Science.gov

Sample records for 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

  1. 2003-04 Accountability Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Washington state operating budget requires the Higher Education Coordinating Board (HECB) to set biennial performance targets for each public baccalaureate institution and to review each institution's performance annually thereafter. This report compares 2003-04 academic year performance against those targets, as well as against baseline data…

  2. Parents Returning to Work: Evaluation of Grant Recipient Outcomes 2004-05, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Kellock, Peter; Burke, Gerald

    2007-01-01

    The Parents Returning to Work Program (PRTW) is a Victorian government initiative which commenced in 2003. It provides grants to assist eligible parents who wish to return to paid employment after a period of caring for children to participate in training that will increase their work skills and job prospects. This evaluation aimed to review the…

  3. Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide Listing: 1990-91 thru 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The nationwide Teacher Shortage Area (TSA) lists for the 2004-05 and 2005-06 school years have been completed and are listed by state in this document. A state that desires to propose teacher shortage areas for designation must submit the information required under the program regulations for the following programs: (1) Targeted teacher deferment…

  4. ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.; Young, Mark, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2005-06" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. It is the most comprehensive and thorough guide to current salaries in large U.S. and Canadian academic and research libraries, and is a valuable management and research tool. Data for 9,655…

  5. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Clemson University. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  6. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Columbia. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  7. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Medical University of South Carolina. Sector: Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  8. ARL Annual Salary Survey, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyrillidou, Martha, Ed.; Young, Mark, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    The "ARL Annual Salary Survey 2004-05" reports salary data for all professional staff working in Association of Research Libraries (ARL) libraries. The ARL represents the interests of libraries that serve major North American research institutions. The Association operates as a forum for the exchange of ideas and as an agent for…

  9. ARL Academic Law Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    This document presents results of the 2005-06 Association of Research Libraries (ARL) Law Library Statistics Questionnaire. Of 113 ARL university libraries, 75 responded to the survey. Results for each library are presented in the following data tables: (1) collections, including volumes in library, volumes added, monographs purchased, current…

  10. ARL Academic Health Sciences Library Statistics, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Mark, Comp.; Kyrillidou, Martha, Comp.

    2007-01-01

    Presented herein are data that describe collections, expenditures, personnel, and services in 65 medical libraries at Association of Research Libraries (ARL) member institutions throughout North America. In 2005-06, the reporting health sciences libraries held a median of 245,212 volumes, spent a total of $239,944,918, and employed 2,524 FTE…

  11. School Finance 2005?06. Budget Sets Off Public Battle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary

    2005-01-01

    For the past year, the issue of public education funding has been particularly contentious in California. A pitched political battle between education advocates and the administration of Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger began with a December 2004 preview of the governor's budget proposal for 2005?06. The fight continued through a spring filled with…

  12. Private and Nonpublic Schools: Elementary Enrollments, 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This listing contains 2003-04 elementary enrollments for private and nonpublic schools that reported to the Division of Data Services. Listed are the school name, location address and affiliation of each reporting school having elementary enrollments. These enrollments reflect private-pay students only. An asterisk (*) preceding the school name…

  13. Private and Nonpublic Schools: Secondary Enrollments, 2003-04.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2004-01-01

    This listing contains 2003-04 secondary enrollments for private and nonpublic schools that reported to the Division of Data Services. Listed are the school name, location address and affiliation of each reporting school having secondary enrollments. These enrollments reflect private-pay students only. An asterisk (*) preceding the school name…

  14. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Aiken. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  15. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Upstate. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  16. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Winthrop University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  17. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Francis Marion University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  18. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Coastal Carolina University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  19. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. College of Charleston. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  20. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. Lander University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  1. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Beaufort. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  2. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. The Citadel. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  3. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. South Carolina State University. Sector: Four-Year Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  4. Survey of dental student financial assistance, 2003-04.

    PubMed

    Chmar, Jacqueline E; Weaver, Richard G; Valachovic, Richard W

    2005-11-01

    The Survey of Dental Student Financial Assistance reports data collected by the American Dental Education Association on financial assistance to dental students in the academic year 2003-04. Over 90 percent of students at the fifty-one responding dental schools received financial assistance in the form of loans, grants, scholarships and/or work-study programs, with students receiving an average of 43,191 dollars per year. As tuition and fees rose 21.4 percent over the past two years, financial assistance rose 23.1 percent. Both continue to increase at a rate greater than inflation. The primary source of financial assistance was in the form of loans, accounting for nearly 90 percent of the reported financial assistance. Most of the remaining assistance was in the form of obligated or unobligated grants and scholarships, with an increasing share attributable to grants/scholarships with obligations following graduation. As the price of higher education increases, reliance on financial assistance continues to increase, and students graduate with an increasing amount of debt in real and constant dollars.

  5. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Academic Year Report: 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Academic Year Report 2005-06 provides a snapshot of funding, facilities, staffing, and enrollments in community and technical colleges in the past academic year. The report also describes key measures of student outcomes and addresses the most frequently asked questions related to expenditures, personnel and students. Additional demographic…

  6. The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges, Spring 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Lesley

    2006-01-01

    New Jersey's urban--or "Abbott"--schools have improved at the preschool and elementary school level, but lag when it comes to middle and high school performance. These are the key findings of an Abbott Indicators Project report entitled, "The Abbott Districts in 2005-06: Progress and Challenges." The report was prepared by…

  7. State Education Indicators with a Focus on Title I: 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Andra; Blank, Rolf K.; Toye, Carla; Petermann, Adam

    2007-01-01

    "State Education Indicators with a Focus on Title I: 2003-04" is the ninth in a series of reports designed to provide: (1) consistent, reliable indicators to allow analysis of trends for each state over time; (2) high quality, comparable state data; and (3) indicator formats designed for use by a diverse audience. Since its inception,…

  8. Differential Item Functioning Analysis of the 2003-04 NHANES Physical Activity Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Yong; Zhu, Weimo

    2011-01-01

    Using differential item functioning (DIF) analyses, this study examined whether there were any DIF items in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) physical activity (PA) questionnaire. A subset of adult data from the 2003-04 NHANES study (n = 3,083) was used. PA items related to respondents' occupational, transportation,…

  9. Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses school fall Enrollment of Montana based on race/ethnicity for the 2003-2004 school year. Sections include: (1) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity Overview; and (2) Montana School Fall Enrollment by Race/Ethnicity-2003-04 School Year. Fall enrollment data are collected by school, grade, gender, and race/ethnicity…

  10. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations…

  11. Changes in the Characteristics, Services, and Performance of Preschoolers with Disabilities from 2003-04 to 2004-05. Wave 2 Overview Report from the Pre-Elementary Education Longitudinal Study (PEELS). NCSER 2008-3011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Elaine; Daley, Tamara; Shimshak, Amy; Riley, Jarnee; Keller, Brad; Jenkins, Frank; Markowitz, Joy; Rosenquist, Celia

    2008-01-01

    PEELS involves a nationally representative sample of children, 3 to 5 years of age when they entered the study, with diverse disabilities who are receiving preschool special education services in a variety of settings. Topics covered in the report include declassification (children leaving special education), reclassification (movement from one…

  12. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Lancaster. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  13. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Salkehatchie. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  14. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Union. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  15. 2004-05 Performance Year Ratings Impacting Fiscal Year 2005-06. University of South Carolina Sumter. Sector: Two-Year Institutions--Branches of the University of SC

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This series of documents contains performance scoring information for 2004-2005 for individual institutions of higher education in South Carolina. This information is used in establishing 2005-2006 fiscal year allocations. Data includes: (1) Degrees Awarded; (2) Enrollment; (3) Average SAT score; (4) Faculty; (5) Tuition; and (6) Financial…

  16. Hong Kong domestic health spending: financial years 1989/90 to 2005/06.

    PubMed

    Tin, K Y K; Tsoi, P K O; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Lo, S V

    2010-02-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2005/06, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider, and function on an annual basis. In fiscal year 2005/06, total health expenditure was HK$71 557 million. In real terms, it grew 6.5% per annum on average throughout the study period, whereas gross domestic product grew 4.1%, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.1% in 2005/06. This increase was largely funded by public spending, which rose 8.2% per annum on average in real terms, compared with 5.1% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40.2% to 51.6% of total health expenditure during the period. Public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2005/06, whereas private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share (34.5%), followed by employer-provided group medical benefits (7.5%), privately purchased insurance (5.1%), and other private sources (1.3%). Of the HK$71 557 million total health expenditure in 2005/06, HK$68 810 million (96.2%) was on current expenditure and HK$2746 million (3.8%) on capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share (67.3%) and were made up of ambulatory services (35.7%), in-patient services (27.7%), day patient hospital services (3.4%), and home care (0.6%). The second largest share was spending on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10.8%). In terms of health care providers, hospitals (44.0%) accounted for the largest share of total health expenditure in 2005/06, followed by providers of ambulatory health care (31.4%). We observed a system-wide trend towards service consolidation at institutions (as opposed to free-standing ambulatory clinics, most of which are staffed by solo practitioners). Not taking capital expenses

  17. Physician acceptance of new Medicare patients stabilizes in 2004-05.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Peter; Staiti, Andrea; Ginsburg, Paul B

    2006-01-01

    Despite an earlier Medicare payment rate reduction, the proportion of U.S. physicians accepting Medicare patients stabilized in 2004-05, with nearly three-quarters saying their practices were open to all new Medicare patients, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). In 2004-05, 72.9 percent of physicians reported accepting all new Medicare patients, statistically unchanged from 71.1 percent in 2000-01. Only 3.4 percent of physicians reported that their practices were completely closed to new Medicare patients in 2004-05, also statistically unchanged from 2000-01. These trends indicate the decline in Medicare physician access observed between 1996-97 and 2000-01 leveled off in 2004-05. In fact, Medicare beneficiaries' access to primary care physicians increased between 2000-01 and 2004-05, reversing an earlier decline. Among privately insured patients, trends in physician access are similar to those for Medicare patients, suggesting that overall health system dynamics have played a larger role in physician decisions about accepting Medicare patients than have Medicare payment policies.

  18. Physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of Sturgeon Lake, Goodhue County, Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Sanocki, Christopher A.; Montz, Gary R.

    2005-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Prairie Island Indian Community and the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources, conducted a study of Sturgeon Lake (a backwater lake in Navigation Pool 3 of the Mississippi River) during 2003-04 to describe the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the lake. Riparian and shoreline areas surrounding Sturgeon Lake consist primarily of deciduous tree and shrub cover with minimal amounts of commercial or residential land use. Woody debris and aquatic vegetation are the major types of physical habitat suitable for fish and invertebrates. Among 10 bottom-sediment sampling sites, 24 organic wastewater compounds, 1 organochlorine pesticide metabolite (p,p’DDE), and total polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were detected in the bottom sediments of Sturgeon Lake. The most prevalent class of compounds detected were polyaromatic hydrocarbons. Other classes of compounds detected include sterols, disinfectants, plastic components, alkylphenols, and fragrances. Three compounds detected (bisphenol A, benzo[a]pyrene, and triclosan) are considered endocrine disrupting compounds. Twenty-one and 49 invertebrate taxa were identified from 10 bottom-sediment and 6 woody-debris/vegetation samples, respectively. Most of the taxa were Diptera in the family Chironomidae. The most common invertebrate in terms of density in bottom-sediment samples was the burrowing mayfly (Hexagenia sp.). Trichoptera in the families Hydropsychidae or Polycentropodidae were common in most of the woody-debris samples. The presence of the Hexagenia larvae in samples indicates that the bottom sediments are stable and that dissolved oxygen concentrations in the lake do not drop to acute or sub-lethal anoxic conditions. Backwater lakes such as Sturgeon Lake are important areas of habitat for aquatic organisms along the Mississippi River, and this report provides baseline physical, chemical, and biological information that resource managers can

  19. Public, Private and Nonpublic Schools High School Graduates, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobek, Joanne R., Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This publication provides a compilation of statistical information covering Pennsylvania high school graduates in public, private and nonpublic schools for the 2004-05 school year. Information is provided on race/ethnicity, gender and intended post-high school activity of graduates, including those who are college-bound. Information is also…

  20. School-Based Health Centers: National Census School Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juszczak, Linda; Schlitt, John; Moore, Aisha

    2007-01-01

    The National Assembly on School-Based Health Care conducted the 2004-05 Census, the tenth count of school-based health centers (SBHCs) since 1986, to: (1) provide a better understanding of the role of SBHCs in meeting the needs of underserved children and adolescents; (2) collect up-to-date data on demographics, staffing services, operations,…

  1. School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04. Public-Use Data File Codebook. NCES 2007-333

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Izrael, David; deFriesse, Frederick A.

    2006-01-01

    The 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2004) public-use data file codebook contains a list of variables and information about the variables on the SSOCS:2004 public-use data file. Users are provided with weighted and unweighted frequencies for the categorical variables on the file and descriptive statistics for the continuous…

  2. Financial Aid at California Community Colleges: Pell Grants and Fee Waivers in 2003-04. MPR Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkner, Lutz; Woo, Jennie

    2008-01-01

    In 2003-04 over half a million students attending the 109 California community colleges received about one billion dollars in financial aid to help meet their college expenses. Nearly all of the aided students received Board of Governors Fee Waivers to cover their enrollment fees. Less than one-half of the aided students also received federal Pell…

  3. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2009-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia's Vancouver campus on the basis of a minimum 24 transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2003/04 through 2007/08 academic years. The report mines familiar ground--similar…

  4. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-345

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    This brief publication contains basic revenue and expenditure data, by state, for public elementary and secondary education for school year 2005-06. It contains state-level data on revenues by source and expenditures by function, including expenditures per pupil. It presents data from the School District Finance Survey for School Year 2005-06

  5. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Dzurisin, D.; Gardner, C.A.; Gerlach, T.M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Lisowski, M.; Major, J.J.; Malone, S.D.; Messerich, J.A.; Moran, S.C.; Pallister, J.S.; Qamar, A.I.; Schilling, S.P.; Vallance, J.W.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption. ??2006 Nature Publishing Group.

  6. Dynamics of seismogenic volcanic extrusion at Mount St Helens in 2004-05.

    PubMed

    Iverson, Richard M; Dzurisin, Daniel; Gardner, Cynthia A; Gerlach, Terrence M; LaHusen, Richard G; Lisowski, Michael; Major, Jon J; Malone, Stephen D; Messerich, James A; Moran, Seth C; Pallister, John S; Qamar, Anthony I; Schilling, Steven P; Vallance, James W

    2006-11-23

    The 2004-05 eruption of Mount St Helens exhibited sustained, near-equilibrium behaviour characterized by relatively steady extrusion of a solid dacite plug and nearly periodic shallow earthquakes. Here we present a diverse data set to support our hypothesis that these earthquakes resulted from stick-slip motion along the margins of the plug as it was forced incrementally upwards by ascending, solidifying, gas-poor magma. We formalize this hypothesis with a dynamical model that reveals a strong analogy between behaviour of the magma-plug system and that of a variably damped oscillator. Modelled stick-slip oscillations have properties that help constrain the balance of forces governing the earthquakes and eruption, and they imply that magma pressure never deviated much from the steady equilibrium pressure. We infer that the volcano was probably poised in a near-eruptive equilibrium state long before the onset of the 2004-05 eruption.

  7. Hong Kong's domestic health spending--financial years 1989/90 through 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Leung, G M; Tin, K Y K; Yeung, G M K; Leung, E S K; Tsui, E L H; Lam, D W S; Tsang, C S H; Fung, A Y K; Lo, S V

    2008-04-01

    This report presents the latest estimates of Hong Kong's domestic health spending between fiscal years 1989/90 and 2004/05, cross-stratified and categorised by financing source, provider and function on an annual basis. Total expenditure on health was HK$67,807 million in fiscal year 2004/05. In real terms, total expenditure on health showed positive growth averaging 7% per annum throughout the period covered in this report while gross domestic product grew at 4% per annum on average, indicating a growing percentage of health spending relative to gross domestic product, from 3.5% in 1989/90 to 5.2% in 2004/05. This increase was largely driven by the rise in public spending, which rose 9% per annum on average in real terms over the period, compared with 5% for private spending. This represents a growing share of public spending from 40% to 55% of total expenditure on health during the period. While public spending was the dominant source of health financing in 2004/05, private household out-of-pocket expenditure accounted for the second largest share of total health spending (32%). The remaining sources of health finance were employer-provided group medical benefits (8%), privately purchased insurance (5%), and other private sources (1%). Of the $67,807 million total health expenditure in 2004/05, current expenditure comprised $65,429 million (96%) while $2378 million (4%) were capital expenses (ie investment in medical facilities). Services of curative care accounted for the largest share of total health spending (67%) which were made up of ambulatory services (35%), in-patient curative care (28%), day patient hospital services (3%), and home care (1%). The next largest share of total health expenditure was spent on medical goods outside the patient care setting (10%). Analysed by health care provider, hospitals accounted for the largest share (46%) and providers of ambulatory health care the second largest share (30%) of total health spending in 2004/05. We

  8. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05.

    PubMed

    Yung, C F; Ramsay, M

    2016-08-18

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak.

  9. Estimating true hospital morbidity of complications associated with mumps outbreak, England, 2004/05

    PubMed Central

    Yung, CF; Ramsay, M

    2016-01-01

    Mumps outbreaks in highly vaccinated populations continue to be reported globally. Therefore, quantifying the burden of mumps morbidity accurately will be necessary to better assess the impact of mumps vaccination programmes. We aim to estimate the true morbidity resulting from mumps complications in terms of hospitalised orchitis, meningitis, oophoritis and pancreatitis in England during the outbreak in 2004/05. This outbreak in England led to a clear increase in hospitalisations coded to mumps for complications of orchitis in those born in the 1970s and 1980s and possibly for meningitis in those born in the 1980s. A simple statistical model, based on analysing time trends for diagnosed complications in hospital databases with routine laboratory surveillance data, found that the actual morbidity was much higher. There were 2.5 times (166 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1970s cohort and 2.0 times (708 cases) more mumps orchitis cases in the 1980s cohort than complications coded to mumps in hospital databases. Our study demonstrated that the mumps outbreak in England 2004/05 resulted in a substantial increase in hospitalised mumps complications, and the model we used can improve the ascertainment of morbidity from a mumps outbreak. PMID:27562958

  10. Extension of the validation of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for dc-GTX2,3: interlaboratory study.

    PubMed

    Ben-Gigirey, Begoña; Rodríguez-Velasco, María L; Gago-Martínez, Ana

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method(SM) 2005.06 for the determination of saxitoxin (STX)-group toxins in shellfish by LC with fluorescence detection with precolumn oxidation was previously validated and adopted First Action following a collaborative study. However, the method was not validated for all key STX-group toxins, and procedures to quantify some of them were not provided. With more STX-group toxin standards commercially available and modifications to procedures, it was possible to overcome some of these difficulties. The European Union Reference Laboratory for Marine Biotoxins conducted an interlaboratory exercise to extend AOAC Official Method 2005.06 validation for dc-GTX2,3 and to compile precision data for several STX-group toxins. This paper reports the study design and the results obtained. The performance characteristics for dc-GTX2,3 (intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision, recovery, and theoretical quantification limit) were evaluated. The mean recoveries obtained for dc-GTX2,3 were, in general, low (53.1-58.6%). The RSD for reproducibility (RSD(r)%) for dc-GTX2,3 in all samples ranged from 28.2 to 45.7%, and HorRat values ranged from 1.5 to 2.8. The article also describes a hydrolysis protocol to convert GTX6 to NEO, which has been proven to be useful for the quantification of GTX6 while the GTX6 standard is not available. The performance of the participant laboratories in the application of this method was compared with that obtained from the original collaborative study of the method. Intralaboratory and interlaboratory precision data for several STX-group toxins, including dc-NEO and GTX6, are reported here. This study can be useful for those laboratories determining STX-group toxins to fully implement AOAC Official Method 2005.06 for official paralytic shellfish poisoning control. However the overall quantitative performance obtained with the method was poor for certain toxins.

  11. Rapid liquid chromatography for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis using superficially porous chromatography with AOAC Official Method 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Turner, Andrew D

    2012-01-01

    The bioaccumulation of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, oysters, cockles, hard clams, razors, and king scallops is monitored in England, Scotland, and Wales by AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-with fluorescence detection (FLD). One of the commonly perceived disadvantages of using this method is the long turnaround time and low throughput in a busy laboratory environment. The chromatographic analysis of each sample typically utilizes a 15 min cycle time to achieve toxin oxidation product separation and column equilibration prior to subsequent analysis. A standard RP C18 analytical column, used successfully in recent years, achieves good separation with a long column lifetime. The analysis of a 40 sample qualitative screening batch takes approximately 18 h, including blanks, standards, and other QC samples. The availability of superficially porous column technology has offered the potential to reduce analysis time while retaining column performance on existing hardware. In this study, AOAC Official Method 2005.06 with LC-FLD was transferred to two different commercially available superficially porous columns, and the method performance characteristics were evaluated. Both columns separated all toxins adequately with cycle times less than half that of the existing method. Linearity for each toxin was acceptable up to two times the European maximum permitted limit of 800 microg di-HCl saxitoxin equivalent/kg flesh. LOD and LOQ values were substantially improved for the majority of toxins, with gonyautoxin 1&4 and neosaxitoxin showing up to a two- and fourfold improvement, respectively, depending on the column used. Quantification results obtained from parallel analysis of contaminated samples were acceptable on both columns. Comparative screen results gave a slight increase in the occurrence of contaminated samples, which was attributed to the improved detection limit for most toxins. Issues with rapidly increasing back pressure, however, were identified with both

  12. Influenza Vaccination Coverage During Pregnancy - Selected Sites, United States, 2005-06 Through 2013-14 Influenza Vaccine Seasons.

    PubMed

    Kerr, Stephen; Van Bennekom, Carla M; Mitchell, Allen A

    2016-12-09

    Seasonal influenza vaccine is recommended for all pregnant women because of their increased risk for influenza-associated complications. In addition, receipt of influenza vaccine by women during pregnancy has been shown to protect their infants for several months after birth (1). As part of its case-control surveillance study of medications and birth defects, the Birth Defects Study of the Slone Epidemiology Center at Boston University has recorded data on vaccinations received during pregnancy since the 2005-06 influenza vaccination season. Among the 5,318 mothers of infants without major structural birth defects (control newborns) in this population, seasonal influenza vaccination coverage was approximately 20% in the seasons preceding the 2009-10 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza season. During the 2009-10 influenza vaccination season, influenza vaccination coverage among pregnant women increased to 33%, and has increased modestly since then, to 41% during the 2013-14 season. Among pregnant women who received influenza vaccine during the 2013-14 season, 80% reported receiving their vaccine in a traditional health care setting, (e.g., the office of their obstetrician or primary care physician or their prenatal clinic) and 20% received it in a work/school, pharmacy/supermarket, or government setting. Incorporating routine administration of seasonal influenza vaccination into the management of pregnant women by their health care providers might increase coverage with this important public health intervention.

  13. Progress without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sabo, Don; Veliz, Phil

    2011-01-01

    This first-of-its-kind report on gender and high school sports participation, "Progress Without Equity: The Provision of High School Athletic Opportunity in the United States, by Gender 1993-94 through 2005-06," flows from an analysis of high schools that is unprecedented in its national and historical scope. It uses merged data from the Civil…

  14. Dual Credit in Oregon: An Analysis of Students Taking Dual Credit in High School in 2005-06 with Subsequent Performance in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Jonathan; North, Tom

    2008-01-01

    A dual credit course is a college/university level course that is taught at a high school, by a high school teacher, in partnership with a community college (CCWD) or Oregon University System (OUS) institution. Successful completion of a dual credit course counts as credit for both high school and college. In 2005-06, about 12,000 students took…

  15. Employees in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2005 and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-150

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Miller, Elise

    2007-01-01

    This report presents information from the Winter 2005-06 Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) web-based data collection. Tabulations represent data requested from all postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV federal student financial aid programs. The tables in this publication include data on the number of staff…

  16. The State of Charter Schools in Colorado, 2004-05: The Characteristics, Status, and Performance Record of Colorado Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeSchryver, Karen

    2006-01-01

    This report presents and analyzes data from the 2004-05 school year related to the characteristics of charter schools in Colorado, including student achievement and school performance. The purpose, methodology and growth of charter schools in the state is discussed, followed by an overview of the background and mandates of the Colorado Charter…

  17. How Segregated are Michigan's Schools? Changes in Enrollment from 1992-93 to 2004-05. Policy Report 27

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landauer-Menchik, Bettie

    2006-01-01

    A 2002 study, "Race in American Public Schools: Rapidly Resegregating School Districts," identified Michigan as the state with the most segregated schools in the nation. The present data brief looks at changes in the distribution of Michigan's African American students between 1992-93 and 2004-05 to determine if African American students…

  18. Trends in Campus Policing: A Comparison of the 1994-95 and 2004-05 BJS Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In 1995, to determine the nature of law enforcement services provided on college and university campuses, the Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) surveyed 4-year institutions of higher education with 2,500 or more students. An update to this original study covering the 2004-05 school year was recently completed, providing a unique opportunity to…

  19. Occurrence, distribution, loads, and yields of selected pesticides in the Little River basin, Kentucky, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.

    2006-01-01

    Water resources in the Little River Basin are potentially vulnerable to applications of pesticides associated with both agricultural and nonagricultural activities, because much of the basin is characterized by karst topography. Concerns about water quality resulting from pesticide use in karst areas and lack of data on concentrations of pesticides in surface water led to further investigation of water quality in the Little River Basin, which includes about 600 square miles in Christian and Trigg Counties and a portion of Caldwell County in western Kentucky. Water samples were collected in streams in the Little River Basin, Kentucky during 2003-04 as part of a study conducted in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Agriculture. The objectives of the study were to assess the occurrence and distribution of pesticides, to evaluate the spatial and seasonal variability of pesticides, and to evaluate loads and yields of selected pesticides in the basin. A total of 91 water samples was collected at 4 fixed-network sites from March through November 2003 and from February through November 2004. An additional 20 samples were collected at 5 synoptic-network sites within the same period. Twenty-four pesticides were detected of the 127 pesticides analyzed in the stream samples. Of the 24 detected pesticides, 15 were herbicides, 7 were insecticides, and 2 were fungicides. The most commonly detected pesticides-atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, and acetochlor-were those most heavily used on crops during the study. Atrazine and simazine were detected in 100 percent of all surface-water samples, and metolachlor and acetochlor were detected in more than 45 percent. The pesticide degradate, deethylatrazine, was detected in 100 percent of the samples. Only one nonagricultural herbicide, prometon, was detected in more than 50 percent of the samples. Diazinon, the most commonly detected insecticide, was found in 25 percent of all samples and was found at all sites except Casey

  20. Public School Teacher Autonomy in the Classroom across School Years 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2015-089

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2015-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief explores teacher autonomy in the classroom during the 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 school years. Using data from the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), the Statistics in Brief examines a construct of teacher autonomy based on teachers' responses to six questions regarding…

  1. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2003-04. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2006-329

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalton, Ben; Sable, Jennifer; Hoffman, Lee

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership, that is, the number of students enrolled at the beginning of the school year) for the 2003-04 school year in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the…

  2. Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia: 2003/04 to 2007/08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupp, Linda; Zajac, David

    2009-01-01

    This report provides a profile of undergraduate transfer students admitted to the University of Northern British Columbia from British Columbia colleges over the five-year fiscal period, 2003-04 to 2007-08 (Summer 2003 to Winter 2008). It includes a general profile of BC college transfer students, their academic performance while at UNBC, and a…

  3. An Interim Report on the Student Support Services Program: 2002-03 and 2003-04, with Select Data from 1998-2002

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yu; Chan, Tsze

    2007-01-01

    This report describes essential characteristics and key program outcome measures for the Student Support Services (SSS) program grantees and participants in reporting years 2002-03 and 2003-04. The SSS program is designed to increase college persistence and graduation rates for eligible students, increase the transfer rates of eligible students…

  4. Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States: 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-313

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strizek, Gregory A.; Pittsonberger, Jayme L.; Riordan, Kate E.; Lyter, Deanna M.; Orlofsky, Greg F.

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to give the reader an overview of the Schools and Staffing Survey(SASS) data for the school year 2003-04 through tables of estimates for public, private, and Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA)-funded schools and their staff. The tables contain estimates from schools, teachers, principals, districts, and school library media…

  5. Don't Blame Faculty for High Tuition. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehrenberg, Ronald G.

    2004-01-01

    By last spring, most faculty members at public institutions of higher education were justifiably pessimistic about their likely salary increases for the 2003-04 academic year. Many states were running large budget deficits for the second or third year in a row and no longer had reserves to draw upon to balance their budgets. These shortfalls…

  6. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey: School Year 2003-04. NCES 2006-324

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Thomas, Jane Moy; Shen, Quansheng

    2006-01-01

    The Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey Data provides information about schools such as: type of school (special education, vocational education, charter, magnet); students by grade, race/ethnicity and gender; free lunch eligibility; and classroom teachers. All data are for public elementary and secondary schools for the 2003-04

  7. Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, and School Districts: School Year 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-307

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Lee; Sable, Jennifer

    2006-01-01

    This report presents information about public elementary and secondary education for the 2003-04 school year. The data were provided by state education agencies through the Common Core of Data (CCD) survey system, a universe data collection that includes the 50 states, the District of Columbia, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Department of Defense…

  8. Frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A virus isolated from 2001-02 to 2004-05 in Nara Prefecture.

    PubMed

    Kitahori, Yoshiteru; Nakano, Mamoru; Inoue, Yumiko

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the frequency of amantadine-resistant influenza A viruses in Nara Prefecture during four epidemic seasons from 2001-02 to 2004-05. Point mutations within the M2 gene were identified using RT-PCR and DNA sequencing analysis. Five viruses (3.4%) with point mutation were observed from 145 strains analyzed. Three viruses (2.0%) possessed a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser to Asn), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 26 (CTT-->TTT, Leu to Phe), one virus (0.7%) showed a change at position 27 (GTT-->ATT, Val to Ile), and none showed a change at position 30. All of these changes were the transition type of mutation. These results indicated that the possible circulation of drug-resistant viruses to the community was not supported by the findings obtained during the 2004-05 season in Nara.

  9. Concentrations, and estimated loads and yields of nutrients and suspended sediment in the Little River basin, Kentucky, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crain, Angela S.

    2006-01-01

    Nutrients, primarily nitrogen and phosphorus compounds, naturally occur but also are applied to land in the form of commercial fertilizers and livestock waste to enhance plant growth. Concentrations, estimated loads and yields, and sources of nitrite plus nitrate, total phosphorus, and orthophosphate were evaluated in streams of the Little River Basin to assist the Commonwealth of Kentucky in developing 'total maximum daily loads' (TMDLs) for streams in the basin. The Little River Basin encompasses about 600 square miles in Christian and Trigg Counties, and a portion of Caldwell County in western Kentucky. Water samples were collected in streams in the Little River Basin during 2003-04 as part of a study conducted in cooperation with the Kentucky Department of Agriculture. A total of 92 water samples were collected at four fixed-network sites from March through November 2003 and from February through November 2004. An additional 20 samples were collected at five synoptic-network sites during the same period. Median concentrations of nitrogen, phosphorus, and suspended sediment varied spatially and seasonally. Concentrations of nitrogen were higher in the spring (March-May) after fertilizer application and runoff. The highest concentration of nitrite plus nitrate-5.7 milligrams per liter (mg/L)-was detected at the South Fork Little River site. The Sinking Fork near Cadiz site had the highest median concentration of nitrite plus nitrate (4.6 mg/L). The North Fork Little River site and the Little River near Cadiz site had higher concentrations of orthophosphate in the fall and lower concentrations in the spring. Concentrations of orthophosphate remained high during the summer (June-August) at the North Fork Little River site possibly because of the contribution of wastewater effluent to streamflow. Fifty-eight percent of the concentrations of total phosphorus at the nine sites exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency recommended maximum concentration limit of

  10. Ground-Water Levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    measurement because water levels in the well are often perturbed as a result of pumpage from nearby production wells and do not reflect baseline conditions within the aquifer.Twenty five wells were measured on a periodic or quarterly basis in 2004-05. These wells are completed in the glacial, Saginaw, and Marshall aquifers, and the Coldwater confining unit. Although each quarterly measurement only provides a “snapshot” water level (measured in feet below land surface), the data adequately define the generalized water-level trend in the aquifer near the well. Water levels in 15 quarterlymeasured wells had a net rise ranging from 0.20 to 1.31 ft for the period from January 2004 to December 2005, while water levels in 10 of the wells had a net decline ranging from 0.07 to 0.99 ft over the same period (fig. 3; table 1). Period-of-record (the time period when water levels have been measured by U.S. Geological Survey or their cooperators) minimum depths to water (high-water levels) were measured in March 2004 in two quarterly-measured wells completed in the Marshall aquifer in Lake and Hume Townships. Period-of-record maximum depths to water were measured in September 2005 in three wells completed in the Marshall aquifer near Bad Axe. Water levels in those three wells recovered about 3 to 5 ft between September and December 2005. No period-of-record minimum or maximum depths to water were measured for the period from January 2004 through December 2005 in wells completed in either the glacial and Saginaw aquifers, or the Coldwater confining unit. Hydrographs showing water levels measured in each well are presented for the 25 wells measured on a quarterly basis.Water-level trends measured for the period from January 2004 through December 2005 in other wells in Lower Michigan have similarities to those measured in Huron County wells. Several external factors influence water-level trends including proximity to nearby production wells, amount and timing of precipitation events

  11. Intermediate Trends in Math and Science Partnership-Related Changes in Student Achievement with Management Information System Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dimitrov, Dimiter M.

    2009-01-01

    This substudy in the evaluation design of the Math and Science Partnership (MSP) Program Evaluation examines student proficiency in mathematics and science for the MSPs' schools in terms of changes across three years (2003/04, 2004/05, and 2005/06) and relationships with MSP-related variables using Management Information System data with the…

  12. An Assessment of Hydrology, Fluvial Geomorphology, and Stream Ecology in the Cardwell Branch Watershed, Nebraska, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rus, David L.; Dietsch, Benjamin J.; Woodward, Brenda K.; Fry, Beth E.; Wilson, Richard C.

    2007-01-01

    An assessment of the 16.3-square-mile Cardwell Branch watershed characterized the hydrology, fluvial geomorphology, and stream ecology in 2003-04. The study - performed by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Lincoln, Nebraska, and the Lower Platte South Natural Resources District - focused on the 7.7-square-mile drainage downstream from Yankee Hill Reservoir. Hydrologic and hydraulic models were developed using the Hydrologic Modeling System (HEC-HMS) and River Analysis System (HEC-RAS) of the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Hydraulic Engineering Center. Estimates of streamflow and water-surface elevation were simulated for 24-hour-duration design rainstorms ranging from a 50-percent frequency to a 0.2-percent frequency. An initial HEC-HMS model was developed using the standardized parameter estimation techniques associated with the Soil Conservation Service curve number technique. An adjusted HEC-HMS model also was developed in which parameters were adjusted in order for the model output to better correspond to peak streamflows estimated from regional regression equations. Comparisons of peak streamflow from the two HEC-HMS models indicate that the initial HEC-HMS model may better agree with the regional regression equations for higher frequency storms, and the adjusted HEC-HMS model may perform more closely to regional regression equations for larger, rarer events. However, a lack of observed streamflow data, coupled with conflicting results from regional regression equations and local high-water marks, introduced considerable uncertainty into the model simulations. Using the HEC-RAS model to estimate water-surface elevations associated with the peak streamflow, the adjusted HEC-HMS model produced average increases in water-surface elevation of 0.2, 1.1, and 1.4 feet for the 50-, 1-, and 0.2-percent-frequency rainstorms, respectively, when compared to the initial HEC-HMS model. Cross-sectional surveys and field assessments conducted between

  13. Postsecondary Institutions in the United States: Fall 2005 and Degrees and Other Awards Conferred: 2004-05. First Look. NCES 2007-167

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.

    2006-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) fall 2005 collection, which included two survey components: Institutional Characteristics for the 2005-06 academic year, and Completions covering the period July 1, 2004, through June 30, 2005. These data were collected through the IPEDS…

  14. Increasing socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India: trends between 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Abhishek; Kumari, Divya; Singh, Aditya

    2015-10-01

    This article examines the trends and pattern in socioeconomic inequality in stunting, underweight and wasting among children aged <3 years in urban India over a 14-year period. We use three successive rounds of the National Family Health Survey data conducted during 1992-93, 1998-99 and 2005-06. The selected socioeconomic predictors are household wealth and mother's education level. We use principal component analysis to compute a separate wealth index for urban India for all three rounds of the survey. We have used descriptive statistics, concentration index and pooled logistic regression to analyse the data. The results show that between 1992-93 and 2005-06, the prevalence of childhood undernutrition has declined across household wealth quintiles and educational level of mothers. However, the pace of decline is much higher among the better-off socioeconomic groups than among the least-affluent groups. The result of pooled logistic regression analysis shows that the socioeconomic inequality in childhood undernutrition in urban India has increased over the study period. The salient findings of this study call for separate programmes targeting the children of lower socioeconomic groups in urban population of India.

  15. Organic compounds assessed in Chattahoochee River water used for public supply near Atlanta, Georgia, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, W. Brian; Younker, Cristal L.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program characterized the occurrence of 266 organic compounds in source water and finished water from the Chattahoochee River, which is the main water-supply source for the Atlanta metropolitan area. Source water is stream water collected at a surface-water intake prior to water treatment, and finished water is water that has passed through treatment processes prior to distribution. Samples were collected approximately monthly during 2004-05 and included 15 paired source-water and finished-water samples. Samples were collected during winter-spring high flow and summer-fall low flow, but storm events were not targeted during this Source Water-Quality Assessment (SWQA) study. Samples were analyzed for pesticides and degradates, gasoline hydrocarbons, solvents, disinfection by-products, personal care and domestic-use products, and other organic compounds. Community water systems are required to monitor regulated organic compounds under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1996 (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1998); however, most compounds included in this study are not regulated by Federal drinking-water standards (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2007a). The Chattahoochee River study is part of an ongoing NAWQA investigation of community water systems across the United States. Additional details about the national study are given in Carter and others (2007).

  16. Paralytic shellfish toxins in clinical matrices: Extension of AOAC official method 2005.06 to human urine and serum and application to a 2007 case study in Maine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeGrasse, Stacey; Rivera, Victor; Roach, John; White, Kevin; Callahan, John; Couture, Darcie; Simone, Karen; Peredy, Tamas; Poli, Mark

    2014-05-01

    Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP), a potentially fatal foodborne illness, is often diagnosed anecdotally based on symptoms and dietary history. The neurotoxins responsible for PSP, collectively referred to as the saxitoxins or paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs), are natural toxins, produced by certain dinoflagellates, that may accumulate in seafood, particularly filter-feeding bivalves. Illnesses are rare because of effective monitoring programs, yet occasional poisonings occur. Rarely are contaminated food and human clinical samples (e.g., urine and serum) available for testing. There are currently few methods, none of which are validated, for determining PSTs in clinical matrices. This study evaluated AOAC (Association of Analytical Communities) Official Method of Analysis (OMA) 2005.06. [AOAC Official Method 2005.06 Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning Toxins in Shellfish: Prechormatographic Oxidation and Liquid Chromatography with Fluorescence Detection. In Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International ], validated only for shellfish extracts, for its extension to human urine and serum samples. Initial assessment of control urine and serum matrices resulted in a sample cleanup modification when working with urine to remove hippuric acid, a natural urinary compound of environmental/dietary origin, which co-eluted with saxitoxin. Commercially available urine and serum matrices were then quantitatively spiked with PSTs that were available as certified reference materials (STX, dcSTX, B1, GTX2/3, C1/2, NEO, and GTX1/4) to assess method performance characteristics. The method was subsequently applied successfully to a PSP case study that occurred in July 2007 in Maine. Not only were PSTs identified in the patient urine and serum samples, the measured time series also led to the first report of human PST-specific urinary elimination rates. The LC-FD data generated from this case study compared remarkably well to results obtained using AOAC

  17. Inequities Persist for Women and Non-Tenure-Track Faculty. The Annual Report on the Economic Status of the Profession, 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Many faculty members were optimistic about their economic prospects for 2004-05. They saw signs of--or at least hope for--economic recovery all around and were ending a year in which overall average faculty salaries had grown by the smallest percentage in decades. Following the pattern of recent years, this annual report first examines the…

  18. A Profile of BC College Transfer Students Admitted to the University of British Columbia: 2000/01 to 2004/05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This report examines the demographics, performance, and success of students who were admitted to the University of British Columbia on the basis of transfer credits earned at a BC college during the five year period comprising the 2000/01 through 2004/05 academic years. Data are provided that indicates the number of transfer students, where they…

  19. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2004-05. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-335

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this publication is to provide basic descriptive information about the 100 largest school districts (ranked by student membership, that is, the number of students enrolled at the beginning of the school year) for the 2004-05 school year in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Bureau of Indian Education, the…

  20. Single-laboratory validation of a refined AOAC HPLC method 2005.06 for oysters, cockles, and clams in U.K. shellfish.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova-Dhanji, Monika; Norton, Deirdre M; Algoet, Myriam; Lees, David N

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, a refined HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 was developed and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) in mussels. A single-laboratory validation study of this method was undertaken here for the analysis of PSP toxins in oysters, cockles, clams, and razor clams. The method was characterized for selectivity, sensitivity, linearity, precision, repeatability, recovery, ruggedness, and uncertainty of measurement. Validation data were utilized to determine method performance characteristics for non-mussel bivalves for all commercially available certified reference toxins, extending the method to dcNEO and dcGTX2,3, where available. A period of parallel testing of oysters, cockles, and clams enabled a comparison of sample toxicities obtained using mouse bioassay (MBA) and HPLC methodologies, although only a very low number of PSP-positive samples were obtained through the United Kingdom official control monitoring program. Results from the MBA and HPLC methods were well-correlated for PSP-negative samples, but the low number of naturally contaminated PSP-positive samples has prevented any comparative statistical assessment of method performance for non-mussels between the two official methods. However, some evidence for potentially significant differences in total saxitoxin equivalents obtained by the two methods in some species has highlighted the need for further comparative testing in non-mussel samples to be conducted prior to implementation of the HPLC method in routine official control monitoring programs.

  1. Comparison of AOAC 2005.06 LC official method with other methodologies for the quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish species.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G; Rapkova, Monika; Higman, Wendy; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; van de Riet, Jeffrey; Gibbs, Ryan; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael; Lees, David N

    2011-01-01

    A refined version of the pre-column oxidation liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (ox-LC-FLD) official method AOAC 2005.06 was developed in the UK and validated for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in UK shellfish. Analysis was undertaken here for the comparison of PSP toxicities determined using the LC method for a range of UK bivalve shellfish species against the official European reference method, the PSP mouse bioassay (MBA, AOAC 959.08). Comparative results indicated a good correlation in results for some species (mussels, cockles and clams) but a poor correlation for two species of oysters (Pacific oysters and native oysters), where the LC results in terms of total saxitoxin equivalents were found to be on average more than double the values determined by MBA. With the potential for either LC over-estimation or MBA under-estimation, additional oyster and mussel samples were analysed using MBA and ox-LC-FLD together with further analytical and functional methodologies: a post-column oxidation LC method (LC-ox-FLD), an electrophysiological assay and hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometric detection. Results highlighted a good correlation among non-bioassay results, indicating a likely cause of difference was the under-estimation in the MBA, rather than an over-estimation in the LC results.

  2. Statewide Educational Accountability Under the No Child Left Behind Act: A Report on 2006 Amendments to State Plans. A Summary of State Requests in 2005-06 for Amendments to Their Educational Accountability Systems Under NCLB

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forte, Ellen; Erpenbach, William J.

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes requests submitted by states in 2005-06 to amend their educational accountability plans under the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) of 2001 as well as the related decisions of the U.S. Department of Education (ED). This fourth installment of the Council of Chief State School Officers' (CCSSO's) annual review of changes to…

  3. The Averaged Freshman Graduation Rate for Public High Schools from the Common Core of Data: School Years 2002-03 and 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-606rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seastrom, Marilyn; Hoffman, Lee; Chapman, Chris; Stillwell, Robert

    2006-01-01

    This report presents the averaged freshman graduation rate for public high school students for school years 2002-03 and 2003-04 based on data reported by state education agencies to the National Center for Education Statistics. Rates are included for most of the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and three other jurisdictions for both…

  4. Characteristics of Schools, Districts, Teachers, Principals, and School Libraries in the United States: 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey. E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-313 Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strizek, Gregory A.; Pittsonberger, Jayme L.; Riordan, Kate E.; Lyter, Deanna M.; Orlofsky, Greg F.; Gruber, Kerry

    2006-01-01

    This report is intended to give the reader an overview of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS) data for the school year 2003-04 through tables of estimates for public, private, and BIA-funded schools and their staff. The tables contain estimates from schools, teachers, principals, districts, and school library media centers for public, private,…

  5. Crime, Violence, Discipline, and Safety in U.S. Public Schools: Findings from the School Survey on Crime and Safety: 2003-04. First Look. NCES 2007-302

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerino, Paul; Hurwitz, Michael D.; Noonan, Margaret E.; Kaffenberger, Sarah M.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents findings on crime and violence in regular public schools in the United States, using data from the 2003--04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2004). First administered in the 1999--2000 school year, SSOCS provides information about school crime-related topics from the perspective of school administrators. Developed by…

  6. Results of analyses of the fungicide Chlorothalonil, its degradation products, and other selected pesticides at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern states, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, Elisabeth A.; Orlando, James L.; Battaglin, William A.; Sandstrom, Mark; Kuivila, Kathryn; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with the mission of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Toxic Substances Hydrology Program, a pesticide study was conducted during 2003-04 to determine the occurrence of the fungicide chlorothalonil and its degradation products at 22 surface-water sites in five Southern States. Water-quality samples were collected during the peanut-growing season (June-September) in 2003. During the peanut-growing season in 2004, samples were collected after large storms. An analytical method was developed at the USGS Organic Geochemistry Research Laboratory in Lawrence, Kansas, to measure chlorothalonil and its degradation products by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Chlorothalonil was detected in 4 of the 113 surface-water samples. The primary degradation product of chlorothalonil, 4-hydroxy-chlorothalonil, was detected in 26 of the 113 samples with concentrations ranging from 0.002 to 0.930 microgram per liter. The chlorothalonil degradation products, 1-amide-4-hydroxy-chorothalonil and 1,3-diamide-chlorothalonil, were detected in one water sample each at 0.020 and 0.161 microgram per liter, respectively. The USGS Methods and Research Development Group, Lakewood, Colorado, developed a custom method for chlorothalonil using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) in an effort to achieve a lower laboratory reporting level (LRL) than the USGS National Water-Quality Laboratory (NWQL) schedule 2060, which analyzes the compound chlorothalonil at a LRL of 0.035 ?g/L. The group succeeded in achieving a lower GC/MS reporting level of 0.01 ?g/L. Chlorothalonil was detected in 5 of 68 water samples analyzed using the custom GC/MS method, whereas chlorothalonil was detected in 2 of 21 water samples analyzed using NWQL schedule 2060. In addition to analysis of chlorothalonil and its degradation products, samples were analyzed using the USGS NWQL schedules 2001 and 2060 for about 114 pesticides and their degradation products. Samples also were analyzed for

  7. Integrating Radiometric, Geophysical and Thermal Signals of Volcanic Unrest and Eruption in 2005-06 at 9 deg 50'N EPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, K. H.; Tolstoy, M.; Fornari, D. J.; Dziak, R. P.; Soule, S. A.; Waldhauser, F.; von Damm, K. L.

