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Sample records for 2002american meteorological society

  1. American Meteorological Society Embraces Space Weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCoy, Robert; Fisher, Genene

    2011-02-01

    Eight years ago, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) tentatively reached out to the space weather community by scheduling a day-and-a-half Space Weather Symposium (SWS) at its Annual Meeting. That symposium included briefings from operational and research agencies involved with space weather as well as a variety of talks targeting areas of interest common to meteorology and space weather. Topics included data assimilation, connections between the lower and upper atmosphere, new space weather sensors and models, and the economic and social impacts of space weather. That highly successful symposium led to a follow-on SWS every year at the AMS Annual Meeting. These meetings, combined with the release of an AMS policy statement on space weather (see http://www.ametsoc.org/policy/2008spaceweather_amsstatement.html and Fisher [2008]) and related studies in the AMS Policy Program, led the AMS Council to vote on making the space weather discipline a regular part of the society by creating a new Space Weather Committee for the Scientific and Technological Activities Commission (STAC) (http://www.ametsoc.org/stacpges/CommitteeDisplay/CommitteeDisplay.aspx?CC=SW). This is AMS's first new STAC committee in 20 years.

  2. The American Meteorological Society Education Program Model for Climate Science Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinbeck, R. S.; Moran, J. M.; Geer, I. W.; Hopkins, E. J.

    2007-12-01

    A guiding principle of the American Meteorological Society (AMS) Education Program is that public scientific literacy is most effectively achieved through systemic change in the classroom. The AMS, partnering with NOAA, NSF, NASA, the US Navy, and SUNY Brockport, aims for greater public scientific literacy through its successful distance learning programs that convey to pre-college teachers and undergraduates the fundamentals of meteorology, oceanography, and hydrology. The AMS DataStreme teacher-enhancement courses (Atmosphere, Water in the Earth System, and Ocean) have changed the way thousands of pre-college teachers teach and hundreds of thousands of students learn. Furthermore, teachers trained in this program are positioned to contribute to local and statewide curriculum reform. The AMS Online Weather Studies and Online Ocean Studies courses are providing tens of thousands of college undergraduates with engaging and highly motivational learning experiences. DataStreme courses are offered locally and feature mentoring of teacher participants whereas Online undergraduate courses are licensed by AMS for offering by colleges and universities. Integrated components of the AMS model are course website, investigations manual, and customized textbook. A portion of twice-weekly investigations is written to a near real-time situation and posted on the course website. Through its extensive experience with the DataStreme/Online programs, the AMS Education Program is now uniquely poised to assume a national leadership role in climate education by applying its proven teaching/learning model to climate education at the pre-college and undergraduate levels. The AMS model is ideally suited for delivering to teachers and students nationwide the basic understandings and enduring ideas of climate science and the role of the individual and society in climate variability and change. The AMS teaching/learning model incorporates an Earth system perspective, is problem focused, and

  3. The American Meteorological Society and Second Nature: Working Together to Increase Climate Literacy at Minority Serving Institutions Nationwide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brey, J. A.; Geer, I. W.; Mills, E. W.; Kauffman, C.; Nugnes, K. A.; Naik, A.

    2013-12-01

    To raise climate literacy, the American Meteorological Society (AMS) developed AMS Climate Studies, an innovative, undergraduate-level climate science course. With a focus on real-world climate data, the course is a primer for responsible, scientifically-literate participation in the discussion of climate change. Designed to be adaptable to traditional, hybrid, or online instructional settings, AMS Climate Studies has already been adopted by more than 80 institutions since fall 2010. Course materials include a hardcover textbook, an investigations manual, and an online lab component, Current Climate Studies, which is created weekly throughout the semester utilizing resources from the IPCC, the US Global Change Research Program, NASA, and NOAA. AMS Climate Studies is mutually beneficial because AMS enhances coursework with real-world data while NASA, NOAA, and other government agencies reach a much larger audience with the results of their work. With support from NSF and NASA and in partnership with Second Nature, AMS offers the AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project with the goal of training 100 minority-serving institution (MSI) faculty members to implement the climate course on their campus. The Diversity Project consists of an expenses-paid weeklong workshop for MSI faculty members and a follow-up workshop at the next year's AMS Annual Meeting. The initial workshop covers fundamental understandings within AMS Climate Studies and implementation procedures. Highlights of this workshop are presentations from NOAA, NASA, and other government and university climate scientists as well as field trips to science laboratories. In the year following workshop attendance, faculty work within their MSI to implement AMS Climate Studies. Participants are then invited to a second workshop at the AMS Annual Meeting to report back the results of their work. Currently in its second year, the Project has trained 50 MSI faculty members with subsequent workshops to be held throughout

  4. American Meteorological Society (AMS) - The Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) Data and Accessibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    daSilva, Arlindo

    2009-01-01

    The AM Short Course on The Modern Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) data and accessibility will be held on January 11, 2009 preceding the 89th Annual Meeting in Phoenix, Arizona. Preliminary programs, registration, hotel, and general information will be posted on the AMS Web site in mid-September 2008. Retrospective-analyses (or reanalyses) have been established as an important tool in weather and climate research over the last decade. As computer power increases, the data assimilation and modeling systems improve and become more advanced, the input data quality increases and so reanalyses become more reliable. In 2008, NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office began producing a new reanalysis called the Modem Era Retrospective-analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA). The initial data from the reanalysis has been made available to the community and should be complete through 30 years (1979-present) by Fall of 2009. MERRA has taken advantage of the advancement of computing resources to provide users more data than previously available. The native spatial resolution is nominally 1/2 degrees and the surface two dimensional data are one hourly frequency. In addition to the meteorological analysis data, complete mass, energy and momentum budget data and also stratospheric data are provided. The eventual data holdings will exceed 150Tb. In order to facilitate user accessibility to the data, it will be stored in online hard drives (not tape storage) and available through several portals. Subsetting tools will also be available to allow users to tailor their data requests. The goals of this short course are to provide hands on users of reanalyses instruction on MERRA systems and also interactive experience with the online data and access tools. The course is intended for students and research scientists who will be actively interested in accessing and applying MERRA data in their weather, climate or applications work. The course has

  5. Motivational Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  6. Meteorology Online.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  7. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J. (Editor); Schnapf, A.; Diesen, B. C., III; Martin, P. S.; Schwalb, A.; Bandeen, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is presented of the meteorological satellite programs that have been evolving from 1958 to the present, and plans for the future meteorological and environmental satellite systems that are scheduled to be placed into service in the early 1980's are reviewed. The development of the TIROS family of weather satellites, including TIROS, ESSA, ITOS/NOAA, and the present TIROS-N (the third generation operational system) is summarized. The contribution of the Nimbus and ATS technology satellites to the development of the operational-orbiting and geostationary satellites is discussed. Included are descriptions of both the TIROS-N and the DMSP payloads currently under development to assure a continued and orderly growth of these systems into the 1980's.

  8. Meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-10-01

    Meteor-2 (second generation meteorological satellite) and an experimental satellite on which instruments are being tested and modified for the requirements of hydrometeorology and a determination of natural resources are presently operational in the U.S.S.R. Television devices with a 1-10 km terrain image resolution operating in the visible and infrared region are used to determine the space system, velocity and direction of cloud movements and provide information about the snow and ice cover, cyclones, storms, vortices in the atmosphere, and velocity and direction of wind. Images with a 50-1000 m resolution make possible geological and hydrological surveys, an evaluation of the state of vegetation and crops, detection of forest fires, determination of pollution of the atmosphere and sea and determination of optimal fishing regions in the ocean. Measurement of the intensity of atmospheric radiation in narrow infrared regions and very high frequencies allows remote evaluation of the temperature and humidity distribution in the vertical cross section of the Earth's atmosphere.

  9. Titan Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Jonathan

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s methane clouds have received much attention since they were first discovered spectroscopically (Griffith et al. 1998). Titan's seasons evolve slowly, and there is growing evidence of a seasonal response in the regions of methane cloud formation (e.g. Rodriguez et al. 2009). A complete, three-dimensional view of Titan’s clouds is possible through the determination of cloud-top heights from Cassini images (e.g., Ádámkovics et al. 2010). Even though Titan’s surface is warmed by very little sunlight, we now know Titan’s methane clouds are convective, evolving through tens of kilometers of altitude on timescales of hours to days with dynamics similar to clouds that appear on Earth (Porco et al. 2005). Cassini ISS has also shown evidence of rain storms on Titan that produce surface accumulation of methane (Turtle et al. 2009). Most recently, Cassini has revealed a 1000-km-scale, arrow-shaped cloud at the equator followed by changes that appear to be evidence of surface precipitation (Turtle et al. 2011b). Individual convective towers simulated with high fidelity indicate that surface convergence of methane humidity and dynamic lifting are required to trigger deep, precipitating convection (e.g. Barth & Rafkin 2010). The global expanses of these cloud outbursts, the evidence for surface precipitation, and the requirement of dynamic convergence and lifting at the surface to trigger deep convection motivate an analysis of storm formation in the context of Titan’s global circulation. I will review our current understanding of Titan’s methane meteorology using Cassini and ground-based observations and, in particular, global circulation model simulations of Titan’s methane cycle. When compared with cloud observations, our simulations indicate an essential role for planetary-scale atmospheric waves in organizing convective storms on large scales (Mitchell et al. 2011). I will end with predictions of Titan’s weather during the upcoming northern

  10. LANL Meteorology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Dewart, Jean Marie

    2015-02-09

    The goal of the Meteorology Program is to provide all routine meteorology measurements for LANL operational requirements. This report discusses the program, its routine operations, and other services.

  11. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  12. Meteorological satellite accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, L. J.; Arking, A.; Bandeen, W. R.; Shenk, W. E.; Wexler, R.

    1974-01-01

    The various types of meteorological satellites are enumerated. Vertical sounding, parameter extraction technique, and both macroscale and mesoscale meteorological phenomena are discussed. The heat budget of the earth-atmosphere system is considered, along with ocean surface and hydrology.

  13. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  14. PROMET - The Journal of Meteorological Education issued by DWD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rapp, J.

    2009-09-01

    Promet is published by the German Meteorological Service (DWD) since 1971 to improve meteorologists and weather forecasters skills. The journal comprises mainly contributions to topics like biometeorology, the NAO, or meteorology and insurance business. The science-based articles should illustrate the special issue in an understandable and transparent way. In addition, the journal contains portraits of other national meteorological services and university departments, book reviews, list of university degrees, and other individual papers. Promet is published only in German language, but included English titles and abstracts. The journal is peer-reviewed by renowned external scientists. It is distributed free of charge by DWD to the own meteorological staff. On the other hand, DMG (the German Meteorological Society) hand it out to all members of the society. The current issues deal with "Modern procedures of weather forecasting in DWD” and "E-Learning in Meteorology”.

  15. Meteorological influences during MLOPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Carole J.; Merrill, J. T.; Mendonca, B. G.

    1992-06-01

    Meteorological data are presented and discussed for the period May 1 to June 4,1988, in support of the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). Isentropic trajectories were computed to determine air mass origins. Meteorological observations at the Mauna Loa Observatory and radiosonde observations from HiIo, Hawaii, are used to analyze local influences on air mass composition.

  16. 2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. SOUTH FACE OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) WITH METEOROLOGICAL DATA ACQUISITION TERMINAL (MDAT) INSIDE BUILDING - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  17. Artificial stereo presentation of meteorological data fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Desjardins, M.; Negri, A. J.

    1981-01-01

    The innate capability to perceive three-dimensional stereo imagery has been exploited to present multidimensional meteorological data fields. Variations on an artificial stereo technique first discussed by Pichel et al. (1973) are used to display single and multispectral images in a vivid and easily assimilated manner. Examples of visible/infrared artificial stereo are given for Hurricane Allen and for severe thunderstorms on 10 April 1979. Three-dimensional output from a mesoscale model also is presented. The images may be viewed through the glasses inserted in the February 1981 issue of the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, with the red lens over the right eye. The images have been produced on the interactive Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) at Goddard Space Flight Center. Stereo presentation is an important aid in understanding meteorological phenomena for operational weather forecasting, research case studies, and model simulations.

  18. Lasting Impressions in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herold, James M.

    1992-01-01

    Describes activities integrating science and art education in which students examine slides of impressionist paintings or photographs of meteorological phenomena to determine the weather conditions depicted and to make and defend weather predictions. Includes a reproducible worksheet. (MDH)

  19. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  20. Climate and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  1. Meteorology for public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, Kornelija; Rasol, Dubravka; Milković, Janja

    2013-04-01

    The Meteorological and Hydrological Service in Croatia (MHSC) is, as a public service, open to and concentrated on public. The organization of visits to the MHSC for groups started in 1986. The GLOBE program in Croatia started in 1995 and after that interest for the group tours at the MHSC has increased. The majority of visitors are school and kindergarten children, students and groups of teachers. For each group tour we try to prepare the content that is suitable for the age and interest of a group. Majority of groups prefer to visit the meteorological station where they can see meteorological instruments and learn how they work. It is organized as a little workshop, where visitors can ask questions and discuss with a guide not only about the meteorological measurements but also about weather and climate phenomena they are interested in. Undoubtedly the highlight of a visit is the forecaster's room where visitors can talk to the forecasters (whom they can also see giving a weather forecast on the national TV station) and learn how weather forecasts are made. Sometimes we offer to visitors to make some meteorological experiments but that is still not in a regular program of the group tours due to the lack of performing space. Therefore we give them the instructions for making instruments and simulations of meteorological phenomena from household items. Visits guides are meteorologists with profound experience in the popularization of science.

  2. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  3. Transport and Meteorological Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfister, Leonhard; Selkirk, Henry B.; Legg, Marion J.

    2002-01-01

    The objectives of this work are twofold. First, to provide real-time meteorological satellite guidance to airborne field missions for NASA's Upper Atmosphere Research Program, the Global Tropospheric Experiment, and the Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project. Extensive meteorological satellite datasets were provided for use by the mission scientist and by the science team. These same data were then archived for postdeployment data analysis by the science team. Second, to provide scientific analysis of the data from the airborne field missions supported. The results of these analyses were made public through peer-reviewed publications.

  4. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  5. Little meteorological workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poler Čanić, K. Å.; Rasol, D.

    2010-09-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is a project the main goal of which is promotion and popularisation of meteorology in Croatia. The project has been taking place at the Science Festival in Zagreb since 2007 where the audience includes the general public. Since 2009 the project has been introduced as an extracurricular school activity in some primary schools where the main audience are children and teachers. Here, the methods used in the LMWs will be presented. Furthermore, the evaluation results of the LMWs that were held in schools will be shown.

  6. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  7. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  8. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  9. Meteorology: Project Earth Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, P. Sean; Ford, Brent A.

    This document on meteorology is one of a four-volume series of Project Earth Science that includes exemplary hands-on science and reading materials for use in the classroom. This book is divided into three sections: activities, readings, and appendix. The activities are constructed around three basic concept divisions. First, students investigate…

  10. Survey: National Meteorological Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Meteorological Center (NMC) is comprised of three operational divisions (Development, Automation, and Forecast) and an Administrative Division. The Development Division develops and implements mathematical models for forecasting the weather. The Automation Division provides the software and processing services to accommodate the models used in daily forecasts. The Forecasting Division applies a combination of numerical and manual techniques to produce analyses and prognoses up to 120 hr into the future. This guidance material is combined with severe storm information from the National Hurricane Center and the National Severe Storms Forecasting Center to develop locally tailored forecasts by the Weather Service Forecast Offices and, in turn, by the local Weather Service Offices. A very general flow of this information is shown. A more detailed illustration of data flow into, within, and from the NMC is given. The interrelations are depicted between the various meteorological organizations and activities.

  11. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Wheeler, Mark; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2007 (January - March 2007). Tasks reported on are: Obiective Lightning Probability Tool, Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida, Anvil Threat Corridor Forecast Tool in AWIPS, Volume Averaqed Heiqht lnteq rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Tower Data Skew-t Tool, and Weather Research and Forecastini (WRF) Model Sensitivity Study

  12. Women in Meteorology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  13. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, and provide the latest information regarding treatment, education, research, and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  14. Tenth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferraro, R.; Colton, M.; Deblonde, G.; Jedlovec, G.; Lee, T.

    2000-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society held its Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography in conjunction with the 80th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. For the second consecutive conference, a format that consisted of primarily posters, complemented by invited theme oriented oral presentations, and panel discussions on various aspects on satellite remote sensing were utilized. Joint sessions were held with the Second Conference on Artificial Intelligence, the Eleventh Conference on Middle Atmosphere, and the Eleventh symposium on Global Change Studies. In total, there were 23 oral presentations, 170 poster presentations, and four panel discussions. Over 450 people representing a wide spectrum of the society attended one or more of the sessions in the five-day meeting. The program for the Tenth Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography can viewed in the October 1999 issue of the Bulletin.

  15. Compendium of meteorology scientific issues of 1950 still outstanding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    The Compendium of Meteorology was published in 1951 by the American Meteorological Society. A review was made of the Compendium of Meteorology to identify the studies and future needs which the authors expressed in their papers. The needs as seen by the authors are organized into sections and papers following the format of the Compendium of Meteorology. In some cases the needs they identified are as valid today as they were in 1951. In other cases one will easily be able to identify examples where significant progress has been made. It is left to the individual scientists and scientific program managers to assess whether significant progress has been made over the past thirty-five years on these outstanding scientific issues.

  16. On the early history of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nevanlinna, H.

    2014-03-01

    This article is a review of the foundation (in 1838) and later developments of the Helsinki (Finland) magnetic and meteorological observatory, today the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI). The main focus of the study is in the early history of the FMI up to the beginning of the 20th century. The first director of the observatory was Physics Professor Johan Jakob Nervander (1805-1848). He was a famous person of the Finnish scientific, academic and cultural community in the early decades of the 19th century. Finland was an autonomously part of the Russian Empire from 1809 to 1917, but the observatory remained organizationally under the University of Helsinki, independent of Russian scientific institutions, and funded by the Finnish Government. Throughout the late-19th century the Meteorological Institute was responsible of nationwide meteorological, hydrological and marine observations and research. The observatory was transferred to the Finnish Society of Sciences and Letters under the name the Central Meteorological Institute in 1881. The focus of the work carried out in the Institute was changed gradually towards meteorology. Magnetic measurements were still continued but in a lower level of importance. The culmination of Finnish geophysical achievements in the 19th century was the participation to the International Polar Year programme in 1882-1883 by setting up a full-scale meteorological and magnetic observatory in Sodankylä, Lapland.

  17. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  18. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Ross, J. D.; Soloman, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6 micro b level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer.

  19. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., Jr.; Crawford, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the second quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (January - March 2008). Projects described are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, (3) Situational Lightning Climatologies for Central Florida. Phase III, (4) Volume Averaged Height Integrated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), (5) Impact of Local Sensors, (6) Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement and (7) WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base.

  20. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-01-01

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  1. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The AMU Team began four new tasks in this quarter: (1) began work to improve the AMU-developed tool that provides the launch weather officers information on peak wind speeds that helps them assess their launch commit criteria; (2) began updating lightning climatologies for airfields around central Florida. These climatologies help National Weather Service and Air Force forecasters determine the probability of lightning occurrence at these sites; (3) began a study for the 30th Weather Squadron at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California to determine if precursors can be found in weather observations to help the forecasters determine when they will get strong wind gusts in their northern towers; and (4) began work to update the AMU-developed severe weather tool with more data and possibly improve its performance using a new statistical technique. Include is a section of summaries and detail reporting on the quarterly tasks: (1) Peak Wind Tool for user Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (LCC), Phase IV, (2) Situational Lightning climatologies for Central Florida, Phase V, (3) Vandenberg AFB North Base Wind Study and (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS).

  2. Antarctic Meteorology and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, J. C.; Turner, J.

    1997-07-01

    This book is a comprehensive survey of the climatology and meteorology of Antarctica. The first section of the book reviews the methods by which we can observe the Antarctic atmosphere and presents a synthesis of climatological measurements. In the second section, the authors consider the processes that maintain the observed climate, from large-scale atmospheric circulation to small-scale processes. The final section reviews our current knowledge of the variability of Antarctic climate and the possible effects of "greenhouse" warming. The authors stress links among the Antarctic atmosphere, other elements of the Antarctic climate system (oceans, sea ice and ice sheets), and the global climate system. This volume will be of greatest interest to meteorologists and climatologists with a specialized interest in Antarctica, but it will also appeal to researchers in Antarctic glaciology, oceanography and biology. Graduates and undergraduates studying physical geography, and the earth, atmospheric and environmental sciences will find much useful background material in the book.

  3. Bracknell Meteorological Office

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flood, Colin R.

    1988-01-01

    The Bracknell (U.K.) Meteorological Office runs a global weather model twice a day, providing the following data: surface and radiosonde; aircraft reports; and satellite soundings and wind. A human forecast is made every six hours. The model runs on a 150 km grid with 15 levels, and takes about four minutes on a Cyber-205. The standard output from the global products are wind, temperature, height, tropopause, and maximum wind. Various experiments have been conducted to see if short-range forecasters could improve on the upper-wind forecasts over the numerical model; the numerical model remains of paramount importance. Small-scale models are being run in the U.S. and the U.K. A fine-mesh model covers Europe and the Atlantic. A mesoscale model is under development. A great deal of verification work is done to see how good the models are.

  4. Martian Meteorological Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vorontsov, V.; Pichkhadze, K.; Polyakov, A.

    2002-01-01

    Martian meteorological lander (MML) is dedicated for landing onto the Mars surface with the purpose to carry on the monitoring of Mars atmosphere condition at a landing point during one Martian year. MML is supposed to become the basic element of a global net of meteorological mini stations and will permit to observe the dynamics of Martian atmosphere parameters changes during a long time duration. The main scientific tasks of MML are as follows: -study of vertical structure of Mars atmosphere during MML descending; -meteorological observations on Mars surface during one Martian year. One of the essential factor influencing to the lander design is descent trajectory design. During the preliminary phase of development five (5) options of MML were considered. In our opinion, these variants provide the accomplishment of the above-mentioned tasks with a high effectiveness. Joined into the first group, variants with parachute system and with Inflatable Air Brakes+Inflatable Airbag are similar in arranging of pre-landing braking stage and completely analogous in landing by means of airbags. The usage of additional Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in the second variant does not affect the procedure of braking - decreasing of velocity by the moment of touching the surface due to decreasing of ballistic parameter Px. A distinctive feature of MML development variants of other three concepts is the presence of Inflatable Braking Unit (IBU) in their configurations (IBU is rigidly joined with landing module up to the moment of its touching the surface). Besides, in variant with the tore-shaped IBU it acts as a shock- absorbing unit. In two options, Inflatable Braking Shock-Absorbing Unit (IBSAU) (or IBU) releases the surface module after its landing at the moment of IBSAU (or IBU) elastic recoil. Variants of this concept are equal in terms of mass (approximately 15 kg). For variants of concepts with IBU the landing velocity is up to50-70 m/s. Stations of last three options are

  5. The meteorology of Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flasar, F. M.; Conrath, Barney J.

    1992-01-01

    Current knowledge of Titan's meteorology is reviewed, including diagnostic inferences of the large scale wind field and prognostic studies of thermal and momentum balances. Titan's winds were largely inferred from temperature maps whose spatial coverage is incomplete. The inferred winds are cyclostrophic, approximately 75 m/s in the upper stratosphere. The direction of the winds is ambiguous from the temperature data, but arguments based on the spin up of a planetary atmosphere from an initial state of rest strongly suggest that Titan's winds blow predominantly in the direction of the planetary rotation. Stratospheric temperatures exhibit a north-south asymmetry, suggesting that seasonal variations are controlled by a dynamical inertia associated with the need to transport angular momentum as well as heat. A consideration of the global angular momentum balance indicates that the zonally averaged winds near the surface are approximately 0.3 m/s.

  6. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  7. CITE 3 meteorological highlights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipham, Mark C.; Bachmeier, A. Scott; Anderson, Bruce E.

    1993-01-01

    Meteorological highlights from the third NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Chemical Instrumentation Test and Evaluation (GTE/CITE 3) are presented. During August and September 1989, research flights were conducted from Wallops Island, Virginia, and Natal, Brazil, and included airborne sampling of air masses over adjacent regions of the Atlantic Ocean. Isentropic backward trajectory calculations, wind vector/streamline fields, rawinsonde data, and GOES and METEOSAT satellite imagery are utilized to examine the meteorological conditions for each flight and to determine the transport paths of the sampled air masses. Some aspects of the chemical signatures of the sampled air are also discussed. During the series of flights based at Wallops Island, Virginia, the flow into the experiment area was governed primarily by the position of the North Atlantic subtropical anticyclone. The large-scale tropospheric circulation switched from primarily a marine flow during flights 1-4, to a predominantly offshore mid-latitude continental flow during flights 5-10. During these later flights, the regional influences of large eastern U.S. cities along with vertical mixing by typical summertime convective activity strongly influenced the chemical characteristics of the sampled air. During the series of flights based at Natal, Brazil, the dominant synoptic feature was the South Atlantic subtropical anticyclone which generally transported air across the tropical Atlantic toward eastern Brazil. Pronounced subsidence and a well-defined trade wind inversion often characterized the lower and middle troposphere over the Natal region. Some high-altitude recirculation of air from South America was observed, as was cross-equatorial transport which had come from northern Africa. Biomass burning plumes were observed on segments of all of the flights, the source region being the central and southern savannah regions of Africa.

  8. Geosynchronous Meteorological Satellite Data Seminar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A seminar was organized by NASA to acquaint the meteorological community with data now available, and data scheduled to be available in the future, from geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The twenty-four papers were presented in three half-day sessions in addition to tours of the Image Display and LANDSAT Processing Facilities during the afternoon of the second day.

  9. Radiocommunications for meteorological satellite systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walton, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the spectrum utilization and frequency requirements of present and planned meteorological satellite programs. The sensors, and TIROS operational systems are discussed along with the Nimbus and Synchronous Meteorological Satellites. STORMSAT, SEASAT, and the Spacelab are briefly described.

  10. Four-planet meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    All planets with atmospheres have common characteristics which are helpful in understanding weather and climate on earth. Of the terrestrial planets, Mars displays the most earth-like characteristics. The feedback mechanism of the Martian Great Dust Storms may control climate on a global scale and shows some parallels to the water cycle on the earth. Venus, on the other hand, has atmosphere motions and characteristics far different from those of earth but appears to be valuable for comparative meteorology and it seems to be a simple weather machine due to absence of axial tilt. A completely gaseous Jupiter also can help because its atmosphere, driven by internal heat, flows round-and-round, showing the same general patterns for years at a time. Results of studying extraterrestrial atmospheres are most important for understanding earth's multi-year weather cycles such as the droughts in the American West every 22 years or effects of the Little Ice Age (1450-1915) on agriculture in the North Hemisphere.

  11. Arctic hydrology and meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-01-01

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  12. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  13. Meteorological satellites: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Past developments, accomplishments and future potential of meteorological satellites are discussed. Meteorological satellite design is described in detail. Space platforms and their meteorological applications are discussed. User needs are also discussed.

  14. Mathematics and Meteorology: Perfect Partners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bomeli, Cynthia L.

    1991-01-01

    The integration of science and mathematics in the middle school using the topic of meteorology is discussed. Seven selected activities for this approach are suggested. Lists of materials and resources for use in this teaching approach are appended. (CW)

  15. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  16. BOREAS Derived Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Twine, Tracy; Rinker, Donald; Knapp, David

    2000-01-01

    In 1995, the BOREAS science teams identified the need for a continuous surface meteorological and radiation data set to support flux and surface process modeling efforts. This data set contains actual, substituted, and interpolated 15-minute meteorological and radiation data compiled from several surface measurements sites over the BOREAS SSA and NSA. Temporally, the data cover 01-Jan-1994 to 31-Dec-1996. The data are stored in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  17. Weather Education. Proceedings of the International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education (1st, Oxford, England, July 1984).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, J. M., Ed.

    The First International Conference on School and Popular Meteorological Education was designed to: (1) examine the need for the general public to be educated in science and mathematics in order to live in today's high technological society; (2) note special attributes that meteorology possesses as a vehicle to teach science and mathematics to all…

  18. Space Shuttle interactive meteorological data system study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, J. T.; Fox, R. J.; Benson, J. M.; Rueden, J. P.; Oehlkers, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Although focused toward the operational meteorological support review and definition of an operational meteorological interactive data display systems (MIDDS) requirements for the Space Meteorology Support Group at NASA/Johnson Space Center, the total operational meteorological support requirements and a systems concept for the MIDDS network integration of NASA and Air Force elements to support the National Space Transportation System are also addressed.

  19. Economic benefits of meteorological services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freebairn, John W.; Zillman, John W.

    2002-03-01

    There is an increasing need for more rigorous and more broadly based determination of the economic value of meteorological services as an aid to decision-making on the appropriate level of funding to be committed to their provision at the national level. This paper develops an overall framework for assessment of the economic value of meteorological services based on the recognition that most national meteorological infrastructure and services possess the non rival properties of public goods. Given this overall framework for determination of both total and marginal benefits, four main methodologies appropriate for use in valuation studies - market prices, normative or prescriptive decision-making models, descriptive behavioural response studies and contingent valuation studies - are outlined and their strengths and limitations described. Notwithstanding the methodological limitations and the need for a much more comprehensive set of studies for the various application sectors, it is clear that the actual and potential benefits to individuals, firms, industry sectors and national economies from state-of-the-art meteorological and related services are substantial and that, at this stage, they are inadequately recognised and insufficiently exploited in many countries.

  20. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  1. Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 1; Satellite and Their Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorlogical Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

  2. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  3. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  4. Temperature-compensated meteorological barometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2000-04-01

    Meteorological measurements of surface pressure to better than 1 mbar are routinely required in surface pressures of typically 1000 mbar, and detecting small pressure changes is important for forecasting. An inexpensive pressure sensor provides the basis of a barometer suitable for such general meteorological use. Signal-conditioning circuitry has been added to allow typical surface sea-level pressure variations to be resolved to 0.1 mbar using a ±5 V 12-bit analog to digital system. The sensor excitation voltage is shown to track the sensor's temperature closely, and this is extracted to provide a temperature-compensation signal. When combined with a nonlinearity correction system and a digital display, this gives a portable barometer capable of reading to ±0.5 mbar (over the range of 930-1020 mbar) for temperatures between 0 and 25 °C. The final display reading includes the temperature compensation by using a panel meter in ratio mode.

  5. Software For Processing Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, Mary L.

    1992-01-01

    GEMPAK general meterological software includes programs to analyze and display surface, upper-air, or gridded data, including outputs of mathematical models. Includes capabilities to derive meteorological parameters to perform vertical interpolations to different coordinate systems, and to compute extensive set of gridded diagnostic quantities. Graphics/transformation subsystem, GEMPLT, provides capability to display output in variety of map projections or overlaid on satellite imagery. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  6. Metrology for meteorology and climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, Andrea; Bellagarda, Simone; Bertiglia, Fabio; Coppa, Graziano; Lopardo, Giuseppina; Roggero, Guido; Sanna, Francesca

    2014-05-01

    For a few years now, a fruitful collaboration has been growing between the metrology and meteorology communities. The main need expressed by top level Institutions was for the availability of robust data for environmental and meteorological studies and for the benefit of the present and future generations of climatologists. This was translated by the metrology community into two key objectives centred on traceability and uncertainty. Essential Climate Variables (ECVs) are continuously recorded by a multitude of different sensors on satellites, balloon radiosondes, aircraft, surface weather stations, buoys, and deep sea devices; all of them working in different operating environments and affected by different influence quantities. This complex system, as a whole, requires dedicated calibration techniques and methods to guarantee fully documented traceability and measurements uncertainty evaluation, thus ensuring complete comparability of measurement results. The inclusion of measurement uncertainty in historical and future data series represents a fundamental step towards greater public confidence in evaluations of climate change. EURAMET, the European association of national institute of metrology is funding several joint research projects on those topics and is launching a task group of experts, formed by both metrologists and members of environmental, meteorological Institutions and climatologists. One of those projects, "MeteoMet" (www.meteomet.org), started in 2011 and re-funded in 2014, stands out since it hits both targets: improve the traceability of an increasing number of ECVs and promote the involvement of stakeholders in support of their needs. This mission leads to a novel vision: a permanent cooperation between metrology and meteorology based on new and existing institutions and infrastructures.

  7. Website for popularization of meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Špoler Čanić, K.; Rasol, D.

    2012-04-01

    Little meteorological workshop (LMW) is an educational project that has started in 2007 at the Science Festival in Zagreb, Croatia. In 2009 began a new phase of the project which was introduction of the LMW as an extracurricular school activity for pupils. To reach more users the authors of the LMW published a booklet of experiments which were conducted at the workshops in schools. Furthermore, a website (www.malameteo.com) that shows how to make those experiments was developed. The website has some more educational information as well. Here, the content of the website will be presented.

  8. IIth AMS Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velden, Christopher; Digirolamo, Larry; Glackin, Mary; Hawkins, Jeffrey; Jedlovec, Gary; Lee, Thomas; Petty, Grant; Plante, Robert; Reale, Anthony; Zapotocny, John

    2002-11-01

    The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its 11th Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography at the Monona Terrace Convention Center in Madison, Wisconsin, during 15-18 October 2001. The purpose of the conference, typically held every 18 months, is to promote a forum for AMS membership, international scientists, and student members to present and discuss the latest advances in satellite remote sensing for meteorological and oceanographical applications. This year, surrounded by inspirational designs by famed architect Frank Lloyd Wright, the meeting focused on several broad topics related to remote sensing from space, including environmental applications of land and oceanic remote sensing, climatology and long-term satellite data studies, operational applications, radiances and retrievals, and new technology and methods. A vision of an increasing convergence of satellite systems emerged that included operational and research satellite programs and interdisciplinary user groups.The conference also hosted NASA's Electronic Theater, which was presented to groups of middle and high school students totaling over 5500. It was truly a successful public outreach event. The conference banquet was held on the final evening, where a short tribute to satellite pioneer Verner Suomi was given by Joanne Simpson. Suomi was responsible for establishing the Space Science and Engineering Center at the University of Wisconsin in Madison.

  9. Applications of ISES for meteorology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Try, Paul D.

    1990-01-01

    The results are summarized from an initial assessment of the potential real-time meteorological requirements for the data from Eos systems. Eos research scientists associated with facility instruments, investigator instruments, and interdisciplinary groups with data related to meteorological support were contacted, along with those from the normal operational user and technique development groups. Two types of activities indicated the greatest need for real-time Eos data: technology transfer groups (e.g., NOAA's Forecasting System Laboratory and the DOD development laboratories), and field testing groups with airborne operations. A special concern was expressed by several non-U.S. participants who desire a direct downlink to be sure of rapid receipt of the data for their area of interest. Several potential experiments or demonstrations are recommended for ISES which include support for hurricane/typhoon forecasting, space shuttle reentry, severe weather forecasting (using microphysical cloud classification techniques), field testing, and quick reaction of instrumented aircraft to measure such events as polar stratospheric clouds and volcanic eruptions.

  10. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  11. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ... radiology case studies Developed by ACR Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair ...

  12. Update of ECTOM - European catalogue of training opportunities in meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halenka, Tomas; Belda, Michal

    2016-04-01

    After Bologna Declaration (1999) the process of integration of education at university level was started in most European countries with the aim to unify the system and structure of the tertiary education with the option for possibility of transnational mobility of students across the Europe. The goal was to achieve the compatibility between the systems and levels in individual countries to help this mobility. To support the effort it is useful to provide the information about the possibility of education in different countries in centralised form, with uniform shape and content, but validated on a national level. For meteorology and climatology this could be reasonably done on the floor of European Meteorological Society, ideally with contribution of individual National Meteorological Societies and their guidance. Brief history of the original ECTOM I and previous attempts to start ECTOM II is given. Further need of update of the content is discussed with emphasis to several aspects. There are several reasons for such an update of ECTOM 1. First, there are many more new EMS members which could contribute to the catalogue. Second, corrected, new, more precise and expanding information will be available in addition to existing record, particularly in sense of some changes in education systems of EC countries and associated countries approaching the EC following the main goals included in Bologna Declaration. Third, contemporary technology to organize the real database with the possibility of easier navigation and searching of the appropriate information and feasibility to keep them up to date permanently through the WWW interface should be adopted. In this presentation, the engine of ECTOM II database will be shown together with practical information how to find and submit information on access to education or training possibilities. Finally, as we have started with filling the database using freely available information from the web, practical examples of use will

  13. Proceedings of the International Meteorological Satellite Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    International Meteorological Satellite Workshop, November 13-22, 1961, presented the results of the meteorological satellite program of the United States and the possibilities for the future, so that-- the weather services of other nations may acquire a working knowledge of meteorological satellite data for assistance in their future analysis programs both in research and in daily synoptic application and guidance in their national observational support efforts; the world meteorological community may become more familiar with the TIROS program.; and the present activity may be put in proper perspective relative to future operational programs.

