concentrations. Perturbations involving NO{sub x} resulted in a more skillful probabilistic forecast for the episode analyzed, and therefore the 50% perturbation values appears to span much of the emission uncertainty for this case. All of the ensembles analyzed show a high ozone concentration bias in the Talagrand diagrams, even when the biases from the unperturbed emissions forecasts are removed from all ensemble members. This result indicates nonlinearity in the ensemble, which arises from both ozone chemistry and its interaction with input from particular meteorological models.

  8. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  9. Analysis of the effect of meteorological factors on dewfall.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Huijie; Meissner, Ralph; Seeger, Juliane; Rupp, Holger; Borg, Heinz; Zhang, Yuqing

    2013-05-01

    To get an insight into when dewfall will occur and how much to expect we carried out extensive calculations with the energy balance equation for a crop surface to 1) identify the meteorological factors which determine dewfall, 2) establish the relationship between dewfall and each of them, and 3) analyse how these relationships are influenced by changes in these factors. The meteorological factors which determine dewfall were found to be air temperature (T(a)), cloud cover (N), wind speed (u), soil heat flux (G), and relative humidity (h(r)). Net radiation is also a relevant factor. We did not consider it explicitly, but indirectly through the effect of temperature on the night-time radiation balance. The temperature of the surface (T(s)) where dew forms on is also important. However, it is not a meteorological factor, but determined by the aforementioned parameters. All other conditions being equal our study revealed that dewfall increases linearly with decreasing N or G, and with increasing h(r). The effect of T(a) and u on dewfall is non-linear: dewfall initially increases with increasing T(a) or u, and then decreases. All five meteorological factors can lead to variations in dewfall between 0 and 25 W m(-2) over the range of their values we studied. The magnitude of the variation due to one factor depends on the value of the others. Dewfall is highest at N=0, G=0, and h(r)=1. Ta at which dewfall is highest depends on u and vice versa. The change in dewfall for a unit change in N, G or h(r) is not affected by the value of N, G or h(r), but increases as T(a) or u increase. The change in dewfall for a unit change in Ta or u depends on the value of the other four meteorological factors. PMID:23538108

  10. The Experience Of The Meteorological Support By The National Institute Of Meteorology During The XV Pan-american Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Braga, A.; Raposo, R.; Ito, E.; Gadelha, A.; Dallantonia, A.

    2008-05-01

    The XV Pan-American Games were organized in Rio de Janeiro city during 13 to 29 July, 2007 with a participation of 5.662 athletes of 42 countries . The Ministry of Sports requested INMET to provide meteorological support to the games, with the exception of the water sports only, which fell under the responsibility of the Brazilian Navy. The meteorological activities should follow the same pattern experienced during the Olympic Games of Sydney in Australia in the year of 2000, and of Athens in Greece in 2004, with a forecast center entirely dedicated to the event. NMET developed a website with detailed information oriented to the athletes and organizing committee and to the general public. The homepage had 3 different option of idioms (Portuguese, English and Spanish). After choosing the idiom, the user could consult the meteorological data, to each competition place, and to the Pan- American Village, every 15 minutes, containing weather forecast bulletin, daily synoptic analysis, the last 10 satellite image and meteograms. Besides observed data verified "in situ" INMET supplied forecast generated by High Resolution Model (MBAR) with 7km grid resolution especially set up for the games. INMET installed 7 automatic meteorological stations near the competition places, which supplied temperature , relative humidity , atmospheric pressure, wind (direction and intensity), radiation and precipitation every 15 minutes. Those information were relayed by satellite to INMET headquarters located in Brasília and soon after they were published in the website. To help the Brazilian Olympic Committee - COB, the athletes, their technical commission and the public in general, meteorological bulletins were emitted daily. The forecast was done together with the Navy and also with INMET's 6th District located in Rio de Janeiro, and responsible for the forecast statewide. This forecast was then placed at the INMET's website. Both the 3 days weather forecast and Meteorological Alert were

  11. [Pets, veterinarians, and multicultural society].

    PubMed

    Klumpers, M; Endenburg, N

    2009-01-15

    Dutch society comprises a growing percentage of non-Western ethnic minority groups. Little is known about pet ownership among these groups. This study explores some aspects of pet ownership, and the position of veterinarians, among the four largest non-Western ethnic minority groups in the Netherlands. Information was gathered through street interviews with people from a Moroccan, Turkish, Surinamese, or Antillean (including Aruban) background. Five hundred people where interviewed, including 41 pet owners. Results showed that people from non-Western ethnic minorities kept pets less often than Dutch people, with fish and birds being the most frequently kept pets. The number of visits to the veterinary clinic was comparable to that of Dutch pet owners; however, reasons given for the last visit were different. People from non-Western ethnic minorities mostly visited a veterinarian if their pet was ill whereas Dutch people visited the veterinarian if their pet needed to be vaccinated. People from non-Western ethnic minorities were positive about veterinarians, considering that they had sufficient knowledge about and concern for their pets. Moreover, veterinarians were trusted and provided understandable information--the respondents felt that they could go to their veterinarian with any question or problem regarding their pets. Although most respondents considered a visit to the veterinarian expensive, they were more than willing to invest in their pet's health. PMID:19235301

  12. Hydrology, society, change and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koutsoyiannis, Demetris

    2014-05-01

    Heraclitus, who predicated that "panta rhei", also proclaimed that "time is a child playing, throwing dice". Indeed, change and uncertainty are tightly connected. The type of change that can be predicted with accuracy is usually trivial. Also, decision making under certainty is mostly trivial. The current acceleration of change, due to unprecedented human achievements in technology, inevitably results in increased uncertainty. In turn, the increased uncertainty makes the society apprehensive about the future, insecure and credulous to a developing future-telling industry. Several scientific disciplines, including hydrology, tend to become part of this industry. The social demand for certainties, no matter if these are delusional, is combined by a misconception in the scientific community confusing science with uncertainty elimination. However, recognizing that uncertainty is inevitable and tightly connected with change will help to appreciate the positive sides of both. Hence, uncertainty becomes an important object to study, understand and model. Decision making under uncertainty, developing adaptability and resilience for an uncertain future, and using technology and engineering means for planned change to control the environment are important and feasible tasks, all of which will benefit from advancements in the Hydrology of Uncertainty.