    2008-12-01

    In 2005-06, volcanic eruptions at the East Pacific Rise near 9° 50'N produced extensive lava flows along 18 km of the ridge crest, impacting the local hydrothermal system and seafloor vent ecology. The timing and duration of the volcanic episode are constrained by ocean bottom seismograph data (from instruments deployed near the ridge axis between 9° 50'N and 51'N), regional, eastern equatorial Pacific hydro-acoustic data, a time series of in situ hydrothermal fluid temperature data, and high resolution 210Po-210Pb radiometric ages of newly erupted lavas. Each of these methods provide unambiguous signals of volcanic unrest in the same localized area of seafloor and over the same time frame, yet differ in detail as to when and where activity was most intense. We summarize these observations, and discuss how the important differences in spatial-temporal signals from these methods can be integrated to better understand the timing and dynamics of this volcanic episode. Lava ages indicate that the eruption initiated in late June/early July 2005 over most of the eruptive fissure system and culminated in Jan. 2006. ~80% of the lava volume is inferred to have erupted by Sept. 2005, based on geologic mapping and ages of samples collected from the lava flow field. By Oct. 2005 eruptive activity focused to one or two small fissure segments near 9° 50.4'N. Fluid temperatures measured at the M vent chimney (9° 50.6'N) were stable at ~360°C from Apr. 2004 to Aug. 2005, followed by several sharp ~50°C drops and rapid recoveries to ~360°C over the next few months, a subsequent nearly instantaneous fall to below detection limits (150°C) on 11 Jan. 2006, a sudden climb above ~360°C nearly two weeks later, and an increase to ~380°C on 1 Mar., after which recording ceased. Ocean bottom seismographs show a steady increase in seismicity over 2+ years leading to a period of intense tremor and seismic activity culminating on 22 Jan. 2006, followed by a rapid decline in

  8. Anthropogenic Organic Compounds in Source and Finished Groundwater of Community Water Systems in the Piedmont Physiographic Province, Potomac River Basin, Maryland and Virginia, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banks, William S.L.; Reyes, Betzaida

    2009-01-01

    A source- and finished-water-quality assessment of groundwater was conducted in the Piedmont Physiographic Province of Maryland and Virginia in the Potomac River Basin during 2003-04 as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This assessment used a two-phased approach to sampling that allowed investigators to evaluate the occurrence of more than 280 anthropogenic organic compounds (volatile organic compounds, pesticides and pesticide degradates, and other anthropogenic organic compounds). Analysis of waters from 15 of the largest community water systems in the study area were included in the assessment. Source-water samples (raw-water samples collected prior to treatment) were collected at the well head. Finished-water samples (raw water that had been treated and disinfected) were collected after treatment and prior to distribution. Phase one samples, collected in August and September 2003, focused on source water. Phase two analyzed both source and finished water, and samples were collected in August and October of 2004. The results from phase one showed that samples collected from the source water for 15 community water systems contained 92 anthropogenic organic compounds (41 volatile organic compounds, 37 pesticides and pesticide degradates, and 14 other anthropogenic organic compounds). The 5 most frequently occurring anthropogenic organic compounds were detected in 11 of the 15 source-water samples. Deethylatrazine, a degradate of atrazine, was present in all 15 samples and metolachlor ethanesulfonic acid, a degradate of metolachlor, and chloroform were present in 13 samples. Atrazine and metolachlor were present in 12 and 11 samples, respectively. All samples contained a mixture of compounds with an average of about 14 compounds per sample. Phase two sampling focused on 10 of the 15 community water systems that were selected for resampling on the basis of occurrence of anthropogenic organic compounds detected most

  9. Riparian and Associated Habitat Characteristics Related to Nutrient Concentrations and Biological Responses of Small Streams in Selected Agricultural Areas, United States, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zelt, Ronald B.; Munn, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    Physical factors, including both in-stream and riparian habitat characteristics that limit biomass or otherwise regulate aquatic biological condition, have been identified by previous studies. However, linking the ecological significance of nutrient enrichment to habitat or landscape factors that could allow for improved management of streams has proved to be a challenge in many regions, including agricultural landscapes, where many ecological stressors are strong and the variability among watersheds typically is large. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were sampled once during 2003-04 for an intensive ecological and nutrients study of small perennial streams in five contrasting agricultural landscapes across the United States to determine how biological communities and ecosystem processes respond to varying levels of nutrient enrichment. Nutrient concentrations were determined in stream water at two different sampling times per site and biological samples were collected once per site near the time of habitat characterization. Data for 141 sampling sites were compiled, representing five study areas, located in parts of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware and Maryland), Georgia, Indiana, Ohio, Nebraska, and Washington. This report examines the available data for riparian and associated habitat characteristics to address questions related to study-unit contrasts, spatial scale-related differences, multivariate correlation structure, and bivariate relations between selected habitat characteristics and either stream nutrient conditions or biological responses. Riparian and associated habitat characteristics were summarized and categorized into 22 groups of habitat variables, with 11 groups representing land-use and land-cover characteristics and 11 groups representing other riparian or in-stream habitat characteristics. Principal components analysis was used to identify a reduced set of habitat variables that describe most of the variability among the

  10. Evaluation of baseline ground-water conditions in the Mosteiros, Ribeira Paul, and Ribeira Fajã Basins, Republic of Cape Verde, West Africa, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Earle, John D.; Cederberg, Jay R.; Messer, Mickey M.; Jorgensen, Brent E.; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.; Moura, Miguel A.; Querido, Arrigo; Spencer,; Osorio, Tatiana

    2006-01-01

    This report documents current (2005-06) baseline ground-water conditions in three basins within the West African Republic of Cape Verde (Mosteiros on Fogo, Ribeira Paul on Santo Antão, and Ribeira Fajã on São Nicolau) based on existing data and additional data collected during this study. Ground-water conditions (indicators) include ground-water levels, ground-water recharge altitude, ground-water discharge amounts, ground-water age (residence time), and ground-water quality. These indicators are needed to evaluate (1) long-term changes in ground-water resources or water quality caused by planned ground-water development associated with agricultural projects in these basins, and (2) the feasibility of artificial recharge as a mitigation strategy to offset the potentially declining water levels associated with increased ground-water development.Ground-water levels in all three basins vary from less than a few meters to more than 170 meters below land surface. Continuous recorder and electric tape measurements at three monitoring wells (one per basin) showed variations between August 2005 and June 2006 of as much as 1.8 meters. Few historical water-level data were available for the Mosteiros or Ribeira Paul Basins. Historical records from Ribeira Fajã indicate very large ground-water declines during the 1980s and early 1990s, associated with dewatering of the Galleria Fajã tunnel. More-recent data indicate that ground-water levels in Ribeira Fajã have reached a new equilibrium, remaining fairly constant since the late 1990s.Because of the scarcity of observation wells within each basin, water-level data were combined with other techniques to evaluate ground-water conditions. These techniques include the quantification of ground-water discharge (well withdrawals, spring discharge, seepage to springs, and gallery drainage), field water-quality measurements, and the use of environmental tracers to evaluate sources of aquifer recharge, flow paths, and ground

  11. Refinement of AOAC Official Method 2005.06 liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection method to improve performance characteristics for the determination of paralytic shellfish toxins in king and queen scallops.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Hatfield, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    AOAC Official Method 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detection (FLD) method is an official alternative to the mouse bioassay for the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. To validate the method for species of relevance to the UK official control monitoring program, the method performance characteristics were tested for whole king and queen scallops. Validation showed that, while the performance was generally acceptable for the quantitation of non-N-hydroxylated toxins, poor toxin recovery and sensitivity was evident for the analysis of N-hydroxylated toxins following periodate oxidation. These effects occurred in a range of scallop samples with variable temporal and spatial sources. The effects were also noted in other laboratories following a small interlaboratory study. As a result, the method was refined to improve the recovery and sensitivity of analysis following the periodate oxidation step in the PSP method for scallops. Performance improved through alterations to the preparation of the periodate oxidant, use of higher volumes for C18 cleanup, and injection volumes in combination with the use of a king scallop matrix modifier for oxidation of N-hydroxylated toxin calibration standards. A single-laboratory validation of the refined method showed that the selectivity, linearity, sensitivity, recovery, and precision were acceptable and similar to values reported previously for AOAC Official Method 2005.06 in other bivalve species. Results showed the method to be rugged for all parameters investigated, including small changes to the composition of the new periodate reagent utilized in the refined method. The refined scallops LC method was subsequently compared with the European reference method. PSP-positive scallops showed an excellent agreement between the methods for queen and Atlantic scallops, with a small level of positive bias in the LC results for whole king scallops. These differences were related solely to the use of

  12. Performance Characteristics of AOAC Method 2005.06 for the Determination of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins in Manila Clams, European Otter Clams, Grooved Carpet Shell Clams, Surf Clams, and Processed King Scallops.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Alison; Turner, Andrew D

    2015-01-01

    An approach was developed for the verification of method performance of the AOAC 2005.06 LC-fluorescence detector (FLD) method for determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in bivalve shellfish. This was developed following advice published by the Analytical Laboratory Accreditation Criteria Committee and applied to shellfish species that had not been previously subjected to a full single-laboratory validation scheme. The refined approach was developed following the need to assess performance in a number of shellfish species infrequently monitored through the UK statutory monitoring program, while reducing the impact and cost of the studies, most notably in terms of the use of valuable reference standards. The species assessed were manila clams (Ruditapes philippinarum), European otter clams (Lutraria lutraria), grooved carpet shell clams (R. decussatus), surf clams (Spisula solida), and king scallops (Pecten maximus) presented as adductor only or adductor plus roe. The method was assessed for sensitivity in terms of LOD and LOQ, toxin recovery, and method precision in each species. It incorporated the PSP toxins deemed toxic and/or prevalent in UK samples and commercially available as certified reference standards. The toxins studied included GTX1-5, dcSTX, STX, C1&2, and NEO. The toxins dcGTX2&3 were included for surf clams due to the prevalence of these toxins in this species as a result of toxin decarbamoylation. Method performance targets were met for each of the characteristics investigated. Consequently, the method was deemed fit for purpose for the screening and quantification of these clam and scallop species for PSP toxins by AOAC Method 2005.06 LC-FLD.

  13. Effects of Hardened Low-Water Crossings on Periphyton and Water Quality in Selected Streams at the Fort Polk Military Reservation, Louisiana, 1998-99 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bryan, Barbara W.; Bryan, C. Frederick; Lovelace, John K.; Tollett, Roland W.

    2007-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), at the request of the U.S. Army Joint Readiness Training Center and Fort Polk, began a follow-up study to determine whether installation and modification of hardened low-water crossings had short-term (less than 1 year) or long-term (greater than 1 year) effects on periphyton or water quality in five streams at the Fort Polk Military Reservation, Louisiana. Periphyton data were statistically analyzed for possible differences between samples collected at upstream and downstream sites and before and after low-water crossings were modified on three streams, Big Brushy Creek, Tributary to East Fork of Sixmile Creek, and Tributary to Birds Creek, during 2003?04. Periphyton data also were analyzed for possible differences between samples collected at upstream and downstream sites on two streams, Tributary to Big Brushy Creek and Little Brushy Creek, during 1998?99 and 2003. Variations in periphyton communities could not be conclusively attributed to the modifications. Most of the significant changes in percent frequency of occurrence and average cell density of the 10 most frequently occurring periphyton taxa were increases at downstream sites after the hardened low-water crossing installations or modifications. However, these changes in the periphyton community are not necessarily deleterious to the community structure. Water-quality data collected from upstream and downstream sites on the five streams during 2003?04 were analyzed for possible differences caused by the hardened crossings. Generally, average water-quality values and concentrations were similar at upstream and downstream sites. When average water-quality values or concentrations changed significantly, they almost always changed significantly at both the upstream and downstream sites. It is probable that observed variations in water quality at both upstream and downstream sites are related to differences in rainfall and streamflow during the sample collection

  14. Elements in Mud and Snow in the Vicinity of the DeLong Mountain Regional Transportation System Road, Red Dog Mine, and Cape Krusenstern National Monument, Alaska, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brumbaugh, William J.; May, Thomas W.

    2008-01-01

    , was not necessarily an important factor affecting spatial differences of metals deposition in snow along the road in CAKR during winter 2005?06. The average metal content of particulates in 2005?06 snow samples was slightly less than that of snow samples collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in CAKR at three near-road locations in April 2003. Mean metals concentrations in 2006 snow particulates were about three times greater than in the road bed soils that were sampled in 2005; however, the fraction of annual metals loadings occurring in winter as compared to the remainder of the year was not readily determined by these data. Although procedures have been implemented in recent years to reduce the quantities of metal-enriched fugitive dusts, particulates dispersed near the road during the winter of 2005?06 were enriched in metals and these particulates contributed considerable metal loadings to the nearby terrain.

  15. Hydrology and water quality in the Green River and surrounding agricultural areas near Green River in Emery and Grand Counties, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, S.J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Wilberg, D.E.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Water from the Colorado River and its tributaries is used for municipal and industrial purposes by about 27 million people and irrigates nearly 4 million acres of land in the Western United States. Water users in the Upper Colorado River Basin consume water from the Colorado River and its tributaries, reducing the amount of water in the river. In addition, application of water to agricultural land within the basin in excess of crop needs can increase the transport of dissolved solids to the river. As a result, dissolved-solids concentrations in the Colorado River have increased, affecting downstream water users. During 2004-05, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Natural Resources Conservation Service, investigated the occurrence and distribution of dissolved solids in water from the agricultural areas near Green River, Utah, and in the adjacent reach of the Green River, a principle tributary of the Colorado River.The flow-weighted concentration of dissolved solids diverted from the Green River for irrigation during 2004 and 2005 was 357 milligrams per liter and the mean concentration of water collected from seeps and drains where water was returning to the river during low-flow conditions was 4,170 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids concentration in water from the shallow part of the ground-water system ranged from 687 to 55,900 milligrams per liter.Measurable amounts of dissolved solids discharging to the Green River are present almost exclusively along the river banks or near the mouths of dry washes that bisect the agricultural areas. The median dissolved-solids load in discharge from the 17 drains and seeps visited during the study was 0.35 ton per day. Seasonal estimates of the dissolved-solids load discharging from the study area ranged from 2,800 tons in the winter to 6,400 tons in the spring. The estimate of dissolved solids discharging from the study area annually is 15,700 tons.Water samples collected from selected sites within

  16. Rapid ascent and emplacement of basaltic lava during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N as inferred from CO2 contents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, J. E.; Jackson, B. A.; Gonnermann, H.; Soule, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    Eruption rates at the mid-ocean ridges (MORs) are believed to strongly control the morphology and length of lava flows emplaced along the ridge axis, and thus the structure and porosity of the upper oceanic crust. Eruption rate also represents one of the few tools to gain insight into the driving pressures within sub-ridge magmatic systems. As eruption rate is inferred to vary systematically along the global mid-ocean ridge system, understanding of how to assess eruption rate in submarine systems and how it maps to observable features of the ridge axis would provide a powerful tool to understand Earth's largest magmatic system. Eruption rates at MORs are poorly constrained, however, because of a lack of direct observations, preventing the duration of an eruption to be quantified. This study uses decompression experiments of MORB samples and numerical modeling of CO2 degassing to reconstruct the timescales for magma ascent and lava emplacement during the 2005-06 eruption of the East Pacific Rise at ca. 9°51‧N. Samples collected from the lava flow are all supersaturated in dissolved CO2 contents, but CO2 decreases with distance from the vent, presumably as a consequence of progressive CO2 diffusion into growing bubbles. Samples collected at the vent contain ∼105 vesicles per cm3. Pieces of these samples were experimentally heated to 1225 °C at high pressure and then decompressed at controlled rates. Results, plus those from numerical modeling of diffusive bubble growth, indicate that magma rose from the axial magma chamber to the seafloor in ≤1 h and at a rate of ≥2-3 km h-1. Our modeling, as validated by experimental decompression of MORB samples with ∼106 vesicles cm-3, also suggests that CO2 degassed from the melt within ∼10-100 min as the vesicular lava traveled ∼1.7 km along the seafloor, implying a volumetric flow rate on order of 103-4 m3 s-1. Given an ascent rate of ≥0.2 m s-1, the width of a rectangular dike feeding the lava would have been

  17. Alberta Advanced Education Annual Report 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Public Accounts of Alberta are prepared in accordance with the Financial Administration Act and the "Government Accountability Act." The Public Accounts consist of the annual report of the Government of Alberta and the annual reports of each of the 24 ministries. The annual report of the Government of Alberta released June 26, 2006…

  18. High School Counselor's Handbook: 2004-05 Federal Student Aid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This document provides useful information to help high school and TRIO counselors advise students about financial aid for postsecondary education. This document focuses on the federal student aid programs administered by the U.S. Department of Education. It includes general information about postsecondary opportunities, and the application process…

  19. Adult Education Annual Report to Congress. 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The state-administered grant program authorized under the "Adult Education and Family Literacy Act (AEFLA)", enacted as Title II of the "Workforce Investment Act (WIA)" of 1998, is the major source of federal support for adult basic education and literacy education programs. When "AEFLA" was authorized in 1998,…

  20. Agricultural Chemicals in Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Lathrop, Timothy R.

    2006-01-01

    Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, is part of an Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate study conducted by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. Water-quality samples were collected in Leary Weber Ditch and in the major hydrologic compartments of the Leary Weber Ditch Basin during 2003 and 2004. Hydrologic compartments that contribute water and agricultural chemicals to Leary Weber Ditch are rain water, overland-flow water, soil water, tile-drain water, and ground water. Samples were analyzed for selected pesticides, nutrients, and major ions.

  1. Profile of BC College Transfer Students 2003/04 to 2007/08. Research Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert-Maberly, Ashley

    2010-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the results from five reports commissioned by the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) that profiled the academic experiences and demographics of BC college transfer students: those students who transferred from a BC college, university college, or institute to a BC university during the period…

  2. Texas Open-Enrollment Charter School Revenue. Supplement to the 2003-04 Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brownson, Amanda; Moak, Lynn M.; Shapley, Kelly; Huntsberger, Briana; Maloney, Catherine

    2006-01-01

    This study assesses funding differences, and the sources of those differences, between charter schools and traditional districts in Texas. The need for this research stems from conflicting reports on charter school revenues and growing concern over the quality of charter school financial data reported through Texas' Public Education Information…

  3. Impact. Volume 16 Number 3 Fall-Winter 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord, Vicki, Ed.

    2004-01-01

    This issue of the quarterly publication focuses on Achieving Secondary Education and Transition Results for Students with Disabilities. Editorial introduction notes that today's educational systems are being called upon to re-examine how they prepare students with disabilities for adult life. The shift toward greater participation by students with…

  4. State Plan for Alabama Higher Education, 2003-04 to 2008-09.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Commission on Higher Education, Montgomery.

    The State Plan for Alabama Higher Education is intended to focus public attention on important strategic issues facing Alabama higher education and the state and to articulate Alabamas needs and its vision for higher education. It is designed to commit resources necessary to provide high quality teaching, scholarship, research, and public service…

  5. How Latino Students Pay for College: Patterns of Financial Aid in 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah A.; Cunningham, Alisa F.

    2005-01-01

    Financial aid plays a critical role in the postsecondary education of Latino students. However, very little comprehensive and easy to understand information is available about what types or how much financial aid Latinos receive. The goal of this brief is to provide timely and accurate information about how Latino undergraduates currently…

  6. Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina, 2003-04. Research Report 1-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Xiaoyun

    2004-01-01

    The University of North Carolina presents the thirty-sixth annual Statistical Abstract of Higher Education in North Carolina. This report covers the breadth of higher education activities in the State in their quantitative aspect, from simple counts of enrollment and degrees conferred to complex analyses of the flow of student transfers among…

  7. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2003-04

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,272 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004 and Food ...

  8. Montana School Nutrition Programs Free and Reduced Price Participation Data, 2003-04 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCulloch, Linda

    2004-01-01

    This report provides a count of all students in Montana public and nonpublic schools who are eligible to receive free and reduced price benefits for meals and milk. Because the data presented in this report are frozen on December 31, there may be missing values as well as late corrections for a given year because data came in later than that date.

  9. A Comparison of Outsourcing in Higher Education, 1998-99 and 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L., III; Guarino, A. J.; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Edwards, Toni L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores the nature and extent of outsourcing by higher education institutions, benefits and challenges associated with outsourcing, and the implications of outsourcing for effective management. The principal investigator conducted a national study of outsourcing by four-year colleges and universities at two points in time, 1998-99 and…

  10. Environmental Setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 Basins, Washington, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Payne, Karen L.; Johnson, Henry M.; Black, Robert W.

    2007-01-01

    The Granger Drain and DR2 basins are located in the Yakima River basin in south central Washington. These agricultural basins are one of five areas in the United States selected for study as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate Study. The Program is designed to describe water-quality conditions and trends based on representative surface- and ground-water resources across the Nation. The objective of the Agricultural Chemicals topical study is to investigate the sources, transport, and fate of selected agricultural chemicals in a variety of agriculturally diverse environmental settings. The Granger Drain and DR2 basins were selected for the Agricultural Chemicals topical study because they represent the irrigated agricultural setting that characterizes eastern Washington. These basins are located in one of the most productive agricultural areas in the United States. This report describes the environmental setting of the Granger Drain and DR2 basins in the context of how agricultural practices, including agricultural chemical applications and irrigation methods, interface with natural settings and hydrologic processes.

  11. Ground-Water Quality in the St. Lawrence River Basin, New York, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nystrom, Elizabeth A.

    2007-01-01

    The Federal Clean Water Act requires that States monitor and report on the quality of ground water and surface water. To satisfy part of these requirements, the U.S. Geological Survey and New York State Department of Environmental Conservation have developed a program in which ground-water quality is assessed in 2 to 3 of New York State's 14 major river basins each year. To characterize the quality of ground water in the St. Lawrence River Basin in northern New York, water samples were collected from 14 domestic and 11 production wells between August 2005 and January 2006. Eight of the wells were finished in sand and gravel and 17 wells were finished in bedrock. Ground-water samples were collected and processed using standard U.S. Geological Survey procedures and were analyzed for 229 constituents and physical properties, including inorganic constituents, nutrients, trace elements, radon-222, pesticides and pesticide degradates, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. Sixty-six constituents were detected above laboratory reporting levels. Concentrations of most compounds at most sites were within drinking water standards established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and New York State Department of Health, but a few compounds exceeded drinking water standards at some sites. Water in the basin is generally hard to very hard (hardness equal to 121 mg/L as CaCO3 or greater); hardness and alkalinity were generally higher in the St. Lawrence Valley than in the Adirondack Mountains. The cation with the highest median concentration was calcium; the anion with the highest median concentration was bicarbonate. The concentration of chloride in one sample exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard; the concentration of sulfate in one sample also exceeded the 250 milligrams per liter U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standard. Nitrate was the predominant nutrient detected but no sample exceeded the 10 mg/L U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level. The trace elements detected with the highest median concentrations were strontium, barium, and iron. Concentration of trace elements in several samples exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Secondary Drinking Water Standards, including aluminum (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples), iron (300 micrograms per liter, 5 samples), and manganese (50 micrograms per liter, 4 samples). The concentration of uranium in one sample from a domestic well finished in crystalline bedrock was three times the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level of 30 micrograms per liter. The median concentration of radon-222 was 600 picoCuries per liter, but concentrations as high as 18,800 picoCuries per liter were detected; two wells with high radon concentrations also had high uranium concentrations. Radon-222 is not currently regulated, but the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has proposed a Maximum Contaminant Level of 300 picoCuries per liter along with an Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level of 4,000 picoCuries per liter, to be in effect in states that have programs to address radon in indoor air. Concentrations of radon-222 exceeded the proposed Maximum Contaminant Level in 60 percent of samples and exceeded the proposed Alternative Maximum Contaminant Level in 8 percent of samples. Six pesticides and pesticide degradates were detected; all were amide or triazine herbicides or degradates. Five volatile organic compounds were detected, including disinfection byproducts such as trichloromethane and gasoline components or additives such as methyl tert-butyl ether. No pesticides, pesticide degradates, or volatile organic compounds were detected above established limits. Coliform bacteria, including Escherichia coli, were detected in three wells finished in carbonate bedrock.

  12. Associate Degrees Awarded in British Columbia, 1993-94 to 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karlinski, Jean

    2007-01-01

    The Associate Degree is a two year academic credential available with an Arts or Science focus. The British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) initiated development of this provincial credential at the request of British Columbia's (BC's) public post-secondary institutions. In March 2003, BCCAT prepared a report detailing the…

  13. Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education Biennial Report, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nebraska Coordinating Commission for Postsecondary Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report outlines the Commission's tasks and progress in fulfilling the goals of the "Comprehensive Statewide Plan for Postsecondary Education." The "Plan" identifies goals that lead to an educationally and economically sound, vigorous, and synchronized system of higher education. The "Plan," considered a…

  14. Retail Commodity Intakes: Mean Amounts of Retail Commodities per Individual, 2005-06

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The table set includes national estimates in terms of mean gram amounts of retail commodities consumed per person estimated from the day 1 dietary intake data of 8,549 individuals, ages 2 years and over, in What We Eat In America, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006 and Food ...

  15. Spent fuel sabotage aerosol test program :FY 2005-06 testing and aerosol data summary.

    SciTech Connect

    Gregson, Michael Warren; Brockmann, John E.; Nolte, O. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Loiseau, O. (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Koch, W. (Fraunhofer institut fur toxikologie und experimentelle Medizin, Germany); Molecke, Martin Alan; Autrusson, Bruno (Institut de radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire, France); Pretzsch, Gunter Guido (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Billone, M. C. (Argonne National Laboratory, USA); Lucero, Daniel A.; Burtseva, T.; Brucher, W (Gesellschaft fur anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Germany); Steyskal, Michele D.

    2006-10-01

    This multinational, multi-phase spent fuel sabotage test program is quantifying the aerosol particles produced when the products of a high energy density device (HEDD) interact with and explosively particulate test rodlets that contain pellets of either surrogate materials or actual spent fuel. This program has been underway for several years. This program provides source-term data that are relevant to some sabotage scenarios in relation to spent fuel transport and storage casks, and associated risk assessments. This document focuses on an updated description of the test program and test components for all work and plans made, or revised, primarily during FY 2005 and about the first two-thirds of FY 2006. It also serves as a program status report as of the end of May 2006. We provide details on the significant findings on aerosol results and observations from the recently completed Phase 2 surrogate material tests using cerium oxide ceramic pellets in test rodlets plus non-radioactive fission product dopants. Results include: respirable fractions produced; amounts, nuclide content, and produced particle size distributions and morphology; status on determination of the spent fuel ratio, SFR (the ratio of respirable particles from real spent fuel/respirables from surrogate spent fuel, measured under closely matched test conditions, in a contained test chamber); and, measurements of enhanced volatile fission product species sorption onto respirable particles. We discuss progress and results for the first three, recently performed Phase 3 tests using depleted uranium oxide, DUO{sub 2}, test rodlets. We will also review the status of preparations and the final Phase 4 tests in this program, using short rodlets containing actual spent fuel from U.S. PWR reactors, with both high- and lower-burnup fuel. These data plus testing results and design are tailored to support and guide, follow-on computer modeling of aerosol dispersal hazards and radiological consequence assessments. This spent fuel sabotage--aerosol test program, performed primarily at Sandia National Laboratories, with support provided by both the U.S. Department of Energy and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, had significant inputs from, and is strongly supported and coordinated by both the U.S. and international program participants in Germany, France, and the U.K., as part of the international Working Group for Sabotage Concerns of Transport and Storage Casks, WGSTSC.

  16. Ecological assessment of streams in the Powder River Structural Basin, Wyoming and Montana, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peterson, D.A.; Wright, P.R.; Edwards, G.P.; Hargett, E.G.; Feldman, D.L.; Zumberge, J.R.; Dey, Paul

    2009-01-01

    Energy and mineral development, particularly coalbed natural gas development, is proceeding at a rapid pace in the Powder River Structural Basin (PRB) in northeastern Wyoming. Concerns about the potential effects of development led to formation of an interagency working group of primarily Federal and State agencies to address these issues in the PRB in Wyoming and in Montana where similar types of resources exist but are largely undeveloped. Under the direction of the interagency working group, an ecological assessment of streams in the PRB was initiated to determine the current status (2005–06) and to establish a baseline for future monitoring.The ecological assessment components include assessment of stream habitat and riparian zones as well as assessments of macroinvertebrate, algal, and fish communities. All of the components were sampled at 47 sites in the PRB during 2005. A reduced set of components, consisting primarily of macroinvertebrate and fish community assessments, was sampled in 2006. Related ecological data, such as habitat and fish community data collected from selected sites in 2004, also are included in this report.The stream habitat assessment included measurement of channel features, substrate size and embeddedness, riparian vegetation, and reachwide characteristics. The width-to-depth ratio (bankfull width/bankfull depth) tended to be higher at sites on the main-stem Powder River than at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and at sites on tributary streams. The streambed substrate particle size was largest at sites on the main-stem Tongue River and smallest at sites on small tributary streams such as Squirrel Creek and Otter Creek. Total vegetative cover at the ground level, understory, and canopy layers ranged from less than 40 percent at a few sites to more than 90 percent at many of the sites. A bank-stability index indicated that sites in the Tongue River drainage were less at risk of bank failure than sites on the main-stem Powder River.Macroinvertebrate communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale. Macroinvertebrate communities at sites with mountainous headwaters and snowmelt-driven hydrology, such as Clear Creek, Crazy Woman Creek, and Goose Creek, showed similarity with communities from the main-stem Tongue River. The data also indicated similarity among sites on the main-stem Powder River and among small tributaries of the Tongue River. Data analyses using macroinvertebrate observed/expected models and multimetric indices developed by the States of Wyoming and Montana indicated a tendency toward declining biological condition in the downstream direction along the Tongue River. Biological condition for the main-stem Powder River generally improved downstream, from below Salt Creek to near the Wyoming/Montana border, followed by a general decline downstream from the border to the confluence with the Yellowstone River. The biological condition generally was not significantly different between 2005 and 2006, although streamflow was less in 2006 because of drought.Algal communities showed similarity at the river-drainage scale with slight differences from the pattern observed in the macroinvertebrate communities. Although the algal communities from Clear Creek and Goose Creek were similar to those from the main-stem Tongue River, as was true of the macroinvertebrate communities, the algal communities from Crazy Woman Creek had more similarity to those of main-stem Powder River sites than to the Tongue River sites, contrary to the macroinvertebrates. Ordination of algal communities, as well as diatom metrics including salinity and dominant taxa, indicated substantial variation at two sites along the main stem of the Powder River.Fish communities of the PRB were most diverse in the Tongue River drainage. In part due to the effects of Tongue River Reservoir, 15 species of fish were found in the Tongue River drainage that were not found in the Cheyenne, Belle Fourche, or Little Powder River drainages. The number of introduced species and relative abundance of introduced species of fish were higher in the Tongue River and other drainages than at sites on the main-stem Powder River. Although non-native species were identified in the Powder River, the native fish community is largely intact. Western silvery minnow and sturgeon chub—species of special concern—were identified only at sites on the main-stem Powder River and were most common in the Montana segment of the main stem. Fish and habitat sampling on the main-stem Powder River indicated affinity of some species for certain habitats such as pools, runs, riffles, backwaters, or shoals.

  17. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This document is a compilation of the four issues in the 23rd volume of "Classroom Notes Plus." Each issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. The August 2005 (v23 n1) issue includes: Sharing Responses to Literature via Exit Slips (Barb Wagner); Letting Learners Teach…

  18. Ground-water levels in Huron County, Michigan, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, T.L.; Crowley, S.L.; Blumer, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed a study of the hydrogeology of Huron County, Michigan (Sweat, 1991). In 1993, Huron County and the USGS entered into a continuing agreement to measure water levels at selected wells throughout Huron County. As part of the agreement, USGS has operated four continuous water-level recorders, installed from 1988 to 1991 on wells in Bingham, Fairhaven, Grant, and Lake Townships (fig. 1) and summarized the data collected in an annual or bi-annual report. The agreement was altered in 2003, and beginning January 1, 2004, only the wells in Fairhaven and Lake Townships retained continuous waterlevel recorders, while the wells in Grant and Bingham Townships reverted primarily to periodic or quarterly measurement status. USGS also has provided training for County or Huron Conservation District personnel to measure the water level, on a quarterly basis, in 25 wells. USGS personnel regularly accompany County or Huron Conservation District personnel to provide a quality assurance/quality control check of all measurements being made. Water-level data collected from the 25 periodically or quarterly-measured wells is summarized in an annual or bi-annual report. In 1998, the USGS also completed a temporal and spatial analysis of the monitoring well network in Huron County (Holtschlag and Sweat, 1998). The altitude of Lake Huron and precipitation are good indicators of general climatic conditions and, therefore, provide an environmental context for ground-water levels in Huron County. Figure 2 shows the mean-monthly water-level altitude of Lake Huron, averaged from measurements made by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers at sites near Essexville or Harbor Beach, or both (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05), and monthly precipitation measured in Bad Axe (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, 2003-05). In March 2003, a new low-water level for the period from 1991 through 2005 was measured in Lake Huron. There was almost no net change in the water level of Lake Huron from January 2004 through December 2005. In 2004, annual precipitation measured in Port Hope was about 3.7 inches above normal, but precipitation measured in Bad Axe was about 1.4 inches below normal. About 14.5 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2004 summer growing season (May through August), which is about the same as was measured in Port Hope during the same period. Provisional precipitation totals for 2005 were 30.7 inches for January through November in Port Hope, and about 31.7 inches for the year in Bad Axe. About 10.6 inches of precipitation was measured in Bad Axe during the 2005 summer growing season, which is about 0.2 inches more than was recorded at Port Hope during the same period. Two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders are completed in the Saginaw and Marshall aquifers in Fairhaven and Lake Townships, respectively. From January 2004 through December 2005, the net rise in the water level in the Fairhaven Township well was 0.71 ft, and the net rise in the Lake Township well was 0.98 ft. The Fairhaven Township well is drilled adjacent to Saginaw Bay (Lake Huron), and, as previously noted, there was almost no net change in the water level in Saginaw Bay over the same period. Hydrographs showing water levels are presented for the two wells equipped with continuous-data recorders. Continuous-data recorders were discontinued in the Grant and Bingham Township wells at the end of 2003 due to budget constraints. The decision of which two wells to discontinue was based on an analysis of the intrinsic value to Huron County of data from each well. The Grant Township well was selected for periodic or quarterly measurement at that time because it is completed in the glacial aquifer, which is little used for drinking water purposes or absent in much of Huron County. The Bingham Township well, which is completed in the Marshall aquifer, was selected for

  19. Ground-Water Quality in the Upper Susquehanna River Basin, New York, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hetcher-Aguila, Kari K.; Eckhardt, David A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Water samples were collected from 20 production wells and 13 private residential wells throughout the upper Susquehanna River Basin (upstream from the Pennsylvania border) during the fall of 2004 and the spring of 2005 and analyzed to describe the chemical quality of ground water in the upper basin. Wells were selected to represent areas of greatest ground-water use and highest vulnerability to contamination, and to provide a representative sampling from the entire (4,516 square-mile) upper basin. Samples were analyzed for physical properties, nutrients, inorganic constituents, metals, radionuclides, pesticides, volatile organic compounds, and bacteria. The cations that were detected in the highest concentrations were calcium, magnesium, and sodium; the anions that were detected in the greatest concentrations were bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. The predominant nutrient was nitrate, the concentrations of which were greater in samples from sand and gravel aquifers than in samples from bedrock. The metals barium, boron, cobalt, copper, and nickel were detected in every sample; the metals with the highest concentrations were barium, boron, iron, manganese, strontium, and lithium. The pesticide compounds detected most frequently were atrazine, deethylatrazine, alachlor ESA, and two degradation products of metolachlor (metolachlor ESA and metolachlor OA); the compounds detected in highest concentration were metolachlor ESA and OA. Volatile organic compounds were detected in 11 samples, and concentrations of 3 of these compounds exceeded 1 microgram per liter (?g/L). Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), a gasollline additive, was not detected in any sample. Several analytes were found in concentrations that exceeded Federal and New York State water-quality standards, which are typically identical. Chloride concentrations exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL) of 250 milligrams per liter (mg/L) in two samples, and sulfate concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 250 mg/L in one sample. Sodium concentrations exceeded the USEPA Drinking Water Advisory of 60 mg/L in six samples. Nitrate concentrations exceeded the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 mg/L in one sample and approached this limit (at 9.84 mg/L) in another sample. Barium concentrations exceeded the MCL of 2,000 ?g/L in one sample. Iron concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 300 ?g/L in five samples, and manganese concentrations exceeded the SMCL of 50 ?g/L in 14 samples. Arsenic was detected in seven samples, and the MCL for arsenic (10 ?g/L) was exceeded in two samples. Radon-222 exceeded the proposed MCL of 300 picocuries per liter in 24 samples. Any detection of total coliform or fecal coliform bacteria is considered a violation of New York State health regulations; in this study, total coliform was detected in six samples and fecal coliform was detected in one sample, but Escherichia coli (E. coli) was not detected in any sample.

  20. Vaccination coverage among callers to a state influenza hotline--Connecticut, 2004-05 influenza season.

    PubMed

    2005-03-04

    In response to the influenza vaccine shortage in the United States, the Connecticut Department of Public Health (DPH) operated a telephone hotline during October 22, 2004-January 15, 2005. The purpose of the hotline was to address questions from the public regarding the availability of influenza vaccine, reduce the number of telephone inquiries to physicians and local health departments (LHDs), and advise callers regarding which groups were most at risk and in need of influenza vaccination. Caller information was collected and shared daily with LHDs, which were encouraged to follow up with callers as their resources allowed. This report summarizes results of a retrospective survey of callers to the DPH influenza vaccine hotline during November 2004. The results indicated that vaccination coverage varied by age group and that persons receiving follow-up calls from LHDs were more likely to receive vaccination. State health departments might consider a hotline as a method for educating the public regarding influenza vaccination and a follow-up system as a means to improve vaccination coverage, especially among those at greatest risk.

  1. School Finance 2004?05: Districts Receive An Increase Despite A State Budget Squeeze

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Mary; Edwards, Brian; Oregon, Isabel

    2004-01-01

    Another year of financial difficulty for the state of California led to the suspension of the minimum-funding guarantee that has provided some financial protection for schools in recent years. In a negotiation with education leaders Gov. Arnold Schwarzenegger managed to craft the suspension in a way that protected education's interests at the…

  2. Policies and Procedures for Accommodations and Alternate Assessment to the MEA, 2004-05.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    "Learning Results" legislation clearly articulates that all students will be included in state assessment at the fourth grade, eighth grade, and eleventh grade levels. The Maine Educational Assessment (MEA) has been revised to measure the standards detailed in Maine's "Learning Results." All students in Maine will participate in the state level…

  3. South Carolina Commission on Higher Education Annual Accountability Report, Fiscal Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Carolina Commission on Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The South Carolina Commission on Higher Education (CHE) serves as the coordinating board for South Carolina's 33 public institutions of higher learning and is responsible for serving a dual role within state government acting both as an advocate for higher education as well as an oversight entity on behalf of the General Assembly. The agency's…

  4. Mobility of Adult Basic Education Students in BC: The 2004-05 Cohort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrance, Jill

    2008-01-01

    British Columbia offers multiple educational pathways to address the literacy and academic needs of its adult population. In BC, Adult Basic Education (ABE) is offered through two public systems: the secondary system offers the Adult Graduation program in various school district facilities, typically through Continuing Education, and the public…

  5. Characterization of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gerner, Steven J.; Spangler, L.E.; Kimball, B.A.; Naftz, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, have been identified as contributing dissolved solids to Flaming Gorge Reservoir. Concentrations of dissolved solids in water resources of agricultural lands near Manila, Utah, ranged from 35 to 7,410 milligrams per liter. The dissolved-solids load in seeps and drains in the study area that discharge to Flaming Gorge Reservoir ranged from less than 0.1 to 113 tons per day. The most substantial source of dissolved solids discharging from the study area to the reservoir was Birch Spring Draw. The mean daily dissolved-solids load near the mouth of Birch Spring Draw was 65 tons per day.The estimated annual dissolved-solids load imported to the study area by Sheep Creek and Peoples Canals is 1,330 and 13,200 tons, respectively. Daily dissolved-solid loads discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the period July 1, 2004, to June 30, 2005, ranged from 72 to 241 tons per day with a mean of 110 tons per day. The estimated annual dissolved-solids load discharging to the reservoir from the study area, less the amount of dissolved solids imported by canals, for the same period was 40,200 tons. Of this 40,200 tons of dissolved solids, about 9,000 tons may be from a regional source that is not associated with agricultural activities. The salt-loading factor is 3,670 milligrams per liter or about 5.0 tons of dissolved solids per acre-foot of deep percolation in Lucerne Valley and 1,620 milligrams per liter or 2.2 tons per acre-foot in South Valley.The variation of δ87Sr with strontium concentration indicates some general patterns that help to define a conceptual model of the processes affecting the concentration of strontium and the δ87Sr isotopic ratio in area waters. As excess irrigation water percolates through soils derived from Mancos Shale, the δ87Sr isotopic ratio (0.21 to 0.69 permil) approaches one that is typical of deep percolation from irrigation on Mancos Shale. The boron concentration and δ11B value for the water sample from Antelope Wash, being distinctly different from water samples from other sites, is evidence that water in Antelope Wash may contain a substantial component of regional ground-water flow.

  6. Evaluation of Ground Water Near Sidney, Western Nebraska, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steele, G.V.; Sibray, S.S.; Quandt, K.A.

    2007-01-01

    During times of drought, ground water in the Lodgepole Creek area around Sidney, western Nebraska, may be insufficient to yield adequate supplies to private and municipal wells. Alternate sources of water exist in the Cheyenne Tablelands north of the city, but these sources are limited in extent. In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey and the South Platte Natural Resources District began a cooperative study to evaluate the ground water near Sidney. The 122-square-mile study area lies in the south-central part of Cheyenne County, with Lodgepole Creek and Sidney Draw occupying the southern and western parts of the study area and the Cheyenne Tablelands occupying most of the northern part of the study area. Twenty-nine monitoring wells were installed and then sampled in 2004 and 2005 for physical characteristics, nutrients, major ions, and stable isotopes. Some of the 29 sites also were sampled for ground-water age dating. Ground water is limited in extent in the tableland areas. Spring 2005 depths to ground water in the tableland areas ranged from 95 to 188 feet. Ground-water flow in the tableland areas primarily is northeasterly. South of a ground-water divide, ground-water flows southeasterly toward Lodgepole Creek Valley. Water samples from monitoring wells in the Ogallala Group were predominantly a calcium bicarbonate type, and those from monitoring wells in the Brule Formation were a sodium bicarbonate type. Water samples from monitoring wells open to the Brule sand were primarily a calcium bicarbonate type at shallow depths and a sodium bicarbonate type at deeper depths. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek Valley had a strong sodium signature, which likely results from most of the wells being open to the Brule. Concentrations of sodium and nitrate in ground-water samples from the Ogallala were significantly different than in water samples from the Brule and Brule sand. In addition, significant differences were seen in concentrations of calcium between water samples from the Ogallala and the Brule sand. Median concentrations of nitrate varied by aquifer-2.6 milligrams per liter (Ogallala), 2.1 milligrams per liter (Brule), and 1.3 milligrams per liter (Brule sand). The chemistry of the ground water in the study area indicates that ground water flows from recharge areas in both the tableland areas and Lodgepole Creek Valley to discharge areas beyond the study area. Recharging water that percolates into the Ogallala in the tableland areas either enters the Ogallala aquifer, flows along the Ogallala-Brule contact, or enters Brule fractures or sand. Although limited in amount, ground water flowing along the Ogallala-Brule contact or in the Brule fractures or sand appears to be the predominant means by which water moves from the tableland areas to Lodgepole Creek Valley. Apparent ground-water ages from chlorofluorocarbon and sulfur hexafluoride data generally were similar. Age of ground water for most monitoring wells located in Lodgepole Creek Valley ranged from the mid- to late 1960s to the early 1990s. Ages of ground water in samples from monitoring wells located in tableland draw areas ranged from the mid-1980s to the early 1990s. Water in the Brule (areas without known secondary permeability structures) or deeper Brule sand aquifer was substantially older than water in the Ogallala aquifer and probably was recharged between 10,000 to 30,000 years before present. The stable isotopic data indicate that the ground water in the study area probably originated from precipitation. Ground water in Lodgepole Creek and the tableland areas are similar in chemistry. However, there appears to be limited interaction between ground water within the Ogallala to the north of Sidney and Lodgepole Creek Valley. Available data indicate that although some of the ground water in the Ogallala likely flows across the Ogallala-Brule contact, most of it does not move toward Lodgepole Creek.

  7. Facilities Performance Indicators Report, 2004-05. Facilities Core Data Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glazner, Steve, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Facilities Performance Indicators" is to provide a representative set of statistics about facilities in educational institutions. The second iteration of the web-based Facilities Core Data Survey was posted and available to facilities professionals at more than 3,000 institutions in the Fall of 2005. The website offered a printed…

  8. The Impact of Violence Prevention Programs on School Based Violent Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed-Reynolds, Shelly

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation study focused on the potential effect that various violence prevention program strategies implemented within the k-12 school setting have on the frequency of school based violent behaviors. The 2005-06 and 2003-04 School Survey on Crime and Safety (SSOCS:2006 & SSOCS:2004) was utilized as the secondary data source for this…

  9. Development of the DHQ II and C-DHQ II Nutrient & Food Group Database

    Cancer.gov

    The nutrient and food group database, created for analyzing the DHQ II, is based on a compilation of national 24-hour dietary recall data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) conducted in 2001-02, 2003-04, and 2005-06.

  10. Trends in Technology Planning and Funding in Florida K-12 Public Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ritzhaupt, Albert Dieter; Hohlfeld, Tina N; Barron, Ann E.; Kemker, Kate

    2008-01-01

    This empirical research investigates trends in technology planning and funding in Florida's K-12 public schools between the 2003-04 and 2005-06 academic years. Survey items that focused on funding and planning issues on Florida's statewide school technology integration survey were analyzed using logistic models. Results indicate a significant…

  11. Effects of State Tests on Classroom Test Items in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Brian T.

    2008-01-01

    Classroom tests from nine eighth-grade mathematics teachers were collected from the 2003-04 and 2005-06 school years. These years represent one school year prior to the eighth-grade Ohio Achievement Test (OAT) in mathematics being implemented and the year after the eighth-grade OAT in mathematics was implemented, respectively. In addition,…

  12. Ground-Water Age and Quality in the High Plains Aquifer near Seward, Nebraska, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Landon, Matthew K.; Turco, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Seward, Nebraska, conducted a study of ground-water age and quality to improve understanding of: (1) traveltimes from recharge areas to public-supply wells, (2) the effects of geochemical reactions in the aquifer on water quality, and (3) how water quality has changed historically in response to land-use practices. Samples were collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field and from nine monitoring wells along two approximate ground-water flow paths leading to the well field. Concentrations of three different chlorofluorocarbons (CFC-12, CFC-11, and CFC-113), sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), and ratios of tritium (3H) to helium-3 (3He) isotope derived from radioactive decay of 3H were used to determine the apparent recharge age of ground-water samples. Age interpretations were based primarily on 3H/3He and CFC-12 data. Estimates of apparent ground-water age from tracer data were complicated by mixing of water of different ages in 10 of the 13 ground-water samples collected. Apparent recharge dates of unmixed ground-water samples or mean recharge dates of young fractions of mixed water in samples collected from monitoring wells ranged from 1985 to 2002. For monitoring-well samples containing mixed water, the fraction of the sample composed of young water ranged from 26 to 77 percent of the sample. Apparent mean recharge dates of young fractions in samples collected from four supply wells in the Seward west well field ranged from about 1980 to 1990. Estimated fractions of the samples composed of young water ranged from 39 to 54 percent. It is implicit in the mixing calculations that the remainder of the sample that is not young water is composed of water that is more than 60 years old and contains no detectable quantities of modern atmospheric tracers. Estimated fractions of the mixed samples composed of 'old' water ranged from 23 to 74 percent. Although alternative mixing models can be used to interpret the results, the mean age and mixing fractions from the primary mixing models used were fairly similar. Relations of ground-water age and nitrate concentrations to depth were not consistent across the study area. In some well nests, more young water and nitrate were present near the bottom than in the middle of the aquifer. These results probably reflect pumping from irrigation and supply wells, which are screened primarily in the lower part of the aquifer, and draw younger water downward in the aquifer. Substantial mixing probably occurs because the aquifer is relatively thin (50 feet) and has a relatively high density of wells (about five pumping wells per square mile). The most reliable estimate of horizontal traveltimes based on differences in ground-water ages between a shallow monitoring well at the upgradient end of the northwest well transect and the deep well at the downgradient end of the well transect was 9 years to travel a distance of about 2 miles. The general similarity of ages at similar depths between different well nests is consistent with the fact that horizontal flow in the aquifer is relatively rapid. Concentrations of nitrate (as nitrogen) in untreated ground-water samples from supply wells in the well field were larger than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Maximum Contaminant Level for drinking water of 10 mg/L (milligrams per liter), ranging from 11.3 to 13.5 mg/L. It is unlikely that nitrate concentrations in the aquifer near the Seward west well field are decreased by denitrification in the aquifer due to oxic geochemical conditions that preclude this reaction. Nitrate concentrations coupled with water recharge dates were compared to historical estimated fertilizer application in an attempt to reconstruct historical trends in ground-water nitrate concentrations and their relation to land-use practices. Nitrate concentrations in young-water fractions, after adjustment for mixing, may be decreasing over apparent recharg

  13. Chemical and ecological health of white sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003?04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, C.V.; Weyers, H.S.; Blazer, V.S.; Freeman, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded thresholdor chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  14. Chemical and Ecological Health of White Sucker (Catostomus Commersoni) in Rock Creek Park, Washington, D.C., 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Cherie V.; Weyers, Holly S.; Blazer, Vicki; Freeman, Mary E.

    2006-01-01

    Several classes of chemicals that are known or suspected contaminants were found in bed sediment in Rock Creek, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), phthalate esters, organochlorine pesticides, dioxins and furans, trace metals and metalloids (mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, copper, lead, nickel, silver, and zinc), and polychlorinated biphenyls (total PCBs and selected aroclors). Concentrations of many of these chemicals consistently exceeded threshold or chronic-effects guidelines for the protection of aquatic life and often exceeded probable effects levels (PELs). Exceedance of PELs was dependent on the amount of total organic carbon in the sediments. Concurrent with the collection of sediment-quality data, white sucker (Catostomus commersoni) were evaluated for gross-external and internal-organ anomalies, whole-body burdens of chemical contaminants, and gut contents to determine prey. The histopathology of internal tissues of white sucker was compared to contaminant levels in fish tissue and bed sediment. Gut contents were examined to determine preferential prey and thus potential pathways for the bioaccumulation of chemicals from bed sediments. Male and female fish were tested separately. Lesions and other necroses were observed in all fish collected during both years of sample collection, indicating that fish in Rock Creek have experienced some form of environmental stress. No direct cause and effect was determined for chemical exposure and compromised fish health, but a substantial weight of evidence indicates that white sucker, which are bottom-feeding fish and low-order consumers in Rock Creek, are experiencing some reduction in vitality, possibly due to immunosuppression. Abnormalities observed in gonads of both sexes of white sucker and observations of abnormal behavior during spawning indicated some interruption in reproductive success.

  15. Mercury and Methylmercury in Water and Bottom Sediments of Wetlands at Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge, North Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sando, Steven K.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Johnson, Kevin M.; Lundgren, Robert F.; Emerson, Douglas G.

    2007-01-01

    Certain ecosystem types, particularly wetlands, have environmental characteristics that can make them particularly sensitive to mercury inputs and that can result in large mercury concentrations in fish or other aquatic biota. To provide information needed to make effective management decisions to decrease human and wildlife exposure to methylmercury in northern prairie pothole wetlands, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the North Dakota Department of Health, conducted a study to assess mercury and methylmercury concentrations in wetlands at the Lostwood National Wildlife Refuge (the Refuge) in northwest North Dakota. In April 2003 and 2004, water and bottom-sediment samples were collected from 44 individual wetlands that were classified as one of four wetland types. Many factors that may affect methylmercury production were considered in the study. The prairie pothole wetlands at the Refuge had large ranges in major environmental characteristics. Hydrologic differences, most notably semiannual wetting and drying cycles, that are intrinsic to prairie pothole wetlands affected methylmercury concentrations. This likely resulted from the stimulation of anaerobic microbial activity following reflooding of soils, particularly soils containing substantial organic carbon. Among the four wetland types considered for this study, seasonal and semipermanent wetlands generally had the largest methylmercury concentrations. Regardless of wetland type, however, methylmercury concentrations at the Refuge are large in relation to reported concentrations for natural aquatic systems.

  16. Occurrence and Distribution of Mercury in the SurficialAquifer, Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Koterba, Michael T.; Andres, A. Scott; Vrabel, Joseph; Crilley, Dianna M.; Szabo, Zoltan; DeWild, John F.; Aiken, George R.; Reyes-Padro, Betzaida

    2006-01-01

    In January 2001, mercury (Hg) was detected (500 nanograms per liter, ng/L, or greater) in the distribution system of the Long Neck Water Company (LNWC), Pot Nets, Delaware. By April 2001, two LNWC production wells had been taken off-line because discharge concentrations of total mercury (HgT) either had exceeded or approached the Federal limit of 2,000 ng/L. From October 2003 through January 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey, Delaware Geological Survey, and Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control conducted a cooperative study to (a) determine if the Hg contamination was widespread, (b) identify possible forms of Hg in ground water, and (c) examine Hg occurrence in relation to (geo)chemical conditions and characteristics of ground water and sediment in the surficial aquifer on the Long Neck Peninsula, Sussex County, Delaware. An initial water-quality survey conducted with samples from 22 production wells revealed that concentrations of HgT in ground water in the surficial aquifer ranged from 0.11 to 1,820 ng/L. Shallow ground water (less than 120 feet below land surface) throughout most of the peninsula, including that which contained elevated concentrations of HgT (exceeding 100 ng/L), appeared to be affected by human activities. All samples contained volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and elevated nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N, exceeding 0.4 milligrams per liter, mg/L). Most (16 of 22) samples had elevated specific conductance (SC, in excess of 100 microsiemens per centimeter at 25 degrees Celsius). Elevated concentrations of HgT, however, only occurred in five production wells in the Pot Nets Bayside and Lakeside communities. The vertical distribution of HgT in shallow ground water (less than 80 feet below land surface) was determined with samples collected at 5 to 6 vertical-nest short-screened (2 - 5-foot length) monitoring wells installed near Bayside and Lakeside production wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng/L). Elevated concentrations ofHgT (100-6,380 ng/L) occurred in the shallow aquifer near each well at different depths. Chemical analyses of selected soil, fill, and aquifer sediment samples, obtained during the installation of nested wells, indicated that little HgT occurred in soil or fill at either site (40 micrograms per kilogram, ?g/kg, or less). No HgT was detected (less than 20 ?g/kg) in aquifer sediment samples. These low HgT concentrations imply that neither the soil, fill, nor aquifer sediment was a likely source of the elevated Hg in ground water. Given Hg occurrence appeared to be a ground-water transport phenomenon, the forms of Hg in transport were investigated. Differences in HgT concentrations between raw and filtered (0.1- and (or) 0.4-absolute micrometer pore size) samples from nested wells were random in sign and similar in magnitude to the variability in measuring HgT attributed to field and laboratory methods (? 5-10 percent, for HgT concentrations exceeding 100 ng/L). Thus, Hg transport likely occurred in a dissolved or fine-colloidal nonparticulate phase. Methyl mercury (HgMe) only was detected at low concentrations (0.06 ng/L or less) in nested-well samples with low to moderate concentrations of HgT (less than 366 ng/L). Whether HgMe occurred at similar concentrations in samples with high HgT concentrations was unresolved due to a sample-matrix interference problem. Potential complex forms of Hg were investigated in relation to the occurrence of selected ligands (organic carbon, sulfide, and chloride concentrations) and geochemical conditions (for example, pH and dissolved oxygen concentrations). Only dissolved organic carbon (DOC) appeared directly related to Hg occurrence. Elevated concentrations of HgT and DOC co-occurred in ground water at both Pot Nets sites. The average concentration of DOC was about four times greater in samples from the Pot Nets wells with the highest HgT concentrations (exceeding 1,000 ng/L) than in most Pot Nets o

  17. Persistence and Attainment of 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students: After 6 Years. First Look. NCES 2011-151

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Radford, Alexandria Walton; Berkner, Lutz; Wheeless, Sara C.; Shepherd, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    This "First Look" presents findings from the 2004/09 Beginning Postsecondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which collected information over a period of 6 years that describes the enrollment and employment experiences of a national sample of undergraduates who began their postsecondary education for the first time in the…

  18. Geology and preliminary hydrogeologic characterization of the cell-house site, Berlin, New Hampshire, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Degnan, James R.; Clark, Stewart F.; Harte, Philip T.; Mack, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    At the cell-house site, thin, generally less than 20-foot thick overburden, consisting of till and demolition materials, overlies fractured crystalline bedrock. Bedrock at the site consists of gneiss with thin discontinuous lenses of chlorite schist and discontinuous tabular pegmatite. Two distinct fracture domains, with principal trends to the west and northwest, and to the north, overlap near the site. The cell-house site shows principal trends common to both domains. Gneiss is the most abundant rock at the site. Steeply dipping fractures within the gneiss terminate on subhorizontal contacts with pegmatite and on moderately dipping contacts with chlorite schist. Steeply northwest-dipping en Echelon fracture zones, parallel joint zones, and silicified brittle faults show consistent strikes to the northeast. Gently east-dipping to subhorizontal fractures, sub-parallel to gneissosity, strike northeast. The impermeable cap, barrier wall, and bedrock surface topography affect ground-water flow in the overburden. There is relatively little ground-water flow in the overburden in the capped area and a poor hydraulic connection between the overburden and the underlying bedrock over most of the site. The overburden beneath the cap may receive inflow through or beneath the barrier wall, or by flow through vertical fractures in the underlying bedrock beneath the barrier wall. The bedrock aquifer near the river is well connected to the river and head difference in the bedrock across the site are large (greater than 13 ft). Horizontal hydraulic conductivities of 0.2 to 20 ft/d were estimated for the bedrock. Individual fractures or fracture zones likely have hydraulic conductivities greater than the bulk rock. Subhorizontal fractures occur at pegmatite contacts or along chlorite schist lenses and may serve as ground-water conduits to the steeply dipping fractures in gneiss. The effective hydraulic conductivity across the site is likely to be in the low range of the estimated values (0.2 ft/d). Ground water discharges to the river from the bedrock aquifer and is greatest during periods of large river stage fluctuations.