  14. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  15. Aviation meteorology: Today and the future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowe, B. W.

    1978-01-01

    A representative of the Air Weather Service, USAF addressed the workshop and gave an assessment of the present state of aviation meteorology and a prognosis of the future. Three categories of meteorological support to aviation systems are considered and discussed; (1) terminal weather; (2) the winds for flight planning; and (3) en route flight hazards.

  16. Teaching a Course on Meteorological Instruments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohler, Fred

    A meteorological instruments course that provided undergraduate geography students the opportunity to use and/or observe meteorological equipment while also preparing for possible internships with the National Weather Service is evaluated and suggestions for improving it in the future are offered. The paper first provides a general course…

  17. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  18. Wintertime meteorology of the Grand Canyon region

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    The Grand Canyon region of the American Southwest is an interesting region meteorologically, but because of its isolated location, the lack of major population centers in the region, and the high cost of meteorological field experiments, it has historically received little observational attention. In recent years, however, attention has been directed to episodes of visibility degradation in many of the US National parks, and two recent field studies focused on this visibility problem have greatly increased the meteorological data available for the Grand Canyon region. The most recent and comprehensive of these studies is the Navajo Generating Station Winter Visibility Study of 1989--90. This study investigated the sources of visibility degradation in Grand Canyon National Park and the meteorological mechanisms leading to low visibility episodes. In this paper we present analyses of this rich data set to gain a better understanding of the key wintertime meteorological features of the Grand Canyon region.

  19. An objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, B.K.

    1994-12-31

    The purpose of this paper was to utilize a two-stage clustering approach as part of an objective meteorological classification scheme designed to elucidate ozone`s (O{sub 3}) dependence on meteorology. When applied to ten years (1981-1990) of meteorological data for Birmingham, Alabama, the classification scheme identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes. Because of the critical impact meteorological conditions have on the formation, transport and deposition of ozone, the seven homogenous meterological clusters exhibited significantly different concentrations characteristics.

  20. Compression of spectral meteorological imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miettinen, Kristo

    1993-01-01

    Data compression is essential to current low-earth-orbit spectral sensors with global coverage, e.g., meteorological sensors. Such sensors routinely produce in excess of 30 Gb of data per orbit (over 4 Mb/s for about 110 min) while typically limited to less than 10 Gb of downlink capacity per orbit (15 minutes at 10 Mb/s). Astro-Space Division develops spaceborne compression systems for compression ratios from as little as three to as much as twenty-to-one for high-fidelity reconstructions. Current hardware production and development at Astro-Space Division focuses on discrete cosine transform (DCT) systems implemented with the GE PFFT chip, a 32x32 2D-DCT engine. Spectral relations in the data are exploited through block mean extraction followed by orthonormal transformation. The transformation produces blocks with spatial correlation that are suitable for further compression with any block-oriented spatial compression system, e.g., Astro-Space Division's Laplacian modeler and analytic encoder of DCT coefficients.

  1. Meteorological determinants of air quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turoldo, F.; Del Frate, S.; Gallai, I.; Giaiotti, D. B.; Montanari, F.; Stel, F.; Goi, D.

    2010-09-01

    Air quality is the result of complex phenomena, among which the major role is played by human emissions of pollutants. Atmospheric processes act as determinants, e.g., modulating, dumping or amplifying the effects of emissions as an orchestra's director does with musical instruments. In this work, a series of small-scale and meso-scale meteorological determinants of air-quality are presented as they are observed in an area characterized by complex orography (Friuli Venezia Giulia, in the north-eastern side of Italy). In particular, attention is devoted to: i) meso-scale flows favouring the persistence of high concentrations of particulate matter; ii) meso-scale periodic flows (breezes) favouring high values of particulate matter; iii) local-scale thermodynamic behaviour favouring high atmospheric values of nitrogen oxides. The effects of these different classes of determinants are shown through comparisons between anthropic emissions (mainly traffic) and ground-based measurements. The relevance of complex orography (relatively steep relieves near to the sea) is shown for the meso-scale flows and, in particular, for local-scale periodic flows, which favour the increase of high pollutants concentrations mainly in summer, when the breezes regime is particularly relevant. Part of these results have been achieved through the ETS - Alpine Space EU project iMONITRAF!

  2. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S. R.; Hirsch, A. R.

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  3. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  4. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  5. An interactive meteorological display and analysis system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desjardins, M. L.; Petersen, R. A.

    1983-01-01

    The GEMPAK system, a general meteorological software package being developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center to support mesoscale meteorological research programs, is described. The primary purpose of the system is to provide analysis support and data integration techniques for conventional and satellite derived data sets. Current capabilities of the system range from data listing and editing to interactive objective analysis procedures and coordinate transformations. Output graphics use a graphics subroutine package designed to support meteorological plotting functions. A flexible diagnostics package is currently under development.

  6. Meteorological data analysis using MapReduce.

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Sheng, V S; Wen, XueZhi; Pan, Wubin

    2014-01-01

    In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means) based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  7. BOREAS AFM-6 Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilczak, James; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Airborne Fluxes and Meteorology (AFM)-6 team from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Adminsitration/Environment Technology Laboratory (NOAA/ETL) collected surface meteorological data from 21 May to 20 Sep 1994 near the Southern Study Area-Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) tower site. The data are in tabular ASCII files. The surface meteorological data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  8. Description of the RDCDS Meteorological Component

    SciTech Connect

    Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.

    2007-10-01

    This report provides a detailed description of the Rapidly Deployable Chemical Defense System (RDCDS) Meteorological Component. The Meteorological Component includes four surface meteorological stations, miniSODAR, laptop computers, and communications equipment. This report describes the equipment that is used, explains the operation of the network, and gives instructions for setting up the Component and replacing defective parts. A detailed description of operation and use of the individual sensors, including the data loggers is not covered in the current document, and the interested reader should refer to the manufacturer’s documentation.

  9. BOREAS AES READAC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected and processed data related to surface atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from one READAC meteorology station in Hudson Bay, Saskatchewan. Parameters include day, time, type of report, sky condition, visibility, mean sea level pressure, temperature, dewpoint, wind, altimeter, opacity, minimum and maximum visibility, station pressure, minimum and maximum air temperature, a wind group, precipitation, and precipitation in the last hour. The data were collected non-continuously from 24-May-1994 to 20-Sep-1994. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  10. BOREAS AES MARSII Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barry; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected several data sets related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from six MARSII meteorology stations in the BOREAS region in Canada. Parameters include site, time, temperature, dewpoint, visibility, wind speed, wind gust, wind direction, two cloud groups, precipitation, and station pressure. Temporally, the data cover the period of May to September 1994. Geo-graphically, the stations are spread across the provinces of Saskatchewan and Manitoba. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  11. Stereoscopic observations from meteorological satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasler, A. F.; Mack, R.; Negri, A.

    The capability of making stereoscopic observations of clouds from meteorological satellites is a new basic analysis tool with a broad spectrum of applications. Stereoscopic observations from satellites were first made using the early vidicon tube weather satellites (e.g., Ondrejka and Conover [1]). However, the only high quality meteorological stereoscopy from low orbit has been done from Apollo and Skylab, (e.g., Shenk et al. [2] and Black [3], [4]). Stereoscopy from geosynchronous satellites was proposed by Shenk [5] and Bristor and Pichel [6] in 1974 which allowed Minzner et al. [7] to demonstrate the first quantitative cloud height analysis. In 1978 Bryson [8] and desJardins [9] independently developed digital processing techniques to remap stereo images which made possible precision height measurement and spectacular display of stereograms (Hasler et al. [10], and Hasler [11]). In 1980 the Japanese Geosynchronous Satellite (GMS) and the U.S. GOES-West satellite were synchronized to obtain stereo over the central Pacific as described by Fujita and Dodge [12] and in this paper. Recently the authors have remapped images from a Low Earth Orbiter (LEO) to the coordinate system of a Geosynchronous Earth Orbiter (GEO) and obtained stereoscopic cloud height measurements which promise to have quality comparable to previous all GEO stereo. It has also been determined that the north-south imaging scan rate of some GEOs can be slowed or reversed. Therefore the feasibility of obtaining stereoscopic observations world wide from combinations of operational GEO and LEO satellites has been demonstrated. Stereoscopy from satellites has many advantages over infrared techniques for the observation of cloud structure because it depends only on basic geometric relationships. Digital remapping of GEO and LEO satellite images is imperative for precision stereo height measurement and high quality displays because of the curvature of the earth and the large angular separation of the

  12. Meteorological Annual Report for 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, C.H.

    1998-12-17

    An analysis of meteorological data collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 1997 shows that overall weather conditions for the year were relatively cool and wet. The average temperature for 1997 was 63.7 degree F which is about 1 degree F below the annual average for the 30-year period 1968-97. June 1997 had the lowest average temperature of any June in the 34 years for which temperature records are available at SRS ; moreover, the average temperature for the summer months (June, July, and August) was the third lowest for any summer on record. Conversely, the average temperature for March 1997 was the highest for any March in the 34-year record. Temperature extremes for 1997 ranged from a minimum of 18.6 degree F on January 18 to a maximum of 99.1 degree F on August 15.Wet weather during the last three months of the year was due to the development of a strong El Nino event (NOAA, 1998). Total rainfall for December 1997, 10.19 inches, was the highest for a December in the 46 year period of record for precipitation. Monthly rainfall was above average each month except March, May, and August. The greatest 24-hour rainfall during the year was 2.82 inches on December 24. Daily rainfall in excess of 2 inches occurred on April 28, June 28, and September 25. No snow was recorded.The annual average wind speed at the Central Climatology meteorology tower near N Area was 5.8 mph which is very nearly equal to the average wind speed at that station for the 7-year period 1991-97. The 1997 data also showed a slightly higher frequency of west to northwest winds and a slightly lower frequency of northeast winds than was observed in the 5-year period 1992-96. A winter storm which developed over the Mid-Atlantic States March 30-31 produced the most notable period of sustained strong winds. Daily and 15-minute average wind speeds of 15.3 miles per hour (mph) and 25.1 mph, respectively, were recorded at Central Climatology.Monthly average relative humidity for the year was lowest

  13. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  14. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted. PMID:23456373

  15. Phantosmia as a meteorological forecaster.

    PubMed

    Aiello, S R; Hirsch, A R

    2013-09-01

    In normosmics, olfactory ability has been found to vary with ambient humidity, barometric pressure, and season. While hallucinated sensations of phantom pain associated with changes in weather have been described, a linkage to chemosensory hallucinations has heretofore not been reported. A 64-year-old white male with Parkinson's disease presents with 5 years of phantosmia of a smoky burnt wood which changed to onion-gas and then to a noxious skunk-onion excrement odor. Absent upon waking it increases over the day and persists for hours. When severe, there appears a phantom taste with the same qualities as the odor. It is exacerbated by factors that manipulate intranasal pressure, such as coughing. When eating or sniffing, the actual flavors replace the phantosmia. Since onset, he noted the intensity and frequency of the phantosmia forecasted the weather. Two to 3 h before a storm, the phantosmia intensifies from a level 0 to a 7-10, which persists through the entire thunderstorm. Twenty years prior, he reported the ability to forecast the weather, based on pain in a torn meniscus, which vanished after surgical repair. Extensive olfactory testing demonstrates underlying hyposmia. Possible mechanisms for such chemosensory-meteorological linkage includes: air pressure induced synesthesia, disinhibition of spontaneous olfactory discharge, exacerbation of ectopic discharge, affect mediated somatic sensory amplification, and misattribution error with expectation and recall bias. This is the first reported case of weather-induced exacerbation of phantosmia. Further investigation of the connection between chemosensory complaints and ambient weather is warranted.

  16. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  17. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  18. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  19. Navigating the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Joyce

    This paper explores the idea of an information society from different perspectives, raises issues that are relevant to university libraries, and offers a way forward to some future developments. The first section provides a sketch of the information society in Australia and presents statistics on readiness, intensity, and impacts from reports…

  20. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  1. Comments on satellite meteorology from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Examples of the use of geostationary satellites in meteorology are given. Studies of the rate of change of cumulus clouds and cloud systems and wind parameter determination from cloud motions are reviewed. Computer processed imagery products are also discussed.

  2. Surface Meteorological Instruments for TWP (SMET) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2009-01-01

    The TWP Surface Meteorology station (SMET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure and rainfall amount.

  3. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 2

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  4. CloudSat and CALIPSO Help Meteorology

    NASA Video Gallery

    The study of meteorology presents significant challenges to scientists. One of the most challenging aspects is the inherent complexity of weather coupled with its high rate of change. In the case o...

  5. ISS Update: Spaceflight Meteorology Group, Part 1

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks to Frank Brody, chief of the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center, about SMG support for the upcoming landing of the Expedition 31 ...

  6. Interim report on the meteorological database

    SciTech Connect

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives.

  7. Meteorological Monitoring And Warning Computer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Randolph J.; Dianic, Allan V.; Moore, Lien N.

    1996-01-01

    Meteorological monitoring system (MMS) computer network tracks weather conditions and issues warnings when weather hazards are about to occur. Receives data from such meteorological instruments as wind sensors on towers and lightning detectors, and compares data with weather restrictions specified for outdoor activities. If weather violates restriction, network generates audible and visible alarms to alert people involved in activity. Also displays weather and toxic diffusion data and disseminates weather forecasts, advisories, and warnings to workstations.

  8. Data Publication in the Meteorological Sciences: the OJIMS project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callaghan, Sarah; Hewer, Fiona; Pepler, Sam; Hardaker, Paul; Gadian, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Historically speaking, scientific publication has mainly focussed on the analysis, interpretation and conclusions drawn from a given dataset, as these are the information that can be easily published in hard copy text format with the aid of diagrams. Examining the raw data that forms the dataset is often difficult to do, as datasets are usually stored in digital media, in a variety of (often proprietary or non-standard) formats. This means that the peer-review process is generally only applied to the methodology and final conclusions of a piece of work, and not the underlying data itself. Yet for the conclusions to stand, the data must be of good quality, and the peer-review process must be used to judge the data quality. Data publication, involving the peer-review of datasets, would be of benefit to many sectors of the academic community. For the data scientists, who often spend considerable time and effort ensuring that their data and metadata is complete, valid and stored in an accredited data repository, this would provide academic credit in the form of extra publications and citations. Data publication would benefit the wider community, allowing discovery and reuse of useful datasets, ensuring their curation and providing the best possible value for money. Overlay journals are a technology which is already being used to facilitate peer review and publication on-line. The Overlay Journal Infrastructure for Meteorological Sciences (OJIMS) Project aimed to develop the mechanisms that could support both a new (overlay) Journal of Meteorological Data and an Open-Access Repository for documents related to the meteorological sciences. The OJIMS project was conducted by a partnership between the UK's Royal Meteorological Society (RMetS) and two members of the National Centre for Atmospheric Science (NCAS), the British Atmospheric Data Centre (BADC) and the University of Leeds. Conference delegates at the NCAS Conference in Bristol of 8-10 December 2008 were invited to

  9. Meteorological database for the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, M.G.; Nero, A.V.; Revzan, K.L.

    1996-04-01

    A meteorological database has been developed to aid in the prediction of indoor radon concentrations in the United States. The database contains predicted typical monthly meteorological statistics at the county level derived from hourly meteorological data from 208 (234 for precipitation) geographically distinct monitoring stations. Interpolation and extrapolation techniques were used to predict statistics for counties not containing a meteorological monitoring site. The LBNL database includes statistics for meteorological variables including dry-bulb temperature, dew-point temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed, wind direction, hours of precipitation, precipitation, and derived infiltration degree-days. The database consists of individual files of derived statistics for each weather variable and is potentially useful for indoor radon modeling as well as for other purposes. Each file contains data values for all 12 months and an aggregation of the 12 months up to a yearly statistic for all county centroids. A test was conducted to assess the quality of interpolated values. Examples showing the use of the database for mapping infiltration degree-days and an application of the database to a statistical correlation analysis attempting to find meteorological factors influencing indoor radon levels in the United States is discussed.

  10. Workshop on Satellite Meteorology. Part 2; Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The Workshop on Satellite Meteorology is co-sponsored by the Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere (CIRA) at Colorado State University and the American Meteorological Society's Committee on Meteorological Aspects of Aerospace Systems. The workshop covers uses of satellite data in atmospheric science. It provides state-of-the-art information to those in Universities, research groups, and other users. One area of primary focus is to provide source material to university personnel for developing and augmenting courses in satellite meteorology and the atmospheric sciences. The items in the program include information on meteorological satellites and data sources, uses of satellite imagery for all scales of weather analysis and forecasting, uses of sounding data and other radiance information and research opportunities on interactive systems. Each session is presented by a group of experts in the field and includes an open discussion of the state-of-the-art and promising areas for future development. This pre-print volume is one of three parts on the workshop. The three parts are: PART I. Satellites and Their Data; PART II. Satellite Image Analysis and Interpretation; PART III. Satellite Soundings and Their Uses.

  11. Eighth joint conference on applications of air pollution meteorology with A & WMA

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-31

    The eighth Joint Conference on Applications of Air Pollution Meteorology, held January 23-28, 1994, again brings together the American Meteorological Society and Air and Waste Management Association with a broader scientific community to examine the role of the atmosphere on current air quality issues. The CAA Amendments non-attainment title has brought renewed interest in the pairing of complex dynamical meteorological models with photochemical air quality models. Requirements that future attainment to regulations be demonstrated with these models invite a new look at model evaluation. The CAAA titles addressing air toxics have brought renewed interest in near-source dispersion and deposition of toxic chemicals. Consequently, this conference is divided into sessions focusing on topics related to these issues. They include: The Dispersion Environment; Meteorology in Emissions Determination; Long-Range and Mesoscale Pollutant Transport and Fate; Meteorology and Photochemistry; Advanced Dispersion Models and Modeling Systems; Topics in Model Evaluation; Complex Flow Affecting Dispersion Near Structures; and Coastal and Complex Terrain Issues Evaluation.

  12. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  13. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical and Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History Close Ehlers-Danlos Info What is EDS? EDS Diagnostics EDS Types ...

  14. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  15. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  16. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 National MPS Society board of directors. The election will run through Nov. 1, and all voting ... Survey Results Board of Directors Board of Directors Election 2016 Financial Information 2014 – 2015 Financial Report Annual ...

  17. National Rosacea Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... opinion counts! Help us learn more about social perceptions of rosacea. How to Donate to the Society ... Your Opinion Count Take the survey on social perceptions of rosacea. arrow Your initial visit to the ...

  18. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  19. Meteorological waves (by Ocean Color Scanner Data)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evdoshenko, M. A.

    2014-10-01

    Data of normalized water leaving radiance at a wavelength 859 nm Lwn(859) of 250-m spatial resolution obtained from Moderate Ocean Color Scanners (MODIS) installed on Aqua and Terra satellites were used to study meteorological waves. These waves are caused by atmospheric internal gravity waves at the expense of a change of atmospheric pressure impacting the sea surface and bringing a change in its level; they are observable everywhere in the ocean. Examples of meteorological waves were considered for the eastern part of the Black Sea, where they appeared as stripes of alternate brightness on Lwn(859) images. It is shown that meteorological waves at one and the same place can be totally generated by atmospheric waves spreading at different heights of the lower troposphere. The 3D characteristics of meteorological waves were evaluated including the direction of wave propagation, crest length reaching more than one hundred kilometers, wavelength of several tens centimeters, and wave amplitude of several tens of centimeters. For conditions of intermittent cloudiness, imposition in a difference mode of the level L1b radiance image with the signature of atmospheric waves in a cloud and of the level L2 water leaving the radiance image with the signature of meteorological waves enabled us to examine the phase structure of waves and to reveal the existence of resonance.

  20. BOREAS AFM-07 SRC Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osborne, Heather; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Young, Kim; Wittrock, Virginia; Shewchuck, Stan; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Research Council (SRC) collected surface meteorological and radiation data from December 1993 until December 1996. The data set comprises Suite A (meteorological and energy balance measurements) and Suite B (diffuse solar and longwave measurements) components. Suite A measurements were taken at each of ten sites, and Suite B measurements were made at five of the Suite A sites. The data cover an approximate area of 500 km (North-South) by 1000 km (East-West) (a large portion of northern Manitoba and northern Saskatchewan). The measurement network was designed to provide researchers with a sufficient record of near-surface meteorological and radiation measurements. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and were collected by Aircraft Flux and Meteorology (AFM)-7. The surface meteorological and radiation data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  1. Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2008-03-01

    The Surface Meteorological Observation System (SMOS) mostly uses conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute, 30-minute, and 1440-minute (daily) averages of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and precipitation at the Central Facility and many of the extended facilities of the Southern Great Plains (SGP) climate research site. The SMOSs are not calibrated as systems. The sensors and the data logger (which includes the analog-to-digital converter, or A/D) are calibrated separately. All systems are installed using components that have a current calibration. SMOSs have not been installed at extended facilities located within about 10 km of existing surface meteorological stations, such as those of the Oklahoma Mesonet. The Surface Meteorological Observation Systems are used to create climatology for each particular location, and to verify the output of numerical weather forecast and other model output. They are also used to “ground-truth” other remote sensing equipment.

  2. Student Activities in Meteorology (SAM), June 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Meier, B.L.; Passarelli, E.

    1994-06-01

    In an effort to inspire student interest in science and technology, scientists from the Forecast Systems Laboratory, a laboratory within the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Environmental Research Laboratories, and classroom teachers from the Boulder Valley School District collaborated to produce a series of classroom science activities on meteorology and atmospheric science. We call this series 'Student Activities in Meteorology,' or SAM. The goal is to provide activities that are interesting to students, and at the same time convenient and easy to use for teachers. The activity topics chosen are to incorporate trend setting scientific research and cutting edge technology. Several of the activities focus on the meteorological concerns of the Denver metropolitan area because many of NOAA's research labs are located in Boulder, where much of the research and testing for the region is performed. We believe that these activities are versatile and can be easily integrated into current science, environmental studies, health, social studies, and math curricula.

  3. BOREAS AES Campbell Scientific Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, G. Barrie; Funk, Barrie; Knapp. David E. (Editor); Hall, Forrest G. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Canadian AES personnel collected data related to surface and atmospheric meteorological conditions over the BOREAS region. This data set contains 15-minute meteorological data from 14 automated meteorology stations located across the BOREAS region. Included in this data are parameters of date, time, mean sea level pressure, station pressure, temperature, dew point, wind speed, resultant wind speed, resultant wind direction, peak wind, precipitation, maximum temperature in the last hour, minimum temperature in the last hour, pressure tendency, liquid precipitation in the last hour, relative humidity, precipitation from a weighing gauge, and snow depth. Temporally, the data cover the period of August 1993 to December 1996. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data.

  4. Modern meteorological computing resources - The Maryland experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huffman, George J.

    1988-01-01

    The Department of Meteorology at the University of Maryland is developing one of the first computer systems in meteorology to take advantage of the new networked computer architecture that has been made possible by recent advances in computer and communication technology. Elements of the department's system include scientific workstations, local mainframe computers, remote mainframe computers, local-area networks,'long-haul' computer-to-computer communications, and 'receive-only' communications. Some background is provided, together with highlights of some lessons that were learned in carrying out the design. In agreement with work in the Unidata Project, this work shows that the networked computer architecture discussed here presents a new style of resources for solving problems that arise in meteorological research and education.

  5. Meteorological analysis for Fenton Hill, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.; Wilson, S.K.

    1981-01-01

    Three years of meteorological data have been collected at the Fenton Hill site to establish a local climatic baseline, transport and diffusion climatology, and an initial site for an eventual Valles Caldera meteorological network. Tower-based wind and temperature data at 15 m above ground were supplemented during 1979 with precipitation, humidity and pressure measurements, and a limited program of upper winds. Preliminary analysis of the data has been made to identify major topographic and meteorological driving forces affecting the local climatic variations on diurnal and seasonal time scales. The site is quite high and exposed enough tht external influences such as gradient wind flow and thunderstorms tend to dominate over purely local driving forces in determining climate. Locally generated wind circulations are identifiable at night but tend to be weak and sporadic. The presence of topographic obstacles on the 10- to 100-km scale is observed in the winds.

  6. A miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shuqing; Chen, Hongbin; Wang, Gai; Pan, Yi; Li, Qiang

    2004-12-01

    This article presents a miniature robotic plane meteorological sounding system (RPMSS), which consists of three major subsystems: a miniature robotic plane, an air-borne meteorological sounding and flight control system, and a ground-based system. Take-off and landing of the miniature aircraft are guided by radio control, and the flight of the robotic plane along a pre-designed trajectory is automatically piloted by an onboard navigation system. The observed meteorological data as well as all flight information are sent back in real time to the ground, then displayed and recorded by the ground-based computer. The ground-based subsystem can also transmit instructions to the air-borne control subsystem. Good system performance has been demonstrated by more than 300 hours of flight for atmospheric sounding.

  7. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  8. Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Dennis W. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Reports on aviation meteorology, most of them informal, are presented by representatives of the National Weather Service, the Bracknell (England) Meteorological Office, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab., the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Additional presentations are included on aircraft/lidar turbulence comparison, lightning detection and locating systems, objective detection and forecasting of clear air turbulence, comparative verification between the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Model and official aviation terminal forecasts, the evaluation of the Prototype Regional Observation and Forecast System (PROFS) mesoscale weather products, and the FAA/MIT Lincoln Lab. Doppler Weather Radar Program.

  9. Meteorological Support at the Savanna River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Addis, Robert P.

    2005-10-14

    The Department of Energy (DOE) operates many nuclear facilities on large complexes across the United States in support of national defense. The operation of these many and varied facilities and processes require meteorological support for many purposes, including: for routine operations, to respond to severe weather events, such as lightning, tornadoes and hurricanes, to support the emergency response functions in the event of a release of materials to the environment, for engineering baseline and safety documentation, as well as hazards assessments etc. This paper describes a program of meteorological support to the Savannah River Site, a DOE complex located in South Carolina.

  10. The open society.

    PubMed

    Opel, J R

    1984-07-27

    The open society, unlike the closed society, requires constant citizen thought and action to ensure that it will continue to survive and prosper. Today in the United States we should give particular attention to three immediate problems. We should reinvigorate our national economic health and international competitiveness, particularly by reducing our unprecedented budget deficits and reforming our tax system. We must strengthen our scientific and engineering vitality, particularly in graduate engineering education and in secondary school instruction in science and mathematics. And we should work with our allies in the free industrialized world to keep our international open society as open as possible, encouraging a flow of people and information and ideas across national boundaries while instituting sensible and efficient safeguards against leakage of critical military technology to the Soviet Union. PMID:17813240

  11. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  12. Tsunami Science for Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  13. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  14. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  15. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  16. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  17. Policy Driven, Policy Relevant: Why the American Meteorological Society Established the Summer Policy Colloquium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooke, W. H.

    2002-05-01

    The AMS Summer Policy Colloquium is an annual event. Established last year, with some initial help from the University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR), the Colloquium brings a maximum of 50 participants to Washington, DC for a ten-day immersion in policy studies in early June. Most participants are mid-level federal and corporate research managers or junior faculty and are sponsored by their host institutions on the basis of their scientific ability and leadership potential. In addition, the AMS runs a competitive nationwide search to identify and fund (perhaps 10-15) graduate students of exceptional promise. Participants receive extensive study materials prior to their arrival. They visit Capitol Hill and executive branch offices, and work though case studies and group exercises. They encounter and engage in dialog a number of speakers, including federal policy officials, Congressional staffers, media experts, and policy researchers. Subsequently, Colloquium alumni are provided with opportunities for continued, multi-year, collaboration as a group. This talk reviews the motivations and purposes for this investment.

  18. Meteorological Input to General Aviation Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colomy, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The meteorological education of general aviation pilots is discussed in terms of the definitions and concepts of learning and good educational procedures. The effectiveness of the metoeorological program in the training of general aviations pilots is questioned. It is suggested that flight instructors provide real experience during low ceilings and visibilities, and that every pilot receiving an instrument rating should experience real instrument flight.

  19. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  20. THE ATMOSPHERIC MODEL EVALUATION (AMET): METEOROLOGY MODULE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An Atmospheric Model Evaluation Tool (AMET), composed of meteorological and air quality components, is being developed to examine the error and uncertainty in the model simulations. AMET matches observations with the corresponding model-estimated values in space and time, and the...

  1. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. PMID:20811515

  2. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  3. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    PubMed

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research.

  4. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  5. Guidelines for curricula in agricultural meteorology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural meteorology as an accepted term is only about 80 years old. The first half of this period saw its development in the western world, Japan, India, and China and this was made possible through the evolving possibilities for quantification of the physical aspects of the production environm...

  6. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg).

  7. Integrating Meteorology into Research on Migration

    PubMed Central

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E. Emiel

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. PMID:20811515

  8. A meteorologically driven maize stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A maize soil moisture and temperature stress model is described which was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions in the major maize-producing areas of the world. The model also identifies optimum climatic conditions and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  9. Meteorology experiments - The Viking Mars Lander.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Kuettner, J.; Leovy, C. B.; Ryan, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    The purposes, procedures, and nature of the planned meteorology experiment of Viking, 1976 are described. The elements to be measured are pressure, temperature, wind speed, wind direction, and water vapor content of the atmosphere. The interactions with other Viking experiments are outlined and candidate sensors are described.

  10. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  11. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  12. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  13. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  14. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  15. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  16. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  17. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  18. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  19. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  20. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  1. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  2. Integrated Meteorology and Chemistry Modeling: Evaluation and Research Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Over the past decade several online integrated atmospheric chemical-transport and meteorology modeling systems with varying levels of interactions among different atmospheric processes have been developed. A variety of approaches to meteorology-chemistry integration with differe...

  3. Meteorological influences on mass accountability of aerially applied sprays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The deposition and drift of aerially applied crop protection materials is influenced by a number of factors including equpment setup and operational parameters, spray material characteristics, and meteorological effects. This work examines the meteorological influences that effect the ultimate fate...

  4. Surface Meteorological Station - Forks, WA (FKS) - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A variety of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  5. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Troutdale - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  6. Surface Meteorological Station - Astoria, OR (AST) - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A variety of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  7. Surface Meteorological Station - North Bend, OR (OTH) - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A variety of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  8. Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, general view in setting showing west and north sides; view to southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  9. 1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL SHED (BLDG. 756) SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MOBILE SERVICE TOWER IN BACKGROUND. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  10. Surface Meteorological Station - ESRL Short Tower, Wasco Airport - Raw Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    Coleman, Tim

    2016-10-25

    A diversity of instruments are used to measure various quantities related to meteorology, precipitation, and radiation near the Earth’s surface. Typically, a standard suite of instruments is deployed to monitor meteorological state variables.

  11. Meteorological Station, showing east and south sides; view to northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, showing east and south sides; view to northwest - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  12. The Influence of Meteorological Conditions on Air Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, N. A.; Gipps, J.

    1975-01-01

    Explains the distribution of air pollutants as related to such meteorological conditions as temperature inversions, ground inversion, and wind velocity. Uses a power station to illustrate the effect of some of the meteorological conditions mentioned. (GS)

  13. Shrinking societies favor procreation.

    PubMed

    Kent, M M

    1999-12-01

    Low birth rates and unprecedented improvements in life expectancy had brought a shrinking society to a rapidly expanding retirement-age population. In 1999, people aged 65 and older make up 15% or more of the populations in 19 countries. Furthermore, 14 country populations are already experiencing natural decrease, and a lot more will start to decline early in the 21st century. Due to this predicament, concerned countries have created policies that may encourage more childbearing by easing the opportunity costs of raising children. Among the policies are: 1) paid maternity and paternity leaves until a child is 2-3 years; 2) free child care; 3) tax breaks for large families; 4) family housing allowance; 5) cash paid to parents for raising a child. Governments of the shrinking societies believed that these policies could influence fertility because it affects the socioeconomic setting in which childbearing decisions are made. This paper also discusses Hungary, Japan, and Sweden fertility policies. PMID:12295635

  14. Quality and human society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoll, W.

    1991-02-01

    Quality of products and services is seen as a necessity in our modern world. Quality also has important cross-links to safety in our society. It is however suggested, that human beings are living in their industrial environment under the stress of a fractured personality with anxieties and frustrations. Some cultural comparisons with other industrial nations are given. Quality control tailored to human nature is recommended.

  15. Evolution, museums and society.

    PubMed

    MacFadden, Bruce J

    2008-11-01

    Visitors to natural history museums have an incomplete understanding of evolution. Although they are relatively knowledgeable about fossils and geological time, they have a poor understanding of natural selection. Museums in the 21st century can effectively increase public understanding of evolution through interactive displays, novel content (e.g. genomics), engaging videos and cyberexhibits that communicate to a broad spectrum of society, both within the exhibit halls as well as outside the museum.

  16. History society launches journal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    A fledgling international organization plans to launch, in the next few months, a journal devoted to the study of the history of the earth sciences. The journal, to be published by the History of Earth Sciences Society (HESS), will be edited by Gerald M. Friedman ot the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.HESS will promote interest and scholarship in the history of the earth sciences by publishing the semiannual journal, by organizing meetings about the history of earth sciences, and by supporting the efforts of other associations displaying similar interests, according to the society's draft constitution. An organizational meeting to ratify the constitution and to elect officers will be held in conjunction with the annual meeting of the Geological Society of America in October. The interim officers and the proposed slate for 1983 include David B. Kitts (University of Oklahoma, Norman), president; Albert V. Carrozi (University of Illinois, Urbana), president-elect; and Ellis L. Yochelson (U.S. Geological Survey, National Museum of Natural History), secretary.

  17. The National Cardiac Societies of the European Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Atar, Dan

    2015-06-01

    The National Cardiac Societies are one of the Constituent Bodies of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). They are the backbone of the ESC and together form the "Cardiology of Europe" in 56 European and Mediterranean countries.

  18. The Meteorology Instrument on Viking Lander 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Those Martian weather reports, received here daily from more than 200 million miles away, start right here at Viking l's meteorology instrument. Mounted atop the extended boom, the meteorology sensors face away from the spacecraft. They stand about four feet above the surface and measure atmospheric pressure, temperature, wind velocity and wind direction. The cable parallel to the boom is connected inside the spacecraft body with the electronics for operating the sensors, reading the data and preparing it for transmission to Earth. A second Mars weather station will begin operation next month when Viking 2 lands somewhere in the planet's northern latitude Viking 2 arrives at Mars and goes into orbit tomorrow (August 7).

  19. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-07-12

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes.

  20. Meteorological Services Annual Data Report for 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser J.; Smith, S.

    2015-01-21

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2014. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  1. Meteorological services annual data report for 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser J.; Smith, S.

    2013-02-01

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2012. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  2. Grid-based Meteorological and Crisis Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hluchy, Ladislav; Bartok, Juraj; Tran, Viet; Lucny, Andrej; Gazak, Martin

    2010-05-01

    We present several applications from domain of meteorology and crisis management we developed and/or plan to develop. Particularly, we present IMS Model Suite - a complex software system designed to address the needs of accurate forecast of weather and hazardous weather phenomena, environmental pollution assessment, prediction of consequences of nuclear accident and radiological emergency. We discuss requirements on computational means and our experiences how to meet them by grid computing. The process of a pollution assessment and prediction of the consequences in case of radiological emergence results in complex data-flows and work-flows among databases, models and simulation tools (geographical databases, meteorological and dispersion models, etc.). A pollution assessment and prediction requires running of 3D meteorological model (4 nests with resolution from 50 km to 1.8 km centered on nuclear power plant site, 38 vertical levels) as well as running of the dispersion model performing the simulation of the release transport and deposition of the pollutant with respect to the numeric weather prediction data, released material description, topography, land use description and user defined simulation scenario. Several post-processing options can be selected according to particular situation (e.g. doses calculation). Another example is a forecasting of fog as one of the meteorological phenomena hazardous to the aviation as well as road traffic. It requires complicated physical model and high resolution meteorological modeling due to its dependence on local conditions (precise topography, shorelines and land use classes). An installed fog modeling system requires a 4 time nested parallelized 3D meteorological model with 1.8 km horizontal resolution and 42 levels vertically (approx. 1 million points in 3D space) to be run four times daily. The 3D model outputs and multitude of local measurements are utilized by SPMD-parallelized 1D fog model run every hour. The fog

  3. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  4. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  5. Meteorological Towers Display for Windows NT

    1999-05-20

    The Towers Display Program provides a convenient means of graphically depicting current wind speed and direction from a network of meteorological monitoring stations. The program was designed primarily for emergency response applications and, therefore, plots observed wind directions as a transport direction, i.e., the direction toward which the wind would transport a release of an atmospheric contaminant. Tabular summaries of wind speed and direction as well as temperature, relative humidity, and atmospheric turbulence measured atmore » each monitoring station can be displayed. The current implementation of the product at SRS displays data from eight Weather INformation and Display (WIND) System meteorological towers at SRS, meteorological stations established jointly by SRS/WSRC and the Augusta/Richmond County Emergency Management Agency in Augusta, GA, and National Weather Service stations in Augusta, GA. Wind speed and direction are plotted in a Beaufort scale format at the location of the station on a geographic map of the area. A GUI provides for easy specification of a desired date and time for the data to be displayed.« less

  6. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Moninger, William R.; Mamrosh, Richard D.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is an overview of the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) project, giving some history on the project, various applications of the atmospheric data, and future ideas and plans. As part of NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program, the TAMDAR project developed a small low-cost sensor that collects useful meteorological data and makes them available in near real time to improve weather forecasts. This activity has been a joint effort with FAA, NOAA, universities, and industry. A tri-agency team collaborated by developing a concept of operations, determining the sensor specifications, and evaluating sensor performance as reported by Moosakhanian et. al. (2006). Under contract with Georgia Tech Research Institute, NASA worked with AirDat of Raleigh, NC to develop the sensor. The sensor is capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, pressure, and icing. It can compute pressure altitude, indicated and true air speed, ice accretion rate, wind speed and direction, peak and average turbulence, and eddy dissipation rate. The overall development process, sensor capabilities, and performance based on ground and flight tests is reported by Daniels (2002), Daniels et. al. (2004) and by Tsoucalas et. al. (2006). An in-service evaluation of the sensor was performed called the Great Lakes Fleet Experiment (GLFE), first reported by Moninger et. al. (2004) and Mamrosh et. al. (2005). In this experiment, a Mesaba Airlines fleet was equipped to collect meteorological data over the Great Lakes region during normal revenue-producing flights.