  13. Children in an ageing society.

    PubMed

    Hall, D M

    1999-11-20

    This paper explores the implications of demographic aging for children and pediatric practice in the Western society. It focuses on the social class differences in childbearing patterns, specific issues related to disability, and distribution of resources between age groups. Women in the Western world are now having children at an older age than at any time in the past 50 years. Voluntary childlessness or deliberate delay in childbearing is common among highly educated women. This changing pattern in childbearing may increase and polarize health and wealth inequalities. With advancements in neonatal and pediatric care which prolong life expectancy and survival of disabled children, it is projected that there will be an increasing number of very old parents caring for severely disabled offspring. Meanwhile, there are also many children who are carrying considerable burdens of caring for their disabled parents. The community burden of disability will continue to rise. The needs of the elderly population may drain resources from child health services. Despite this demographic pattern, care for the children is still important. Health care authorities must not become contented with the existing pediatric care services just because demographic changes require that the nation should invest more in care of the older population. PMID:10567149

  14. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  15. European National Society Cardiovascular Journals

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso, F.; Ambrosio, G.; Pinto, F.J.; van der Wall, E.E.

    2008-01-01

    Anesti Kondili MD, Djamaleddine Nibouche MD, Karlen Adamyan MD, Kurt Huber MD, Hugo Ector MD, Izet Masic MD, Rumiana Tarnovska MD, Mario Ivanusa MD, Vladimír Stane˘k MD, Jørgen Videbæk MD, Mohamed Hamed MD, Alexandras Laucevicius MD, Pirjo Mustonen MD, Jean-Yves Artigou MD, Ariel Cohen MD, Mamanti Rogava MD, Michael Böhm MD, Eckart Fleck MD, Gerd Heusch MD, Rainer Klawki MD, Panos Vardas MD, Christodoulos Stefanadis MD, József Tenczer MD, Massimo Chiariello MD, Aleksandras Laucevicius MD, Joseph Elias MD, Halima Benjelloun MD, Olaf Rødevand MD, Piotr Kul/akowski MD, Edvard Apetrei MD, Victor A. Lusov MD, Rafael G. Oganov MD, Velibor Obradovic MD, Gabriel Kamensky MD, Miran F. Kenda MD, Christer Höglund MD, Thomas F. Lüscher MD, René Lerch MD, Moufid Jokhadar MD, Habib Haouala MD, Vedat Sansoy MD, Valentin Shumakov MD, Adam Timmis MD. (European National Society Cardiovascular Journals Editors, see Appendix for complete affiliations) PMID:18665206

  16. The Knowledge Accelerating the Society Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šmíd, Jaroslav; Sakál, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The formation of appropriate conditions can accelerate the society development. According to the existing definitions, the society can be viewed as mankind as a whole, or a state, a region or a group of businessmen. This paper extends and supplements of the contribution [1]. It deals with the knowledge accelerating the society development using the modified formal notation of the society development according to [2]. The open innovation concept [3] presents the intentional use of external knowledge flow. This paper deals with the intentional use of knowledge in time.

  17. The worshipful Society of Apothecaries of London.

    PubMed

    Hunting, P

    2004-01-01

    The Society of Apothecaries is both a City livery company and an examining authority for the medical profession. Founded in 1617 by the royal apothecary Gideon de Laune leading a breakaway group from the Grocers' Company, the Society was instrumental in raising the status of apothecaries as general practitioners. Under the Apothecaries' Act (1815) the Society examined for the LSA and it now awards the LMSSA (Licence in Medicine and Surgery of the Society of Apothecaries) and postgraduate diplomas, while maintaining the civic, charitable, and ceremonial traditions of a livery company of the City of London. PMID:14760181

  18. Children's rights, parents' prerogatives, and society's obligations.

    PubMed

    Westman, J C

    1999-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that parents do not need specifically defined rights. They have prerogatives that flow from the right of their children to nurturing and protective parenting. The idea of individual rights springs from the vulnerability of human beings in the face of stronger forces. The most vulnerable individuals are children. For this reason, human rights ought to begin with the rights of children in our society and in their families. This article discusses individual rights, society's expectations of parents and children, parental prerogatives and liabilities, parenthood as a developmental stage in the life cycle, parenthood as the foundation of society, and society's obligation to support parenthood. PMID:10422355

  19. Mobilising Data in a Knowledge Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel; Wadhwa, Kush; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Noorman, Merel

    2016-04-01

    We address how the open data movement is fostering change in institutions, in data, and in social participation in the mobilisation of knowledge society. The idea of a knowledge society has been raised over the last two decades but the transition to such as society has not been realised. Up to the present time, discussion about a knowledge society have largely focused on a knowledge economy and information society rather than a mobilisation to a knowledge society. These debates have, however, taken place before the rise of open data and big data and the development of an open data movement. We consider the role of the open data movement in fostering transformation to a knowledge society. The characteristics of the open data movement that include the strong conviction of the value of open data for society, the attention to the institutional aspects of making data open in an inclusive way, the practical focus on the technological infrastructure are key in mobilising a knowledge society. At the heart of any mobilisation is an emerging open data ecosystem and new ways of producing and using data - whether 'born digital' data, digitised data or big data - and how that data, when made openly available, can be used in a knowledgeable way by societal actors.

  20. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Both meteorology and optical conditions are crucial for selecting the best site to host extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European project (E-ELT). For the E-ELT, a year-long meteorological campaign was performed at our two reference sites, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Cerro Ventarrones (very close to the VLT site at Paranal), and at other sites also considered as alternatives to the reference sites: Aklim, Macón, and Izaña (Observatorio del Teide; OT). In this article, we present a statistical analysis of the ground meteorological properties recorded at these sites, making use of automatic weather stations (AWSs) equipped with standard meteorological sensors providing the air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, using standard procedures across all sites. Meteorology offers but one discriminant in the complicated question of where to site such a major facility as the E-ELT (other factors being seeing, local geology, the economics of the logistics, etc.), both for determining the feasibility of telescope and instrumentation design and construction and for determining the useful observing time. However, the final decision of where to locate a major telescope depends in part on all these—and other—considerations and not on any one criterion alone. In summary, for 90% of the nighttime, the wind speed is lower than 18 m s-1, the telescope operational limit at all the sites except Macón. For this reason, Macón was discarded in the final site selection as, for 25% of the time, the wind speed is greater than 17 m s-1. The smallest nighttime temperature gradient is at ORM, whereas the lowest mean relative humidity value is reached at the Ventarrones site. Izaña was discarded in the site selection study from the very beginning due to lack of funding to install further site-testing equipement (e.g., Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor-Differential Image

  1. Regional ground surface temperature mapping from meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorelli, S.; Kohl, T.