  19. Part-Time Undergraduates in Postsecondary Education: 2003-04. Postsecondary Education Descriptive Analysis Report. NCES 2007-165

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei

    2007-01-01

    After dramatic growth between 1970 and 1990, part-time students have formed a large and stable segment of the undergraduate population in U.S. postsecondary institutions (Hussar 2005). In fall 2004, approximately 5.5 million undergraduates were enrolled part time, making up 37 percent of the undergraduate enrollment in all degree-granting…

  20. Occurrence and Transport of Agricultural Chemicals in Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baker, Nancy T.; Stone, Wesley W.; Wilson, John T.; Meyer, Michael T.

    2006-01-01

    Leary Weber Ditch Basin, Hancock County, Indiana, is one of seven first-order basins selected from across the United States as part of the Agricultural Chemicals: Source, Transport, and Fate study conducted by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The nationwide study was designed to increase the understanding of the links between the sources of water and agricultural chemicals (nutrients and pesticides) and the transport and fate of these chemicals through the environment. Agricultural chemicals were detected in Leary Weber Ditch and in every associated hydrologic compartment sampled during 2003 and 2004. Pesticides were detected more frequently in samples collected from overland flow and from the ditch itself and less frequently in ground-water samples. The lowest concentrations of pesticides and nutrients were detected in samples of rain, soil water, and ground water. The highest concentrations of pesticides and nutrients were detected in samples of tile-drain water, overland flow, and water from Leary Weber Ditch. Samples collected from the tile drain, overland flow and Leary Weber Ditch soon after chemical applications to the fields and coincident with rainfall and increased streamflow had higher concentrations of pesticides and nutrients than samples collected a longer time after the chemicals were applied. A mass-balance mixing analysis based on potassium concentrations indicated that tile drains are the primary contributor of water to Leary Weber Ditch, but overland flow is also an important contributor during periods of high-intensity rainfall. When maximum rainfall intensity was 0.5 inches per hour or lower, overland flow contributed about 10 percent and tile drains contributed about 90 percent of the flow to Leary Weber Ditch. When maximum rainfall intensity was 0.75 inches per hour or greater, overland flow contributed about 40 percent and tile drains contributed about 60 percent of the flow to the ditch. Ground-water flow to Leary Weber Ditch was negligible. Tile drains are an important agricultural-chemical transport path to Leary Weber Ditch, based on the hydrologic contributions of overland flow and tile drains to the ditch. Overland flow is also an important agricultural-chemical transport pathway during high-intensity rainfall; however, storms with high-intensity rainfall are sporadic throughout the year. Tile drains and the soil water moving to the tile drains are the primary transport pathway for agricultural-chemical transport to Leary Weber Ditch during most storms as well as between storms.

  1. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, Jamie P.; Porter, Thomas J.

    2005-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2003, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,240 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,450 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,790 acre-feet. From 2002 to 2003, total withdrawals decreased by 10 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 4 percent, and municipal withdrawals decreased by 20 percent. Flowmeter testing was completed for 24 municipal wells in 2004. The median difference between pumping rates for the permanent meter and a test meter for all the sites tested was -2.9 percent. Values ranged from -10.9 percent at Forest Lake NTUA 1 to +7.8 percent at Rough Rock NTUA 2. From 2003 to 2004, water levels declined in 6 of 12 wells in the unconfined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 7 of 11 wells in the confined part of the aquifer, and the median change was -2.7 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2003, the median water-level change for 26 wells was -23.2 feet. Median water-level change were -6.1 feet for 14 wells in the unconfined parts of the aquifer and and -72.1 feet for 12 wells in the confined part. Discharges were measured once in 2003 and once in 2004 at four springs. Discharge stayed the same at Pasture Canyon Spring, increased 9 percent at Moenkopi Spring, decreased 26 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and decreased 50 percent at Burro Spring. For the past 12 years, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2003 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2003 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2003 at Dinnebito Wash, and 1994 to 2003 at Polacca Wash. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2004, water samples were collected from 12 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 100 to 649 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 11 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are no appreciable time trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells and 2 springs; increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 10 years of data for 2 springs.

  2. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny; Huntsberger, Briana

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  3. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: An Analysis of Second-Year (2005-06) Implementation. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas Center for Educational Research, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), a project sponsored by the Texas Education Agency (TEA), leverages federal Title II, Part D funds to support a wireless learning environment for high-need middle schools. A concurrent research project funded by a federal Evaluating State Educational Technology Programs grant is evaluating whether student…

  4. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona-2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2007-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400 square-mile Black Mesa area in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in northeastern Arizona because of continued water requirements for industrial and municipal use and the needs of a growing population. Precipitation in the Black Mesa area averages about 6 to 14 inches per year. The water monitoring program in the Black Mesa area began in 1971 and is designed to provide information about the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. This report presents results of data collected for the monitoring program in the Black Mesa area from January 2005 to September 2006. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2005, ground-water withdrawals in the Black Mesa area totaled 7,330 acre-feet, including ground-water withdrawals for industrial (4,480 acre-feet) and municipal (2,850 acre-feet) uses. From 2004 to 2005, total withdrawals increased by less than 2 percent, industrial withdrawals increased by approximately 3 percent, and total municipal withdrawals increased by 0.35 percent. From 2005 to 2006, annually measured water levels in the Black Mesa area declined in 10 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the N aquifer, and the median change was -0.5 foot. Measurements indicated that water levels declined in 12 of 15 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.4 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2006, the median water-level change for 29 wells was -8.5 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.2 foot for 13 wells in the unconfined areas and -46.6 feet for 16 wells in the confined area. Ground-water discharges were measured once in 2005 and once in 2006 at Moenkopi School Spring and Burro Spring. Discharge decreased by 3.5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring and by 15 percent at Burro Spring. During the period of record at each spring, discharges fluctuated; a decreasing trend was apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge in the Black Mesa area have been collected from streamflow gages at the following sites: Moenkopi Wash (1976 to 2005), Dinnebito Wash (1993 to 2005), Polacca Wash (1994 to 2005), Pasture Canyon Spring (August 2004 to December 2005), and Laguna Creek (1996 to 2005). Median flows during November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of the amount of ground-water discharge to the above named sites. For the period of record at each streamflow-gaging station, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. There is not a long enough period of record for Pasture Canyon Spring and Laguna Creek was discontinued at the end of December 2005. In 2006, water samples were collected from 6 wells and 2 springs in the Black Mesa area and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 111 to 588 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 5 of the wells and both of the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. Trends in the chemistry of water samples from the 6 wells show the Pi?on NTUA 1 and Peabody 9 wells increasing in dissolved solids, Forest Lake NTUA 1 and Peabody 2 wells decreasing in dissolved solids, and Kykotsmovi PM2 and Keams Canyon PM2 wells show a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids, chloride, and sulfate concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for the 2 springs.

  5. Relations Among the Use, Occurrence, and Flux of Azoxystrobin, Propiconazole, and Other Fungicides in US Streams, 2005-06

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Battaglin, W. A.; Sandstrom, M. W.

    2007-05-01

    Fungicides account for 10 percent of global pesticide use (0.25 million metric tons per year), and 6 percent of US use (33 thousand metric tons per year). Some fungicides such as chlorothalonil have been in use for decades (first US registration in 1966), while others such as azoxystrobin were introduced in the last decade (first US sales in 1996). Fungicide fate and transport is not well understood, but recent investigations have detected fungicides in precipitation, groundwater, streams, and streambed sediment. The occurrence of Asian soybean rust in the Southern US is of concern because of the increase in fungicide use that would result if it spreads to the Central US during the growing season. In the Central US many growers have never used fungicides to protect soybeans. The purpose of this study is to collect baseline data on fungicide occurrence in streams prior to the spread of Asian rust to soybeans in the Central US and the anticipated increase in fungicide use to control the rust. These data are then used to investigate relations among the occurrence and flux of fungicides in US streams, and the use of those products within the associated drainage basins. Water samples from streams in the Southern and Central US were collected in 2005 (26 sites, 40 samples) and 2006 (16 sites, 41 samples), and analyzed for up to 11 fungicides. This is the first study to monitor for several of these fungicides in environmental samples from locations in this region of the US. Chlorothalonil was used in all study basins but only detected in one sample from 2006. Azoxystrobin was detected in one or more samples from 12 of 26 sites in 2005 and 10 of 16 sites in 2006. Estimated daily fluxes of azoxystrobin ranged from zero to 440 grams/day but were not significantly correlated (p value = 0.3) with estimated azoxystrobin use in the upstream watershed. Estimated daily fluxes of propiconizole ranged from zero to 360 grams/day and were correlated (p value = <0.0001) with estimated propiconizole use. Results indicate that fungicides can readily enter aquatic systems where they may have toxic effects, and that their occurrence and flux in streams may be correlated with regional patterns of fungicide use.

  6. State of Washington. State Board for Community and Technical Colleges. Running Start: 2005-06 Annual Progress Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Board for Community and Technical Colleges, 2006

    2006-01-01

    This report provides an overview of the Running Start program; data about student participation rates and academic performance; updates on savings to families, taxpayers and the state; and new information about national trends in dual-credit programs. Running Start is a program that allows 11th and 12th grade students to take college courses at…

  7. Adding Up the Numbers: The Education Budget under Mayoral Control. Update and Summary of 2005-06 EPP Bulletins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connell, Noreen

    2007-01-01

    For more than a century, a succession of New York City (NYC) mayors have claimed that they were reducing administrative overhead in the school system and driving more resources to instruction. These claims have been dutifully reported by the press with rarely any effort to verify them. For the last 50 years, the salaries of teachers were increased…

  8. Findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2008-440

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Frank; Cornman, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    This report presents findings from the Pilot Teacher Compensation Survey (TCS), which collected data for school year 2005-2006. This pilot collection is a research and development effort to see if it is possible to collect and publish teacher-level data from the administrative records residing in state departments of education. Seven states…

  9. A Rapid Method for the Analysis of Paralytic Shellfish Toxins Utilizing Standard Pressure HPLC: Refinement of AOAC 2005.06.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Robert G; Punn, Rubi; Algoet, Myriam; Turner, Andrew D

    2016-01-01

    Superficially porous column technologies have previously been shown to provide faster chromatographic analysis of toxin oxidation products when analyzing shellfish for paralytic shellfish toxins. While sub 3 μm fused core columns have facilitated enhanced method performance, including significantly lower analysis times and lower LOD, they were also found to last for only a few hundred injections before pressure increases rendered them unusable with standard HPLC. Recently 5 μm superficially porous columns have become commercially available. In this study, a 5 μm fused core column was used to develop a fast chromatographic method for the analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins, with performance characteristics and column lifetime being assessed. The 5 μm column was found to be able to perform approximately 3000 injections without significant increases in back pressure or reduction in performance. Data generated using the column were found to be equivalent to that determined using current HPLC column technologies for both screening and quantitation methods. Furthermore, an increase in sensitivity for all toxins tested under the routine monitoring program for British waters was observed and the overall run time of the analysis halved. Overall, the 5 μm fused core column provided a significant increase in sample throughput, a reduction in mobile phase consumption, and an increase in method sensitivity.

  10. Modeling Water Temperature in the Yakima River, Washington, from Roza Diversion Dam to Prosser Dam, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voss, Frank D.; Curran, Christopher A.; Mastin, Mark C.

    2008-01-01

    A mechanistic water-temperature model was constructed by the U.S. Geological Survey for use by the Bureau of Reclamation for studying the effect of potential water management decisions on water temperature in the Yakima River between Roza and Prosser, Washington. Flow and water temperature data for model input were obtained from the Bureau of Reclamation Hydromet database and from measurements collected by the U.S. Geological Survey during field trips in autumn 2005. Shading data for the model were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in autumn 2006. The model was calibrated with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2005, and tested with data collected from April 1 through October 31, 2006. Sensitivity analysis results showed that for the parameters tested, daily maximum water temperature was most sensitive to changes in air temperature and solar radiation. Root mean squared error for the five sites used for model calibration ranged from 1.3 to 1.9 degrees Celsius (?C) and mean error ranged from ?1.3 to 1.6?C. The root mean squared error for the five sites used for testing simulation ranged from 1.6 to 2.2?C and mean error ranged from 0.1 to 1.3?C. The accuracy of the stream temperatures estimated by the model is limited by four errors (model error, data error, parameter error, and user error).

  11. The Division III Financial Aid Reporting Process: Findings and Review Results, 2005-06 through 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Collegiate Athletic Association (NJ1), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This report marks the completion of the 2008-09 reporting cycle and the fourth year of the Division III Financial Aid Reporting Program. The report examines findings for all reporting institutions from each of the four reporting cycles, and details the outcomes of the Division III Financial Aid Committee's 2008-09 review process. Four calculations…

  12. Applying the ECTS System to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree in Andalusia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serrano, Rosario Merida; Romero, Julia Angulo; Del Pino, Carmen Gil

    2008-01-01

    This article presents the research conducted as part of a Pilot Experiment regarding the application of the ECTS to the Childhood Education Teaching Degree taught at the University of Cordoba (Spain). It analyses the Experiment, which was carried out in the Education Faculty over the course of three academic years (2004/05, 2005/06 and 2006/07).…

  13. An Action-Research Programme with Secondary Education Teachers on Teaching and Learning Photosynthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Domingos-Grilo, Paula; Reis-Grilo, Carlos; Ruiz, Constantino; Mellado, Vicente

    2012-01-01

    We describe part of an action-research programme in Spain which was based on metacognitive reflection. The participants were four science teachers in a secondary school during the 2004-05 and 2005-06 academic years. During the study, they each analysed their own pupils' alternative ideas on photosynthesis and their teaching methods as recorded in…

  14. Inquiry-Learning with WebLab: Undergraduate Attitudes and Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Judith; Mitchell, Rudolph; del Alamo, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    The Microelectronics WebLab at MIT allows students to do actual (not simulated) laboratory research on state-of-the art equipment through the Internet. This study assesses the use of WebLab in a junior-level course on microelectronic devices and circuits in 2004-05 and 2005-06. In quantitative surveys and qualitative interviews, students and…

  15. A Teacher for Every Classroom: New Teachers in the Baltimore City Public Schools, 1999-2005. Brief Report Update, May 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mac Iver, Martha Abele; Katz, Gregory; Vaughn, E. Sidney

    2006-01-01

    This brief report provides an update to the analysis of five cohorts of new teachers in the Baltimore City Public School System (1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03, 2003-04). Presented here are updated retention figures using Baltimore City Public School System (BCPSS) teacher data for 2004-05, comparing teachers with different certification…

  16. WWC Quick Review of the Report "National Board Certification and Teacher Effectiveness: Evidence from a Random Assignment Experiment"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This study examined whether having a teacher with National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS) certification improves student achievement. The study analyzed data on about 3,800 second through fifth grade students taught by 198 teachers in the Los Angeles Unified School District. Study data were from 2003-04 and 2004-05. The authors…

  17. Comparison of Water Years 2004-05 and Historical Water-Quality Data, Upper Gunnison River Basin, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spahr, Norman E.; Hartle, David M.; Diaz, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Population growth and changes in land use have the potential to affect water quality and quantity in the upper Gunnison River Basin. In 1995, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Bureau of Land Management, City of Gunnison, Colorado River Water Conservation District, Crested Butte South Metropolitan District, Gunnison County, Hinsdale County, Mount Crested Butte Water and Sanitation District, National Park Service, Town of Crested Butte, Upper Gunnison River Water Conservancy District, and Western State College, established a water-quality monitoring program in the upper Gunnison River Basin to characterize current water-quality conditions and to assess the effects of increased urban development and other land-use changes on water quality. The monitoring network has evolved into two groups of stations - stations that are considered long term and stations that are considered rotational. The long-term stations are monitored to assist in defining temporal changes in water quality (how conditions may change over time). The rotational stations are monitored to assist in the spatial definition of water-quality conditions (how conditions differ throughout the basin) and to address local and short-term concerns. Some stations in the rotational group were changed beginning in water year 2007. Annual summaries of the water-quality data from the monitoring network provide a point of reference for discussions regarding water-quality monitoring in the upper Gunnison River Basin. This summary includes data collected during water years 2004 and 2005. The introduction provides a map of the sampling sites, definitions of terms, and a one-page summary of selected water-quality conditions at the network stations. The remainder of the summary is organized around the data collected at individual stations. Data collected during water years 2004 and 2005 are compared to historical data, State water-quality standards, and Federal water-quality guidelines. Data were collected following USGS protocols.

  18. Surface-Water Exchange through Culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schaffranek, Raymond W.; Stewart, Marc A.; Nowacki, Daniel J.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected hydrologic data between June 2004 and December 2005 to investigate the temporal and spatial nature of flow exchanges through culverts beneath State Road 9336 within Everglades National Park. Continuous data collected during the study measured flow velocity, water level, salinity, conductivity, and water-temperature in or near seven culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. The two culverts east of Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road flowed into Taylor Slough Basin from 87 to 96 percent of the study period, whereas flows through five culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond flowed into Shark River Slough Basin from 70 to 99 percent of the study period. Synoptic flow discharges measured at all culverts during three intensive field efforts revealed a net discharge into Taylor Slough Basin from Shark River Slough Basin through culverts between Royal Palm Road and Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road, and into Shark River Slough Basin from Taylor Slough Basin through culverts between Pa-hay-okee Overlook access road and Nine Mile Pond. Data collected during the study and presented in this report provided additional knowledge of the magnitude, direction, and nature of flow exchanges through the road culverts.

  19. Ground-water, surface-water, and water-chemistry data, Black Mesa area, northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Truini, Margot; Macy, J.P.

    2006-01-01

    The N aquifer is the major source of water in the 5,400-square-mile area of Black Mesa in northeastern Arizona. Availability of water is an important issue in this area because of continued industrial and municipal use, a growing population, and precipitation of about 6 to 14 inches per year. The monitoring program in the Black Mesa area has been operating since 1971 and is designed to determine the long-term effects of ground-water withdrawals from the N aquifer for industrial and municipal uses. The monitoring program includes measurements of (1) ground-water pumping, (2) ground-water levels, (3) spring discharge, (4) surface-water discharge, (5) ground-water chemistry, and (6) periodic testing of ground-water withdrawal meters. In 2004, total ground-water withdrawals were 7,210 acre-feet, industrial withdrawals were 4,370 acre-feet, and municipal withdrawals were 2,840 acre-feet. From 2003 to 2004, total withdrawals decreased by less than 1 percent, industrial withdrawals decreased by 2 percent, and municipal withdrawals increased by 2 percent. From 2004 to 2005, annually measured water levels declined in 6 of 13 wells in the unconfined areas of the aquifer, and the median change was -0.1 foot. Water levels declined in 8 of 12 wells in the confined area of the aquifer, and the median change was -1.2 feet. From the prestress period (prior to 1965) to 2005, the median water-level change for 33 wells was -9.0 feet. Median water-level changes were -0.6 foot for 16 wells in the unconfined areas and -32.0 feet for 17 wells in the confined area. Discharges were measured once in 2004 and once in 2005 at four springs. Discharge increased by 8 percent at Pasture Canyon Spring, decreased by 5 percent at Moenkopi School Spring, increased by 71 percent at an unnamed spring near Dennehotso, and stayed the same at Burro Spring. For the period of record at each spring, discharges from the four springs have fluctuated; however, an increasing or decreasing trend is not apparent. Continuous records of surface-water discharge have been collected from 1976 to 2004 at Moenkopi Wash, 1996 to 2004 at Laguna Creek, 1993 to 2004 at Dinnebito Wash, 1994 to 2004 at Polacca Wash, and August 2004 to December 2004 at Pasture Canyon Spring. Median flows for November, December, January, and February of each water year were used as an index of ground-water discharge to those streams. Since 1995, the median winter flows have decreased for Moenkopi Wash, Dinnebito Wash, and Polacca Wash. Since the first continuous record of surface-water discharge in 1997, there is no consistent trend in the median winter flow for Laguna Creek. In 2005, water samples were collected from 11 wells and 4 springs and analyzed for selected chemical constituents. Dissolved-solids concentrations ranged from 122 to 639 milligrams per liter. Water samples from 9 of the wells and from all the springs had less than 500 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. There are some long-term trends in the chemistry of water samples from 7 wells having more than 10 years of data and from 2 springs. Rough Rock PM5, Keams Canyon PM2, Second Mesa PM2, and Kayenta PM2 show an increasing trend in dissolved solids; Forest Lake NTUA1 and PWCC 2 show a decreasing trend in dissolved solids; and Kykostmovi PM2 shows a steady trend. Increasing trends in dissolved-solids and chloride concentrations were evident from the more than 11 years of data for 2 springs.

  20. Ground-Water, Surface-Water, and Water-Chemistry Data, Black Mesa Area, Northeastern Arizona--2004-05

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-27

    aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona, 2004 …………………………………… 7 Figure 5. MAp showing water-level changes in N aquifer wells from the prestress period to 2005...area, Arizona, 2004 ……………………………………………………………………… 8 Table 4. Withdrawals from the N aquifer by water-use category for 1965-2004 and for other periods ...Black Mesa, Arizona …………………………………………… 8 Table 5. Water-level changes in wells completed in the N aquifer, Black Mesa area, Arizona, prestress period

  1. Numbers and Rates of Public High School Dropouts: School Year 2004-05. First Look (NCES 2008-305)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Gaviola, Nick; Hoffman, Lee

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  2. Staff in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2003, and Salaries of Full-Time Instructional Faculty, 2003-04. E.D. TAB. NCES 2005-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Huh, Seungho; Zhao, Luhua; Levine, Burton; Ginder, Scott; Wang, Jean; Broyles, Susan G.

    2005-01-01

    The Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) is designed to collect data from postsecondary institutions in the United States (50 states and the District of Columbia) and other jurisdictions, such as Puerto Rico. For IPEDS, a postsecondary institution is defined as an organization open to the public that has as its primary mission…

  3. Results of Analyses of the Fungicide Chlorothalonil, Its Degradation Products, and Other Selected Pesticides at 22 Surface-Water Sites in Five Southern States, 2003-04

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    050 3-hydroxycarbofuran .008 benfluralin .010 3-ketocarbofuran .020 butylate .004 acifluorfen .028 carbaryl .041 aldicarb .040 carbofuran .020...005 bromoxynil .028 dieldrin .009 caffeine .018 disulfoton .021 carbaryl .018 EPTC (s-ethyl dipropylthiocarbamate) .004 carbofuran .016 ethalfluralin...040 tri-allate .006 norflurazon .020 trifluralin .009 oryzalin .012 oxamyl .030 picloram .032 propham .030 propiconazole .010 propoxur .008 siduron

  4. Environmental and Biological Data of the Nutrient Enrichment Effects on Stream Ecosystems Project of the National Water Quality Assessment Program, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brightbill, Robin A.; Munn, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    In 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency began the process of developing regional nutrient criteria for streams and rivers. In response to concerns about nutrients by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and others, the U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program began studying the effects of nutrient enrichment on agricultural stream ecosystems to aid in the understanding of how nutrients affect the biota in agricultural streams. Streams within five study areas were sampled either in 2003 or 2004. These five study areas were located within six NAWQA study units: the combined Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACFB) and Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain Drainages (GAFL), Central Columbia Plateau?Yakima River Basin (CCYK), Central Nebraska Basins (CNBR), Potomac River?Delmarva Peninsula (PODL), and the White-Miami River Basin (WHMI). Data collected included nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and other chemical parameters, biological samples (chlorophyll, algal assemblages, invertebrate assemblages, and some fish assemblages), stream habitat, and riparian and basin information. This report describes and presents the data collected from these study areas.

  5. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO, which is located adjacent to the loss zone, was similar to the concentration in the stream. Fluorescein arrived at well NON (injection at site S1), which is located about 2 miles northeast of the loss zone, within about 1.6 days, and the maximum concentration was 44 ug/L. For injection at site S4, when streamflow was about 12 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from six wells and time to first arrival ranged from 0.2 to 16 days. Following injection at site S4 in 2004, the length of time that dye remained in the capture zone of well NON, which is located approximately 2 miles from the loss zone, was almost an order of magnitude greater than in 2003. For injection at site R1, Rhodamine WT was detected at well DRU and spring TI-SP with time to first arrival of about 0.5 and 1.1 days and maximum concentrations of 6.2 and 0.91 ug/L, respectively. Well DRU and spring TI-SP are located near the center of the Rapid Creek loss zone where the creek has a large meander. Measurable concentrations were observed for spring TI-SP as many as 109 days after the dye injection. The direction of a conduit flow path in the Spring Creek area was to the northeast with ground-water velocities that ranged from 770 to 6,500 feet per day. In the Rapid Creek loss zone, a conduit flow path east of the loss zone was not evident from the dye injection.

  6. Postsecondary Expectations and Plans for the High School Senior Class of 2003-04. Issue Tables. NCES 2010-170rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Wu, Joanna; Tasoff, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    Increasing numbers of students expect to attend college after high school (U.S. Department of Education 2006). This set of Issue Tables, the second in a series examining students' preparation for college, draws on data from the Education Longitudinal Study of 2002 (ELS:02) to highlight postsecondary expectations and plans among the senior class of…

  7. Use of Private Loans by Postsecondary Students: Selected Years 2003-04 through 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCEA 2017-420

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.; Velez, Erin Dunlop

    2016-01-01

    Statistics in Brief publications present descriptive data in tabular formats to provide useful information to a broad audience, including members of the general public. They address simple and topical issues and questions. Using data from 2011-12, this Statistics in Brief updates and expands on a previous National Center for Education Statistics…

  8. First-Year Undergraduate Remedial Coursetaking: 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08. Statistics in Brief. NCES 2013-013

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Dinah; Malkus, Nat

    2013-01-01

    A primary goal of the U.S. Department of Education's Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) Blueprint for Reform is to improve the college readiness of high school graduates (U.S. Department of Education 2010). College readiness is a complex benchmark and has been measured in several ways, including transcript analysis (Adelman 2006) and…

  9. Documentation to the NCES Common Core of Data Public Elementary/Secondary School Locale Code File: School Year 2003-04. Version 1a. NCES 2006-332

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geverdt, Douglas; Phan, Tai

    2006-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) Nonfiscal surveys consist of data submitted annually by state education agencies (SEAs) to the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). School, local education agency, and state data are sent to NCES by SEA personnel who are designated CCD Coordinators. The data are edited and maintained in machine-readable…

  10. Ground-water/surface-water interaction in nearshore areas of Three Lakes on the Grand Portage Reservation, northeastern Minnesota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Perry M.

    2006-01-01

    Knowledge of general water-flow directions in lake watersheds and how they may change seasonally can help water-quality specialists and lake managers address a variety of water-quality and aquatic habitat protection issues for lakes. Results from this study indicate that ground-water and surface-water interactions at the study lakes are complex, and the ability of the applied techniques to identify ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage locations varied among the lakes. Measurement of lake-sediment temperatures proved to be a reliable and relatively inexpensive reconnaissance technique that lake managers may apply in complex settings to identify general areas of ground-water inflow and surface-water outseepage.

  11. STEM in Postsecondary Education: Entrance, Attrition, and Coursetaking among 2003-04 Beginning Postsecondary Students. Web Tables. NCES 2013-152

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Ho, Phoebe

    2012-01-01

    Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields are widely regarded as critical to the national economy. To provide a nationally representative portrait of undergraduate students' experiences in STEM education, these Web Tables summarize longitudinal data from a cohort of first-time, beginning students who started postsecondary…

  12. Part-Time Students and Part-Time Study in Higher Education in the UK: Strand 1--A Quantitative Data Analysis of 2003/04 HESA Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsden, Brian

    2006-01-01

    This is a report of the Strand 1 element of the Universities UK project to examine part-time students and part-time study within the United Kingdom. The aim of Strand 1 of this project is to set out, as far as possible, factual information about students studying part-time and following programmes of study leading to higher education…

  13. Total Mercury, Methylmercury, Methylmercury Production Potential, and Ancillary Streambed-Sediment and Pore-Water Data for Selected Streams in Oregon, Wisconsin, and Florida, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Aiken, George R.; Orem, William H.; Hall, Britt D.; DeWild, John F.; Brigham, Mark E.

    2008-01-01

    Mercury contamination of aquatic ecosystems is an issue of national concern, affecting both wildlife and human health. Detailed information on mercury cycling and food-web bioaccumulation in stream settings and the factors that control these processes is currently limited. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) conducted detailed studies from 2002 to 2006 on various media to enhance process-level understanding of mercury contamination, biogeochemical cycling, and trophic transfer. Eight streams were sampled for this study: two streams in Oregon, and three streams each in Wisconsin and Florida. Streambed-sediment and pore-water samples were collected between February 2003 and September 2004. This report summarizes the suite of geochemical and microbial constituents measured, the analytical methods used, and provides the raw data in electronic form for both bed-sediment and pore-water media associated with this study.

  14. Ground-Water Quality Beneath Irrigated Cropland of the Northern and Southern High Plains Aquifer, Nebraska and Texas, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stanton, Jennifer S.; Fahlquist, Lynne

    2006-01-01

    A study of the quality of ground water beneath irrigated cropland was completed for the northern and southern High Plains aquifer. Ground-water samples were collected from 30 water-table monitoring wells in the northern agricultural land-use (NAL) study area in Nebraska in 2004 and 29 water-table monitoring wells in the southern agricultural land-use (SAL) study area in Texas in 2003. The two study areas represented different agricultural and hydrogeologic settings. The primary crops grown in the NAL study area were corn and soybeans, and the primary crop in the SAL study area was cotton. Overall, pesticide and fertilizer application rates were larger in the NAL study area. Also, precipitation and recharge rates were greater in the NAL study area, and depths to water and evapotranspiration rates were greater in the SAL study area. Ground-water quality beneath irrigated cropland was different in the two study areas. Nitrate concentrations were larger and pesticide detections were more frequent in the NAL study area. Nitrate concentrations in NAL samples ranged from 1.96 to 106 mg/L (milligrams per liter) as nitrogen, with a median concentration of 10.6 mg/L. Water in 73 percent of NAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. Most of the pesticide compounds detected (atrazine, alachlor, metolachlor, simazine, and degradates of those pesticides) are applied to corn and soybean fields. Nitrate concentrations in SAL samples ranged from 0.96 to 21.6 mg/L, with a median of 4.12 mg/L. Water in 24 percent of SAL samples had at least one pesticide or pesticide degradate detected. The pesticide compounds detected were deethylatrazine (a degradate of atrazine and propazine), propazine, fluometuron, and tebuthiuron. Most of the pesticides detected are applied to cotton fields. Dissolved-solids concentrations were larger in the SAL area and were positively correlated with both nitrate and chloride concentrations, suggesting a combination of human and natural sources. Dissolved-solids concentrations in NAL samples ranged from 272 to 2,160 mg/L, with a median of 442 mg/L, and dissolved solids in SAL samples ranged from 416 to 3,580 mg/L, with a median of 814 mg/L.

  15. Getting Ready for College: Financial Concerns and Preparation among the High School Senior Class of 2003-04. Issue Tables. NCES 2010-204

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Xianglei; Wu, Joanna; Tasoff, Shayna

    2010-01-01

    With college tuition rising significantly over the past three decades (Snyder, Dillow, and Hoffman 2009), students and parents have become increasingly concerned about college affordability, financial aid, and financial preparations for postsecondary education. This set of Issue Tables, one of a series examining students' preparation for college,…

  16. Simulation of Constituent Transport in the Red River of the North Basin, North Dakota and Minnesota, During Unsteady-Flow Conditions, 1977 and 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nustad, Rochelle A.; Bales, Jerad D.

    2006-01-01

    The Bureau of Reclamation identified eight water-supply alternatives for the Red River Valley Water Supply Project. Of those alternatives, six were considered for this study. Those six alternatives include a no-action alternative, two in-basin alternatives, and three interbasin alternatives. To address concerns of stakeholders and to provide information for an environmental impact statement, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Bureau of Reclamation, developed and applied a water-quality model to simulate the transport of total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, sodium, and total phosphorus during unsteady-flow conditions and to simulate the effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and the Sheyenne River. The physical domain of the model, hereinafter referred to as the Red River model, includes the Red River from Wahpeton, North Dakota, to Emerson, Manitoba, and the Sheyenne River from below Baldhill Dam, North Dakota, to the confluence with the Red River. Boundary conditions were specified for May 15 through October 31, 2003, and January 15 through June 30, 2004. Measured streamflow data were available for August 1 through October 31, 2003, and April 1 through June 30, 2004, but water-quality data were available only for September 15 through 16, 2003, and May 10 through 13, 2004. The water-quality boundary conditions were assumed to be time invariant for the entire calibration period and to be equal to the measured value. The average difference between the measured and simulated streamflows was less than 4 percent for both calibration periods, and most differences were less than 2 percent. The average differences are considered to be acceptable because the differences are less than 5 percent, or the same as the error that would be expected in a typical streamflow measurement. Simulated total dissolved solids, sulfate, chloride, and sodium concentrations generally were less than measured concentrations for both calibration periods. The average absolute differences generally were less than 25 percent. Total phosphorus was simulated as a nonconservative constituent by assuming that concentrations change according to a first-order decay rate. The average difference between the measured and simulated total phosphorus concentrations was 6.2 percent for the 2003 calibration period and -24 percent for the 2004 calibration period. The Red River model demonstrates sensitivity to changes in boundary conditions so a reasonable assumption is that the model can be used to compare relative effects of the various water-supply alternatives. The calibrated Red River model was used to simulate the effects of the six water-supply alternatives by using measured streamflows for September 1, 1976, through August 31, 1977, when streamflows throughout the Red River Basin were relatively low. Streamflows for the Red River at Fargo, North Dakota, were less than 17.9 cubic feet per second on 159 days of that 12-month period, and monthly average streamflows for the Red River at Grand Forks, North Dakota, and the Red River at Emerson, Manitoba, were less than 30 percent of the respective long-term average monthly streamflows for 11 of the 12 months during September 1976 through August 1977. Water-quality boundary conditions were generated using a stochastic approach in which probability distributions derived from all available historical data on instream concentrations were used to produce daily concentrations at model boundaries. Return flow concentrations were estimated from source concentrations and current (2006) wastewater-treatment technology. Because no historical information on ungaged local inflow constituent concentrations is available to estimate those boundary conditions, time-invariant concentrations for the low-flow 2003 calibration period were used as the ungaged local inflow boundary conditions. The effects of the water-supply alternatives on water quality in the Red River and

  17. Screening of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi isolates obtained from small companion animals for antimicrobial resistance: a retrospective review of 749 isolates (2003-04).

    PubMed

    Morris, Daniel O; Rook, Kathryn A; Shofer, Frances S; Rankin, Shelley C

    2006-10-01

    Companion animal staphylococcal isolate antibiograms were screened retrospectively to determine the frequency of methicillin-resistant (MR) infection by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, and Staphylococcus schleiferi. Rates of MR were: S. aureus 35%, S. intermedius 17%, and S. schleiferi 40%. Frequency of isolation of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) from dogs and cats was similar, whereas methicillin-resistant S. intermedius (MRSI) and methicillin-resistant S. schleiferi (MRSS) were significantly more common in dogs. MRSS was more commonly associated with superficial (skin and ear canal) infections, whereas MRSA was more commonly associated with deep infections. The MR strain resistance pattern to other classes of antibiotics was also investigated. MRSA was resistant to the most classes of antibiotics, followed by MRSI, while MRSS maintained the most favourable susceptibility profile. MR staphylococci may pose a significant risk to animal and public health. Therefore, to avoid selecting for resistant strains in cases of suspected staphylococcal infection, clinicians should consider culture and susceptibility testing early in the course of treatment.

  18. "You Can Only Get a Degree!" Theoretically Situating the Alterations to the Back to Education Allowance Welfare to Education Programme of 2003/04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    This article critically examines the Back to Education Allowance (BTEA) as a mechanism of social inclusion for Irish welfare recipients through participation in third-level education. The article is based on empirical data from focus group and in-depth qualitative interviews with third-level students on the BTEA, and key informants. The article…

  19. Are Principal Background and School Processes Related to Teacher Job Satisfaction? A Multilevel Study Using Schools and Staffing Survey 2003-04

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Jianping; Leslie, Jeffrey M.; Spybrook, Jessaca K.; Ma, Xin

    2012-01-01

    Using nationally representative samples for public school teachers and principals, the authors inquired into whether principal background and school processes are related to teacher job satisfaction. Employing hierarchical linear modeling (HLM), the authors were able to control for background characteristics at both the teacher and school levels.…

  20. Chloride concentrations and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek, Teton County, Wyoming, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eddy-Miller, Cheryl A.; Wheeler, Jerrod D.

    2010-01-01

    Fish Creek, an approximately 25-kilometer long tributary to the Snake River, is located in Teton County in western Wyoming near the town of Wilson. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Teton Conservation District, conducted a study to determine the interaction of local surface water and groundwater in and near Fish Creek. In conjunction with the surface water and groundwater interaction study, samples were collected for analysis of chloride and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in water. Chloride concentrations ranged from 2.9 to 26.4 milligrams per liter (mg/L) near Teton Village, 1.2 to 4.9 mg/L near Resor's Bridge, and 1.8 to 5.0 mg/L near Wilson. Stable isotope data for hydrogen and oxygen in water samples collected in and near the three cross sections on Fish Creek are shown in relation to the Global Meteoric Water Line and the Local Meteoric Water Line.

  1. Variations in Magmatic He, CO2 and δ13 C during the 2005-06 Seafloor Eruption Near 9°50'N on the East Pacific Rise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graham, D. W.; Michael, P. J.; Rubin, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    We report dissolved (glass) CO2 concentrations, plus vesicle He and C isotope compositions and He and CO2 abundances, for a suite of 23 basalt glasses from the 2005-2006 eruption on the East Pacific Rise. This sample suite provides a unique opportunity to study magma recharge along the mid-ocean ridge, to quantify degassing prior to and during eruption, and to evaluate the extent to which mantle carbon is incorporated into hydrothermal fluids and ultimately into seafloor ecosystems. Our work covers the full spatial and temporal extent of the months-long eruption (ages from 210Po-210Pb dating), and is complementary to a previous study of volatile changes with distance from the vent during part of the eruptive episode (Soule et al. 2013; EPSL). Vesicle 3He/4He is uniform at 8.56±0.04(1σ) RA. Vesicle He and CO2 abundances vary by factors of 17 and 230, respectively. The variability in CO2/He ratio is evidence for kinetic fractionation of He from CO2 during vesiculation, and reveals the potential for using vesicle CO2/He as a relative geo-speedometer for the rate of magma ascent and lava emplacement. Nearly all samples lie in a narrow range of 280-370 ppm for total CO2 (vesicles+glass) suggesting saturation at a depth of ~1.5 km in the crust, similar to the depth of the seismically imaged magma lens. Vesicle CO2/He co-varies positively with the fraction of CO2 contained in vesicles (r2=0.94) and negatively with vesicle δ13C (r2=0.83). The δ13C ranges from -2.6 to -5 per mil, and straddles the value for CO2 in EPR vent fluids (M. Lilley, pers. comm.). The C isotope results are consistent with vapor phase 13C-enrichment during CO2 exsolution from a basaltic melt, as determined experimentally (Javoy et al. 1978; Contrib Mineral Petrol). Collectively the observations are explained by quasi-closed-system degassing, where melt ascent from the magma lens was sufficiently rapid that minimal bubble loss occurred during the eruption and flow of lava onto the seafloor.

  2. Nutrient and biological conditions of selected small streams in the Edwards Plateau, central Texas, 2005-06, and implications for development of nutrient criteria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabe, Jeffrey A.

    2007-01-01

    During the summers of 2005 and 2006 the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, evaluated nutrient and biological conditions in small streams in parts of the Edwards Plateau of Central Texas. Land-cover analysis was used to select 15 small streams that represented a gradient of conditions with the potential to affect nutrient concentrations across the study area, which comprises two of four subregions of the Edwards Plateau ecoregion. All 15 streams were sampled for water properties, nutrients, algae, benthic invertebrates, and fish in summer 2005, and eight streams were resampled in summer 2006. Streams that did not receive wastewater effluent had relatively low nutrient concentrations and were classified as oligotrophic; streams receiving wastewater effluent had relatively high nutrient concentrations and were classified as eutrophic. Nutrient concentrations measured in the least-disturbed streams closely matched the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency nutrient criteria recommendations based on estimated reference concentrations. Nitrogen/phosphorus ratios indicated streams not affected by wastewater effluent might be limited by phosphorus concentrations. Algal indicators of nutrient condition were closely related to dissolved nitrogen concentrations and streamflow conditions. Ambient dissolved nitrogen concentrations (nitrite plus nitrate) were positively correlated with benthic algal chlorophyll-a concentrations. The correlation of benthic algal chlorophyll-a with instantaneous nitrite plus nitrate load was stronger than correlations with ambient nutrients. Increased nutrient concentrations were associated with increased macroalgae cover, wider diel dissolved oxygen ranges, and reduced diel dissolved oxygen minimums. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High to Exceptional in study streams despite the influence of urbanization or wastewater effluent. Reductions in aquatic life use scores appeared to be related to extremely low flow conditions and the loss of riffle habitats. Benthic invertebrate aquatic life use scores and several of the metrics used to compute composite aquatic life use scores tended to increase with increasing total nitrogen concentrations. Fish community aquatic life use scores generally were classified as High or Exceptional with the exception of a few samples collected from streams receiving wastewater effluent that were classified as Intermediate. Fish community aquatic life use scores and several fish community metrics were positively correlated with nutrient concentrations and macroalgae cover. The majority of the positive correlations among nutrient concentrations, macroalgae cover, and fish metrics were strongly influenced by relatively high nutrient concentrations. Both benthic and planktonic chlorophyll-a measures were related to nutrients, but this study indicates that benthic chlorophyll-a was the better choice for monitoring nutrient enrichment because (1) the relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients was stronger, and (2) a strong relation between benthic chlorophyll-a and nutrients persisted after removal of the sites influenced by wastewater effluent, which indicates superior ability of benthic chlorophyll-a to discriminate between conditions at lower nutrient concentrations. The transect-based algal abundance estimate technique is a useful tool for identifying eutrophic conditions, assessing nuisance algal growth, and making broad comparisons among sites, but it appears to lack the fine resolution to identify lesser degrees of nutrient enrichment. Several individual benthic invertebrate and fish metrics were correlated with nutrient conditions, but correlations were generally positive and the reverse of what would be expected when nutrient enrichment causes a proliferation of algal growth and stream degradation. However, the benthic invertebrate functional feeding group metrics showed some

  3. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2005-06

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Vocational and Adult Education, US Department of Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" (commonly referred to as "Perkins," "Perkins III," or "the Act" and referred to hereafter as Perkins III) requires, in Sec. 113(c)(3)(C), that the secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by…

  4. UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PROGRAMS IN ROBOTICS, TECHNOLOGIES FOR MICROELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS IN DIRECTED STOCKPILE WORK RADIATION AND ENGINEERING CAMPAIGNS - 2005-06 FINAL ANNUAL REPORT

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Dean Schoenfeld; David Hintenlang; Carl Crane; Shannon Ridgeway; Jose Santiago; Charles Scheer

    2006-11-30

    The research performed by the University of Florida (UF) is directed to the development of technologies that can be utilized at a micro-scale in varied environments. Work is focused on micro-scale energy systems, visualization, and mechanical devices. This work will impact the NNSA need related to micro-assembly operations. The URPR activities are executed in a University environment, yet many applications of the resulting technologies may be classified or highly restrictive in nature. The NNSA robotics technologists apply an NNSA needs focus to the URPR research, and actively work to transition relevant research into the deployment projects in which they are involved. This provides a “Research to Development to Application” structure within which innovative research has maximum opportunity for impact without requiring URPR researchers to be involved in specific NNSA projects. URPR researchers need to be aware of the NNSA applications in order to ensure the research being conducted has relevance, the URPR shall rely upon the NNSA sites for direction.

  5. Deaths averted by influenza vaccination in the U.S. during the seasons 2005/06 through 2013/14☆

    PubMed Central

    Foppa, Ivo M.; Cheng, Po-Yung; Reynolds, Sue B.; Shay, David K.; Carias, Cristina; Bresee, Joseph S.; Kim, Inkyu K.; Gambhir, Manoj; Fry, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Background Excess mortality due to seasonal influenza is substantial, yet quantitative estimates of the benefit of annual vaccination programs on influenza-associated mortality are lacking. Methods We estimated the numbers of deaths averted by vaccination in four age groups (0.5 to 4, 5 to 19, 20 to 64 and ≥65 yrs.) for the nine influenza seasons from 2005/6 through 2013/14. These estimates were obtained using a Monte Carlo approach applied to weekly U.S. age group-specific estimates of influenza-associated excess mortality, monthly vaccination coverage estimates and summary seasonal influenza vaccine effectiveness estimates to obtain estimates of the number of deaths averted by vaccination. The estimates are conservative as they do not include indirect vaccination effects. Results From August, 2005 through June, 2014, we estimated that 40,127 (95% confidence interval [CI] 25,694 to 59,210) deaths were averted by influenza vaccination. We found that of all studied seasons the most deaths were averted by influenza vaccination during the 2012/13 season (9398; 95% CI 2,386 to 19,897) and the fewest during the 2009/10 pandemic (222; 95% CI 79 to 347). Of all influenza-associated deaths averted, 88.9% (95% CI 83 to 92.5%) were in people ≥65 yrs. old. Conclusions The estimated number of deaths averted by the US annual influenza vaccination program is considerable, especially among elderly adults and even when vaccine effectiveness is modest, such as in the 2012/13 season. As indirect effects (“herd immunity”) of vaccination are ignored, these estimates represent lower bound estimates and are thus conservative given valid excess mortality estimates PMID:25812842

  6. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2005-06 (Fiscal Year 2006). First Look. NCES 2008-328

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei

    2008-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  7. Characteristics of the 100 Largest Public Elementary and Secondary School Districts in the United States: 2005-06. Statistical Analysis Report. NCES 2008-339

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garofano, Anthony; Sable, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This report describes the characteristics of the 100 largest public elementary and secondary school districts in the United States and its jurisdictions. These districts are defined as the 100 largest according to the size of their student population. The information in this report was provided by state education agency officials to the National…

  8. Water-quality, sediment-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data for Mustang Bayou near Houston, Texas, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sneck-Fahrer, Debra A.; East, Jeffery W.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Houston-Galveston Area Council and the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, collected water-quality, stream-habitat, and biological data from six sites (downstream order M6-M1) primarily in Brazoria County southeast of Houston, Texas, during September 2004-August 2005 and collected bed sediment data from one site in September 2005. Water-quality data collection consisted of continuously monitored (for periods of 24 hours to several days, six times) water temperature, pH, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen and periodically collected samples of several properties and constituents. Monitored dissolved oxygen measurements were below minimum and 24-hour criteria at all sites except M2. Nitrogen compounds, phosphorus, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll-a, E. coli, chloride, sulfate, solids, suspended sediment concentration, and pesticides were assessed at all sites. Concentrations of nitrogen compounds and phosphorus did not exceed Texas State screening levels. Biochemical oxygen demand was less than 4.0 milligrams per liter at all sites except M6, where the maximum concentration was 8.1 milligrams per liter. Concentrations of chlorophyll-a were less than the State screening level at all sites except M6, where four of eight samples equaled or exceeded the screening level. Twenty of 48 samples from Mustang Bayou had E. coli densities that exceeded the State single-sample water-quality standard. Median chloride concentrations from each site were between 42.2 and 123 milligrams per liter. Fifteen pesticide compounds (six herbicides and nine insecticides) were detected in 24 water samples. The most frequently detected pesticide was atrazine, which was found in every sample. Other frequently detected pesticides were 2-chloro-4-isopropylamino-6-amino-s-triazine (CIAT), prometon, tebuthiuron, fipronil, and the pesticide degradates, fipronil sulfide and fipronil sulfone. Sediment samples were collected from the stream bottom at M1 and analyzed for concentrations of trace elements (metals), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides, and polychlorinated biphenyls. No organochlorine pesticides or polychlorinated biphenyls were detected. No concentrations of metals exceeded State screening levels. Measurable concentrations of 11 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) compounds were detected, and three other PAH compounds were detected but not quantified by the laboratory. Stream habitat and aquatic biota (benthic macroinvertebrates and fish) were surveyed at each site three times during the study to evaluate aquatic life use. Characteristics of habitat measured during each survey were scored using a habitat quality index. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' for M3-M6 and 'intermediate' for M1 and M2. A total of 2,557 macroinvertebrate individuals were identified from Mustang Bayou. Benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages were scored using indexes specified by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Average aquatic-life-use scores were 'limited' at M1, 'intermediate' at M3-M6, and 'high' at M2. Forty-six species of fish representing 20 families were collected from Mustang Bayou. A total of 4,115 fish were collected. Sunfish (Centrarchidae) was the most abundant family, accounting for about 28 percent. Aquatic-life-use scores at sites in Mustang Bayou were determined using the regional index of biotic integrity for ecoregion 34 and were 'high' for all sites.