  7. Under the Weather: Legionellosis and Meteorological Factors.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Jessie A; Kratz, Natalie R; Greeley, Rebecca D; Fagliano, Jerald A

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of legionellosis, caused by the bacteria Legionella which are commonly found in the environment, has been increasing in New Jersey (NJ) over the last decade. The majority of cases are sporadic with no known source of exposure. Meteorological factors may be associated with increases in legionellosis. Time series and case-crossover study designs were used to evaluate associations of legionellosis and meteorological factors (temperature (daily minimum, maximum, and mean), precipitation, dew point, relative humidity, sea level pressure, wind speed (daily maximum and mean), gust, and visibility). Time series analyses of multi-factor models indicated increases in monthly relative humidity and precipitation were positively associated with monthly legionellosis rate, while maximum temperature and visibility were inversely associated. Case-crossover analyses of multi-factor models indicated increases in relative humidity occurring likely before incubation period was positively associated, while sea level pressure and visibility, also likely preceding incubation period, were inversely associated. It is possible that meteorological factors, such as wet, humid weather with low barometric pressure, allow proliferation of Legionella in natural environments, increasing the rate of legionellosis. PMID:26993637

  8. American Head and Neck Society

    MedlinePlus

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is ...

  9. Science, Society and Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Teich, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    Apart from the journals they produce, scientific societies play an important role in communicating scientific findings and norms to the broader society. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) includes among its goals to promote and defend the integrity of science and its use; provide a voice for science on societal issues; promote the responsible use of science in public policy; and increase public engagement with science and technology. AAAS websites and programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (http://www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/wwc/book.htm) and ScienceCareers.org (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org), provide tools for scientists to become more directly engaged in effectively communicating their findings and involved in the policy process. Education programs work to build the next generation of scientists and a science-literate public. To bridge the current communication gap between scientists, the public and policymakers, AAAS, like other scientific societies, maintains policy and outreach programs with limited budgets and staff. AAAS works to engage policymakers and provide scientific underpinning to key issues through congressional briefings, meetings, policy briefs, and media outreach. AAAS responds to challenges to accepted scientific findings and processes through op-eds, letters to government officials, resolutions, and Board statements. Some of these initiatives occur on a local level in partnership with local civic leaders, whose endorsement makes them more powerful. On a national scale, they assure that the voice of science is included in the debate. The changing media landscape presents opportunities and challenges for future AAAS endeavors.

  10. Anthropogenic climate change affects meteorological drought risk in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudmundsson, L.; Seneviratne, S. I.

    2016-04-01

    Drought constitutes a significant natural hazard in Europe, impacting societies and ecosystems across the continent. Climate model simulations with increasing greenhouse gas concentrations project increased drought risk in southern Europe, and on the other hand decreased drought risk in the north. Observed changes in water balance components and drought indicators resemble the projected pattern. However, assessments of possible causes of the reported regional changes have so far been inconclusive. Here we investigate whether anthropogenic emissions have altered past and present meteorological (precipitation) drought risk. For doing so we first estimate the magnitude of 20 year return period drought years that would occur without anthropogenic effects on the climate. Subsequently we quantify to which degree the occurrence probability, i.e. the risk, of these years has changed if anthropogenic climate change is accounted for. Both an observational and a climate model-based assessment suggest that it is >95% likely that human emissions have increased the probability of drought years in the Mediterranean, whereas it is >95% likely that the probability of dry years has decreased in northern Europe. In central Europe the evidence is inconclusive. The results highlight that anthropogenic climate change has already increased drought risk in southern Europe, stressing the need to develop efficient mitigation measures.

  11. Rethinking Cells to Society

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Toni C.; Webster, Noah J.

    2015-01-01

    It is an exciting time to be a developmental scientist. We have advanced theoretical frameworks and developed ground-breaking methods for addressing questions of interest, ranging literally from cells to society. We know more now than we have ever known about human development and the base of acquired knowledge is increasing exponentially. In this paper we share some thoughts about where we are in the science of human development, how we got there, what may be going wrong and what may be going right. Finally, we offer some thoughts about where we go from here to assure that in the future we achieve the best developmental science possible. PMID:25642155

  12. Measurement and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, Terence J.; Kovalevsky, Jean

    2004-10-01

    In modern society, metrology is a hidden infrastructure, that affects most human activities. Several domains in which measurements, and therefore metrology, play a crucial role are presented and illustrated with examples: manufacturing industries, navigation, telecommunications, medicine, environment, and scientific research. The BIPM and the national metrology institutes are at the top of traceability chains, which guarantee that all measurements are performed in conformity with the International System of Units (SI) and are therefore comparable. Finally, some indications of the economic benefits of metrology are given. To cite this article: T.J. Quinn, J. Kovalevsky, C. R. Physique 5 (2004).

  13. Advanced information society (9)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamata, Hiroki

    This article discusses the U.S. and European national strategies and policies for information society. Coping with the declining competitiveness in high-tech products and Japanese technological advantages both have been trying hard to strengthen technology base and to deregulate the telecommunications services markets. The U.S. approach in 1980's, unlike its liberalist principle, has been characterized by technological protectlonism and defense-oriented policies. European Communities' approach has been more comprehensive and systematic, investing heavily telecommunication infrastructure, deregulating domestic market, and promoting cooperation of member countries. However, both of these approaches have, so far, been unable to achieve a considerable success.

  14. Education in a Technological Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVore, Paul W., Ed.; Smith, Wil J., Ed.

    Technological change places increased responsibility on the educational system of a democratic society to prepare citizens for intelligent participation in government. This conference was held to analyze the nature of the technological society and the role of education in preparing the individual for membership in that society. The papers…

  15. Prospects for a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohliger, John

    1975-01-01

    The author raises six serious doubts about the directions adult education is taking toward a society mistakenly termed "learning society," which is in fact an "instructional society." An ominous vision of "womb-to-tomb" schooling is evoked by the author's quotations from prominent adult educators who criticize this trend. (Author/AJ)

  16. Creative Drama and Agricultural Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Courtney, Richard

    1989-01-01

    Discusses the interaction of culture and creative drama. Examines agricultural societies under three conditions: historically, from neolithic times; contemporary American Southwest Indian and Polynesian; and modern farming subcultures of European industrial societies. Asks how far agricultural life influences creative drama in agrarian societies.…

  17. Communicating Science to Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Illingworth, Samuel; Muller, Jennifer; Leather, Kimberley; Morgan, William; O'Meara, Simon; Topping, David; Booth, Alastair; Llyod, Gary; Young, Dominique; Bannan, Thomas; Simpson, Emma; Percival, Carl; Allen, Grant; Clark, Elaine; Muller, Catherine; Graves, Rosemarie

    2014-05-01

    "Nothing in science has any value to society if it is not communicated." So goes the 1952 quote from Anne Roe, the noted twentieth century American psychologist and writer. She went on to say that "scientists are beginning to learn their social obligations", and now over 60 years later there is certainly evidence to support her assertions. As scientists, by communicating our research to the general public we not only better inform the tax payer where their money is being spent, but are also able to help put into context the topical environmental challenges and issues that society faces, as well as inspiring a whole new generation of future scientists. This process of communication is very much a two-way street; by presenting our work to people outside of our usual spheres of contemporaries, we expose ourselves to alternative thoughts and insights that can inspire us, as scientists, to take another look at our research from angles that we had never before considered. This work presents the results and experiences from a number of public engagement and outreach activities across the UK, in which geoscientists engaged and interacted with members of the general public. These include the design and implementation of Raspberry Pi based outreach activities for several hundred high school students; the process of running a successful podcast (http://thebarometer.podbean.com); hosting and participating in science events for thousands of members of the general public (e.g. http://www.manchestersciencefestival.com and http://sse.royalsociety.org/2013); and creating a citizen science activity that involved primary school children from across the UK. In communicating their research it is imperative that scientists interact with their audience in an effective and engaging manner, whether in an international conference, a classroom, or indeed down the pub. This work also presents a discussion of how these skills can be developed at an early stage in the careers of a research

  18. A new microtelesensor chip for meteorology

    SciTech Connect

    Manges, W.W.; Smith, S.F.; Britton, C.L.

    1997-03-04

    A new technology exploiting commercial, micro-sensors developed for atomic force microscopy offers breakthrough capability in high accuracy wireless sensors for meteorological measurements. Historically sensors used in air-borne and buoy-based platforms required compromises in performance to achieve the low-weight and low power requirements of the mobile platforms. Recent innovations in microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) provided opportunities to reduce size, weight, and power requirements but each sensor required a specially fabricated device with inherent calibration, repeatability, and traceability problems. This new approach allows identical sensors to be fabricated on the same semiconductor substrate as the conditioning electronics and the telemetry components. Exploiting semiconductor fabrication technology offers the potential to reduce fabrication costs to a few dollars per component. Sensing humidity, temperature and pressure have been demonstrated with plans for meteorological deployment scheduled for later in 1997. Cost, reliability, size, power consumption, and accuracy are key factors in the deployment of advanced meteorological sensor arrays. ORNL is actively integrating the sensing technologies, electronic processing, and telemetry that build a family of sensors with multiple-input capabilities. One of the key elements in ORNL`s sensor technology is coated microcantilever arrays, which form a powerful universal platform for multiple physical and chemical measurements. Telemetry is also being developed to add robust spread-spectrum data transmission capabilities to the necessary signal processing electronics. In collaboration with the NOAA Atmospheric Turbulence and Diffusion Lab, a chip-level temperature/humidity module with onboard telemetry is slated for demonstration later in 1997. Future additions would include sensors for atmospheric pressure, wind velocity, turbulence measurement, and radiometry.

  19. ARM mobile facility surface meteorology (MET) handbook.

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, M. T.; Environmental Science Division

    2006-04-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-min statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity (RH), barometric pressure, and rainrate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime, or programmatic needs. In addition, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in Section 3.

  20. Meteorology impact on ATC system design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandemark, F. E.

    1981-01-01

    The impact of meteorology on air traffic control (ATC) system design for designs, and for cost benefit evaluations is discussed. The myriad of choices for implementation is a problem of great magnitude, given the economic climate of today. Cost versus benefit requires greater emphasis. Expanding and improving weather data acquisition, increasing the speed of weather data transmission and automating those actions that lend themselves to standardization for automated data processing are outlined. Three programs are mentioned: (1) automated weather observations, (2) weather radar and improvements to the national airspace system as related to the handling of weather data; and (3) products.

  1. A Visualization Tool for Meteorological Data

    1999-09-28

    Graphical user interfaces (GUIs) have been buit to visualize surface and upper-meteorology data for any global location and time of interest. The user selects a domain (geographic location and bounding range) and time of interest using the Gui, and a file containing coded observations is accessed and decoded. two styles of the GUI have been built, depending on whether surface or upper air visualization is desired. The former indicates weather conditions near the earth''s surface,more » while the latter illustrates a vertical profile of atmospheric conditions.« less

  2. Applications of MST radars: Meteorological applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larsen, M. F.

    1989-01-01

    Applications of mesosphere stratosphere troposphere radar to mesoscale meteorology are discussed. The applications include using the radar either as a research tool to improve our understanding of certain dynamical systems or as part of a network used to provide input data for weather forecasting. The workhorse of the operational observing network is the radiosonde balloon which provides measurements of pressure, temperature, humidity, and winds up to heights of 16 to 20 km. Horizontal and vertical measurement capabilities, reflectivity data, derivable quantities and parameters, and special operational requirements are surveyed.

  3. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovill, J. E.; Ellis, J. S.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Weichel, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented.

  4. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1990-12-31

    During 1990, we have continued our meteorological and hydrologic data collection in support of our process-oriented research. The six years of data collected to data is unique in its scope and continuity in a North Hemisphere Arctic setting. This valuable data base has allowed us to further our understanding of the interconnections and interactions between the atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere. The increased understanding of the heat and mass transfer processes has allowed us to increase our model-oriented research efforts.

  5. Medical education and society.

    PubMed

    Murray, T J

    1995-11-15

    As health care changes under the pressures of restraint and constraint our vision of the future of medical education should be based on the medical school's responsibility to the community. The medical school is "an academy in the community": as an academy, it fosters the highest standards in education and research; as an institution in the community, it seeks to improve public health and alleviate suffering. The author argues that to better achieve these goals medical schools need to become more responsible and responsive to the population they serve. Medical schools have been slow to accept fully the social contract by which, in return for their service to society, they enjoy special rights and benefits. This contract requires that medical educators listen to the public, talk honestly and constructively with government representatives and assess the needs and expectations of the community.

  6. Behaviorism and Society.

    PubMed

    Krapfl, Jon E

    2016-05-01

    A probable list of causes for the limited acceptance of behaviorism in our society is identified. This is followed by a summary review of the proposed solutions identified in other papers in this special issue of The Behavior Analyst, most of which relate to either better marketing of either the behavior analytic process or the results achieved as a consequence. One paper proposes a more broad conception of behavior analysis. This paper endorses the solutions identified in previous papers and then goes on to propose an even more broad conception of behavior analysis and makes the point that behavior analysis is unlikely to flourish unless behavior analysts understand a good deal more about the cultural and other contextual features of the environments in which they work. PMID:27606191

  7. Building a sustainable society

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, L.R.

    1981-01-01

    Mr. Brown feels the world needs a land ethic to guide resource planning and an ecological theology to serve as custodian over the thinning topsoil, spreading desert, and growing population. In a sustainable society, durability and recycling replace obsolescence as the economy's organizing principle, and virgin materials are seen not as a primary source of material but as a supplement to the existing stock. The key to national security is sustainability. If the biological underpinnings of the global economic system cannot be secured, and if new energy sources and systems are not in place as the oil wells go dry, then economic disruptions and breakdowns are inevitable. In effect, the traditional military concept of national security grows less adequate in the face of growing non-military threats. 154 notes and references, 6 figures, 41 tables.

  8. Science, Technology and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridgstock, Martin; Burch, David; Forge, John; Laurent, John; Lowe, Ian

    1998-03-01

    This book provides a comprehensive introduction to the human, social and economic aspects of science and technology. It examines a broad range of issues from a variety of perspectives, using examples and experiences from around the world. The authors present complex issues, including the responsibilities of scientists, ethical dilemmas and controversies, the Industrial Revolution, economic issues, public policy, and science and technology in developing countries. The book ends with a thoughtful and provocative look toward the future. It features extensive guides to further reading, as well as a useful section on information searching skills. This book will provoke, engage, inform and stimulate thoughtful discussion about culture, society and science. Broad and interdisciplinary, it will be of considerable value to both students and teachers.

  9. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'. PMID:27550768

  10. Correlations between meteorological parameters and prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There exists a north-south pattern to the distribution of prostate cancer in the U.S., with the north having higher rates than the south. The current hypothesis for the spatial pattern of this disease is low vitamin D levels in individuals living at northerly latitudes; however, this explanation only partially explains the spatial distribution in the incidence of this cancer. Using a U.S. county-level ecological study design, we provide evidence that other meteorological parameters further explain the variation in prostate cancer across the U.S. Results In general, the colder the temperature and the drier the climate in a county, the higher the incidence of prostate cancer, even after controlling for shortwave radiation, age, race, snowfall, premature mortality from heart disease, unemployment rate, and pesticide use. Further, in counties with high average annual snowfall (>75 cm/yr) the amount of land used to grow crops (a proxy for pesticide use) was positively correlated with the incidence of prostate cancer. Conclusion The trends found in this USA study suggest prostate cancer may be partially correlated with meteorological factors. The patterns observed were consistent with what we would expect given the effects of climate on the deposition, absorption, and degradation of persistent organic pollutants including pesticides. Some of these pollutants are known endocrine disruptors and have been associated with prostate cancer. PMID:20409297

  11. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  12. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment.

    PubMed

    Harrison, R Giles; Hanna, Edward

    2016-09-28

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10-1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to 'eclipse meteorology' as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ).This article is part of the themed issue 'Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse'.

  13. Maize transpiration in response to meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimešová, Jana; Stŕedová, Hana; Stŕeda, Tomáš

    2013-09-01

    Differences in transpiration of maize (Zea mays L.) plants in four soil moisture regimes were quantified in a pot experiment. The transpiration was measured by the "Stem Heat Balance" method. The dependence of transpiration on air temperature, air humidity, global solar radiation, soil moisture, wind speed and leaf surface temperature were quantified. Significant relationships among transpiration, global radiation and air temperature (in the first vegetation period in the drought non-stressed variant, r = 0.881**, r = 0.934**) were found. Conclusive dependence of transpiration on leaf temperature (r = 0.820**) and wind speed (r = 0.710**) was found. Transpiration was significantly influenced by soil moisture (r = 0.395**, r = 0.528**) under moderate and severe drought stress. The dependence of transpiration on meteorological factors decreased with increasing deficiency of water. Correlation between transpiration and plant dry matter weight (r = 0.997**), plant height (r = 0.973**) and weight of corn cob (r = 0.987**) was found. The results of instrumental measuring of field crops transpiration under diverse moisture conditions at a concurrent monitoring of the meteorological elements spectra are rather unique. These results will be utilized in the effort to make calculations of the evapotranspiration in computing models more accurate.

  14. Compendium of Training Facilities for Meteorology and Operational Hydrology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Information is provided on training courses available in about 96 countries in applied meteorology (including agrometeorology, air pollution meteorology, cloud physics, weather modification, and satellite meteorology) and hydrology. The location is given as well as the nature and language of instruction. Course duration, starting dates, entrance qualifications, and tuition fees are listed. A condensed syllabus is provided. Information on accomodation, and the number of students admitted to the courses is included.

  15. Recommendations for portable supplemental meteorological instrumentation for incident response

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.M.; Tichler, J.L.

    1981-03-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff requested technical assistance in recommending portable supplementary meteorological instrumentation which can be deployed to nuclear power plant sites in response to incidents. A supplementary meteorological system (SMS), whose primary function is to collect, analyze and disseminate supplemental meteorological information, is recommended. Instrument specifications are discussed along with maintenance and staffing requirements. A cost evaluation of the components is made. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  16. Climate Extremes and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mote, Philip

    2009-10-01

    In October 2005, as the United States still was reeling from Hurricane Katrina in August and as the alphabet was too short to contain all of that year's named Atlantic tropical storms (Hurricane Wilma was forming near Jamaica), a timely workshop in Bermuda focused on climate extremes and society (see Eos, 87(3), 25, 17 January 2006). This edited volume, which corresponds roughly to the presentations given at that workshop, offers a fascinating look at the critically important intersection of acute climate stress and human vulnerabilities. A changing climate affects humans and other living things not through the variable that most robustly demonstrates the role of rising greenhouse gases—globally averaged temperature—but through local changes, especially changes in extremes. The first part of this book, “Defining and modeling the nature of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on natural science. The second part, “Impacts of weather and climate extremes,” focuses on societal impacts and responses, emphasizing an insurance industry perspective because a primary sponsor of the workshop was the Risk Prediction Initiative, whose aim is to “support scientific research on topics of interest to its sponsors” (p. 320).

  17. American Society of Nuclear Cardiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... much more! class="box-li"> Journal of Nuclear Cardiology Official publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology Clinical Guidelines Procedures, Appropriate Use Criteria, Information Statements ...

  18. Research in dynamic meteorology in Russia in 2011-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurgansky, M. V.; Krupchatnikov, V. N.

    2016-03-01

    This review outlines the most significant results of research in dynamic meteorology performed by Russian scientists in 2011-2014. It is part of the Russian National Report on Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences submitted to the International Association of Meteorology and Atmospheric Sciences (IAMAS). The report was considered and approved at the 26th General Assembly of the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG).1 The review is followed by a list of key publications on dynamic meteorology of Russian scientists in 2011-2014.

  19. Visibility characteristics and the impacts of air pollutants and meteorological conditions over Shanghai, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Li, Chengfan; Liu, Qian

    2015-06-01

    In China, visibility condition has become an important issue that concerns both society and the scientific community. In order to study visibility characteristics and its influencing factors, visibility data, air pollutants, and meteorological data during the year 2013 were obtained over Shanghai. The temporal variation of atmospheric visibility was analyzed. The mean value of daily visibility of Shanghai was 19.1 km. Visibility exhibited an obvious seasonal cycle. The maximum and minimum visibility occurred in September and December with the values of 27.5 and 7.7 km, respectively. The relationships between the visibility and air pollutant data were calculated. The visibility had negative correlation with NO2, CO, PM2.5, PM10, and SO2 and weak positive correlation with O3. Meteorological data were clustered into four groups to reveal the joint contribution of meteorological variables to the daily average visibility. Usually, under the meteorological condition of high temperature and wind speed, the visibility of Shanghai reached about 25 km, while visibility decreased to 16 km under the weather type of low wind speed and temperature and high relative humid. Principle component analysis was also applied to identify the main cause of visibility variance. The results showed that the low visibility over Shanghai was mainly due to the high air pollution concentrations associated with low wind speed, which explained the total variance of 44.99 %. These results provide new knowledge for better understanding the variations of visibility and have direct implications to supply sound policy on visibility improvement in Shanghai.

  20. Satellite Meteorology Education & Training Resources from COMET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, W. E.; Dills, P. N.; Weingroff, M.; Lee, T. F.

    2012-12-01

    The COMET® Program (www.comet.ucar.edu) receives funding from NOAA NESDIS as well as EUMETSAT and the Meteorological Service of Canada to support education and training in satellite meteorology. These partnerships enable COMET to create educational materials of global interest on geostationary and polar-orbiting remote sensing platforms. These materials focus on the capabilities and applications of current and next-generation satellites and their relevance to operational forecasters and other user communities. By partnering with experts from the Naval Research Laboratory, NOAA-NESDIS and its Cooperative Institutes, Meteorological Service of Canada, EUMETSAT, and other user communities, COMET stimulates greater use of satellite data observations and products. This presentation provides an overview of COMET's recent satellite education efforts in the area of polar orbiting satellites. COMET has a new module on Suomi NPP, which describes the satellite system and discusses the improvements that it is bringing to forecasting, numerical weather prediction, and environmental monitoring. COMET has also published an updated version of its module on the VIIRS instrument. "Imaging with VIIRS: A Convergence of Technologies and Experience, 2nd Edition" covers the instrument's enhanced capabilities by examining the systems that contributed to its development. Special attention is paid to the Day/Night Visible channel as VIIRS is the first instrument on a civilian satellite to image atmospheric and terrestrial features with and without moonlight. An upcoming module will exclusively focus on nighttime imaging with the VIIRS Day/Night Band (DNB). "Applications of the VIIRS Day-Night Band" will introduce the capabilities of DNB imagery to a wide audience ranging from forecasters and emergency managers to wildfire fighters and oceanographers. DNB products will be compared to traditional satellite products made from infrared data, including the "fog" product. Users will learn how DNB

  1. The Significance of the Youth Society Movement in Finnish Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Numminen, Jaakko

    1980-01-01

    The influence of the Youth Society movement on Finnish cultural life is widespread. Three main areas can be observed in all Youth Society activities: moral education of Finnish youth, extending ideas of national awakening to everyone, and a tendency to bring different social circles closer together. (JOW)

  2. Knowledge, Society, Higher Education and the Society of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostaker, Roar; Vabo, Agnete

    2008-01-01

    Research and higher education are, to a greater extent, being governed and evaluated by other than fellow scholars. These changes are discussed in relation to Gilles Deleuze's notion of a transition from "societies of discipline" to what he called "societies of control". This involves a shift from pyramid-shaped organisations, built upon…

  3. Meteorological analysis of MAPS first shuttle flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, M.; Newell, R. E.

    1983-01-01

    The data from the MAPS radiometer launched on board the first shuttle flight was analyzed. The meteorological data relevant to the MAPS measurements was also analyzed so that the in situ calibration measurements and any anomalous features within the data set can be evaluated in the context of the atmospheric circulation during the period of observation. The three dimensioned isentropic analysis scheme was used as the main analytical tool. A graphical output of the N and delta channel signals, black body reference temperatures, reduced CO concentrations and ground tracks for orbits 15 and 16 were provided. The insentropic trajectory methods was emphasized because it is a basic requirement that the analysis be extended to incorporate daily data within the tropics.

  4. ARM Surface Meteorology Systems Instrument Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Ritsche, MT

    2011-03-08

    The ARM Surface Meteorology Systems consist mainly of conventional in situ sensors that obtain a defined “core” set of measurements. The core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (kPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), Vector-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable: • Winds: 10 meters • Temperature and Relative Humidity: 2 meters • Barometric Pressure: 1 meter. Depending upon the geographical location, different models and types of sensors may be used to measure the core variables due to the conditions experienced at those locations. Most sites have additional sensors that measure other variables that are unique to that site or are well suited for the climate of the location but not at others.

  5. Modeling of Phoenix Meteorological Observations Using MLAM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Kahanpää, H.; Kauhanen, J.; Merikallio, S.; Polkko, J.; Savijärvi, H.; Siili, T.

    2008-09-01

    Abstract The Mars Limited Area Model (MLAM) has been jointly developed by the Helsinki University and the Finnish Meteorological Institute to study mesoscale phenomena in the Martian Atmosphere [1]. It is based on the hydro-static dynamical core of the HIgh Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM), an operational weather prediction model-analysis sys-tem used by several European countries. To support the Phoenix mission to high Martian latitudes, the model was optimized in its grid definition and the way carbon dioxide and water ice development is treated. The MLAM based simulations support the analysis of the data from the Phoenix Meteorological station [2] which contains besides a LIDAR for ice/dust particle observations three atmospheric temperature sensors along a 1.2m high boom, a telltale to provide information about wind direction and speed, and 3 capacitive pressure sensors from FMI. The pressure sensors are similar to those success-fully flown on Cassini/Huygens. showed a surprisingly good agreement with the first pressure, temperature and wind data received from the instruments. The results of more detailed studies will be presented, covering several months of data and conclusions drawn from the model comparisons. Figures 2 and 3 show MLAM simulations of the polar region at the time of the Phoenix landing, both at midnight and noon. The landing site is in the upper left quadrant, marked by a small white circle. References [1] Järvenoja, S., Kauhanen, J. and Savijärvi, H. (2003) HIRLAM Newsletter (43), 179-184 [2] Michelangeli, D.V., et al. (2006) Proc. of the 4th intern.conference on Mars polar science and exploration, pp 8014.

  6. Uncertainty in Dispersion Forecasting Using Meteorological Ensembles

    SciTech Connect

    Leach, M J; Chin, H-N

    2000-03-23

    A approach for quantifying meteorological uncertainty is via development of an ensemble of forecasts from slightly perturbed initial conditions (Sivillo et al., 1997) to predict the time evolution of the probability density function of atmospheric variables (Mullen and Baurnhefner, 1994). We create an ensemble of forecasts by varying the initial (and boundary) conditions for the COAMPS meteorological model. The variations in the initial conditions must be consistent with analysis error. Optimally, the range of initial conditions would encompass the ''true'' atmospheric state, but which is never actually known. Our method for creating varying initial conditions is to use different global data sets to derive the necessary data. We use two models from the National Weather Service (the AVN and ETA models) and one from the Navy (the NOGAPS model). In addition to those data sets we perturb the data from those models, using a normally distributed random number at each grid point in the COAMPS model. We perturb the (u,v) wind components, the temperature and the moisture. The size of the perturbation is determined by the variability within that variable field. The forecasts are run for 48 hours. We then use the output from the COAMPS model to drive a Lagrangian dispersion model (LODI) for simulated releases. The results from a simulated release from hour 33 are shown in Figure 1. The center of the domain is Oakland airport and the basic on-shore wind is from the southwest. In three of the simulations, the plume goes over the top of the hills to the northeast, and in the other three the plume hugs the coastline and goes around those hills The two solutions reflect a dependence on the Froude number, a ratio of the Kinetic energy to Potential energy. Higher Kinetic energy flow (Higher Froude number) flow goes over the top of the mountain, while lower Kinetic energy flow goes around the hills.

  7. Effects of meteorological conditions on spore plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, M.; Levetin, E.

    2002-05-01

    Fungal spores are an ever-present component of the atmosphere, and have long been known to trigger asthma and hay fever symptoms in sensitive individuals. The atmosphere around Tulsa has been monitored for airborne spores and pollen with Burkard spore traps at several sampling stations. This study involved the examination of the hourly spore concentrations on days that had average daily concentrations near 50,000 spores/m3 or greater. Hourly concentrations of Cladosporium, Alternaria, Epicoccum, Curvularia, Pithomyces, Drechslera, smut spores, ascospores, basidiospores, other, and total spores were determined on 4 days at three sites and then correlated with hourly meteorological data including temperature, rainfall, wind speed, dew point, air pressure, and wind direction. On each of these days there was a spore plume, a phenomenon in which spore concentrations increased dramatically over a very short period of time. Spore plumes generally occurred near midday, and concentrations were seen to increase from lows around 20,000 total spores/m3 to highs over 170,000 total spores/m3 in 2 h. Multiple regression analysis of the data indicated that increases in temperature, dew point, and air pressure correlated with the increase in spore concentrations, but no single weather variable predicted the appearance of a spore plume. The proper combination of changes in these meteorological parameters that result in a spore plume may be due to the changing weather conditions associated with thunderstorms, as on 3 of the 4 days when spore plumes occurred there were thunderstorms later that evening. The occurrence of spore plumes may have clinical significance, because other studies have shown that sensitization to certain spore types can occur during exposure to high spore concentrations.

  8. Numeracy in Society and Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Cath; Dole, Shelley; Geiger, Vince; Goos, Merrilyn

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a project that focuses on how a Society and Environment unit could develop required numeracy. This is more of an integrated unit organised around a theme rather than a Society and Environment unit that required specific aspects of numeracy. Suggested data sources for examining students numeracy development included (1) a…

  9. Education for a Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tempero, Howard E., Ed.

    The essays contained in this booklet are 1) "Education for a 'Learning Society': The Challenge" by Ernest Bayles in which he calls for focus on learning to live, developing skills of reflection and judgment applicable to vital issues, and reflective teaching; 2) "Teacher Education in a Learning Society" in which David Turney demands teacher…

  10. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…

  11. The Learning Society: Two Justifications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Su, Ya-hui

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the view that has long been fashionable in related policies and literature that the establishment of the learning society is a necessary response to changing times. This article suggests that the association between the learning society and current change may be defensible but is limited. The justification of the learning…

  12. [Living in a Temporary Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennis, Warren G.

    Society is in the process of accelerated change and the institutionalization of this change through research and technology. Other factors affecting American society are an increase in affluence, an elevation of the educational level of the population, and a growing interdependence of institutions. The fact that this country is currently going…

  13. Education for an Open Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Della-Dora, Delmo, Ed.; House, James E., Ed.

    This yearbook focuses on the issue of opening the society for all people, particularly for those who have not been properly represented heretofore. Part 1 reviews some of the progress made toward an open society during the past two decades. It delineates the exasperatingly slow but important gains that have been registered since the Supreme Court…

  14. Multicultural Education in Western Societies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A., Ed.; Lynch, James, Ed.

    Western democratic societies share an egalitarian ideology which maintains that a major goal of the state is to protect human rights and promote equality and the structural inclusion of all racial, ethnic, and cultural groups into the fabric of society. Educational initiatives taken to implement reforms that reflect ethnic diversity and promote…

  15. Meteorological and Wave Measurements for Improving Meteorological and Air Quality Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hare, J.; MacDonald, C.; Ray, A.; Fairall, C. W.; Pezoa, S.; Gibson, B.; Huang, C. H.

    2010-12-01

    A unique collaboration between corporate, government, and university researchers have teamed up to develop a marine environmental observations program on an offshore platform in the Gulf of Mexico. The meteorological and oceanographic sensors have been deployed for an extended period (12-24 months) on a Chevron service platform (90.5W, 29N) to collect boundary layer and sea surface data sufficient to improve dispersion modeling in and around the Gulf of Mexico. This task has recently been provided significant import, given the large industrial presence in the Gulf, the large regional population, and the recognized need for precise and accurate dispersion forecasts. Observations include marine boundary layer winds, height, and temperature, sea surface temperature and current, wave height, downwelling solar and infrared radiation, air-sea momentum and heat fluxes, and mean meteorological parameters. We will present a summary of the instrument deployment, show the initial time series of the observations, and provide context for the experimental outcomes.

  16. A new challenge for meteorological measurements: The "MeteoMet" project - Metrology for meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merlone, A.; Lopardo, G.; Antonsen, I.; Bell, S.; Benyon, R.; Boese, N.; del Campo, D.; Dobre, M.; Drnovšek, J.; Elkatmis, A.; Georgin, E.; Grudniewicz, E.; Heinonen, M.; Holstein-Rathlou, C.; Johansson, J.; Klason, P.; Knorova, R.; Melvad, C.; Merrison, J.; Migała, K.; de Podesta, M.; Saathoff, H.; Smorgon, D.; Sparasci, F.; Strnad, R.; Szmyrka-Grzebyk, A.; Vuillermoz, E.

    2013-09-01

    Climate change and its consequences require immediate actions in order to safeguard the environment and economy in Europe and in the rest of world. Aiming to enhance data reliability and reduce uncertainties in climate observations, a joint research project called "MeteoMet - Metrology for Meteorology" started in October 2011 coordinated by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRiM). The project is focused on the traceability of measurements involved in climate change: surface and upper air measurements of temperature, pressure, humidity, wind speed and direction, solar irradiance and reciprocal influences between measurands. This project will provide the first definition at the European level of validated climate parameters with associated uncertainty budgets and novel criteria for interpretation of historical data series. The big challenge is the propagation of a metrological measurement perspective to meteorological observations. When such an approach will be adopted the requirement of reliable data and robust datasets over wide scales and long terms could be better met.

  17. The Practice of English Teaching in the Meteorological Correspondence Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Shaohui

    2010-01-01

    The correspondence education is the important part of the national education, and its education objects give priority to working staffs. The objects of the meteorological correspondence education are working staffs in the meteorological departments, and most of these students have engaged in the operation work for a long time, keeping at a…

  18. Meteorological monitoring program at the DOE Hanford site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1996-12-31

    Meteorological monitoring is an aspect of the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) requirements for environmental monitoring and is designed to meet the environmental surveillance and meteorological monitoring program objectives stated in DOE 5400.1 and described in DOE-EH-0173T. The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Meteorological and Climatological Services Project provides the DOE Richland Operations Office and Hanford site contractors with meteorological and climatological support for emergency response, weather forecasting, climatological data, and related special requests through the operation of the Hanford meteorology station (HMS). The project responds to Hanford site needs through a program that includes (a) extensive data acquisition through a sitewide meteorological monitoring network; (b) 24 h/day (Monday through Friday) and 8 h/day (weekends and holidays) forecasting capability; (c) a weather observations program, including surface and synoptic observations; and (d) climatological data support through monthly and annual summaries as well as meteorological input to annual environmental reports. The mission of this meteorological monitoring program does not compete with that of the National Weather Service, which is to provide forecasting for the general public and the collection and reporting of climatological data.

  19. Meteorological-physical Limitations of Icing in the Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Findeisen, W

    1939-01-01

    The icing hazard can, in most cases, be avoided by correct execution of the flights according to meteorological viewpoints and by meteorologically correct navigation (horizontal and, above all, vertical). The zones of icing hazard are usually narrowly confined. Their location can be ascertained with, in most cases, sufficient accuracy before take-off.

  20. Formative Evaluation of a Web-Based Course in Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, Julia; Reynolds, Ross

    1999-01-01

    Describes the formative-evaluation process for the EuroMET (European Meteorological Education and Training) project, Web-Based university courses in meteorology that were created to address the education and training needs of professional meteorologists and students throughout Europe. Usability and interactive and multimedia elements are…

  1. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  2. Compendium of Lecture Notes for Training Class III Meteorological Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Retallack, B. J.