    2003-04-01

    The evaluation of ground surface temperature (GST) represents a common aspect of applied and general geothermal research. The main focus of this study is a country-wide GST investigation for Switzerland because of its well-known impact on low-enthalpy resources, like borehole heat exchanger (BHE) utilization. Using mainly meteorological data the GST distribution was determined by different approaches. Firstly, the actual GST data from the last 20 years measured at the meteorological stations of the Swiss Meteorological Institute (SMI) were analysed by determining the altitude dependence in the range of 200 - 1800 m a.s.l.. Secondly, the correlation between GST and surface exposition was investigated. Contrary to previous publications no universal correlation was found, due to different meteorological conditions over short distances. Finally, an approach considering meteorologically relevant data like soil moisture, wind speed, vegetation cover and vegetation height is discussed on the example of a complete data set. The measured GST was well reproduced for the case of low vegetation, except when covered by snow. Other locations like urban areas or forests could not be tested. Due to the complexity of physical interaction and the necessary assessment of large data set this approach is not suitable for regional GST determination to dimension of BHE systems. A relationship between GST and air temperature (Tair) was defined based on the data from the meteorological stations. We found the difference between GST and Tair to be constant over a long altitude range up to ~1000 m a.s.l.. By further processing an existing Tair map was converted into the first GST map of Switzerland. GST values extrapolated from boreholes represent independent data sources which were used to verify this new map up to an altitude of 1800 m a.s.l.. Generally a fit with a standard deviation of 1.0 K was achieved, but locally deviations of 2 K can occur. The new GST map of Switzerland provides

  2. Regional ground surface temperature mapping from meteorological data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signorelli, S.; Kohl, T.

    2004-02-01

    Evaluating ground surface temperature (GST) is common in applied and general geothermal research. Our main focus here is investigating GST for Switzerland because of its well-known impact on low-enthalpy resources, like borehole heat exchanger (BHE) utilization. Using mainly meteorological data, we determined the present-day GST distribution through different approaches. First, we analyzed the actual GST data from the last 20 years measured at the meteorological stations of the Swiss Meteorological Institute (SMI) by investigating recent climatic history and annual variation behavior. Recent climate change seems to have a higher impact on Alpine regions than on the Alpine Foreland. Next, we determined the GST altitude dependence in the range of 200-1800 m a.s.l., using nonlinear fitting approaches and investigated the relationship between GST and surface exposure. Contrary to previous publications, no universal correlation between GST and surface exposure was found, due to local and rapid changing meteorological conditions. Finally, we used a complete data set to consider meteorologically relevant data like soil moisture, wind speed, and vegetation cover and height. The measured GST was well reproduced for the case of low vegetation, except when covered by snow and for days of subzero surface air temperature (SAT). Other locations like urban areas could not be tested. Due to the complexity of physical interaction and the resulting assessment of large data sets, this approach is not suitable for determining regional GST distribution which we need as an input for BHE modeling. A relationship between GST and SAT was defined based on the data from the meteorological stations. By applying nonlinear approaches, we established three different altitude zones that require individual consideration. By further processing, an existing SAT map was converted into the first GST map of Switzerland. To verify this new map within the range of validity (up to altitudes of 1500 m a

  3. Human identity and the evolution of societies.

    PubMed

    Moffett, Mark W

    2013-09-01

    Human societies are examined as distinct and coherent groups. This trait is most parsimoniously considered a deeply rooted part of our ancestry rather than a recent cultural invention. Our species is the only vertebrate with society memberships of significantly more than 200. We accomplish this by using society-specific labels to identify members, in what I call an anonymous society. I propose that the human brain has evolved to permit not only the close relationships described by the social brain hypothesis, but also, at little mental cost, the anonymous societies within which such alliances are built. The human compulsion to discover or invent labels to "mark" group memberships may originally have been expressed in hominins as vocally learned greetings only slightly different in function from chimpanzee pant hoots (now known to be society-specific). The weight of evidence suggests that at some point, conceivably early in the hominin line, the distinct groups composed of several bands that were typical of our ancestors came to be distinguished by their members on the basis of multiple labels that were socially acquired in this way, the earliest of which would leave no trace in the archaeological record. Often overlooked as research subjects, these sizable fission-fusion communities, in recent egalitarian hunter-gatherers sometimes 2,000 strong, should consistently be accorded the status of societies, in the same sense that this word is used to describe tribes, chiefdoms, and other cultures arising later in our history. The capacity of hunter-gatherer societies to grow sufficiently populous that not all members necessarily recognize one another would make the transition to larger agricultural societies straightforward. Humans differ from chimpanzees in that societal labels are essential to the maintenance of societies and the processes giving birth to new ones. I propose that anonymous societies of all kinds can expand only so far as their labels can remain

  4. EVALUATING THE USE OF OUTPUTS FROM COMPREHENSIVE METEOROLOGICAL MODELS IN AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently used dispersion models, such as the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD), process routinely available meteorological observations to construct model inputs. Thus, model estimates of concentrations depend on the availability and quality of Meteorological observations, as we...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF MESOSCALE AIR QUALITY SIMULATION MODELS. VOLUME 6. USER'S GUIDE TO MESOPAC (MESOSCALE METEOROLOGY PACKAGE)

    EPA Science Inventory

    MESOPAC is a mesoscale meteorological preprocessor program; it is designed to provide meteorological data to regional-scale air quality simulation models. Radiosonde data routinely available from National Weather Service (NWS) radiosonde ('upper air') and surface stations are use...

  6. 4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  7. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  8. Impact of High Resolution Land-Use Data in Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate land use information is important in meteorology for land surface exchanges, in emission modeling for emission spatial allocation, and in air quality modeling for chemical surface fluxes. Currently, meteorology, emission, and air quality models often use outdated USGS Gl...

  9. Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document augments the February 2000 guidance entitled Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications and the March 2008 guidance entitled Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems Volume IV: Meteorological Measurements Version ...

  10. METEOROLOGICAL PROCESSOR FOR REGULATORY MODELS (MPRM-1.1) USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Version 1.1 of Meteorological Processor for Regulatory Models (MPRM) provides a general purpose computer processor for organizing available meteorological data into a format suitable for use by air quality dispersion models. Specifically, the processor is designed to accommodate ...