  9. Comparison of Pumped and Diffusion Sampling Methods to Monitor Concentrations of Perchlorate and Explosive Compounds in Ground Water, Camp Edwards, Cape Cod, Massachusetts, 2004-05

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LeBlanc, Denis R.; Vroblesky, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory and field tests were conducted at Camp Edwards on the Massachusetts Military Reservation on Cape Cod to examine the utility of passive diffusion sampling for long-term monitoring of concentrations of perchlorate and explosive compounds in ground water. The diffusion samplers were constructed of 1-inch-diameter rigid, porous polyethylene tubing. The results of laboratory tests in which diffusion samplers were submerged in containers filled with ground water containing perchlorate, RDX (hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine), and HMX (octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine) indicate that concentrations inside the diffusion samplers equilibrated with concentrations in the containers within the 19-day-long test period. Field tests of the diffusion samplers were conducted in 15 wells constructed of 2- or 2.5-inch-diameter polyvinyl chloride pipe with 10-foot-long slotted screens. Concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX in the diffusion samplers placed in the wells for 42 to 52 days were compared to concentrations in samples collected by low-flow pumped sampling from 53 days before to 109 days after retrieval of the diffusion samples. The results of the field tests indicate generally good agreement between the pumped and diffusion samples for concentrations of perchlorate, RDX, and HMX. The concentration differences indicate no systematic bias related to contaminant type or concentration levels.

  10. Maine's Personalized Alternate Assessment Portfolio (PAAP) Rubrics, 2004-05 Rubric Levels 1-4 for English Language Arts (Reading and Writing), Mathematics, and Science and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The PAAP Rubrics are designed for planning and implementation of the State's alternate assessment to the MEA, the PAAP. The PAAP has been designed to allow participation in the MEA for those students who require accommodations so significant that they would compromise the validity of the assessment (i.e., student would need accommodations that are…

  11. Evaluation of the Texas Technology Immersion Pilot: Final Outcomes for a Four-Year Study (2004-05 to 2007-08)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapley, Kelly; Sheehan, Daniel; Maloney, Catherine; Caranikas-Walker, Fanny

    2009-01-01

    The Technology Immersion Pilot (TIP), created by the Texas Legislature in 2003, was based on the assumption that the use of technology in Texas public schools could be achieved more effectively by "immersing" schools in technology rather than by introducing technology resources, such as hardware, software, digital content, and educator…

  12. Stasis and Change: Faculty Satisfaction, Stress and University Priorities. An Analysis of the 1998-99 and 2004-05 HERI Faculty Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leimer, Christina

    2006-01-01

    HERI Faculty Surveys administered in Fall 1998 and Spring 2005 at California State University-Fresno were analyzed to assess change in faculty satisfaction, stress, and perceived importance of University priorities by academic rank, gender, and race/ethnicity. Each survey sample was weighted to match its population then analyzed separately using…

  13. Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998. Report to Congress on State Performance, Program Year 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The "Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act of 1998" requires that the Secretary provide the appropriate committees of Congress copies of annual reports received by the department from each eligible agency that receives funds under the Act. Congress has made "accountability for results" a central focus of the…

  14. Revenues and Expenditures for Public Elementary and Secondary Education: School Year 2004-05 (Fiscal Year 2005). First Look. NCES 2007-356

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Lei; Honegger, Steven; Gaviola, Nick

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual collection of public elementary and secondary education data administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings on public education…

  15. Sources of inoculum for Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest.

    PubMed

    Davidson, J M; Patterson, H A; Rizzo, D M

    2008-08-01

    ABSTRACT Sources of inoculum were investigated for dominant hosts of Phytophthora ramorum in a redwood forest. Infected trunks, twigs, and/or leaves of bay laurel (Umbellularia californica), tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus), and redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) were tested in the laboratory for sporangia production. Sporangia occurred on all plant tissues with the highest percentage on bay laurel leaves and tanoak twigs. To further compare these two species, field measurements of inoculum production and infection were conducted during the rainy seasons of 2003-04 and 2004-05. Inoculum levels in throughfall rainwater and from individual infections were significantly higher for bay laurel as opposed to tanoak for both seasons. Both measurements of inoculum production from bay laurel were significantly greater during 2004-05 when rainfall extended longer into the spring, while inoculum quantities for tanoak were not significantly different between the 2 years. Tanoak twigs were more likely to be infected than bay laurel leaves in 2003-04, and equally likely to be infected in 2004-05. These results indicate that the majority of P. ramorum inoculum in redwood forest is produced from infections on bay laurel leaves. Years with extended rains pose an elevated risk for tanoak because inoculum levels are higher and infectious periods continue into late spring.

  16. An Investigation of the Six-Year Persistence/Attainment of Independent Students and Students Beginning in Community Colleges, 2003-04--2008-09: A Closer Look at Academic and Social Integration Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruot, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The persistence of college students, particularly through credential attainment, is of importance to many stakeholders in higher education, including policymakers, taxpayers, parents and students. This dissertation study used longitudinal data nationally representative of higher education institutions and students, the National Center for…

  17. Mercury, Methylmercury, and Other Constituents in Sediment and Water from Seasonal and Permanent Wetlands in the Cache Creek Settling Basin and Yolo Bypass, Yolo County, California, 2005-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark; Alpers, Charles; Fleck, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    This report presents surface water and surface (top 0-2 cm) sediment geochemical data collected during 2005-2006, as part of a larger study of mercury (Hg) dynamics in seasonal and permanently flooded wetland habitats within the lower Sacramento River basin, Yolo County, California. The study was conducted in two phases. Phase I represented reconnaissance sampling and included three locations within the Cache Creek drainage basin; two within the Cache Creek Nature Preserve (CCNP) and one in the Cache Creek Settling Basin (CCSB) within the creek's main channel near the southeast outlet to the Yolo Bypass. Two additional downstream sites within the Yolo Bypass Wildlife Area (YBWA) were also sampled during Phase I, including one permanently flooded wetland and one seasonally flooded wetland, which had began being flooded only 1-2 days before Phase I sampling. Results from Phase I include: (a) a negative correlation between total mercury (THg) and the percentage of methylmercury (MeHg) in unfiltered surface water; (b) a positive correlation between sediment THg concentration and sediment organic content; (c) surface water and sediment THg concentrations were highest at the CCSB site; (d) sediment inorganic reactive mercury (Hg(II)R) concentration was positively related to sediment oxidation-reduction potential and negatively related to sediment acid volatile sulfur (AVS) concentration; (e) sediment Hg(II)R concentrations were highest at the two YBWA sites; (f) unfiltered surface water MeHg concentration was highest at the seasonal wetland YBWA site, and sediment MeHg was highest at the permanently flooded YBWA site; (g) a 1,000-fold increase in sediment pore water sulfate concentration was observed in the downstream transect from the CCNP to the YBWA; (h) low sediment pore water sulfide concentrations (<1 umol/L) across all sites; and (i) iron (Fe) speciation data suggest a higher potential for microbial Fe(III)-reduction in the YBWA compared to the CCSB. Phase II sampling did not include the original three Cache Creek sites, but instead focused on the original two sites within the YBWA and a similarly paired set of seasonally and permanently flooded wetland sites within the CCSB. Sediment sampling at the YBWA and CCSB occurred approximately 28 days and 52 days, respectively, after the initial flooding of the respective seasonal wetlands, and again towards the end of the seasonal flooding period (end of May 2006). Results from Phase II sampling include: (a) sediment MeHg concentration and the percentage of THg as MeHg (%MeHg) in unfiltered surface waters were generally higher in the YBWA compared to the CCSB; (b) suspended sediment concentration (SCC) in surface water was positively correlated with both THg and MeHg in unfiltered water across all sites, although the relationship between SCC and MeHg differed for the two regions, suggesting local MeHg sources; (c) MeHg concentration in unfiltered surface water was positively correlated to sediment MeHg concentrations across all sites, supporting the suggestion of unique local (sediment) sources of MeHg to the water column; (d) THg concentration in filtered water was positively correlated with both total Fe and dissolved organic carbon (DOC), offering additional support for the role of these constituents in the partitioning of THg between particulate and dissolved phases; (e) flooding of the YBWA seasonal wetland resulted in a rapid and significant (5-fold) rise in sediment MeHg concentration within 3-4 weeks following inundation; and (f) temporal changes in sediment S and Fe speciation suggest that rates of both microbial sulfate reduction and Fe(III)-reduction were significantly higher at YBWA, compared to CCSB, during the period between flooding and drying. The geochemical data presented in this report indicate that (a) strong spatial and temporal differences in Hg speciation and transformations can occur within the range of wetland habitats found in the lower Sacramento

  18. Public Elementary and Secondary School Student Enrollment, High School Completions, and Staff from the Common Core of Data: School Year 2005-06. First Look. NCES 2007-352

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Garofano, Anthony

    2007-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is an annual universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) and its data collection agent, the U.S. Census Bureau. Data for the CCD surveys are provided by state education agencies (SEAs). This report presents findings…

  19. Two mechanisms of stratospheric ozone loss in the Northern Hemisphere, studied using data assimilation of Odin/SMR atmospheric observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagi, Kazutoshi; Pérot, Kristell; Murtagh, Donal; Orsolini, Yvan

    2017-02-01

    unstable winter in the stratosphere, we performed a composite calculation of four selected cases, 2003/04, 2005/06, 2008/09 and 2012/13, which were all affected by a major mid-winter sudden stratospheric warming event, related to particularly high dynamical activity. We have shown that such conditions were associated with low O3 loss below 500 K (approximately 20 km), while O3 depletion in the middle stratosphere, where the role of NOx-induced destruction processes prevails, was particularly important. This can mainly be explained by the horizontal mixing of NOx-rich air from lower latitudes with vortex air that takes place in case of strongly disturbed dynamical situation. In this manuscript, we show that the relative contribution of O3 depletion mechanisms occurring in the lower or in the middle stratosphere is significantly influenced by dynamical and thermal conditions. We provide confirmation that the O3 loss driven by nitrogen oxides and triggered by stratospheric warmings can outweigh the effects of halogens in the case of a dynamically unstable Arctic winter. This is the first time that such a study has been performed over a long period of time, covering more than 10 years of observations.

  20. Fulfilling the Covenant--The Way Forward: 2004-05 Annual Report to the President on the Results of Participation of Historically Black Colleges and Universities in Federal Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is the third annual report of the President's Board of Advisors on Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs), appointed by George W. Bush under Presidential Executive Order 13256. The report for fiscal years 2004-2005 details the performance of the 32 designated federal agencies and departments during 2004-2005, and…

  1. Modeling Overwintering Survival of Declining Landbirds: The 2004-05 Annual Report of the Monitoring Avian Winter Survival (MAWS) Program on four DoD Installations in Southeastern United States

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-28

    findings agree with work that suggests that winter habitat quality affects the physical condition and spring departure schedules of American Redstarts ...Science 282:1884-1886. Marra, P.P. and R.T. Homes. 2001. Consequences of dominance-mediated habitat segregation in American Redstarts during the non

  2. An Analysis of the New Jersey Public School District School Bond Referendum Process: A Historical Case Study of the Egg Harbor Township School District Bond Referendum of 2004-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Werner, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents a historical case study of the Egg Harbor Township School District bond referendum that passed with an exceptionally high 92 percent of votes in January 2005. The methodology used in this study resulted in both an examination of the components of the New Jersey Public School District bond referendum process as well as an…

  3. Overview of Public Elementary and Secondary Students, Staff, Schools, School Districts, Revenues, and Expenditures: School Year 2004-05 and Fiscal Year 2004. E.D. TAB. NCES 2007-309

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sable, Jennifer; Hill, Jason

    2006-01-01

    The Common Core of Data (CCD) is a universe collection of public elementary and secondary education data that is administered by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES). The CCD is a system of five surveys, three nonfiscal and two fiscal. The nonfiscal surveys are the: (1) Public Elementary/Secondary School Universe Survey; (2) Local…

  4. Project Title: Nuclear Astrophysics Data from Radioactive Beam Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Alan A. Chen

    2008-03-27

    The scientific aims of this project have been the evaluation and dissemination of key nuclear reactions in nuclear astrophysics, with a focus on ones to be studied at new radioactive beam facilities worldwide. These aims were maintained during the entire funding period from 2003 - 2006. In the following, a summary of the reactions evaluated during this period is provided. Year 1 (2003-04): {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na - The importance of the {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg and the {sup 18}Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na reactions in models of exploding stars has been well documented: the first is connected to the production of the radioisotope {sup 22}Na in nova nucleosynthesis, while the second is a key bridge between the Hot-CNO cycles and the rp-process in X-ray bursts. By the end of Summer 2004, our group had updated these reaction rates to include all published data up to September 2004, and cast the reaction rates into standard analytical and tabular formats with the assistance of Oak Ridge National Laboratory's computational infrastructure for reaction rates. Since September 2004, ongoing experiments on these two reactions have been completed, with our group's participation in both: {sup 21}Na(p,{gamma}){sup 22}Mg at the TRIUMF-ISAC laboratory (DRAGON collaboration), and 18Ne({alpha},p){sup 21}Na at Argonne National Laboratory (collaboration with Ernst Rehm, Argonne). The data from the former was subsequently published and included in our evaluation. Publication from the latter still awaits independent confirmation of the experimental results. Year 2 (2004-05): The 25Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma})14O reactions - For Year 2, we worked on evaluations of the {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si and {sup 13}N(p,{gamma}){sup 14}O reactions, in accordance with our proposed deliverables and following similar standard procedures to those used in Year 1. The {sup 25}Al(p,{gamma}){sup 26}Si reaction is a key uncertainty in

  5. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: a case study of the landfill allowance trading scheme (LATS) in England.

    PubMed

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years - which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) - being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06-2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02-2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as a waste management policy, make a comparison with the Landfill Tax, discuss its main features as regards efficiency, effectiveness and the application of the "polluter pays" principle and finally discuss if the effect of the increase in the Landfill Tax is what made the LATS ultimately unnecessary.

  6. Parasite diversity as an indicator of environmental change? An example from tropical grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus) mariculture in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Palm, H W; Kleinertz, S; Rückert, S

    2011-11-01

    Fish parasites are used to monitor long-term change in finfish grouper mariculture in Indonesia. A total of 210 Epinephelus fuscoguttatus were sampled in six consecutive years between 2003/04 and 2008/09 and examined for parasites. The fish were obtained from floating net cages of a commercially run mariculture facility that opened in 2001. The fauna was species rich, consisting of ten ecto- and 18 endoparasite species. The ectoparasite diversity and composition was relatively stable, with the monogeneans Pseudorhabdosynochus spp. (83-100% prevalence, Berger-Parker Index of 0·82-0·97) being the predominant taxon. Tetraphyllidean larvae Scolex pleuronectis and the nematodes Terranova sp. and Raphidascaris sp. 1 were highly abundant in 2003/04-2005/06 (max. prevalence S. pleuronectis 40%, Terranova sp. 57%, Raphidascaris sp. 1 100%), and drastically reduced until 2008/09. These parasites together with the prevalence of Trichodina spp., ecto-/endoparasite ratio and endoparasite diversity illustrate a significant change in holding conditions over the years. This can be either referred to a definite change in management methods such as feed use and fish treatment, or a possible transition of a relatively undisturbed marine environment into a more affected habitat. By visualizing all parameters within a single diagram, we demonstrate that fish parasites are useful bioindicators to monitor long-term change in Indonesian grouper mariculture. This also indicates that groupers can be used to monitor environmental change in the wild. Further taxonomic and systematic efforts in less sampled regions significantly contributes to this new application, supporting fish culture and environmental impact monitoring also in other tropical marine habitats.

  7. Tribal Colleges and Universities: Education as the Engine for Economic Development in Indian Country. A Report to the President. 2004-05 Annual Performance Report on the Results of Federal Agency Actions to Assist Tribal Colleges and Universities and Recommendations to Strengthen Implementation of Executive Order 13270

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    Tribal colleges and universities (TCUs) are unique institutions of postsecondary education. They serve specific Native American communities that have unique social and cultural ways of relating to each other, while they also provide valuable links to the mainstream society. In arguably the richest nation in the world, many Native Americans remain…

  8. Does diet mediate associations of volume and bouts of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health indicators in adolescents?

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; McNaughton, Sarah A.; Dunstan, David W.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Salmon, Jo

    2017-01-01

    Objective Examine the mediating role of diet in the relationship between volume and duration of sedentary time with cardiometabolic health in adolescents. Methods Adolescents (12‐19 years) participating in the 2003/04 and 2005/06 U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined. Cardiometabolic health indicators were body mass index z‐scores (zBMI) (n = 1,797) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) (n = 812). An ActiGraph hip‐worn accelerometer was used to derive total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration. Dietary intake was assessed using two 24‐hour dietary recalls. Mediation analyses were conducted to examine five dietary mediators [total energy intake, discretionary foods, sugar‐sweetened beverages (SSB), fruits and vegetables, and dietary quality] of the relationship between total sedentary time and usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI and MetS. Results Total sedentary time was inversely associated with zBMI (β = −1.33; 95% CI −2.53 to −0.13) but attenuated after adjusting for moderate‐to‐vigorous physical activity. No significant associations were observed between usual sedentary bout duration with zBMI or either sedentary measure with MetS. None of the five dietary variables mediated any of the relationships examined. Conclusions Further studies are needed to explore associations of specific time periods (e.g., after school) and bout durations with both cardiometabolic health indicators and dietary behaviors. PMID:28120527

  9. Cap and trade schemes on waste management: A case study of the Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) in England

    SciTech Connect

    Calaf-Forn, Maria; Roca, Jordi; Puig-Ventosa, Ignasi

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • LATS has been effective to achieve a reduction of the amount of landfilled waste. • LATS has been one of the few environmental instruments for waste management with a cap and trade methodology. • LATS has achieved to increase recycling of the biodegradable and other waste fractions. - Abstract: The Landfill Allowance Trading Scheme (LATS) is one of the main instruments used in England to enforce the landfill diversion targets established in the Directive 1999/31/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 26 April 1999 on the landfill of waste (Landfill Directive). Through the LATS, biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) allowances for landfilling are allocated to each local authority, otherwise known as waste disposal authorities (WDAs). The quantity of landfill allowances received is expected to decrease continuously from 2005/06 to 2019/20 so as to meet the objectives of the Landfill Directive. To achieve their commitments, WDAs can exchange, buy, sell or transfer allowances among each other, or may re-profile their own allocation through banking and/or borrowing. Despite the goals for the first seven years – which included two target years (2005/06 and 2009/10) – being widely achieved (the average allocation of allowances per WDA was 22.9% higher than those finally used), market activity among WDAs was high and prices were not very stable. Results in terms of waste reduction and recycling levels have been satisfactory. The reduction of BMW landfilled (in percentage) was higher during the first seven years of the LATS period (2005/06–2011/12) (around 7% annually) than during the previous period (2001/02–2004/05) (4.2% annually). Since 2008, the significance of the LATS diminished because of an increase in the rate of the UK Landfill Tax. The LATS was suppressed after the 2012/13 target year, before what it was initially scheduled. The purpose of this paper is to describe the particularities of the LATS, analyse its performance as

  10. Monitoring and adaptive resistance management in Australia for Bt-cotton: current status and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Downes, Sharon; Mahon, Rod; Olsen, Karen

    2007-07-01

    In the mid-1990 s the Australian Cotton industry adopted an insect-resistant variety of cotton (Ingard) which expresses the Bt toxin Cry1Ac that is specific to a group of insects including the target Helicoverpa armigera. A conservative resistance management plan (RMP), that restricted the area planted to Ingard, was implemented to preserve the efficacy of Cry1Ac until two-gene transgenic cotton was available. In 2004/05 Bollgard II replaced Ingard as the transgenic cotton available in Australia. It improves on Ingard by incorporating an additional insecticidal protein (Cry2Ab). If an appropriate refuge is grown, there is no restriction on the area planted to Bollgard II. In 2004/05 and 2005/06 the Bollgard II acreage represented approximately 80 of the total area planted to cotton in Australia. The sensitivity of field-collected populations of H. armigera to Bt products was assayed before and subsequent to the widespread deployment of Ingard cotton. In 2002 screens against Cry2Ab were developed in preparation for replacement of Ingard with Bollgard II. There have been no reported field failures of Bollgard II due to resistance. However, while alleles that confer resistance to H. armigera in the field are rare for Cry1Ac, they are surprisingly common for Cry2Ab. We present an overview of the current approach adopted in Australia to monitor and adaptively manage resistance to Bt-cotton in field populations of H. armigera and discuss the implications of our findings to date. We also highlight future challenges for resistance management in Australia, many of which extend to other Bt-crop and pest systems.

  11. NLEP--current situation and strategy during the 11th plan period (2007-2012).

    PubMed

    Dhillon, G P S

    2006-12-01

    National Leprosy Control Programme was established in 1955 based on dapsone domiciliary treatment. The multidrug therapy came into wide use from 1982. Based on the recommendations of the high power committee established by the Government of India, the NLEP was launched in 1983 with the objective to arrest the disease activity in all the known cases of leprosy. In order to strengthen the process of elimination of the disease in this country, the first World Bank supported project was introduced in 1993. The 2nd phase of the elimination project was started in 2001-02 and ended in December 2004. The prevalence rate of leprosy was found to be 0.95/10,000 population by December 2005, a success in the elimination of leprosy. On 30th September 2006 the rate on record is 0.89/10,000 population, a further decline. During 2005-06 the annual new case detection rate was 14.27 per 100,000 population which was 23.4 during 2004-05, a reduction of 39.0%. During the 11th plan period (April 2007 to March 2012) the government proposes to carry on the leprosy programme with the same intensity further to achieve annual new case detection rate less than 10 cases per 100,000 population.

  12. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  13. Survey for antibodies to infectious bursal disease virus serotype 2 in wild turkeys and Sandhill Cranes of Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Candelora, Kristen L; Spalding, Marilyn G; Sellers, Holly S

    2010-07-01

    Captive-reared Whooping Cranes (Grus americana) released into Florida for the resident reintroduction project experienced unusually high mortality and morbidity during the 1997-98 and 2001-02 release seasons. Exposure to infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) serotype 2 as evidenced by seroconversion was suspected to be the factor that precipitated these mortality events. Very little is known about the incidence of IBD in wild bird populations. Before this study, natural exposure had not been documented in wild birds of North America having no contact with captive-reared cranes, and the prevalence and transmission mechanisms of the virus in wild birds were unknown. Sentinel chickens (Gallus gallus) monitored on two Whooping Crane release sites in central Florida, USA, during the 2003-04 and 2004-05 release seasons seroconverted, demonstrating natural exposure to IBDV serotype 2. Blood samples collected from Wild Turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) in eight of 21 counties in Florida, USA, and one of two counties in southern Georgia, USA, were antibody-positive for IBDV serotype 2, indicating that exposure from wild birds sharing habitat with Whooping Cranes is possible. The presence of this virus in wild birds in these areas is a concern for the resident flock of Whooping Cranes because they nest and raise their chicks in Florida, USA. However, passively transferred antibodies may protect them at this otherwise vulnerable period in their lives.

  14. Sedentary time and cardio-metabolic biomarkers in US adults: NHANES 2003–06

    PubMed Central

    Healy, Genevieve N.; Matthews, Charles E.; Dunstan, David W.; Winkler, Elisabeth A.H.; Owen, Neville

    2011-01-01

    Aims Prolonged sedentary time is ubiquitous in developed economies and is associated with an adverse cardio-metabolic risk profile and premature mortality. This study examined the associations of objectively assessed sedentary time and breaks (interruptions) in sedentary time with continuous cardio-metabolic and inflammatory risk biomarkers, and whether these associations varied by sex, age, and/or race/ethnicity. Methods and results Cross-sectional analyses with 4757 participants (≥20 years) from the 2003/04 and 2005/06 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). An Actigraph accelerometer was used to derive sedentary time [<100 counts per minute (cpm)] and breaks in sedentary time. Independent of potential confounders, including moderate-to-vigorous exercise, detrimental linear associations (P for trends <0.05) of sedentary time with waist circumference, HDL-cholesterol, C-reactive protein, triglycerides, insulin, HOMA-%B, and HOMA-%S were observed. Independent of potential confounders and sedentary time, breaks were beneficially associated with waist circumference and C-reactive protein (P for trends <0.05). There was limited evidence of meaningful differences in associations with biomarkers by age, sex, or race/ethnicity. Notable exceptions were sex-differences in the associations of sedentary time and breaks with HDL-cholesterol, and race/ethnicity differences in the association of sedentary time with waist circumference with associations detrimental in non-Hispanic whites, null in Mexican Americans, and beneficial in non-Hispanic blacks. Conclusion These are the first population-representative findings on the deleterious associations of prolonged sedentary time with cardio-metabolic and inflammatory biomarkers. The findings suggest that clinical communications and preventive health messages on reducing and breaking up sedentary time may be beneficial for cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:21224291

  15. Shoreline Changes in Point Pelee, Canada: An Airphoto-based Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BaMasoud, Abdullah

    Shoreline retreat has significant consequences for Point Pelee National Park's (PPNP) ecological and economic systems. In this study, the shoreline changes of PPNP are examined in terms of their rates, their relationship to natural and anthropogenic influences, and methods for predicting shoreline positions. The rates of shoreline change are analyzed for the period 1959-2004 using ortho-airphotos. The eastern shoreline of the Park exhibited varying recession in both rising and falling Lake Erie water level, especially in the Northeast Beach, where it averaged -3.14 m·y-1. The western shoreline of the Park generally exhibited accretion and had an inverse relationship with Lake Erie water levels. Longer duration of ice coverage during winter, favourable topography, and sedimentary conditions led to the observed difference in shoreline response. Unlike the shoreline net advance observed in 1959-2004, the western shore of PPNP on average exhibited net retreat in the winter of 2005/06. Compared to the winter of 2003/04, changes in Lake Erie water levels, winter wind regime and human-made structures and interferences were negligible during 2004-2006 within the Colchester-to-Southeast Shoal littoral cell in western Lake Erie, where western PPNP is located. However, the winter of 2005/06 exhibited overall low ice cover conditions unlike the typical freeze-up conditions in western Lake Erie. The 2005/06 shoreline retreat on the western shore is attributed to the low winter ice cover conditions during that winter. While less-than-average ice cover does not in its own cause erosion, in certain areas it increases the opportunity for sediment removal by waves by removing a significant source of protection during winter. The episode illustrates the potential impacts of ice-free and low ice cover winters on the western shore of the park and shores under similar conditions. Accuracy of predictions of future shoreline positions is important for the park management. Three methods

  16. Four years of mass balance on Chhota Shigri Glacier, Himachal Pradesh, India, a new benchmark glacier in the western Himalaya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagnon, Patrick; Linda, Anurag; Arnaud, Yves; Kumar, Rajesh; Sharma, Parmanand; Vincent, Christian; Pottakkal, Jose George; Berthier, Etienne; Ramanathan, Alagappan; Hasnain, Syed Iqbal; Chevallier, Pierre

    Little is known about the Himalayan glaciers, although they are of particular interest in terms of future water supply, regional climate change and sea-level rise. In 2002, a long-term monitoring programme was started on Chhota Shigri Glacier (32.2°N, 77.5°E; 15.7 km2, 6263-4050 m a.s.l., 9 km long) located in Lahaul and Spiti Valley, Himachal Pradesh, India. This glacier lies in the monsoon-arid transition zone (western Himalaya) which is alternately influenced by Asian monsoon in summer and the mid-latitude westerlies in winter. Here we present the results of a 4 year study of mass balance and surface velocity. Overall specific mass balances are mostly negative during the study period and vary from a minimum value of -1.4 m w.e. in 2002/03 and 2005/06 (equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) ˜5180 m a.s.l.) to a maximum value of +0.1 m w.e. in 2004/05 (ELA 4855 m a.s.l.). Chhota Shigri Glacier seems similar to mid-latitude glaciers, with an ablation season limited to the summer months and a mean vertical gradient of mass balance in the ablation zone (debris-free part) of 0.7 m w.e. (100 m)-1, similar to those reported in the Alps. Mass balance is strongly dependent on debris cover, exposure and the shading effect of surrounding steep slopes.

  17. Rain simulator as a standardized laboratory measurement of soil structural stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iglesias, Luz; Cancelo González, Javier; Benito, Elena; Álvarez, Manuel; Barral, Maria Teresa; Díaz-Fierros, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Rainfall simulations are used since the 30's by scientist and technicians to study the soil erosion and soil hydrology. The basis of the rainfall simulation is that can reproduce the natural soil degradation processes, more accurately than the traditional methods used for the determination of structural stability. A rainfall simulator was built in 2006 based on those made by Guitián and Méndez (1961), and Morin (1967), to obtain standardized laboratory measurements of soil structural stability and a final implementation were made in the rainfall simulator to incorporate a intermittent fan-like water yet system with four sieves of 250 micrometres where the soil samples can be placed, and allow the simultaneous measurement of soil losses in the samples. Data obtained in the rainfall simulator, using different soils of the study basins, are related with the Ig Henin index and the results of the Emerson structural stability test. At the same time with the laboratory test, 10 water sampling surveys were carried out during the hydrological years 2004/05 and 2005/06, in two basins located in the humid region of NW Spain belonging to the Anllons River basin, one of the main basins of Galicia-Costa, that has been subject of detailed hydrological studies since 2000 (Rial, M., 2007 and Devesa, R., 2009) and had continuous records of streamflow. The selected subbasins have 57,62 and 50,05 square kilometres respectively, and presents significative geological differences; being one of them formed, mainly, by schists and a lower area with granites and, the other one formed mainly by gabbros. The suspended sediments in the samples were separated by centrifugation and weighted in the laboratory to study the possible relationship between soil losses in the rainfall simulations and the sediment fluxes in the river. The analysis revealed a good relationship between the sediments delivery to the streams and soil losses measured in the rainfall simulations.

  18. Misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-provided meals based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Guinn, Caroline H; Finney, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    Although many studies have relied on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation, few studies have evaluated parental response accuracy. We investigated misclassification of fourth-grade children's participation in school-meal programs based on parental responses relative to administrative daily records using cross-sectional study data collected for 3 school years (2004-05, 2005-06, and 2006-07) for 1,100 fourth-grade children (87% black; 52% girls) from 18 schools total in one district. Parents reported children's usual school-meal participation on paper consent forms. The district provided administrative daily records of individual children's school-meal participation. Researchers measured children's weight and height. "Usual participation" in breakfast/lunch was defined as ≥50% of days. Parental responses misclassified 16.3%, 12.8%, 19.8%, and 4.7% of children for participation in breakfast, classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch, respectively. Parental responses misclassified more children for participation in cafeteria than classroom breakfast (P=0.0008); usual-participant misclassification probabilities were less than nonusual-participant misclassification probabilities for classroom breakfast, cafeteria breakfast, and lunch (P<0.0001 for each) (two-proportion z tests). Parental responses concerning children's participation were more accurate for lunch than breakfast; parents overstated breakfast participation (both classroom and cafeteria) and lunch participation. Breakfast participation misclassification was not related to body mass index (P=0.41), sex (P=0.40), age (P=0.63), or socioeconomic status (P=0.21) (multicategory logistic regression controlling for school year, breakfast location, and school). Relying on parental responses concerning children's school-meal participation may hamper researchers' abilities to detect relationships that have policy implications for the child nutrition community. The use of

  19. Monitoring of Structural Components and Water Balance as AN Aid to Wetland Management Using Geospatial Techniques - a Case Study for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, T. V. R.; Panigrahy, S.

    2011-09-01

    The hydrologic variability greatly influences the structural components of wetlands that have a great bearing on habitats for avifauna, aquatic fauna including fish etc. This paper highlights the results of a study carried out to derive changes in open-water and vegetation, and also water balance for Nalsarovar Lake, Gujarat. MODIS 8-day composite data for three consecutive years viz 2002/03, 2003/04 and 2004/05 were used to study the seasonal and inter annual dynamics of water regime in the lake. Digital elevation model derived using Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission data with interpolated bottom topography was used to generate elevation contours and compute water volume from water spread data. The reference data of 2002 (drought year) shows the maximum extent of wetland to be 8.06 km2 with emergent vegetation of recorded as 2.36 km2 and open-water as 5.70 km2. The rainfall has an impact on the preferred habitat availability for various species of avifauna and it is noted that emergent vegetation present in the lake completely dried up by summer 2002, a rainfall deficit year but revived again in the preceding year i.e. 2003 which was a good rainfall year with 46.68 km2 under emergent vegetation and 61.96 km2 under open-water. The 2002 being a drought year has shown very low reference storage (0.256 MCM), which has shown a gradual decrease in the storage to 0.00019 MCM in March 2003. The reference storage also registered a steep increase to 18.165 MCM in October 2003 and decreased 1.264 MCM in March 2004. From this study it is evident that water level of about 9 m elevation at the end of the rainy season is found to be optimal for maintaining various habitats that in turn support the avifauna for the rest of the lean period.

  20. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases in Brazilian children: follow-up at school age of two Brazilian birth cohorts of the 1990's

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Few cohort studies have been conducted in low and middle-income countries to investigate non-communicable diseases among school-aged children. This article aims to describe the methodology of two birth cohorts, started in 1994 in Ribeirão Preto (RP), a more developed city, and in 1997/98 in São Luís (SL), a less developed town. Methods Prevalences of some non-communicable diseases during the first follow-up of these cohorts were estimated and compared. Data on singleton live births were obtained at birth (2858 in RP and 2443 in SL). The follow-up at school age was conducted in RP in 2004/05, when the children were 9-11 years old and in SL in 2005/06, when the children were 7-9 years old. Follow-up rates were 68.7% in RP (790 included) and 72.7% in SL (673 participants). The groups of low (<2500 g) and high (≥ 4250 g) birthweight were oversampled and estimates were corrected by weighting. Results In the more developed city there was a higher percentage of non-nutritive sucking habits (69.1% vs 47.9%), lifetime bottle use (89.6% vs 68.3%), higher prevalence of primary headache in the last 15 days (27.9% vs 13.0%), higher positive skin tests for allergens (44.3% vs 25.3%) and higher prevalence of overweight (18.2% vs 3.6%), obesity (9.5% vs 1.8%) and hypertension (10.9% vs 4.6%). In the less developed city there was a larger percentage of children with below average cognitive function (28.9% vs 12.2%), mental health problems (47.4% vs 38.4%), depression (21.6% vs 6.0%) and underweight (5.8% vs 3.6%). There was no difference in the prevalence of bruxism, recurrent abdominal pain, asthma and bronchial hyperresponsiveness between cities. Conclusions Some non-communicable diseases were highly prevalent, especially in the more developed city. Some high rates suggest that the burden of non-communicable diseases will be high in the future, especially mental health problems. PMID:21693042

  1. Enrollment in Postsecondary Institutions, Fall 2004; Graduation Rates, 1998 & 2001 Cohorts; and Financial Statistics, Fiscal Year 2004 E.D. TAB. NCES 2006-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knapp, Laura, G.; Kelly-Reid, Janice E.; Whitmore, Roy W.; Miller, Elise S.

    2006-01-01

    This E.D. TAB presents findings from the Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Spring 2005 data collection, which included four components: Student Financial Aid for full-time, first-time, degree/certificate-seeking undergraduate students for the 2003-04 academic year, Enrollment for fall 2004 and 12-month counts for 2003-04.…

  2. 20 CFR 726.315 - Contents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2003-04-01 2003-04-01 false Contents. 726.315 Section 726.315 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL COAL MINE HEALTH AND SAFETY ACT... Penalties § 726.315 Contents. Any petition or cross-petition for review shall: (a) Be dated; (b)...

  3. 27 CFR 71.55 - Content.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2003-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2003-04-01 2003-04-01 false Content. 71.55 Section 71.55 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE....55 Content. (a) Citation for the suspension, revocation or annulment of a permit shall be issued...

  4. Provisional Reconstruction Teams: An Operational Imperative

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    Quarterly: Winter 2005-06 p. 45 17 Mark Sedra , “Civil-Military Relations in Afghanistan: the Provincial Reconstruction Team Debate,” Policy...Transformation, Parameters, Winter 2005-06, p. 1 27 Mark Sedra , “Civil-Military Relations in Afghanistan: the Provincial Reconstruction Team Debate,” Policy...the Children, Provincial Reconstruction Teams and Humanitarian–Military Relations in Afghanistan, 1 St John’s Lane London EC1M 4AR UK, 2004 Sedra

  5. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  6. Selected Natural Attenuation Monitoring Data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dinicola, R.S.; Huffman, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    plantation in 2006, changes in chlorinated VOC concentrations at the piezometers were highly variable. At piezometer P1-9, the 2006 total chlorinated VOC concentration as well as the concentrations of cis-DCE and VC were measured at their highest levels to date; contaminant concentrations substantially decreased at piezometer P1-9 between June 2004 and June 2005. The reasons for the 2004-05 decrease in concentrations or the 2005-06 increase in concentrations are unknown. At piezometer P1-10, the consistent temporal trend of decreasing chlorinated VOC concentrations measured since 1999 ended, and the concentration of total chlorinated VOC in 2006 was the highest measured since 1999. The reductive dechlorination end-product ethene was measured at concentrations as high as 1,300 micrograms per liter in the upper aquifer beneath the southern plantation, which is reliable evidence that reductive dechlorination of VOCs is ongoing.

  7. A Look at the Surface-Based Temperature Inversion on the Antarctic Plateau.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, Stephen R.; Brandt, Richard E.

    2005-06-01

    measured downward longwave flux. The downward flux increased when a cloud moved over the station, and it seems that this increase in radiation alone can explain the magnitude and timing of the warming near the surface.Temperature data from the 2003/04 and 2004/05 summers at Dome C Station are presented to show the effects of the diurnal cycle of solar elevation over the Antarctic Plateau. These data include surface temperature and 2- and 30-m air temperatures, as well as radiosonde air temperatures. They show that strong inversions, averaging 10 K between the surface and 30 m, develop quickly at night when the sun is low in the sky, but are destroyed during the middle of the day. The diurnal temperature range at the surface was 13 K, but only 3 K at 30 m.

  8. Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettitt, Maureen; Prince, David

    2010-01-01

    This article describes Washington State's Student Achievement Initiative, an accountability system implemented in 2005-06 that measures students' gains in college readiness, college credits earned, and degree or certificate completion. The goal of the initiative is to increase educational attainment by focusing on the critical momentum points…

  9. Does Greater Autonomy Improve School Performance? Evidence from a Regression Discontinuity Analysis in Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinberg, Matthew P.

    2014-01-01

    School districts throughout the United States are increasingly providing greater autonomy to local public (non-charter) school principals. In 2005-06, Chicago Public Schools initiated the Autonomous Management and Performance Schools program, granting academic, programmatic, and operational freedoms to select principals. This paper provides…

  10. Characteristics of PETE Doctoral Level Institutions: Descriptions of Programs, Faculty and Doctoral Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    The present study of Doctoral PETE programs provided an extensive description of demographic data which included: (a) doctoral program characteristics, (b) faculty, and (c) doctoral graduates. Several data sets from the academic years of 2005-06 and 2008-09 as well as selected summary data from 1996-97 through 2008-09 were used to make comparisons…

  11. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... current test procedures for water heaters already fully account for and incorporate measurement of standby... residential direct heating equipment and pool heaters to provide for measurement of standby mode and off mode..., ``Household electrical appliances-- Measurement of standby power'' (First Edition 2005-06), as well...

  12. Sedimentation History Of Halfway Creek Marsh, Upper Mississippi River National Wildlife And Fish Refuge, Wisconsin, 1846-2006. Scientific Investigations Report 2007–5209

    EPA Science Inventory

    The history of overbank sedimentation in the vicinity of Halfway Creek Marsh near La Crosse, Wisconsin, was examined during 2005-06 by the U.S. Geological Survey and University of Wisconsin-Madison as part of a broader study of sediment and nutrient loadings to the Upper Mississi...

  13. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13...

  14. The Development of PIPA: An Integrated and Automated Pipeline for Genome-Wide Protein Function Annotation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-25

    bacterial genome annotation. Nucleic Acids Res 2005/06/28 edition. 2005, 33(Web Server issue):W455-9. 14. Meyer F, Goesmann A, McHardy AC, Bartels D...GO.evi dence.shtml] 37. Jain AK Murthy MN, Flynn PJ: Data Clustering: A Review. ACM Computing Surveys 1999, 31(3):264-323. 38. Chenna R, Sugawara H

  15. Governing Urban School Districts: Efforts in Los Angeles to Effect Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustine, Catherine H.; Epstein, Diana; Vuollo, Mirka

    2006-01-01

    Many urban school district students are dropping out and few of the remaining ones reach state or district achievement goals. These problems make governing urban schools both difficult and important. In 2005-06, the governance structure of the Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) was examined, debated, criticized, and praised by several…

  16. Collaboration between School and Parents to Foster Information Literacy: Learning in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Li, Kai Ming

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate current parental support for student learning with information technology (IT) in Hong Kong. A total of 3340 and 3656 parents and 539 and 440 primary school heads responded to two surveys in 2005/06 and 2006/07, respectively, in this cross-sectional study. The results show a persistent positive perception of…

  17. Fwd: Half Empty or Half Full? Florida's Voluntary Pre-Kindergarten Standards. Volume: 2, Number: 1. Arresting Insights in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Amy

    2005-01-01

    In 2002, when its voters approved a ballot measure calling for universal pre- Kindergarten by 2005-06, Florida joined a handful of states in which all children are eligible for free, publicly funded education in the year prior to Kindergarten. The passage of the referendum--which received more votes than Governor Jeb Bush garnered in his victory…

  18. East-West Cooperative: Influx of Chinese Students in America Helps Promote a Global Workforce

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2012-01-01

    American degrees have become increasingly fashionable among members of China's rapidly growing middle class who are eager for their children to study American business practices, become well-rounded by getting a higher education degree steeped in the liberal arts and master the English language. In a five-year period beginning in 2005-06, the…

  19. High School Attrition Rates across Texas Education Service Center Regions: 2009-10. IDRA Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Roy L.

    2011-01-01

    Attrition rates are an indicator of a school's holding power, or ability to keep students enrolled in school and learning until they graduate. This study examines regional trends in Texas for the number and percent of students lost from public high school enrollment prior to graduation. A comparative analysis of 1985-86, 2005-06, 2006-07,…

  20. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. Performance pay for teachers entered Texas state…

  1. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Three Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program was federally- and state-funded and provided three-year grants to schools to design and implement performance pay plans from the 2005-06 to 2007-08 school years. GEEG was implemented in 99 high poverty, high performing Texas public schools. This report builds on the previous GEEG evaluation…

  2. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2007-08

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2005-06 school year alone, approximately $78 billion in new aid was…

  3. Attitudes to the Uses of Animals in Higher Education: Has Anything Changed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donaldson, Lynda; Downie, Roger

    2007-01-01

    Bioscience staff and students at Glasgow University in session 2005-06 were questioned on their attitudes to animal uses in higher education, as follow-up to a similar survey 20 years before. Disapproval by students of animal use was generally reduced compared to 20 years ago, but students remained in a "moral bind", recognising the…

  4. Measuring Child Poverty in South Africa: Sensitivity to the Choice of Equivalence Scale and an Updated Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streak, Judith Christine; Yu, Derek; Van der Berg, Servaas

    2009-01-01

    This paper offers evidence on the sensitivity of child poverty in South Africa to changes in the adult equivalence scale (AES) and updates the child poverty profile based on the Income and Expenditure Survey 2005/06. Setting the poverty line at the 40th percentile of households calculated with different AESs the scope and composition of child…

  5. Health Care Changes for Children with Special Health Care Needs, 2005-2011.

    PubMed

    Sannicandro, Thomas; Parish, Susan L; Son, Esther; Powell, Robyn M

    2017-03-01

    Objective This study compared health care utilization of children with special health care needs in 2005/06 and 2009/10. Methods Using data from the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, this study compared the health care utilization of children with special health care needs in 2005/06 (n = 40,723) and 2009/10 (n = 40,242). Descriptive statistics characterize the sample during the 2005/06 and 2009/10 surveys. Logistic regression models examined the unmet needs for specific health care and support services, delayed care, coordinated care, and medical home. Results Compared to 2005/06, in 2009/10 children with special health care needs had greater unmet dental and therapy needs and less care coordination of health services as well as access to medical home services. Conclusions These findings indicate that additional measures are needed to improve the health care access of children with special health care needs.

  6. Medical Residency Goes to School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boatright, Beth; Gallucci, Chrysan; Swanson, Judy; Van Lare, Michelle; Yoon, Irene

    2009-01-01

    The Highline School District, located roughly 10 miles south of Seattle, Washington, has begun to implement a residency model for professional learning. Like the medical model, current teachers often traveled from other schools to be "in residency" at a previously selected classroom for six half-day sessions during the 2005-06 school year. Some…

  7. Feeling the Heat: The Impact of Rising Energy Costs on Colleges & Universities in the Midwest

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Chris; Johnson, Gina

    2006-01-01

    This report is the result of a survey conducted in late 2005 of higher education institution chief financial officers throughout the U.S. Midwest region concerning their plans to manage what was expected to be a substantial increase in the price of energy in advance of the 2005-06 heating season. Although the winter turned out to be one of the…

  8. WWC Quick Review of the Report "Charter School Performance in Los Angeles Unified School District: A District and Neighborhood Matched Comparison Analysis"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The study examined whether charter schools have higher growth in student achievement than traditional public schools. The study analyzed data on 79 charter schools and 593 traditional public elementary, middle, and high schools in the Los Angeles Unified School District from 2005-06 to 2006-07. School-level academic achievement was measured using…

  9. California's Impending College Graduate Crisis and What Needs to Be Done about It. Policy Brief 10-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnoy, Martin

    2010-01-01

    In 2005-06 almost half of the pupils in California's public schools were Latinos, but Latinos only received about 15 percent of the BA degrees awarded by public and private colleges in the state. Texas has a comparable Latino population, but does significantly better than California in getting Latino students through college. The implication of…

  10. Exploring Students' Experiences with the California High School Exit Examination February 2006 to May 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vang, Mao Justice

    2009-01-01

    The California High School Exit Examination (CAHSEE) is a graduation requirement that includes passing a two part exam: English-language arts (ELA) and mathematics. Students take the exam for the first time in 10th grade. In 2005-06, the passing rates were about 77% for ELA and 75% for math. This study uses student level data to focus on the…

  11. Department Raps States on Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lynn

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Education has notified 10 states that it intends to withhold a portion of their state administrative funds under the Title I program for failing to comply fully with the testing provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act by the end of the 2005-06 school year. Those funds would instead be diverted directly to school…

  12. 37th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2005-2006 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 37th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2005-06. Data highlights of the survey include: (1) In the 2005-2006 academic year, the states…

  13. Does Your Organization Welcome Participants with Disabilities? A New Assessment Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galloway, Fred; Shea, Mary McAllister

    2009-01-01

    During the 2005-06 school year, more than 6.7 million children with disabilities received special education and related services in our public schools; this represents more than a 20 percent increase over the previous decade (U.S. Department of Education, 2009). These children, who are typically at risk for chronic physical, developmental,…

  14. Why Am I Here? Student Choice in the Biosciences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Jon

    2006-01-01

    Undergraduate recruitment is a significant activity for all universities. This brief report sets out the results of a survey regarding the course and institutional choices of the 2005-06 entry cohort of bioscience students in four universities. The key findings show that enjoyment of the subject and the wish to learn more are the primary reasons…

  15. Has NCLB Encouraged Educational Triage? Accountability and the Distribution of Achievement Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballou, Dale; Springer, Matthew G.

    2017-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB) has been criticized for encouraging schools to neglect students whose performance exceeds the proficiency threshold or lies so far below it that there is no reasonable prospect of closing the gap during the current year. We examine this hypothesis using longitudinal data from 2002-03 through 2005-06. Our…

  16. An Evaluation of Colorado's College Opportunity Fund and Related Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Western Interstate Commission for Higher Education, 2009

    2009-01-01

    During the spring of 2004, the State of Colorado enacted legislation that fundamentally changed the mechanisms through which it financed its public higher education system, beginning with the 2005-06 academic year. Rather than appropriating funds directly to institutions, the legislation created the College Opportunity Fund (COF), the principal…

  17. A Comparison of Supply and Demand for PETE Professionals in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, B. Ann; Rikard, G. Linda

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the supply and demand issues of D-PETE professionals in higher education. The three concerns addressed were: (a) doctoral graduates and their respective job placements in the academic years of 1996-97 through 2008-09, (b) an examination of two targeted academic years (2005-06 and 2008-09) to determine the supply of entry level…

  18. Do Future Teachers Choose Wisely? A Study of Pre-Service Teachers' Personality Preference Profiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornton, Bill; Peltier, Gary; Hill, Gus

    2005-01-01

    The No Child Left Behind Act requires that all teachers in core academic subjects to be "highly qualified" by the end of the 2005-06 school year. New teacher leave the profession at an alarming rate--research indicates that 50% have left within five years of their first job. This article explores the personality types of pre-service…

  19. Understanding the International Teaching Assistant Training Program: A Case Study at a Northwestern Research University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jia, Cai Jun; Bergerson, Amy Aldous

    2008-01-01

    Recruiting and educating international students is a growing characteristic of the landscape of American higher education. "Open Doors 2006" indicated that 564,766 international students were enrolled in American higher education institutions in 2005-06 and that international students currently represent 3.9% of the total enrollment.…

  20. Completing the Educational Exhibits Supporting the Initial Planetarium Show at Griffith Observatory

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-18

    impact of the inspirational storytelling of the new planetarium show which was funded by the FY2004-05 grant. It provides an aha! moment to all who...Supporting the Initial Planetarium Show at Griffith Observatory (2) Type of report. Final Educational Activity Report (3) Name of the principal... planetarium show which was funded by the FY2004-05 grant. It provides an aha! moment to all who encounter the exhibit as the motion and nature of the sky are

  1. The Literacy Programs of Save the Children: Results from the 2008-09 School Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmiter, Andrea S.; Arcaira, Erikson R.; White, Richard N.; Reisner, Elizabeth R.

    2009-01-01

    Since the 2003-04 school year, Save the Children, U.S. Programs, has supported programming designed to improve reading skills among struggling students in rural areas. The literacy program includes both afterschool and in-school interventions with small groups of children. These are implemented by well-trained paraprofessionals and are designed to…

  2. Bioassessment Tools for Stony Corals: Statistical Evaluation of Candidate Metrics in the Florida Keys

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of coral reef condition were collected from stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Dry Tortugas National Park during 2003-04. Four assessment endpoints of reef condition were derived from transect censuses and measurements of stony corals: total s...

  3. Scaling Online Education: Increasing Access to Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moloney, Jacqueline F.; Oakley, Burks, II

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, online courses and entire online degree programs have been made available, serving millions of students in higher education. These online courses largely have been designed and taught using the theoretical concepts and practical strategies of Asynchronous Learning Networks (ALN). During 2003-04, approximately two million…

  4. The Growth of California's Linguistic, Racial, and Ethnic Populations, 1986-2013. EL Facts, Number 6

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumberger, Russell W.