    This compendium of lecture notes provides a course of study for persons who may be involved in a variety of specialized meteorological tasks. The course is considered to be advanced and assumes students have had introductory experiences in meteorology and earth science (covered in a similar compendium). The material is presented in seven units…

  3. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  4. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  5. Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Meteorological Station, interior with collapsed roof showing remnant wooden equipment switch box on east wall; view southeast - Fort McKinley, Meteorological Station, East side of Weymouth Way, approximately 225 feet south of Cove Side Drive, Great Diamond Island, Portland, Cumberland County, ME

  6. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  7. 10 CFR 960.5-2-3 - Meteorology.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Meteorology. 960.5-2-3 Section 960.5-2-3 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR THE PRELIMINARY SCREENING OF POTENTIAL SITES FOR A NUCLEAR WASTE REPOSITORY Preclosure Guidelines Preclosure Radiological Safety § 960.5-2-3 Meteorology. (a)...

  8. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser .

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  9. An Operational Environmental Meteorology Forecasting system for Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guangqiang; Xu, Jianming; Xie, Ying; Wu, Jianbin; Yu, Zhongqi; Chang, Luyu

    2015-04-01

    Since 2012 an operational environmental meteorology forecasting system was setup to provide daily forecasts of environmental meteorology pollutants for the Eastern China region. Initialized with 0.5 degree GFS meteorological fields, the system uses the WRF-Chem model to provide daily 96-hour forecasts. Model forecasts for meteorological fields and pollutants concentrations (e.g. PM2.5 and O3) as well as haze conditions are displayed through an open platform. Verifications of the model results in terms of statistical and graphical products are also displayed at the website. Currently, the modeling system provides strong support for the daily AQI forecasting of Shanghai, and it also provides guidance products for other meteorological agencies in the Eastern China region. Here the modeling system design will be presented, together with long-term verification results for PM2.5 and O3forecasts.

  10. The data collection component of the Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Islam, M.M.

    1988-09-01

    An intensive program of meteorological monitoring is in place at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. The Hanford Meteorology Monitoring Program involves the measurement, observation, and storage of various meteorological data; continuous monitoring of regional weather conditions by a staff of professional meteorologists; and around-the-clock forecasting of weather conditions for the Hanford Site. The objective of this report is to document the data collection component of the program. In this report, each meteorological monitoring site is discussed in detail. Each site's location and instrumentation are described and photographs are presented. The methods for processing and communicating data to the Hanford Meteorology Station are also discussed. Finally, the procedures followed to maintain and calibrate these instruments are presented. 2 refs., 83 figs., 15 tabs.

  11. Applications of Meteorological Tower Data at Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Altino, Karen M.; Barbre, Robert E., Jr.

    2009-01-01

    Members of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) design and operation communities rely on meteorological information collected at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), located near Cape Canaveral, Florida, to correctly apply the ambient environment to various tasks. The Natural Environments Branch/EV44, located at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama, is responsible for providing its NASA customers with meteorological data using various climatological data sources including balloons, surface stations, aircraft, hindcast models, and meteorological towers. Of the many resources available within the KSC region, meteorological towers are preferred for near-surface applications because they record data at regular, frequent intervals over an extensive period of record at a single location. This paper discusses the uses of data measured at several different meteorological towers for a common period of record and how the data can be applied to various engineering decisions for the new Constellation Program Ares and Orion space vehicles.

  12. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim; La Cour-Harbo, Anders; Thomsen, Carsten; Bange, Jens; Buschmann, Marco

    2010-05-01

    This poster describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. During a week of flying a lighter-than-air vehicle, two small electrically powered aeroplanes and a larger helicopter at the Risø test station at Høvsøre, we will compare wind speed measurements with fixed mast and LIDAR measurements, investigate optimal flight patterns for each measurement task, and measure other interesting meteorological features like the air-sea boundary in the vicinity of the wind farm. In order to prepare the measurement campaign, a workshop is held, soliciting input from various communities. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. While the wake structure behind single wind turbines onshore is fairly well understood, there are different problems offshore, thought to be due mainly to the low turbulence. Good measurements of the wake and wake structure are not easy to come by, as the use of a met mast is static and expensive, while the use of remote sensing instruments either needs significant access to the turbine to mount an instrument, or is complicated to use on a ship due to the ship's own movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tens of thousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12 MW class, with tip heights of over 200 m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics - all that is known is that the boundary layer description we used so far is not valid any more. Here, automated Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) could be used as either an extension of current high masts or to build a network of very high ‘masts' in a region of complex terrain or coastal flow conditions. In comparison to a multitude of high masts, UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test

  13. Challenges in Arid-Land Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, T. T.

    2005-12-01

    A fundamental challenge in desert meteorology involves quantifying the various components of the water cycle for the coupled land-atmospheric system. Important issues include defining the fraction of precipitated water that actually reaches the ground, and, of the water that does reach the surface, how much is partitioned among evaporation, runoff to reservoirs, retention near the surface in substrates for use by vegetation, and percolation to the water table. Because monsoon rainfall is often a significant source of water in the hydrologic cycle in arid lands, understanding its inter-annual variability and improving its predictability are challenges. In addition, there are questions about how continued anthropogenic modification of the landscape will influence local weather processes and climate, in terms of changes due to agricultural conversion (including reversion away from agriculture as water tables drop), the urban conversion of prairie grassland and desert vegetation to asphalt and trees, and the trans-basin diversion of water. Predicting the elevation from the surface and the transport of natural and anthropogenic aerosols is also important in terms of their affect on the local and global radiation budget and climate, downwind effects on human health, and local and remote cloud processes. Lastly, large substrate and vegetation heterogeneities, frequently very complex orography, and extreme diurnal cycles present challenges in understanding and modeling land-atmosphere interaction and boundary-layer processes.

  14. Meteorological Characterization of Global Dust Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ginoux, Paul; Prospero, Joe; Torres, Omar; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The global distribution of absorbing aerosols index (AI) derived from Nimbus 7 Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) measurements has been used to identify the major sources of atmospheric dust particles [Prospero, et al., 2000]. In this presentation, we will show that the TOMS aerosol index can also be used to the meteorological characterization of the source areas. We found a huge "dust belt" with a strong correlation between the TOMS index and the sea-level pressure wrapping all the major dust sources. To handle the difficulty of using quantitatively the TOMS Al and its strong dependency on the aerosol layer altitude, the Al has been correlated to the planetary boundary layer depth (PBL) and the surface wind speed. The strongest correlation is obtained with the product of these two variables and at the precise location of the dust sources identified by Prospero et al. The relation between the TOMS Al and the product of the PBL height and the surface wind speed has been used to study the interannual variability of the North-Africa dust sources in relation with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Finally, we will show that even on a short time base the variability of the TOMS Al can be related to the surface wind speed and PBL height.

  15. Study of spacecraft direct readout meteorological systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, R.; Elam, W.; Hoedemaker, R.

    1973-01-01

    Characteristics are defined of the next generation direct readout meteorological satellite system with particular application to Tiros N. Both space and ground systems are included. The recommended space system is composed of four geosynchronous satellites and two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit. The goesynchronous satellites transmit to direct readout ground stations via a shared S-band link, relayed FOFAX satellite cloud cover pictures (visible and infrared) and weather charts (WEFAX). Basic sensor data is transmitted to regional Data Utilization Stations via the same S-band link. Basic sensor data consists of 0.5 n.m. sub-point resolution data in the 0.55 - 0.7 micron spectral region, and 4.0 n.m. resolution data in the 10.5 - 12.6 micron spectral region. The two low altitude satellites in sun-synchronous orbit provide data to direct readout ground stations via a 137 MHz link, a 400 Mhz link, and an S-band link.

  16. The solar eclipse: a natural meteorological experiment

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    A solar eclipse provides a well-characterized reduction in solar radiation, of calculable amount and duration. This captivating natural astronomical phenomenon is ideally suited to science outreach activities, but the predictability of the change in solar radiation also provides unusual conditions for assessing the atmospheric response to a known stimulus. Modern automatic observing networks used for weather forecasting and atmospheric research have dense spatial coverage, so the quantitative meteorological responses to an eclipse can now be evaluated with excellent space and time resolution. Numerical models representing the atmosphere at high spatial resolution can also be used to predict eclipse-related changes and interpret the observations. Combining the models with measurements yields the elements of a controlled atmospheric experiment on a regional scale (10–1000 km), which is almost impossible to achieve by other means. This modern approach to ‘eclipse meteorology’ as identified here can ultimately improve weather prediction models and be used to plan for transient reductions in renewable electricity generation. During the 20 March 2015 eclipse, UK electrical energy demand increased by about 3 GWh (11 TJ) or about 4%, alongside reductions in the wind and photovoltaic electrical energy generation of 1.5 GWh (5.5 TJ). This article is part of the themed issue ‘Atmospheric effects of solar eclipses stimulated by the 2015 UK eclipse’. PMID:27550768

  17. Dependence of urban air pollutants on meteorology.

    PubMed

    Elminir, Hamdy K

    2005-11-01

    Dependence of air pollutants on meteorology is presented with the aim of understanding the governing processes pollutants phase interaction. Intensive measurements of particulate matter (PM10) and gaseous materials (e.g., CO, NO2, SO2, and O3) are carried out regularly in 2002 at 14 measurement sites distributed over the whole territory of Great Cairo by the Egyptian Environmental Affairs Agency to assess the characteristics of air pollutants. The discussions in this work are based upon measurements performed at Abbassiya site as a case study. The nature of the contributing sources has been investigated and some attempts have been made to indicate the role played by neighboring regions in determining the air quality at the site mentioned. The results hint that, wind direction was found to have an influence not only on pollutant concentrations but also on the correlation between pollutants. As expected, the pollutants associated with traffic were at highest ambient concentration levels when wind speed was low. At higher wind speeds, dust and sand from the surrounding desert was entrained by the wind, thus contributing to ambient particulate matter levels. We also found that, the highest average concentration for NO2 and O3 occurred at humidity

  18. BOREAS HYD-3 Subcanopy Meteorological Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hardy, Janet P.; Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Knapp, David E. (Editor); Davis, Robert E.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Boreal Ecosystem-Atmosphere Study (BOREAS) Hydrology (HYD)-3 team collected several data sets related to the hydrology of forested areas. This data set includes measurements of wind speed and direction; air temperature; relative humidity; and canopy, trunk, and snow surface temperatures within three forest types. The data were collected in the southern study area/Old Jack Pine (SSA-OJP) (1994), and SSA-OBS (Old Black Spruce), and SSA-OA (Old Aspen) (1996). Measurements were taken for three days in 1994 and four days at each site in 1996. These measurements were intended to be short term to allow the relationship between subcanopy measurements and those collected above the forest canopy to be determined. The subcanopy estimates of wind speed were used in a snow melt model to help predict the timing of snow ablation. The data are available in tabular ASCII files. The subcanopy meteorological measurement data are available from the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884).

  19. Radiometric Meteorology: radon progeny as tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenfield, Mark; Iwata, Atsushi; Ito, Nahoko; Kubo, Kenya; Komura, Kazu; Ishizaki, Miho

    2008-10-01

    In-situ measurement of atmospheric γ radiation from radon progeny determine rain and snow rates to better accuracy than standard rain gauges and gives a handle on how droplets are formed. The measured γ ray rates (GRR) have been shown to be proportional to a power of radiometric precipitation rates (RPR)^α, α giving a handle on the extent to which radon progeny are surface adsorbed or volume absorbed.ootnotetextM. B. Greenfield et al., J. Appl. Phys. 93, (2003) pp 5733-5741. More recently time dependent ratios of GRR from ^214Pb and ^214Bi, concentrated from collected rainwater, have been used to determine the elapsed time since activity from RPR, adhered to rain droplets, was removed from secular equilibrium. Ion exchange resins precipitate out the ^214Pb and ^214Bi ions, which are then filtered from 10s of liters of rainwater or snowmelt. A portable Ge detector is used to integrate the resulting activity over 5-10 min intervals. The measured evolution of these two activities from secular equilibrium to transient equilibrium has meteorological applications enabling both the determination of average elapsed times between the formation of raindrops and the time they reach the ground, as well as an estimate of the initial activity at the source of droplet formation.

  20. Arctic hydrology and meteorology. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, D.L.

    1989-12-31

    To date, five years of hydrologic and meteorologic data have been collected at Imnavait Creek near Toolik Lake, Alaska. This is the most complete set of field data of this type collected in the Arctic of North America. These data have been used in process-oriented research to increase our understanding of atmosphere/hydrosphere/biosphere/lithosphere interactions. Basically, we are monitoring heat and mass transfer between various spheres to quantify rates. These could be rates of mass movement such as hillslope flow or rates of heat transfer for active layer thawing or combined heat and mass processes such as evapotranspiration. We have utilized a conceptual model to predict hydrologic processes. To test the success of this model, we are comparing our predicted rates of runoff and snowmelt to measured valves. We have also used a surface energy model to simulate active layer temperatures. The final step in this modeling effort to date was to predict what impact climatic warming would have on active layer thicknesses and how this will influence the hydrology of our research watershed by examining several streambeds.

  1. Savannah River Site Annual Meteorology Report 2003

    SciTech Connect

    HUNTER, CHARLESH.

    2004-04-30

    Summaries of meteorological observations collected at the Savannah River Site (SRS) in 2003 reveal a year that was unusually cool and wet. The annual rainfall of 61.2 inches was the third highest of all the years in a period of record that began in 1952. Higher amounts were recorded only in 1964 (73.5 in) and 1971 (68.2 in). Rainfall of 0.01 inch or more occurred on 119 days during the year. Furthermore, the annual average temperature of 62.2 degrees Fahrenheit was the coldest of any year in an available record that dates to 1964. Cool and wet conditions were most pronounced in the spring and summer months. Unusually cold weather also occurred in January and December. The coldest temperature for the year was 12.5 degrees Fahrenheit (Jan 24) and the warmest temperature was 92.4 degrees Fahrenheit (Aug 27). There were no significant occurrences of severe weather (ice/snow, tornado, sustained high wind) during the year. The heavy rain that occurred on April 7 (3.5 inches) was due to an active stationary front over the area and strong southwesterly wind aloft. The remnants of Tropical Storm Bill produced 2.36 inches of rain on July 1. Hurricane Isabelle, which struck the North Carolina coast mid September, did not have a significant affect on the SRS. A thunderstorm on May 3 produced a surface (4-meter) wind gust of 41.7 miles per hour.

  2. Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center support for GODAE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitriou, D.; Sharfstein, P.; Ignaszewski, M.; Clancy, M.

    2003-04-01

    The U.S. Navy's Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC; see http://www.fnmoc.navy.mil/), located in Monterey, CA, is the lead activity within the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD) for numerical weather prediction and coupled air-sea modeling. FNMOC fulfills this role through means of a suite of sophisticated global and regional meteorological and oceanographic (METOC) models, extending from the top of the atmosphere to the bottom of the ocean, which is supported by one of the world's most complete real-time METOC databases. Fleet Numerical operates around-the-clock, 365 days per year and distributes METOC products to military and civilian users around the world, both ashore and afloat, through a variety of means, including a rapidly growing and innovative use of Web technology. FNMOC's customers include all branches of the Department of Defense (DoD), other government organizations such as the National Weather Service, private companies such as the Weather Channel, a number of colleges and universities, and the general public. FNMOC acquires and processes over 6 million METOC observations per day—creating one of the world's most comprehensive real-time databases of meteorological and oceanographic observations for assimilation into its models. FNMOC employs three primary models, the Navy Operational Global Atmospheric Prediction System (NOGAPS), the Coupled Ocean/Atmosphere Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS), and the WaveWatch III model (WW3), along with a number of specialized models and related applications. NOGAPS is a global weather model, driving nearly all other FNMOC models and applications in some fashion. COAMPS is a high-resolution regional model that has proved to be particularly valuable for forecasting weather and ocean conditions in highly complex coastal areas. WW3 is a state-of-the-art ocean wave model that is employed both globally and regionally in support of a wide variety of naval operations. Specialized models support and

  3. American Society of Human Genetics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Researchers Say October 20, 2016 Researchers Explore How Zika Infection Causes Microcephaly October 19, 2016 The American Society of Human Genetics, Incorporated 9650 Rockville Pike • Bethesda, Maryland 20814 ...

  4. The Engineering Societies & Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Professional Engineer, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Gives a description of what the major engineering societies (ASCE, ASME, AICHE, and IEEE) are doing in the area of continuing education. The description includes the short courses, their costs, duration, type and scope of the content. (GA)

  5. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Review Course in Advanced Heart Failure and Transplant Cardiology is now available OnDemand! Monday, August 29, 2016! ... than expected, and the FDA... European Society of Cardiology – Heart Failure 2017 October 11, 2016 ESC: Heart ...

  6. Phoenix Society for Burn Survivors

    MedlinePlus

    ... 5 Things I Learned at Phoenix UBelong This Week! 22 Oct 2016 Phoenix UBelong participants share the top 5 things they learned this week at Phoenix UBelong: Continue Reading The Phoenix Society, ...

  7. ISS Update: American Physical Society

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot talks with Becky Thompson, head of Public Outreach for the American Physical Society, a professional organization for physicists whose web site hosts astronaut ...

  8. European meteorological data: contribution to research, development, and policy support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biavetti, Irene; Karetsos, Sotiris; Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Panagos, Panos

    2014-08-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has developed Interpolated Meteorological Datasets available on a regular 25x25km grid both to the scientific community and the general public. Among others, the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets include daily maximum/minimum temperature, cumulated daily precipitation, evapotranspiration and wind speed. These datasets can be accessed through a web interface after a simple registration procedure. The Interpolated Meteorological Datasets also serve the Crop Growth Monitoring System (CGMS) at European level. The temporal coverage of the datasets is more than 30 years and the spatial coverage includes EU Member States, neighboring European countries, and the Mediterranean countries. The meteorological data are highly relevant for the development, implementation and assessment of a number of European Union (EU) policy areas: agriculture, soil protection, environment, agriculture, food security, energy, climate change. An online user survey has been carried out in order to assess the impact of the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets on research developments. More than 70% of the users have used the meteorological datasets for research purposes and more than 50% of the users have used those sources as main input for their models. The usefulness of the data scored more than 70% and it is interesting to note that around 25% of the users have published their scientific outputs based on the Interpolated Meteorological Datasets. Finally, the user feedback focuses mostly on improving the data distribution process as well as the visibility of the web platform.

  9. Photochemical urban airshed modeling using diagnostic and dynamic meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godowitch, J. M.; Vukovich, J. M.

    1994-06-01

    Spatial pollutant patterns and peak concentrations are strongly influenced by meteorological parameters. Therefore, accurate hourly, gridded meteorological data sets are crucial inputs for photochemical modeling. An effort has been underway to apply both diagnostic and dynamic meteorological models in order to generate inputs needed in photochemical grid model simulations. The model being employed is a modified version of the Urban Airshed Model (UAM), which was designed to accept input files generated from both meteorological approaches. The diagnostic meteorological model (UAMMET) relies on routine or intensive measurements to generate hourly 3-D gridded fields of winds, temperatures, vertical eddy diffusivities, photolytic rates, and hourly spatially-varying fields of mixing height and deposition velocities. The diagnostic wind model (DWM) is a key module used generate 3-D wind fields. A dynamic mesoscale meteorological model (a numerical hydrostatic code equipped with a four-dimensional data assimilation technique) generates a gridded meteorological output file, which is post-processed through an interface program to create UAM-compatible wind and mixing height files. In this effort, both meteorological models were exercised in two different urban domains situated next to water bodies and with significant terrain features (i.e., greater metropolitan NYC and LA basin). Results of simulations with the modified UAM model were evaluated in order to investigate the impact on modeled ozone patterns and peak concentrations using inputs from these two meteorological approaches. A historical high ozone day in the NYC domain was simulated which exhibited a strong large scale flow pattern conducive to interurban transport along the northeastern coast. The evaluation results revealed absolute errors were comparable (about 22%) among the simulations, however, higher peak ozone was obtained using dynamically generated wind fields. Results from simulations of an ozone episode

  10. Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre Surface Meteorological Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Newcomer, Jeffrey A. (Editor); Funk, Barry; Strub, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The Saskatchewan Forest Fire Control Centre (SFFCC) provided surface meteorological data to BOREAS from its archive. This data set contains hourly surface meteorological data from 18 of the Meteorological stations located across Saskatchewan. Included in these data are parameters of date, time, temperature, relative humidity, wind direction, wind speed, and precipitation. Temporally, the data cover the period of May through September of 1994 and 1995. The data are provided in comma-delimited ASCII files, and are classified as AFM-Staff data. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  11. Evolutionary Forecast Engines for Solar Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coimbra, C. F.

    2012-12-01

    A detailed comparison of non-stationary regression and stochastic learning methods based on k-Nearest Neighbor (kNN), Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) approaches is carried out in order to develop high-fidelity solar forecast engines for several time horizons of interest. A hybrid GA/ANN method emerges as the most robust stochastic learning candidate. The GA/ANN approach In general the following decisions need to be made when creating an ANN-based solar forecast model: the ANN architecture: number of layers, numbers of neurons per layer; the preprocessing scheme; the fraction and distribution between training and testing data, and the meteorological and radiometric inputs. ANNs are very well suited to handle multivariate forecasting models due to their overall flexibility and nonlinear pattern recognition abilities. However, the forecasting skill of ANNs depends on a new set of parameters to be optimized within the context of the forecast model, which is the selection of input variables that most directly impact the fidelity of the forecasts. In a data rich scenario where irradiation, meteorological, and cloud cover data are available, it is not always evident which variables to include in the model a priori. New variables can also arise from data preprocessing such as smoothing or spectral decomposition. One way to avoid time-consuming trial-and-error approaches that have limited chance to result in optimal ANN topology and input selection is to couple the ANN with some optimization algorithm that scans the solution space and "evolves" the ANN structure. Genetic Algorithms (GAs) are well suited for this task. Results and Discussion The models built upon the historical data of 2009 and 2010 are applied to the 2011 data without modifications or retraining. We consider 3 solar variability seasons or periods, which are subsets of the total error evaluation data set. The 3 periods are defined based on the solar variability study as: - a high

  12. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  13. Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility

    MedlinePlus

    The Society for Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility SREI Members-only Forum Home About Us About SREI Vision and Mission ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SREI is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  14. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  15. EVALUATION OF METEOROLOGICAL ALERT CHAIN IN CASTILLA Y LEÓN (SPAIN): How can the meteorological risk managers help researchers?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Laura; Guerrero-Higueras, Ángel Manuel; Sánchez, José Luis; Matía, Pedro; Ortiz de Galisteo, José Pablo; Rodríguez, Vicente; Lorente, José Manuel; Merino, Andrés; Hermida, Lucía; García-Ortega, Eduardo; Fernández-Manso, Oscar

    2013-04-01

    Evaluating the meteorological alert chain, or, how information is transmitted from the meteorological forecasters to the final users, passing through risk managers, is a useful tool that benefits all the links of the chain, especially the meteorology researchers and forecasters. In fact, the risk managers can help significantly to improve meteorological forecasts in different ways. Firstly, by pointing out the most appropriate type of meteorological format, and its characteristics when representing the meteorological information, consequently improving the interpretation of the already-existing forecasts. Secondly, by pointing out the specific predictive needs in their workplaces related to the type of significant meteorological parameters, temporal or spatial range necessary, meteorological products "custom-made" for each type of risk manager, etc. In order to carry out an evaluation of the alert chain in Castilla y León, we opted for the creation of a Panel of Experts made up of personnel specialized in risk management (Responsible for Protection Civil, Responsible for Alert Services and Hydrological Planning of Hydrographical Confederations, Responsible for highway maintenance, and management of fires, fundamentally). In creating this panel, a total of twenty online questions were evaluated, and the majority of the questions were multiple choice or open-ended. Some of the results show how the risk managers think that it would be interesting, or very interesting, to carry out environmental educational campaigns about the meteorological risks in Castilla y León. Another result is the elevated importance that the risk managers provide to the observation data in real-time (real-time of wind, lightning, relative humidity, combined indices of risk of avalanches, snowslides, index of fires due to convective activity, etc.) Acknowledgements The authors would like to thank the Junta de Castilla y León for its financial support through the project LE220A11-2.

  16. Remote Sensing of Surficial Process Responses to Extreme Meteorological Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brakenridge, G. Robert

    1997-01-01

    Changes in the frequency and magnitude of extreme meteorological events are associated with changing environmental means. Such events are important in human affairs, and can also be investigated by orbital remote sensing. During the course of this project, we applied ERS-1, ERS-2, Radarsat, and an airborne sensor (AIRSAR-TOPSAR) to measure flood extents, flood water surface profiles, and flood depths. We established a World Wide Web site (the Dartmouth Flood Observatory) for publishing remote sensing-based maps of contemporary floods worldwide; this is also an online "active archive" that presently constitutes the only global compilation of extreme flood events. We prepared an article for EOS concerning SAR imaging of the Mississippi Valley flood; an article for the International Journal of Remote Sensing on measurement of a river flood wave using ERS-2, began work on an article (since completed and published) on the Flood Observatory for a Geoscience Information Society Proceedings volume, and presented lectures at several Geol. Soc. of America Natl. Meetings, an Assoc. of Amer. Geographers Natl. Meeting, and a Binghamton Geomorphology Symposium (all on SAR remote sensing of the Mississippi Valley flood). We expanded in-house modeling capabilities by installing the latest version of the Army Corps of Engineers RMA two-dimensional hydraulics software and BYU Engineering Graphics Lab's Surface Water Modeling System (finite elements based pre- and post-processors for RMA work) and also added watershed modeling software. We are presently comparing the results of the 2-d flow models with SAR image data. The grant also supported several important upgrades of pc-based remote sensing infrastructure at Dartmouth. During work on this grant, we collaborated with several workers at the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Remote Sensing/GIS laboratory (for flood inundation mapping and modeling; particularly of the Illinois River using the AIRSAR/TOPSAR/ERS-2 combined data), with Dr

  17. A FEDERATED PARTNERSHIP FOR URBAN METEOROLOGICAL AND AIR QUALITY MODELING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, applications of urban meteorological and air quality models have been performed at resolutions on the order of km grid sizes. This necessitated development and incorporation of high resolution landcover data and additional boundary layer parameters that serve to descri...

  18. Consideration of meteorological factors when calculating large canals

    SciTech Connect

    Girgidov, A.D.

    1988-07-01

    The effect of meteorological factors on the dynamics of open-channel flows is taken into account, as a rule, when studying unsteady fluid flows. In shallow-water equations for unsteady flow in open channels the meteorological factors are included as normal and shear stresses on the free surface. The use of dynamic shallow-water equations makes it possible to obtain diverse information about the effect of the atmosphere on the structure of the open-channel flow. The approach presented in this article, based on the equation of balance of mechanical energy and ultimately on the Bernoulli equation, does not permit obtaining detailed information about the interaction of meteorological and hydraulic factors. It permits obtaining mainly simple estimates which can establish when the effect of meteorological factors on the hydraulic characteristics of the flows in canals should be taken into consideration.

  19. Meteorological data collection via ERTS-A data retransmission facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vockeroth, R. E. (Principal Investigator); Robinson, C. E.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Two meteorological data acquisition systems were built to support hydrometeorological programs related to flow forecasting. Data errors were detected in the stream level formation; these errors were caused by sensor difficulties.

  20. Micro-meteorology monitoring system over Nakdong river in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    changbum, Cho; jae-young, Byon; rang, Kim kyu; byoung-cheol, Choi

    2014-05-01

    National Institute of Meteorological Research established micro-meteorology monitoring system at the Nakdong River of South Korea since 2010 in order to study the micro-meteorological impact due to nationwide major river development project. A total of 37 automatic weather stations are in operation at areas near the dams which were constructed as part of this project. The weather stations mainly measure air temperature, humidity, and wind, with some of the stations measuring radiation and heat fluxes. More than half of the stations are installed on agricultural areas and the rest are installed in an industrial area. The data collected from the stations are used to observe the micrometeorological system and used as an input to numerical models, which compose a meteorological environment impact assessment tool.

  1. Astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, Michael; Travis, Larry D.

    1986-01-01

    A newly compiled table of astronomical, physical, and meteorological parameters for planetary atmospheres is presented. Formulae and explanatory notes for their application and a complete listing of sources are also given.

  2. Computer Code Systems for Use with Meteorological Data.

    1983-09-14

    Version 00 The staff of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission uses the computer codes in this collection to examine, assess, and utilize the hourly values of meteorological data which are received on magnetic tapes in a specified format.

  3. [Society, medicine and caregiver stress].

    PubMed

    Mallet, D; Herbaut, A; Soyez, S; Delerue, M; Chekroud, H; Jacquemin, D

    2002-08-10

    CARING STAFF DISTRESS: Is a theme regularly discussed among those who care for patients. The current approach is in favor of the psychological interpretation of this distress. This approach is obviously pertinent, but could be widened to a more sociological vision: is the demand that society places on medicine excessive? THE SEARCH FOR AUTONOMY: The demand of the society emerges in a social universe that privileges the autonomy of the individual. Medicine serves this research for autonomy. Techniques, instrumentalization of the body, and the search for mastery engender the collective utopia of the perfect body; medicine has become a new faith, keeper of potential redemption measures. THE MEDIATOR FUNCTION OF CARING STAFF: Part of the caring staff distress is generated by the encounter between the utopia of health and the reality of suffering patients. In the present context of our society, one of the caring staff's missions is to act as mediator between the patient and the experience of the disease, the patient and the representation that he/she has of his/her body and health, and society and the expectations society projects on medicine.

  4. Minicomputer Capabilities Related to Meteorological Aspects of Emergency Response

    SciTech Connect

    Rarnsdell, J. V.; Athey, G. F.; Ballinger, M. Y.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide the NRC staff involved in reviewing licensee emergency response plans with background information on the capabilities of minicomputer systems that are related to the collection and dissemination of meteorological infonmation. The treatment of meteorological information by organizations with existing emergency response capabilities is described, and the capabilities, reliability and availability of minicomputers and minicomputer systems are discussed.

  5. Possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandeen, W. R. (Editor); Maran, S. P. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    A symposium was conducted in which the following questions were discussed: (1) the evidence concerning possible relationships between solar activity and meteorological phenomena; (2) plausible physical mechanisms to explain these relationships; and (3) kinds of critical measurements needed to determine the nature of solar/meteorological relationships and/or the mechanisms to explain them, and which of these measurements can be accomplished best from space.

  6. Lightning Discharges to Aircraft and Associated Meteorological Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, L P

    1946-01-01

    A summary is given of information on atmospheric electrical discharges to aircraft and associated meteorological conditions. Information is given that is designed to give a fairly comprehensive view of the underlying principles of meteorology and atmospheric electricity. Of special interest to pilots are lists of procedures of flight conduct and aircraft maintenance recommended foe avoiding or minimizing the hazards of disruptive electrical discharges and other severe conditions near thunderstorms.

  7. Extreme Weather Events on the Last Frontier: Meteorological Analyses and Societal Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuromski, L.; Walsh, J. E.; Thoman, R.

    2014-12-01

    The National Weather Service lacks a comprehensive compilation of major weather events in Alaska. Creating a repository of the effects of past storms and other extreme weather events on society, together with documentation of the meteorological evolution of the events, will facilitate the NWS and other government agencies to analyze this data. Such analysis will improve their strategies, such as sharpening local and state responses to extreme weather and enhancing forecasts for the events, to create a more weather-ready society in Alaska. This research examines six high-impact weather events in Alaska, ranging in dates from 1974 until 2012. Atmospheric data was gathered from the Earth System Research Laboratory (ESRL)'s 6-Hour National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Data Reanalysis Composites and from 3-Hour NCEP North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) Composites. Reanalysis composites of sea-level pressure, temperature, geopotential height, and vector wind allowed for the storms to be tracked and for weather pattern anomalies to be recognized. Societal impacts were investigated by using the National Climactic Data Center (NCDC)'s online Storm Events Database and by utilizing microfilms of Alaskan newspapers detailing the events. Synthesizing facts from NCDC and newspapers, along with incorporating meteorological knowledge from the atmospheric reanalysis composites, summaries of the events could then be created. In the future, this research will be continued to include a broader range of high-impact Alaskan weather events. This work will further serve as a basis for analysis for decision-makers to better plan for extreme events and their aftermath. The completed research, though a small portion of the anticipated project, provides a template for future data assimilation, and it initiates the efforts towards a more weather-prepared Alaska.

  8. Focusing on Improving Automated Meteorological Observations from Ships

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Shawn R.

    2004-08-01

    The High-Resolution Marine Meteorology (HRMM) community is working to improve the quality of, and access to, surface marine meteorological and oceanographic data collected in situ by automated instrumentation on ships and moored platforms. The purpose of the Second High-Resolution Marine Meteorology Workshop, hosted by The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Office of Climate Observation (OCO), last April, was to discuss implementation of the recommendations from the Workshop on High-Resolution Marine Meteorology held in Tallahassee, Florida on 3-5 March 2003 (for details, see http://www.coaps.fsu.edu/RVSMDC/marine_workshop/Workshop.html ). Shipboard automated meteorological and oceanographic systems (SAMOSs) are an essential component of a sustained ocean observing system. SAMOSs provide platform navigation, surface meteorology, and near-surface ocean data that are ideal benchmarks for new satellite sensors (e.g., WindSat, future National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS) sensors) and global ocean-atmosphere models. SAMOS sampling is adequate to provide accurate estimates of the variability on scales (from subdiurnal) needed for satellite calibration and validation. Sampling rates also are ideal for estimating turbulent air-sea heat, momentum, and moisture fluxes that are critical for climate research and can be used to help understand sources of bias and uncertainty in global model flux fields. SAMOS observations from oceanographic research vessels (R/Vs) are of particular importance since these vessels frequently operate in areas far outside the normal merchant shipping lanes.

  9. Meteorological Data Assimilation by Adaptive Bayesian Optimization.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purser, Robert James

    1992-01-01

    The principal aim of this research is the elucidation of the Bayesian statistical principles that underlie the theory of objective meteorological analysis. In particular, emphasis is given to aspects of data assimilation that can benefit from an iterative numerical strategy. Two such aspects that are given special consideration are statistical validation of the covariance profiles and nonlinear initialization. A new economic algorithm is presented, based on the imposition of a sparse matrix structure for all covariances and precisions held during the computations. It is shown that very large datasets may be accommodated using this structure and a good linear approximation to the analysis equations established without the need to unnaturally fragment the problem. Since the integrity of the system of analysis equations is preserved, it is a relatively straight-forward matter to extend the basic analysis algorithm to one that incorporates a check on the plausibility of the statistical model assumed for background errors--the so-called "validation" problem. Two methods of validation are described within the sparse matrix framework: the first is essentially a direct extension of the Bayesian principles to embrace, not only the regular analysis variables, but also the parameters that determine the precise form of the covariance functions; the second technique is the non-Bayesian method of generalized cross validation adapted for use within the sparse matrix framework. The later part of this study is concerned with the establishment of a consistent dynamical balance within a forecast model--the initialization problem. The formal principles of the modern theory of initialization are reviewed and a critical examination is made of the concept of the "slow manifold". It is demonstrated, in accordance with more complete nonlinear models, that even within a simple three-mode linearized system, the notion that a universal slow manifold exists is untenable. It is therefore argued

  10. The Big Society Must Be a Learning Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bubb, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    The UK coalition government has stated its ambition to create a "Big Society". This represents an attempt to alter the relationship between citizen and state, loosening the vertical ties that exist between government and the individual while strengthening the informal bonds of neighbourhoods and communities. This agenda runs through the…

  11. Comparative analysis of meteorological performance of coupled chemistry-meteorology models in the context of AQMEII phase 2

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollution simulations critically depend on the quality of the underlying meteorology. In phase 2 of the Air Quality Model Evaluation International Initiative (AQMEII-2), thirteen modeling groups from Europe and four groups from North America operating eight different regional...

  12. [Antiscientific attitudes in open society].

    PubMed

    Pérez Iglesias, Juan Ignacio

    2009-01-01

    The social controversy created in regard to the use and experiments with transgenic seeds and organisms serves as an example to illustrate the effects and consequences that can lead to antiscientific attitudes, which have gained great force in contemporary society. It has been suggested that the same functional relationship, from which the Enlightenment, science, and liberalism were born, is currently being applied in the opposite direction, so that the current antiscientific attitudes, along with the support they receive from post-modern thought, can end up undermining the bases of an open and democratic society. The consequences of this phenomenon are already manifested by the approval of certain regulations that lack scientific basis.