  11. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  12. William Russ Pugh's remarkable life: natural scientist, innovative anaesthetist and founding member of the Royal Society of Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Paull, J D

    2011-07-01

    While well known in anaesthetic circles for being the first to provide ether anaesthesia for a surgical procedure in June 1847 in Launceston, Tasmania, William Russ Pugh's achievements in the field of natural history are less well known. He personally assisted Count Peter de Strzelecki in the chemical analysis of Australian coal and mineral samples and provided the laboratory space and equipment. His analytic skills were utilised by coroners in cases of poisoning. He was consulted about a ship's cargo which threatened to spontaneously combust in Launceston's port. He was a founding member of the Tasmanian Society and subsequently of the Royal Society of Tasmania. He made many presentations on geology, zoology, botany, mineralogy and meteorology to meetings of both Societies. These scientific interests may have provided the knowledge and motivation which encouraged Pugh to proceed so confidently with the introduction of ether anaesthesia. PMID:21916111

  13. An airborne meteorological data collection system using satellite relay (ASDAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, J. W.; Lindow, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an airborne data acquisition and communication system for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This system known as ASDAR, the Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay, consists of a microprocessor based controller, time clock, transmitter and antenna. Together they acquire meteorological and position information from existing aircraft systems on B-747 aircraft, convert and format these, and transmit them to the ground via the GOES meteorological satellite series. The development and application of the ASDAR system is described with emphasis on unique features. Performance to date is exceptional, providing horizon-to-horizon coverage of aircraft flights. The data collected is of high quality and is considered a valuable addition to the data base from which NOAA generates its weather forecasts.

  14. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  15. An Overview of the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis; Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) acts as a bridge between research and operations by transitioning technology to improve weather support to the Shuttle and American space program. It is a NASA entity operated under a tri-agency agreement by NASA, the US Air Force, and the National Weather Service (NWS). The AMU contract is managed by NASA, operated by ENSCO, Inc. personnel, and is collocated with Range Weather Operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The AMU is tasked by its customers in the 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and the NWS in Melbourne, FL with projects whose results help improve the weather forecast for launch, landing, and ground operations. This presentation describes the history behind the formation of the AMU, its working relationships and goals, how it is tasked by its customers, and examples of completed tasks.

  16. Active layer dynamics and arctic hydrology and meteorology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Man`s impact on the environment is increasing with time. To be able to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on an ecosystems, it is necessary first to understand all facets of how the ecosystems works: what the main processes (physical, biological, chemical) are, at what rates they proceed, and how they can be manipulated. Arctic ecosystems are dominated by physical processes of energy exchange. This project has concentrated on a strong program of hydrologic and meteorologic data collection, to better understand dominant physical processes. Field research focused on determining the natural annual and diurnal variability of meteorologic and hydrologic variables, especially those which may indicate trends in climatic change. Comprehensive compute models are being developed to simulate physical processes occurring under the present conditions and to simulate processes under the influence of climatic change.

  17. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Reactions to Noise Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Fields, James M.

    2004-01-01

    More than 80,000 residents' responses to transportation noise at different times of year provide the best, but imprecise, statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. Annoyance with noise is found to be slightly statistically significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in a seven-year study in the Netherlands. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year find noise annoyance is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. Meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days do not appear to have any more effect on reactions than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.

  18. Architecture of scalability file system for meteorological observation data storing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botygin, I. A.; Popov, V. N.; Tartakovsky, V. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    The approach allows to organize distributed storage of large amounts of diverse data in order to further their parallel processing in high performance cluster systems for problems of climatic processes analysis and forecasting. For different classes of data was used the practice of using meta descriptions - like formalism associated with certain categories of resources. Development of a metadata component was made based on an analysis of data of surface meteorological observations, atmosphere vertical sounding, atmosphere wind sounding, weather radar observing, observations from satellites and others. A common set of metadata components was formed for their general description. The structure and content of the main components of a generalized meta descriptions are presented in detail on the example of reporting meteorological observations from land and sea stations.

  19. Planetary meteorology - A new perspective on the earth's weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joels, K.

    1976-01-01

    Meteorological observations of other planets which may contribute to an understanding of the meteorological processes on the earth are discussed. The high solar input and extremely low rotation rate of Venus simplify the analysis of the interaction of solar energy with the atmosphere. The dust present in the atmosphere of Mars may provide a useful model for studying the effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere of earth. Observations of Mars may also be expected to yield information on the evolution of severe storms and on atmospheric tides. The belts and zones in the Jovian atmosphere bear some similarities to cyclones on earth, although they are produced differently; careful modeling of Jupiter's atmosphere may cast light on terrestrial cyclonic activity.

  20. Meteorological effects on long-range outdoor sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klug, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time signals. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.

  1. The Hanford meteorological data collection system and data base

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, G.L.

    1988-04-01

    The Hanford Meterological Station (HMS) provides meteorological and climatological services to the Department of Energy in Richland and its contractors. On a 24-hour basis, the HMS measures, records, and archives meteorological data collected hourly throughout the year. The current data base consists of five components: wind telemetry stations, doppler acoustic sounders (SODAR), 200-ft towers, 410-ft tower at the HMS, and surface weather observations at the HMS. The wind telemetry station data, 410-ft tower data, and surface weather observation data are archived into yearly ACSII files, and the remaining components are permanently archived in binary from on magnetic tape. The future data base will consist of the same five components, but all components will be permanently archived into yearly ASCII files. Quality assurance computer programs will be written to validate the current data base, and data archival program will be written to improve the archival method that is currently used. 7 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Commercialisation in the provision of meteorological services in New Zealand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, J. Thomas; Martin, John R.; Gordon, Neil D.; Grant, Malcolm A.

    1997-09-01

    There have been significant reforms in New Zealand of government management in general and of the science and transport sectors in particular. The impact of the reforms on the provision of meteorological services is discussed as an example of the application of the general reform thrust to a specialist technical area. The eventual outcome was the establishment of Meteorological Service of New Zealand Ltd (MetService) as a commercial company, trading in the weather forecasting market but remaining under Crown ownership. At the same time the National Institute of Water and Atmosphere (NIWA) was established. It includes the climatic responsibilities and much of the scientific research component of the former NZMS. It too operates commercially and is Crown owned. Unlike MetService, NIWA is not required to return a dividend to its owners. The procedures leading to the establishment of these new organisations, their mode of operation and their initial successful performance are described.