    2005-01-01

    California's school-age population is becoming more linguistically, racially, and ethnically diverse. Between 1986-87 and 2003-04, the enrollment of linguistic minority students--students from households where a language other than English is regularly spoken--increased 120 percent in California's public schools, or six times as fast as the 19…

  5. White and Black Teachers' Job Satisfaction: Does Relational Demography Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fairchild, Susan; Tobias, Robert; Corcoran, Sean; Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine; Noguera, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Data on the impact of student, teacher, and principal racial and gender composition in urban schools on teacher work outcomes are limited. This study, a secondary data analysis of White and Black urban public school teachers using data taken from the restricted use 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), examines the effects of relational…

  6. Latino Student Success at Hispanic-Serving Institutions (HSIs): Summaries from Presidential Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santiago, Deborah

    2004-01-01

    In 2003-04 representatives from six baccalaureate-granting Hispanic-Serving Institutions in three state public university systems participated in a project entitled, "Latino Student Success at Hispanic-Serving Institutions." These institutions include two from California State University--(Los Angeles and Dominguez Hills), two from City…

  7. Student Mobility Research: Next Steps. Engage. Fall/Winter 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This "Engage" newsletter features articles on student mobility research, supporting the BC Transfer System and inter-provincial initiatives. It announces the publication of five reports profiling students who transferred to British Columbia universities in the period 2003-04 to 2007-08. These reports provide detailed demographic and…

  8. Project 2008: Notes on the Russian Succession

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-01

    seizure of Yukos and the arrest of its chief executives, Platon Lebedev and Mikhail Khodorkovsky, in 2003-04 represent another example of the resort to...33. Gallina, Op. Cit., 9. 34. OSC Analysis 28 Jun (2007): Russia’s Putin Puts Protégé at Head of Investigating Body , FBIS SOV, June 28, 2007. 35

  9. The Reasons Students Choose Teaching Professions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krecic, Marija Javornik; Grmek, Milena Ivanus

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to present the reasons students at the Faculty of Education in Maribor, Slovenija, chose pedagogy for their study direction, and therefore becoming a teacher. A total 237 second-year students of the academic year 2003/04 were included in the research. Of the five groups of reasons for choosing this program (altruistic,…

  10. Comparing Outcomes for Youth Served in Treatment Foster Care and Treatment Group Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robst, John; Armstrong, Mary; Dollard, Norin

    2011-01-01

    This study compared youth in the Florida Medicaid system prior to entry into treatment foster care or treatment group care, and compared outcomes in the 6 months after treatment. Florida Medicaid data from FY2003/04 through 2006/2007 along with Department of Juvenile Justice, Department of Law Enforcement, and involuntary examination data were…

  11. An Examination of Inter-District Public School Transfers in Wisconsin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welsch, David M.; Statz, Bambi; Skidmore, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Using data for all Wisconsin school districts over the 2003/04 through 2006/07 school years, we evaluate the state of Wisconsin's Open Enrollment (inter-district transfer) program to determine which school district characteristics influence parental transfer decisions. To our knowledge, this is the first study of school choice in a public school…

  12. Persistence and Attainment among Postsecondary Subbaccalaureate Students. Data Point. NCES 2016-083

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This Data Point examines the persistence and attainment of students who enrolled in postsecondary education for the first time in 2003-04, focusing on subbaccalaureate students (those seeking a certificate or associate's degree) and, among subbaccalaureate students, those who pursue occupational education. Their progress was tracked over 6 years.…

  13. An Overview of Classes Taken and Credits Earned by Beginning Postsecondary Students. NCES 2013-151rev

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2012

    2012-01-01

    What can be learned from the college transcripts of beginning postsecondary students who first enrolled in the 2003-04 academic year and were followed over a 6-year period ending in 2009? The Web Tables presented in this report provide an overview of classes taken and credits earned by a nationwide sample of first-time beginning postsecondary…

  14. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  15. Retaining Teachers: How Preparation Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingersoll, Richard; Merrill, Lisa; May, Henry

    2012-01-01

    Using data from the 2003-04 Schools and Staffing Survey, the authors studied how various aspects of teacher preparation affect the retention of new teachers--specifically mathematics and science teachers. They found that the preparation of new mathematics and science teachers differs from that of other new teachers in various respects, but factors…

  16. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  17. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  18. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  19. 7 CFR 996.75 - Effective time.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Effective time. 996.75 Section 996.75 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements... Effective time. The provisions of this part, as well as any amendments, shall apply to 2003-04...

  20. How Do Marital Status and Gender Affect the PRR to a University Degree in Australia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    While Australian evidence suggests that the Private Rate of Return (PRR) to a university degree in Australia has gradually declined with increases in the cost of higher education, these studies have only measured the PRR for the average male and average female. This paper uses income data from the ABS Income and Housing Survey (2003-04) CURF to…

  1. Pell Grants Are a Waste of Taxpayer Money: A Study of the Effects of Pell Grants on Persistence in For-Profit Four-Year Colleges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filerino, William J.

    2013-01-01

    This ex post facto study examined the relationship between Pell Grant aid and persistence of for-profit four-year college students enrolled during 2003-04 through the next six years in the United States and Puerto Rico. This study examined the demographic dissimilarities in students based on age, gender, financial aid status and ethnicity of those…

  2. Trends in the Receipt of Pell Grants: Selected Years, 1995-96 to 2007-08. Web Tables. NCES 2011-155

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the 1995-96, 1999-2000, 2003-04, and 2007-08 administrations of the National Postsecondary Student Aid Study, these tables focus on trends in the receipt of federal Pell Grants and among Pell Grant recipients. Data include the percentages of Pell Grant recipients and the average Pell Grant received each survey year. Also shown are…

  3. Using Journal Writing to Explore "They Communicate to Learn Mathematics and They Learn to Communicate Mathematically"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lim, Louis; Pugalee, David K.

    2004-01-01

    Recent results from the Education Quality and Accountability Office (EQAO)'s grade 9 applied mathematics assessment found that students are experiencing difficulty with the Ontario curriculum, specifically with written communication. Action research was conducted during the second semester of 2003/04 in a grade 10 applied mathematics class to…

  4. Compassionate Care Leave & Benefits. CAUT Briefing Note

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association of University Teachers, 2016

    2016-01-01

    Compassionate care leave and benefits were introduced in 2003/04 to help employees cope with this difficult work-life balance challenge. Employment Standards legislation and the Employment Insurance program (EI) were amended to provide leave without pay, with payment of EI benefits for compassionate care leave. Collective agreements have been…

  5. Final Closeout Report University Research Program in Robotics for Environmental Restoration and Waste Management

    SciTech Connect

    James S. Tulenko; Carl Crane

    2004-08-24

    The report covers the 2003-04 contract period, with a retrospective of the 11 years for the contract, from 1993 to 2004. This includes personnel, technical publications and reports, plus research laboratories employed. Specific information is given in eight research areas, reporting on all technology developed and/or deployed by the University of Florida.

  6. Resurgent Ethnicity among Asian Americans: Ethnic Neighborhood Context and Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Emily

    2012-01-01

    In this study I investigate the associations of neighborhood socioeconomic and social environments with the health of Asian Americans living in both Asian ethnic neighborhoods and non-Asian neighborhoods. I use a sample of 1962 Asian Americans from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS, 2003-04). Three key findings emerge. First,…

  7. Aligning School Finance with Academic Standards: A Weighted-Student Formula Based on a Survey of Practitioners. Occasional Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstelie, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report contains estimates of the cost to California's public schools of meeting the state's achievement standards. In the aggregate, the cost is about 40 percent greater than the expenditures of California schools in 2003-04. The bulk of these additional costs are for resources needed to boost achievement in schools primarily serving students…

  8. Beginning Subbaccalaureate Students' Labor Market Experiences: Six Years Later in 2009. Web Tables. NCES 2012-273

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ifill, Nicole; Radford, Alexandria Walton

    2012-01-01

    This set of Web Tables presents descriptive statistics on the spring 2009 labor market experiences of subbaccalaureate students who first entered postsecondary education in 2003-04. The Web Tables use data from the nationally representative 2004/09 Beginning Post-secondary Students Longitudinal Study (BPS:04/09), which followed a cohort of…

  9. An Examination of Innovation in Tennessee's Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Aaron J.

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other states, charter schools in Tennessee were established to improve student learning, provide options for parents, encourage the use of innovative methods, and provide new opportunities for teachers. With the passage of the TN Public Charter School Law, the first four charter schools opened in the 2003-04 academic year. Since that…

  10. Can Teachers Lead Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihans, Richard

    2008-01-01

    The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Even more alarming is the fact that projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb, well into the 21st century. American schools have…

  11. Can Teachers Lead Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihans, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The numbers are in, and they are not rosy. According to the "Schools and Staffing Survey," 64,954 public schools reported vacancies during the 2003-04 school year. Projections suggest teacher attrition rates will continue to soar, while student enrollments climb. American schools have an urgent challenge: the retention of teachers.…

  12. More "Private" than Private Institutions: Public Institutions of Higher Education and Financial Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Olin L., III; Robichaux, Rebecca R.; Guarino, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    This research compares the status of managerial accounting practices in public four-year colleges and universities and in private four-year colleges and universities. The investigators surveyed a national sample of chief financial officers (CFOs) at two points in time, 1998-99 and 2003-04. In 1998-99 CFOs representing private institutions reported…

  13. Philippine-U.S. Security Relations Challenges and Opportunities After 9/11

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Friedberg, Strategic Asia 2003-04: Fragility and Crisis (Seattle, Washington: The National Bureau of Asian Research, 2003), 348. 58 Jose T. Almonte ...from <http://www.dfa.gov.ph/archive/speech/ albert/lecture.htm>. Internet. Accessed 29 September 2004. Almonte , Jose T. “New Directions and Priorities in

  14. 35th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2003-2004 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 35th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2003-04. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2003-2004 academic year, the states awarded about…

  15. Prevention of child and adolescent overweight and obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2003-04, approximately 34.3% of 12-19 year olds and 37.2% of 6-11 year olds in the US were overweight or obese. Among samples with predominantly ethnic minorities in the US, 49% of middle school children were overweight or obese. Increasing prevalence of pediatric overweight and obesity has been ...

  16. The Expansion of Private Loans in Postsecondary Education. Stats in Brief. NCES 2012-184

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Jennie H.

    2011-01-01

    This Statistics in Brief examines private loans by institution sector, tuition amount, student characteristics, and level. This study attempts to answer the following questions: (1) How did undergraduate borrowing from private sources change from 2003-04 to 2007-08 and who obtained private loans?; (2) To what extent did undergraduates combine…

  17. Strategies for Aligning Standards-Based Education and Transition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Diane S.; Kochhar-Bryant, Carol A.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, major transformations have occurred in educational, social, political, and economic areas that continue to have an impact on the education and development of youth with disabilities and the institutions that support them. Approximately half of all students with disabilities in 2003-04 spent 80% or more of their day in a…

  18. Signing Science! Andy And Tonya Are Just Like Me! They Wear Hearing Aids And Know My Language!?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesel, Judy

    2005-01-01

    Are these students talking about their classmates? No, they are describing the Signing Avatar characters--3-D figures who appear on the EnViSci Network Web site and sign the resources and activities in American Sign Language (ASL) or Signed English (SE). During the 2003?04 school year, students in schools for the deaf and hard of hearing…

  19. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  20. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  1. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  2. 7 CFR 989.257 - Final free and reserve percentages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (sun-dried) Seedless 70 30 2005-06 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 82.50 17.50 2006-07 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 90 10 2007-08 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 2008-09 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 87 13 2009-10 Natural (sun-dried) Seedless 85 15 (b) The volume regulation percentages apply to acquisitions...

  3. Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) Program: Year Two Evaluation Report. Policy Evaluation Report. [Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Matthew G.; Lewis, Jessica L.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Ehlert, Mark W.; Taylor, Lori L.; Lopez, Omar S.; Peng, Art

    2009-01-01

    The Governor's Educator Excellence Grant (GEEG) program is part of a long history of performance pay programs and policies in Texas. The GEEG program was state-funded and provided grants to schools to implement three-year locally-designed performance pay plans. During the 2005-06, 2006-07, and 2007-08 school years, the GEEG program operated in 99…

  4. Agriculture and Provincial Reconstruction Teams: Assessing the Effectiveness of Agricultural Advisor Projects in Afghanistan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-11

    information that inform an MOP or MOE.20 20U.S. Army, Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations...Assessment. Washington, DC: USAID, June 2006. U.S. Army. Field Manual (FM) 3-07, Stability Operations. Washington, DC: Department of the Army...9Michael McNerney, “Stabilization and Reconstruction in Afghanistan: Are PRTs a Model or a Muddle?” Parameters (Winter 2005-06): 34. to date it

  5. Exploring the ’Right Size’ for China’s Military: PLA Missions, Functions, and Organizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    in Chinese defense spending —a decade and a half of double-digit growth, and a 15 percent expenditure increase from 2005-06—suggest a major effort to...Sustained and large increases in China’s People’s Liberation Army (PLA) defense budget are likely in coming years as increasing national...modernization efforts are linked to national requirements, and examined what such development reveals about China’s national defense strategies. Current trends

  6. Determination of In Situ-Generated Dimethyldioxirane From an Aqueous Matrix Using Selected Ion Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    public release; distribution unlimited. Published in Journal of Chromatography A, 1089 (2005) 211-218. AIRBASE TECHNOLOGIES DIVISION...area code) Journal of Chromatography A, 1089 (2005) 211–218 Determination of in situ-generated dimethyldioxirane from an aqueous matrix using...see front matter © 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. oi:10.1016/j.chroma.2005.06.018 212 C.A. Delcomyn et al. / J. Chromatogr. A 1089 (2005

  7. No Substitute for a Teacher: Adults' Absences Shortchange Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronholz, June

    2013-01-01

    U.S. teachers take off an average of 9.4 days (roughly 1 day per month) each during a typical 180-day school year. By that estimate, the average child has substitute teachers for more than six months of his school career. The education department reported after the 2003-04 school year that 5.3 percent of U.S. teachers are absent on any given day,…

  8. Report on the MLA "Job Information List", 2008-09

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Language Association, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The financial crisis of 2008 made its consequences painfully evident in the 2008-09 MLA (Modern Language Association) "Job Information List" ("JIL"). After trending upward between 2003-04 and 2007-08, the number of jobs advertised in the "JIL" in 2008-09 declined since 2007-08 by 446 (24.4%) in English and 453 (27.0%) in foreign languages. In the…

  9. 21ST Century United States Military Strategy for East Asia: Countering an Emerging China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    with other nations.16 China opened its diplomatic and economic doors in the 1960s and 1970s. At first glance it might appear as a symbolic gesture to be...both the U.S. and China have avoided direct military engagement, tacitly acknowledging the potential consequences of open conflict on their...Dragon or Dinosaur ? Nuclear Weapons in a Modernizing China, ”Parameters 34 (Winter 2003-04): 101. 6 Alfred D. Wilhelm, Jr., The Chinese at the

  10. Trends in Public and Private School Principal Demographics and Qualifications: 1987-88 to 2011-12. Stats in Brief. NCES 2016-189

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jason; Ottem, Randolph; DeRoche, John

    2016-01-01

    Using data from seven administrations of the Schools and Staffing Survey (SASS), this Statistics in Brief examines trends in public and private school principal demographics, experience, and compensation over 25 years, from 1987-88 through 2011-12. Data are drawn from the 1987-88, 1990-91, 1993-94, 1999-2000, 2003-04, 2007-08, and 2011-12 survey…

  11. Updating the Magnitudes of the Planets in The Astronomical Almanac

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    USNO/AA Technical Note 2003-04 Updating the Magnitudes of the Planets in The Astronomical Almanac James L. Hilton The content of this Tech...the magnitudes of Mercury and Venus used in the AsA 2005 and 2006. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden...SUBTITLE Updating The Magnitudes Of The Planets In The Astronomical Almanac 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  12. Inversion of Ionospheric Backscatter Radar Data in Order to Map and Model the Ionosphere

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-17

    distances of ~ 3000 km. The beam is switched sequentially through 16 steps in azimuth giving an azimuthal coverage of ~52o as shown in Fig. 6. Echoes...and Doppler spectral width, usually out to a range of 3000 km. Ionospheric scatter echoes are mostly distinguished from ground or sea scatter by their...installed at Davis over the 2003-04 summer. References 1. Kivelson, M. G. and Russell, C. T ., Introduction to Space Physics, Cambridge

  13. Non-Formal Education and Livelihood Skills for Marginalised Street and Slum Youth in Uganda. Project Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Building Capacities for Non formal Education and Life Skills Programmes project in Uganda was implemented by Uganda Youth Development Link (UYDEL) with financial and technical support from UNESCO--Section for Literacy and non Formal Education in 2004-05; aiming at assisting vulnerable and marginalised youth affected by HIV/AIDS and other risk…

  14. Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers. ESEA Evaluation Brief: The English Language Acquisition, Language Enhancement, and Academic Achievement Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyle, Andrea; Taylor, James; Hurlburt, Steven; Soga, Kay

    2010-01-01

    "Title III Accountability: Behind the Numbers" (2010) summarizes data reported by states in their Consolidated State Performance Reports (CSPRs) for 2004-05 through 2007-08. The CSPRs are annual reports required under the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) that states use to submit information to the U.S. Department of…

  15. Funding Education beyond High School: The Guide to Federal Student Aid, 2006-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Federal Student Aid's core mission is to ensure that all eligible Americans benefit from federal financial assistance--grants, loans and work-study programs--for education beyond high school. The programs administered comprise the nation's largest source of student aid: during the 2004-05 school year alone, approximately $74 billion in new aid was…

  16. Shifting Trends in Special Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scull, Janie; Winkler, Amber M.

    2011-01-01

    This report examines trends in the number of special-education students and personnel at both the national and state levels from 2000-01 to 2009-10. It finds that the overall population of special-education students, after decades of increases, peaked in the 2004-05 school year and has declined since. But within this population, individual…

  17. Commission Review of New Academic and Vocational Programs Proposed by the Public Higher Education Systems, 2004-2005. Commission Report 05-07

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the results of program reviews conducted by the Commission during the reporting period 2004-05. Also included is a new section on major issues and implications, in which the Commission: (1) discusses a model for enhancing the evaluation of joint doctoral program in educational leadership; and (2) summarizes key issues…

  18. Mapping 2005 State Proficiency Standards onto the NAEP Scales. Research and Development Report. NCES 2007-482

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Education Statistics, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This report presents the results of applying a methodology for mapping state proficiency standards in reading and mathematics onto the appropriate National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) scale, employing data from the 2004-05 academic year. The mapping exercise was carried out for both grades 4 and 8. For each of the four subject and…

  19. A Study of States' Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. NCSER 2011-3001

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bollmer, Julie; Cronin, Roberta; Brauen, Marsha; Howell, Bethany; Fletcher, Philip; Gonin, Rene; Jenkins, Frank

    2010-01-01

    The Study of Monitoring and Improvement Practices under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) examined how states monitored the implementation of IDEA by local special education and early intervention services programs. State monitoring and improvement practices in 2004-05 and 2006-07 were the focus of the study. Prior to the…

  20. Performance indicators for information technology services at four community hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rappaport, Pegi; Dimnik, Gerry; Burns, Rodney; Bowie, Jamie

    2006-01-01

    During the 2004/05 fiscal year, the Directors of Information Technology Services (ITS) at four Toronto-area hospitals agreed to participate in a detailed benchmarking exercise looking at ITS costs and services in their organizations. The indicators presented in this article highlight some of the findings from this data analysis.

  1. What Kind of Citizen? An Analysis of the Social Studies Curriculum in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kus, Zafer

    2014-01-01

    The social studies curriculum was recently revised in Turkey, running in a pilot scheme in the school year 2004-05. It was then implemented in primary schools all over Turkey from 2006. This study describes the kind of citizen it aims to form by analysing all of the documents relating to social studies teaching. The social studies curriculum for…

  2. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  3. Patterns of Student Mobility among English Language Learner Students in Arizona Public Schools. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 093

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Anthony B.; Bae, Soung; Huang, Min

    2010-01-01

    Using data from an Arizona Department of Education dataset that includes all students enrolled at an Arizona public school at any time during 2004/05-2007/08, this study looks at three types of student mobility: students who transferred between public schools in Arizona, students who had breaks in enrollment of at least 19 days, and students…

  4. Toast of the Town

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woolbright, Cynthia; Martin, Maria

    2010-01-01

    Sometimes, the key to solving an old problem is a fresh perspective. This was the case for the annual fund for The Catholic University of America (CUA), which underwent a transformation that nearly doubled the fund between 2004 and 2008. In 2004-05, the annual giving program at CUA raised $454,789 in unrestricted gifts from 1,760 donors. By…

  5. Strengths and Limitations of Ontario Post-Secondary Education Accessibility Plans: A Review of One University Accessibility Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Opini, Bathseba M.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the strengths and limitations of the Ontarians with Disabilities Act (ODA) accessibility plan prepared by one post-secondary education institution in Ontario, Canada, during the 2004/05 academic year. The paper focuses on ways the intersectionality between disability and gender is not voiced in the plan and its implications for…

  6. Bridging the Experiential Learning Gap: An Evaluation of the Impacts of Ulster University's Senior Student Tutoring Scheme on First Year Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eaton, Martin D.

    2015-01-01

    Since 2004-05 first year students at the School of Environmental Sciences, Ulster University have engaged with senior student tutors (SSTs) in workshop activities aimed at preparations for their written examinations. Using a pedagogical action research methodology we evaluated the role of SSTs in bridging the experiential learning gap between…

  7. Grow Your Own School Leaders: A Case Study of Principal Development in Philadelphia Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urban Education Collaborative, 2010

    2010-01-01

    In 2004-05, the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) began a groundbreaking partnership with the Eli Broad Foundation to develop the Academy for Leadership in Philadelphia Schools (ALPS), one of several Broad-funded, alternative principal development programs initiated across the country. The ALPS effort was designed to respond to two challenges:…

  8. Fourth Year Evaluation Report for the Cornerstone Literacy Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockwood, Dana; Hanlon, Ellie

    2006-01-01

    Cornerstone is a national initiative designed to improve the quality of literacy instruction in low-performing, high-poverty elementary schools. The 2004-05 school year marked the fifth year of the implementation of the Cornerstone National Literacy Initiative. By the end of this fifth year, Cornerstone activities were being carried out in 22…

  9. Scientific Productivity and Academic Promotion: A Study on French and Italian Physicists. NBER Working Paper No. 16341

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lissoni, Francesco; Mairesse, Jacques; Montobbio, Fabio; Pezzoni, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The paper examines the determinants of scientific productivity (number of articles and journals' impact factor) for a panel of about 3600 French and Italian academic physicists active in 2004-05. Endogeneity problems concerning promotion and productivity are addressed by specifying a generalized Tobit model, in which a selection probit equation…

  10. Beginning With the End in Mind: Post-Conflict Operations and Campaign Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Military Studies guest speaker program, 2004-05 academic year. 74 Andrew Steel and Andrew Marriot , “Briefing on Peace Support Operations,” (United...truth/interviews/perito.html. Steel, Andrew, Grp Cpt and Marriot , Andrew LTC. Briefing on Peace Support Operations. Ministry of Defence, United

  11. Trends in Bullying at School among Students Ages 12 to 18. Data Point. NCES 2016-004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cidade, Melissa; Lessne, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Data from the School Crime Supplement (SCS) to the National Crime Victimization Survey, a nationally representative sample survey of students ages 12 through 18, were used to examine trends in bullying at school. The SCS study is completed every other year. Data from five consecutive surveys are included in this report: school years 2004-05,…

  12. The Effect of Special-Education Vouchers on Public School Achievement: Evidence from Florida's McKay Scholarship Program. Civic Report No. 52

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, Jay P.; Winters, Marcus A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper evaluates the impact of exposure to a voucher program for disabled students in Florida on the academic performance of disabled students who remain in the public school system. The authors utilize student-level data on the universe of public school students in the state of Florida from 2000-01 through 2004-05 to study the effect of the…

  13. Measuring Efficiencies of Academic Departments within a College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tauer, Loren W.; Fried, Harold O.; Fry, William E.

    2007-01-01

    Technical and allocative efficiencies of 26 academic departments in the College of Agriculture and Life Sciences at Cornell University are computed using Data Envelopment Analysis over 2004/05. Allocations of faculty time between teaching, research, and extension vary by department and are used as unique prices in calculating allocative…

  14. Role of Parental Education in Schooling and Child Labour Decision: Urban India in the Last Decade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukherjee, Diganta; Das, Saswati

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses household level data from National Sample Survey Organization (NSSO) of India, the 55th (1999-2000) and the 61st (2004-05) rounds, to show that even with a significant wage incentive for schooling of urban children, the school drop out rate and child labour incidence are not small over this period. The parents' level of education…

  15. 36th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2004-2005 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 36th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2004-05. Data highlights of this survey include: (1) In the 2004-2005 academic year, the states…

  16. Truth or Consequences: The State Budget for 2004-2005 and Its Impact on Texans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresette, Patrick; Castro, Eva De Luna; Dunkelberg, Anne; Hagert, Celia

    2004-01-01

    This report analyzes the Texas state budget for 2004-05, discusses the impact of the fiscal and policy decisions that were made, and serves as a roadmap to the service restorations that must be considered as the economy and state revenues rebound. In addition to the analysis of budget and policy changes in the body of the report, useful…

  17. CA District Uses RTI to Boost Achievement for All

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    The 2004-05 school year didn't start off well for the Sanger Unified School District. The district, located east of Fresno, had entered its first year of "program improvement"--a gentler way of saying that Sanger was among the 98 lowest-performing districts in the state based on success criteria in the No Child Left Behind law. The…

  18. Project Early Kindergarten Evaluation: Results through 2009-10 of a Saint Paul Public Schools Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxfield, Jennifer; Gozali-Lee, Edith; Mueller, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Project Early Kindergarten (PEK) aims to improve the school-readiness of Saint Paul children and help close the achievement gap through offering high-quality educational experiences for preschool children. This report comes at the conclusion of the sixth year of PEK. Following an initial planning year (2004-05), PEK has served children through the…

  19. Science Education and ESL Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Heather; Park, Soonhye

    2011-01-01

    The number of students who learn English as a second language (ESL) in U.S. schools has grown significantly in the past decade. This segment of the student population increased by 56% between the 1994-95 and 2004-05 school years (NCLR 2007). As the ESL student population increases, many science teachers struggle to tailor instructional materials,…

  20. Post-Primary Education and Capabilities: Insights from Young Women in Rural Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Shelley K.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents findings from the third stage of a longitudinal, qualitative study involving nine female participants from a class cohort in a secondary school in rural Uganda. Since 2004-05, this study has tracked the progress of these young women's lives, and the present aspect of the study explores the ways in which they have found that…

  1. Organisation and Management of a Complete Bachelor Degree Offered Online at the University of Milan for Ten Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milani, Manuela; Papini, Sabrina; Scaccia, Daniela; Scarabottolo, Nello

    2014-01-01

    This paper is aimed at presenting some reflections on organisation and management of SSRI online: an e-learning initiative started at the University of Milan (Italy) in the academic year 2004/05 and offered to students over the last ten years. The initiative consisted in implementing the online version of an already existing three-year bachelor…

  2. Trends in the Participation and Performance of Students with Disabilities. Technical Report 50

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurlow, Martha; Quenemoen, Rachel; Altman, Jason; Cuthbert, Marge

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the participation and performance trends over time for students with disabilities, progressing from school year 2001-02, a base year for determining AYP goals under NCLB, through school year 2004-05, the third year that states reported after the NCLB baseline year (VanGetson & Thurlow, 2007). Within…

  3. Not Just New--Newly Reborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2005-01-01

    Career and technical education has always been able to change with the times. New technologies and new educational challenges have made such change necessary. Sometimes a school must reinvent itself and undergo a rebirth as part of that adaptation. That is what has happened at the former St. Louis Career Academy. In the 2004-05 school year, the…

  4. Eighteen-year study of South Australian dolphins shows variation in lung nematodes by season, year, age class, and location.

    PubMed

    Tomo, Ikuko; Kemper, Catherine M; Lavery, Trish J

    2010-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, carcasses of opportunistically collected short-beaked common dolphins (Delphinus delphis; n=238), Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops aduncus; n=167), and common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus; n=15) were examined for parasites and life history data. Three species of lung nematodes (Halocercus lagenorhynchi, Stenurus ovatus, Pharurus alatus) were identified in surface nodules, subsurface lesions, or airways. Nematode burdens were light to heavy and, in many cases, would have compromised the dolphins' health. The number of dolphins infected was related to species, year, season, age class, and geographic region. Nematodes were found in all three species but were more prevalent in short-beaked common dolphins (mean annual prevalence=26%) than in bottlenose dolphins (12%). There was a significant increase in prevalence of nematodes in short-beaked common dolphins in 2005-06 (63%) compared to 1990-2004 (14%), with a peak in April-June. More young short-beaked common dolphins were infected than subadults and adults and, during the unusual infection event, there were more dependent calves (<130 cm) than juveniles. There were also more infections in dependent bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) calves but no increase in overall prevalence was detected during 2005-06. Because neonates of both short-beaked common dolphins and bottlenose dolphins were infected, mother-to-calf transmission is suspected for these species in South Australia. Numbers of infections in short-beaked common dolphins were higher in Gulf St Vincent than elsewhere in South Australia, particularly in 2005-06. The cause of the unusual infection event in short-beaked common dolphins is unknown. We discuss the influence of dolphin diet, life history, and external factors.

  5. Rapid Survey of Wasting and Stunting in Children: Whats New, Whats Old and Whats the Buzz?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Rajib; Sinha, Dipa; Yumnam, Veda

    2016-01-01

    Nationwide Rapid Survey on Children (RSoC), conducted by the Ministry of Women and Child Development and UNICEF in 2013-14 showed a marked improvement in the status of the child malnutrition over the third National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) that was conducted in 2005-06. Despite some impressive gains in the anthropometric indicators of malnutrition, the absolute levels remain high, and of concern. Despite these gains, the feeding indicators remain stagnant. The programmatic responses need to adopt a multi-sectoral comprehensive approach with regular and comprehensive nutrition surveillance and recognize the epidemiological diversity.

  6. Map showing Features and Displacements of the Scenic Drive Landslide, La Honda, California, During the Period March 31, 2005-November 5, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Ray E.; Rymer, Michael J.; Prentice, Carol S.; Wheeler, Karen L.

    2006-01-01

    The Scenic Drive landslide in La Honda, San Mateo County, California began movement during the El Ni?o winter of 1997-98. Recurrent motion occurred during the mild El Ni?o winter of 2004-2005 and again during the winter of 2005-06. This report documents the changing geometry and motion of the Scenic Drive landslide in 2005-2006, and it documents changes and persistent features that we interpret to reflect underlying structural control of the landslide. We have also compared the displacement history to near-real time rainfall history at a continuously recording gauge for the period October 2004-November 2006.

  7. Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) Development Activities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center - 2006 Accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ballard, Richard O.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005-06, the Prometheus program funded a number of tasks at the NASA-Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to support development of a Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) system for future manned exploration missions. These tasks include the following: 1. NTP Design Develop Test & Evaluate (DDT&E) Planning 2. NTP Mission & Systems Analysis / Stage Concepts & Engine Requirements 3. NTP Engine System Trade Space Analysis and Studies 4. NTP Engine Ground Test Facility Assessment 5. Non-Nuclear Environmental Simulator (NTREES) 6. Non-Nuclear Materials Fabrication & Evaluation 7. Multi-Physics TCA Modeling. This presentation is a overview of these tasks and their accomplishments

  8. Environmental variability in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy): Focusing on the response of microbial activities and prokaryotic abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caruso, Gabriella; Azzaro, Filippo; Azzaro, Maurizio; Decembrini, Franco; La Ferla, Rosabruna; Maimone, Giovanna; De Pasquale, Francesca; Monticelli, Luis Salvador; Zaccone, Renata; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Leonardi, Marcella

    2013-12-01

    The response of both microbial activities and prokaryotic abundances to environmental variability was studied in a transitional Mediterranean system (Oliveri-Tindari, Italy) during two yearly surveys (1997-'98 and 2005-'06). The total enzymatic (leucine aminopeptidase, β-glucosidase, alkaline phosphatase) and respiratory activity rates as well as of the abundances of total prokaryotes, culturable heterotrophic bacteria, faecal coliforms and enterococci were measured in surface waters of four brackish ponds, together with temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, inorganic nutrients, chlorophyll-a and particulate organic carbon and particulate nitrogen determinations. The seasonal and interannual patterns of microbial parameters were investigated in relation to environmental variations.

  9. Beverage Consumption Habits in Italian Population: Association with Total Water Intake and Energy Intake

    PubMed Central

    Mistura, Lorenza; D’Addezio, Laura; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate total water intake (TWI) from water, beverages and foods among Italian adults and the elderly. Methods: Data of 2607 adults and the elderly, aged 18–75 years from the last national food consumption survey, INRAN-SCAI 2005-06, were used to evaluate the TWI. The INRAN-SCAI 2005-06 survey was conducted on a representative sample of 3323 individuals aged 0.1 to 97.7 years. A 3-day semi-structured diary was used for participants to record the consumption of all foods, beverages and nutritional supplements. Results: On average, TWI was 1.8 L for men and 1.7 L for women. More than 75% of women and 90% of men did not comply with the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Adequate Intake. The contribution of beverages to the total energy intake (EI) was 6% for the total sample. Water was the most consumed beverage, followed by alcoholic beverages for men and hot beverages for women. Conclusion: According to the present results, adults and elderly Italians do not reach the adequate intake for water as suggested by the EFSA and by the national reference level of nutrient and energy intake. Data on water consumption should also be analyzed in single socio-demographic groups in order to identify sub-groups of the population that need more attention and to plan more targeted interventions. PMID:27792160

  10. Trends in hospital librarianship and hospital library services: 1989 to 2006

    PubMed Central

    Thibodeau, Patricia L.; Funk, Carla J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The research studied the status of hospital librarians and library services to better inform the Medical Library Association's advocacy activities. Methods: The Vital Pathways Survey Subcommittee of the Task Force on Vital Pathways for Hospital Librarians distributed a web-based survey to hospital librarians and academic health sciences library directors. The survey results were compared to data collected in a 1989 survey of hospital libraries by the American Hospital Association in order to identify any trends in hospital libraries, roles of librarians, and library services. A web-based hospital library report form based on the survey questions was also developed to more quickly identify changes in the status of hospital libraries on an ongoing basis. Results: The greatest change in library services between 1989 and 2005/06 was in the area of access to information, with 40% more of the respondents providing access to commercial online services, 100% more providing access to Internet resources, and 28% more providing training in database searching and use of information resources. Twenty-nine percent (n = 587) of the 2005/06 respondents reported a decrease in staff over the last 5 years. Conclusions: Survey data support reported trends of consolidation of hospitals and hospital libraries and additions of new services. These services have likely required librarians to acquire new skills. It is hoped that future surveys will be undertaken to continue to study these trends. PMID:19851491

  11. [How to develop professionally through investigation and research. A methodological strategy in education].

    PubMed

    Vaquero Barba, Angela; De Lorenzo Urien, Elena

    2008-03-01

    The authors present, and evaluate, from the viewpoint of participating students, an investigation-development project put into action during the 2003-04 academic year on the elaboration of a career-ending thesis at the Vitoria School of Nursing, as part of the European Nursing Licentiate program. This project establishes the starting point for a long-term project begun having the objective to develop theoretical principles and practical procedures which will permit the authors to systemize educational processes which, based on investigation and research, articulate theory and practice while integrating a communicative and cooperative perspective.

  12. Scientist to Expose Students to Wetlands Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Dr. Marco Giardino, chief of the Applications Integration Division for NASA Stennis Space Center's Earth Science Applications Directorate, has been chosen by the JASON Project to be one of six host researchers for Disappearing Wetlands, which will run through the 2004-05 school year. In the photo, Giardino (left) interprets satellite imagery on the way to an archeological site near Lake Salvador, La., in November 2002. With him is his local guide, Michael Comardelle.

  13. Teacher Absences: Types, Frequency, and Impact on Student Achievement, Wake County Public School System, 2007-08. Measuring Up. E&R Report No. 09.37

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speas, Carol M.

    2010-01-01

    In 2007-08, the WCPSS teacher absence rate was 10.3 days, slightly higher than a national rate of 9.5 days in 2004-05 but lower than the 11.3 to 14.6 days reported in large school districts more recently. In comparison with other studies, WCPSS teachers averaged smaller proportions of personal and sick leave days, slightly more annual leave days,…

  14. Impact of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine introduction in South Africa.

    PubMed Central

    von Gottberg, A.; de Gouveia, L.; Madhi, S. A.; du Plessis, M.; Quan, V.; Soma, K.; Huebner, R.; Flannery, B.; Schuchat, A.; Klugman, Kp

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse trends in reported invasive Haemophilus influenzae disease in South Africa within the first five years of introduction of conjugate Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine in the routine child immunization schedule. METHODS: We used national laboratory-based surveillance data to identify cases of invasive H. influenzae disease between July 1999 and June 2004, and submitted isolates for serotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. FINDINGS: The absolute number of Hib cases (reported to the national surveillance system) among children below one year of age decreased by 65%, from 55 cases in 1999-2000 to 19 cases in 2003-04. Enhanced surveillance initiated in 2003, identified human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection and incomplete vaccination as contributing factors for Hib transmission. The total number of laboratory-confirmed cases of H. influenzae remained unchanged because non-type b disease was being increasingly reported to the surveillance system concomitant with system enhancements. Children with non-typable disease were more likely to be HIV-positive (32 of 34, 94%) than children with Hib disease (10 of 14, 71%), P = 0.051. Recent Hib isolates were more likely to be multidrug resistant (2% in 1999-2000 versus 19% in 2003-04, P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Data from a newly established national laboratory-based surveillance system showed a decrease in Hib disease burden among South African children following conjugate vaccine introduction and identified cases of non-typable disease associated with HIV infection. PMID:17128361

  15. Water Quality, Hydrology, and Response to Changes in Phosphorus Loading of Nagawicka Lake, a Calcareous Lake in Waukesha County, Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garn, Herbert S.; Robertson, Dale M.; Rose, William J.; Goddard, Gerald L.; Horwatich, Judy A.

    2006-01-01

    Nagawicka Lake is a 986-acre, usually mesotrophic, calcareous lake in southeastern Wisconsin. Because of concern over potential water-quality degradation of the lake associated with further development in its watershed, a study was conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey from 2002 to 2006 to describe the water quality and hydrology of the lake; quantify sources of phosphorus, including those associated with urban development; and determine the effects of past and future changes in phosphorus loading on the water quality of the lake. All major water and phosphorus sources were measured directly, and minor sources were estimated to construct detailed water and phosphorus budgets for the lake. The Bark River, near-lake surface inflow, precipitation, and ground water contributed 74, 8, 12, and 6 percent of the inflow, respectively. Water leaves the lake primarily through the Bark River outlet (88 percent) or by evaporation (11 percent). The water quality of Nagawicka Lake has improved dramatically since 1980 as a result of decreasing the historical loading of phosphorus to the lake. Total input of phosphorus to the lake was about 3,000 pounds in monitoring year (MY) 2003 and 6,700 pounds in MY 2004. The largest source of phosphorus entering the lake was the Bark River, which delivered about 56 percent of the total phosphorus input, compared with about 74 percent of the total water input. The next largest contributions were from the urbanized near-lake drainage area, which disproportionately accounted for 37 percent of the total phosphorus input but only about 5 percent of the total water input. Simulations with water-quality models within the Wisconsin Lakes Modeling Suite (WiLMS) indicated the response of Nagawicka Lake to 10 phosphorus-loading scenarios. These scenarios included historical (1970s) and current (base) years (MY 2003-04) for which lake water quality and loading were known, six scenarios with percentage increases or decreases in phosphorus loading from

  16. Nutrient conditions during Alexandrium fundyense blooms in the western Gulf of Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Rebecca C.; Loder, Theodore C.; Keafer, Bruce A.

    2005-09-01

    Inorganic nutrients and organic nitrogen were measured in April-June of 1998 and 2000 near Casco Bay, Maine and the adjacent coastal waters as part of the Ecology and Oceanography of Harmful Algal Blooms—Gulf of Maine (ECOHAB-GOM) program. The samples were collected during development of toxic Alexandrium fundyense blooms [ Keafer, B.A., Churchill, J.H., Anderson, D.M., 2005. Blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Alexandrium fundyense in the Casco Bay region of the western Gulf of Maine: advection from offshore source populations and interactions with the Kennebec River plume. Deep Sea Research II, this issue [ doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2005.06.017

  17. The effect of women's status and community on the gender differential in children's nutrition in India.

    PubMed

    Bose, Sunita

    2011-09-01

    This study uses the third National Family Health Survey (2005-06) in India to investigate whether differences in women's status, both at the individual and community levels, can explain the persistent gender differential in nutritional allocation among children. The results show that girls are less likely than boys to receive supplemental food and more likely to be malnourished. In general it appears that higher women's status within a community, as well as higher maternal status, have beneficial effects on a daughter's nutritional status. Further, the moderating effects of community appear to be more consistent and stronger than the individual-level characteristics. A positive relationship between the percentage of literate women in a community and the gender differential in malnutrition appears to be an exception to the general findings regarding the beneficial nature of women's status on a daughter's well-being, showing the need for more than just basic adult literacy drives in communities to overcome the problem of daughter neglect.

  18. Tall claims: Mortality selection and the height of children in India.

    PubMed

    Alderman, Harold; Lokshin, Michael; Radyakin, Sergiy

    2011-12-01

    Data from three rounds of nationally representative health surveys in India (1992/93, 1998/99 and 2005/06) are used to assess the impact of selective mortality on children's anthropometrics. The nutritional status of the child population was simulated under the counterfactual scenario that all children who died in the first three years of life were alive at the time of measurement. The simulations demonstrate that the difference in anthropometrics due to selective mortality would be large only if there were very large differences in anthropometrics between the children who died and those who survived. Differences of this size are not substantiated by the research on the degree of association between mortality and malnutrition. The study shows that although mortality risk is higher among malnourished children, selective mortality has only a minor impact on the measured nutritional status of children stratified by gender.

  19. Molecular evidence for tick-borne encephalitis virus in ticks in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, S Y; Jeong, Y E; Yun, S-M; Lee, I Y; Han, M G; Ju, Y R

    2009-03-01

    To investigate whether tick-borne encephalitis viruses (TBEVs) are present in South Korea, Korean ixodid ticks were tested for TBEV RNA. Ticks (n = 2460) were collected from wild and domestic animals or by flagging at forest and grassland in 12 regions of five provinces in 2005-06. Four species in two genera were identified, yielding 197 sample pools (1-20 ticks per pool); from these, 12 envelope protein gene fragments of TBEV were amplified by reverse transcriptase-nested polymerase chain reaction (RT-nested PCR). Ten of the 2104 adult ticks (0.4%) and two of the 356 nymph ticks (0.2%) were positive for the envelope (E) gene of TBEV. Twelve TBEV RNA-positive samples were detected in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the E genes of the TBEV isolates were clustered with the Western European subtype (98% identity). This study suggests that TBEVs may exist in Korea.

  20. Evaluation of pore-water samplers at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used innovative sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report evaluates a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. The new type of pore-water sampler appears to be an effective approach for long-term monitoring of ground water in the sand and organic-rich mud beneath the drainage ditch.

  1. AXARM: An Extensible Remote Assistance and Monitoring Tool for ND Telerehabilitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, Antonio; Marzo, Jose L.; Vallejo, Xavier

    AXARM is a multimedia tool for rehabilitation specialists that allow remote assistance and monitoring of patients activities. This tool is the evolution of the work done in 2005-06 between the BCDS research group of UdG and the Multiple Sclerosis Foundation (FEM in Spanish) in Girona under the TRiEM project. Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a neurodegenerative disease (ND) that can provoke significant exhaustion in patients even just by going to the medical centre for rehabilitation or regular checking visits. The tool presented in this paper allows the medical staff to remotely carry on patient consults and activities from their home, minimizing the displacements to medical consulting. AXARM has a hybrid P2P architecture and consists essentially of a cross-platform videoconference system, with audio/video recording capabilities. The system can easily be extended to include new capabilities like, among others, asynchronous activities whose result can later be analyzed by the medical personnel.

  2. Post-sterilization autonomy among young mothers in South India.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Rajan, Irudaya; Singh, Abhishek; Ogollah, Reuben; Page, Samantha

    2015-01-01

    This study examined the post-sterilization autonomy of women in south India in the context of early sterilization and low fertility. Quantitative data were taken from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) carried out in 2005-06, and qualitative data from one village each in Kerala and Tamil Nadu during 2010-11. The incident rate ratios and thematic analysis showed that among currently married women under the age of 30 years, those who had been sterilized had significantly higher autonomy in household decision-making and freedom of mobility compared with women who had never used any modern family planning method. Early age at sterilization and low fertility enables women to achieve the social status that is generally attained at later stages in the life-cycle. Policies to capitalize on women's autonomy and free time resulting from early sterilization and low fertility should be adopted in south India.

  3. High incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated during the 2005-2006 winter season in Nara, Japan.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Masaki; Inoue, Yumiko; Kitahori, Yoshiteru

    2007-02-01

    We examined the incidence of amantadine-resistant influenza AH3 viruses isolated in Nara Prefecture during the 2005-06 winter season. The genetic analyses of the M2 ion channel protein were conducted using reverse transcriptase PCR and direct sequencing. Thirteen out of 18 (72.2%) strains were identified as amantadine-resistant, and this incidence was remarkably higher than those previously recored in Nara Prefecture. Genetic analyses of the viruses revealed that all the anti-drug strains contained a change at position 31 (AGT-->AAT, Ser31Asn) in the M2 gene. One of the 13 amantadine-resistant strains also contained a change at position 27 (GTT-->GCT, Val27Ala). Our data indicate that there has been a significant increase of drug-resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Nara Prefecture, and raise concern about the spread of resistant influenza AH3 viruses in Japan.

  4. Does health insurance ensure equitable health outcomes? An analysis of hospital services usage in urban India.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Mousumi; Husain, Zakir

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we examine the relationship between socio-economic status (SES) and the usage of in-patient services, and analyze the impact of introducing health insurance in India - a major developing country with poor health outcomes. In contrast to results of similar works undertaken for developed countries, our results reveal that the positive relation between usage of in-patient services and SES persists even in the presence of health insurance. This implies that health insurance is unable to eliminate the inequities in accessing healthcare services that stem from disparities in SES. In fact, insurance aggravates inequity in the healthcare market. The study is based on unit-level data from the 2005-06 Morbidity and Health Care Survey undertaken by National Sample Survey Organization.

  5. Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Release 2.5 QC Longwave 3 hourly Data in Native Format (SRB_REL2.5_QCLW_3HRLY)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    This data set contains average surface downward longwave flux, surface net longwave flux, and surface longwave cloud radiative forcing at three hourly intervals for each day for the entire glob between 07/01/1983 and 06/30/2005. These LW surface radiative parameters were derived with the Quality-Check LW (QCLW) algorithm of the NASA World Climate Research Programme/Global Energy and Water-Cycle Experiment (WCRP/GEWEX) Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) Project. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-01-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=Ranges from 1 degree (tropics and subtropics) to 120 degrees (the poles).; Temporal_Resolution=3-hourly; Temporal_Resolution_Range=3-hourly].

  6. Assessment of an ensemble system that assimilates Jason-1/Envisat altimeter data in a probabilistic model of the North Atlantic ocean circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candille, G.; Brankart, J. M.; Brasseur, P.

    2014-12-01

    A realistic circulation model of the North Atlantic ocean at 1/4° resolution (NATL025 NEMO configuration) has been adapted to explicitly simulate model uncertainties. This is achieved by introducing stochastic perturbations in the equation of state to represent the effect of unresolved scales on the model dynamics. The main motivation for this work is to develop ensemble data assimilation methods, assimilating altimetric data from past missions JASON-1 and ENVISAT. The assimilation experiment is designed to better control the Gulf Stream circulation for years 2005/06, focusing on frontal regions which are predominantly affected by unresolved dynamical scales. An ensemble based on such stochastic perturbations is first produced and evaluated using along-track altimetry observations. The Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) scheme is applied in order to obtain an ensemble of continuous trajectories all over the 2005/06 assimilation period. These three elements - stochastic parameterization, ensemble simulation and 4-D observation operator - are then used together to perform a 4-D analysis of along-track altimetry over 10 day windows. Finally, the results of this experiment are objectively evaluated using the standard probabilistic approach developed for meteorological applications (Toth et al., 2003; Candille et al., 2007). The results show that the free ensemble - before starting the assimilation process - correctly reproduces the statistical variability over the Gulf Stream area: the system is then pretty reliable but not informative (null probabilistic resolution). Updating the free ensemble with altimetric data leads to a better reliability with an information gain around 30% (for 10 day forecasts of the SSH variable). Diagnoses on fully independent data (i.e. data that are not assimilated, like temperature and salinity profiles) provide more contrasted results when the free and updated ensembles are compared.

  7. Updated survey of Fusarium species and toxins in Finnish cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Hietaniemi, Veli; Rämö, Sari; Yli-Mattila, Tapani; Jestoi, Marika; Peltonen, Sari; Kartio, Mirja; Sieviläinen, Elina; Koivisto, Tauno; Parikka, Päivi

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the project was to produce updated information during 2005-14 on the Fusarium species found in Finnish cereal grains, and the toxins produced by them, as the last comprehensive survey study of Fusarium species and their toxins in Finland was carried out at the turn of the 1960s and the 1970s. Another aim was to use the latest molecular and chemical methods to investigate the occurrence and correlation of Fusarium species and their mycotoxins in Finland. The most common Fusarium species found in Finland in the FinMyco project 2005 and 2006 were F. avenaceum, F. culmorum, F. graminearum, F. poae, F. sporotrichioides and F. langsethiae. F. avenaceum was the most dominant species in barley, spring wheat and oat samples. The occurrence of F. culmorum and F. graminearum was high in oats and barley. Infection by Fusarium fungi was the lowest in winter cereal grains. The incidence of Fusarium species in 2005 was much higher than in 2006 due to weather conditions. F. langsethiae has become much more common in Finland since 2001. F. graminearum has also risen in the order of importance. A highly significant correlation was found between Fusarium graminearum DNA and deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in Finnish oats, barley and wheat. When comparing the FinMyco data in 2005-06 with the results of the Finnish safety monitoring programme for 2005-14, spring cereals were noted as being more susceptible to infection by Fusarium fungi and the formation of toxins. The contents of T-2 and HT-2 toxins and the frequency of exceptionally high DON concentrations all increased in Finland during 2005-14. Beauvericin (BEA), enniatins (ENNs) and moniliformin (MON) were also very common contaminants of Finnish grains in 2005-06. Climate change is leading to warmer weather, and this may indicate more changes in Finnish Fusarium mycobiota and toxin contents and profiles in the near future.

  8. Biology and life cycles of pelagic tunicates in the Lazarev Sea, Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, E. A.; Dubischar, C. D.; Hunt, B. P. V.; Strass, V.; Cisewski, B.; Siegel, V.; von Harbou, L.; Gurney, L.; Kitchener, J.; Bathmann, U.

    2011-07-01

    Four grid surveys were carried out in the top 200 m layer of the Lazarev Sea during fall 2004, summer 2005-06, winter 2006 and summer 2007-08 onboard the R.V. Polarstern as a part of the German SO-GLOBEC. The distribution, abundance and biology of two species of salps, Salpa thompsoni and Ihlea racovitzai, were investigated. With the exception of fall 2004, I. racovitzai dominated the salp community although being represented by low densities (<20 ind. 1000 m -3). S. thompsoni was scarce during the summers of 2005-06 and 2007-08 and almost absent from the region during winter 2006. Nevertheless, it was modestly numerous during fall 2004 reaching densities of up to 33 ind. 1000 m -3 in the south-western stations of the grid. The data on the seasonal population structure and life cycle of I. racovitzai showed that this species followed the generalized pattern typical of S. thompsoni, i.e. sexual/asexual reproduction and spawning during fall. I. racovitzai densities were the lowest during summer, increased during fall and peaked in during winter. Numerous offspring were produced by I. racovitzai during fall, just before the area became ice-covered. Conversely, S. thompsoni was not able to complete its life cycle in the Lazarev Sea, with a high occurrence of stage X (unfertilized) aggregates present. Highest S. thompsoni densities in summer and fall, and its disappearance in winter are indicative of a population of the expatriate origin that is sustained by advection.