  13. Socialization for the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karpov, Alexander O.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to give an overview and present special features of socialization of the research type that prepares young people for life in the knowledge society. Methods of cultural and historical epistemology, of hermeneutic and structural-functional analysis of social action have been used in the study, as well as elements of the…

  14. Society Membership Survey: 1986 Salaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skelton, W. Keith; And Others

    The fourth in a series of reports produced by the Education and Employment Statistics division of the American Insititute of Physics (AIP) is presented. Data are based on a stratified random sample survey of one-sixth of the U.S. and Canadian membership of the AIP member societies. In the spring of 1986, every individual in the sample received a…

  15. Science in Society, Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Science Education, Cambridge (England).

    This teacher's guide was designed for use in a course developed by The Science in Society Project. The aims of the project, course description and content, and suggestions for introducing the course are included in a general introduction. Objectives, content, commentary on supplementary reading materials developed specifically for the course,…

  16. Advertising: Art as Society's Mirror.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Catherine E. B.

    1998-01-01

    Provides a historical overview of U.S. print advertising from the 1890s to the 1990s. Demonstrates how advertisers adapt their messages and target audiences to the changes each era brings. Conveys that advertising reflects society by giving an image of an era as it aims to persuade. Offers six teaching activities. (CMK)

  17. Reconstructing Death in Postmodern Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kastenbaum, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Examines interaction between emerging thanatological movement and its sociohistorical context. Notes that thanatology will take on new shape as individuals and society attempt to cope with postmodernistic forces and deconstructive mentality. Considers prospect for authentic solidarity against distress in reconstructed death system. (Author/NB)

  18. The Society and the Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grosvenor, Gilbert M.

    1985-01-01

    In this speech delivered at the 1984 meeting of the Association of American Geographers, the president of the National Geographic Society (NGS) discusses what geography needs to stay on its feet as an independent and useful discipline and what the NGS is doing to support geography. (RM)

  19. Credentialism in Our Ignorant Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marien, Michael

    All societies have procedures for selecting who will occupy important positions. The use of credentials characterizes our system of social selection, and our worship of them has created the following problems: an artificial demand for education, artificial restraints to learning, the overlooking of obsolescence, generational inversion (wherein the…

  20. Education for the Good Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Neal; Spours, Ken

    2011-01-01

    The Left is facing a crisis of its approach to education highlighted by the "education revolution" of the Coalition Government. The authors argue that it is important to step back and present a positive vision of education based on the key pillars of the Good Society--fairness, democracy, sustainability and well-being. This values-led agenda,…

  1. Adult Education in Croatian Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pongrac, Silvije, Ed.

    This document contains eight papers on adult education in Croatian society. "Basic Characteristics of Croatian Adult Education up to These Days" (Silvije Pongrac, Ilija Lavrnja) highlights key trends in the development of Croatian adult education. "Adult Education in Croatia Based on Social Changes" (Anita Klapan) discusses Croatian adult…

  2. Huntington's Disease Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... modifying drug for HD 09.19.16 New technology enables researchers to find ultra-rare mutations in the HD gene, distinct from the one causing HD 08.30.16 HD Support & Care Network and Huntington’s Disease Society of America Partner for Stronger HD Support Groups ...

  3. Educating in a Postconventional Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2006-01-01

    Today many people experience more frustration and confusion about many moral issues and norms than their ancestors. Traditional values and norms do not seem to serve Christian adults in today's situation. Christians are therefore challenged to develop Christian moral norms and values relevant to contemporary society and culture. In this article,…

  4. Marketing and Society. Study Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsh, Robert S.; Blake, Rowland S.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course entitled "Marketing and Society." The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a related textbook, a workbook, a review guide, and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains a brief introductory section…

  5. Shapes of a Renewable Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deudney, Daniel; Flavin, Christopher

    1983-01-01

    To rely on coal and nuclear power as sources of energy is to narrow society's future options and to present numerous problems. Renewable solar energy, on the other hand, can preserve rather than reduce options. More jobs, rising self-reliance, and new equalities between nations will be the result. (RM)

  6. White Resentment in Settler Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schick, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Teaching about the history and culture of aboriginal peoples in schools of white settler societies can serve as a counter to the dominant story that serves as the national narrative. Even though the actual teaching may well be among the least political and least disruptive type of curricular knowledge on offer, the inclusion of counter stories can…

  7. Psychology and homosexuality: the British Sexological Society.

    PubMed

    Weigle, D C

    1995-04-01

    The British Sexological Society was a largely unknown society composed of influential people of the early twentieth century in Great Britain. The present research is an archival study of the Society and its work concerning homosexuality. Issues addressed by the British Sexological Society are relevant to the early development of sexual emancipation movements as well as to issues of sexuality today.

  8. Participation of women in neurochemistry societies.

    PubMed

    Lees, Marjorie B

    2002-11-01

    Women have made important scientific contributions to the field of neurochemistry, and they have also been leaders in neurochemical societies throughout the world. Here I discuss women's involvement and leadership in six neurochemistry societies: American Society for Neurochemistry, Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, International Society for Neurochemistry, European Society for Neurochemistry, Japanese Society for Neurochemistry, and Asian-Pacific Society for Neurochemistry. The number of women who have been active in these societies and the level of their activity vary considerably. Neurochemical societies in the Western hemisphere, i.e., the American and the Argentine Society for Neurochemistry, have much greater numbers of women who have held office, been on council, or engaged in other leadership activities than in the rest of the world. The limited participation of women in the Japanese Neurochemistry Society relates to Japanese cultural views and was not unexpected. However, the relatively few women leaders in the International Society for Neurochemistry was a surprise. The European Society had a somewhat better record of female participation than did the International Society. The reasons for these differences are partly cultural, but factors related to when each society was formed, how it is organized, and how elections are structured undoubtedly play a role. Further analysis of these observations would be of interest from a sociological and a women's studies point of view.

  9. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Operations § 27.1135 Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees... to meteorological-satellite earth receivers operating in the Meteorological-Satellite Service in...

  10. [History of the German Spine Society].

    PubMed

    Wilke, H-J; Carstens, C

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this article is to summarize the history of the German Spine Society (DWG). This society resulted in the year 2006 after several attempts from the fusion of two established German societies, which were dealing with topics around the spine, der "German Society for Spine Research" founded in the year 1958 and the "German Society for Spine Surgery" founded in the year 1987. This fusion was the beginning of a success story, as from this time on the annual membership increased so much that the DWG became the largest spine society in Europe and one of all spine societies worldwide.

  11. Future directions of meteorology related to air-quality research.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Nelson L

    2003-06-01

    Meteorology is one of the major factors contributing to air-pollution episodes. More accurate representation of meteorological fields has been possible in recent years through the use of remote sensing systems, high-speed computers and fine-mesh meteorological models. Over the next 5-20 years, better meteorological inputs for air quality studies will depend on making better use of a wealth of new remotely sensed observations in more advanced data assimilation systems. However, for fine mesh models to be successful, parameterizations used to represent physical processes must be redesigned to be more precise and better adapted for the scales at which they will be applied. Candidates for significant overhaul include schemes to represent turbulence, deep convection, shallow clouds, and land-surface processes. Improvements in the meteorological observing systems, data assimilation and modeling, coupled with advancements in air-chemistry modeling, will soon lead to operational forecasting of air quality in the US. Predictive capabilities can be expected to grow rapidly over the next decade. This will open the way for a number of valuable new services and strategies, including better warnings of unhealthy atmospheric conditions, event-dependent emissions restrictions, and now casting support for homeland security in the event of toxic releases into the atmosphere.

  12. Meteorological parameters and severity of acute pulmonary embolism episodes.

    PubMed

    Staśkiewicz, Grzegorz; Czekajska-Chehab, Elżbieta; Przegaliński, Jerzy; Maciejewski, Marcin; Pachowicz, Marcin; Drop, Andrzej

    2011-01-01

    Frequency of acute pulmonary embolism episodes has been previously shown to correlate significantly with meteorological factors in the period preceding their occurrence. The purpose of the study was to analyze the relation of meteorological factors and the severity of acute pulmonary embolism, expressed by the CT-based pulmonary obstruction score. A retrospective analysis of medical data of 182 consecutive patients with acute pulmonary embolism diagnosed with CT pulmonary angiography was performed. Severity of pulmonary obstruction was assessed by analysis of CT pulmonary angiography examinations, and defined with pulmonary obstruction score by Qanadli et al. The study group was divided into low (L group, 95 patients) and high PE severity (H group, 87 patients), with a cutoff value of 50% of maximum pulmonary obstruction score. Meteorological data collected for the relevant time period were: air temperature, humidity, atmospheric pressure, visibility, wind speed and precipitation. No significant differences in seasonal distribution of pulmonary embolism episodes were observed. Episodes of more severe pulmonary embolism were preceded by periods of lower atmospheric pressure (1,016.35 hPA for group H, vs. 1,016.35 hPa for group L, p = 0.022). No significant relations between other meteorological factors and severity of PE were observed. The reported finding shows the need of further research on the nature of meteorological factors influence on the course of pulmonary embolism, which should be analyzed not ony regarding the frequency, but also severity of PE episodes.

  13. Defining New Roles for Scientific Professional Organizations in Society?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robock, A.; Byrne, J.

    2007-12-01

    The obfuscation of authentic science information in North America has reached epidemic proportions. The global warming debate is a classic example - there are a virtual unanimity and overwhelming evidence from scientific community that the Earth is warming rapidly and humans are an important cause, but there is confusion in the media and the public, partly as a result of disinformation campaigns by greenhouse gas polluters. Should the role of scientists in informing the public change in response to this? What should be the role of scientific societies, such as the American Geophysical Union, the American Meteorological Society, or the American Association for the Advancement of Science? Should we continue doing what we are doing, or be more proactive in using new technology to educate the public on important scientific issues? Should we devote resources to television advertisements? Should we support ads in the print media? This talk will discuss the pros and cons of individual and group actions in making the case in public for science, and suggest some new directions.

  14. Leadership in an Egalitarian Society

    PubMed Central

    von Rueden, Christopher; Gurven, Michael; Kaplan, Hillard; Stieglitz, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Leadership is instrumental to resolution of collective action dilemmas, particularly in large, heterogeneous groups. Less is known about the characteristics or effectiveness of leadership in small-scale, homogeneous, and relatively egalitarian societies, in which humans have spent most of our existence. Among Tsimane’ forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia, we (1) assess traits of elected leaders under experimental and naturalistic conditions and (2) test whether leaders impact collective action outcomes. We find that elected leaders are physically strong and have more kin and other exchange partners. Their ranks on physical dominance, kin support, and trustworthiness predict how well their groups perform, but only where group members have a history of collaborative interaction. Leaders do not take more of the spoils. We discuss why physically strong leaders can be compatible with egalitarianism, and we suggest that leaders in egalitarian societies may be more motivated by maintaining an altruistic reputation than by short-term rewards of collective action. PMID:25240393

  15. Floods and Societies: Dynamic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Baldassarre, G.; Viglione, A.; Carr, G.; Kuil, L., Jr.; Brandimarte, L.; Bloeschl, G.

    2014-12-01

    There is growing concern that future flood losses and fatalities might increase significantly in many regions of the world because of rapid urbanization in deltas and floodplains, in addition to sea level rise and climate change. To better anticipate long-term trajectories of future flood risk, there is a need to treat floodplains and deltas as fully coupled human-physical systems. Here we propose a novel approach to explore the long-term behavior emerging from the mutual interactions and feedbacks between physical and social systems. The implementation of our modeling framework shows that green societies, which cope with flooding by resettling out of floodplains, are more resilient to increasing flood frequency than technological societies, which deal with flooding by building levees. Also, we show that when coupled dynamics are accounted for, flood-poor periods could (paradoxically) be more dangerous than flood-rich periods.

  16. Conflict resolution in insect societies.

    PubMed

    Ratnieks, Francis L W; Foster, Kevin R; Wenseleers, Tom

    2006-01-01

    Although best known for cooperation, insect societies also manifest many potential conflicts among individuals. These conflicts involve both direct reproduction by individuals and manipulation of the reproduction of colony members. Here we review five major areas of reproductive conflict in insect societies: (a) sex allocation, (b) queen rearing, (c) male rearing, (d) queen-worker caste fate, and (e) breeding conflicts among totipotent adults. For each area we discuss the basis for conflict (potential conflict), whether conflict is expressed (actual conflict), whose interests prevail (conflict outcome), and the factors that reduce colony-level costs of conflict (conflict resolution), such as factors that cause workers to work rather than to lay eggs. Reproductive conflicts are widespread, sometimes having dramatic effects on the colony. However, three key factors (kinship, coercion, and constraint) typically combine to limit the effects of reproductive conflict and often lead to complete resolution.

  17. Risk, society and system failure.

    PubMed

    Scalliet, Pierre

    2006-09-01

    Modern societies are risk societies. Together with the formidable development of complex technologies (chemical industry, energy production, mass transportation, etc), new hazards have emerged. Sharing danger is the hallmark of modernity, as large industrial accidents can now have countrywide, or even, worldwide consequences. The Chernobyl explosion for example, has smeared large European surfaces with radioactive materials, across borders and nations, without any regard for who was responsible and who was the victim. Complex technologies should therefore be managed with great foresightness, particularly focusing on preventive management. A sound understanding of the (minor) role of human errors of operators and the (major) role of process design is a pre-requisite for appropriate management. This also applies to the complex business of radiotherapy, as the same organisational principles apply than in the heavy industry: restrict the role of operators, expect their mistakes, design in a mistake-proof way, accept the burden of preventive maintenances, supervise maintenance carefully and, above all, invest in safety.

  18. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning.

  19. Human cloning and 'posthuman' society.

    PubMed

    Blackford, Russell

    2005-01-01

    Since early 1997, when the creation of Dolly the sheep by somatic cell nuclear transfer was announced in Nature, numerous government reports, essays, articles and books have considered the ethical problems and policy issues surrounding human reproductive cloning. In this article, I consider what response a modern liberal society should give to the prospect of human cloning, if it became safe and practical. Some opponents of human cloning have argued that permitting it would place us on a slippery slope to a repugnant future society, comparable to that portrayed in Aldous Huxley's novel, Brave New World. I conclude that, leaving aside concerns about safety, none of the psychological or social considerations discussed in this article provides an adequate policy justification for invoking the state's coercive powers to prevent human cloning. PMID:16007753

  20. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  1. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1975-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena is hindered by the difficulties of devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system, and determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-yr cycle, and meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, an 11-yr variation, or a 22-yr variation.

  2. Some problems in coupling solar activity to meteorological phenomena

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dessler, A. J.

    1974-01-01

    The development of a theory of coupling of solar activity to meteorological phenomena has to date foundered on the two difficulties of (1) devising a mechanism that can modify the behavior of the troposphere while employing only a negligible amount of energy compared with the energy necessary to drive the normal meteorological system; and (2) determining how such a mechanism can effectively couple some relevant magnetospheric process into the troposphere in such a way as to influence the weather. A clue to the nature of the interaction between the weather and solar activity might be provided by the fact that most solar activity undergoes a definite 11-year cycle, while meteorological phenomena undergo either no closely correlated variation, or an 11-year variation, or a 22-year variation.

  3. Large scale meteorological influence during the Geysers 1979 field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Barr, S.

    1980-01-01

    A series of meteorological field measurements conducted during July 1979 near Cobb Mountain in Northern California reveals evidence of several scales of atmospheric circulation consistent with the climatic pattern of the area. The scales of influence are reflected in the structure of wind and temperature in vertically stratified layers at a given observation site. Large scale synoptic gradient flow dominates the wind field above about twice the height of the topographic ridge. Below that there is a mixture of effects with evidence of a diurnal sea breeze influence and a sublayer of katabatic winds. The July observations demonstrate that weak migratory circulations in the large scale synoptic meteorological pattern have a significant influence on the day-to-day gradient winds and must be accounted for in planning meteorological programs including tracer experiments.

  4. Management of meteorological data at a former nuclear weapons facility

    SciTech Connect

    Dickerman, C.L.; Maxwell, D.R.

    1995-03-01

    The purposes of the Climatological Data Management and Meteorological Monitoring programs at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site), are to support Emergency Response (ER) programs at the Site for use in assessing the transport, diffusion, and deposition of effluents actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by Site operations, to provide information for on-site and off-site projects concerned with the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, and remediation activities. Also, maintenance of a meteorological monitoring network, which includes measuring, archiving, analyzing, interpreting, and summarizing resulting data is required for successfully generating monthly and annual environmental monitoring reports and for providing assistance for on-site and off-site projects. Finally, the Meteorological Monitoring Program provides information for site-specific weather forecasting, which supports Site operations, employee safety, and Emergency Response operations.

  5. The Meteorological Monitoring program at a former nuclear weapons plant

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, D.R.; Bowen, B.M.

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of the Meteorological Monitoring program at Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) is to provide meteorological information for use in assessing the transport, and diffusion, and deposition of effluent actually or potentially released into the atmosphere by plant operations. Achievement of this objective aids in protecting health and safety of the public, employees, and environment, and directly supports Emergency Response programs at RFP. Meteorological information supports the design of environmental monitoring networks for impact assessments, environmental surveillance activities, remediation activities, and emergency responses. As the mission of the plant changes from production of nuclear weapons parts to environmental cleanup and economic development, smaller releases resulting from remediation activities become more likely. These possible releases could result from airborne fugitive dust, evaporation from collection ponds, or grass fires.

  6. MOM: A meteorological data checking expert system in CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Odonnell, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Meteorologists have long faced the problem of verifying the data they use. Experience shows that there is a sizable number of errors in the data reported by meteorological observers. This is unacceptable for computer forecast models, which depend on accurate data for accurate results. Most errors that occur in meteorological data are obvious to the meteorologist, but time constraints prevent hand-checking. For this reason, it is necessary to have a 'front end' to the computer model to ensure the accuracy of input. Various approaches to automatic data quality control have been developed by several groups. MOM is a rule-based system implemented in CLIPS and utilizing 'consistency checks' and 'range checks'. The system is generic in the sense that it knows some meteorological principles, regardless of specific station characteristics. Specific constraints kept as CLIPS facts in a separate file provide for system flexibility. Preliminary results show that the expert system has detected some inconsistencies not noticed by a local expert.

  7. Cal Tech's Program in Meteorology: 1933-1948.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    The California Institute of Technology (Cal Tech) established a course of study in meteorology in 1933. It was intimately tied to the upsurge of activity in commercial and military aviation that occurred in the period between the world wars. The tragic crash of the airship U.S.S. Akron provided the stimulus for including meteorology as a subprogram in the aeronautics department at Cal Tech. Thoodore von K´rm´n, head of the department and director of the school's Guggenheim Aeronautics Laboratory, masterminded the design of the program and geared it toward the solution of practical problems using the principles of dynamic meteorology. One of his doctoral students, Irving Krick, was groomed to develop the program.Robert Millikan, head of the institute, fostered an approach to science that encouraged the faculty to consuit and work with industry. In this environment, Krick established links with aviation, motion picture studios, and public utilities that would set the stage for the research thrust in meteorology. The program was primarily designed for training at the master' degree level, and a significant number of the graduates became entrepreneurs in meteorology. Based on letters of reminiscence and oral histories from some of these consulting meteorologists, it has been concluded that the Millikan/von K´rm´n philosophy of science played an important part in directing the meteorologists into the private sector.Following World War II, Lee DuBridge replaced Millikan as head of the institute. DuBridge's efforts were directed toward making the small elite school scientifically competitive in the changed conditions of a postwar world. In this climate, the merging of private business with academic work fell into disfavor. Without champions such as Millikan and von K´rm´n,the meteorology program was unable to survive.

  8. Making OGC standards work - interoperability testing between meteorological web services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siemen, Stephan; Little, Chris; Voidrot, Marie-Françoise

    2015-04-01

    The Meteorology and Oceanography Domain Working Group (Met Ocean DWG) is a community orientated working group of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC). The group does not directly revise OGC standards, but rather enables collaboration and communication between groups with meteorological and oceanographic interests. The Met Ocean DWG maintains a list of topics of interest to the meteorological and oceanographic communities for discussion, prioritises activities, defining feedback to the OGC Standards Working Groups (SWG), and performing interoperability experiments. One of the activities of the MetOcean DWG is the definition of Best Practices documents for common OGC standards, such as WMS and WCS. This is necessary since meteorological data has additional complexities in time, elevation and multi models runs including ensembles. To guarantee interoperability in practice it is important to test each other systems and ensure standards are implemented correctly, but also make recommendations to the DWG on the establishment of Best Practices guides. The European Working Group on Operational meteorological Workstations (EGOWS) was founded in 1990 as an informal forum for people working in the development field of operational meteorological workstations. The annual EGOWS meeting offers an excellent platform for exchanging information and furthering co-operation among the experts from NMS's, ECMWF and other institutes in the work with OGC standards. The presentation will give an update of the testing, which was being done during the June 2014 EGOWS meeting in Oslo and what has happen since. The presenter will also give an overview of the online resources to follow the tests and how interested parties can contribute to future interoperability tests.

  9. Technical Work Plan For: Meteorological Monitoring Data Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    R. Green

    2006-02-06

    The meteorological monitoring and analysis program has five objectives. (1) Acquire qualified meteorological data from YMP meteorological monitoring network using appropriate controls on measuring and test equipment. Because this activity is monitoring (i.e., recording naturally occurring events) pre-test predictions are not applicable. All work will be completed in accordance with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Repository Development (ORD) administrative procedures and Bechtel SAIC Co., LLC (BSC) line procedures. The meteorological monitoring program includes measuring and test equipment calibrations, operational checks, preventive and corrective maintenance, and data collection. (2) Process the raw monitoring data collected in the field and submit technically reviewed, traceable data to the Technical Data Management System (TDMS) and the Records Processing Center. (3) Develop analyses or calculations to provide information to data requesters and provide data sets as requested. (4) Provide precipitation amounts to Site Operations to support requirements to perform inspections in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (implemented in LP-OM-050Q-BSC) following storm events of greater than 0.5 inches. The program also provides meteorological data during extreme weather conditions (e.g., high winds, rainstorms, etc.) to support decisions regarding worker safety. (5) Collect samples of precipitation for chemical and isotopic analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS). The BSC ES&H Environmental Compliance organization is responsible for performing this work. Data from calendar-year periods are submitted to the TDMS to provide YMP users with qualified meteorological data for scientific modeling and analyses, engineering designs of surface facilities, performance assessment analyses, and operational safety issues.

  10. Analysis of nuclear test TRINITY radiological and meteorological data

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E.

    1987-09-01

    This report describes the Weather Service Nuclear Support Office (WSNSO) analyses of the radiological and meteorological data collected for the TRINITY nuclear test. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of normalizing the radiological data to a standard time and estimating fallout-arrival times are presented. The meteorological situations on event day and the following day are described. Comparisons of the WSNSO fallout analyses with analyses performed in the 1940s are presented. The radiological data used to derive the WSNSO 1987 fallout patterns are tabulated in appendices.

  11. A review of the meteorological parameters which affect aerial application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Frost, W.

    1979-01-01

    The ambient wind field and temperature gradient were found to be the most important parameters. Investigation results indicated that the majority of meteorological parameters affecting dispersion were interdependent and the exact mechanism by which these factors influence the particle dispersion was largely unknown. The types and approximately ranges of instrumented capabilities for a systematic study of the significant meteorological parameters influencing aerial applications were defined. Current mathematical dispersion models were also briefly reviewed. Unfortunately, a rigorous dispersion model which could be applied to aerial application was not available.

  12. Meteorological data assimilation for real-time emergency response

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, G.; Chan, S.T.

    1996-11-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) provides real-time dose assessments of airborne pollutant releases. Diverse data assimilation techniques are required to meet the needs of a new generation of ARAC models and to take advantage of the rapidly expanding availability of meteorological data. We are developing a hierarchy of algorithms to provide gridded meteorological fields which can be used to drive dispersion codes or to provide initial fields for mesoscale models. Data to be processed include winds, temperature, moisture, and turbulence.

  13. Inherent uncertainties in meteorological parameters for wind turbine design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doran, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Major difficulties associated with meteorological measurments such as the inability to duplicate the experimental conditions from one day to the next are discussed. This lack of consistency is compounded by the stochastic nature of many of the meteorological variables of interest. Moreover, simple relationships derived in one location may be significantly altered by topographical or synoptic differences encountered at another. The effect of such factors is a degree of inherent uncertainty if an attempt is made to describe the atmosphere in terms of universal laws. Some of these uncertainties and their causes are examined, examples are presented and some implications for wind turbine design are suggested.

  14. Catalog of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory Meteorological Tape Library

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, M.A.

    1983-08-01

    This report gives a complete inventory of the data tapes in the ORNL Meteorological Tape Library (OMTL). The attributes of each tape, including location of the weather station (city and state), station number, standard data format, dates covered, data set name(s), and job control language considerations (record format, record length, blocksize, tape label, and tape density), are listed for each tape. In addition, a description of some of the special characteristics of each of the available standard meteorological data formats is presented.

  15. Atmospheric measurements on Mars - The Viking meteorology experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, T. E.; Cole, H. L.; Dutton, R. G.; Greene, G. C.; Tillman, J. E.

    1976-01-01

    The Viking meteorology experiment is one of nine experiments to be carried out on the surface of Mars by each of two Viking Landers positioned at different latitudes and longitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. The meteorology experiment will measure pressure, temperature, wind speed, and wind direction at 1.5-hr intervals throughout the Martian day. The duration of each measurement period, the interval between data samples for a measurement period, and the time at which the measurement period is started will be varied throughout the mission. The scientific investigation and the sensors and electronics used for making the atmospheric measurement are discussed.

  16. High-resolution satellite imagery for mesoscale meteorological studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, David B.; Flament, Pierre; Bernstein, Robert L.

    1994-01-01

    In this article high-resolution satellite imagery from a variety of meteorological and environmental satellites is compared. Digital datasets from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP), Landsat, and Satellite Pour l'Observation de la Terre (SPOT) satellites were archived as part of the 1990 Hawaiian Rainband Project (HaRP) and form the basis of the comparisons. During HaRP, GOES geostationary satellite coverage was marginal, so the main emphasis is on the polar-orbiting satellites.

  17. Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at NSA Handbook - January 2006

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2006-01-30

    The Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk (METTWR2H) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to measure wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, dew point and humidity mounted on a 10-m tower. It also obtains barometric pressure, visibility, and precipitation data from sensors at or near the base of the tower. In addition, a Chilled Mirror Hygrometer is located at 1 m for comparison purposes. Temperature and relative humidity probes are mounted at 2 m and 5 m on the tower. For more information, see the Surface and Tower Meteorological Instrumentation at Atqasuk Handbook.

  18. Abstraction the public from scientific - applied meteorological-climatologic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trajanoska, L.

    2010-09-01

    Mathematical and meteorological statistic processing of meteorological-climatologic data, which includes assessment of the exactness, level of confidence of the average and extreme values, frequencies (probabilities) of the occurrence of each meteorological phenomenon and element e.t.c. helps to describe the impacts climate may have on different social and economic activities (transportation, heat& power generation), as well as on human health. Having in mind the new technology and the commercial world, during the work with meteorological-climatologic data we have meet many different challenges. Priority in all of this is the quality of the meteorological-climatologic set of data. First, we need compatible modern, sophisticated measurement and informatics solution for data. Results of this measurement through applied processing and analyze is the second branch which is very important also. Should we all (country) need that? Today we have many unpleasant events connected with meteorology, many questions which are not answered and all of this has too long lasting. We must give the answers and solve the real and basic issue. In this paper the data issue will be presented. We have too much of data but so little of real and quality applied of them, Why? There is a data for: -public applied -for jurisdiction needs -for getting fast decision-solutions (meteorological-dangerous phenomenon's) -for getting decisions for long-lasting plans -for explore in different sphere of human living So, it is very important for what kind of data we are talking. Does the data we are talking are with public or scientific-applied character? So,we have two groups. The first group which work with the data direct from the measurement place and instrument. They are store a quality data base and are on extra help to the journalists, medical workers, human civil engineers, electromechanical engineers, agro meteorological and forestry engineer e.g. The second group do work with all scientific

  19. Passive optical detection of meteorological parameters in launch vehicle environments.

    PubMed

    Krause, F R; Su, M Y; Klugman, E H

    1970-05-01

    New optical detection systems are being developed which combine conventional passive photometry with advanced data processing and statistical analysis methods. These crossed-beam detection systems can continuously monitor meteorological parameters in rocket or aircraft environments. The outputs from several photometers are analyzed by cross correlation techniques to retrieve the transit times or transit distance of light emitting, absorbing, or scattering particles between the photometer lines of sight. These transit times and distances are then transformed into wind components and turbulence levels for preselected altitudes. A continuous near real time display of these meteorological parameters is also under development.

  20. From GNSS and meteorological data to NRT 4D water vapour distribution - GNSS meteorology activities at WUELS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Sierny, Jan; Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The GNSS and Meteo group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS), Poland is continuously working on GNSS meteorology since 2010. Currently group maintain real-time (RT) service collecting GNSS and meteorological data and near real-time (NRT) services for estimation of Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and GNSS tomography over the territory of Poland. Data are obtained with high resolution from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations and Ground Base Augmentation System (GBAS) called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). The GNSS data are available from 124 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries, with the average 70km distance between stations. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from: ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), airport meteorological stations (METAR messages stations) and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). The first part of the paper presents the methodology of ASG-EUPOS GNSS data processing for NRT ZTD and ZTD horizontal gradients estimation in double-differenced mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.0) as well as new results from PPP mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.2) and their validation with respect to Rapid and Final troposphere products. The second part is describing the quality assessment of meteorological parameters interpolation methods for determination of ZHD at GNSS sites performed on GNSS stations equipped with meteorological sensors. The third part concerns on the comparisons of ZTD from GNSS data and meteorological parameters from SYNOP stations with data from COAMPS numerical weather prediction system (NWP) and IWV calculation. The fourth part presents the development of GNSS tomography model TOMO2. The last part describes methods of above products validation and visualization over the

  1. American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention of Cervical Cancer ASCCP has endorsed American Society of Clinical Oncology's Guidelines for Secondary Prevention of ... 7227 Toll-Free (240) 575-9880 Fax © American Society for Colposcopy and Cervical Pathology * Required * First Name: * ...

  2. Joseph Henry and the American Philosophical Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Walter E.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the extent to which Henry was affiliated with the Society and its influence on his work including his evolving relationship with the Society in the scope of the changing nature of American scientific institutions. (DF)

  3. The Impact of Science on Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, J.; Bergman, J.; Asimov, I.

    1985-01-01

    Four speeches delivered as part of a public lecture series to assess the impact of science on society are presented. The computerization of society, space exploration and habitation, the mechanisms of technological change, and cultural responses are addressed.

  4. Science in Its Confrontation with Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvora, Robert G.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the issue of society-controlled science. Analyzes the present state of science with respect to society, including moral issues, attitude differences between nineteenth century scientists and contemporary ones, risk management, and reductionism. (YP)

  5. Meteorological factors and dengue fever transmission in South Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien, Lung-Chang; Lin, Yuan-Chien; Cheng, Ming-Hung; Yu, Hwa-Lung

    2013-04-01

    The variations in meteorological conditions induced by climate change causes the diffusion pattern of infectious disease and serious epidemic situation. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of meteorological variables to the temporal variation of dengue fever epidemic in weekly basis in south Taiwan. Several extreme and average index of meteorological variables, i.e. temperature and humidity, were used for this analysis, including averaged, maximum and minimum temperature, and average rainfall, maximum 1-hr rainfall, and maximum 24-hr rainfall. This study applies the distributed lag nonlinear model (DLNM) to reveal the significant meteorological variables and their temporal lag effects to the dengue fever epidemic by analyzing the dengue fever records from 1998-2011. Results show that the weekly minimum temperature (minT) and 1-hr maximum rainfall (maxR) are significantly important to the dengue fever spread. Among them, once minT is higher than 20°C, the relative risk of dengue fever of nine-fourteen week later will be significantly elevated. On the other hand, the incidences of maxR higher than 80mm can also increase the relative risk of dengue fever occurrences around nine-fourteen weeks afterwards.

  6. Use of GEMPAK at NMC. [General Meteorological Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petersen, Ralph A.; Desjardins, Mary L.

    1989-01-01

    This paper considers the use of the General Meteorological Package (GEMPAK) system developed by the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. The interactive capabilites included in the GEMPAK are examined, and the changes of GEMPACK necessary for the accommodation of the large volume of gridded NMC data are discussed. Some preliminary results are presented.

  7. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is impor...

  8. Evaluation of meteorological and epidemiological characteristics of fatal pulmonary embolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Törő, Klára; Pongrácz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Váradi-T, Aletta; Marcsa, Boglárka; Szilágyi, Brigitta; Lovas, Attila; Dunay, György; Sótonyi, Péter

    2016-03-01

    The objective of the present study was to identify risk factors among epidemiological factors and meteorological conditions in connection with fatal pulmonary embolism. Information was collected from forensic autopsy records in sudden unexpected death cases where pulmonary embolism was the exact cause of death between 2001 and 2010 in Budapest. Meteorological parameters were detected during the investigated period. Gender, age, manner of death, cause of death, place of death, post-mortem pathomorphological changes and daily meteorological conditions (i.e. daily mean temperature and atmospheric pressure) were examined. We detected that the number of registered pulmonary embolism (No 467, 211 male) follows power law in time regardless of the manner of death. We first described that the number of registered fatal pulmonary embolism up to the nth day can be expressed as Y( n) = α ṡ n β where Y denotes the number of fatal pulmonary embolisms up to the nth day and α > 0 and β > 1 are model parameters. We found that there is a definite link between the cold temperature and the increasing incidence of fatal pulmonary embolism. Cold temperature and the change of air pressure appear to be predisposing factors for fatal pulmonary embolism. Meteorological parameters should have provided additional information about the predisposing factors of thromboembolism.

  9. Comparison of Meteorological Service Calibration Laboratories in Southeastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groselj, D.; Bojkovski, J.

    2012-09-01

    Interlaboratory comparisons serve as tools for assessment of measurement results performed by calibration laboratories in the relevant field of measurement. They are effective means to demonstrate technical competence of the participant and are used as a technical base for accreditation. However, in the network of meteorological services calibration laboratories, comparisons among laboratories are still rare. Some laboratories are still not evaluating measurement uncertainty, thus causing problems when comparing meteorological data from different countries. The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia (EARS), serving in the frame of the World Meteorological Organization as a Regional Instrument Centre, has organized a round-robin comparison of calibration laboratories of meteorological services in the southeastern part of Europe using instruments for temperature, relative humidity, and barometric pressure. Each participant laboratory had to calibrate a set of instruments at defined calibration points, to evaluate the measurement uncertainty (if possible), and to report the results. EARS RIC invited the National Hydrometeorological Services in the southeastern part of Europe to take part in the intercomparison. In addition, the Laboratory of Metrology and Quality (MIRS/UL-FE/LMK), which holds the Slovenian national standard for temperature and relative humidity, was also invited to participate in the comparison and in the data analysis. Results from MIRS/UL-FE/LMK and EARS were used to calculate the temperature and humidity comparison reference values, while the EARS results were taken as reference values for barometric pressure.

  10. Techniques for Improved Retrospective Fine-scale Meteorology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pleim-Xiu Land-Surface model (PX LSM) was developed for retrospective meteorological simulations to drive chemical transport models. One of the key features of the PX LSM is the indirect soil moisture and temperature nudging. The idea is to provide a three hourly 2-m temperature ...

  11. Meteorology--An Interdisciplinary Base for Science Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a freshman science program at Deerfield Academy (Deerfield, Mass.) in meteorology, designed as the first part of a three-year unified science sequence. Merits of the course, in which particular emphasis is placed on observation skills and making predictions, are enumerated. (CS)

  12. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report First Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Labert, Winifred; Jonathan Case; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the First Quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (October - December 2003). Tasks reviewed are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast, (2) Mesonet Temperature and Wind Climatology, (3) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid and (4) Anvil Transparency Relationship to Radar Reflectivity

  13. Weather or Not To Teach Junior High Meteorology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knorr, Thomas P.

    1984-01-01

    Presents a technique for teaching meteorology allowing students to observe and analyze consecutive weather maps and relate local conditions; a model illustrating the three-dimensional nature of the atmosphere is employed. Instructional methods based on studies of daily weather maps to trace systems sweeping across the United States are discussed.…

  14. A meteorologically driven grain sorghum stress indicator model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, T. W.; Ravet, F. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1981-01-01

    A grain sorghum soil moisture and temperature stress model is described. It was developed to serve as a meteorological data filter to alert commodity analysts to potential stress conditions and crop phenology in selected grain sorghum production areas. The model also identifies optimum conditions on a daily basis and planting/harvest problems associated with poor tractability.

  15. Simulation of meteorological satellite (METSAT) data using LANDSAT data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Austin, W. W.; Ryland, W. E.

    1983-01-01

    The information content which can be expected from the advanced very high resolution radiometer system, AVHRR, on the NOAA-6 satellite was assessed, and systematic techniques of data interpretation for use with meteorological satellite data were defined. In-house data from LANDSAT 2 and 3 were used to simulate the spatial, spectral, and sampling methods of the NOAA-6 satellite data.