  3. Extreme Meteorological Parameters During Space Shuttle Pad Exposure Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Barry C.; Overbey, B. Glenn

    2004-01-01

    During the 113 missions of the Space Transportation System (STS), the Space Shuttle fleet has been exposed to the elements on the launch pad for a total of 4195 days. This paper provides a summary of the historical record of the meteorological extremes encountered by the Space Shuttle fleet during the pad exposure period. Parameters included are temperature, dew point, relative humidity, wind speed, sea level pressure and precipitation. All the data presented are archived by the Marshall Space Flight Center Environments Group, and were obtained from a combination of surface observations and meteorological towers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. Data are provided from the first launch of the STS in 1981 through the launch of STS-107 in 2003.

  4. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  5. Extension of surface data by use of meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giddings, L. E.

    1976-01-01

    Ways of using meteorological satellite data to extend surface data are summarized. Temperature models are prepared from infrared data from ITOS/NOAA, NIMBUS, SMS/GOES, or future LANDSAT satellites. Using temperatures for surface meteorological stations as anchors, an adjustment is made to temperature values for each pixel in the model. The result is an image with an estimated temperature for each pixel. This provides an economical way of producing detailed temperature information for data-sparse areas, such as are found in underdeveloped countries. Related uses of these satellite data are also given, including the use of computer prepared cloud-free composites to extend climatic zones, and their use in discrimination of reflectivity-thermal regime zones.

  6. Analysis of meteorological and radiological data for selected fallout episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office has analyzed the meteorological and radiological data collected for the following atmospheric nuclear tests: TRINITY; EASY of the Tumbler-Snapper series; ANNIE, NANCY, BADGER, SIMON, and HARRY of the Upshot-Knothole series; BEE and ZUCCHINI of the Teapot series; BOLTZMANN and SMOKY of the Plumbbob series; and SMALL BOY of the Dominic II series. These tests were chosen as having the greatest impact on nearby downwind populated locations, contributing approximately 80% of the collective estimated exposure. This report describes the methods of analysis used in deriving fallout-pattern contours and estimated fallout arrival times. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of estimating fallout arrival times from the meteorological data are described. Comparisons of fallout patterns resulting from these analyses with earlier analyses show insignificant differences in the areas covered or people exposed.

  7. Meteorological conditions of the Danube flood in year 1895

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Marian; Gera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The flood in year 1895 belongs to the highest floods on the Danube River and its tributaries. The aim of this contribution is to clarify meteorological causes of this flood. Analysis is based on air temperature and precipitation measurements of some meteorological stations from the Central and southeastern Europe and data from NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis of daily composites. Moreover we bring knowledge gained by studies of materials regarding the historical flood on the Danube River and its tributaries in 1895 as reflected in local contemporary press (Preßburger Zeitung and Wiener Zeitung) in the period from late February till the end of April 1895. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-0303-11 and No. APVV-0015-10.

  8. Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    2005-01-01

    This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…

  9. Organizational Productivity in Post-Industrial Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Dick

    1978-01-01

    The term "post-industrial society" denotes the fact that more than half of a society's economy is devoted to service rather than to the production of goods. Discusses prospects for increasing productivity in service organizations and argues that irrational elements are built into service organizations as a consequence of the nature of the support…

  10. Teacher Education in a Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    These are strange times for teacher education in a democratic society because globalization dominates economic, political, and technological interfaces among social institutions, nation-states, and the world. These are also dangerous times for teacher education in a democratic society because the expansion of neoliberalism as form of contemporary…

  11. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  12. State or Society? We Need Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jane; Appleton, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Big Society provides inspiration--working "bottom up" to promote "collective action, reciprocity and a new, more engaged relationship between local people and public services". With so much written about the theory of the Big Society, this seems like an ideal time to put a little more practical detail into the mix. The authors argue…

  13. Autonomy and Liberalism in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    That children should be educated to be ideal citizens, capable of making rational and informed decisions, has been proposed in cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to current societies. In particular, societies that favour liberalism preach the primacy of the individual autonomous citizen and a concomitant tolerance for others. In modern…

  14. Lessons from the United Kingdom's Royal Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Henry Lee

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating its 350th anniversary as a scholarly association devoted to scientific pursuits, the Royal Society (UK), in March 2010, published "The Scientific Century: Securing Our Future Prosperity." In its report, the Royal Society argues against both the notion of withdrawing public investment from its world-class universities and the haphazard,…

  15. The Impact of Science on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James; And Others

    The impact of science on society is examined in this publication's coverage of a series of public lectures that commemorated the 25th anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Edited versions of four speeches are presented which address the impact of science on society from the time of humanity's first significant…

  16. Naming and Address in Afghan Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miran, M. Alam

    Forms of address in Afghan society reflect the relationships between the speakers as well as the society's structure. In Afghan Persian, or Dari, first, second, and last names have different semantic dimensions. Boys' first names usually consist of two parts or morphemes, of which one may be part of the father's name. Girls' names usually consist…

  17. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  18. The Black Man in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  19. Beyond the Learning Society: The Learning World?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preece, Julia

    2006-01-01

    In today's post-modern world of difference, and amidst globalising forces of insidious convergence, this paper explores how far the concepts of lifelong learning and learning society embrace international worldviews. It conducts a brief excursion into literature that has explored learning society models. It also looks at an increasing number of…

  20. ISAE- The International Society for Applied Ethology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was created in 1966 as the Society for Veterinary Ethology, with a primary membership of U.K.-based veterinarians. It quickly expanded to encompass researchers and clinicians working in all areas of applied animal behavior and all over the world....