  9. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Copepod Abundance along the 20°S Monitoring Transect in the Northern Benguela Upwelling System from 2005 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Maya; Kreiner, Anja; van der Plas, Anja K.; Louw, Deon C.; Horaeb, Richard; Auel, Holger; Hagen, Wilhelm

    2014-01-01

    Long-term data sets are essential to understand climate-induced variability in marine ecosystems. This study provides the first comprehensive analysis of longer-term temporal and spatial variations in zooplankton abundance and copepod community structure in the northern Benguela upwelling system from 2005 to 2011. Samples were collected from the upper 200 m along a transect at 20°S perpendicular to the coast of Namibia to 70 nm offshore. Based on seasonal and interannual trends in surface temperature and salinity, three distinct time periods were discernible with stronger upwelling in spring and extensive warm-water intrusions in late summer, thus, high temperature amplitudes, in the years 2005/06 and 2010/11, and less intensive upwelling followed by weaker warm-water intrusions from 2008/09 to 2009/10. Zooplankton abundance reflected these changes with higher numbers in 2005/06 and 2010/11. In contrast, zooplankton density was lower in 2008/09 and 2009/10, when temperature gradients from spring to late summer were less pronounced. Spatially, copepod abundance tended to be highest between 30 and 60 nautical miles off the coast, coinciding with the shelf break and continental slope. The dominant larger calanoid copepods were Calanoides carinatus, Metridia lucens and Nannocalanus minor. On all three scales studied, i.e. spatially from the coast to offshore waters as well as temporally, both seasonally and interannually, maximum zooplankton abundance was not coupled to the coldest temperature regime, and hence strongest upwelling intensity. Pronounced temperature amplitudes, and therefore strong gradients within a year, were apparently important and resulted in higher zooplankton abundance. PMID:24844305

  10. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (< 0.7 μm). Similar trends were observed with most of the heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  11. How does high stakes testing influence teachers' classroom instruction?: Institutional pressures and classroom instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Mika Yoder

    2011-12-01

    This study examined how a total of eight math and science elementary school teachers changed their classroom instruction in response to high stakes and low stakes testing in one school district. The district introduced new assessment in the school year of 2005--06 to meet the requirement set forth by the No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)---that the assessment should be aligned with the state academic standards. I conducted interviews with teachers and school administrators at two elementary schools, district officials, and a representative of a non-profit organization during the school year 2007--08 to examine how the new assessment introduced in 2005--06 had shaped classroom instruction. Concepts from New Institutional Theory and cognitive approaches to policy implementation guided the design of this study. This study focused on how materials and activities associated with high stakes testing promoted ideas about good instruction, and how these ideas were carried to teachers. The study examined how teachers received messages about instruction and how they responded to the messages. The study found that high stakes testing influenced teachers' classroom instruction more than low stakes testing; however, the instructional changes teachers made in response to state testing was at the content level. The teachers' instructional strategies did not change. The teachers' instructional changes varied with the degree of implementation of existing math curriculum and with the degree of support they received in understanding the meaning of assessment results. The study concluded that, among the six teachers I studied, high stakes testing was not a sufficient intervention for changing teachers' instructional strategies. The study also addressed the challenges of aligning instructional messages across assessment, standards, and curriculum.

  12. Influenza vaccine effectiveness among adult patients in a University of Lyon hospital (2004-2009).

    PubMed

    Amour, Sélilah; Voirin, Nicolas; Regis, Corinne; Bouscambert-Duchamp, Maude; Comte, Brigitte; Coppéré, Brigitte; Pires-Cronenberger, Silene; Lina, Bruno; Vanhems, Philippe

    2012-01-20

    The aim of this study was to estimate influenza vaccine effectiveness (IVE) against laboratory-confirmed influenza among hospitalized patients. A case-control investigation was based on the prospective surveillance of influenza-like illness (ILI) during five flu seasons. We compared influenza-positive cases and influenza-negative controls. Unadjusted overall IVE was 62% (95% confidence interval 24% to 81%). We found that IVE was lower during the 2004-05 flu season (11%; 95% CI -232% to 76%) when the vaccine and circulating viruses were mismatched. Expansion of the study to other hospitals could provide IVE estimates earlier in the season, for different age groups and emerging virus strains.

  13. Know Your Enemy, Know Yourself: Understanding the Enemy in the War on Terror

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    58 Terry Robertson , “A Perfect Storm: A Case Study Analysis of the Defeat of Tom Daschle by John Thune in the 2004 South Dakota Senate Race...59 Robertson , 333. 60 Sheryl Gay Stolberg, “Daschel, Democratic Senate Leader, Is Beaten,” New York Times, 3 November 2004, http... Seymour M. Hersh, “Torture at Abu Ghraib,” The New Yorker, 10 May 2004, http://www.newyorker.com/archive/2004/05/10/040510fa_fact?currentPage=1

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Differential Stromgren photometry of 15 And (Dorokhova+, 2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, T. N.; Handler, G.; Dorokhov, N. I.; Rodriguez, E.; Udovichenko, S. N.

    2008-01-01

    The data are HJD (Heliocentric Julian Day) versus magnitude differences of 15 And relative to the comparison star HD 220575. Table 2 contains 338 magnitude differences in Johnson V. Telescope: 0.8m Ritchey-Chretien of Astronomical Observatory, Odessa National University at the Mt. Dushak-Erekdag Observatory, Turkmenistan Observers: Dorokhov N. I., Dorokhova T. N. Table 3 contains the magnitude differences (Du, Dv, Db, Dy, D(b-y), Dm1, Dc1) of 257 simultaneous measurements collected in each of the four uvby passbands of the Stromgren photometric system. Telescope: 0.9m of the Sierra Nevada Observatory, Spain Observer: Rodriguez E. Tables 4 contains 998 magnitude differences in Stromgren y. Telescope: 0.75m Austrian Automatic Photoelectric Telescope at Fairborn Observatory, Arizona. Observer: Handler G. The observations were carried out in 2003-04 during the multi-site campaign. The origin in time is the Julian Day 2452853. (3 data files).

  15. Amino Acids in the Antarctic Martian Meteorite MIL03346

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glavin, D. P.; Aubrey, A.; Dworkin, J. P.; Botta, O.; Bada, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    The report by McKay et al. that the Martian meteorite ALH84001 contains evidence for life on Mars remains controversial. Of central importance is whether ALH84001 and other Antarctic Martian meteorites contain endogenous organic compounds. In any investigation of organic compounds possibly derived from Mars it is important to focus on compounds that play an essential role in biochemistry as we know it and that have properties such as chirality which can be used to distinguish between biotic versus abiotic origins. Amino acids are one of the few compounds that fulfill these requirements. Previous analyses of the Antarctic Martian meteorites ALH84001 and EETA79001 have shown that these meteorites contain low levels of terrestrial amino acid contamination derived from Antarctic ice meltwater. Here we report preliminary amino acid investigations of a third Antarctic Martian meteorite MIL03346 which was discovered in Antarctica during the 2003-04 ANSMET season. Additional information is included in the original extended abstract

  16. Fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing concepts: An adaptation for the Komati Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlamini, Enoch M.; Dhlamini, Sidney; Mthimkhulu, Sindy

    This paper presents an adaptation of fractional water allocation and reservoir capacity sharing (FWARCS) concepts for application in the Komati Basin, a river system shared between South Africa, Swaziland and Mozambique. Many traditional methods for allocating water are based on volume-per-unit-time allocation that is supplied at some level of assurance and managed using priority-based reservoir and river system operating rules, as well as on the “use it or lose it” principle, which is considered exclusive by water users as it leaves them out of the management of their water allocations. In the Komati Basin, these traditional methods of water allocation led to frequent conflicts among users and with water managers. However, the introduction of the modified FWARCS, which assigns available water in the system to water users according to the proportions of their water entitlements and allows water to be banked in reservoirs, appears to be a solution to some of these problems. This method allows water users to decide when and how much of that entitlement they may use. Since the implementation of the modified FWARCS technique in the Komati Basin in 2002, the regulation, transparency and efficiency of operating the system improved and subsequently the number of disputes over water has declined. South Africa improved from an overuse of 8.2 Mm 3 in 2002/03 water year to realize a saving of 29.5 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Similarly, Swaziland improved from an overuse of 3.9 Mm 3 in 2002/03 to achieve a saving of 14.6 Mm 3 in 2005/06. Users have recognised and embraced the transparency and flexibility of the modified FWARCS. They choose, as the need and opportunity arise, when and how much water they utilise, whether to “bank” and/or “trade” the water they save subject to the conditions of their entitlements. The implementation of the modified FWARCS was also made successful by the existence of proper institutional structures, appropriate decision support tools, good water

  17. Bank erosion of navigation canals in the western and central Gulf of Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, Cindy A.; Hartley, Stephen B.; Wilson, Scott A.

    2011-01-01

    Erosion of navigation canal banks is a direct cause of land loss, but there has been little quantitative analysis to determine why certain major canals exhibit faster widening rates (indicative of erosion) than others in the coastal zones of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama. We hypothesize that navigation canals exhibit varying rates of erosion based on soil properties of the embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region (derived from digital versions of state geologic maps), and the presence or absence of canal bank armaments (that is, rock rip-rap, concrete bulkheads, or other shoreline protection structures). The first objective of this project was to map the shoreline position and substrate along both banks of the navigation canals, which were digitized from 3 different time periods of aerial photography spanning the years of 1978/79 to 2005/06. The second objective was to quantify the erosion rates of the navigation canals in the study area and to determine whether differences in erosion rates are related to embankment substrate, vegetation type, geologic region, or soil type. To measure changes in shoreline position over time, transects spaced at 50-m (164-ft) intervals were intersected with shorelines from all three time periods, and an annual rate of change was calculated for each transect. Mean annual rates of shoreline change ranged from 1.75 m/year (5.74 ft/year) on the west side of the Atchafalaya River, La., where there was shoreline advancement or canal narrowing, to -3.29 m/year (-10.79 ft/year) on the south side of the Theodore Ship Channel, Ala., where there was shoreline retreat or erosion. Statistical analysis indicated that there were significant differences in shoreline retreat rates according to geologic region and marsh vegetation type, and a weak relationship with soil organic content. This information can be used to better estimate future land loss rates associated with navigation canals and to prioritize the location of

  18. Investigations into matrix components affecting the performance of the official bioassay reference method for quantitation of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins in oysters.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Dhanji-Rapkova, Monika; Algoet, Myriam; Suarez-Isla, Benjamin A; Cordova, Marco; Caceres, Catherine; Murphy, Cory J; Casey, Melanie; Lees, David N

    2012-02-01

    Significant differences previously observed in the determination of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins (PSTs) in oysters using official method AOAC 2005.06 and 959.08 were investigated in detail with regard to possible matrix effects. Method AOAC 2005.06 gave results 2-3 times higher than the mouse bioassay method, 959.08, differences thought to be due to underestimation of PSTs by the mouse bioassay. In order to prove the cause of these large differences, work was conducted here to examine the presence and effects of matrix components on the performance of each of the two assays. A range of oyster, cockle and mussel samples were extracted using the AOAC 959.08 hydrochloric acid (HCl) extraction method and analysed for PSP by both MBA and LC-FLD. In addition, extracts were analysed by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) for metals as well as being subjected to a range of nutritional testing methods. Whilst there was no evidence for effect of nutritional components on either assay, ICP-MS analysis revealed a relationship between samples exhibiting the largest differences in relative method performance, specifically those with the largest LC-FLD/MBA toxicity ratio, and samples containing the highest concentrations of zinc and manganese. In order to prove the potential effect of the metals on either the LC-FLD and/or MBA assays, HCl extracts of a range of shellfish were subjected to a number of matrix modifications. Firstly, a number of PSP-positive oyster samples were processed to reduce the concentrations of metals within the extracts, without significantly reducing the concentrations of PSTs. Secondly, a range of mussel and cockle extracts, plus a standard solution of saxitoxin di-hydrochloride were spiked at variable concentrations of zinc. All treated and non-treated extracts, plus a number of controls were subjected to ICP-MS, LC-FLD and MBA testing. Results proved the absence of any effect of metals on the performance of the LC-FLD, whilst

  19. Net Costs Due to Seasonal Influenza Vaccination — United States, 2005–2009

    PubMed Central

    Carias, Cristina; Reed, Carrie; Kim, Inkyu K.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Biggerstaff, Matthew; Meltzer, Martin I.; Finelli, Lyn; Swerdlow, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Seasonal influenza causes considerable morbidity and mortality across all age groups, and influenza vaccination was recommended in 2010 for all persons aged 6 months and above. We estimated the averted costs due to influenza vaccination, taking into account the seasonal economic burden of the disease. Methods We used recently published values for averted outcomes due to influenza vaccination for influenza seasons 2005-06, 2006-07, 2007-08, and 2008-09, and age cohorts 6 months-4 years, 5-19 years, 20-64 years, and 65 years and above. Costs were calculated according to a payer and societal perspective (in 2009 US$), and took into account medical costs and productivity losses. Results When taking into account direct medical costs (payer perspective), influenza vaccination was cost saving only for the older age group (65≥) in seasons 2005-06 and 2007-08. Using the same perspective, influenza vaccination resulted in total costs of $US 1.7 billion (95%CI: $US 0.3–4.0 billion) in 2006-07 and $US 1.8 billion (95%CI: $US 0.1–4.1 billion) in 2008-09. When taking into account a societal perspective (and including the averted lost earnings due to premature death) averted deaths in the older age group influenced the results, resulting in cost savings for all ages combined in season 07-08. Discussion Influenza vaccination was cost saving in the older age group (65≥) when taking into account productivity losses and, in some seasons, when taking into account medical costs only. Averted costs vary significantly per season; however, in seasons where the averted burden of deaths is high in the older age group, averted productivity losses due to premature death tilt overall seasonal results towards savings. Indirect vaccination effects and the possibility of diminished case severity due to influenza vaccination were not considered, thus the averted burden due to influenza vaccine may be even greater than reported. PMID:26230271

  20. Meltwater flux and runoff modeling in the abalation area of jakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Chylek, Petr; Liston, Glen; Steffen, Konrad

    2009-01-01

    The temporal variability in surface snow and glacier melt flux and runoff were investigated for the ablation area of lakobshavn Isbrae, West Greenland. High-resolution meteorological observations both on and outside the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) were used as model input. Realistic descriptions of snow accumulation, snow and glacier-ice melt, and runoff are essential to understand trends in ice sheet surface properties and processes. SnowModel, a physically based, spatially distributed meteorological and snow-evolution modeling system was used to simulate the temporal variability of lakobshavn Isbrre accumulation and ablation processes for 2000/01-2006/07. Winter snow-depth observations and MODIS satellite-derived summer melt observations were used for model validation of accumulation and ablation. Simulations agreed well with observed values. Simulated annual surface melt varied from as low as 3.83 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to as high as 8.64 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05). Modeled surface melt occurred at elevations reaching 1,870 m a.s.l. for 2004/05, while the equilibrium line altitude (ELA) fluctuated from 990 to 1,210 m a.s.l. during the simulation period. The SnowModel meltwater retention and refreezing routines considerably reduce the amount of meltwater available as ice sheet runoff; without these routines the lakobshavn surface runoff would be overestimated by an average of 80%. From September/October through May/June no runoff events were simulated. The modeled interannual runoff variability varied from 1.81 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2001/02) to 5.21 x 10{sup 9} m{sup 3} (2004/05), yielding a cumulative runoff at the Jakobshavn glacier terminus of {approx}2.25 m w.eq. to {approx}4.5 m w.eq., respectively. The average modeled lakobshavn runoff of {approx}3.4 km{sup 3} y{sup -1} was merged with previous estimates of Jakobshavn ice discharge to quantify the freshwater flux to Illulissat Icefiord. For both runoff and ice discharge the average trends are

  1. Origin and evolution of highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza in Asia.

    PubMed

    Sims, L D; Domenech, J; Benigno, C; Kahn, S; Kamata, A; Lubroth, J; Martin, V; Roeder, P

    2005-08-06

    Outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza caused by H5N1 viruses were reported almost simultaneously in eight neighbouring Asian countries between December 2003 and January 2004, with a ninth reporting in August 2004, suggesting that the viruses had spread recently and rapidly. However, they had been detected widely in the region in domestic waterfowl and terrestrial poultry for several years before this, and the absence of widespread disease in the region before 2003, apart from localised outbreaks in the Hong Kong Special Autonomous Region (SAR), is perplexing. Possible explanations include limited virus excretion by domestic waterfowl infected with H5N1, the confusion of avian influenza with other serious endemic diseases, the unsanctioned use of vaccines, and the under-reporting of disease as a result of limited surveillance. There is some evidence that the excretion of the viruses by domestic ducks had increased by early 2004, and there is circumstantial evidence that they can be transmitted by wild birds. The migratory birds from which viruses have been isolated were usually sick or dead, suggesting that they would have had limited potential for carrying the viruses over long distances unless subclinical infections were prevalent. However, there is strong circumstantial evidence that wild birds can become infected from domestic poultry and potentially can exchange viruses when they share the same environment. Nevertheless, there is little reason to believe that wild birds have played a more significant role in spreading disease than trade through live bird markets and movement of domestic waterfowl. Asian H5N1 viruses were first detected in domestic geese in southern China in 1996. By 2000, their host range had extended to domestic ducks, which played a key role in the genesis of the 2003/04 outbreaks. The epidemic was not due to the introduction and spread of a single virus but was caused by multiple viruses which were genotypically linked to the Goose

  2. Density currents in the Chicago River: Characterization, effects on water quality, and potential sources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, P. Ryan; Garcia, Carlos M.; Oberg, Kevin A.; Johnson, Kevin K.; Garcia, Marcelo H.

    2008-01-01

    Bidirectional flows in a river system can occur under stratified flow conditions and in addition to creating significant errors in discharge estimates, the upstream propagating currents are capable of transporting contaminants and affecting water quality. Detailed field observations of bidirectional flows were made in the Chicago River in Chicago, Illinois in the winter of 2005-06. Using multiple acoustic Doppler current profilers simultaneously with a water-quality profiler, the formation of upstream propagating density currents within the Chicago River both as an underflow and an overflow was observed on three occasions. Density differences driving the flow primarily arise from salinity differences between intersecting branches of the Chicago River, whereas water temperature is secondary in the creation of these currents. Deicing salts appear to be the primary source of salinity in the North Branch of the Chicago River, entering the waterway through direct runoff and effluent from a wastewater-treatment plant in a large metropolitan area primarily served by combined sewers. Water-quality assessments of the Chicago River may underestimate (or overestimate) the impairment of the river because standard water-quality monitoring practices do not account for density-driven underflows (or overflows). Chloride concentrations near the riverbed can significantly exceed concentrations at the river surface during underflows indicating that full-depth parameter profiles are necessary for accurate water-quality assessments in urban environments where application of deicing salt is common.

  3. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CRUSTAL MAGMA BODY IN THE 2005-2006 ERUPTION AREA AT 9°50'N ON THE EAST PACIFIC RISE FROM 3D MULTI-CHANNEL SEISMIC DATA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J.; Nedimovic, M. R.; Marjanovic, M.; Aghaei, O.; Xu, M.; Han, S.; Stowe, L.

    2009-12-01

    In the summer of 2008 a large 3D multi-channel seismic dataset (expedition MGL0812) was collected over the 9°50’N Integrated Study Site at the East Pacific Rise, providing insight into the architecture of the magmatic system and its relationship with hydrothermal activity and volcanic/dyking events associated with the 2005-06 eruption. The main area of 3D coverage is located between 9°42’N and 9°57’N, spanning ~28km along-axis, and was acquired along 94 (1 partial) prime lines shot across-axis and each ~24km-long. Pre-processing of the data acquired in this area is now well under way, with significant efforts targeted at amplitude spike removal. Current work focuses on setting up the 3D processing sequence up to the stack stage for a small group of inlines (axis-perpendicular grid lines spaced 37.5m apart) located over the “bull’s eye” site at 9°50’N, a sequence that will subsequently be applied to the whole dataset. At the meeting we will present stacked and migrated sections - inlines, crosslines, time slices - obtained through 3D processing. We will discuss results focusing on the characteristics of the axial magma body, whose detailed structure and along-axis segmentation will be resolved by the 3D data.

  4. STATE-LEVEL DIETARY DIVERSITY AS A CONTEXTUAL DETERMINANT OF NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Borkotoky, Kakoli; Unisa, Sayeed; Gupta, Ashish Kumar

    2017-02-20

    This study aimed to identify the determinants of nutritional status of children in India with a special focus on dietary diversity at the state level. Household-level consumption data from three rounds of the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the National Sample Survey Organization (1993-2012) were used. Information on the nutritional status of children was taken from the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). Dietary diversity indices were constructed at the state level to examine diversity in quantity of food consumed and food expenditure. Multilevel regression analysis was applied to examine the association of state-level dietary diversity and other socioeconomic factors with the nutritional status of children. It was observed that significant variation in childhood stunting, wasting and underweight could be explained by community- and state-level factors. The results indicate that dietary diversity has increased in India over time, and that dietary diversity at the state level is significantly associated with the nutritional status of children. Moreover, percentage of households with a regular salaried income in a state, percentage of educated mothers and mothers receiving antenatal care in a community are important factors for improving the nutritional status of children. Diversity in complementary child feeding is another significant determinant of nutritional status of children. The study thus concludes that increasing dietary diversity at the state level is an effective measure to reduce childhood malnutrition in India.

  5. Surface Radiation Budget

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Surface Radiation Budget (SRB) data sets contain global 3-hourly, daily and monthly averages of surface longwave and shortwave radiative properties, cloud amount, and meteorological properties computed using models. The main input data for these models include cloud information, top-of-atmosphere radiances and profiles of atmospheric water vapor and temperature. Some of the input data include Earth Radiation Budget Energy (ERBE) top-of-atmosphere clear-sky albedo and International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) radiances and cloud amount. SRB parameters derived for the renewable energy community are also available from the Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data set. Other SRB data are available from Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) and Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR). [Mission Objectives] The objective of the SRB Project is to produce and archive a global data set of shortwave (SW) and longwave (LW) surface and top of the atmosphere parameters. The data generated in the SRB project may be used in conjunction with other data sets to facilitate the development of renewable energy resources and increase understanding of radiative properties within the meteorological community. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=2005-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  6. Diet quality of Italian yogurt consumers: an application of the probability of adequate nutrient intake score (PANDiet).

    PubMed

    Mistura, Lorenza; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Turrini, Aida

    2016-01-01

    The diet quality in yogurt consumers and non-consumers was evaluated by applying the probability of adequate nutrient intake (PANDiet) index to a sample of adults and elderly from the Italian food consumption survey INRAN SCAI 2005-06. Overall, yogurt consumers had a significantly higher mean intake of energy, calcium and percentage of energy from total sugars whereas the mean percentage of energy from total fat, saturated fatty acid and total carbohydrate were significantly (p < 0.01) lower than in non-consumers. The PANDiet index was significantly higher in yogurt consumers than in non-consumers, (60.58 ± 0.33 vs. 58.58 ± 0.19, p < 0.001). The adequacy sub-score for 17 nutrients for which usual intake should be above the reference value was significantly higher among yogurt consumers. The items of calcium, potassium and riboflavin showed the major percentage variation between consumers and non-consumers. Yogurt consumers were more likely to have adequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, and a higher quality score of the diet.

  7. Faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership.

    PubMed

    Snodgrass, Jeff; Shachar, Mickey

    2008-01-01

    This research study investigated the relationship between faculty perceptions of occupational therapy program directors' leadership styles and outcomes of leadership and the effects of moderating demographic and institutional characteristics. Data for this study were collected utilizing the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Form 5X and the self-designed Demographic and Institution Questionnaire. The study working sample included 184 graduate occupational therapy faculty members from 98 (65%) of all accredited academic occupational therapy programs in the United States for the 2005-06 academic year. Major findings from the study indicate that, in general, transformational leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) positive predictive relationship with the leadership outcomes whereas transactional leadership had a significant (p < 0.001) negative predictive relationship. The contingent reward leadership attribute (although belonging to the transactional leadership construct) was found to be a positive predictor of leadership outcomes. Demographic and institutional characteristics did not have a significant (p > 0.01) influence on perceived leadership styles and leadership outcomes. The results of this research show that the most effective occupational therapy leaders in academia have been found to be those who adopt and utilize a full range of leadership styles that combine both transformational and transactional contingent reward leadership styles and suggest common effectiveness for other allied health fields.

  8. Pegaso: Long durations balloons from polar regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romeo, G. R.; di Stefano, G. D. S.; di Felice, F. D. F.; Masi, S. M.; Cardillo, A. C.; Musso, I. M.; Ibba, R. I.; Palangio, P. P.; Caprara, F. C.; Peterzen, S. P.; Pegaso Group

    Launched from the Mario Zuccelli Station Baia Terra Nova in Antarctica during the 2005 06 austral summer the PEGASO-D payload lifted into the stratospheric anticyclone over the southern polar region This effort marks the first Long Duration Scientific payload to be launched from this location and is the fourth such payload launched in the polar regions Performing in the framework of the NOBILE AMUNDSEN collaborative LDB development between ASI-ARR The Italian Institute of Geophysics and Volcanology INGV with the sponsorship of the Italian Antarctic Program PNRA and the Italian Space Agency ASI designed and built the Ultra-Light system together with three Universities in Italy The Pegaso program has been created to investigate the Earth magnetic field and provide a precursor series of small payload launches for the bigger LDB program such as OLIMPO BOOMERanG and BArSPOrt through this collaboration between ASI and ARR The Italian scientific community aware of the big advantages that LDB balloons can offer to their experiments proposed to extend the LDB program to Southern polar regions besides performing launches from the newly initiated Nobile Amundsen Stratospheric Balloon Center in Svalbard Norway Three PEGASO Polar Explorer for Geomagnetics And other Scientific Observations payloads have been launched from the Svalbard No in collaboration with Andoya Rocket Range ASI and ISTAR Operations and logistics during the past two northern summers These stratospheric altitude m 35000 small 10kmc balloons have floated in the stratosphere between 14 to

  9. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-01-01

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). PMID:26610567

  10. Turning points in nonlinear business cycle theories, financial crisis and the 2007-2008 downturn.

    PubMed

    Dore, Mohammed H I; Singh, Ragiv G

    2009-10-01

    This paper reviews three nonlinear dynamical business cycle theories of which only one (The Goodwin model) reflects the stylized facts of observed business cycles and has a plausible turning point mechanism. The paper then examines the US (and now global) financial crisis of 2008 and the accompanying downturn in the US. The paper argues that a skewed income distribution could not sustain effective demand and that over the 2001-2006 expansion demand was maintained through massive amounts of credit, with more than 50 percent of sales in the US being maintained through credit. A vector autoregression model confirms the crucial role played by credit. However legislative changes that dismantled the restrictions placed on the financial sector after the crash of 1929 and the consequent structural changes in the financial sector after 1980 enabled the growth of new debt instruments and credit. But overexpansion of credit when profits and house prices were declining in 2005/06 led to a nonlinear shift due to a new realization of the poor quality of some of this debt, namely mortgage backed securities. Bankruptcies, followed by retrenchment at the banks, then led to the bursting of the credit bubble, with the possibility of a severe recession.

  11. Supporting the Temporal Dimension in Geospatial Information Interoperability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S.; Ressler, J.

    2006-05-01

    In 2005-06, a study on temporal geospatial standards and technology was undertaken by the National Technology Alliance. The project, called Temporal Evaluation and Assessment, examined challenges in accessing, processing, analyzing and visualizing temporal characteristics of geospatial data. Service oriented architecture principles were applied in developing prototype web services based on web standards, including specifications from the Open Geospatial Consortium. The prototypes were tested through a series of demonstrations. Questions addressed included detection , data modeling and depiction of change in features over time, both static and moving; collection and reporting sensor observations; use of web services with temporal interfaces; application of the Geography Markup Language (GML) to temporal features; comparison of imagery changes over time; search and retrieval of spatiotemporal data from multiple sources. Some of the key results from these demonstrations were in the areas of spatiotemporal data modeling, multi- source analysis of temporal images, features, moving features and sensor time-value data, exchange formats and workflow for feature updates, the use of catalogs to search and retrieve spatiotemporal data sources. The recommendations from the temporal evaluation were provided to standards organizations and technology developers. This paper describes the results of the research, the state of standards and technology, and future recommendations for using spatiotemporal data in a service oriented architecture.

  12. Husband's preference for a son and women's nutrition: examining the role of actual and desired family composition on women's anaemia and body mass index in India.

    PubMed

    Sabarwal, Shagun; Subramanian, S V; McCormick, Marie C; Silverman, Jay G

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between the husband's preference for a son, sex composition of children and risk of anaemia and underweight among married Indian women. Information was collected regarding 29,517 couples having at least one child in the nationally representative 2005-06 National Family Health Survey of India. The exposures were husband's preference for a son and sex composition of children: sons only, daughters only and mixed. Outcome included maternal underweight and moderate/severe anaemia. Husband's preference for a son was not found to be associated with his wife's risk of anaemia or underweight. Sex composition of the children was modestly associated with increased odds of anaemia among women from households with daughters only as compared with those with sons only [AOR: 1.19; 95% CI 1.04, 1.35]. The findings from this population-based study of socio-cultural norms around preference for a son and married Indian women's nutritional status do not support the hypothesis that husband's preference for sons influences the nutritional status of their wives. However, having daughters only is associated with maternal anaemia for reasons that remain to be established.

  13. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    PubMed

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed.

  14. Optimization of Sample Preparation for the Identification and Quantification of Saxitoxin in Proficiency Test Mussel Sample using Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harju, Kirsi; Rapinoja, Marja-Leena; Avondet, Marc-André; Arnold, Werner; Schär, Martin; Burrell, Stephen; Luginbühl, Werner; Vanninen, Paula

    2015-11-25

    Saxitoxin (STX) and some selected paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) analogues in mussel samples were identified and quantified with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample extraction and purification methods of mussel sample were optimized for LC-MS/MS analysis. The developed method was applied to the analysis of the homogenized mussel samples in the proficiency test (PT) within the EQuATox project (Establishment of Quality Assurance for the Detection of Biological Toxins of Potential Bioterrorism Risk). Ten laboratories from eight countries participated in the STX PT. Identification of PSP toxins in naturally contaminated mussel samples was performed by comparison of product ion spectra and retention times with those of reference standards. The quantitative results were obtained with LC-MS/MS by spiking reference standards in toxic mussel extracts. The results were within the z-score of ±1 when compared to the results measured with the official AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemists) method 2005.06, pre-column oxidation high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD).

  15. Exposure to domestic violence between parents: a perspective from Tehran, Iran.

    PubMed

    Vameghi, Meroe; Feizzadeh, Ali; Mirabzadeh, Arash; Feizzadeh, Golnaz

    2010-06-01

    Women may bear the brunt of domestic violence, but children are also inflicted by the consequences of violence between their parents. We sought to evaluate the lifetime prevalence of exposure to physical violence between parents among some senior secondary school students in Tehran. The study was conducted on senior secondary school students in all 19 educational districts of the Iranian capital, Tehran, in the academic year of 2005-06 using a multi-stage sampling. Data were collected via a self-administered questionnaire. A total of 1,495 students participated in this survey, with the prevalence estimated at 22.8%. More than half of the subjects had witnessed domestic violence between their parents; the prevalence of exposure among the girls was twice that among the boys. The most frequent act of violence was beating the partner with bare hands and the perpetrators of the violent acts were predominantly the fathers. Exposure was long-lasting; and in those with more than one exposure, the mean duration of exposure was 5.1 years. The most prevalent rates of exposure to domestic violence came from Educational Districts 15 and 10. The fact that a considerable portion of the teenagers in the present study had witnessed physical violence between their parents bears testimony to the high frequency of this form of violence in Tehran households. It is noteworthy that the socio-economic status of the families and parental divorce and estrangement increased the likelihood of exposure to domestic violence in our series.

  16. State-level income inequality and family burden of U.S. families raising children with special health care needs.

    PubMed

    Parish, Susan L; Rose, Roderick A; Dababnah, Sarah; Yoo, Joan; Cassiman, Shawn A

    2012-02-01

    Growing evidence supports the hypothesis that income inequality within a nation influences health outcomes net of the effect of any given household's absolute income. We tested the hypothesis that state-level income inequality in the United States is associated with increased family burden for care and health-related expenditures for low-income families of children with special health care needs. We analyzed the 2005-06 wave of the National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs, a probability sample of approximately 750 children with special health care needs in each state and the District of Columbia in the US Our measure of state-level income inequality was the Gini coefficient. Dependent measures of family caregiving burden included whether the parent received help arranging or coordinating the child's care and whether the parent stopped working due to the child's health. Dependent measures of family financial burden included absolute burden (spending in past 12 months for child's health care needs) and relative burden (spending as a proportion of total family income). After controlling for a host of child, family, and state factors, including family income and measures of the severity of a child's impairments, state-level income inequality has a significant and independent association with family burden related to the health care of their children with special health care needs. Families of children with special health care needs living in states with greater levels of income inequality report higher rates of absolute and relative financial burden.

  17. Inequities in health care needs for children with medical complexity.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Dennis Z; Goudie, Anthony; Cohen, Eyal; Houtrow, Amy; Agrawal, Rishi; Carle, Adam C; Wells, Nora

    2014-12-01

    Children with special health care needs are believed to be susceptible to inequities in health and health care access. Within the group with special needs, there is a smaller group of children with medical complexity: children who require medical services beyond what is typically required by children with special health care needs. We describe health care inequities for the children with medical complexity compared to children with special health care needs but without medical complexity, based on a secondary analysis of data from the 2005-06 and 2009-10 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs. The survey examines the prevalence, health care service use, and needs of children and youth with special care needs, as reported by their families. The inequities we examined were those based on race/ethnicity, primary language in the household, insurance type, and poverty status. We found that children with medical complexity were twice as likely to have at least one unmet need, compared to children without medical complexity. Among the children with medical complexity, unmet need was not associated with primary language, income level, or having Medicaid. We conclude that medical complexity itself can be a primary determinant of unmet needs.

  18. Urban and Rural Differences in Sedentary Behavior among American and Canadian Youth

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Valerie; Iannotti, Ronald J.; Pickett, William; Janssen, Ian

    2011-01-01

    We examined relationships between urban-rural status and three screen time behaviors (television, computer, video games), and the potential mediating effect of parent and peer support on these relationships. Findings are based on American (n=8563) and Canadian (n=8990) youth in grades 6–10 from the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Survey. Weekly hours of individual screen time behaviors were calculated. Urban-rural status was defined using the Beale coding system. Parent and peer support variables were derived from principal component analysis. In comparison to the referent group (non-metro adjacent), American youth in the most rural areas were more likely to be high television users and less likely to be high computer users. Conversely, Canadian youth in medium and large metropolitan areas were less likely to be high television users and more likely to be high computer users. Parent and peer support did not strongly mediate the relationships between urban-rural status and screen time. These findings suggest that interventions aiming to reduce screen time may be most effective if they consider residential location and the specific screen time behavior. PMID:21565545

  19. EFFECT OF INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY FACTORS ON MATERNAL HEALTH CARE SERVICE USE IN INDIA: A MULTILEVEL APPROACH.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Awdhesh; Kesarwani, Ranjana

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to assess empirically the influence of individual and community (neighbourhood) factors on the use of maternal health care services in India through three outcomes: utilization of full antenatal care (ANC) services, safe delivery and utilization of postnatal care services. Data were from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (2005-06). The study sample constituted ever-married women aged 15-49 from 29 Indian states. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed for the three outcomes of interest accounting for individual- and community-level factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. A substantial amount of variation was observed at the community level. About 45%, 51% and 62% of the total variance in the use of full ANC, safe delivery and postnatal care, respectively, could be attributed to differences across the community. There was significant variation in the use of maternal health care services at the individual level, with socioeconomic status and mother's education being the most prominent factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. At the community level, urban residence and poverty concentration were found to be significantly associated with maternal health care service use. The results suggest that an increased focus on community-level interventions could lead to an increase in the utilization of maternal health care services in India.

  20. Investigation of ground-water contamination at a drainage ditch, Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, 2005–06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vroblesky, Don A.; Casey, Clifton C.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Naval Facilities Engineering Command Southeast, used newly developed sampling methods to investigate ground-water contamination by chlorobenzenes beneath a drainage ditch on the southwestern side of Installation Restoration Site 4, Naval Air Station Corpus Christi, Corpus Christi, Texas, during 2005-06. The drainage ditch, which is a potential receptor for ground-water contaminants from Installation Restoration Site 4, intermittently discharges water to Corpus Christi Bay. This report uses data from a new type of pore-water sampler developed for this investigation and other methods to examine the subsurface contamination beneath the drainage ditch. Analysis of ground water from the samplers indicated that chlorobenzenes (maximum detected concentration of 160 micrograms per liter) are present in the ground water beneath the ditch. The concentrations of dissolved oxygen in the samples (less than 0.05-0.4 milligram per liter) showed that the ground water beneath and near the ditch is anaerobic, indicating that substantial chlorobenzene biodegradation in the aquifer beneath the ditch is unlikely. Probable alternative mechanisms of chlorobenzene removal in the ground water beneath the drainage ditch include sorption onto the organic-rich sediment and contaminant depletion by cattails through uptake, sorption, and localized soil aeration.

  1. Secular trends in plume composition of Erebus volcano, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilanko, Tehnuka; Oppenheimer, Clive; Kyle, Philip; Burgisser, Alain

    2015-04-01

    Long-lived active lava lakes, such as that in the summit crater of Erebus volcano, Antarctica, provide a rare insight into sustained magma convection and degassing over long timescales. Erebus lava lake has been persistently active since 1972, and potentially for several decades or more previously (Ross, 1847). Since the 1970s, regular scientific expeditions, lasting a few weeks in the austral summers, have made observations of the lake activity. Annual Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic gas measurements began in 2004 (Oppenheimer and Kyle, 2008; Oppenheimer et al., 2009), yielding an extensive, if discontinuous, time series of infrared absorption spectra. These data, once processed, provide insights into temporal evolution of the gas geochemistry in terms of seven molecular species: H2O, CO2, CO, SO2, HCl, HF, and OCS. FTIR spectroscopic data are now available over ten field seasons, totalling roughly 1.8 million spectra and increasing each year. This period spans changes to crater morphology, fluctuations in lava lake surface area (Jones et al., 2014), and two episodes of increased explosive activity (2005-06 and 2013). The dataset captures both long-term degassing trends and short-lived features, such as cyclicity in gas emissions during passive degassing (Ilanko et al., 2015) and compositions released by explosive bubble-burst eruptions. We consider the longer-term changes to gas ratios occurring within (i.e. over days to weeks) and between annual field seasons, their potential causes, and their relationship to observations of eruptive behaviour and crater morphology.

  2. A validity assessment of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™.

    PubMed

    Desiere, Sam; Vellema, Wytse; D'Haese, Marijke

    2015-04-01

    Development organisations need easy-to-use and quick-to-implement indicators to quantify poverty when requested to measure program impact. In this paper we assess the validity of the Progress out of Poverty Index (PPI)™, a country-specific indicator based on ten closed questions on directly observable household characteristics, by its compliance to the SMART criteria. Each response receives a pre-determined score, such that the sum of these scores can be converted into the likelihood the household is living below the poverty line. We focus on the PPI scorecard for Rwanda, which was validated using two national household surveys conducted in 2005/06 and 2010/11. The PPI is Specific, Measurable, Available cost effectively, and Timely available. Yet, its Relevance depends on the way it is used. Although it accurately distinguishes poor from non-poor households, making it a useful reporting tool, its limited sensitivity to changes in poverty status restricts its usefulness for evaluating the impact of development projects.

  3. Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding practices are associated with child nutrition in India: insights from nationally representative data.

    PubMed

    Menon, Purnima; Bamezai, Apurva; Subandoro, Ali; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Aguayo, Victor

    2015-01-01

    Age-appropriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices are critical to child nutrition. The objective of this paper was to examine the associations between age-appropriate IYCF practices and child nutrition outcomes in India using data from ∼18 463 children of 0-23.9 months old from India's National Family Health Survey, 2005-06-3. The outcome measures were child height-for-age z-score (HAZ), weight-for-age z-score (WAZ), weight-for-height z-score, stunting, underweight and wasting. Linear and logistic regression analyses were used, accounting for the clustered survey data. Regression models were adjusted for child, maternal, and household characteristics, and state and urban/rural residence. The analyses indicate that in India suboptimal IYCF practices are associated with poor nutrition outcomes in children. Early initiation of breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding were not associated with any of the nutrition outcomes considered. Not consuming any solid or semi-solid foods at 6-8.9 months was associated with being underweight (P < 0.05). The diet diversity score and achieving minimum diet diversity (≥4 food groups) for children 6-23 months of age were most strongly and significantly associated with HAZ, WAZ, stunting and underweight (P < 0.05). Maternal characteristics were also strongly associated with child undernutrition. In summary, poor IYCF practices, particularly poor complementary foods and feeding practices, are associated with poor child nutrition outcomes in India, particularly linear growth.

  4. 2005 Volcanic Activity in Alaska, Kamchatka, and the Kurile Islands: Summary of Events and Response of the Alaska Volcano Observatory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGimsey, R.G.; Neal, C.A.; Dixon, J.P.; Ushakov, Sergey

    2008-01-01

    The Alaska Volcano Observatory (AVO) responded to eruptive activity or suspected volcanic activity at or near 16 volcanoes in Alaska during 2005, including the high profile precursory activity associated with the 2005?06 eruption of Augustine Volcano. AVO continues to participate in distributing information about eruptive activity on the Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia, and in the Kurile Islands of the Russian Far East, in conjunction with the Kamchatkan Volcanic Eruption Response Team (KVERT) and the Sakhalin Volcanic Eruption Response Team (SVERT), respectively. In 2005, AVO helped broadcast alerts about activity at 8 Russian volcanoes. The most serious hazard posed from volcanic eruptions in Alaska, Kamchatka, or the Kurile Islands is the placement of ash into the atmosphere at altitudes traversed by jet aircraft along the North Pacific and Russian Trans East air routes. AVO, KVERT, and SVERT work collaboratively with the National Weather Service, Federal Aviation Administration, and the Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers to provide timely warnings of volcanic eruptions and the production and movement of ash clouds.

  5. Does living in slums or non-slums influence women's nutritional status? Evidence from Indian mega-cities.

    PubMed

    Gaur, Kirti; Keshri, Kunal; Joe, William

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the intra-city distribution of women's nutritional status across eight Indian mega-cities with a specific focus on slum-non-slum divide. The analysis is based on the National Family Health Survey (2005-06) of India and highlights the dual burden of malnutrition among urban women. The results show that one in every two women in mega-cities is malnourished (either undernourished or overnourished), but a biased, analytical focus on citywide averages conceals the nature of the problem. Overnutrition among women is notably higher in non-slum areas whereas underweight persists as a key concern among slum dwellers. Cities located in the Central India (Nagpur and Indore) have the highest proportion of underweight women whereas the cities in South India (Chennai and Hyderabad) show a high prevalence of overweight women across both slum and non-slum areas. The intensity of income-related inequalities in underweight outcome is much greater for non-slum areas, whereas inequalities in overweight outcomes are higher among slums. Furthermore, regression analysis indicates that place of residence as such has no significant impact on women's nutritional status and that this elementary association is primarily a ramification mediated through other key socioeconomic correlates. Results suggest that, it would be rational to develop a comprehensive urban nutritional plan that focuses on dietary planning and behaviour change to address both type of malnutrition at the same time.

  6. Assessment of dietary intake of 10 intense sweeteners by the Italian population.

    PubMed

    Le Donne, Cinzia; Mistura, Lorenza; Goscinny, Séverine; Janvier, Steven; Cuypers, Koenraad; D'Addezio, Laura; Sette, Stefania; Catasta, Giovina; Ferrari, Marika; Piccinelli, Raffaela; Van Loco, Joris; Turrini, Aida

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to monitor the consumption of foods containing intense sweeteners present on the Italian food market and to investigate whether the Italian general population (aged >3-65+) was at risk for exceeding the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) of 10 intense sweeteners. A food label survey was performed in Rome (Italy), using market share data to identify the brands more representative of the market. A sample of 326 foods (table-top sweeteners included), beverages and food supplements containing intense sweeteners was collected and analyzed in order to establish the concentration levels. Intense sweeteners were only found in foods belonging to 8 sugar-free food categories out of 37 regulated. The dietary exposure was estimated using the tiered approach. Food consumption data from the last Italian national survey (INRAN-SCAI 2005-06) were combined with Maximum Levels at Tier 2, and with the actual concentration of sweeteners in the collected food products at Tier 3. The estimated exposure among consumers of sweeteners in Italy was well below the ADIs, in both tiers; non-alcoholic beverages, table-top sweeteners and food supplements were main contributors to exposure.

  7. Hydraulic performance of a permeable reactive barrier at Casey Station, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Mumford, K A; Rayner, J L; Snape, I; Stevens, G W

    2014-12-01

    A permeable bio-reactive barrier (PRB) was installed at Casey Station, Antarctica in 2005/06 to intercept, capture and degrade petroleum hydrocarbons from a decade old fuel spill. A funnel and gate configuration was selected and implemented. The reactive gate was split into five separate cells to enable the testing of five different treatment combinations. Although different treatment materials were used in each cell, each treatment combination contained the following reactive zones: a zone for the controlled release of nutrients to enhance degradation, a zone for hydrocarbon capture and enhanced degradation, and a zone to capture excess nutrients. The materials selected for each of these zones had other requirements, these included; not having any adverse impact on the environment, being permeable enough to capture the entire catchment flow, and having sufficient residence time to fully capture migrating hydrocarbons. Over a five year period the performance of the PRB was extensively monitored and evaluated for nutrient concentration, fuel retention and permeability. At the end of the five year test period the material located within the reactive gate was excavated, total petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations present on the material determined and particle size analysis conducted. This work found that although maintaining media reactivity is obviously important, the most critical aspect of PRB performance is preserving the permeability of the barrier itself, in this case by maintaining appropriate particle size distribution. This is particularly important when PRBs are installed in regions that are subject to freeze thaw processes that may result in particle disintegration over time.

  8. A Study on factors influencing the Nutritional Status of Lactating Women in Jammu, Kashmir and Ladakh Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Yasmeen Majid; Khan, Asmat

    2012-09-01

    The health of women is linked to their status in the society. The demographic consequence of the women has formed expression in various forms, such as female infanticide, higher death rate, lower sex ratio, low literacy level and lower level of employment of women in the nonagricultural sector as compared to men. Generally, at household level, cultural norms and practices and socio-economic factors determine the extent of nutritional status among women. For the purpose of present investigation, the data collected during 2005-06 on diet and nutritional status of tribal rural and urban lactating women respectively in States of Jammu and Kashmir was utilized. The study revealed inadequate dietary intake, especially micronutrient deficiency (hidden hunger) during lactation. Tribal women were particularly vulnerable to under nutrition compared to women in rural and urban areas. (16.9%) women had chronic energy deficiency, (56.4%) of women from all the three regions were observed to have clinical signs of nutritional deficiency, (30% )of women had taken deficient calories Clinical signs of deficiency of nutrition were uniformly distributed among three regions (p> 0.01), whereas indicators like BMI and caloric intake showed significant difference (P< 0.01) between the three regions . 49% studied women were found to be anemic.

  9. Impact of a social-emotional and character development program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Frank; Flay, Brian; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai'i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2(nd) ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai'i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently.

  10. Urban poverty and utilization of maternal and child health care services in India.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ravi; Kumar, Abhishek

    2013-07-01

    Drawing upon data from the third round of the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3) conducted in India during 2005-06, this study compares the utilization of selected maternal and child health care services between the urban poor and non-poor in India and across selected Indian states. A wealth index was created, separately for urban areas, using Principal Component Analysis to identify the urban poor. The findings suggest that the indicators of maternal and child health care are worse among the urban poor than in their non-poor counterparts. For instance, the levels of antenatal care, safe delivery and childhood vaccinations are much lower among the urban poor than non-poor, especially in socioeconomically disadvantageous states. Among all the maternal and child health care indicators, the non-poor/poor difference is most pronounced for delivery care in the country and across the states. Other than poverty status, utilization of antenatal services by mothers increases the chances of safe delivery and child immunization at both national and sub-national levels. The poverty status of the household emerged as a significant barrier to utilization of health care services in urban India.

  11. The Annual Glaciohydrology Cycle in the Ablation Zone of the Greenland Ice Sheet: Part 2. Observed and Modeled Ice Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colgan, William Terence; Rajaram, Harihar; Anderson, Robert S.; Steffen, Konrad; Zwally, H. Jay; Phillips, Thomas; Abdalati, Waleed

    2012-01-01

    Ice velocities observed in 2005/06 at three GPS stations along the Sermeq Avannarleq flowline, West Greenland, are used to characterize an observed annual velocity cycle. We attempt to reproduce this annual ice velocity cycle using a 1-D ice-flow model with longitudinal stresses coupled to a 1-D hydrology model that governs an empirical basal sliding rule. Seasonal basal sliding velocity is parameterized as a perturbation of prescribed winter sliding velocity that is proportional to the rate of change of glacier water storage. The coupled model reproduces the broad features of the annual basal sliding cycle observed along this flowline, namely a summer speed-up event followed by a fall slowdown event. We also evaluate the hypothesis that the observed annual velocity cycle is due to the annual calving cycle at the terminus. We demonstrate that the ice acceleration due to a catastrophic calving event takes an order of magnitude longer to reach CU/ETH ('Swiss') Camp (46km upstream of the terminus) than is observed. The seasonal acceleration observed at Swiss Camp is therefore unlikely to be the result of velocity perturbations propagated upstream via longitudinal coupling. Instead we interpret this velocity cycle to reflect the local history of glacier water balance.

  12. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results. PMID:26568665

  13. Racial/ethnic and gender differences among older adults in nonmonogamous partnerships, time spent single, and HIV testing

    PubMed Central

    Harawa, Nina T.; Leng, Mei; Kim, Junyeop; Cunningham, William Emery

    2011-01-01

    Background A higher frequency of nonmonogamy, due in part to lower marriage prevalence, may contribute to elevated HIV/STD rates among older Blacks. Methods To examine race and gender differences in nonmonogamy, time spent single (i.e., not married or cohabiting), and HIV testing in older adults, we analyzed U.S. population-based data from the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP) for 2,825 heterosexual participants ages 57-85 years. Results Blacks spent greater portions of their adult lives single than did Hispanics or Whites and were far more likely to report recent nonmonogamous partnerships (23.4% vs. 10.0% and 8.2%). Among individuals reporting sex in the prior 5 years, nonmonogamous partnerships were strongly associated with time spent single during the period. Control for time spent single and other covariates reduced the association of Black race with nonmonogamous partnerships for men but increased it for women. Less than 20% reported ever testing for HIV; less than 6% had been recommended testing by a provider. Testing rates, highest in Black men and White women, differed little by history of nonmonogamous partnerships within gender strata. Conclusions Singlehood helps to explain higher nonmonogamous partnership rates in older Black men but not older Black women. Older adults rarely receive or are recommended HIV testing, a key strategy for reducing heterosexual HIV transmission. PMID:22082721

  14. Volcanology and eruptive styles of Barren Island: an active mafic stratovolcano in the Andaman Sea, NE Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheth, Hetu C.; Ray, Jyotiranjan S.; Bhutani, Rajneesh; Kumar, Alok; Smitha, R. S.

    2009-11-01

    Barren Island (India) is a relatively little studied, little known active volcano in the Andaman Sea, and the northernmost active volcano of the great Indonesian arc. The volcano is built of prehistoric (possibly late Pleistocene) lava flows (dominantly basalt and basaltic andesite, with minor andesite) intercalated with volcaniclastic deposits (tuff breccias, and ash beds deposited by pyroclastic falls and surges), which are exposed along a roughly circular caldera wall. There are indications of a complete phreatomagmatic tephra ring around the exposed base of the volcano. A polygenetic cinder cone has existed at the centre of the caldera and produced basalt-basaltic andesite aa and blocky aa lava flows, as well as tephra, during historic eruptions (1787-1832) and three recent eruptions (1991, 1994-95, 2005-06). The recent aa flows include a toothpaste aa flow, with tilted and overturned crustal slabs carried atop an aa core, as well as locally developed tumuli-like elliptical uplifts having corrugated crusts. Based on various evidence we infer that it belongs to either the 1991 or the 1994-95 eruptions. The volcano has recently (2008) begun yet another eruption, so far only of tephra. We make significantly different interpretations of several features of the volcano than previous workers. This study of the volcanology and eruptive styles of the Barren Island volcano lays the ground for detailed geochemical-isotopic and petrogenetic work, and provides clues to what the volcano can be expected to do in the future.

  15. The impact of prenatal care quality on neonatal, infant and child mortality in Zimbabwe: evidence from the demographic and health surveys.