  16. Meteorological and constituent data for January and February 1981

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Balloon data consisting of a plot showing the mixing ratio of ozone partial pressure in micromillibors and temperature in degrees centigrade versus pressure altitude in millibars is presented. An accompanying tabulation of meteorological and constituent data is also presented. The total overburden was aquired by Dobson Spectrophotometer 72.

  17. Impact of inherent meteorology uncertainty on air quality model predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Robert C.; Hogrefe, Christian; Godowitch, James M.; Napelenok, Sergey; Mathur, Rohit; Rao, S. Trivikrama

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that there are a number of different classifications and sources of uncertainties in environmental modeling systems. Air quality models rely on two key inputs, namely, meteorology and emissions. When using air quality models for decision making, it is important to understand how uncertainties in these inputs affect the simulated concentrations. Ensembles are one method to explore how uncertainty in meteorology affects air pollution concentrations. Most studies explore this uncertainty by running different meteorological models or the same model with different physics options and in some cases combinations of different meteorological and air quality models. While these have been shown to be useful techniques in some cases, we present a technique that leverages the initial condition perturbations of a weather forecast ensemble, namely, the Short-Range Ensemble Forecast system to drive the four-dimensional data assimilation in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF)-Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model with a key focus being the response of ozone chemistry and transport. Results confirm that a sizable spread in WRF solutions, including common weather variables of temperature, wind, boundary layer depth, clouds, and radiation, can cause a relatively large range of ozone-mixing ratios. Pollutant transport can be altered by hundreds of kilometers over several days. Ozone-mixing ratios of the ensemble can vary as much as 10-20 ppb or 20-30% in areas that typically have higher pollution levels.

  18. Modelling the Meteorological Forest Fire Niche in Heterogeneous Pyrologic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition. PMID:25679957

  19. Meteorological support for space operations: Review and recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The current meteorological support provided to NASA by NOAA, Air Weather Service, and other contractors is reviewed and suggestions are offered for its improvement. These recommendations include improvement in NASA's internal management organizational structure that would accommodate continued improvement in operational weather support, installation of new observing systems, improvement in analysis and forecasting procedures, and the establishment of an Applied Research and Forecasting Facility.

  20. Modelling the meteorological forest fire niche in heterogeneous pyrologic conditions.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Antonella; Ricotta, Carlo; Conedera, Marco; Pezzatti, Gianni Boris

    2015-01-01

    Fire regimes are strongly related to weather conditions that directly and indirectly influence fire ignition and propagation. Identifying the most important meteorological fire drivers is thus fundamental for daily fire risk forecasting. In this context, several fire weather indices have been developed focussing mainly on fire-related local weather conditions and fuel characteristics. The specificity of the conditions for which fire danger indices are developed makes its direct transfer and applicability problematic in different areas or with other fuel types. In this paper we used the low-to-intermediate fire-prone region of Canton Ticino as a case study to develop a new daily fire danger index by implementing a niche modelling approach (Maxent). In order to identify the most suitable weather conditions for fires, different combinations of input variables were tested (meteorological variables, existing fire danger indices or a combination of both). Our findings demonstrate that such combinations of input variables increase the predictive power of the resulting index and surprisingly even using meteorological variables only allows similar or better performances than using the complex Canadian Fire Weather Index (FWI). Furthermore, the niche modelling approach based on Maxent resulted in slightly improved model performance and in a reduced number of selected variables with respect to the classical logistic approach. Factors influencing final model robustness were the number of fire events considered and the specificity of the meteorological conditions leading to fire ignition.

  1. Design of extensible meteorological data acquisition system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wen; Liu, Yin-hua; Zhang, Hui-jun; Li, Xiao-hui

    2015-02-01

    In order to compensate the tropospheric refraction error generated in the process of satellite navigation and positioning. Temperature, humidity and air pressure had to be used in concerned models to calculate the value of this error. While FPGA XC6SLX16 was used as the core processor, the integrated silicon pressure sensor MPX4115A and digital temperature-humidity sensor SHT75 are used as the basic meteorological parameter detection devices. The core processer was used to control the real-time sampling of ADC AD7608 and to acquire the serial output data of SHT75. The data was stored in the BRAM of XC6SLX16 and used to generate standard meteorological parameters in NEMA format. The whole design was based on Altium hardware platform and ISE software platform. The system was described in the VHDL language and schematic diagram to realize the correct detection of temperature, humidity, air pressure. The 8-channel synchronous sampling characteristics of AD7608 and programmable external resources of FPGA laid the foundation for the increasing of analog or digital meteorological element signal. The designed meteorological data acquisition system featured low cost, high performance, multiple expansions.

  2. The ClearfLo project - Understanding London's meteorology and composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Stephen; Bohnenstengel, Sylvia

    2014-05-01

    ClearfLo is a large multi-institutional project funded by the UK Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). ClearfLo established integrated measurements of meteorology, gaseous and particulate composition/loading of London's (UK) urban atmosphere in 2011 and 2012 to understand the processes underlying poor air quality. A new and unique long-term measurement infrastructure was established in London at street level, urban background and elevated sites and contrasted against rural locations to determine the urban increment in meteorology and pollution. This approach enables understanding the seasonal variations in the meteorology and composition together with the controlling processes. In addition two intensive observation periods (IOPs) provide more detail in winter 2012 and during the Olympics in summer 2012 focusing upon the vertical structure and evolution of the urban boundary layer, chemical controls on nitrogen dioxide and ozone production, in particular the role of volatile organic compounds, and processes controlling the evolution, size, distribution and composition of particulate matter. In this talk we present early analysis of the meteorology and air quality measurements within ClearfLo. In particular we show measurements that indicate the dominant regimes of London's boundary layer.

  3. The impact of meteorology on ozone in Houston

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, B.K.; Davis, J.M.; Nychka, D.

    1997-12-31

    This paper compares the results from both a one-stage hierarchical clustering technique (average linkage) and a two-stage technique (average linkage then k-means) as part of an objective meteorological Classification scheme designed to better elucidate ozone`s dependence on meteorology in the Houston, Texas, area. When applied to twelve years of meteorological data (1981-1992), each technique identified seven statistically distinct meteorological regimes, the majority of which exhibited significantly different daily 1-hour maximum ozone (O{sub 3}) concentrations. While both clustering approaches proved successful, the two-stage approach did appear superior in terms of better segregation of the mean O{sub 3}, concentrations. Both approaches indicated that the largest mean daily one-hour maximum concentrations are associated with migrating anticyclones and not with the quasi-permanent Bermuda High that often dominates the southeastern United States during the summer. As a result, maximum ozone concentrations are just as likely during the months of April, May, September and October as they are during the summer months. These findings support and help explain the unique O{sub 3}, climatology experienced by the Houston area.

  4. The evolution of insect societies.

    PubMed

    Page, R E

    1997-01-01

    The organization and evolution of insect societies has amazed natural historians since Aristotle. Charles Darwin considered social insects to be a major difficulty for his theory of evolution by natural selection because they demonstrate a rich diversity of adaptation among sterile workers leading to a complex division of labour, something that should not occur if variation in individual reproductive success is the grist for the mill of natural selection. This article shows how division of labour can self-organize from groups of cohabiting individuals without the necessity of a past history of natural selection for co-operative behaviour. It then explores how more complex social systems may evolve.

  5. A Troubled Society: Children in Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontana, Vincent J.

    America's children and their families are in trouble, trouble so deep as to constitute a serious threat to the future of our society. The major source of that threat is bureaucratic "benign neglect." We have failed to recognize that the problems of the multitroubled family in a changing society are the problems of the entire society in the midst…

  6. Allgemeinbildung: Readiness for Living in Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elmose, Steffen; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2005-01-01

    Sociologists increasingly note that one lives in a risk society, characterized by the unpredictable consequences of techno-scientific innovation and production and by increasing complexity. Life in risk society, particularly in truly democratic societies, increasingly requires competencies not only to understand and change one's own circumstances…

  7. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  8. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  9. Probabilistic aspects of meteorological and ozone regional ensemble forecasts

    SciTech Connect

    Monache, L D; Hacker, J; Zhou, Y; Deng, X; Stull, R

    2006-03-20

    This study investigates whether probabilistic ozone forecasts from an ensemble can be made with skill; i.e., high verification resolution and reliability. Twenty-eight ozone forecasts were generated over the Lower Fraser Valley, British Columbia, Canada, for the 5-day period 11-15 August 2004, and compared with 1-hour averaged measurements of ozone concentrations at five stations. The forecasts were obtained by driving the CMAQ model with four meteorological forecasts and seven emission scenarios: a control run, {+-} 50% NO{sub x}, {+-} 50% VOC, and {+-} 50% NO{sub x} combined with VOC. Probabilistic forecast quality is verified using relative operating characteristic curves, Talagrand diagrams, and a new reliability index. Results show that both meteorology and emission perturbations are needed to have a skillful probabilistic forecast system--the meteorology perturbation is important to capture the ozone temporal and spatial distribution, and the emission perturbation is needed to span the range of ozone-concentration magnitudes. Emission perturbations are more important than meteorology perturbations for capturing the likelihood of high ozone concentrations. Perturbations involving NO{sub x} resulted in a more skillful probabilistic forecast for the episode analyzed, and therefore the 50% perturbation values appears to span much of the emission uncertainty for this case. All of the ensembles analyzed show a high ozone concentration bias in the Talagrand diagrams, even when the biases from the unperturbed emissions forecasts are removed from all ensemble members. This result indicates nonlinearity in the ensemble, which arises from both ozone chemistry and its interaction with input from particular meteorological models.

  10. Observed Trends in Subtropical Stratocumulus and Associated Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chellappan, S.; Norris, J. R.; Myers, T. A.

    2014-12-01

    The importance of low-level cloud feedbacks to climate sensitivity motivates an investigation of how low-level cloud amount, liquid water path, and related meteorological conditions have changed in recent decades in subtropical stratocumulus regions. Using a satellite cloud dataset corrected for inhomogeneities, we find that during 1984-2009 low-level cloud amount significantly increased over the northeast and southeast Pacific, significantly decreased over the northeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Atlantic and southeast Indian oceans. During 1988-2012, liquid water path decreased over the northeast Pacific, significantly increased over the southeast Pacific and northeast and southeast Atlantic, and weakly increased over the southeast Indian oceans. Examination of meteorological parameters from four re-analyses indicates that positive trends in low-level cloud amount are associated with decreasing trends in sea surface temperature and increasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. Relationships between liquid water path and meteorological conditions are weaker, but increasing trends in liquid water path are associated with increasing trends in sea surface temperature and decreasing trends in inversion strength, subsidence, and cold-air advection, and vice-versa. A multi-linear regression model based on these four meteorological variables well captures the sign and to certain extent magnitude of observed cloud amount trends in almost all stratocumulus regions, but a similarly constructed model largely fails to reproduce the observed liquid water path trends. Differing signs of cloud trends and differing contributions from meteorological parameters between regions suggest that observed changes in subtropical stratocumulus since the 1980s are primarily due to natural variability rather than a systematic response to climate change.

  11. The Experience Of The Meteorological Support By The National Institute Of Meteorology During The XV Pan-american Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, M.; Gonçalves, P.; Braga, A.; Raposo, R.; Ito, E.; Gadelha, A.; Dallantonia, A.

    2008-05-01

    The XV Pan-American Games were organized in Rio de Janeiro city during 13 to 29 July, 2007 with a participation of 5.662 athletes of 42 countries . The Ministry of Sports requested INMET to provide meteorological support to the games, with the exception of the water sports only, which fell under the responsibility of the Brazilian Navy. The meteorological activities should follow the same pattern experienced during the Olympic Games of Sydney in Australia in the year of 2000, and of Athens in Greece in 2004, with a forecast center entirely dedicated to the event. NMET developed a website with detailed information oriented to the athletes and organizing committee and to the general public. The homepage had 3 different option of idioms (Portuguese, English and Spanish). After choosing the idiom, the user could consult the meteorological data, to each competition place, and to the Pan- American Village, every 15 minutes, containing weather forecast bulletin, daily synoptic analysis, the last 10 satellite image and meteograms. Besides observed data verified "in situ" INMET supplied forecast generated by High Resolution Model (MBAR) with 7km grid resolution especially set up for the games. INMET installed 7 automatic meteorological stations near the competition places, which supplied temperature , relative humidity , atmospheric pressure, wind (direction and intensity), radiation and precipitation every 15 minutes. Those information were relayed by satellite to INMET headquarters located in Brasília and soon after they were published in the website. To help the Brazilian Olympic Committee - COB, the athletes, their technical commission and the public in general, meteorological bulletins were emitted daily. The forecast was done together with the Navy and also with INMET's 6th District located in Rio de Janeiro, and responsible for the forecast statewide. This forecast was then placed at the INMET's website. Both the 3 days weather forecast and Meteorological Alert were

  12. EVALUATING THE USE OF OUTPUTS FROM COMPREHENSIVE METEOROLOGICAL MODELS IN AIR QUALITY MODELING APPLICATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently used dispersion models, such as the AMS/EPA Regulatory Model (AERMOD), process routinely available meteorological observations to construct model inputs. Thus, model estimates of concentrations depend on the availability and quality of Meteorological observations, as we...

  13. 78 FR 69928 - 35th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-21

    ...-fifth meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link... Federal Aviation Administration 35th Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department...

  14. 78 FR 5242 - 32nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...-second meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link... Federal Aviation Administration 32nd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department...

  15. 78 FR 20167 - 33rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-03

    ...-first meeting of the RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link... Federal Aviation Administration 33rd Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 206, Aeronautical Information and Meteorological Data Link Services AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department...

  16. Meteorological Processes Affecting Air Quality – Research and Model Development Needs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Meteorology modeling is an important component of air quality modeling systems that defines the physical and dynamical environment for atmospheric chemistry. The meteorology models used for air quality applications are based on numerical weather prediction models that were devel...

  17. Impact of High Resolution Land-Use Data in Meteorology and Air Quality Modeling Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate land use information is important in meteorology for land surface exchanges, in emission modeling for emission spatial allocation, and in air quality modeling for chemical surface fluxes. Currently, meteorology, emission, and air quality models often use outdated USGS Gl...

  18. 4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC3W ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. SOUTHWEST CORNER OF METEOROLOGICAL TOWER; SOUTH FACE OF SLC-3W MST IN BACKGROUND - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Meteorological Shed & Tower, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  19. Quality Assurance Guidance for the Collection of Meteorological Data Using Passive Radiometers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document augments the February 2000 guidance entitled Meteorological Monitoring Guidance for Regulatory Modeling Applications and the March 2008 guidance entitled Quality Assurance Handbook for Air Pollution Measurement Systems Volume IV: Meteorological Measurements Version ...

  20. European Extremely Large Telescope Site Characterization III: Ground Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varela, Antonia M.; Vázquez Ramió, Héctor; Vernin, Jean; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Sarazin, Marc; Trinquet, Hervé; Delgado, José Miguel; Jiménez Fuensalida, Jesús; Reyes, Marcos; Benhida, Abdelmajid; Benkhaldoun, Zouhair; García Lambas, Diego; Hach, Youssef; Lazrek, Mohamed; Lombardi, Gianluca; Navarrete, Julio; Recabarren, Pablo; Renzi, Victor; Sabil, Mohammed; Vrech, Rubén

    2014-04-01

    Both meteorology and optical conditions are crucial for selecting the best site to host extremely large telescopes such as the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) and the European project (E-ELT). For the E-ELT, a year-long meteorological campaign was performed at our two reference sites, the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos (ORM) and Cerro Ventarrones (very close to the VLT site at Paranal), and at other sites also considered as alternatives to the reference sites: Aklim, Macón, and Izaña (Observatorio del Teide; OT). In this article, we present a statistical analysis of the ground meteorological properties recorded at these sites, making use of automatic weather stations (AWSs) equipped with standard meteorological sensors providing the air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, wind speed, and wind direction, using standard procedures across all sites. Meteorology offers but one discriminant in the complicated question of where to site such a major facility as the E-ELT (other factors being seeing, local geology, the economics of the logistics, etc.), both for determining the feasibility of telescope and instrumentation design and construction and for determining the useful observing time. However, the final decision of where to locate a major telescope depends in part on all these—and other—considerations and not on any one criterion alone. In summary, for 90% of the nighttime, the wind speed is lower than 18 m s-1, the telescope operational limit at all the sites except Macón. For this reason, Macón was discarded in the final site selection as, for 25% of the time, the wind speed is greater than 17 m s-1. The smallest nighttime temperature gradient is at ORM, whereas the lowest mean relative humidity value is reached at the Ventarrones site. Izaña was discarded in the site selection study from the very beginning due to lack of funding to install further site-testing equipement (e.g., Multi-Aperture Scintillation Sensor-Differential Image

  1. International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS).

    PubMed

    Cooks, R G; Gelpi, E; Nibbering, N M

    2001-02-01

    This paper gives a brief description of the recently formalized International Mass Spectrometry Society (IMSS). It is presented here in order to increase awareness of the opportunities for collaboration in mass spectrometry in an international context. It also describes the recent 15th International Mass Spectrometry Conference, held August/September 2000, in Barcelona. Each of the authors is associated with the IMSS. The 15th Conference, which covers all of mass spectrometry on a triennial basis, was chaired by Professor Emilio Gelpi of the Instituto de Investigaciones Biomedicas, Barcelona. The outgoing and founding President of the IMSS is Professor Graham Cooks, Purdue University, and the incoming President is Professor Nico Nibbering, University of Amsterdam. Similar material has been provided to the Editors of other journals that cover mass spectrometry.

  2. Costly punishment across human societies.

    PubMed

    Henrich, Joseph; McElreath, Richard; Barr, Abigail; Ensminger, Jean; Barrett, Clark; Bolyanatz, Alexander; Cardenas, Juan Camilo; Gurven, Michael; Gwako, Edwins; Henrich, Natalie; Lesorogol, Carolyn; Marlowe, Frank; Tracer, David; Ziker, John

    2006-06-23

    Recent behavioral experiments aimed at understanding the evolutionary foundations of human cooperation have suggested that a willingness to engage in costly punishment, even in one-shot situations, may be part of human psychology and a key element in understanding our sociality. However, because most experiments have been confined to students in industrialized societies, generalizations of these insights to the species have necessarily been tentative. Here, experimental results from 15 diverse populations show that (i) all populations demonstrate some willingness to administer costly punishment as unequal behavior increases, (ii) the magnitude of this punishment varies substantially across populations, and (iii) costly punishment positively covaries with altruistic behavior across populations. These findings are consistent with models of the gene-culture coevolution of human altruism and further sharpen what any theory of human cooperation needs to explain.

  3. Technology, Society, and Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    SE Keefe, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Technology is rapidly changing society, and many activities now require the ability to use technology. This situation has the potential to lead to problems for several populations, including the elderly, the disadvantaged, and people with severe mental illness. In this column, we review the state of technology as it affects daily activities. We then review previous efforts to use technology positively for both the assessment and treatment of psychiatric conditions, including posttraumatic stress disorder and severe mental illness. We conclude that technology-based interventions and assessment strategies have the potential to deliver benefit to a wide array of older people and those with severe mental illness, including reaching people who would not have had access otherwise. PMID:23346519

  4. Did Educational Expansion Trigger the Development of an Education Society? Chances and Risks of a New Model of Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haunberger, Sigrid

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the question of whether educational expansion leads to a new type of society, the education society. Taking into consideration the combined elements of three models of society (the post-industrial society, the knowledge society and the information society)--the chances and risks of an educational society will be elicited…

  5. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  6. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  7. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in the 1710-1755 MHz band, if notified that such stations are causing interference to meteorological-satellite...

  8. 47 CFR 27.1135 - Protection of non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Meteorological-Satellite operations. 27.1135 Section 27.1135 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... non-Federal Government Meteorological-Satellite operations. AWS licensees operating fixed stations in...-satellite earth receivers operating in the Meteorological-Satellite Service in the 1675-1710 MHz band,...

  9. Teaching Guidelines for the Observance of World Meteorological Day (23 March).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Understanding at School, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the establishment and goals of the World Meteorological Organization and the World Meteorological Day (WMD). Includes teaching objectives for upper elementary and lower secondary school teachers and provides activities which integrate the study of meteorology with language, history, geography, mathematics, science, physical education,…

  10. a Meteorological Risk Assessment Method for Power Lines Based on GIS and Multi-Sensor Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhiyong; Xu, Zhimin

    2016-06-01

    Power lines, exposed in the natural environment, are vulnerable to various kinds of meteorological factors. Traditional research mainly deals with the influence of a single meteorological condition on the power line, which lacks of comprehensive effects evaluation and analysis of the multiple meteorological factors. In this paper, we use multiple meteorological monitoring data obtained by multi-sensors to implement the meteorological risk assessment and early warning of power lines. Firstly, we generate meteorological raster map from discrete meteorological monitoring data using spatial interpolation. Secondly, the expert scoring based analytic hierarchy process is used to compute the power line risk index of all kinds of meteorological conditions and establish the mathematical model of meteorological risk. By adopting this model in raster calculator of ArcGIS, we will have a raster map showing overall meteorological risks for power line. Finally, by overlaying the power line buffer layer to that raster map, we will get to know the exact risk index around a certain part of power line, which will provide significant guidance for power line risk management. In the experiment, based on five kinds of observation data gathered from meteorological stations in Guizhou Province of China, including wind, lightning, rain, ice, temperature, we carry on the meteorological risk analysis for the real power lines, and experimental results have proved the feasibility and validity of our proposed method.

  11. Meteorological and air pollution modeling for an urban airport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, P. R.; Lee, I. Y.

    1980-01-01

    Results are presented of numerical experiments modeling meteorology, multiple pollutant sources, and nonlinear photochemical reactions for the case of an airport in a large urban area with complex terrain. A planetary boundary-layer model which predicts the mixing depth and generates wind, moisture, and temperature fields was used; it utilizes only surface and synoptic boundary conditions as input data. A version of the Hecht-Seinfeld-Dodge chemical kinetics model is integrated with a new, rapid numerical technique; both the San Francisco Bay Area Air Quality Management District source inventory and the San Jose Airport aircraft inventory are utilized. The air quality model results are presented in contour plots; the combined results illustrate that the highly nonlinear interactions which are present require that the chemistry and meteorology be considered simultaneously to make a valid assessment of the effects of individual sources on regional air quality.

  12. Meteorological conditions of the Danube flood in year 1895

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melo, Marian; Gera, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The flood in year 1895 belongs to the highest floods on the Danube River and its tributaries. The aim of this contribution is to clarify meteorological causes of this flood. Analysis is based on air temperature and precipitation measurements of some meteorological stations from the Central and southeastern Europe and data from NOAA 20th Century Reanalysis of daily composites. Moreover we bring knowledge gained by studies of materials regarding the historical flood on the Danube River and its tributaries in 1895 as reflected in local contemporary press (Preßburger Zeitung and Wiener Zeitung) in the period from late February till the end of April 1895. This work was supported by the Slovak Research and Development Agency under Contract No. APVV-0303-11 and No. APVV-0015-10.

  13. Computer-generated imagery for 4-D meteorological data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hibbard, William L.

    1986-01-01

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison Space Science and Engineering Center is developing animated stereo display terminals for use with McIDAS (Man-computer Interactive Data Access System). This paper describes image-generation techniques which have been developed to take maximum advantage of these terminals, integrating large quantities of four-dimensional meteorological data from balloon and satellite soundings, satellite images, Doppler and volumetric radar, and conventional surface observations. The images have been designed to use perspective, shading, hidden-surface removal, and transparency to augment the animation and stereo-display geometry. They create an illusion of a moving three-dimensional model of the atmosphere. This paper describes the design of these images and a number of rules of thumb for generating four-dimensional meteorological displays.

  14. Overview of meteorological measurements for aerial spray modeling.

    PubMed

    Rafferty, J E; Biltoft, C A; Bowers, J F

    1996-06-01

    The routine meteorological observations made by the National Weather Service have a spatial resolution on the order of 1,000 km, whereas the resolution needed to conduct or model aerial spray applications is on the order of 1-10 km. Routinely available observations also do not include the detailed information on the turbulence and thermal structure of the boundary layer that is needed to predict the transport, dispersion, and deposition of aerial spray releases. This paper provides an overview of the information needed to develop the meteorological inputs for an aerial spray model such as the FSCBG and discusses the different types of instruments that are available to make the necessary measurements.

  15. Planetary meteorology - A new perspective on the earth's weather

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Joels, K.

    1976-01-01

    Meteorological observations of other planets which may contribute to an understanding of the meteorological processes on the earth are discussed. The high solar input and extremely low rotation rate of Venus simplify the analysis of the interaction of solar energy with the atmosphere. The dust present in the atmosphere of Mars may provide a useful model for studying the effects of anthropogenic aerosols in the atmosphere of earth. Observations of Mars may also be expected to yield information on the evolution of severe storms and on atmospheric tides. The belts and zones in the Jovian atmosphere bear some similarities to cyclones on earth, although they are produced differently; careful modeling of Jupiter's atmosphere may cast light on terrestrial cyclonic activity.

  16. Refinement of background environmental monitoring measurements using meteorological frequency distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, P.E. )

    1991-01-01

    Since the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program's inception in 1969, the direct radiation monitoring network around the Oyster Creek nuclear generating station has incorporated both monthly and quarterly thermoluminescent dosimetry (TLD). In 1988, the environmental controls department of GPU Nuclear decided to eliminate the monthly TLD network for scientific and economic reasons. The most obvious scientific basis on which to designate TLD stations is by meteorology. It would be the plume path that dictates off-site direct radiation contribution from the plant and not simply distance from the site. Through meteorological and statistical analysis of existing TLD results, the appropriate basis for designating TLD stations has been accomplished that will provide the most accurate and comprehensive data on environmental measurement of releases from Oyster Creek.

  17. Active layer dynamics and arctic hydrology and meteorology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Man`s impact on the environment is increasing with time. To be able to evaluate anthropogenic impacts on an ecosystems, it is necessary first to understand all facets of how the ecosystems works: what the main processes (physical, biological, chemical) are, at what rates they proceed, and how they can be manipulated. Arctic ecosystems are dominated by physical processes of energy exchange. This project has concentrated on a strong program of hydrologic and meteorologic data collection, to better understand dominant physical processes. Field research focused on determining the natural annual and diurnal variability of meteorologic and hydrologic variables, especially those which may indicate trends in climatic change. Comprehensive compute models are being developed to simulate physical processes occurring under the present conditions and to simulate processes under the influence of climatic change.

  18. Meteorological effects on long-range outdoor sound propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klug, Helmut

    1990-01-01

    Measurements of sound propagation over distances up to 1000 m were carried out with an impulse sound source offering reproducible, short time signals. Temperature and wind speed at several heights were monitored simultaneously; the meteorological data are used to determine the sound speed gradients according to the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The sound speed profile is compared to a corresponding prediction, gained through the measured travel time difference between direct and ground reflected pulse (which depends on the sound speed gradient). Positive sound speed gradients cause bending of the sound rays towards the ground yielding enhanced sound pressure levels. The measured meteorological effects on sound propagation are discussed and illustrated by ray tracing methods.

  19. Architecture of scalability file system for meteorological observation data storing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botygin, I. A.; Popov, V. N.; Tartakovsky, V. A.; Sherstnev, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    The approach allows to organize distributed storage of large amounts of diverse data in order to further their parallel processing in high performance cluster systems for problems of climatic processes analysis and forecasting. For different classes of data was used the practice of using meta descriptions - like formalism associated with certain categories of resources. Development of a metadata component was made based on an analysis of data of surface meteorological observations, atmosphere vertical sounding, atmosphere wind sounding, weather radar observing, observations from satellites and others. A common set of metadata components was formed for their general description. The structure and content of the main components of a generalized meta descriptions are presented in detail on the example of reporting meteorological observations from land and sea stations.

  20. An airborne meteorological data collection system using satellite relay (ASDAR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagwell, J. W.; Lindow, B. G.

    1978-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed an airborne data acquisition and communication system for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). This system known as ASDAR, the Aircraft to Satellite Data Relay, consists of a microprocessor based controller, time clock, transmitter and antenna. Together they acquire meteorological and position information from existing aircraft systems on B-747 aircraft, convert and format these, and transmit them to the ground via the GOES meteorological satellite series. The development and application of the ASDAR system is described with emphasis on unique features. Performance to date is exceptional, providing horizon-to-horizon coverage of aircraft flights. The data collected is of high quality and is considered a valuable addition to the data base from which NOAA generates its weather forecasts.

  1. [Meteorological observations concerning haemorrhages after tonsillectomy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Dubs, R; Primault, B

    1975-09-01

    Based on the observation of 929 patients who had to be subjected to tonsillectomy within a period of twelve months, the authors concluded that the vast majority of post operative haemorrhages occurred during the beginning of a good weather period (clearing from the west), not quite so often during a "Föhn"-period (warm winds from the south). This contrasts somewhat with the observations of other authors who found a connection between haemorrhages and the beginning of a period of bad weather (close and stuffy, increasing humidity, high clouds). The dependence of postoperative haemorrhages on meteorological influences would perhaps give a reason for the hitherto medically unexplainable 40 per cent bleedings. Based on these observations it would be desirable for the meteorologic stations (or the media) to inform the doctors and hospitals about the weather phases.

  2. An Overview of the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Francis; Bauman, William; Lambert, Winifred; Short, David; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela

    2007-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) acts as a bridge between research and operations by transitioning technology to improve weather support to the Shuttle and American space program. It is a NASA entity operated under a tri-agency agreement by NASA, the US Air Force, and the National Weather Service (NWS). The AMU contract is managed by NASA, operated by ENSCO, Inc. personnel, and is collocated with Range Weather Operations at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station. The AMU is tasked by its customers in the 45th Weather Squadron, Spaceflight Meteorology Group, and the NWS in Melbourne, FL with projects whose results help improve the weather forecast for launch, landing, and ground operations. This presentation describes the history behind the formation of the AMU, its working relationships and goals, how it is tasked by its customers, and examples of completed tasks.

  3. Effects of Meteorological Conditions on Reactions to Noise Exposure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shepherd, Kevin P. (Technical Monitor); Fields, James M.

    2004-01-01

    More than 80,000 residents' responses to transportation noise at different times of year provide the best, but imprecise, statistical estimates of the effects of season and meteorological conditions on community response to noise. Annoyance with noise is found to be slightly statistically significantly higher in the summer than in the winter in a seven-year study in the Netherlands. Analyses of 41 other surveys drawn from diverse countries, climates, and times of year find noise annoyance is increased by temperature, and may be increased by more sunshine, less precipitation, and reduced wind speeds. Meteorological conditions on the day of the interview or the immediately preceding days do not appear to have any more effect on reactions than do the conditions over the immediately preceding weeks or months.

  4. Analysis of meteorological and radiological data for selected fallout episodes

    SciTech Connect

    Quinn, V.E. )

    1990-11-01

    The Weather Service Nuclear Support Office has analyzed the meteorological and radiological data collected for the following atmospheric nuclear tests: TRINITY; EASY of the Tumbler-Snapper series; ANNIE, NANCY, BADGER, SIMON, and HARRY of the Upshot-Knothole series; BEE and ZUCCHINI of the Teapot series; BOLTZMANN and SMOKY of the Plumbbob series; and SMALL BOY of the Dominic II series. These tests were chosen as having the greatest impact on nearby downwind populated locations, contributing approximately 80% of the collective estimated exposure. This report describes the methods of analysis used in deriving fallout-pattern contours and estimated fallout arrival times. Inconsistencies in the radiological data and their resolution are discussed. The methods of estimating fallout arrival times from the meteorological data are described. Comparisons of fallout patterns resulting from these analyses with earlier analyses show insignificant differences in the areas covered or people exposed.

  5. Web services for open meteorological data in British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiebert, J.; Anslow, F. S.

    2012-12-01

    Until recently, British Columbia suffered from a dearth of publicly and easily accessible (open) meteorological data. While Environment Canada (EC) maintains approximately 250 active in situ weather stations, the remaining meteorological and climate data -- which represent the majority of observations made in the province -- have been gathered by the provincial government within several disparate, ministry-specific networks. Those observations have traditionally been either inaccessible to non-government employees or only available on a network-by-network basis by contacting network managers and requesting custom data queries. Under a collaborative agreement between several provincial ministries, private industry and the Pacific Climate Impacts Consortium (PCIC) and with support from EC, the entire province's meteorological archive has been collected into a single database at PCIC and made publicly accessible via web services and open data protocols. In this paper, we describe our web services, built on open-source software, which provide users access to the full catalogue of BC's meteorological observations through a simple user interface. Our geographic web services provide users access to station locations using Open Geospatial Consortium's Web Mapping Service and Web Feature Service protocols. We use OpenDAP to provide users download access to over a century of weather observations through a variety of open formats such as NetCDF, HDF, ASCII, and others. The goals of these web services are twofold. We primarily aim to provide planners, scientists and researchers with timely and comprehensive climate data as conveniently and efficiently as possible. A natural consequence of this is to enable the flexibility to expand the volume and types of data served and to facilitate more sophisticated analysis regarding past and future climate.

  6. Aviation meteorology research and development: A status report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Enders, J.

    1980-01-01

    The dynamic and rapid growth of technology in the area of aviation meteorology research and development are described with emphasis on the measurement of hazardous weather phenomena. Aspects of both onboard instrumentation and ground based facilities are evaluated in terms of their effectiveness of in avoiding hazards due to atmospheric electricity and lightning. Methods of alleviating terminal are hazards such as fog, low visibility and ceilings are also described.

  7. Meteorological field measurements at potential and actual wind turbine sites

    SciTech Connect

    Renne, D.S.; Sandusky, W.F.; Hadley, D.L.

    1982-09-01

    An overview of experiences gained in a meteorological measurement program conducted at a number of locations around the United States for the purpose of site evaluation for wind energy utilization is provided. The evolution of the measurement program from its inception in 1976 to the present day is discussed. Some of the major accomplishments and areas for improvement are outlined. Some conclusions on research using data from this program are presented.

  8. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Fourth Quarter FY-04

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2004-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (A MU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2004 (July -Sept 2004). Tasks covered are: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension and (5) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest.

  9. [Meteorology and the human body: two hundred years of history].

    PubMed

    Forrai, Judit

    2010-07-01

    Modern meteorology was started in the 18th century, with the establishment of observer networks through countries. Since then, temperature, pressure and purity of air, quantity of powder have been measured and the effects of changes on the human body have been studied. New theories have been set relating to the atmospheric properties of microorganisms. Changes of pathogens in the context of climatic changes have been also studied.

  10. Navigation and meteorological error equations for some aerodynamic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krikorian, M. J.; Rice, J.; Mitchell, P.

    1979-01-01

    Mathematical equations for the analysis of the errors that are expected in a set of postflight aerodynamic parameters are presented. The errors are due to inaccuracies in the Shuttle best estimate trajectory and in the meteorological data obtained in support of the flights. The error analysis shows that the parameter vector, Z, and its associated error covariance matrix, C sub Z, is calculated from a given state vector, X, and its associated covariance matrix, C sub X.

  11. Synchronous meteorological satellite system description document, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipkin, F. B.

    1971-01-01

    The structural design, analysis, and mechanical integration of the synchronous meteorological satellite system are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) spacecraft configuration, (2) structural design, (3) static load tests, (4) fixed base sinusoidal vibration survey, (5) flight configuration sinusoidal vibration tests, (6) spacecraft acoustic test, and (7) separation and shock test. Descriptions of the auxiliary propulsion subsystem, the apogee boost motor, communications system, and thermal control subsystem are included.

  12. Superior Ambulance Call Out Rate Forecasting Using Meteorological Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, M. A.; Thornes, J. E.; Bloss, W.; Pope, F.

    2015-12-01

    Ambulances are an integral part of a country's infrastructure ensuring its citizens and visitors are kept healthy. The impact of weather, climate and climate change on ambulance services around the world has received increasing attention in recent years but most studies have been area specific and there is a need to establish basic relationships between ambulance data (both response and illness data) and meteorological parameters. In this presentation, the effects of temperature and relative humidity on ambulance call out rates for different medical categories will be investigated. We use call out data obtained from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) and meteorological data from a central London meteorological station. A time-series analysis was utilized to understand the relation between temperature, relative humidity, air pollutants and different call out categories. There are statistically significant relationships between mean temperature and ambulance callout rate for most of the categories investigated. Most categories show a negative dependence on temperature, i.e. call outs increase with decreasing temperature but some categories showed a positive dependence such as alcohol related call outs. Relative humidity is significant for some categories but in general is much less important than temperature. Significant time lag effects were observed for most of the categories related to infectious illnesses, which are transferrable through human contact. These findings support the opinion that ambulance attendance callouts records are an effective and well-timed source of data and can be used for health early warning systems. Furthermore the presented results can much improve our understanding of the relationships between meteorological conditions and human health thereby allowing for better prediction of ambulance use through the application of long and short-term weather forecasts.