  1. Universities, the Social Sciences, and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesmazoglou, Stephanos

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the university's role in contributing to a civil society offers examples from the recent history of Yugoslavia showing that universities have frequently contributed to chauvinism, intolerance, racism, and ethnic cleansing. Urges institutions of higher education to foster a civil society by emphasizing: (1) an understanding of the…

  2. Are Teachers Teaching for a Knowledge Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Boce, Elona

    2010-01-01

    Many countries whose economies are in transition have initiated ambitious education reforms intended to modernize their education systems to better respond to the needs of new social and economic realities. Albania is a good example of a society that is emerging from a closed planned socialist system and moving fast to an open society and…

  3. Knowledge Society Discourse and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi; Hoffman, David

    2008-01-01

    The growing importance of knowledge, research and innovation are changing the social role of universities in the globalized world. One of the most popular concepts used to approach these changes in post-industrial and post-modern societies is the concept of "Knowledge Society". In this paper, we will analyse the roles higher education is expected…

  4. The Information Society, Schools, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balle, Francis

    This report begins by examining the transition from the industrial society to the informatics society which began in the 1960s, when the newspaper's monopoly on information was destroyed by radio and television, followed by the development of an information-based economy. The salient features of the new area are identified as: (1) the ever…

  5. Tolerance and Education in Multicultural Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiater, Werner, Ed.; Manschke, Doris, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the concepts of tolerance and education in multicultural societies. It focuses on different aspects of multiculturalism in these societies and considers possible conflicts and tensions as well as best-practice examples of co-existence among different cultural groups. Special emphasis is placed on educational issues and schools.…

  6. America's Scholarly Societies Raise Their Flags Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Reports that greater numbers of scholarly societies, though American in name, are increasingly international in membership and outlook. Suggests that this trend has been driven by the expanding global outlook of scholars, the collapse of communism, and growth of the Internet. Efforts to encourage local professional societies, fears of American…

  7. The Knowledge Society and Educational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunker, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This article examines diverse approaches claiming to analyse new modes of connecting knowledge and society: to depict the rise of the knowledge society or dealing with the social analysis of a new type of capitalism in the shape of informational capitalism. Against these backgrounds it highlights the possible role of education in overcoming the…

  8. American Nuclear Society Exchanges of Information

    SciTech Connect

    Octave J. Du Temple

    2000-06-04

    This report describes the helpfulness of various American Nuclear Society (ANS) publications: the ''ANS Bylaws and Rules'', position papers, nuclear standards, buyers guides and directories, and Radwaste Solutions. The report's author stresses the weakness of all societies in interfacing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the ANS's attempt to be more aware of the IAEA's services.

  9. Synchronous meteorological satellite system description document, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipkin, F. B.

    1971-01-01

    The structural design, analysis, and mechanical integration of the synchronous meteorological satellite system are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) spacecraft configuration, (2) structural design, (3) static load tests, (4) fixed base sinusoidal vibration survey, (5) flight configuration sinusoidal vibration tests, (6) spacecraft acoustic test, and (7) separation and shock test. Descriptions of the auxiliary propulsion subsystem, the apogee boost motor, communications system, and thermal control subsystem are included.

  10. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  11. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  12. Meteorological Conditions Experienced During the Orion Pad Abort Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teets, Edward H., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Presentation describes the atmosphere at launch minus one day and a forecast associated for launch. Also presented is the day of launch observations from weather balloons, the 924 MHz wind profiler, and four Surface Automatic Meteorological System (SAMS) from nearby locations. Details will be provided illustrating the terrain and atmosphere interactions that produced strong winds at the launch site and calm winds at the balloon launch facility just 3 miles away.

  13. Web services for open meteorological data in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, J.; Anslow, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, British Columbia suffered from a dearth of publicly and easily accessible (open) meteorological data. While Environment Canada (EC) maintains approximately 250 active in situ weather stations, the remaining meteorological and climate data -- which represent the majority of observations made in the province -- have been gathered by the provincial government within several disparate, ministry-specific networks. Those observations have traditionally been either inaccessible to non-government employees or only available on a network-by-network basis by contacting network managers and requesting custom data queries. Under a collaborative agreement between several provincial ministries, private industry and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) and with support from EC, the entire province's meteorological archive has been collected into a single database at PCIC and made publicly accessible via web services and open data protocols. In this paper, we describe our web services, built on open-source software, which provide users access to the full catalogue of BC's meteorological observations through a simple user interface. Our geographic web services provide users access to station locations using Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Mapping Service and Web Feature Service protocols. We use OpenDAP to provide users download access to over a century of weather observations through a variety of open formats such as NetCDF, HDF, ASCII, and others. The goals of these web services are twofold. We primarily aim to provide planners, scientists and researchers with timely and comprehensive climate data as conveniently and efficiently as possible. A natural consequence of this is to enable the flexibility to expand the volume and types of data served and to facilitate more sophisticated analysis regarding past and future climate.

  14. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  15. Relationship of PM fine to ozone and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, S.H.; Cox, W.M.

    1998-12-31

    In this study, the authors have analyzed the ambient PM2.5 concentration data collected in the US during the period between 1988 and 1993 to examine the relationship of PM fine episodes to ozone and meteorology. The data base includes AIRS data, IMPROVE data, and the California special monitoring data. To minimize the influence of different data collection methods and to allow a fair comparison between urban and rural episodes, they have used a normalization technique of applying temporal data distribution parameters to select PM2.5 episodes. Among the 81 selected regional PM2.5 episode days more than half (46) of them occurred in the summer. The synoptic analysis results suggest that PM2.5 episodes are essentially associated with the summertime stagnant high pressure systems in most parts of the United States except for California. In California, the influence of cold season stagnant high pressure systems and topographic trapping of pollutants are the key triggering mechanisms for regional PM2.5 episodes. While the PM2.5 episodes and ozone episodes are so closely related in the eastern United States, they are almost totally decoupled in California. This is confirmed by the regression analyses of PM2.5 versus ozone and meteorology which show that ozone is the best predictor for PM2.5 in the East but not even close to being a significant predictor in California. Both the synoptic and regression analyses suggest that pollutant transport (as revealed in the wind speed and direction) is much more important to high PM2.5 concentrations in the East than in the West. The episodic relationship of PM2.5 and meteorology are analyzed using a spline function to fit through the 99th percentile of all paired PM2.5-meteorology data in a region.

  16. The Knowledge Society: Refounding the Socius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, Carel S.

    The theme 'knowledge society' can have many meanings depending on who defines it. But can knowledge really define society since there are many other qualifying adjectives for society as well. What one should be preferred? Is knowledge a better qualifying term than risk, information, technology, or any other one? These questions need answers. There are many dreams and counter dreams regarding the ideal society. Some dreams, like Unesco's dream, focus on the self-evident issues in the knowledge society, or what people consider to be self-evident, or what is taken for granted, as if no exploration is required: issues like access to knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, etc. These dreams contain a threat despite promises of a future that cannot be achieved. Other dreams, like those of Ars Industrialis, dig deeper and look for founding possibilities, take nothing for granted, search for the original, the defining principles. These dreams bring hope and light, a future to live for.