    PubMed

    Makate, Marshall; Makate, Clifton

    2016-12-19

    The impact of the quality of prenatal care on child mortality outcomes has received less attention in sub-Saharan Africa. This study endeavoured to explore the effect of the quality of prenatal care and its individual components on neonatal, infant and under-five mortality. The empirical analysis uses data from the three most recent waves of the nationally representative Demographic and Health Survey for Zimbabwe conducted in 1999, 2005/06 and 2010/11. The results indicate that a one-unit increase in the quality of prenatal care lowers the prospect of neonatal, infant and under-five mortality by approximately 42.33, 30.86 and 28.65%, respectively. These findings remained roughly the same even after adjusting for potential mediating factors. Examining the effect of individual prenatal care components on child mortality revealed that women who receive information on possible complications arising during pregnancy are less liable to experience a neonatal death. Similarly, women who had blood pressure checks and tetanus immunizations were less likely to experience an infant or under-five death. We did not find any statistically meaningful impact on child mortality outcomes of blood and urine sample checks, iron tablet consumption, and the receipt of malarial tablets. Overall, our results suggest the need for public health policymakers to focus on ensuring high-quality prenatal care to enhance the survival prospects of Zimbabwe's infants.

  16. Inflammation, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidants Contribute to Selected Sleep Quality and Cardiometabolic Health Relationships: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabai, Thirumagal; Ardern, Chris I

    2015-01-01

    Sleep is vital for cardiometabolic health, but a societal shift toward poor sleep is a prominent feature of many modern cultures. Concurrently, factors such as diet and lifestyle have also changed and may mediate the relationship between sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Objectives were to explore (1) the interrelationship and (2) mediating effect of inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants on sleep quality and cardiometabolic health. Cross-sectional data from the US National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey 2005-06 (≥20 y; N = 2,072) was used. Cardiometabolic health was defined as per the Joint Interim Statement; overall sleep quality was determined from six sleep habits and categorized as good, fair, poor, and very poor. Fair quality sleepers had optimal inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidant levels. Inflammation was above the current clinical reference range across all sleep quality categories, while oxidative stress was only within the clinical reference range for fair sleep quality. Selected sleep quality-cardiometabolic health relationships were mediated by inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants and were moderated by sex. Our results provide initial evidence of a potential role for inflammation, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in the pathway between poor sleep quality-cardiometabolic decline. Further prospective research is needed to confirm our results.

  17. Examining inter-generational differentials in maternal health care service utilization: insights from the Indian Demographic and Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Singh, Prashant Kumar; Singh, Lucky

    2014-05-01

    This study examines the association between age cohort and utilization of maternal health care services in India, before and after adjusting for individual, household and contextual factors. Using data from the Demographic and Health Survey 2005-06, women were classified into three distinct age cohorts based on their age at childbirth: 15-24, 25-34 and 35-49 years. Binary logistic regression models were applied to assess the influence of women's age cohort on receiving full antenatal care (ANC) and skilled birth attendance (SBA). The analytical sample included the women who delivered their most recent birth at any time in the 5 years preceding the survey. Women belonging to the younger age cohort were found to be disadvantaged in receiving full ANC, whereas increasing age of women was negatively associated with receiving SBA. Low level of education, low mass media exposure, low autonomy, belonging to deprived social groups, poor economic status and residence in the central region were found to be major constraining factors in receiving full ANC and SBA for women in India. The findings support the need for 'age-sensitive' interventions that tailor programmes and incentives to women's health care needs through the reproductive life-stage. Urgent efforts are needed to ensure that women who are illiterate and those belonging to low autonomy and low socioeconomic groups receive the recommended maternal health care benefits.

  18. Five year studies on suspended particulate matter and heavy metals trends in Brass City of India.

    PubMed

    Mahima; Pal, Raina; Singh, D; Tripathi, Anamika; Singh, G S

    2013-10-01

    Moradabad is historically an important city of western Uttar Pradesh which is popularly known as Brass City of India, as about one thousand large and small scale brassware industries are located in and around the city. Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) was collected two times in a week using High Volume Samplers (HVS) at six selected sites representing different areas of the city. The result indicates the annual and seasonal variations of SPM from 2005-2010. The highest value (869 μg/m3) was recorded at industrial site, i.e. Mughalpura in June (2008-09) while lowest value (71 μg/m3) at PTC in the month of July (2005-06). Five heavy metals, i.e. Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd and Pb were also observed at all the sites. Among the metals highest concentration of Zn were recorded at almost all the sites whereas Cu and Zn were found at industrial site, may be attributed to melting of Brass silly to prepare the different Brassware items. Pb and Cd were abundant at commercial site, located nearby Railway station as traffic density remains high during the day and night.

  19. Dopamine transporter comparative molecular modeling and binding site prediction using the LeuT(Aa) leucine transporter as a template.

    PubMed

    Indarte, Martín; Madura, Jeffry D; Surratt, Christopher K

    2008-02-15

    Pharmacological and behavioral studies indicate that binding of cocaine and the amphetamines by the dopamine transporter (DAT) protein is principally responsible for initiating the euphoria and addiction associated with these drugs. The lack of an X-ray crystal structure for the DAT or any other member of the neurotransmitter:sodium symporter (NSS) family has hindered understanding of psychostimulant recognition at the atomic level; structural information has been obtained largely from mutagenesis and biophysical studies. The recent publication of a crystal structure for the bacterial leucine transporter LeuT(Aa), a distantly related NSS family homolog, provides for the first time a template for three-dimensional comparative modeling of NSS proteins. A novel computational modeling approach using the capabilities of the Molecular Operating Environment program MOE 2005.06 in conjunction with other comparative modeling servers generated the LeuT(Aa)-directed DAT model. Probable dopamine and amphetamine binding sites were identified within the DAT model using multiple docking approaches. Binding sites for the substrate ligands (dopamine and amphetamine) overlapped substantially with the analogous region of the LeuT(Aa) crystal structure for the substrate leucine. The docking predictions implicated DAT side chains known to be critical for high affinity ligand binding and suggest novel mutagenesis targets in elucidating discrete substrate and inhibitor binding sites. The DAT model may guide DAT ligand QSAR studies, and rational design of novel DAT-binding therapeutics.

  20. Strategic faculty recruitment increases research productivity within an academic university division

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Stephen W.; Clifton, Joanne S.; Rowe, Andrea J.; Finley, Richard J.; Warnock, Garth L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Research is an important mandate for academic surgical divisions. However, there is widespread concern that the current health care climate is leading to a decline in research activity. A University of British Columbia (UBC) academic surgical division attempted to address this concern by strategically recruiting PhD research scientists to prioritize research and develop collaborative research programs. The objective of our study was to determine whether this strategy resulted in increased research productivity. Methods We reviewed the UBC Department of Surgery database to assess research funding obtained by the Division of General Surgery for the years 1994–2004. We searched MEDLINE for peer-reviewed publications by faculty members during this period. Results Research funding increased from a mean of Can$417 292 per year in the 5 years (1994/95–1998/99) before the recruitment of dedicated PhD scientists to a mean of Can$1.3 million per year in the 5 years following the recruitment strategy (1999/2000–2003/04; p = 0.012). Funding for the initial 5 years was Can$2.1 million, including 1 Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant. Funding increased to Can$6.8 million, including 22 CIHR grants over the subsequent 5 years (p < 0.001). Collaborative research led to the awarding of multidisciplinary grants exceeding Can$4 million with divisional members as principle or coprinciple investigators. From 1994/05 to 1998/99, the total number of peer-reviewed publications was 116 (mean 23.2, standard deviation [SD] 7 per year), increasing to 144 from 1999/2000 to 2003/04 (mean 28.8, SD 13 per year). The trend was for publications in journals with higher impact factors in the latter 5-year period. Conclusion Strategic recruitment resulted in increased and sustained research productivity. Interactions between research scientists and clinicians resulted in successful program grant funding support. These results have implications for sustaining the

  1. Epidemiology of allergies in Austria. Results of the first Austrian allergy report.

    PubMed

    Dorner, Thomas; Lawrence, Kitty; Rieder, Anita; Kunze, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The first Austrian Allergy Report is a compilation of all available epidemiological data relating to allergies in Austria. According to this report the cumulative prevalence of allergies in the Viennese population is 27.6% for men and 32.2% for women and the period prevalence in the year before questioning 19.6% and 22.4% respectively. 20.8% of men and 23.1% of women reported about allergies at health examinations. However, an allergy sensitivity to at least one inhalation allergen, verifiable by means of a prick test, is detectable in 50.8% of the general population and in 39.3% of those free from ailments. Analysis of the hospital discharge statistics of all Austrian hospitals shows that around 12,000 people per year were admitted on grounds of an allergy. In accordance with international studies some population sub groups are more often affected than others. Women suffer from allergies somewhat more frequently than men, although the sex difference is reversed among children. Allergies occur in all age groups, with most studies showing that people in their twenties are most frequently affected. People with higher levels of education, in more highly qualified jobs and living in urban areas are more commonly affected by allergies than people from lower socio-economic levels and rural communities. The internationally identified increase in trend can also be identified in Austria with a 2fold, 3.6fold, and 4.6fold increase in the prevalence of hay fever, asthma and atopic eczema respectively, determined from the military health examinations of all recruits for national service between 1986 and 2003/04, although a clear decline in allergy prevalence was registered between 2003/04 and 2005. Health reports like the first Austrian Allergy Report provide the basis for international comparison of basic data. These data also enable the evaluation of the impact of different diseases on the health system as well as the development of public health strategies.

  2. Stream-water quality during storm-runoff events and low-flow periods in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin, Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Thomas L.; Fuller, Lori M.

    2007-01-01

    This report, a product of the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project, describes four water-quality studies in the St. Clair River/Lake St. Clair Basin from the early 1970's through 2005. All the studies examined water quality of streams in the basin; the most recent studies focused primarily on water quality during high- and low-streamflows. This report explains how storm-runoff and low-flow periods affect water quality in the basin. Included is a summary of stream-water quality findings from the National Stream Quality Accounting Network (1973-95); the National Water-Quality Assessment (1996-98); the Oakland County Land-Use Change study (2001-03); and the Lake St. Clair Regional Monitoring Project (2004-05).

  3. Evaluation of capillary blood glucose versus a high-risk questionnaire for screening for undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in Eastern province, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Baghli, N A; Al-Turki, K A; Al-Ghamdi, A J; Prasad, K; Taha, A Z; Al-Almaie, S M

    2012-12-04

    This study compared 2 screening tests for detecting undiagnosed diabetes mellitus when applied in a mass-screening campaign in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia in 2004-05. Of 15 082 individuals screened, 65.8% were positive by the American Diabetes Association risk-score questionnaire and 71.3% by determination of capillary blood glucose (CBG) using a portable glucometer. Type 2 diabetes mellitus was confirmed in 20.3% of participants and pre-diabetes in 33.9% using fasting venous blood testing. The risk-score questionnaire did not perform well versus fasting and random CBG. Optimal cut-offs for fasting and random CBG were 120 mg/dL and 160 mg/dL respectively. Fasting CBG had higher sensitivity, specificity and discriminating ability than random CBG for detection of diabetes and pre-diabetes in this population.

  4. Data on Mercury in Water, Bed Sediment, and Fish from Streams Across the United States, 1998-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bauch, Nancy J.; Chasar, Lia C.; Scudder, Barbara C.; Moran, Patrick W.; Hitt, Kerie J.; Brigham, Mark E.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Wentz, Dennis A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) and Toxic Substances Hydrology Programs conducted the National Mercury Pilot Study in 1998 to examine relations of mercury (Hg) in water, bed sediment and fish in streams across the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. Water and bed-sediment samples were analyzed for total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and other constituents; fish were analyzed for THg. Similar sampling was conducted at additional streams across the country in 2002 and 2004-05. This report summarizes sample collection and processing protocols, analytical methods, environmental data, and quality-assurance data for stream water, bed sediment, and fish for these national studies. To extend the geographic coverage of the data, this report also includes four regional USGS Hg studies conducted during 1998-2001 and 2004. The environmental data for these national and regional Hg studies are provided in an electronic format.

  5. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  6. Managing knowledge and technology to foster innovation at the Ohio State University Medical Center.

    PubMed

    Cain, Timothy J; Rodman, Ruey L; Sanfilippo, Fred; Kroll, Susan M

    2005-11-01

    Biomedical knowledge is expanding at an unprecedented rate-one that is unlikely to slow anytime in the future. While the volume and scope of this new knowledge poses significant organizational challenges, it creates tremendous opportunities to release and direct its power to the service of significant goals. The authors explain how the Center for Knowledge Management at The Ohio State University Medical Center, created during the academic year 2003-04, is doing just that by integrating numerous resource-intensive, technology-based initiatives-including personnel, services and infrastructure, digital repositories, data sets, mobile computing devices, high-tech patient simulators, computerized testing, and interactive multimedia-in a way that enables the center to provide information tailored to the needs of students, faculty and staff on the medical center campus and its surrounding health sciences colleges. The authors discuss how discovering, applying, and sharing new knowledge, information assets, and technologies in this way is a collaborative process. This process creates open-ended opportunities for innovation and a roadmap for working toward seamless integration, synergy, and substantial enhancement of the academic medical center's research, educational, and clinical mission areas.

  7. Disconcordance in Statistical Models of Bisphenol A and Chronic Disease Outcomes in NHANES 2003-08

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Martin F.; Neidell, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Background Bisphenol A (BPA), a high production chemical commonly found in plastics, has drawn great attention from researchers due to the substance’s potential toxicity. Using data from three National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) cycles, we explored the consistency and robustness of BPA’s reported effects on coronary heart disease and diabetes. Methods And Findings We report the use of three different statistical models in the analysis of BPA: (1) logistic regression, (2) log-linear regression, and (3) dose-response logistic regression. In each variation, confounders were added in six blocks to account for demographics, urinary creatinine, source of BPA exposure, healthy behaviours, and phthalate exposure. Results were sensitive to the variations in functional form of our statistical models, but no single model yielded consistent results across NHANES cycles. Reported ORs were also found to be sensitive to inclusion/exclusion criteria. Further, observed effects, which were most pronounced in NHANES 2003-04, could not be explained away by confounding. Conclusions Limitations in the NHANES data and a poor understanding of the mode of action of BPA have made it difficult to develop informative statistical models. Given the sensitivity of effect estimates to functional form, researchers should report results using multiple specifications with different assumptions about BPA measurement, thus allowing for the identification of potential discrepancies in the data. PMID:24223205

  8. Identification and mapping of radon-prone areas in Croatia-preliminary results for Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties.

    PubMed

    Radolić, Vanja; Miklavčić, Igor; Stanić, Denis; Poje, Marina; Krpan, Ivana; Mužević, Matko; Petrinec, Branko; Vuković, Branko

    2014-11-01

    Long-term indoor radon measurements performed by LR 115 track etched detectors in Croatian homes during 2003-04 showed that the arithmetic means of radon concentrations in Lika-Senj and the southern part of Karlovac counties were three times higher (198 Bq m(-3)) than in houses at national level (68 Bq m(-3)). Recently, indoor radon measurements in randomly selected houses were investigated. The obtained values in these new measurements have confirmed the values obtained 10 y ago (the average radon value in 225 investigated houses in this area is 223 Bq m(-3)). Radon concentrations in soil gas were measured in September and October 2012 and 2013 with the AlphaGUARD measuring system. Areas with both elevated indoor radon levels and radon in soil gas were identified (some micro locations in Korenica, Ličko Lešće, Generalski Stol, Slunj and Ogulin) and visually presented in the form of maps using the inverse distance weighting approach.

  9. Organohalogen compounds in human breast milk from Republic of Buryatia, Russia.

    PubMed

    Tsydenova, Oyuna V; Sudaryanto, Agus; Kajiwara, Natsuko; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-03-01

    Human breast milk samples collected during 2003/04 in Buryatia, a Russian autonomous republic, were analyzed in order to assess human exposure to organohalogen compounds including organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). When compared with available worldwide data, levels of HCB (23-880 ng/g lipid wt.), PCBs (69-680 ng/g lipid wt.), and HCHs (100-3700 ng/g lipid wt.) were relatively high, indicating elevated human exposure to these organochlorines (OCs) in Buryatia. In contrast to OCs, PBDE concentrations were low (0.46-1.7 ng/g lipid wt.). Out of 14 BDE congeners analyzed, BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-100, BDE-153, BDE-197, and BDE-207 were detected. Estimated daily intakes (EDIs) of HCHs, HCB, CHLs, and PCBs by infants solely from human milk for 100%, 43%, 34%, and 17% of the samples, respectively, exceeded guideline thresholds. Although high EDIs raise concern for possible toxic effects of OCs, women in Buryatia are recommended to breastfeed due to numerous advantages of breastfeeding for mother and child.

  10. What factor generates greater uncertainty in predicting carbon flux for North America: climate characterization or model choice?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dungan, J.; Wang, W.; Micaelis, A.; Nemani, R.

    2008-12-01

    Numerous efforts have begun to characterize a variety of sources of uncertainty in carbon flux estimates from both forward-modeling and inverse modeling approaches. One source of uncertainty is structural, created by the variety of approaches taken to select and characterize the most important biogeochemical processes. To begin to explore this structural uncertainty, we have used an ensemble of well-known models including CASA (Potter et al. (1993), version 2003.04.29), LPJ (Sitch et al. (2003), version 3.1.1-0.9.02), and BGC (White et al. (2000), version 5.0) with a consistent set of inputs for the period 1982-2006 for North America. Initially, the ensemble was run using input climate data interpolated from maximum, minimum and dew-point temperatures, precipitation, vapor pressure deficit, and incident daily solar radiation at stations from the National Climate Data Center's Global Summary of the Day, incorporating on average about 1900 stations. NCDC's Cooperative Summary of the Day data, available over the United States only, yielded a combined data set of approximately 9000 stations that was then used for the ensemble runs. The combined data set resulted in a significantly wetter surface than with the sparser set, resulting in noticeably larger gross primary production (GPP) estimates by models in the ensemble. Mexico and Canada remain significantly undersampled. Uncertainty due to the choice of a relatively sparse or dense station network was smaller than the structural uncertainty due to model choice.

  11. Stroke surveillance in Manitoba, Canada: estimates from administrative databases.

    PubMed

    Moore, D F; Lix, L M; Yogendran, M S; Martens, P; Tamayo, A

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the use of population-based administrative databases for stroke surveillance. First, a meta-analysis was conducted of four studies, identified via a PubMed search, which estimated the sensitivity and specificity of hospital data for ascertaining cases of stroke when clinical registries or medical charts were the gold standard. Subsequently, case-ascertainment algorithms based on hospital, physician and prescription drug records were developed and applied to Manitoba's administrative data, and prevalence estimates were obtained for fiscal years 1995/96 to 2003/04 by age group, sex, region of residence and income quintile. The meta-analysis results revealed some over-ascertainment of stroke cases from hospital data when the algorithm was based on diagnosis codes for any type of cerebrovascular disease (Mantel-Haenszel Odds-Ratio [OR] - 1.70 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.53 - 1.88]). Analyses of Manitoba administrative data revealed that while the total number of stroke cases varied substantially across the algorithms, the trend in prevalence was stable regardless of the algorithm adopted.

  12. Using stable isotopes to track biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) through stream food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, D. M.; Fritz, K. M.; Johnson, B. R.; Lazorchak, J. M.

    2005-05-01

    Biomagnification studies of PCBs in streams are rare, even though PCBs are known to biomagnify and persist in aquatic ecosystems. We investigated PCB contamination in Twelvemile Creek (Clemson, SC, USA), a stream that received >400,000 lbs of PCBs from 1955-1978. Our goals were to determine if PCBs biomagnify in streams and to measure the relative importance of heterotrophic and autotrophic pathways for biomagnification. Sites were sampled during spring (n=6) and fall (n=4) 2003-04. Major components of the foodweb were analyzed for total PCBs, δ13C and δ15N. Biomagnification was apparent as mean δ15N strongly predicted PCBs (r2 = 0.58), and PCBs consistently increased with trophic level. We found no consistent patterns related to carbon pathways. δ13C and PCBs were uncorrelated, suggesting that carbon source was unrelated to biomagnification. However, mean PCB tissue concentration in grazers were double those in shredders (Stenonema modestum, 970 ppb versus Tipula and Pteronarcys spp, 370 ppb) even though concentrations were similar for periphyton and conditioned leaves. Our results show that PCBs biomagnify and persist in streams but the importance of autotrophic and heterotrophic pathways are unclear. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  13. Acoustic and visual surveys for bowhead whales in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sue E.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Munger, Lisa M.

    2010-01-01

    Two types of passive-acoustic survey were conducted to investigate the seasonal occurrence of bowhead whales ( Balaena mysticetus) in the western Beaufort and far northeastern Chukchi seas: (1) an over-winter (2003-04) survey using autonomous recorders deployed northeast of Barrow, Alaska, and (2) a summertime dipping-hydrophone survey along the 2005 NOAA Ocean Exploration (OE) cruise track northwest of Barrow. The longest continuous sampling period from the over-winter survey was 3 October 2003 to 12 May 2004. During that period, bowhead whale calls were recorded from 3 to 23 October, intermittently on 6-7 and 22-23 November, then not again until 25 March 2004. Bowhead calls were recorded almost every hour from 19 April to 12 May 2004, with a call rate peak on 30 April ( ca. 9400 calls) and a few instances of patterned calling (or, "song") detected in early May. Bowhead whale calls were never detected during the NOAA OE cruise, but calls of beluga whales ( Delphinapterus leucas) were recorded at 3 of 16 acoustic stations. Opportunistic visual surveys for marine mammals were also conducted during the NOAA OE cruise from the ship (65 h) and helicopter (7.8 h), resulting in single sightings of bowhead whales (3-5 whales), beluga (16-20 whales), walrus (1), polar bear (2=sow/cub), and 17 sightings of 87 ringed seals from the ship and 15 sightings of 67 ringed seals from the helicopter.

  14. Perfluorinated contaminants in fur seal pups and penguin eggs from South Shetland, Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Schiavone, A; Corsolini, S; Kannan, K; Tao, L; Trivelpiece, W; Torres, D; Focardi, S

    2009-06-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have emerged as a new class of global environmental pollutants. In this study, the presence of perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in penguin eggs and Antarctic fur seals was reported for the first time. Tissue samples from Antarctic fur seal pups and penguin eggs were collected during the 2003/04 breeding season. Ten PFC contaminants were determined in seal and penguin samples. The PFC concentrations in seal liver were in the decreasing order, PFOS>PFNA>PFHpA>PFUnDA while in Adélie penguin eggs were PFHpA>PFUnDA>PFDA>PFDoDA, and in Gentoo penguin eggs were PFUnDA>PFOS>PFDoDA>PFHpA. The PFC concentrations differed significantly between seals and penguins (p<0.005) and a species-specific difference was found between the two species of penguins (p<0.005). In our study we found a mean concentration of PFOS in seal muscle and liver samples of 1.3 ng/g and 9.4 ng/g wet wt, respectively, and a mean concentration in Gentoo and Adélie penguin eggs of 0.3 ng/g and 0.38 ng/g wet wt, respectively. PFCs detected in penguin eggs and seal pups suggested oviparous and viviparous transfer of PFOS to eggs and off-springs.

  15. The cross politics of Ecuador's penal state.

    PubMed

    Garces, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This essay examines inmate "crucifixion protests" in Ecuador's largest prison during 2003-04. It shows how the preventively incarcerated-of whom there are thousands-managed to effectively denounce their extralegal confinement by embodying the violence of the Christian crucifixion story. This form of protest, I argue, simultaneously clarified and obscured the multiple layers of sovereign power that pressed down on urban crime suspects, who found themselves persecuted and forsaken both outside and within the space of the prison. Police enacting zero-tolerance policies in urban neighborhoods are thus a key part of the penal state, as are the politically threatened family members of the indicted, the sensationalized local media, distrustful neighbors, prison guards, and incarcerated mafia. The essay shows how the politico-theological performance of self-crucifixion responded to these internested forms of sovereign violence, and were briefly effective. The inmates' cross intervention hence provides a window into the way sovereignty works in the Ecuadorean penal state, drawing out how incarceration trends and new urban security measures interlink, and produce an array of victims.

  16. Assessing the urban water balance: the Urban Water Flow Model and its application in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Charalambous, Katerina; Bruggeman, Adriana; Lange, Manfred A

    2012-01-01

    Modelling the urban water balance enables the understanding of the interactions of water within an urban area and allows for better management of water resources. However, few models today provide a comprehensive overview of all water sources and uses. The objective of the current paper was to develop a user-friendly tool that quantifies and visualizes all water flows, losses and inefficiencies in urban environments. The Urban Water Flow Model was implemented in a spreadsheet and includes a water-savings application that computes the contributions of user-selected saving options to the overall water balance. The model was applied to the coastal town of Limassol, Cyprus, for the hydrologic years 2003/04-2008/09. Data were collected from the different authorities and hydrologic equations and estimations were added to complete the balance. Average precipitation was 363 mm/yr, amounting to 25.4 × 10(6)m(3)/yr, more than double the annual potable water supply to the town. Surface runoff constituted 29.6% of all outflows, while evapotranspiration from impervious areas was 21.6%. Possible potable water savings for 2008/09 were estimated at 5.3 × 10(3) m(3), which is 50% of the total potable water provided to the area. This saving would also result in a 6% reduction of surface runoff.

  17. Long duration IR montgolfier and super-pressure balloon flights at the tropics for invetigating the impact of deep convection on transport, chemistry and microphysics in the UTLS region: The Hibiscus Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garnier, A.; Pommereau, J.; Letrenne, G.

    The HIBISCUS project is to study the uplift of tropospheric air, lightning, water- vapour injection and radiative impact on the lower stratosphere associated to deep convection at the tropics. The main field campaign planned in Brazil during the Austral summer of 2003-04 is to combined measurements around the world by remote sensing from Infra-Red Montgolfier (MIR) and in-situ from constant level super-pressure balloons (BP). Remote sensing includes profiling of O3, NO 2, H2O and atmospheric extinction in the upper troposphere and the lower stratosphere by UV-Vis spectrometry and aerosol and sub-visible cirrus by a micro-lidar. In-situ measurements are those of water vapour, ozone and clouds at constant level at the tropopause level around 17 km. In preparation to HIBISCUS, several preliminary MIR and BP test flights have been conducted in the tropics and in the Arctic which allow to better understand the anticipated performances of the approach. The goal of the presentation is to describe the results already achieved during those test flights and the undergoing developments for fulfilling the scientific goals of HIBISCUS.

  18. Practical Application of NASA-Langley Advanced Satellite Products to In-Flight Icing Nowcasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Ben C.; Wolff, Cory A.; Minnis, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Experimental satellite-based icing products developed by the NASA Langley Research Center provide new tools to identify the locations of icing and its intensity. Since 1997, research forecasters at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) have been helping to guide the NASA Glenn Research Center's Twin Otter aircraft into and out of clouds and precipitation for the purpose of characterizing in-flight icing conditions, including supercooled large drops, the accretions that result from such encounters and their effect on aircraft performance. Since the winter of 2003-04, the NASA Langley satellite products have been evaluated as part of this process, and are being considered as an input to NCAR s automated Current Icing Potential (CIP) products. This has already been accomplished for a relatively straightforward icing event, but many icing events have much more complex characteristics, providing additional challenges to all icing diagnosis tools. In this paper, four icing events with a variety of characteristics will be examined, with a focus on the NASA Langley satellite retrievals that were available in real time and their implications for icing nowcasting and potential applications in CIP.

  19. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  20. Local school policies increase physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools

    PubMed Central

    Haug, Ellen; Torsheim, Torbjørn; Samdal, Oddrun

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The implementation of school policies to support the adoption of physical activity is one of the main strategies recommended to increase physical activity levels among this age group. However, documentation of the effect of such policies is so far limited. The purpose of this study was to explore policy-related practices to support physical activity in Norwegian secondary schools and their association with recess physical activity. Emphasis was given to examine the association between policies and physical activity, over and beyond, individual level interests and environmental factors and to examine cross-level interaction effects. This cross-sectional study was based on a nationally representative sample of Norwegian secondary schools and grade 8 students who participated in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) 2005/06 study. The final sample comprised 68 schools and 1347 students. Data were collected through questionnaires. The results showed that schools with a written policy for physical activity and schools offering organized non-curricular physical activity several times a week had a higher proportion of students reporting daily participation in recess physical activity. Multilevel logistic regression analysis demonstrated a cross-level main effect of the policy index after controlling for sex, socio-economic status, individual-level interests and the physical environment. A significant contribution of adding the policy index to the prediction of recess physical activity above that provided by the individual-level interests and the physical environment was demonstrated. The results are encouraging and give scientific support to policy documents recommending the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity. PMID:19884244

  1. Overweight and obesity prevalence among Indian women by place of residence and socio-economic status: Contrasting patterns from 'underweight states' and 'overweight states' of India.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Angan; Angeli, Federica; Syamala, Thelakkat S; Dagnelie, Pieter C; van Schayck, C P

    2015-08-01

    Evidence from developing countries demonstrates a mixed relationship of overweight/obesity with socioeconomic status (SES) and place of residence. Theory of nutrition transition suggests that over the course of development, overweight first emerges among rich and urban people before spreading among rural and poor people. India is currently experiencing a rapid rise in the proportion of overweight and obese population especially among adult women. Under the backdrop of huge socio-economic heterogeneity across the states of India, the inter-state scenario of overweight and obesity differs considerably. Hence, this paper investigates the evolution over time of overweight and obesity among ever-married Indian women (15-49 years) from selected 'underweight states' (Bihar, Orissa and Madhya Pradesh, where underweight proportion is predominant) and 'overweight states' (Kerala, Delhi and Punjab, where overweight is the prime concern), in relation to a few selected socio-economic and demographic indicators. This study analysed National Family Health Surveys- NFHS-2 (1998-99) and NFHS-3 (2005-06) following Asian population specific BMI cut-offs for overweight and obesity. The results confirm that within India itself the relationship of overweight and obesity with place of residence and SES cannot be generalized. Results from 'overweight states' show that the overweight problem has started expanding from urban and well-off women to the poor and rural people, while the rural-urban and rich-poor difference has disappeared. On the other hand in 'underweight states' overweight and obesity have remained socially segregated and increasing strongly among urban and richer section of the population. The rate of rise of overweight and obesity has been higher in rural areas of 'OW states' and in urban areas of 'UW states'. Indian policymakers thus need to design state-specific approaches to arrest the rapid growth of overweight and its penetration especially towards under

  2. Hydrological classification of natural flow regimes to support environmental flow assessments in intensively regulated Mediterranean rivers, Segura River Basin (Spain).

    PubMed

    Belmar, Oscar; Velasco, Josefa; Martinez-Capel, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    Hydrological classification constitutes the first step of a new holistic framework for developing regional environmental flow criteria: the "Ecological Limits of Hydrologic Alteration (ELOHA)". The aim of this study was to develop a classification for 390 stream sections of the Segura River Basin based on 73 hydrological indices that characterize their natural flow regimes. The hydrological indices were calculated with 25 years of natural monthly flows (1980/81-2005/06) derived from a rainfall-runoff model developed by the Spanish Ministry of Environment and Public Works. These indices included, at a monthly or annual basis, measures of duration of droughts and central tendency and dispersion of flow magnitude (average, low and high flow conditions). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) indicated high redundancy among most hydrological indices, as well as two gradients: flow magnitude for mainstream rivers and temporal variability for tributary streams. A classification with eight flow-regime classes was chosen as the most easily interpretable in the Segura River Basin, which was supported by ANOSIM analyses. These classes can be simplified in 4 broader groups, with different seasonal discharge pattern: large rivers, perennial stable streams, perennial seasonal streams and intermittent and ephemeral streams. They showed a high degree of spatial cohesion, following a gradient associated with climatic aridity from NW to SE, and were well defined in terms of the fundamental variables in Mediterranean streams: magnitude and temporal variability of flows. Therefore, this classification is a fundamental tool to support water management and planning in the Segura River Basin. Future research will allow us to study the flow alteration-ecological response relationship for each river type, and set the basis to design scientifically credible environmental flows following the ELOHA framework.

  3. Improving the Accuracy of the AFWA-NASA (ANSA) Blended Snow-Cover Product over the Lower Great Lakes Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Dorothy K.; Foster, James L.; Kumar, Sujay; Chien, Janety Y. L.; Riggs, George A.

    2012-01-01

    The Air Force Weather Agency (AFWA) -- NASA blended snow-cover product, called ANSA, utilizes Earth Observing System standard snow products from the Moderate- Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) to map daily snow cover and snow-water equivalent (SWE) globally. We have compared ANSA-derived SWE with SWE values calculated from snow depths reported at 1500 National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) co-op stations in the Lower Great Lakes Basin. Compared to station data, the ANSA significantly underestimates SWE in densely-forested areas. We use two methods to remove some of the bias observed in forested areas to reduce the root-mean-square error (RMSE) between the ANSA- and station-derived SWE. First, we calculated a 5- year mean ANSA-derived SWE for the winters of 2005-06 through 2009-10, and developed a five-year mean bias-corrected SWE map for each month. For most of the months studied during the five-year period, the 5-year bias correction improved the agreement between the ANSA-derived and station-derived SWE. However, anomalous months such as when there was very little snow on the ground compared to the 5-year mean, or months in which the snow was much greater than the 5-year mean, showed poorer results (as expected). We also used a 7-day running mean (7DRM) bias correction method using days just prior to the day in question to correct the ANSA data. This method was more effective in reducing the RMSE between the ANSA- and co-op-derived SWE values, and in capturing the effects of anomalous snow conditions.

  4. Academic career development in geriatric fellowship training.

    PubMed

    Medina-Walpole, Annette; Fonzi, Judith; Katz, Paul R

    2007-12-01

    Career development is rarely formalized in the curricula of geriatric fellowship programs, and the training of new generations of academic leaders is challenging in the 1 year of fellowship training. To effectively prepare fellows for academic leadership, the University of Rochester's Division of Geriatrics, in collaboration with the Warner School of Graduate Education, created a yearlong course to achieve excellence in teaching and career development during the 1-year geriatric fellowship. Nine interdisciplinary geriatric medicine, dentistry, and psychiatry fellows completed the course in its initial year (2005/06). As participants, fellows gained the knowledge and experience to successfully develop and implement educational initiatives in various formats. Fellows acquired teaching and leadership skills necessary to succeed as clinician-educators in an academic setting and to communicate effectively with patients, families, and colleagues. Fellows completed a series of individual and group education projects, including academic portfolio development, curriculum vitae revision, abstract submission and poster presentation at national meetings, lay lecture series development, and geriatric grand rounds presentation. One hundred percent of fellows reported that the course positively affected their career development, with six of nine fellows choosing academic careers. The course provided opportunities to teach and assess all six of the Accreditation Council of Graduate Medical Education core competencies. This academic career development course was intended to prepare geriatric fellows as the next generation of academic leaders as clinician-teacher-scholars. It could set a new standard for academic development during fellowship training and provide a model for national dissemination in other geriatric and subspecialty fellowship programs.

  5. An international survey of pain in adolescents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background A common belief is that pain is uncommon and short lived in adolescents. However, the burden of pain in adolescents is unclear because of limitations in previous research. The aim of this study is to estimate the prevalence of headache, stomach-ache and backache in adolescents and to explore the extent to which these three forms of pain coexist based upon a representative sample of adolescents from 28 countries. Methods Data were analysed from three consecutive waves (1997/98, 2001/02 and 2005/06) of the Health Behavior in School-aged Children: WHO Collaborative Cross-National survey (HBSC). Prevalence estimates are based upon adolescents who reported experiencing headache, stomach-ache or backache at least monthly for the last 6 months. Results There were a total of 404,206 participants with a mean (±SD) age of 13.6 (±1.7) years (range 9.8 to 17.3 years). The prevalence of headache was 54.1%, stomach-ache 49.8%, backache 37%, and at least one of the three pains 74.4%. Girls had a higher prevalence of the three pains than boys and the prevalence of pain increased with age. Headache, stomach-ache and backache frequently coexist, for example, of those with headache: 21.2% had headache alone, 31% suffered from both headache and stomach-ache, 12.1% suffered from backache and headache, and 35.7% had all three pains. Conclusions Somatic pain is very common in adolescents, more often coexisting than occurring in isolation. Our data supports the need for further research to improve the understanding of these pains in adolescents. PMID:24885027

  6. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity.

  7. Closing the health and nutrition gap in Odisha, India: A case study of how transforming the health system is achieving greater equity.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Deborah; Sarangi, Biraj Laxmi; Garg, Anu; Ahuja, Arti; Meherda, Pramod; Karthikeyan, Sujata R; Joddar, Pinaki; Kar, Rajendra; Pattnaik, Jeetendra; Druvasula, Ramesh; Dembo Rath, Alison

    2015-11-01

    Health equity is high on the international agenda. This study provides evidence of how health systems can be strengthened to improve health equity in a low-income state. The paper presents a case study of how the Government of Odisha in eastern India is transforming the health system for more equitable health and nutrition outcomes. Odisha has a population of over 42 million, high levels of poverty, and poor maternal and child health concentrated in its Southern districts and among Scheduled Tribe and Scheduled Caste communities. Conducted between 2008 and 2012 with the Departments of Health and Family Welfare, and Women and Child Development, the study reviewed a wide range of literature including policy and programme documents, evaluations and studies, published and grey material, and undertook secondary analysis of state level household surveys. It identifies innovative and expanded provision of health services, reforms to the management and development of human resources for health, and the introduction of a number of cash transfer and entitlement schemes as contributing to closing the gap between maternal and child health and nutrition outcomes of Scheduled Tribes, and the Southern districts, compared to the state average. The institutional delivery rate for Scheduled Tribes has risen from 11.7% in 2005-06 to 67.3% in 2011, and from 35.6% to 79.8% for all women. The social gradient has also closed for antenatal and postnatal care and immunisation. Nutrition indicators though improving are proving slower to budge. The paper identifies how political will, committed policy makers and fiscal space energised the health system to promote equity. Sustained political commitment will be required to continue to address the more challenging human resource, health financing and gender issues.

  8. Microbial colonization of post eruptive vents on the EPR at 9N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetriani, C.

    2008-12-01

    The overarching goal of this project is to understand the role of microbial colonists at newly formed vents as "mediators" in the transfer of energy from the geothermal source to the higher trophic levels, and their role in altering fluid chemistry and in "conditioning" the vent environment for metazoans to settle. Following the 2005-06 volcanic eruption along the East Pacific Rise (EPR) ridge crest between 9°N and 9°N, we had several opportunities to investigate the microbial colonization of the post-eruptive vents: in 2006 (about six months after the eruption), in January 2007 (one year after the eruption), and in December 2007/January 2008 (two years after the eruption). In order to investigate microbial colonization, we designed and deployed several experimental microbial colonizers on active diffuse flow vents characterized by different temperatures (approximate range 20-60°C) chemical (different redox conditions), and biological (e.g., presence or absence of metazoan colonists) regimes. Analyses of the 16S rRNA and fuctional gene transcripts from the colonizing communities indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria represented the dominant and active fraction of the chemosynthetic early microbial colonists, and that they expressed in-situ the genes involved in carbon dioxide fixation and nitrate respiration. However, data from our semi quantitative culture experiments indicated that Epsilonproteobacteria were not the only microorganisms that attached to basalts or to the experimental colonizers during the early phases of colonization. Sulfur dependent, chemosynthetic members of the Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria were isolated from up to 10-5 dilutions of original samples along with heterotrophic Gammaproteobacteria capable of growth on n-alkanes as their sole carbon source. We propose a model that links the chemistry of hydrothermal fluids to the colonization of newly formed vents and suggests a role for chemosynthetic and heterotrophic bacteria in the

  9. The Chemistry of Hydrothermal Plumes Along the Galapagos Spreading Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resing, J.; Baker, E.; Lebon, G.; Walker, S.; Haymon, R.; Nakamura, K.; Lupton, J.

    2006-12-01

    During the 2005-06 GalAPAGoS expedition, we conducted nested sonar, plume, and camera surveys along a 300 n.m.-long portion of the Galapagos Spreading Center (GSC) where the ridge intersects the Galapagos hotspot between 94.5° and 89.5°W. Hydrothermal plumes were located by placing a variety of sensors on the clump weight of the DSL-120, which was towed approximately 100 m above the seafloor. These sensors included the vents in situ analyzer (nee SUAVE), which measured Fe, Mn, and pH; a redox potential (Eh) sensor; an optical backscatter sensor; a METs methane analyzer; and a CTD. These sensors were uploaded in real time allowing us to monitor for plumes during the tow. In addition, the tow line of the DSL-120 carried a vertical array of optical backscatter sensors (MAPRs). Almost all of the plumes found were identified solely from the data uploaded to the ship in real time and were confirmed from the vertical MAPR array. The MAPR array provided information on the rise height and vertical extent of the plumes. Many plumes were then also located and sampled by vertical and towed CTD hydrocasts. The CTD hydrocast samples were sampled for Fe, Mn, pH, helium isotopes, methane, and total suspended matter composition. Many of the plumes were characterized by fairly low amounts of total dissolved metals and variable Fe:Mn ratios. Plumes over the discovered black smoker vents carried elevated total dissolved metals and Fe:Mn ratios typical of other midocean ridge plumes. Data will be presented on the chemical makeup of the plumes from the sensors on the DSL-120 clump weight and from the CTD hydrocast samples.

  10. Delayed or forgone care and dissatisfaction with care for children with special health care needs: the role of perceived cultural competency of health care providers.

    PubMed

    Kerfeld, Cheryl I; Hoffman, Jeanne M; Ciol, Marcia A; Kartin, Deborah

    2011-05-01

    To better understand if reported delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care for children with special health care needs (CSHCN) are associated with the parent's perception of health care providers' cultural competency. National survey. Fifty United States and the District of Columbia yielding 750 families per state and District of Columbia with CSHCN ≤ 18 years participated in the 2005-06 National Survey of CSHCN. Outcome measures were delayed/forgone care in the past 12 months (yes or no) and dissatisfaction (very dissatisfied to very satisfied). Demographic/clinical characteristics and the parent's perception of health care providers' cultural competency were examined. Perception of cultural competency was defined by questions related to time spent with child, respect for family values, listening to the family, sense of partnership, and information provided. Delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care were associated with perceived health care provider cultural competency. Parents whose children were older, whose children's condition affected their ability to do things, whose interviews were not conducted in English, and were from certain racial and ethnic groups reported more delayed or forgone care and were more dissatisfied with their children's health care. Delayed/forgone care and dissatisfaction with care were associated with perceived cultural competency of health care providers. This did not appear to differ consistently by racial or ethnic group. Further research using more refined instruments and longitudinal designs is needed to assess the effects of health care providers' cultural competency and other cultural factors on the delayed/forgone care for CSHCN and on the dissatisfaction with care of parents with CSHCN.

  11. Identifying demographic and psychosocial factors related to the escalation of smoking behavior among Mexican American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Shete, Sahil S; Wilkinson, Anna V

    2017-02-21

    Cigarette smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States; smoking in Mexican American adolescents, a rapidly growing population, remains a major concern. Factors associated with escalation or progression along the smoking trajectory have not been studied in adolescent Mexican Americans. A better understanding of escalation is needed for cancer prevention and overall health. N=1,328 Mexican American adolescents joined a cohort in 2005-06. At baseline participants provided demographic, acculturation and psychosocial data, and reported their smoking status using the Minnesota Smoking Index. Those that never tried a cigarette or only had a few puffs in their life were included in this study. The primary outcome of interest, escalation in smoking status, was defined as moving up the Minnesota Smoking Index by 2010-2011. The current analysis is based on 973 participants of whom 48.2% were male, mean age=11.8 (SD=0.8), and 26.0% were born in Mexico. By 2010-2011, 283 (29%) escalated their smoking status and 690 (71%) remained the same. Being older (OR=1.30; CI=1.07-1.57), male (OR=1.88, CI=1.40-2.53), having higher levels of anxiety (OR=1.03, CI=1.02-1.05), intending to smoke (OR=1.70, CI=1.18-2.46), having friends who smoke (OR=1.73, CI=1.12-2.70) and having parents' friends who smoke (OR=1.38, CI=1.02-1.88) increased risk for smoking escalation. Higher levels of subjective social status (OR=0.91, CI=0.83-0.99) were protective against smoking escalation. Contrasting previous work in smoking experimentation, parents' friends influence was a stronger predictor than the family household influence. Preventative interventions for Mexican American youth could address this risk factor to reduce smoking escalation.

  12. Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card.

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Hector; Murray, Christopher J L

    2006-11-25

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over 7 years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, we used a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affiliates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  13. [Assessing the effect of the 2001-06 Mexican health reform: an interim report card].

    PubMed

    Gakidou, Emmanuela; Lozano, Rafael; González-Pier, Eduardo; Abbott-Klafter, Jesse; Barofsky, Jeremy T; Bryson-Cahn, Chloe; Feehan, Dennis M; Lee, Diana K; Hernández-Llamas, Héctor; Murray, Christopher J L

    2007-01-01

    Since 2001, Mexico has been designing, legislating, and implementing a major health-system reform. A key component was the creation of Seguro Popular, which is intended to expand insurance coverage over seven years to uninsured people, nearly half the total population at the start of 2001. The reform included five actions: legislation of entitlement per family affiliated which, with full implementation, will increase public spending on health by 0.8-1.0% of gross domestic product; creation of explicit benefits packages; allocation of monies to decentralised state ministries of health in proportion to number of families affiliated; division of federal resources flowing to states into separate funds for personal and non-personal health services; and creation of a fund to protect families against catastrophic health expenditures. Using the WHO health-systems framework, a wide range of datasets to assess the effect of this reform on different dimensions of the health system was used. Key findings include: affiliation is preferentially reaching the poor and the marginalised communities; federal non-social security expenditure in real per-head terms increased by 38% from 2000 to 2005; equity of public-health expenditure across states improved; Seguro Popular affilates used more inpatient and outpatient services than uninsured people; effective coverage of 11 interventions has improved between 2000 and 2005-06; inequalities in effective coverage across states and wealth deciles has decreased over this period; catastrophic expenditures for Seguro Popular affiliates are lower than for uninsured people even though use of services has increased. We present some lessons for Mexico based on this interim evaluation and explore implications for other countries considering health reforms.

  14. An internet based learning tool in orthopaedic surgery: preliminary experiences and results.

    PubMed

    Citak, Musa; Calafi, Afshin; Kendoff, Daniel; Kupka, Thomas; Haasper, Carl; Behrends, Marianne; Krettek, Christian; Matthies, Herbert K; Hüfner, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Today universities can offer a variety of educational resources to their students through the internet. These may include lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, or even an entire recording of a lecture in video format. At the Hannover Medical School (Hannover, Germany), the Trauma Surgery Department in collaboration with the Institute of Medical Informatics has developed an alternative method of "E-learning". We created a web-based multimedia resource center for Trauma Surgery using the Content-Management-System (CMS) Schoolbook application, which was initially developed by the Institute of Medical Informatics. The so called "Trauma Surgery Schoolbook" was first adopted in October of 2005 and has since been used and evaluated by medical students at our institution. The evaluation results for the academic year 2005/06 are reported in this paper. The majority of students enrolled in the Trauma Surgery rotation utilized the Schoolbook, which they regarded as a helpful and effective study tool. Our students embraced the possibility of being able to prepare for lectures and use the Schoolbook for independent home studying purposes. Over time, there was a steady increase in the utilization of the Schoolbook by the students from 67% in the first trimester to 93% in the third trimester. The majority of the surveyed students (79.6%) found the Schoolbook to be constructive and helpful. 8.1% did not have any opinion, and only 12.3% found it to not be helpful. The instructors also found this web-based training program to be both constructive and practical, and were able to utilize its multimedia components to complement their lectures. Overall, our experience with this computer-aided learning program demonstrated that web-based technologies can improve the quality of medical education, benefiting both the students and the instructors.

  15. Liquid chromatographic post-column oxidation method for analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins in mussels, clams, scallops, and oysters: single-laboratory validation.

    PubMed

    Van de Riet, Jeffrey M; Gibbs, Ryan S; Chou, Faith W; Muggah, Patricia M; Rourke, Wade A; Burns, Garth; Thomas, Krista; Quilliam, Michael A

    2009-01-01

    A single-laboratory validation study was conducted for the LC post-column oxidation analysis of paralytic shellfish toxins (PST): saxitoxin (STX); neosaxitoxin (NEO); gonyautoxins (GTX) 1-5; decarbamoyl gonyautoxins (dcGTX) 2 and 3; decarbamoyl saxitoxin (dcSTX); and N-sulfocarbamoyl-gonyautoxin-2 and 3 (C1 and C2) in mussels (Mytilus edulis), soft shell clams (Mya arenaria), scallops (Placopectin magellanicus), and oysters (Crassostrea virginicus). The instrumental technique was developed for the analysis of PST in shellfish as an alternative to the precolumn oxidation method, AOAC Official Method 2005.06, and a replacement for the current AOAC biological method 959.08. The method used reversed-phase LC with post-column oxidation and fluorescence detection. Test materials for method recovery were prepared by fortification of blank material with a cocktail of PST. Materials used to determine method repeatability and intermediate precision were prepared by blending blank material with naturally incurred material. The target total toxicity levels evaluated in the study were 0.40, 0.80, and 1.60 mg STX x diHCl equivalents per kilogram [(eq/kg) 1%, 1, and 2 times the regulatory limit]. Linearity, recovery, and within-laboratory precision parameters of the method were evaluated. Correlation coefficients of the calibration curves for all toxins studied were > 0.99. Total toxin recovery ranged from 94 to 106% at the three levels of interest. Repeatability and intermediate precision RSD ranged from 2 to 7% and 2 to 8%, respectively. The method LOD and LOQ (assuming the presence of all toxins) were determined to be equivalent to 0.18 and 0.39 mg STX x diHCl eq/kg. The method is intended for a regulatory framework and will be submitted for an AOAC collaborative study.

  16. Should legislation regarding maximum Pb and Cd levels in human food also cover large game meat?

    PubMed

    Taggart, Mark A; Reglero, Manuel M; Camarero, Pablo R; Mateo, Rafael

    2011-01-01

    Game meat may be contaminated with metals and metalloids if animals reside in anthropogenically polluted areas, or if ammunition used to kill the game contaminates the meat. Muscle tissue from red deer and wild boar shot in Ciudad Real province (Spain) in 2005-06 was analysed for As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Se and Cd. Samples were collected from hunting estates within and outside an area that has been historically used for mining, smelting and refining various metals and metalloids. Meat destined for human consumption, contained more Pb, As and Se (red deer) and Pb (boar) when harvested from animals that had resided in mined areas. Age related accumulation of Cd, Zn and As (in deer) and Cd, Cu and Se (in boar) was also observed. Two boar meat samples contained high Pb, at 352 and 2408 μg/g d.w., and these were likely to have been contaminated by Pb ammunition. Likewise, 19-84% of all samples (depending on species and sampling area) had Pb levels > 0.1 μg/g w.w., the EU maximum residue level (MRL) for farm reared meat. Between 9 and 43% of samples exceeded comparable Cd limits. Such data highlight a discrepancy between what is considered safe for human consumption in popular farmed meat (chicken, beef, lamb), and what in game may often exist. A risk assessment is presented which describes the number of meals required to exceed current tolerable weekly intakes (PTWIs) for Pb and Cd, and the potential contribution of large game consumption to such intake limit criteria.

  17. A paradigm shift in predoctoral dental curricula in Brazil: evaluating the process of change.

    PubMed

    Zilbovicius, Celso; de Araujo, Maria Ercilia; Botazzo, Carlos; Frias, Antônio Carlos; Junqueira, Simone Rennó; Junqueira, Cilene Rennó

    2011-04-01

    In 2002, the Brazilian Ministry of Education approved the official curricular guidelines for undergraduate courses in Brazil to be adopted by the nation's 188 dental schools. In 2005-06, the Brazilian Dental Education Association (BDEA) promoted workshops in forty-eight of the schools to verify the degree of transformation of the curriculum based on these guidelines. Among the areas analyzed were course philosophy (variables were v1: knowledge production based on the needs of the Brazilian Public Health System [BPHS]; v2: health determinants; and v3: postgraduate studies and permanent education); pedagogical skills (v4: curricular structure; v5: changes in pedagogic and didactic skills; and v6: course program orientation); and dental practice scenarios (v7: diversity of the scenarios for training/learning; v8: academic health care centers opened to the BPHS; and v9: participation of students in health care delivery for the population). The subjects consisted of faculty members (n=711), students (n=228), and employees (n=14). The results showed an incipient degree of curriculum transformation. The degree of innovation was statistically different depending on the type of university (public or private) for variables 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Private schools reported a higher level of innovation than public institutions. Resistance to transforming the dental curriculum according to the official guidelines may be linked to an ideological conception that supports the private practice model, continues to have faculty members direct all classroom activities, and prevents students from developing an understanding of professional practice as targeted towards the oral health needs of all segments of society.