  13. Compendium of meteorological space programs, satellites, and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubach, Leland L.; Ng, Carolyn

    1988-01-01

    This compendium includes plans and events known to the authors through January 1987. Compilation of the information began in 1967. This document is intended: (1) as a historical record of all satellites and instrumentation that has been useful for meteorological research or operational uses; and (2) as a working document to be used to assist meteorologists in identifying meteorological satellites, locating data from these satellites, and understanding experiment operation which is related to satellite data that may be of interest to them. A summary of all known launched satellites for all countries and their experiments, which were concerned with meteorological operations or research, are included. Programs covered include AEM, Apollo, ATS, Bhaskara, Cosmos, Discoverer, DMSP, DOD, DODGE, EOLE, ERBE, ESSA, Explorer, Gemini, GMS, GOES/SMS, INSAT, IRS, LANDSAT, Mercury, Meteor 1 and 2, Meteosat, Molniya, MOS, Nimbus, NOAA (1-5)/ITOS, NOAA (6,7,D)/TIROS-N, NOAA (8-10, H-J)/ATN, Salyut, Seasat, Shuttle 1, Shuttle 2: Spacelab, Skylab, Soyuz, TIROS, TOPEX, Vanguard, Voskhod, Vostok, and Zond.

  14. Modeling METREX Tracer Releases Using High-Resolution WRF Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hegarty, J. D.; Draxler, R. R.; Nehrkorn, T.

    2014-12-01

    The Metropolitan Tracer Experiment (METREX) was conducted throughout 1984 over the Washington DC area and consisted of hundreds of passive tracer releases with air samples collected at many downwind locations. The experiment included intensive 4-hour tracer releases conducted once per month starting in April of 1984. We simulate several of these intensive releases that had good air sampling coverage using the HYSPLIT Lagrangian particle dispersion model driven by meteorological fields generated by WRF on grids as fine as 1 km and utilizing an urban canopy model (UCM) to parameterize the bulk impacts of buildings within the DC urban airshed. Results indicate that 1 km meteorology generated with the UCM dramatically improve the dispersion simulation compared to those using coarser meteorological inputs generated without the UCM for the November 8th intensive release. This improvement is due to better representation of the vertical mixing at night in WRF. However, for other cases the impact of resolution and the UCM is not as significant as the dispersion was influenced by other factors. We also investigate the sensitivity of the dispersion calculations to the topographic wind speed correction available in WRF 3.6 and several WRF planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterizations.

  15. Neural networks for sensor fusion of meteorological measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yee, Young P.; Measure, Edward M.; Cogan, James L.; Bleiweis, Max

    2001-03-01

    The collection and management of vast quantities of meteorological data, including satellite-based as well as ground- based measurements, is presenting great challenges in the optimal usage of this information. To address these issues, the Army Laboratory has developed neural networks for combining for combining multi-sensor meteorological data for Army battlefield weather forecasting models. As a demonstration of this data fusion methodology, multi-sensor data was taken from the Meteorological Measurement Set Profiler (MMSP-POC) system and from satellites with orbits coinciding with the geographical locations of interest. The MMS Profiler-POC comprises a suite of remote sensing instrumentation and surface measuring devices. Neural network techniques were used to retrieve temperature and wind information from a combination of polar orbiter and/ or geostationary satellite observations and ground-based measurements. Back-propagation neural networks were constructed which use satellite radiances, simulated microwave radiometer measurements, and other ground-based measurements as inputs and produced temperature and wind profiles as outputs. The network was trained with Rawinsonde measurements used as truth-values. The final outcome will be an integrated, merged temperature/wind profile from the surface up to the upper troposphere.

  16. Applied Meteorology Unit - Operational Contributions to Spaceport Canaveral

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William H., III; Roeder, William P.; Lafosse, Richard A.; Sharp, David W.; Merceret, Francis J.

    2004-01-01

    The Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) provides technology development, evaluation and transition services to improve operational weather support to the Space Shuttle and the National Space Program. It is established under a Memorandum of Understanding among NASA, the Air Force and the National .Weather Service (NWS). The AMU is funded and managed by NASA and operated by ENSCO, Inc. through a competitively awarded NASA contract. The primary customers are the 45th Weather Squadron (45WS) at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL; the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) at Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, TX; and the NWS office in Melbourne, FL (NWS MLB). This paper will briefly review the AMU's history and describe the three processes through which its work is assigned. Since its inception in 1991 the AMU has completed 72 projects, all of which are listed at the end of this paper. At least one project that highlights each of the three tasking processes will be briefly reviewed. Some of the projects that have been especially beneficial to the space program will also be discussed in more detail, as will projects that developed significant new techniques or science in applied meteorology.

  17. Quantitative assessment of meteorological and tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Di; Guo, Jiming; Chen, Ming; Shi, Junbo; Zhou, Lv

    2016-09-01

    Tropospheric delay has always been an important issue in GNSS/DORIS/VLBI/InSAR processing. Most commonly used empirical models for the determination of tropospheric Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), including three meteorological models and two empirical ZHD models, are carefully analyzed in this paper. Meteorological models refer to UNB3m, GPT2 and GPT2w, while ZHD models include Hopfield and Saastamoinen. By reference to in-situ meteorological measurements and ray-traced ZHD values of 91 globally distributed radiosonde sites, over a four-years period from 2010 to 2013, it is found that there is strong correlation between errors of model-derived values and latitudes. Specifically, the Saastamoinen model shows a systematic error of about -3 mm. Therefore a modified Saastamoinen model is developed based on the "best average" refractivity constant, and is validated by radiosonde data. Among different models, the GPT2w and the modified Saastamoinen model perform the best. ZHD values derived from their combination have a mean bias of -0.1 mm and a mean RMS of 13.9 mm. Limitations of the present models are discussed and suggestions for further improvements are given.

  18. Categorisation of Drought Indices Used in Agricultural Meteorology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunkel, Z.

    2009-09-01

    The research and the operative work use many type of indices in everyday meteorological practice. The goal of present summary is to group the indices used for identification of drought phenomenon in the agricultural meteorology practice. Besides summarising the indices the different drought definitions are evaluated. Drought indices seem to be the simplest tools in drought analysis. The more or less well known and popular indices have been collected and compared not only with the well known simple but more complicated water balance and so called ‘recursive' indices beside few ones use remotely sensed data, mainly satellite born information. The indices are classified into five groups, namely ‘precipitation', ‘water balance', ‘soil moisture', ‘recursive' and ‘remote sensing' indices. For every group typical expressions are given and analysed for their performance and comparability. Taking into consideration that the drought is a compound concept few drought definitions are examined together with the drought indices. As any classification the presented categories have got their limitation but the hope is that as wide review is given as it is possible using mainly meteorological data and information.

  19. Role of surface characteristics in urban meteorology and air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Sailor, D.J.

    1993-08-01

    Urbanization results in a landscape with significantly modified surface characteristics. The lower values of reflectivity to solar radiation, surface moisture availability, and vegetative cover, along with the higher values of anthropogenic heat release and surface roughness combine to result higher air temperatures in urban areas relative to their rural counterparts. Through their role in the surface energy balance and surface exchange processes, these surface characteristics are capable of modifying the local meteorology. The impacts on wind speeds, air temperatures, and mixing heights are of particular importance, as they have significant implications in terms of urban energy use and air quality. This research presents several major improvements to the meteorological modeling methodology for highly heterogeneous terrain. A land-use data-base is implemented to provide accurate specification of surface characteristic variability in simulations of the Los Angeles Basin. Several vegetation parameterizations are developed and implemented, and a method for including anthropogenic heat release into the model physics is presented. These modeling advancements are then used in a series of three-dimensional simulations which were developed to investigate the potential meteorological impact of several mitigation strategies. Results indicate that application of moderate tree-planting and urban-lightening programs in Los Angeles may produce summertime air temperature reductions on the order of 4{degree}C with a concomitant reduction in air pollution. The analysis also reveals several mechanisms whereby the application of these mitigation strategies may potentially increase pollutant concentrations. The pollution and energy use consequences are discussed in detail.

  20. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, N.; Sillmann, J.; Schnell, J. L.; Rust, H. W.; Butler, T.

    2016-02-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8 h average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  1. Intercomparison of mesoscale meteorological models for precipitation forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, E.; Cosma, S.; Benoit, R.; Binder, P.; Buzzi, A.; Kaufmann, P.

    In the framework of the RAPHAEL EU project, a series of past heavy precipitation events has been simulated with different meteorological models. Rainfall hindcasts and forecasts have been produced by four models in use at various meteorological services or research centres of Italy, Canada, France and Switzerland. The paper is focused on the comparison of the computed precipitation fields with the available surface observations. The comparison is carried out for three meteorological situations which lead to severe flashflood over the Toce-Ticino catchment in Italy (6599 km2) or the Ammer catchment (709 km2) in Germany. The results show that all four models reproduced the occurrence of these heavy precipitation events. The accuracy of the computed precipitation appears to be more case-dependent than model-dependent. The sensitivity of the computed rainfall to the boundary conditions (hindcast v. forecast) was found to be rather weak, indicating that a flood forecasting system based upon a numerical meteo-hydrological simulation could be feasible in an operational context.

  2. Examining the Role of Meteorological Conditions and Throughfall Drop Sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, S.; Levia, D. F., Jr.; Nanko, K.

    2015-12-01

    The partitioning of incident precipitation by a forest canopy into throughfall and stemflow varies as a function of meteorological conditions, tree species, leaf morphology and surface roughness, among other factors. Nanko et al (2015) examined the throughfall drop size signature of precipitation events relative to changes in leaf canopy state of deciduous forests. However, little work has been done to quantify the influence of meteorological variables (air temperature, wind speed, wind direction, rainfall intensity and duration) on drop size among discrete rain events. To quantify individual throughfall drops, a laser disdrometer gauge was deployed below an observed drip point under a Liriodendron tulipifera L. (yellow poplar) tree, in northeastern Maryland, USA. Based on events > 5mm rainfall, more than 850,000 individual throughfall droplets have been analyzed from precipitation occurring between September 2013 and October 2014. Building on previous work, which has examined the substantial influence of canopy state over the drop size spectra, this work focuses on the impact of inter-event variability in meteorological conditions and their differential effects on maximum drop size and throughfall depth received. Preliminary statistical analyses indicate that wind speed, wind direction, and air temperature are the primary factors governing throughfall drop size distributions. Since these factors do not consistently influence throughfall drop size distributions in the same manner, further in-depth analyses will attempt to uncover the dynamic interplay among these mutually interacting factors. Results from this study are expected to increase our understanding of the rhythms and mechanisms of throughfall hotspot appearance and disappearance.

  3. Synoptic and meteorological drivers of extreme ozone concentrations over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otero, Noelia Felipe; Sillmann, Jana; Schnell, Jordan L.; Rust, Henning W.; Butler, Tim

    2016-04-01

    The present work assesses the relationship between local and synoptic meteorological conditions and surface ozone concentration over Europe in spring and summer months, during the period 1998-2012 using a new interpolated data set of observed surface ozone concentrations over the European domain. Along with local meteorological conditions, the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on surface ozone is addressed through a set of airflow indices computed with a novel implementation of a grid-by-grid weather type classification across Europe. Drivers of surface ozone over the full distribution of maximum daily 8-hour average values are investigated, along with drivers of the extreme high percentiles and exceedances or air quality guideline thresholds. Three different regression techniques are applied: multiple linear regression to assess the drivers of maximum daily ozone, logistic regression to assess the probability of threshold exceedances and quantile regression to estimate the meteorological influence on extreme values, as represented by the 95th percentile. The relative importance of the input parameters (predictors) is assessed by a backward stepwise regression procedure that allows the identification of the most important predictors in each model. Spatial patterns of model performance exhibit distinct variations between regions. The inclusion of the ozone persistence is particularly relevant over Southern Europe. In general, the best model performance is found over Central Europe, where the maximum temperature plays an important role as a driver of maximum daily ozone as well as its extreme values, especially during warmer months.

  4. William Russ Pugh's remarkable life: natural scientist, innovative anaesthetist and founding member of the Royal Society of Tasmania.

    PubMed

    Paull, J D

    2011-07-01

    While well known in anaesthetic circles for being the first to provide ether anaesthesia for a surgical procedure in June 1847 in Launceston, Tasmania, William Russ Pugh's achievements in the field of natural history are less well known. He personally assisted Count Peter de Strzelecki in the chemical analysis of Australian coal and mineral samples and provided the laboratory space and equipment. His analytic skills were utilised by coroners in cases of poisoning. He was consulted about a ship's cargo which threatened to spontaneously combust in Launceston's port. He was a founding member of the Tasmanian Society and subsequently of the Royal Society of Tasmania. He made many presentations on geology, zoology, botany, mineralogy and meteorology to meetings of both Societies. These scientific interests may have provided the knowledge and motivation which encouraged Pugh to proceed so confidently with the introduction of ether anaesthesia.

  5. Meteorological factors for PM10 concentration levels in Northern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santurtún, Ana; Mínguez, Roberto; Villar-Fernández, Alejandro; González Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Zarrabeitia, María Teresa

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM) is made up of a mixture of solid and aqueous species which enter the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural pathways. The levels and composition of ambient air PM depend on the climatology and on the geography (topography, soil cover, proximity to arid zones or to the coast) of a given region. Spain has particular difficulties in achieving compliance with the limit values established by the European Union (based on recommendations from the World Health Organization) for particulate matter on the order of 10 micrometers of diameter or less (PM10), but not only antropogenical emissions are responsible for this: some studies show that PM10 concentrations originating from these kinds of sources are similar to what is found in other European countries, while some of the geographical features of the Iberian Peninsula (such as African mineral dust intrusion, soil aridity or rainfall) are proven to be a factor for higher PM concentrations. This work aims to describe PM10 concentration levels in Cantabria (Northern Spain) and their relationship with the following meteorological variables: rainfall, solar radiation, temperature, barometric pressure and wind speed. Data consists of daily series obtained from hourly data records for the 2000-2010 period, of PM10 concentrations from 4 different urban-background stations, and daily series of the meteorological variables provided by Spanish National Meteorology Agency. The method used for establishing the relationships between these variables consists of several steps: i) fitting a non-stationary probability density function for each variable accounting for long-term trends, seasonality during the year and possible seasonality during the week to distinguish between work and weekend days, ii) using the marginal distribution function obtained, transform the time series of historical values of each variable into a normalized Gaussian time series. This step allows using consistently time series

  6. Simulating the effect of meteorological variability on a lake ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frassl, M. A.; Schlabing, D.; Eder, M. M.; Rothhaupt, K.-O.; Rinke, K.

    2012-04-01

    Water temperature is a main driver of phytoplankton development. On the one hand, temperature directly affects cell metabolism. On the other hand, the hydrodynamic regime with annual cycles of stratification and mixis affects the light and nutrient supply of the algae and thus governs cardinal events of phytoplankton development. This could be the timing of the spring bloom or the maximum biomass attained. However, the response of lake ecosystems dynamics to a changing climate is not only linked to a rising temperature, but also to inter-annual and -seasonal meteorological variability. Ecological models have proven to provide a useful tool for quantifying effects of a changing climate on lake ecosystems. Especially lake models are convenient for climate change studies as the meteorological input data directly drive the hydrodynamics of the lake, which, in turn, govern ecosystem dynamics. To account for the effect of rising temperature and increased variability, different meteorological time series are needed. A Vector-Autoregressive Weathergenerator is able to provide reliable time-series that sustain dependencies between different meteorological variables. Furthermore, it offers the possibility to run Monte Carlo simulations with past climatic conditions in comparison to scenarios of possible future climatic conditions. It thus provides a tool for both, including statistical properties of meteorological data and assessing uncertainties inherent in deterministic models. In this study, we applied a one-dimensional hydrodynamic-ecological lake model (DYRESM-CAEDYM) to a large monomictic lake. We ran Monte Carlo simulations with four different "what-if" scenarios (unchanged climate, increased mean temperature, higher variability and the combination of higher temperature and variability) and analysed changes in water temperature and cardinal events in phytoplankton dynamics. A detailed study on the hydrodynamic response of Lake Constance to climate change is presented

  7. Science, Society, and Social Networking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, K. S.; Lohwater, T.

    2009-12-01

    The increased use of social networking is changing the way that scientific societies interact with their members and others. The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) uses a variety of online networks to engage its members and the broader scientific community. AAAS members and non-members can interact with AAAS staff and each other on AAAS sites on Facebook, YouTube, and Twitter, as well as blogs and forums on the AAAS website (www.aaas.org). These tools allow scientists to more readily become engaged in policy by providing information on current science policy topics as well as methods of involvement. For example, members and the public can comment on policy-relevant stories from Science magazine’s ScienceInsider blog, download a weekly policy podcast, receive a weekly email update of policy issues affecting the scientific community, or watch a congressional hearing from their computer. AAAS resource websites and outreach programs, including Communicating Science (www.aaas.org/communicatingscience), Working with Congress (www.aaas.org/spp/cstc/) and Science Careers (http://sciencecareers.sciencemag.org) also provide tools for scientists to become more personally engaged in communicating their findings and involved in the policy process.

  8. Mobilising Data in a Knowledge Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessels, Bridgette; Finn, Rachel; Wadhwa, Kush; Bigagli, Lorenzo; Nativi, Stefano; Noorman, Merel

    2016-04-01

    We address how the open data movement is fostering change in institutions, in data, and in social participation in the mobilisation of knowledge society. The idea of a knowledge society has been raised over the last two decades but the transition to such as society has not been realised. Up to the present time, discussion about a knowledge society have largely focused on a knowledge economy and information society rather than a mobilisation to a knowledge society. These debates have, however, taken place before the rise of open data and big data and the development of an open data movement. We consider the role of the open data movement in fostering transformation to a knowledge society. The characteristics of the open data movement that include the strong conviction of the value of open data for society, the attention to the institutional aspects of making data open in an inclusive way, the practical focus on the technological infrastructure are key in mobilising a knowledge society. At the heart of any mobilisation is an emerging open data ecosystem and new ways of producing and using data - whether 'born digital' data, digitised data or big data - and how that data, when made openly available, can be used in a knowledgeable way by societal actors.

  9. Children's rights, parents' prerogatives, and society's obligations.

    PubMed

    Westman, J C

    1999-01-01

    The thesis of this article is that parents do not need specifically defined rights. They have prerogatives that flow from the right of their children to nurturing and protective parenting. The idea of individual rights springs from the vulnerability of human beings in the face of stronger forces. The most vulnerable individuals are children. For this reason, human rights ought to begin with the rights of children in our society and in their families. This article discusses individual rights, society's expectations of parents and children, parental prerogatives and liabilities, parenthood as a developmental stage in the life cycle, parenthood as the foundation of society, and society's obligation to support parenthood. PMID:10422355

  10. Numerical simulation of a meteorological regime of Pontic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toropov, P.; Silvestrova, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Black Sea Coast of Caucasus is one of priority in sense of meteorological researches. It is caused both strategic and economic importance of coast, and current development of an infrastructure for the winter Olympic Games «Sochi-2014». During the winter period at the Black Sea Coast of Caucasus often there are the synoptic conditions leading to occurrence of the dangerous phenomena of weather: «northeast», ice-storms, strong rains, etc. The Department of Meteorology (Moscow State University) throughout 8 years spends regular measurements on the basis of Southern Department of Institute of Oenology of the Russian Academy of Sciences in July and February. They include automatically measurements with the time resolution of 5 minutes in three points characterizing landscape or region (coast, steppe plain, top of the Markothsky ridge), measurements of flux of solar radiation, measurements an atmospheric precipitation in 8 points, which remoteness from each other - 2-3 km. The saved up material has allowed to reveal some features of a meteorological mode of coast. But an overall objective of measurements - an estimation of quality of the numerical forecast by means of «meso scale» models (for example - model WRF). The first of numerical experiments by WRF model were leaded in 2007 year and were devoted reproduction of a meteorological mode of the Black Sea coast. The second phase of experiments has been directed on reproduction the storm phenomena (Novorossiysk nord-ost). For estimation of the modeling data was choused area witch limited by coordinates 44,1 - 44,75 (latitude) and 37,6 - 39 (longitude). Estimations are spent for the basic meteorological parameters - for pressure, temperature, speed of a wind. As earlier it was marked, 8 meteorological stations are located in this territory. Their values are accepted for the standard. Errors are calculated for February 2005, 2006, 2008, 2011 years, because in these periods was marked a strong winds. As the

  11. Influence of ambient meteorology on the accuracy of radiation measurements: insights from field and laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Sandro M.; Pietsch, Helga; Baumgartner, Dietmar J.; Rieder, Harald E.

    2016-04-01

    that precipitation (as simulated by spray-tests or observed under ambient conditions) significantly affects the thermal environment of the instruments and thus their stability. Statistical analyses during nighttime conditions showed that precipitation triggers zero offsets of 4 W/m2 or more, depending on the HV-system and prevailing ambient conditions (i.e., air temperature, wind), indicating a clear exceedance of BSRN targets. References: McArthur L. J. B.: World Climate Research Programme-Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) - Operations Manual Version 2.1, Experimental Studies Division, Atmospheric Environment Service, Downsview, Ontario, Canada, 2005. Olefs M., Baumgartner D. J., Obleitner F., Bichler C., Foelsche U., Pietsch H., Rieder H. E., Weihs P., Geyer F., Haiden T., Schöner W.: The Austrian radiation monitoring network ARAD - best practice and added value, Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 8: 10663-10710, 2015. Ohmura A., Dutton E. G., Forgan B., Frohlich C., Gilgen H., Hegner H., Heimo A., Stephens G. L., König-Langlo G., McArthur B., Müller G., Philipona R., Pinker R., Whitlock C. H., Dehne K., Wild M.: Baseline surface radiation network (bsrn/wcrp): new precision radiometry for climate research, Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 79(10): 2115-2136, 1998.

  12. Blue Hill Observatory Sunshine - Assessment of Climate Signals in the Longest Continuous Meteorological Record in North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magee, N. B.; Finocchio, P.; Melaas, E. K.; Iacono, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Blue Hill Meteorological Observatory occupies a unique place in the history of the American Meteorological Society and the development of atmospheric science. Through its 129-year history, the Observatory has been operated by founder Abbott Lawrence Rotch (1861-1912), Harvard University, and the National Weather Service, and it is presently run by the non-profit Blue Hill Observatory Science Center. While daily temperature and precipitation records are available through the National Climatic Data Center, they do not include the full record of sunshine duration data that were measured using a Campbell-Stokes sunshine recorder. We have recently digitized the Observatory's original daily sunshine archives, and now present the first full collection and analysis of sunshine records extending from 1889 to the present. This data set is unique and salient to modern climate research because the collection represents the earliest and longest continuous measurements of insolation outside of Western Europe. Together the record provides an unprecedented glimpse into regional climate features, as well as important links between global phenomena and regional climate. Analysis reveals long-term fluctuations of cloud-cover and solar radiation, including signals of regional industrialization, global-dimming, volcanic eruptions, the 11-Year Solar Cycle, and the El Niño Southern Oscillation. Shorter period fluctuations include evidence of an intricate annual pattern of sunshine duration and correlations with the Arctic Oscillation, North Atlantic Oscillation, and galactic cosmic rays.

  13. [Veterinary issues in the proceedings of the Amsterdam Agricultural Society, 1776-1832].

    PubMed

    Mathijsen, A H H M

    2006-01-01

    The Amsterdam Agricultural Society, founded in 1776, was created by six wealthy gentlemen, well known for the important positions in society held by them. They invested the money earned through trade among others in the acquisition of land, partially newly reclaimed in the surroundings of Amsterdam. As a consequence of the expansion of the population the profitability of agriculture had increased. The merchants and regents knew how to combine business with pleasure. In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, they have built about 500 country estates in the surroundings of Amsterdam. Besides the pleasures of country-life, the owners gained a practical interest in agriculture and animal husbandry. Missing practical knowledge in these fields themselves, they felt the moral obligation to contribute to the general welfare of the society by the promotion of new ideas or experiences gained by others. In the first volume of the Proceedings is stated: 'It is beyond question that chemistry, botany, meteorology and the Ars veterinaria are to be considered as the true fundaments of agricultural knowledge'. Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and, quite in conformity with the spirit of the time, the establishment of a society was thought to be the answer in order to bring agricultural and thus economical reform. The method used was copied from the learned societies. The members proposed subjects for prize competitions and judged the answers sent in. The crowned answers were the main, but not the only, contents of the Society's Proceedings. The paper analyses the membership (the number of ordinary members decreased from 70 at the start to 56; that of honorary members was stable at about 20; further there were a few orrespondents), and quantifies the distribution of articles in the Proceedings, devoted respectively to agricultural, veterinary and zootechnical subjects. In addition, a detailed list with commentary, of the veterinary and

  14. [Veterinary issues in the proceedings of the Amsterdam Agricultural Society, 1776-1832].

    PubMed

    Mathijsen, A H H M

    2006-01-01

    The Amsterdam Agricultural Society, founded in 1776, was created by six wealthy gentlemen, well known for the important positions in society held by them. They invested the money earned through trade among others in the acquisition of land, partially newly reclaimed in the surroundings of Amsterdam. As a consequence of the expansion of the population the profitability of agriculture had increased. The merchants and regents knew how to combine business with pleasure. In the second half of the 17th and the first half of the 18th century, they have built about 500 country estates in the surroundings of Amsterdam. Besides the pleasures of country-life, the owners gained a practical interest in agriculture and animal husbandry. Missing practical knowledge in these fields themselves, they felt the moral obligation to contribute to the general welfare of the society by the promotion of new ideas or experiences gained by others. In the first volume of the Proceedings is stated: 'It is beyond question that chemistry, botany, meteorology and the Ars veterinaria are to be considered as the true fundaments of agricultural knowledge'. Inspired by the ideas of the Enlightenment and, quite in conformity with the spirit of the time, the establishment of a society was thought to be the answer in order to bring agricultural and thus economical reform. The method used was copied from the learned societies. The members proposed subjects for prize competitions and judged the answers sent in. The crowned answers were the main, but not the only, contents of the Society's Proceedings. The paper analyses the membership (the number of ordinary members decreased from 70 at the start to 56; that of honorary members was stable at about 20; further there were a few orrespondents), and quantifies the distribution of articles in the Proceedings, devoted respectively to agricultural, veterinary and zootechnical subjects. In addition, a detailed list with commentary, of the veterinary and

  15. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  16. State and society in Asia.

    PubMed

    Mittal, S P

    1986-03-01

    India and China are the 2 most populous countries of the world; in the 1950s, both countries initiated a centrally planned program for rapid development within vastly differing political systems. China embarked India's policy encouraged only voluntary acceptance of family planning. In both cases, however, government involvement in population forms a part of comprehensive national planning. Both countries rely on a limited resource base and technological sophistication in order to alleviate mass poverty and misery. The political implications of population growth cannot be neatly isolated from those that are generated by social and economic forces of change in a society that is in a transitional stage of modernization and development. Development has not been an unmixed bleesing; population growth is one of its counterproductive outcomes. The development process has begun to draw increasing attention to hitherto neglected correlates of fertility decline, such as a reduction in infant mortality, universal education, improvement in women's status, and women's participation in economic activity outside the home, all of which eventually result in greater demand for family planning services. Both the Indian and Chinese models highlight the importance of taking the people into one's confidence; the response of the common people to official initiatives is critical in securing a reduction in fertility levels. China has adopted a 1 child family policy, yet it is unreasonable to expect that the Indian people would agree to a nationally prescribed family size norm below 2 children. The principal determinant of future population trends in both these countries is the course of their politics. The success of developing countries will be assured if the developed nations support their progress without being worried about their population growth, which is the result of their unavoidable failure to modernize their social and economic structures.

  17. Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society

    PubMed Central

    Klug, A.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction to Ageing: science, medicine, and society, the proceedings of a Discussion held at The Royal Society on 7 and 8 May 1997. Organized and edited by J. Grimley Evans, R. Holliday, T. B. L. Kirkwood, P. Laslett and L. Tyler.

  18. Behind the Banner: Whither the Learning Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Substantially different meanings are ascribed to the "learning society": (1) an educated society committed to citizenship and democracy; (2) a learning market preparing individuals for the competitive economy; and (3) a learning network supporting a lifelong approach. The learning market currently predominates, but it does not produce a learning…

  19. Autonomy and Liberalism in a Multicultural Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    That children should be educated to be ideal citizens, capable of making rational and informed decisions, has been proposed in cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to current societies. In particular, societies that favour liberalism preach the primacy of the individual autonomous citizen and a concomitant tolerance for others. In modern…

  20. State or Society? We Need Both

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Jane; Appleton, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    The concept of Big Society provides inspiration--working "bottom up" to promote "collective action, reciprocity and a new, more engaged relationship between local people and public services". With so much written about the theory of the Big Society, this seems like an ideal time to put a little more practical detail into the mix. The authors argue…

  1. America's Scholarly Societies Raise Their Flags Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMurtrie, Beth

    2000-01-01

    Reports that greater numbers of scholarly societies, though American in name, are increasingly international in membership and outlook. Suggests that this trend has been driven by the expanding global outlook of scholars, the collapse of communism, and growth of the Internet. Efforts to encourage local professional societies, fears of American…

  2. Recent Developments in Japan's Lifelong Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makino, Atsushi

    In the wake of economic and social change in Japan, several lifelong learning initiatives have been implemented. Structural changes such as internationalization, the coming of the information age, and the maturation of Japanese society caused the formerly homogeneous society to become more flexible, paving the way for lifelong learning. Additional…

  3. The Impact of Science on Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burke, James; And Others

    The impact of science on society is examined in this publication's coverage of a series of public lectures that commemorated the 25th anniversary of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Edited versions of four speeches are presented which address the impact of science on society from the time of humanity's first significant…

  4. Asia Society's Ongoing Chinese Language Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livaccari, Chris; Wang, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Asia Society remains committed to promoting the teaching and learning of Chinese in American schools as an integral part of the broader agenda of building students' global competency, the key goal of its Partnership for Global Learning. Under the leadership of Asia Society's new Vice President for Education Tony Jackson and with continuing…

  5. Tolerance and Education in Multicultural Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiater, Werner, Ed.; Manschke, Doris, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    This book examines the concepts of tolerance and education in multicultural societies. It focuses on different aspects of multiculturalism in these societies and considers possible conflicts and tensions as well as best-practice examples of co-existence among different cultural groups. Special emphasis is placed on educational issues and schools.…

  6. Knowledge Society Discourse and Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valimaa, Jussi; Hoffman, David

    2008-01-01

    The growing importance of knowledge, research and innovation are changing the social role of universities in the globalized world. One of the most popular concepts used to approach these changes in post-industrial and post-modern societies is the concept of "Knowledge Society". In this paper, we will analyse the roles higher education is expected…

  7. The Knowledge Society and Educational Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunker, Heinz

    2006-01-01

    This article examines diverse approaches claiming to analyse new modes of connecting knowledge and society: to depict the rise of the knowledge society or dealing with the social analysis of a new type of capitalism in the shape of informational capitalism. Against these backgrounds it highlights the possible role of education in overcoming the…

  8. Just Say Know? Schooling the Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willinsky, John

    2005-01-01

    This review essay challenges the practice of rooting educational theory in the economic assumptions that underlie the current championing of a knowledge society. It examines the approaches of three recent works: one book, Andy Hargreaves's Teaching in a Knowledge Society, and two edited collections, Barry Smith's Liberal Education in a Knowledge…

  9. ISAE- The International Society for Applied Ethology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The International Society for Applied Ethology (ISAE) was created in 1966 as the Society for Veterinary Ethology, with a primary membership of U.K.-based veterinarians. It quickly expanded to encompass researchers and clinicians working in all areas of applied animal behavior and all over the world....

  10. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  11. Lessons from the United Kingdom's Royal Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Henry Lee

    2010-01-01

    Celebrating its 350th anniversary as a scholarly association devoted to scientific pursuits, the Royal Society (UK), in March 2010, published "The Scientific Century: Securing Our Future Prosperity." In its report, the Royal Society argues against both the notion of withdrawing public investment from its world-class universities and the haphazard,…

  12. Teacher Education in a Global Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenlink, Patrick M.

    2008-01-01

    These are strange times for teacher education in a democratic society because globalization dominates economic, political, and technological interfaces among social institutions, nation-states, and the world. These are also dangerous times for teacher education in a democratic society because the expansion of neoliberalism as form of contemporary…

  13. The Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa.

    PubMed

    1985-03-01

    The text is provided of a policy statement on discrimination drawn up by members of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa at their annual meeting on 31 January 1985. The statement "recognizes and deplores the potentially harmful psychological effects" of discrimination, declares opposition to disparities in psychiatric services, and insists that Society members practice in compliance with internationally accepted ethical codes.

  14. Are Teachers Teaching for a Knowledge Society?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahlberg, Pasi; Boce, Elona

    2010-01-01

    Many countries whose economies are in transition have initiated ambitious education reforms intended to modernize their education systems to better respond to the needs of new social and economic realities. Albania is a good example of a society that is emerging from a closed planned socialist system and moving fast to an open society and…

  15. The Knowledge Society: Refounding the Socius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Beer, Carel S.

    The theme 'knowledge society' can have many meanings depending on who defines it. But can knowledge really define society since there are many other qualifying adjectives for society as well. What one should be preferred? Is knowledge a better qualifying term than risk, information, technology, or any other one? These questions need answers. There are many dreams and counter dreams regarding the ideal society. Some dreams, like Unesco's dream, focus on the self-evident issues in the knowledge society, or what people consider to be self-evident, or what is taken for granted, as if no exploration is required: issues like access to knowledge, knowledge management, knowledge sharing, etc. These dreams contain a threat despite promises of a future that cannot be achieved. Other dreams, like those of Ars Industrialis, dig deeper and look for founding possibilities, take nothing for granted, search for the original, the defining principles. These dreams bring hope and light, a future to live for.

  16. Meteorologically Driven Simulations of Dengue Epidemics in San Juan, PR

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Cory W.; Monaghan, Andrew J.; Hayden, Mary H.; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-01-01

    Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010–2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important

  17. Assimilation of Stratospheric Meteorological and Constituent Observations: A Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rood, Richard B.; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews the assimilation of meteorological and constituent observations of the stratosphere. The first efforts to assimilate observations into stratospheric models were during the early 1980s, and a number of research studies followed during the next decade. Since the launch of the Upper Atmospheric Research Satellite (UARS) in 1991, model-assimilated data sets of the stratospheric meteorological state have been routinely available. These assimilated data sets were critical in bringing together observations from the different instruments on UARS as well as linking UARS observations to measurements from other platforms. Using trajectory-mapping techniques, meteorological assimilation analyses are, now, widely used in the analysis of constituent observations and have increased the level of quantitative study of stratospheric chemistry and transport. During the 1990s the use of winds and temperatures from assimilated data sets became standard for offline chemistry and transport modeling. variability in middle latitudes. The transport experiments, however, reveal a set of shortcomings that become obvious as systematic errors are integrated over time. Generally, the tropics are not well represented, mixing between the tropics and middle latitudes is overestimated, and the residual circulation is not accurate. These shortcomings reveal underlying fundamental challenges related to bias and noise. Current studies using model simulation and data assimilation in controlled experimentation are highlighting the issues that must be addressed if assimilated data sets are to be convincingly used to study interannual variability and decadal change. observations. The primary focus has been on stratospheric ozone, but there are efforts that investigate a suite of reactive chemical constituents. Recent progress in ozone assimilation shows the potential of assimilation to contribute to the validation of ozone observations and, ultimately, the retrieval of ozone profiles from

  18. National Verification System of National Meteorological Center , China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jinyan; Wei, Qing; Qi, Dan

    2016-04-01

    Product Quality Verification Division for official weather forecasting of China was founded in April, 2011. It is affiliated to Forecast System Laboratory (FSL), National Meteorological Center (NMC), China. There are three employees in this department. I'm one of the employees and I am in charge of Product Quality Verification Division in NMC, China. After five years of construction, an integrated realtime National Verification System of NMC, China has been established. At present, its primary roles include: 1) to verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China; 2) to verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau; 3) to evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China. To verify official weather forecasting quality of NMC, China, we have developed : • Grid QPF Verification module ( including upascale) • Grid temperature, humidity and wind forecast verification module • Severe convective weather forecast verification module • Typhoon forecast verification module • Disaster forecast verification • Disaster warning verification module • Medium and extend period forecast verification module • Objective elements forecast verification module • Ensemble precipitation probabilistic forecast verification module To verify the official city weather forecasting quality of Provincial Meteorological Bureau, we have developed : • City elements forecast verification module • Public heavy rain forecast verification module • City air quality forecast verification module. To evaluate forecasting quality for each forecasters in NMC, China, we have developed : • Off-duty forecaster QPF practice evaluation module • QPF evaluation module for forecasters • Severe convective weather forecast evaluation module • Typhoon track forecast evaluation module for forecasters • Disaster warning evaluation module for forecasters • Medium and extend period forecast evaluation module The further

  19. Meteorological Observations for Renewable Energy Applications at Site 300

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Alai, M; Myers, K

    2011-10-26

    In early October 2010, two Laser and Detection Ranging (LIDAR) units (LIDAR-96 and LIDAR-97), a 3 m tall flux tower, and a 3 m tall meteorological tower were installed in the northern section of Site 300 (Figure 1) as a first step in development of a renewable energy testbed facility. This section of the SMS project is aimed at supporting that effort with continuous maintenance of atmospheric monitoring instruments capable of measuring vertical profiles of wind speed and wind direction at heights encountered by future wind power turbines. In addition, fluxes of energy are monitored to estimate atmospheric mixing and its effects on wind flow properties at turbine rotor disk heights. Together, these measurements are critical for providing an accurate wind resource characterization and for validating LLNL atmospheric prediction codes for future renewable energy projects at Site 300. Accurate, high-resolution meteorological measurements of wind flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) and surface-atmosphere energy exchange are required for understanding the properties and quality of available wind power at Site 300. Wind speeds at heights found in a typical wind turbine rotor disk ({approx} 40-140 m) are driven by the synergistic impacts of atmospheric stability, orography, and land-surface characteristics on the mean wind flow in the PBL and related turbulence structures. This section of the report details the maintenance and labor required in FY11 to optimize the meteorological instruments and ensure high accuracy of their measurements. A detailed look at the observations from FY11 is also presented. This portion of the project met the following milestones: Milestone 1: successful maintenance and data collection of LIDAR and flux tower instruments; Milestone 2: successful installation of solar power for the LIDAR units; and Milestone 3: successful implementation of remote data transmission for the LIDAR units.