  17. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  18. Teaching Guidelines for the Observance of World Meteorological Day (23 March).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the establishment and goals of the World Meteorological Organization and the World Meteorological Day (WMD). Includes teaching objectives for upper elementary and lower secondary school teachers and provides activities which integrate the study of meteorology with language, history, geography, mathematics, science, physical education,…

  19. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in...-satellite earth receivers operating in the Meteorological-Satellite Service in the 1675-1710 MHz band,...

  20. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  1. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  2. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  3. The benefit valuation method and analytical study of profession meteorological service in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, ZhenHe; Sun, ZhaoBo; Wang, ShouRong; Song, ShanYun; Wang, BangZhong

    2007-09-01

    This paper analyzes the position and function of the meteorological work in the whole national economy construction, studies the concept, classification and characteristics of the meteorological service, focuses on the basic thoughts of the benefit valuation of profession meteorological service, determines the basic methods of studying the high meteorology-sensitive industry, analyzes the basic methods of determining the profession annual value ratio of production occupied by the high meteorology-sensitive industry. Based on the above works, the Chinese high meteorology-hypersensitive industry is put forward, the benefit of meteorological service of the typical operation of the high meteorology-sensitive industry is analyzed, the profession annual value ratio of production occupied by the high meteorology-sensitive industry is obtained, and the benefit of the national profession meteorological service is initially assessed through the expert valuation method (Dephi method). At the present level of meteorological service and economic development, the annual mean efficiency of meteorological service is no less than 279 billion 3 million yuan.( The cost is not included.)

  4. Trends in meteorological and agricultural droughts in Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golian, S.; Mazdiyasni, O.; AghaKouchak, A.

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate characteristics of meteorological and agricultural droughts and their trends in Iran, as well as several subregions with different climate conditions from 1980 to 2013. The Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and Standardized Soil Moisture Index (SSI) are used as the primary indicators of meteorological and agricultural droughts, respectively. This study assesses historical droughts using the Multivariate Standardized Drought Index (MSDI), which provides a composite model of meteorological-agricultural drought. Furthermore, this study discusses the behavior of MSDI relative to the other indices (SPI and SSI) over different climatic conditions ranging from humid, semiarid, and hyperarid regions. The Mann-Kendall trend test shows that the northern, northwestern, and central parts of Iran have experienced significant drying trends at a 95 % confidence level. However, no statistically significant drying trend was observed in the eastern part of Iran. The most severe drought across the country occurred between 1998 and 2001, with approximately 80 % of the country experiencing an exceptional drought (<2 % probability of occurrence). This event coincided with a prolonged cold phase El Niño-Southern Oscillation (La Niña) that led to persistently cold sea surface temperatures in the eastern Pacific and warm sea surface temperatures in the Indian and western Pacific.

  5. Model Simulations of CO2 Transport Using Assimilated Meteorological Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaea, S. R.; Zhu, Z.; Erickson, D. J.; Pawson, S.; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The numerical simulation of CO2 transport (and other tracers such as CO, CH4, and biomass burning tracers) in the atmosphere is required to determine the fate of anthropogenic source gases. Estimation of the CO2 exchange between the ocean surface, the terrestrial biosphere, and the atmosphere is of first-order importance to understanding the global carbon cycle and the processes that are most crucial in determining the atmospheric CO2 concentration. Forward transport simulations have been conducted using two-dimensional, time-dependent grids of average surface fluxes (from TRANSCOM) and three-dimensional wind data from a prototype data assimilation system (FV-DAS) run by the Goddard Data Assimilation Office. The objective is to better understand the contribution of meteorological variability to changes in CO2 and other constituents, By accurately accounting for meteorological variability, through use of assimilated winds, we hope to better characterize the distribution of surface sources and sinks (and chemistry where applicable). With assimilated meteorology such chemistry/transport runs provide the basic framework to analyze existing (and proposed) measurement data on a point-by-point, real-time basis. We compare with measured CO2 concentration gradients on a daily, seasonal, regional, and interhemispheric basis to examine the consistency of sources, sinks, and transport formulation. We will also examine the inter-annual variability of atmospheric CO2 due to atmospheric circulation changes using longer runs with assimilated winds.

  6. Role of Surface Characteristics in Urban Meteorology and Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailor, David Jean

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result in higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4^circ C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  7. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  8. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, E.; Cosma, S.; Benoit, R.; Binder, P.; Buzzi, A.; Kaufmann, P.

    In the framework of the RAPHAEL EU project, a series of past heavy precipitation events has been simulated with different meteorological models. Rainfall hindcasts and forecasts have been produced by four models in use at various meteorological services or research centres of Italy, Canada, France and Switzerland. The paper is focused on the comparison of the computed precipitation fields with the available surface observations. The comparison is carried out for three meteorological situations which lead to severe flashflood over the Toce-Ticino catchment in Italy (6599 km2) or the Ammer catchment (709 km2) in Germany. The results show that all four models reproduced the occurrence of these heavy precipitation events. The accuracy of the computed precipitation appears to be more case-dependent than model-dependent. The sensitivity of the computed rainfall to the boundary conditions (hindcast v. forecast) was found to be rather weak, indicating that a flood forecasting system based upon a numerical meteo-hydrological simulation could be feasible in an operational context.

  9. Seeking key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2016-02-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm which develops in northern Australia, are analyzed with the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the storm's convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study (Crook, 2001), wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, convective available potential energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high-resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analyses are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector's development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection, defined in terms of vertical velocity, largely contributes to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting versus low-level moisture, convective available potential energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. However, Crook's hypothesis of low-level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can only be applied if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to assess how the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector's development in terms of percentage.

  10. Seeking for key meteorological parameters to better understand Hector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentile, S.; Ferretti, R.

    2015-06-01

    Twelve Hector events, a storm developing in the northern Australia, are analyzed to the aim of identifying the main meteorological parameters involved in the convective development. Based on Crook's ideal study tep{Crook} wind speed and direction, wind shear, water vapor, Convective Available Potential Energy and type of convection are the parameters used for this analysis. Both European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis and high resolution simulations from the Fifth-Generation Mesoscale Model (MM5) are used. The MM5 simulations are used to connect the mean vertical velocity to the total condensate at the maximum stage and to study the dynamics of the storms. The ECMWF analysis are used to evaluate the initial conditions and the environmental fields contributing to Hector development. The analysis suggests that the strength of convection is largely contributing to the vertical distribution of hydrometeors. The role of total condensate and mean lifting vs. low level moisture, Convective Available Potential Energy, surface wind and direction is analyzed for shear and no-shear conditions to evaluate the differences between type A and B for real events. Results confirm the tendency suggested by Crook's analysis. On the other hand, Crook's hypothesis of low level moisture as the only parameter that differentiates between type A and B can be applied only if the events develop in the same meteorological conditions. Crook's tests also helped to asses how the the meteorological parameters contribute to Hector development in terms of percentage.

  11. Categorisation of Drought Indices Used in Agricultural Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Z.

    2009-09-01

    The research and the operative work use many type of indices in everyday meteorological practice. The goal of present summary is to group the indices used for identification of drought phenomenon in the agricultural meteorology practice. Besides summarising the indices the different drought definitions are evaluated. Drought indices seem to be the simplest tools in drought analysis. The more or less well known and popular indices have been collected and compared not only with the well known simple but more complicated water balance and so called ‘recursive' indices beside few ones use remotely sensed data, mainly satellite born information. The indices are classified into five groups, namely ‘precipitation', ‘water balance', ‘soil moisture', ‘recursive' and ‘remote sensing' indices. For every group typical expressions are given and analysed for their performance and comparability. Taking into consideration that the drought is a compound concept few drought definitions are examined together with the drought indices. As any classification the presented categories have got their limitation but the hope is that as wide review is given as it is possible using mainly meteorological data and information.

  12. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  13. Compendium of meteorological space programs, satellites, and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubach, Leland L.; Ng, Carolyn

    1988-01-01

    This compendium includes plans and events known to the authors through January 1987. Compilation of the information began in 1967. This document is intended: (1) as a historical record of all satellites and instrumentation that has been useful for meteorological research or operational uses; and (2) as a working document to be used to assist meteorologists in identifying meteorological satellites, locating data from these satellites, and understanding experiment operation which is related to satellite data that may be of interest to them. A summary of all known launched satellites for all countries and their experiments, which were concerned with meteorological operations or research, are included. Programs covered include AEM, Apollo, ATS, Bhaskara, Cosmos, Discoverer, DMSP, DOD, DODGE, EOLE, ERBE, ESSA, Explorer, Gemini, GMS, GOES/SMS, INSAT, IRS, LANDSAT, Mercury, Meteor 1 and 2, Meteosat, Molniya, MOS, Nimbus, NOAA (1-5)/ITOS, NOAA (6,7,D)/TIROS-N, NOAA (8-10, H-J)/ATN, Salyut, Seasat, Shuttle 1, Shuttle 2: Spacelab, Skylab, Soyuz, TIROS, TOPEX, Vanguard, Voskhod, Vostok, and Zond.

  14. Neural networks for sensor fusion of meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Young P.; Measure, Edward M.; Cogan, James L.; Bleiweis, Max

    2001-03-01

    The collection and management of vast quantities of meteorological data, including satellite-based as well as ground- based measurements, is presenting great challenges in the optimal usage of this information. To address these issues, the Army Laboratory has developed neural networks for combining for combining multi-sensor meteorological data for Army battlefield weather forecasting models. As a demonstration of this data fusion methodology, multi-sensor data was taken from the Meteorological Measurement Set Profiler (MMSP-POC) system and from satellites with orbits coinciding with the geographical locations of interest. The MMS Profiler-POC comprises a suite of remote sensing instrumentation and surface measuring devices. Neural network techniques were used to retrieve temperature and wind information from a combination of polar orbiter and/ or geostationary satellite observations and ground-based measurements. Back-propagation neural networks were constructed which use satellite radiances, simulated microwave radiometer measurements, and other ground-based measurements as inputs and produced temperature and wind profiles as outputs. The network was trained with Rawinsonde measurements used as truth-values. The final outcome will be an integrated, merged temperature/wind profile from the surface up to the upper troposphere.

  15. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  16. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  17. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  18. Meteorological variables connected with airborne ragweed pollen in Southern Hungary.

    PubMed

    Makra, L; Juhász, M; Borsos, E; Béczi, R

    2004-09-01

    About 30% of the Hungarian population has some type of allergy, 65% of them have pollen sensitivity, and at least 60% of this pollen sensitivity is caused by ragweed. The short (or common) ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia = Ambrosia elatior) has the most aggressive pollen of all. Clinical investigations prove that its allergenic pollen is the main reason for the most massive, most serious and most long-lasting pollinosis. The air in the Carpathian Basin is the most polluted with ragweed pollen in Europe. The aim of the study is to analyse how ragweed pollen concentration is influenced by meteorological elements in a medium-sized city, Szeged, Southern Hungary. The data basis consists of daily ragweed pollen counts and averages of 11 meteorological parameters for the 5-year daily data set, between 1997 and 2001. The study considers some of the ragweed pollen characteristics for Szeged. Application of the Makra test indicates the same period for the highest pollen concentration as that established by the main pollination period. After performing factor analysis for the daily ragweed pollen counts and the 11 meteorological variables examined, four factors were retained that explain 84.4% of the total variance of the original 12 variables. Assessment of the daily pollen number was performed by multiple regression analysis and results based on deseasonalised and original data were compared. PMID:15103548

  19. Correlation of atmospheric optical turbulence and meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaucher, Gail M. Tirrell

    1989-06-01

    The correlation of meteorological events such as the jet stream, gravity waves and boundary layer circulation with the optical turbulence parameters, the transverse coherence length r sub o and the isoplanatic angle is essential for interpreting and forecasting imaging and laser systems performance. In support of the United States Air Force Relay Mirror Experiment, the Naval Postgraduate School performed a series of six site characterization measurements near Kihei, Maui, during August 1987 to July 1988. Spatial and temporal summaries of atmospheric events corresponding to the optical remote sensor data are presented using meteorological data from the National Weather Service Radiosonde Observation stations, synoptic charts, GOES-WEST infrared satellite images, and four Kihei, Maui rawinsonde datasets. To quantify the correlation between optical turbulence measurements and meteorological phenomena, four methods of calculating C square (T) from rawinsonde data were investigated. Results show that existing rawinsonde systems are inadequate for direct C square (T) calculation. However, moderate improvements in the vertical resolution, the temperature resolution and probe response time, will allow direct calculations of optical turbulence parameters from rawinsonde data.

  20. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied individuals on the…