  20. Meteorologically Driven Simulations of Dengue Epidemics in San Juan, PR.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-08-01

    Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important

  1. Meteorologically Driven Simulations of Dengue Epidemics in San Juan, PR.

    PubMed

    Morin, Cory W; Monaghan, Andrew J; Hayden, Mary H; Barrera, Roberto; Ernst, Kacey

    2015-08-01

    Meteorological factors influence dengue virus ecology by modulating vector mosquito population dynamics, viral replication, and transmission. Dynamic modeling techniques can be used to examine how interactions among meteorological variables, vectors and the dengue virus influence transmission. We developed a dengue fever simulation model by coupling a dynamic simulation model for Aedes aegypti, the primary mosquito vector for dengue, with a basic epidemiological Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) model. Employing a Monte Carlo approach, we simulated dengue transmission during the period of 2010-2013 in San Juan, PR, where dengue fever is endemic. The results of 9600 simulations using varied model parameters were evaluated by statistical comparison (r2) with surveillance data of dengue cases reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. To identify the most influential parameters associated with dengue virus transmission for each period the top 1% of best-fit model simulations were retained and compared. Using the top simulations, dengue cases were simulated well for 2010 (r2 = 0.90, p = 0.03), 2011 (r2 = 0.83, p = 0.05), and 2012 (r2 = 0.94, p = 0.01); however, simulations were weaker for 2013 (r2 = 0.25, p = 0.25) and the entire four-year period (r2 = 0.44, p = 0.002). Analysis of parameter values from retained simulations revealed that rain dependent container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the wetter 2010 and 2011 years, while human managed (i.e. manually filled) container habitats were more prevalent in best-fitting simulations during the drier 2012 and 2013 years. The simulations further indicate that rainfall strongly modulates the timing of dengue (e.g., epidemics occurred earlier during rainy years) while temperature modulates the annual number of dengue fever cases. Our results suggest that meteorological factors have a time-variable influence on dengue transmission relative to other important

  2. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied individuals on the…

  3. FSO and radio link attenuation: meteorological models verified by experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brazda, Vladimir; Fiser, Ondrej; Svoboda, Jaroslav

    2011-09-01

    Institute of Atmospheric Physics of Czech Academy measures atmospheric attenuation on 60 m experimental FSO link on 830 and 1550 nm for more than three years. Visibility sensors and two 3D sonic anemometers on both transmitting and receiving site, rain gauge and many sensors enabling the refractivity index computation are spaced along the optical link. Meteorological visibility, wind turbulent energy, sonic temperature, structure index and rain rate are correlated with measured attenuation. FSO link attenuation dependence on the above mentioned parameters is analyzed. The paper shows also basic statistical behavior of the long-term FSO signal level and also the simulation of hybrid link techniques.

  4. Preliminary meteorological results on Mars from the Viking 1 lander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Greene, G. C.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.; Chamberlain, T. E.; Cole, H. L.; Dutton, R. G.; Simon, W. E.

    1976-01-01

    The results from the meteorology instruments on the Viking 1 lander are presented for the first 4 sols of operation. The instruments are working satisfactorily. Temperatures fluctuated from a low of 188 K to an estimated maximum of 244 K. The mean pressure is 7.65 millibars with a diurnal variation of amplitude 0.1 millibar. Wind speeds averaged over several minutes have ranged from essentially calm to 9 meters per second. Wind directions have exhibited a remarkable regularity which may be associated with nocturnal downslope winds and gravitational oscillations, or to tidal effects of the diurnal pressure wave, or to both.

  5. Synchronous meteorological satellite system description document, volume 4. [ground station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lahzun, J.

    1972-01-01

    The command and data acquisition (CDA) station for the Synchronous Meteorological Satellite (SMS) program, located on the Eastern shore of Virginia, is described in terms of facility layout, ground support instrumentation, and capabilities. Data systems and equipment are described in detailed block diagrams. The major subsystems are identified and information on equipment specifications, frequency ranges, and data processing format is given. Automatic picture transmission, data utilization stations, data collection platforms, and the various communication links from the CDA station to the SMS spacecraft are discussed.

  6. ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology Handbook - October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    MT Ritsche

    2008-10-30

    The ARM Mobile Facility Surface Meteorology station (AMF MET) uses mainly conventional in situ sensors to obtain 1-minute statistics of surface wind speed, wind direction, air temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, and rain-rate. Additional sensors may be added to or removed from the base set of sensors depending upon the deployment location, climate regime or programmatic needs. Additionally, sensor types may change depending upon the climate regime of the deployment. These changes/additions are noted in the Deployment Locations and History section.

  7. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report. First Quarter FY-05

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Wheeler, Mark; Lambert, Winifred; Case, Jonathan; Short, David

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2005 (October - December 2005). Tasks reviewed include: (1) Objective Lightning Probability Forecast: Phase I, (2) Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid, (3) Hail Index, (4) Stable Low Cloud Evaluation, (5) Shuttle Ascent Camera Cloud Obstruction Forecast, (6) Range Standardization and Automation (RSA) and Legacy Wind Sensor Evaluation, (7) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Optimization and Training Extension, and (8) User Control Interface for ARPS Data Analysis System (ADAS) Data Ingest

  8. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report Third Quarter FY-08

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Dreher, Joseph

    2008-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the third quarter of Fiscal Year 2008 (April - June 2008). Tasks reported on are: Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), Anvil Forecast Tool in AWIPS Phase II, Completion of the Edward Air Force Base (EAFB) Statistical Guidance Wind Tool, Volume Averaged Height Integ rated Radar Reflectivity (VAHIRR), Impact of Local Sensors, Radar Scan Strategies for the PAFB WSR-74C Replacement, VAHIRR Cost Benefit Analysis, and WRF Wind Sensitivity Study at Edwards Air Force Base

  9. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) Quarterly Report - Fourth Quarter FY-09

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the fourth quarter of Fiscal Year 2009 (July - September 2009). Tasks reports include: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool. Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting. Phase II, (4) Update and Maintain Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS), (5) Verify MesoNAM Performance (6) develop a Graphical User Interface to update selected parameters for the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLlT)

  10. High resolution meteorological modellingof the Inn Valley atmosphere, Part I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schicker, I.; Arnold, D.; Seibert, P.

    2009-09-01

    Orography and local meteorology play a major role in Alpine valleys, as they are linked with valley and slope wind systems, stagnation and recirculation, temperature inversions and turbulence. Thus, they have a strong influence of transport and dilution of pollutants in the valley, affecting human health, and sound propagation. Shallow stable layers at the valley floor and low wind speed conditions, especially in autumn and winter, trap pollutants and thus cause unfavourable dispersion conditions , possibly leading to exceedances of air pollution limits. Moreover, under certain synoptic conditions such as persistent high-pressure systems inversion conditions prevail for days. Emissions may accumulate in the valley from day to day and thus critical levels of pollutants may be reached. With the current computer capabilities, numerical meteorological models and particle dispersion models are powerful tools to investigate such situations and their impact on emission-side measures. However, alpine valleys and other complex topographical areas require very high resolutions to ensure accurate representation of the physical processes. Typically, the highest resolutions used nowadays in episodic simulations with models such as, e.g., RAMS, WRF, or MM5, are around 1 km. This still smooths the orography, cutting the peaks and raising the valley bottoms. In this work a comparison of the simulation of the valley atmosphere with two meteorological models, MM5 and WRF, with high horizontal (0.6 km to 0.2 km) and vertical resolutions (35 to 39 half-s levels) is carried out for selected scenarios in which levels of pollutants exceeded air pollution limits. For a better representation of the orography SRTM 3" topography data is used in MM5 for resolutions below 1 km (~ resolution of SRTM 30" data), WRF will be tested only with SRTM 30" due to computational time constraints. The evolution of the valley atmosphere is studied using different PBL schemes available in the models as well

  11. Meteorologic factors and subjective sleep continuity: a preliminary evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, Juhi; Grandner, Michael; Crittenden, Crista; Smith, Michael T.; Perlis, Michael L.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken to evaluate whether environmental factors other than bright light influence the individual’s ability to initiate and maintain sleep. In the present analyses, nine meteorologic variables were evaluated for their possible relationship to self-reported sleep continuity in a sample of 43 subjects over a period of 105 days. In this preliminary analysis, high barometric pressure, low precipitation, and lower temperatures were significantly correlated with good sleep continuity. Interestingly, ambient light and lunar phase were not found to be strongly associated sleep diary measures.

  12. Operational problems experienced by single pilots in instrument meteorological conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weislogel, S.

    1981-01-01

    The development and implementation of a search strategy to extract pertinent reports from the Aviation Safety Reporting System-2 (ASRS-2) database are described. For any particular occurence to be pertinent to the study, it must have satisfied the following conditions: the aircraft must be of the type usually flown by a single pilot; operation on an IFR flight plan in instrument meteorological conditions; pilot experienced an operational problem. The occurances consist of reports by the pilot about his own performance, by the pilot about the system performance, or by an air traffic controller about a pilot's performance.

  13. Effects of meteorological factors on defensive behaviour of honey bees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Southwick, E. E.; Moritz, R. F. A.

    1987-09-01

    The defensive behaviour of honey bee colonies ( Apis mellifera L.) was quantitated in the field throughout a three month season by the use of a standardized test in which numbers of stings in a leather target were counted after single colonies were opened and exposed to alarm pheromone. The main results show how the defensive behaviour of honey bees is highly dependent on weather factors. Eliminating genetic variance, the following meteorological variables account for 92.4% of the variation in defensive behaviour: air temperature, solar radiation intensity, wind velocity, relative humidity, and barometric pressure.

  14. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.

    2002-01-01

    In response to recommendations from the National Aviation Weather Program Council, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is working with industry to develop an electronic pilot reporting capability for small aircraft. This paper describes the Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) sensor development effort. NASA is working with industry to develop a sensor capable of measuring temperature, relative humidity, magnetic heading, pressure, icing, and average turbulence energy dissipation. Users of the data include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) forecast modelers, air traffic controllers, flight service stations, airline operation centers, and pilots. Preliminary results from flight tests are presented.

  15. BOREAS TE-5 Surface Meteorological and Radiation Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Forrest G. (Editor); Curd, Shelaine (Editor); Ehleriinger, Jim; Brooks, J. Renee; Flanagan, Larry

    2000-01-01

    The BOREAS TE-5 team collected measurements in the NSA and SSA on gas exchange, gas composition, and tree growth. Measurements of meteorological data, including air and soil temperature, RH, and PPFD, were 30-minute intervals during the 1994 IFCs at various sites in the BOREAS NSA and SSA. The data are provided in tabular ASCII files. The data files are available on a CD-ROM (see document number 20010000884), or from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC).

  16. Study to determine cloud motion from meteorological satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, B. B.

    1972-01-01

    Processing techniques were tested for deducing cloud motion vectors from overlapped portions of pairs of pictures made from meteorological satellites. This was accomplished by programming and testing techniques for estimating pattern motion by means of cross correlation analysis with emphasis placed upon identifying and reducing errors resulting from various factors. Techniques were then selected and incorporated into a cloud motion determination program which included a routine which would select and prepare sample array pairs from the preprocessed test data. The program was then subjected to limited testing with data samples selected from the Nimbus 4 THIR data provided by the 11.5 micron channel.

  17. A graphics package for meteorological data, version 1.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorthi, Shrinivas; Suarez, Max; Phillips, Bill; Schemm, Jae-Kyung; Schubert, Siegfried

    1989-01-01

    A plotting package has been developed to simplify the task of plotting meteorological data. The calling sequences and examples of high level yet flexible routines which allow contouring, vectors and shading of cylindrical, polar, orthographic and Mollweide (egg) projections are given. Routines are also included for contouring pressure-latitude and pressure-longitude fields with linear or log scales in pressure (interpolation to fixed grid interval is done automatically). Also included is a fairly general line plotting routine. The present version (1.5) produces plots on WMS laser printers and uses graphics primitives from WOLFPLOT.

  18. Meteorologic factors and subjective sleep continuity: a preliminary evaluation.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Juhi; Grandner, Michael; Crittenden, Crista; Smith, Michael T; Perlis, Michael L

    2005-01-01

    Little research has been undertaken to evaluate whether environmental factors other than bright light influence the individual's ability to initiate and maintain sleep. In the present analyses, nine meteorologic variables were evaluated for their possible relationship to self-reported sleep continuity in a sample of 43 subjects over a period of 105 days. In this preliminary analysis, high barometric pressure, low precipitation, and lower temperatures were significantly correlated with good sleep continuity. Interestingly, ambient light and lunar phase were not found to be strongly associated sleep diary measures. PMID:15316762

  19. The determination of surface albedo from meteorological satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    A surface albedo was determined from visible data collected by the NOAA-4 polar orbiting meteorological satellite. To filter out the major cause of atmospheric reflectivity, namely clouds, techniques were developed and applied to the data resulting in a map of global surface albedo. Neglecting spurious surface albedos for regions with persistent cloud cover, sun glint effects, insufficient reflected light and, at this time, some unresolved influences, the surface albedos retrieved from satellite data closely matched those of a global surface albedo map produced from surface and aircraft measurements and from characteristic albedos for land type and land use.

  20. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  1. Climate Literacy: Progress in AMS Climate Studies Undergraduate Course in Meteorology Program at Jackson State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    AMS Climate Studies is an introductory college-level course developed by the American Meteorological Society for implementation at undergraduate institutions nationwide and increasing involvement of under-represented groups The course places students in a dynamic and highly motivational educational environment where they investigate Earth's climate system using real-world environmental data. The AMS Climate Studies course package consists of a textbook, investigations manual, course website, and course management system-compatible files. Instructors can use these resources in combinations that make for an exciting learning experience for their students. The AMS Climate Studies Diversity Project Workshop participation is on a first-come, first-serve basis as determined by the date-of-receipt of the License Order Form. To grow AMS Diversity Programs to their fullest extent, institutions are encouraged to nominate course instructors who did not previously attend Diversity Project workshops. Until three months before the workshop, two-thirds of the workshop positions would be reserved for institutions new to AMS Diversity Projects. The AMS five day course implementation workshop was held in Washington, DC, during May 24-29, 2012. It covered essential course topics in climate science and global climate change, and strategies for course implementation. Talks would feature climate science and sustainability experts from Federal agencies and area research institutions, such as NASA, NOAA, University of Maryland, Howard University, George Mason University, and other Washington, DC, area institutions. The workshop would also include visits to NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and NOAA's Climate Prediction Center. JSU Meteorology Program will be offering AMS Climate Studies undergraduate course under MET 210: Climatology in spring 2014. AMS Climate Studies is offered as a 3 credit hour laboratory course with 2 lectures and 1 lab sessions per week. Although this course places

  2. Social Value Orientation and Capitalism in Societies

    PubMed Central

    Shahrier, Shibly; Kakinaka, Makoto

    2016-01-01

    Cooperation and competition are core issues in various fields, since they are claimed to affect the evolution of human societies and ecological organizations. A long-standing debate has existed on how social behaviors and preferences are shaped with culture. Considering the economic environment as part of culture, this study examines whether the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, called “capitalism,” affects the evolution of people’s social preferences and behaviors. To test this argument, we implemented field experiments of social value orientation and surveys with 1002 respondents for three different areas of Bangladesh: (i) rural, (ii) transitional and (iii) capitalistic societies. The main result reveals that with the evolution from rural to capitalistic societies, people are likely to be less prosocial and more likely to be competitive. In a transitional society, there is a considerable proportion of “unidentified” people, neither proself nor prosocial, implying the potential existence of unstable states during a transformation period from rural to capitalistic societies. We also find that people become more proself with increasing age, education and number of children. These results suggest that important environmental, climate change or sustainability problems, which require cooperation rather than competition, will pose more danger as societies become capitalistic. PMID:27792756

  3. Diffuse solar radiation and associated meteorological parameters in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacharya, A. B.; Kar, S. K.; Bhattacharya, R.

    1996-10-01

    Solar diffuse radiation data including global radiation, shortwave and longwave balances, net radiation and sunshine hours have been extensively analyzed to study the variation of diffuse radiation with turbidity and cloud discharges appearing in the form of atmospherics over the tropics. Results of surface radiation measurements at Calcutta, Poona, Delhi and Madras are presented together with some meteorological parameters. The monthly values of diffuse radiation and the monthly ratios of diffuse to global solar radiation have been examined, with a special emphasis in relation to the noise level of atmospherics at Calcutta in the very low frequency band. The results exhibit some definite seasonal changes which appear to be in close agreement with one another. Acknowledgements. We gratefully appreciate the on-line DMSP database facility at APL (Newell et al., 1991) from which this study has benefited greatly. We wish to thank E. Friis-Christensen for his encouragement and useful discussions. A. Y. would like to thank the Danish Meteorological Institute, where this work was done, for its hospitality during his stay there and the Nordic Baltic Scholarship Scheme for its financial support of this stay. Topical Editor K.-H. Glassmeier thanks M. J. Engebretson and H. Lühr for their help in evaluating this paper.--> Correspondence to: A. Yahnin-->

  4. How some nonmeteorological professionals view meteorology and weather forecasting.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoggins, J. R.; Vaughan, W. W.

    1971-01-01

    The results of a questionnaire designed to gather information on how nonmeteorological scientists and engineers view meteorology and weather forecasting are summarized in this paper. The respondents were from two organizations, Texas A & M University and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center, the first representing the academic community and the latter the engineering community. While there were some differences between the groups, in most cases answers expressed in the opinionnaire by the two groups were essentially identical. The results revealed the following: Approximately three-fourths of the respondents use meteorological data and/or weather forecasts in their profession; the meaning of probability forecasts is very unclear with only 13% indicating the correct answer; television is the main source of weather information; approximately half of the respondents had never heard of the Global Atmospheric Research Program; and the opinion was almost unanimous that satellites had contributed significantly to weather observations and/or forecasts. Also, the results indicated a number of other ?problem' areas where some improvements are desired.

  5. Variation in chemical wet deposition with meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raynor, Gilbert S.; Hayes, Janet V.

    Analysis of hourly sequential precipitation samples collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory over a 4-y period shows systematic relationships between amounts of chemicals deposited in precipitation and meteorological conditions. Samples were taken by an automatic, sequential sampler and measured for pH, conductivity and the concentrations of major ions. Concurrent measurements and observations were made of the synoptic situation, precipitation type and rate, wind speed and direction, and temperature. Deposition per unit area was computed for subsets of the data classified by meteorological and time parameters. Results demonstrate that precipitation amount alone is not an adequate predictor of chemical wet deposition because of the variability of concentration in precipitation which is a complex function of emission rates and atmospheric processes. Results, however, document those conditions under which most material is deposited and those circumstances in which deposition occurs at the greatest rate. When classified by season, hydrogen and sulfate ion deposition are greatest in the summer when precipitation is lowest and least in the winter when precipitation is greatest. Nitrogen in both nitrate and ammonium has a similar but less extreme pattern. By synoptic type, all chemicals are deposited most heavily in warm front precipitation but the fraction of hydrogen and sulfate deposited in cold front and squall line hours is greater than the fraction of precipitation. All chemicals are deposited most heavily in steady rain when examined by precipitation type but thundershowers deposit chemicals of anthropogenic origin in amounts disproportionate to precipitation amounts. Results are also presented from data classified by other parameters.

  6. Sensitivity of surface meteorological analyses to observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, Daniel Paul

    A computationally efficient variational analysis system for two-dimensional meteorological fields is developed and described. This analysis approach is most efficient when the number of analysis grid points is much larger than the number of available observations, such as for large domain mesoscale analyses. The analysis system is developed using MATLAB software and can take advantage of multiple processors or processor cores. A version of the analysis system has been exported as a platform independent application (i.e., can be run on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh OS X desktop computers without a MATLAB license) with input/output operations handled by commonly available internet software combined with data archives at the University of Utah. The impact of observation networks on the meteorological analyses is assessed by utilizing a percentile ranking of individual observation sensitivity and impact, which is computed by using the adjoint of the variational surface assimilation system. This methodology is demonstrated using a case study of the analysis from 1400 UTC 27 October 2010 over the entire contiguous United States domain. The sensitivity of this approach to the dependence of the background error covariance on observation density is examined. Observation sensitivity and impact provide insight on the influence of observations from heterogeneous observing networks as well as serve as objective metrics for quality control procedures that may help to identify stations with significant siting, reporting, or representativeness issues.

  7. Lewis and Clark: Pioneering Meteorological Observers in the American West.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, Susan; Daniel, John S.

    2004-09-01

    The technical achievements of Lewis and Clark have been celebrated in fields ranging from cartography to zoology. As America commemorates the bicentennial of their historic journey across the continent, this paper shows that their meteorological data and personal weather-related observations also are worthy of celebration. While the primary goal of the mission, as described by then-President Jefferson to the Congress, was economic and strategic, both Jefferson and cocaptains Lewis and Clark showed an interest in and capacity for scientific understanding of the meteorology of the then-unknown West. The seasonal evolution and variability of temperatures recorded for the first time by Lewis and Clark on the High Plains can now be shown to be quite close to average, thanks to many decades of collection of modern data by the U.S. Cooperative Observer Network stations along their route. While the diets, lives, and experiences of these early explorers and their men were profoundly different from those of modern Americans, the climate that they documented for the first time with care and accuracy remains familiar to us today.

  8. Effects of valley meteorology on forest pesticide spraying

    SciTech Connect

    Whiteman, C.D.

    1990-04-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted this study for the Missoula Technology and Development Center of the US Department of Agriculture's Forest Service. The purpose of the study was to summarize recent research on valley meteorology during the morning transition period and to qualitatively evaluate the effects of the evolution of valley temperature inversions and wind systems on the aerial spraying of pesticides in National Forest areas of the western United States. Aerial spraying of pesticides and herbicides in forests of the western United States is usually accomplished in the morning hour after first light, during the period known to meteorologists as the morning transition period.'' This document describes the key physical processes that occur during the morning transition period on undisturbed days and the qualitative effects of these processes on the conduct of aerial spraying operations. Since the timing of valley meteorological events may be strongly influenced by conditions that are external to the valley, such as strong upper-level winds or the influence of clouds on the receipt of solar energy in the valley, some remarks are made on the qualitative influence of these processes. Section 4 of this report suggests ways to quantify some of the physical processes to provide useful guidance for the planning and conduct of spraying operations. 12 refs., 9 figs.

  9. Meteorological determinants of growing season onset in grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orescanin, B.; Denning, S.; Baker, I. T.; Hanan, N. P.

    2012-12-01

    The exchange of the trace gases between the land and atmosphere is highly influenced by vegetation. Therefore, the representation of phenological properties in global carbon models plays a key role in understanding and predicting the global carbon cycle. Phenological parameters such as Leaf Area Index (LAI) and fraction of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (fPAR) are often calculated or estimated based on remote sensing measurements, which can be biased by clouds, aerosols, or snow. Alternatively, we can prognose vegetation phenology through the use of models that predict vegetation status based on meteorological conditions. Here our goal is to provide better understanding of carbon dynamics as a function of phenological parameters and their dependence on meteorological forcing and also in the future we plan to estimate these parameters using data assimilation methodology. We evaluate phenological characteristics and their influence on carbon dynamics at Kruger National Park grassland site. Modeled carbon flux, as a function of prognosed phenological state is confronted with data from flux tower. By re-evaluating and better adjusting specific contributors to the growth season index (GSI) equation, we develop better understanding for prognostic phenology. These differences in phenology are reflected in modeled fluxes of energy, moisture, and carbon.

  10. Meteorological tsunamis along the East Coast of the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabinovich, A.

    2012-12-01

    Tsunami-like intense sea level oscillations are common along the East Coast of the United States. They are generated by various types of atmospheric disturbances, including hurricanes, frontal passages, tornados, trains of atmospheric gravity waves, pressure jumps, squalls, and gales, that each set up a local, time-limited barotropic response in the affected body of water. These meteorologically induced waves have the same temporal and spatial scales as their seismically generated counterparts and inflict comparable destructions. Observed around the globe, these devastating waves are known locally as "abiki" in Nagaski Bay (Japan), "rissaga" in Spain, "šćiga" along the Croation Coast bordering the Adriatic Sea, "milghuba" in Malta, and "marrobbio" in Italy. Collectively, they may be considered as "meteorological tsunamis" or "meteotsunamis." The updated NOAA tide gauge network with 1 min sampling enabled us to examine resonant amplifications of specific events observed in 2007-2012 and physical properties of meteotsunamis impacting the United States East Coast in general. Of particular interest and focus was the "derecho" event of June 29 - July 2, 2012.

  11. Tropospheric Airborne Meteorological Data Reporting (TAMDAR) Sensor Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daniels, Taumi S.; Tsoucalas, George; Anderson, Mark; Mulally, Daniel; Moninger, William; Mamrosh, Richard

    2004-01-01

    One of the recommendations of the National Aviation Weather Program Council was to expand and institutionalize the generation, dissemination, and use of automated pilot reports (PIREPS) to the full spectrum of the aviation community, including general aviation. In response to this and other similar recommendations, NASA initiated cooperative research into the development of an electronic pilot reporting capability (Daniels 2002). The ultimate goal is to develop a small low-cost sensor, collect useful meteorological observations below 25,000 ft., downlink the data in near real time, and use the data to improve weather forecasts. Primary users of the data include pilots, who are one targeted audience for the improved weather information that will result from the TAMDAR data. The weather data will be disseminated and used to improve aviation safety by providing pilots with enhanced weather situational awareness. In addition, the data will be used to improve the accuracy and timeliness of weather forecasts. Other users include air traffic controllers, flight service stations, and airline weather centers. Additionally, the meteorological data collected by TAMDAR is expected to have a significant positive impact on forecast accuracy for ground based applications.

  12. Meteorological variables and bacillary dysentery cases in Changsha City, China.

    PubMed

    Gao, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Ding, Guoyong; Liu, Qiyong; Zhou, Maigeng; Li, Xiujun; Jiang, Baofa

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association between meteorological-related risk factors and bacillary dysentery in a subtropical inland Chinese area: Changsha City. The cross-correlation analysis and the Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average with Exogenous Variables (ARIMAX) model were used to quantify the relationship between meteorological factors and the incidence of bacillary dysentery. Monthly mean temperature, mean relative humidity, mean air pressure, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature were significantly correlated with the number of bacillary dysentery cases with a 1-month lagged effect. The ARIMAX models suggested that a 1°C rise in mean temperature, mean maximum temperature, and mean minimum temperature might lead to 14.8%, 12.9%, and 15.5% increases in the incidence of bacillary dysentery disease, respectively. Temperature could be used as a forecast factor for the increase of bacillary dysentery in Changsha. More public health actions should be taken to prevent the increase of bacillary dysentery disease with consideration of local climate conditions, especially temperature.

  13. Comparison of Savannah River Site`s meteorological databases

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, A.H.

    1993-07-01

    A five-year meteorological database from the 61-meter, H-Area tower for the period 1987--1991 was compared to an earlier database for the period 1982--1986. The amount of invalid data for the newer 87--91 database was one third that for the earlier database. The data recovery percentage for the last four years of the 87-91 database was well above 90%. Considerable effort was necessary to fill in for missing data periods for the newer database for the H-Area tower. Therefore, additional databases that have been prepared for the remaining SRS meteorological towers have had missing and erroneous data flagged, but not replaced. The F-Area tower`s database was used for cross-comparison purposes because of its proximity to H Area. The primary purpose of this report is to compare the H-Tower databases for 82-86 and 87-91. Statistical methods enable the use of probability statements to be made concerning the hypothesis of no differences between the distributions of the two time periods, assuming each database is a random sample from its respective distribution. This assumption is required for the statistical tests to be valid. A number of statistical comparisons can be made between the two data sets, even though the 82-86 database exist only as distributions of frequency and mean speed.

  14. Education in an Information Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, John W.

    1999-04-01

    Last month's editorial pointed out that higher education may well change significantly as a result of the tremendous impact that information technologies are having on society. It quoted a white paper (1) by Russell Edgerton, Director of the Education Program of the Pew Charitable Trusts. Edgerton argued that higher education is currently failing to meet three challenges: to provide higher quality education; to reduce costs; and to regain its former stature as an important player in shaping public policy. Edgerton recommended that the Pew Trusts should encourage colleges and universities to set more ambitious goals for undergraduate education, to enter the public arena and play a major role in the reform of K-12 education, and to develop an academic profession interested in working toward these goals. Four new aims for undergraduate education were identified: "encouraging institutions to take learning seriously, encouraging faculty to take pedagogy seriously, demonstrating that technology can be used to reduce costs as well as to enhance learning, and developing new incentives for continuous quality improvement." One wonders why institutions of higher education should need to be encouraged toward goals that seem obviously congruent with their mission and self interest, but today's colleges and universities seem more likely to respond to outside offers of funding than to develop their own plans of action. As members of the faculty of such institutions, it behooves us to consider what some of those outside influences are likely to be and what effects they are likely to have on us, on our institutions, and on our students. Higher education is seen as a growth market by Michael Dolence and Donald Norris (2). In 1995 they projected that in five years there would be an increase of 20 million full-time equivalent enrollments in the U.S. and more than 100 million world wide. However, this growth was not projected to be traditional, on-campus students. Most was expected to

  15. Meteorological risks as drivers of innovation for agroecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. The MERINOVA project research hypothesis is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management which is being tested using a "chain of risk" approach. The major objectives are to (1) assess the probability of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions; (2) analyse the extreme events impact of on agro-ecosystems using process-based bio-physical modelling methods; (3) identify the most vulnerable agro-ecosystems using fuzzy multi-criteria and spatial analysis; (4) uncover innovative risk management and adaptation options using actor-network theory and economic modelling; and, (5) communicate to research, policy and practitioner communities using web-based techniques. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual rainfall maxima based on location-, scale- and shape-parameters that determine the centre of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Likewise the distributions of consecutive rainy days, rainfall deficits and extreme 24-hour rainfall were modelled. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels resulted in maps of extreme precipitation, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was determined using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenological models, a soil water balance, crop growth and environmental models. 20-year return values were derived for frost, heat stress, drought, waterlogging and field access during different sensitive stages for different arable crops. Extreme yield values were detected from detrended long term arable yields and relationships were found with soil moisture conditions, heat stress or other meteorological variables during the

  16. Meteorological risks as drivers of innovation for agroecosystem management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, Anne; Van de Vyver, Hans; Zamani, Sepideh; Curnel, Yannick; Planchon, Viviane; Verspecht, Ann; Van Huylenbroeck, Guido

    2015-04-01

    Devastating weather-related events recorded in recent years have captured the interest of the general public in Belgium. The MERINOVA project research hypothesis is that meteorological risks act as drivers of environmental innovation in agro-ecosystem management which is being tested using a "chain of risk" approach. The major objectives are to (1) assess the probability of extreme meteorological events by means of probability density functions; (2) analyse the extreme events impact of on agro-ecosystems using process-based bio-physical modelling methods; (3) identify the most vulnerable agro-ecosystems using fuzzy multi-criteria and spatial analysis; (4) uncover innovative risk management and adaptation options using actor-network theory and economic modelling; and, (5) communicate to research, policy and practitioner communities using web-based techniques. Generalized Extreme Value (GEV) theory was used to model annual rainfall maxima based on location-, scale- and shape-parameters that determine the centre of the distribution, the deviation of the location-parameter and the upper tail decay, respectively. Likewise the distributions of consecutive rainy days, rainfall deficits and extreme 24-hour rainfall were modelled. Spatial interpolation of GEV-derived return levels resulted in maps of extreme precipitation, precipitation deficits and wet periods. The degree of temporal overlap between extreme weather conditions and sensitive periods in the agro-ecosystem was determined using a bio-physically based modelling framework that couples phenological models, a soil water balance, crop growth and environmental models. 20-year return values were derived for frost, heat stress, drought, waterlogging and field access during different sensitive stages for different arable crops. Extreme yield values were detected from detrended long term arable yields and relationships were found with soil moisture conditions, heat stress or other meteorological variables during the

  17. Hydro-meteorological evaluation of downscaled global ensemble rainfall forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaborit, Étienne; Anctil, François; Fortin, Vincent; Pelletier, Geneviève

    2013-04-01

    Ensemble rainfall forecasts are of high interest for decision making, as they provide an explicit and dynamic assessment of the uncertainty in the forecast (Ruiz et al. 2009). However, for hydrological forecasting, their low resolution currently limits their use to large watersheds (Maraun et al. 2010). In order to bridge this gap, various implementations of the statistic-stochastic multi-fractal downscaling technique presented by Perica and Foufoula-Georgiou (1996) were compared, bringing Environment Canada's global ensemble rainfall forecasts from a 100 by 70-km resolution down to 6 by 4-km, while increasing each pixel's rainfall variance and preserving its original mean. For comparison purposes, simpler methods were also implemented such as the bi-linear interpolation, which disaggregates global forecasts without modifying their variance. The downscaled meteorological products were evaluated using different scores and diagrams, from both a meteorological and a hydrological view points. The meteorological evaluation was conducted comparing the forecasted rainfall depths against nine days of observed values taken from Québec City rain gauge database. These 9 days present strong precipitation events occurring during the summer of 2009. For the hydrologic evaluation, the hydrological models SWMM5 and (a modified version of) GR4J were implemented on a small 6 km2 urban catchment located in the Québec City region. Ensemble hydrologic forecasts with a time step of 3 hours were then performed over a 3-months period of the summer of 2010 using the original and downscaled ensemble rainfall forecasts. The most important conclusions of this work are that the overall quality of the forecasts was preserved during the disaggregation procedure and that the disaggregated products using this variance-enhancing method were of similar quality than bi-linear interpolation products. However, variance and dispersion of the different members were, of course, much improved for the

  18. The first President of the Royal Society.

    PubMed

    Fara, Patricia

    2003-12-01

    Few people know the name of the Royal Society's first President, even though he features prominently in Thomas Sprat's famous allegorical frontispiece. In promotional images, his individual identity is irrelevant for proclaiming the Society's allegiance to Francis Bacon and commitment to experimental investigation. By contrast, William Brouncker's name does appear on Peter Lely's large portrait, which hung at the Royal Society. Brouncker was a gifted mathematician as well as a conscientious administrator, and Lely's portrait reproduces the diagram of one of his innovative algebraic proofs. PMID:14652036

  19. Sexism and gender inequality across 57 societies.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Mark J

    2011-11-01

    Theory predicts that individuals' sexism serves to exacerbate inequality in their society's gender hierarchy. Past research, however, has provided only correlational evidence to support this hypothesis. In this study, I analyzed a large longitudinal data set that included representative data from 57 societies. Multilevel modeling showed that sexism directly predicted increases in gender inequality. This study provides the first evidence that sexist ideologies can create gender inequality within societies, and this finding suggests that sexism not only legitimizes the societal status quo, but also actively enhances the severity of the gender hierarchy. Three potential mechanisms for this effect are discussed briefly.

  20. Effects of Extreme Climate on Mediterranean Societies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xoplaki, Elena

    2009-04-01

    Climate Extremes During Recent Millennia and Their Impact on Mediterranean Societies; Athens, Greece, 13-16 September 2008; Climatic extremes in the past few thousand years have severely affected societies throughout the Mediterranean region and have changed the outcome of historical events in some instances. Climatic extremes—droughts, floods, prolonged cold and heat—affect society in a variety of ways, operating through famine, disease, and social upheaval. These topics were discussed at an interdisciplinary symposium at the National and Kapodistrian University, in Greece, that brought together climatologists, paleoclimatologists, anthropologists, geologists, archaeologists, and historians working in the greater Mediterranean region.