  18. Fitness profiling in soccer: physical and physiologic characteristics of elite players.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Jukic, Igor; Ostojic, Sergej M; Milanovic, Dragan

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether players in different positional roles have a different physical and physiologic profile. For the purpose of this study, physiologic measurements were taken of 270 soccer players during the precompetitive period of 2005/06 and the precompetitive period of 2006/07. According to the positional roles, players were categorized as defenders (n = 80), midfielders (n = 80), attackers (n = 80), and goalkeepers (n = 30). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was use to determinate differences between team positions. Goalkeepers are the tallest and the heaviest players in the team. They are also the slowest players in the team when sprinting ability over 10 and 20 meters is required. Attackers were the quickest players in the team when looking at sprint values over 5, 10, and 20 meters. There were statistically significant differences between attacker and defenders when measuring vertical jump height by squat jump. Goalkeepers were able to perform better on explosive power tests (squat jump and countermovement jump) than players in the field. Midfielders had statistically significant superior values of relative oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, maximal running speed, and blood lactate than defenders and attackers. Defenders had more body fat than attackers and midfielders (p < 0.05). Coaches are able to use this information to determine which type of profile is needed for a specific position. It is obvious that players in different positions have different physical and physiologic profiles. Experienced coaches can use this information in the process of designing a training program to maximize the fitness development of soccer players with one purpose only, to achieve success in soccer.

  19. Ethnic differences in sexual behaviour among unmarried adolescents and young adults in Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Sambisa, William; Curtis, Sian L; Stokes, C Shannon

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the social and cultural contextual determinants of sexual behaviour of adolescents and young adults is an essential step towards curtailing the spread of HIV. This study examined the effects of one cultural factor, ethnicity, on sexual abstinence, faithfulness, condom use at last sex, and risky sex among young people in Zimbabwe. Data from the cross-sectional, population-based 2005-06 Zimbabwe Demographic and Health Survey were used. Net of the effect of sociodemographic and social-cognitive factors, and using multinomial logistic regression, ethnicity was found to have a strong and consistent effect on sexual behaviour among youth. In addition, the study found that there were ethnic-specific and within-gender differences in sexual behaviour, for both men and women. Shona youth were more likely to be abstinent than Ndebele youth. Compared with Shona youth, Ndebele youth were more likely to have engaged in risky sex. However, Ndebele men were more likely have used condoms at last sex, compared with Shona men. For both men and women, sexual behaviour was more socially controlled. School attendance and religion exerted protective effects on sexual abstinence. For men only, those living in rural areas were less likely to be faithful and more likely to have engaged in risky sexual behaviour than those living in urban areas. The study attests to the fact that ethnic norms and ideologies of sexuality need to be identified and more thoroughly understood. In addition, the study provides evidence that in order to promote safe and healthy sexuality among young people in Zimbabwe, cultural, social and gender-specific approaches to the development of HIV prevention strategies should be seriously considered. Current success in the Abstinence, Being faithful and Condom use (ABC) approach could be strengthened by recognizing and responding to cultural forces that reproduce and perpetuate risky sexual behaviours.

  20. Paralytic shellfish poisoning due to ingestion of Gymnodinium catenatum contaminated cockles--application of the AOAC HPLC official method.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Susana Margarida; de Carvalho, Mamede; Mestre, Tiago; Ferreira, Joaquim J; Coelho, Miguel; Peralta, Rita; Vale, Paulo

    2012-04-01

    The potent paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by Gymnodinium catenatum have appeared irregularly since the onset in 1986 of a monitoring program aimed at preventing contaminated bivalves from the Portuguese coast to reaching the consumer. In years where high contamination levels were attained, sporadic episodes of human poisonings were also recorded, as in 1994. The reappearance of high contamination led to the appearance of new cases during 2007. This study reports details of toxin ingestion, symptomatology and toxin presence in the fluids of one of these victims, an adult male who ingested several kilograms of cockles. In cockle samples collected the week before and during the week when the intoxication took place, the major PSTs detected by the HPLC method based on AOAC Official Method 2005.06 belonged to the sulfamate (81-68 molar percent) and decarbamoyl groups (19-32 molar percent), comprising GTX5, GTX6, C1,2, C3,4, dcNeo, and dcSTX. In the patient urine sample sulfamate and decarbamoyl derivatives were also found, comprising by GTX5 (28%), GTX6 (25%), dcSTX (24%) and dcNeo (22%), but no C toxins and no dcGTX2,3 were detected. Compared to the cockle samples, there was an increase in the proportion of dcSTX, dcNeo and GTX5 (molar percentage) in the urine sample, but not of GTX6. Overall, compounds which had the presence of an O-sulfate at C11 were absent in urine while being relatively abundant in the bivalve (36.5-47.0 molar percent). In blood plasma PSTs were not detected.

  1. Interlaboratory comparison of two AOAC liquid chromatographic fluorescence detection methods for paralytic shellfish toxin analysis through characterization of an oyster reference material.

    PubMed

    Turner, Andrew D; Lewis, Adam M; Rourke, Wade A; Higman, Wendy A

    2014-01-01

    An interlaboratory ring trial was designed and conducted by the Centre for Environment, Fisheries, and Aquaculture Science to investigate a range of issues affecting the analysis of a candidate Pacific oyster paralytic shellfish toxin reference material. A total of 21 laboratories participated in the study and supplied results using one or more of three instrumental methods, specifically precolumn oxidation (Pre-COX) LC with fluorescence detection (FLD; AOAC Official Method 2005.06), postcolumn oxidation (PCOX) LC-FLD (AOAC Official Method 2011.02), and hydrophilic interaction LC/MS/MS. Each participant analyzed nine replicate samples of the oyster tissue in three separate batches of three samples over a period of time longer than 1 week. Results were reported in a standardized format, reporting both individual toxin concentrations and total sample toxicity. Data were assessed to determine the equivalency of the two AOAC LC methods and the LC/MS/MS method as well as an assessment of intrabatch and interbatch repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility of each method. Differences among the results reported using the three methods were shown to be statistically significant, although visual comparisons showed an overlap between results generated by the majority of tests, the exception being the Pre-COX quantitation of N-hydroxylated toxins in post ion-exchange fractions. Intralaboratory repeatability and interlaboratory reproducibility were acceptable for most of the results, with the exception of results generated from fractions. The results provided good evidence for the acceptable performance of the PCOX method for the quantitation of C toxins. Overall the study showed the usefulness of interlaboratory analysis for the characterization of paralytic shellfish poisoning matrix reference materials, highlighting some issues that may need to be addressed with further method assessment at individual participant laboratories.

  2. The Brustkrebs-Studien.de website for breast cancer patients: User acceptance of a German internet portal offering information on the disease and treatment options, and a clinical trials matching service

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The internet portal http://www.brustkrebs-studien.de (BKS) was launched in 2000 by the German Society of Senology (DGS) and the Baden-Württemberg Institute for Women's Health (IFG) to provide expert-written information on breast cancer online and to encourage and facilitate the participation of breast cancer patients in clinical trials. We describe the development of BKS and its applications, and report on website statistics and user acceptance. Methods Existing registries, including ClinicalTrials.gov, were analysed before we designed BKS, which combines a trial registry, a knowledge portal, and an online second opinion service. An advisory board guided the process. Log files and patient enquiries for trial participation and second opinions were analysed. A two-week user satisfaction survey was conducted online. Results During 10/2005-06/2010, the portal attracted 702,655 visitors, generating 15,507,454 page views. By 06/2010, the website's active scientific community consisted of 189 investigators and physicians, and the registry covered 163 clinical trial protocols. In 2009, 143 patients requested trial enrolment and 119 sought second opinions or individual treatment advice from the expert panel. During the two-week survey in 2008, 5,702 BKS visitors submitted 507 evaluable questionnaires. Portal acceptance was high. Respondents trusted information correctness (80%), welcomed self-matching to clinical trials (79%) and planned to use the portal in the future (76%) and recommend it to others (81%). Conclusions BKS is an established and trusted breast cancer information platform offering up-to-date resources and protocols to the growing physician and patient community to encourage participation in clinical trials. Further studies are needed to assess potential increases in trial enrolment by eligibility matching services. PMID:21126358

  3. Functional disability and compromised mobility among older women with urinary incontinence

    PubMed Central

    Erekson, Elisabeth A.; Ciarleglio, Maria M.; Hanissian, Paul D.; Strohbehn, Kris; Bynum, Julie P.W.; Fried, Terri R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Our objective was to determine the prevalence of functional disability among older women with urinary incontinence (UI). Methods We conducted a secondary analysis of the 2005-06 National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP). Daily UI was defined as answering “daily” to the question, “How frequently...have you had difficulty controlling your bladder, including leaking small amounts of urine, leaking when you cough or sneeze, or not being able to make it to the bathroom on time?” We then explored functional status. Women were asked about seven basic activities of daily living (ADLs). Statistical analyses with percentage estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were performed. Logistic regression was performed to assess the association between functional status and daily UI. Results In total, 1,412 women were included in our analysis. Daily UI was reported by 177 (12.5%) women. Functional dependence or disability with any ADLs was reported in 62.1% (95% CI 54.2%, 70.1%) of women with daily UI. Among women with daily UI, 23.6% (95% CI 16.8%, 30.5%) reported specific difficulty or dependence with using the toilet signifying functional limitations which may contribute to urine leakage. After adjusting for age category, race/ethnicity, education level, and parity, women with daily UI had 3.31 increased odds of functional difficulty or dependence compared with continent older women. Conclusion Over 60% of older women with daily UI reported functional difficulty or dependence and 1/4 of women with daily UI specifically reported difficulty or dependence with using the toilet. PMID:25185600

  4. Evaluation of a Theory of Instructional Sequences for Physics Instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wackermann, Rainer; Trendel, Georg; Fischer, Hans E.

    2010-05-01

    The background of the study is the theory of basis models of teaching and learning, a comprehensive set of models of learning processes which includes, for example, learning through experience and problem-solving. The combined use of different models of learning processes has not been fully investigated and it is frequently not clear under what circumstances a particular model should be used by teachers. In contrast, the theory under investigation here gives guidelines for choosing a particular model and provides instructional sequences for each model. The aim is to investigate the implementation of the theory applied to physics instruction and to show if possible effects for the students may be attributed to the use of the theory. Therefore, a theory-oriented education programme for 18 physics teachers was developed and implemented in the 2005/06 school year. The main features of the intervention consisted of coaching physics lessons and video analysis according to the theory. The study follows a pre-treatment-post design with non-equivalent control group. Findings of repeated-measures ANOVAs show large effects for teachers' subjective beliefs, large effects for classroom actions, and small to medium effects for student outcomes such as perceived instructional quality and student emotions. The teachers/classes that applied the theory especially well according to video analysis showed the larger effects. The results showed that differentiating between different models of learning processes improves physics instruction. Effects can be followed through to student outcomes. The education programme effect was clearer for classroom actions and students' outcomes than for teachers' beliefs.

  5. Parents’ Support and Knowledge of Their Daughters’ Lives and Females’ Early Sexual Initiation in Nine European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; Farhat, Tilda; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2013-01-01

    Context The association between early sexual initiation and parenting practices (e.g., support and knowledge) has not been tested in multiple European population-based samples using the same instrument. Methods Data provided by females (age 14-16) participating in the 2005-06 Health Behaviors in School-Aged Children (HBSC) survey conducted in Austria, Finland, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Lithuania, Romania, Spain and Ukraine were used (n=7,466). The dependent variable was early sexual initiation (<16). The main independent variables were maternal and paternal support and knowledge of daily activities. Univariate, bivariate and multivariable analyses were run with standard error corrections and weights. Results Prevalence of early sexual initiation ranged from a low of 7% (Romania) to a high of 35% (Iceland). In bivariate analyses, maternal and paternal support were significantly negatively related to adolescent females’ early sexual initiation in a majority of countries. In models with demographic controls, parental support was significantly negatively related to early sexual initiation (AOR = 0.80 maternal, 0.74 paternal). After adding parental knowledge, early sexual initiation was no longer associated with parental support, but was significantly negatively related to parental knowledge (AOR = 0.69 maternal and paternal). These patterns held across countries. Conclusions Negative associations between parental support and early initiation were largely explained by parental knowledge, suggesting either that knowledge is more important than support or that knowledge mediates the association between support and early initiation. Providers should counsel parents regarding the importance of knowledge of their daughters’ daily lives, which may be enhanced through developing supportive relationships. PMID:22958661

  6. Macro-level Age Norms for the Timing of Sexual Initiation and Adolescents’ Early Sexual Initiation in 17 European Countries

    PubMed Central

    Madkour, Aubrey Spriggs; de Looze, Margaretha; Ma, Ping; Halpern, Carolyn Tucker; Farhat, Tilda; ter Bogt, Tom F. M.; Ehlinger, Virginie; Nic Gabhainn, Saoirse; Currie, Candace; Godeau, Emmanuelle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between country-level age norms for sexual initiation timing and early sexual initiation (ESI) among adolescent boys and girls. Methods Nationally-representative data from 17 countries that participated in the 2006/07 European Social Survey (ESS-3, n=33,092) and the 2005/06 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC, n=27,702) were analyzed. Age norms were measured as the average country-level response to an item asking the age at which ESS respondents believed someone is too young to have sexual intercourse. HBSC respondents (aged 14-16) self-reported age at sexual initiation which we defined as early (<15 years) or not (≥15 years or no initiation). Control variables included age, family affluence, perceived socioeconomic status, family living arrangement, substance use, school attachment, and country-level legal age of consent. Multivariable three-level logistic models with random intercepts were run separately by sex. Results In multivariable analyses, higher overall age norms were associated with reduced likelihood of ESI among girls (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.45-0.79); associations with ESI were stronger for parent cohort (ages 31-65) norms (AOR 0.37, 95% CI 0.23-0.58) than for peer cohort (ages 15-20) norms (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.49-0.74). For boys, overall norms were also significantly negatively associated with ESI (AOR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99), as were parent cohort norms (AOR 0.66, 95% CI 0.45-0.96). Peer cohort norms were not significantly related to boys’ ESI. Conclusion Macro-level cultural norms may impact adolescents’ sexual initiation timing. Research exploring the sexual health outcomes of early initiators in countries with contrasting age norms is warranted. PMID:24508092

  7. New geophysical views of Mt.Melbourne Volcano (East Antarctica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armadillo, E.; Gambetta, M.; Ferraccioli, F.; Corr, H.; Bozzo, E.

    2009-05-01

    Mt. Melbourne volcano is located along the transition between the Transantarctic Mountains and the West Antarctic Rift System. Recent volcanic activity is suggested by the occurrence of blankets of pyroclastic pumice and scoria fall around the eastern and southern flanks of Mt Melbourne and by pyroclastic layers interbedded with the summit snows. Geothermal activity in the crater area of Mount Melbourne may be linked to the intrusion of dykes within the last 200 years. Geophysical networks suggest that Mount Melbourne is a quiescent volcano, possibly characterised by slow internal dynamics. During the 2002-2003 Italian Antarctic campaign a high-resolution aeromagnetic survey was performed within the TIMM (Tectonics and Interior of Mt. Melbourne area) project. This helicopter-borne survey was flown at low-altitude and in drape-mode configuration (305 m above terrain) with a line separation less than 500 m. Our new high-resolution magnetic maps reveal the largely ice-covered magmatic and tectonic patters in the Mt. Melbourne volcano area. Additionally, in the frame of the UK-Italian ISODYN-WISE project (2005-06), an airborne ice-sounding radar survey was flown. We combine the sub-ice topography with images and models of the interior of Mt. Melbourne volcano, as derived from the high resolution aeromagnetic data and land gravity data. Our new geophysical maps and models also provide a new tool to study the regional setting of the volcano. In particular we re-assess whether there is geophysical evidence for coupling between strike-slip faulting, the Terror Rift, and Mount Melbourne volcano.

  8. Trends and disparities in sepsis hospitalisations in Victoria, Australia.

    PubMed

    Ore, Timothy

    2015-12-14

    Objective The aim of the present study was to determine the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of patients with sepsis admitted to hospitals in Victoria, Australia, during the period 2004-14. The data include incidence, severity and mortality.Methods In all, 44 222 sepsis hospitalisations were identified between 2004-05 and 2013-14 from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset. The dataset contains clinical and demographic information on all admissions to acute public and private hospitals. Using the International Classification of Diseases (10th Revision) Australian Modification codes, incidence rates, severity of disease and mortality were calculated.Results Sepsis hospitalisation rates per 10 000 population increased significantly (P < 0.01) over the period, from 6.9 (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.6-7.8) to 10.0 (95% CI 9.1-11.1), an annual growth rate of 3.8%. The age-standardised in-hospital death rates per 100 000 population grew significantly (P < 0.01) from 9.2 (95% CI 7.8-10.4) in 2004-05 to 13.0 (95% CI 11.7-14.6) in 2013-14, an annual growth rate of 3.1%. Among people under 45 years of age, the 0-4 years age group had the highest hospitalisation rate (3.0 per 10 000 population; 95% CI 2.7-3.4). Nearly half (46.2%) of all sepsis hospitalisations were among patients born overseas, with a rate of 14.5 per 10 000 population (95% CI 12.4-16.2) in that group compared with a rate of 5.9 per 10 000 population (95% CI 5.3-6.7) for patients born in Australia. The age-standardised sepsis hospitalisation rate was 2.6-fold greater in the lowest compared with highest socioeconomic areas (12.7 per 10 000 population (95% CI 11.2-13.8) vs 4.8 per 10 000 population (95% CI 4.1-5.7), respectively).Conclusion This paper shows a significant upward trend in both sepsis separation rates and in-hospital death rates over the period; unlike sepsis, in-hospital death rates from all diagnoses fell over the same period. The results can be used to stimulate review of

  9. Differences in recovery between deep-sea hydrothermal vent and vent-proximate communities after a volcanic eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gollner, Sabine; Govenar, Breea; Arbizu, Pedro Martinez; Mills, Susan; Le Bris, Nadine; Weinbauer, Markus; Shank, Timothy M.; Bright, Monika

    2015-12-01

    Deep-sea hydrothermal vents and the surrounding basalt seafloor are subject to major natural disturbance events such as volcanic eruptions. In the near future, anthropogenic disturbance in the form of deep-sea mining could also significantly affect the faunal communities of hydrothermal vents. In this study, we monitor and compare the recovery of insular, highly productive vent communities and vent-proximate basalt communities following a volcanic eruption that destroyed almost all existing communities at the East Pacific Rise, 9°50‧N in 2006. To study the recovery patterns of the benthic communities, we placed settlement substrates at vent sites and their proximate basalt areas and measured the prokaryotic abundance and compared the meio- and macrofaunal species richness and composition at one, two and four years after the eruption. In addition, we collected samples from the overlying water column with a pelagic pump, at one and two years after the volcanic eruption, to determine the abundance of potential meiofauna colonisers. One year after eruption, mean meio- and macrofaunal abundances were not significantly different from pre-eruption values in vent habitats (meio: 8-1838 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 3-6246 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02; macro: 95-1600 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 205-4577 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2001/02) and on non-vent basalt habitats (meio: 10-1922 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 8-328 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04; macro: 14-3351 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2006; 2-63 ind. 64 cm-2 in 2003/04), but species recovery patterns differed between the two habitat types. In the vent habitat, the initial community recovery was relatively quick but incomplete four years after eruption, which may be due to the good dispersal capabilities of vent endemic macrofauna and vent endemic dirivultid copepods. At vents, 42% of the pre-eruption meio- and 39% of macrofaunal species had returned. In addition, some new species not evident prior to the eruption were found. At the tubeworm site Tica, a total of 26

  10. 1993 Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1993-12-01

    The Loads and Resources Study is presented in three documents: (1) this summary of Federal system and Pacific Northwest region loads and resources; (2) a technical appendix detailing forecasted Pacific Northwest economic trends and loads, and (3) a technical appendix detailing the loads and resources for each major Pacific Northwest generating utility. In this loads and resources study, resource availability is compared with a range of forecasted electricity consumption. The forecasted future electricity demands -- firm loads -- are subtracted from the projected capability of existing and {open_quotes}contracted for{close_quotes} resources to determine whether Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the region will be surplus or deficit. If resources are greater than loads in any particular year or month, there is a surplus of energy and/or capacity, which BPA can sell to increase revenues. Conversely, if firm loads exceed available resources, there is a deficit of energy and/or capacity, and additional conservation, contract purchases, or generating resources will be needed to meet load growth. The Pacific Northwest Loads and Resources Study analyzes the Pacific Northwest`s projected loads and available generating resources in two parts: (1) the loads and resources of the Federal system, for which BPA is the marketing agency; and (2) the larger Pacific Northwest regional power system, which includes loads and resource in addition to the Federal system. The loads and resources analysis in this study simulates the operation of the power system under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement (PNCA) produced by the Pacific Northwest Coordinating Group. This study presents the Federal system and regional analyses for five load forecasts: high, medium-high, medium, medium-low, and low. This analysis projects the yearly average energy consumption and resource availability for Operating Years (OY) 1994--95 through 2003--04.

  11. Elucidating the structural properties that influence the persistence of PCBs in humans using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset.

    PubMed

    Megson, David; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Comber, Sean; Worsfold, Paul J; Lohan, Maeve C; Edwards, Melanie R; Shields, Walter J; Sandau, Courtney D; Patterson, Donald G

    2013-09-01

    In human exposure studies involving Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs), it is useful to establish when an individual was potentially exposed. Age dating PCB exposure is complex but assessments can be made because different PCB congeners have different residence times in the human body. The less chlorinated congeners generally tend to have shorter residence times because they are biotransformed and eliminated faster than more chlorinated congeners. Therefore, the presence of high proportions of less chlorinated congeners is often indicative of recent exposure. The 2003-04 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) dataset contains results for the concentration of 37 PCBs in a sub-sample of the US population. Multivariate statistical analysis of the NHANES data showed that less chlorinated congeners are not always biotransformed faster than higher chlorinated compounds. For example, PCB 28 (a tri-chlorobiphenyl) appears to be more resistant to biotransformation than PCB 101 and 110 (penta-chlorobiphenyls). Using statistical analysis of the NHANES data in conjunction with previously published studies on PCB persistence in humans, it was possible to identify the structural relationships that determine if a PCB is likely to be from a recent exposure (termed 'episodic') or from steady state exposure. Congeners with chlorine atoms in the 2,5- and 2,3,6-positions appear to be more susceptible to biotransformation whereas congeners with chlorine bonds in the 2,3,4- 2,4,5- 3,4,5- and 2,3,4,5-positions appear to be more persistent. This work shows that future investigations to date PCB exposure would benefit from the analysis of a wide range of congeners, including the selection of key congeners based not only on the degree of chlorination but also on the positions of the chlorine atoms on the biphenyl.

  12. How does the spread of primary and secondary schooling influence the fertility transition? Evidence from rural Nepal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Simone; Hotchkiss, David R

    2014-01-01

    From 1996 to 2006, Nepal experienced a substantial fertility decline, with the total fertility rate dropping from 4.6 to 3.1 births per woman. This study examines the associations between progress towards universal primary and secondary schooling and fertility decline in rural Nepal. Several hypotheses regarding mechanisms through which education affects current fertility behaviour are tested, including: the school environment during women's childhood; current availability of schools; knowledge of educational costs; and women's own educational attainment. Data for the analysis come from the 2003-04 Nepal Living Standards Survey, a nationally representative random sample of households, which includes detailed data on fertility, household expenditure, educational attainment, demographic characteristics and the use of social services. Census and administrative data are also used to construct district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during the women's childhood. Discrete dependent variable modelling techniques are used to estimate the effects of the following variables on the probability of women giving birth in a given year: district-level gross enrolment ratios for primary and secondary schools during women's childhood; having had a child previously in school; women's own educational level; current school availability; and other covariates. Separate models are estimated for the overall sample of rural women of reproductive age, and for parity-specific sub-samples. The results suggest that district-level gross enrolment ratios for secondary schools and, in some instances, having had a previous child enrolled in school are significant determinants of fertility in rural areas. These results are highly independent of women's own educational levels. Overall, the results suggest that, in the rural Nepal context, mass schooling influences the fertility transition through both community- and household-level pathways.

  13. Plutonium and 137Cs in surface water of the South Pacific Ocean.

    PubMed

    Hirose, K; Aoyama, M; Fukasawa, M; Kim, C S; Komura, K; Povinec, P P; Sanchez-Cabeza, J A

    2007-08-01

    The present plutonium and 137Cs concentrations in South Pacific Ocean surface waters were determined. The water samples were collected in the South Pacific mid-latitude region (32.5 degrees S) during the BEAGLE expedition conducted in 2003-04 by JAMSTEC. 239,240Pu concentrations in surface seawater of the South Pacific were in the range of 0.5 to 4.1 mBq m(-3), whereas 137Cs concentrations ranged from 0.07 to 1.7 Bq m(-3). The observed 239,240Pu and 137Cs concentrations in the South Pacific were almost of the same level as those in the North Pacific subtropical gyre. The surface 239,240Pu in the South Pacific subtropical gyre showed larger spatial variations than 137Cs, as it may be affected by physical and biogeochemical processes. The 239,240Pu/137Cs activity ratios, which reflect biogeochemical processes in seawater, were generally smaller than that observed in global fallout, except for the most eastern station. The 239,240Pu/137Cs ratios in the South Pacific tend to be higher than that in the North Pacific. The relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters such as salinity and nutrients were examined. The 137Cs concentrations in the western South Pacific (the Tasman Sea) and the eastern South Pacific were negatively correlated with the phosphate concentration, whereas there is no correlation between the 137Cs and nutrients concentrations in the South Pacific subtropical gyre. The mutual relationships between anthropogenic radionuclides and oceanographic parameters are important for better understanding of transport processes of anthropogenic radionuclides and their fate in the South Pacific.

  14. Ephedra Use in a Select Group of Adolescent Athletes

    PubMed Central

    P. Schaefer, Michael; Smith, Jay; L. Dahm, Diane; C. Sorenson, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Ephedra-containing dietary supplements are consumed to improve sports performace, but may carry risks of cardiac and neurological adverse events. Little is known of their use by young athletes. Our aim was to determine the prevalence and patterns of ephedra use among high school athletes. An anonymous survey was performed in Rochester, Minnesota on high school athletes who participated in fall sports during 2003-04. Parental consent was obtained for athletes under age 18 years. Surveys were distributed at preparticipation examinations and in- school survey stations. The response rate to the survey was 68.2%, or 311 respondents out of a possible 456 with consent (or 26% of all 1197 athletes eligible prior to the consent process). Seven of 311 (2.3%) respondents used dietary supplements containing ephedra. Only one of seven users (14.3%) knew that the supplements they used contained ephedra. Ephedra use was more common in boys (five) than girls (two). Ephedra use was only found in 17 and 18-year-olds. The most common sports among ephedra users were football, track and field, and weightlifting. This study suggests that Ephedra use was infrequent among the young athletes in this population. However, ephedra users were generally unaware that the dietary supplements they consumed contained ephedra. Users were more likely to participate in football, track and field, and weightlifting. Ephedra users were likely to obtain supplements from their peers, and were largely uninformed of the content of their supplements. Key Points Ephedra is an herbal stimulant used as an ergogenic aide. Adolescent ephedra users most commonly obtain it from their friends. Adolescent athletes are likely to take ephedra unknowningly. PMID:24353458

  15. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken J

    2005-01-12

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) grew by 8% in 2003-04; a slower rate than the 12.0% pa average growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, the sustainability of the Scheme remained an ongoing concern given an aging population and the continued introduction of useful (but increasingly expensive) new medicines. There was also concern that the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement could place further pressure on the Scheme. In 2003, as in 2002, the government proposed a 27% increase in PBS patient co-payments and safety-net thresholds in order to transfer more of the cost of the PBS from the government to consumers. While this measure was initially blocked by the Senate, the forthcoming election resulted in the Labor Party eventually supporting this policy. Recommendations of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to list, not list or defer a decision to list a medicine on the PBS were made publicly available for the first time and the full cost of PBS medicines appeared on medicine labels if the price was greater than the co-payment. Pharmaceutical reform in Victorian public hospitals designed to minimise PBS cost-shifting was evaluated and extended to other States and Territories. Programs promoting the quality use of medicines were further developed coordinated by the National Prescribing Service, Australian Divisions of General Practice and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The extensive uptake of computerised prescribing software by GPs produced benefits but also problems. The latter included pharmaceutical promotion occurring at the time of prescribing, failure to incorporate key sources of objective therapeutic information in the software and gross variation in the ability of various programs to detect important drug-drug interactions. These issues remain to be tackled.

  16. Analysis of industry-generated data. Part 2: Risk-based sampling plan for efficient self-control of aflatoxin M₁ contamination in raw milk.

    PubMed

    Farkas, Zsuzsa; Trevisani, Marcello; Horváth, Zsuzsanna; Serraino, Andrea; Szabó, István J; Kerekes, Kata; Szeitzné-Szabó, Mária; Ambrus, Arpád

    2014-01-01

    Aflatoxin M₁ (AFM1) contamination in 21,969 milk samples taken in Italy during 2005-08 and 2010 provided the basis for designing an early warning self-control plan. Additionally, 4148 AFM1 data points from the mycotoxin crisis (2003-04) represented the worst case. No parametric function provided a good fit for the skewed and scattered AFM1 concentrations. The acceptable reference values, reflecting the combined uncertainty of AFM1 measured in consignments consisting of milk from one to six farms, ranged from 40 to 16.7 ng kg(-1), respectively. Asymmetric control charts with these reference values, 40 and 50 ng kg(-1) warning and action limits are recommended to assess immediately the distribution of AFM1 concentration in incoming consignments. The moving window method, presented as a worked example including 5 days with five samples/day, enabled verification of compliance of production with the legal limit in 98% of the consignments at a 94% probability level. The sampling plan developed assumes consecutive analyses of samples taken from individual farms, which makes early detection of contamination possible and also immediate corrective actions if the AFM1 concentration in a consignment exceeds the reference value. In the latter case different control plans with increased sampling frequency should be applied depending on the level and frequency of contamination. As aflatoxin B₁ increases in feed at about the same time, therefore a coordinated sampling programme performed by the milk processing plants operating in a confined geographic area is more effective and economical then the individual ones. The applicability of the sample size calculation based on binomial theorem and the fast response rate resulting from the recommended sampling plan were verified by taking 1000-10,000 random samples with replacement from the experimental databases representing the normal, moderately and highly contaminated periods. The efficiency of the control plan could be

  17. Elevation change (2000-2004) on the Malaspina Glacier, Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sauber, J.; Molnia, B.; Carabajal, C.; Luthcke, S.; Muskett, R.

    2005-01-01

    The glaciers of the southeastern Alaska coastal region are the largest temperate glacier meltwater source on Earth and may contribute one third of the total glacier meltwater entering the global ocean. Since melt onset and refreeeze timing in this region show a tendency toward earlier onset and longer ablation seasons, accelerated glacier wastage may be occurring. In this study we focus on one of the largest temperate glacier systems on Earth, the Malaspina Glacier. This glacier, with a length of approximately 110 km and an area of approximately square 5,000 km, has the largest piedmont lobe of any temperate glacier. The entire lobe, which lies at elevations below 600 m, is within the ablation zone. We report and interpret ice elevation change between a digital elevation model (DEM) derived from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM C band) observations in Feb. 2000 and ICESat Laser 1-3 observations between Feb. 2003 and Nov. 2004. We use these elevation change results, along with earlier studies, to address the spatial and temporal variability in wastage of the piedmont lobe. Between 2000 and 2004 ice elevation changes of 10-30 meters occurred across the central Malaspina piedmont lobe. From 1972/73 (USGS DEM) to 1999 (SRTM corrected for estimated winter snow accumulation) Malaspina's (Agassiz, Seward Lobe, and Marvine) mean ice thinning was estimated at -47 m with maximum thinning on parts of the lobes to -160 m. The Malaspina's accumulation area is only slightly larger than its ablation area (2,575 km2 vs. 2,433 km2); unfortunately few glaciological observations are available from this source region. Snow accumulation rates have been largely inferred from low-altitude precipitation and temperature data. Comparing sequential ICESat observations in the Malaspina source region, we estimated short-term elevation increases of up to 5 meters during the winter of 2003/04.

  18. Interannual-to-Decadal Variability in the Bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current off the Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, B.; Chen, S.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite altimeter sea surface height (SSH) data from the past 17 years are used to investigate the interannual-to-decadal changes in the bifurcation of the North Equatorial Current (NEC) along the Philippine coast. The NEC bifurcation latitude migrated quasi-decadally between 10N and 15N with northerly bifurcations observed in late 1992, 1997-98 and 2003-04, and southerly bifurcations in 1999-2000 and 2008-09. The observed NEC bifurcation latitude can be approximated well by the SSH anomalies in the 12-14N and 127-130E box east of the mean NEC bifurcation point. Using a 1.5-layer reduced-gravity model forced by the ECMWF reanalysis wind stress data, we find that the SSH anomalies in this box can be simulated favorably to serve as a proxy for the observed NEC bifurcation. With the availability of the long-term reanalysis wind stress data, this allows us to lengthen the NEC bifurcation time series back to 1962. Although quasi-decadal variability was prominent in the last two decades, the NEC bifurcation was dominated by changes with a 3~5-yr period during the 1980s and had low variance prior to the 1970s. These inter-decadal modulations in the characteristics of the NEC bifurcation reflect similar inter-decadal modulations in the wind forcing field over the western tropical North Pacific Ocean. Although the NEC bifurcation on the interannual and longer timescales is in general related to the Nino-3.4 index with a positive (negative) index corresponding to a northerly (southerly) bifurcation, the exact location of bifurcation is determined by wind forcing in the 12-14N band that contains variability not fully representable by the Nino-3.4 index.

  19. Models for predicting recreational water quality at Lake Erie beaches

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Darner, Robert A.; Bertke, Erin E.

    2006-01-01

    Data collected from four Lake Erie beaches during the recreational seasons of 2004-05 and from one Lake Erie beach during 2000-2005 were used to develop predictive models for recreational water quality by means of multiple linear regression. The best model for each beach was based on a unique combination of environmental and water-quality explanatory variables including turbidity, rainfall, wave height, water temperature, day of the year, wind direction, and lake level. Two types of outputs were produced from the models: the predicted Escherichia coli concentration and the probability that the bathing-water standard will be exceeded. The model for one of beaches, Huntington Reservation (Huntington), was validated in 2005. For 2005, the Huntington model yielded more correct responses and better predicted exceedance of the standard than did current methods for assessing recreational water quality, which are based on the previous day's E. coli concentration. Predictions based on the Huntington model have been available to the public through an Internet-based 'nowcasting' system since May 30, 2006. The other beach models are being validated for the first time in 2006. The methods used in this study to develop and test predictive models can be applied at other similar coastal beaches.

  20. A systematic review of lifestyle counseling for diverse patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Melvin, Cathy L; Jefferson, Melanie S; Rice, LaShanta J; Nemeth, Lynne S; Wessell, Andrea M; Nietert, Paul J; Hughes-Halbert, Chanita

    2017-03-23

    Prior research and systematic reviews have examined strategies related to weight management, less is known about lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions optimally suited for implementation in primary care practices generally, and among racial and ethnic patient populations. Primary care practitioners may find it difficult to access and use available research findings on effective behavioral and lifestyle counseling strategies and to assess their effects health behaviors among their patients. This systematic review compiled existing evidence from randomized trials to inform primary care providers about which lifestyle and behavioral change interventions are shown to be effective for changing patients' diet, physical activity and weight outcomes. Searches identified 444 abstracts from all sources (01/01/2004-05/15/2014). Duplicate abstracts were removed, selection criteria applied and dual abstractions conducted for 106 full text articles. As of June 12, 2015, 29 articles were retained for inclusion in the body of evidence. Randomized trials tested heterogeneous multi-component behavioral interventions for an equally wide array of outcomes in three population groups: diverse patient populations (23 studies), African American patients only (4 studies), and Hispanic/Mexican American/Latino patients only (2 studies). Significant and consistent findings among diverse populations showed that weight and physical activity related outcomes were more amenable to change via lifestyle and behavioral counseling interventions than those associated with diet modification. Evidence to support specific interventions for racial and ethnic minorities was promising, but insufficient based on the small number of studies.

  1. Opportunity costs associated with caring for older Mexican-Americans

    PubMed Central

    Brown, H. Shelton; Herrera, Angelica P.; Angel, Jacqueline L.

    2013-01-01

    Long-term care use among older Mexican-Americans is poorly understood, despite the adverse effects on health and economic disadvantage in this vulnerable population. This study examines gender-based risk of long-term care use in 628 women and 391 men, age 70 and over in the 2000-01 and 2004-05 waves of the Hispanic Established Populations for Epidemiologic Studies of the Elderly. Logistic regression models are employed to assess the impact of the opportunity cost implications of family support (kin availability and co-residence) relative to health care needs (quality-adjusted life years (QALY) weighted scores and functional limitations) on women's risk of entry into a nursing home. A small percentage (∼5%) of men and women had entered a long-term care facility. Women had lower weights for QALY weights and greater disability than men, but on average were more likely to live with or in closer proximity to an adult child. Higher disability rates (p < .01) increased the risk of institutionalization regardless of gender because disability increases time burdens. Families with fewer adult children faced higher time burdens per child in caring for elderly parents; particularly for elderly mothers. Demographic trends suggest that the number of adult children available to share the caregiving load may decrease long-term care use. PMID:23979263

  2. Hidden Variables and Placebo Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goradia, Shantilal

    2006-03-01

    God's response to prayers and placebo leads to a question. How does He respond deterministically? He may be controlling at least one of the two variables of the uncertainty principle by extending His invisible soul to each body particle locally. Amazingly, many Vedic verses support this answer. One describes the size of the soul as arithmetically matching the size of the nucleons as if a particle is a soul. One gives a name meaning particle soul (anu-atma), consistent with particle's indeterministic behavior like that of (soulful) bird’s flying in any directions irrespective of the direction of throw. One describes souls as eternal consistent with the conservation of baryon number. One links the souls to the omnipresent (param- atma) like Einstein Rosen bridges link particles to normal spacetime. One claims eternal coexistence of matter and soul as is inflationary universe in physics/0210040 V2. The implicit scientific consistency of such verses makes the relationship of particle source of consciousness to the omnipresent Supreme analogous to the relationship of quantum source of gravitons in my gr-qc/0507130 to normal spacetime This frees us from the postulation of quantum wormholes and quantum foam. Dr. Hooft's view in ``Does God play dice,'' Physicsword, Dec 2005 seems consistent with my progressive conference presentations in Russia, Europe, India, and USA (Hindu University) in 2004/05. I see implications for nanoscience.

  3. Extending health insurance to the poor in India: An impact evaluation of Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana on out of pocket spending for healthcare.

    PubMed

    Karan, Anup; Yip, Winnie; Mahal, Ajay

    2017-03-27

    India launched the 'Rashtriya Swasthya Bima Yojana' (RSBY) health insurance scheme for the poor in 2008. Utilising 3 waves (1999-2000, 2004-05 and 2011-12) of household level data from nationally representative surveys of the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) (N = 346,615) and district level RSBY administrative data on enrolment, we estimated causal effects of RSBY on out-of-pocket expenditure. Using 'difference-in-differences' methods on households in matched districts we find that RSBY did not affect the likelihood of inpatient out-of-pocket spending, the level of inpatient out of pocket spending or catastrophic inpatient spending. We also do not find any statistically significant effect of RSBY on the level of outpatient out-of-pocket expenditure and the probability of incurring outpatient expenditure. In contrast, the likelihood of incurring any out of pocket spending (inpatient and outpatient) rose by 30% due to RSBY and was statistically significant. Although out of pocket spending levels did not change, RSBY raised household non-medical spending by 5%. Overall, the results suggest that RSBY has been ineffective in reducing the burden of out-of-pocket spending on poor households.

  4. Neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) at Sandy Bay, Enderby Island, Auckland Islands from 1998 to 2005.

    PubMed

    Castinel, A; Duignan, P J; Pomroy, W E; López-Villalobos, N; Gibbs, N J; Chilvers, B L; Wilkinson, I S

    2007-07-01

    As part of a health survey of New Zealand sea lions (Phocarctos hookeri) on Enderby Island, Auckland Islands (50 degrees 30'S, 166 degrees 17'E), neonatal mortality was closely monitored at the Sandy Bay colony for seven consecutive years. Throughout the breeding seasons 1998-99 to 2004-05, more than 400 postmortem examinations were performed on pups found dead at this site. The primary causes of death were categorized as trauma (35%), bacterial infections (24%), hookworm infection (13%), starvation (13%), and stillbirth (4%). For most pups, more than one diagnosis was recorded. Every year, two distinct peaks of trauma were observed: the first associated with mature bulls fighting within the harem and the second with subadult males abducting pups. In 2001-02 and 2002-03, epidemics caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae increased mortality by three times the mean in nonepidemic years (10.2%). The increased mortality was attributed directly to acute suppurative infection due to the bacterium and also to an increase in traumatic deaths of debilitated pups. Parasitic infection with the hookworm Uncinaria spp. was a common finding in all pups older than three weeks of age and debilitation by the parasite may have contributed to increased susceptibility to other pathogens such as Klebsiella sp. or Salmonella sp. This study provides valuable quantitative data on the natural causes of neonatal mortality in New Zealand sea lions that can be used in demographic models for management of threatened species.

  5. Estimation of temporal changes in oxidation rates of sulphides in copper mine tailings at Laver, Northern Sweden.

    PubMed

    Alakangas, Lena; Ohlander, Björn; Lundberg, Angela

    2010-02-15

    Tailings containing pyrrhotite were deposited in an impoundment at a copper mine at Laver, Northern Sweden, which operated between 1936 and 1946. Since then the oxidation of sulphides has acidified recipient water courses and contaminated them with metals. Measurements from surface water sampled in 1993, 2001 and 2004-05 from a brook into which the tailing impoundment drains indicate that the amounts of sulphide-associated elements such as Cu, S and Zn released into the brook have decreased over time, while pH has increased. The mass transport of S in the brook during 1993 and 2001 corresponded well with the amount of S estimated to be released from the tailings by oxidation. Secondary precipitates such as covellite and gypsum, which can trap sulphur, were shown in earlier studies to be present in only low amounts. The annual release of elements from the tailings was estimated from the volume of tailings assumed to oxidise each year, which depends on movement of the oxidation front with time. The results indicate that the oxidation rate in the tailings has decreased over time, which may be due to the increased distance over which oxygen needs to diffuse to reach unoxidised sulphide grains, or their cores, in the tailings.

  6. Energy demand and environmental implications in urban transport — Case of Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bose, Ranjan Kumar

    A simple model of passenger transport in the city of Delhi has been developed using a computer-based software called—Long Range Energy Alternatives Planning (LEAP) and the associated Environmental Database (EDB) model. The hierarchical structure of LEAP represents the traffic patterns in terms of passenger travel demand, mode (rail/road), type of vehicle and occupancy (persons per vehicle). Transport database in Delhi together with fuel consumption values for the vehicle types, formed the basis of the transport demand and energy consumption calculations. Emission factors corresponding to the actual vehicle types and driving conditions in Delhi is introduced into the EDB and linked to the energy consumption values for estimating total emission of CO, HC, NO x, SO 2 Pb and TSP. The LEAP model is used to estimate total energy demand and the vehicular emissions for the base year-1990/91 and extrapolate for the future—1994/95, 2000/01, 2004/05 and 2009/10, respectively. The model is run under five alternative scenarios to study the impact of different urban transport policy initiatives that would reduce total energy requirement in the transport sector of Delhi and also reduce emission. The prime objective is to arrive at an optimal transport policy which limits the future growth of fuel consumption as well as air pollution.

  7. Individual and institutional push and pull factors as predictors of retirement timing in Europe: A multilevel analysis.

    PubMed

    De Preter, Hanne; Van Looy, Dorien; Mortelmans, Dimitri

    2013-12-01

    The number of retired people in Europe has increased significantly in recent decades. It remains unclear, however, whether individuals are more likely to be pulled toward retirement by their expectations about life after retirement than they are to be pushed out of the labour market due to poor health or dislike of one's job. The fact that retirement timing differs rather considerably between European countries suggests that not only micro, but also macro push (i.e. labour market constraints) and pull (i.e. economic incentives) factors influence retirement decisions. This duality heightens the need to determine the influence of micro-level and macro-level push and pull indicators on the retirement timing of older workers (50+) in Europe. Results are obtained performing multilevel event history analysis using longitudinal micro data from the first (2004/05) and second (2006/07) waves of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and macro data derived from the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) and Eurostat. The results indicate that at the individual level, older workers are pushed out due to health problems as well as being attracted towards retirement to spend time with their grandchildren. At the institutional level, financial incentives such as a high implicit tax on continued work and high expenditures on early exit schemes make retirement attractive, whereas the institutional push context is of lesser importance.

  8. Evidence-based practice in school substance use prevention: fidelity of implementation under real-world conditions.

    PubMed

    Ennett, S T; Haws, S; Ringwalt, C L; Vincus, A A; Hanley, S; Bowling, J M; Rohrbach, L A

    2011-04-01

    Fidelity of program implementation under real-world conditions is a critical issue in the dissemination of evidence-based school substance use prevention curricula. Program effects are diminished when programs are implemented with poor fidelity. We assessed five domains of fidelity--adherence, exposure (dosage), quality of delivery, participant responsiveness and program differentiation (lack of contamination from other programs)--in a subset of respondents (N = 342) from a national random sample of public schools with middle school grades (N = 1721). Respondents taught 1 of 10 evidence-based universal substance use prevention programs as their primary program during the 2004-05 school year. Their responses to survey questions about their recent implementation practices indicated that fidelity was high for quality of delivery and participant responsiveness, low for program differentiation and modest for adherence and exposure--the two core domains of fidelity. Results suggest the need for continued emphasis on fidelity in program materials, trainings and on-going technical support. Particular attention should be paid to supporting use of interactive delivery strategies.

  9. No exodus: physicians and managed care networks.

    PubMed

    O'Malley, Ann S; Reschovsky, James D

    2006-05-01

    After remaining stable since 1996-97, the percentage of U.S. physicians who do not contract with managed care plans rose from 9.2 percent in 2000-01 to 11.5 percent in 2004-05, according to a national study from the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). While physicians have not left managed care networks in large numbers, this small but statistically significant increase could signal a trend toward greater out-of-pocket costs for patients and a decline in patient access to physicians. The increase in physicians without managed care contracts was broad-based across specialties and other physician and practice characteristics. Compared with physicians who have one or more managed care contracts, physicians without managed care contracts are more likely to have practiced for more than 20 years, work part time, lack board certification, practice solo or in two-physician groups, and live in the western United States. The study also found substantial variation in the proportion of physicians without managed care contracts across communities, suggesting that local market conditions influence decisions to contract with managed care plans.

  10. Negotiating ethno-cultural identity: the experience of Greek and Jewish youth in Halifax.

    PubMed

    Byers, Michele; Tastsoglou, Evangelia

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the lived experiences of young people growing up Greek Canadian and Jewish Canadian in Halifax, Nova Scotia. It is based on data collected in a pilot study conducted with second-generation Greek and second-, third-, and fourth-generation Jewish youth in Halifax in 2004-05. Most of the existing research on the second generation and beyond lumps together the experiences of different ethnocultural groups. Perhaps even more importantly, the existing research tends to focus almost exclusively on the second- (or third- or fourth-) generation's experiences in major urban centres. In this paper we forge new paths by exploring the experiences of ethnic youth in a smaller Canadian urban centre within a region with low concentrations of immigrant populations and ethnic groups. We thus argue for the importance and effects of the specific place of settlement on ethno-cultural identity. Family and community expectations, relations, and practices, and negotiating family and community norms within the context of the institutional norms and practices in the areas of education, employment, gender, and family relations within the broader frame of Canadian society are highlighted. A comparative analysis between the two groups is adopted throughout.

  11. Bioindicators in the MIDUS National Study: Protocol, Measures, Sample, and Comparative Context

    PubMed Central

    Love, Gayle Dienberg; Seeman, Teresa E.; Weinstein, Maxine; Ryff, Carol D.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives MIDUS is a national study of health and aging among individuals aged 25 to 74 at baseline(1995/96). Longitudinal survey assessments (2004/05), were followed by biological assessments on a subsample aged 35–85. To facilitate public use, we describe the protocol, measures, and sample. Methods Respondents traveled to clinics for a two-day data collection protocol that included fasting blood specimens, 12-hour urine specimen, medical history, physical exam, bone densitometry, a laboratory challenge (heart rate variability, blood pressure, respiration, salivary cortisol). Results Response rates for the biological protocol (N = 1,255) were 39.3%, or 43.1% (adjusting for those who could not be located or contacted). Reasons for non-participation were travel, family obligations, and being too busy. Respondents were comparable to the recruitment pool on most demographic characteristics and health assessments. Discussion Strengths of the protocol vis-à-vis other similar studies include opportunities to link biological factors with diverse content from other MIDUS projects. PMID:20876364

  12. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM1-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  13. CERES Monthly TOA and SRB Averages (SRBAVG) data in HDF-EOS Grid (CER_SRBAVG_Terra-FM2-MODIS_Edition2D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wielicki, Bruce A. (Principal Investigator)

    The Monthly TOA/Surface Averages (SRBAVG) product contains a month of space and time averaged Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) data for a single scanner instrument. The SRBAVG is also produced for combinations of scanner instruments. The monthly average regional flux is estimated using diurnal models and the 1-degree regional fluxes at the hour of observation from the CERES SFC product. A second set of monthly average fluxes are estimated using concurrent diurnal information from geostationary satellites. These fluxes are given for both clear-sky and total-sky scenes and are spatially averaged from 1-degree regions to 1-degree zonal averages and a global average. For each region, the SRBAVG also contains hourly average fluxes for the month and an overall monthly average. The cloud properties from SFC are column averaged and are included on the SRBAVG. [Location=GLOBAL] [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1998-02-01; Stop_Date=2004-05-31] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180] [Data_Resolution: Latitude_Resolution=1 degree; Longitude_Resolution=1 degree; Horizontal_Resolution_Range=100 km - < 250 km or approximately 1 degree - < 2.5 degrees; Temporal_Resolution=1 month; Temporal_Resolution_Range=Monthly - < Annual].

  14. Lagrangian Simulations of polar ozone loss: from box model to 3-d CTM CLaMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grooss, J.; Konopka, P.; Gunther, G.; Walter, R.; Müller, R.

    2005-12-01

    Since the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985, simulations of polar ozone loss improved persistently over the years. Especially using the Lagrangian view in which chemical processes are simulated for air parcels that move in location has been demonstrated to be a successful method. We describe the development of Lagrangian simulations of polar ozone loss starting with chemical box model simulations along particular trajectories up to the 3-dimensional version of the Chemical Lagrangian Model of the Stratosphere (CLaMS). Besides chemistry and Lagrangian advection CLaMS contains sophisticated modules for mixing and denitrification. We show CLaMS simulations for the Arctic winters 2002/03, 2004/05 and for the Antarctic winter 2003. The focus will be on chemical ozone loss and denitrification. The processes involved in denitrification, especially the nucleation of NAT particles are not fully understood. From comparisons of the simulated denitrification with observations we conclude that the sensitivity of denitrification on key assumptions is largest at the time of onset of the denitrification. Further we show that besides possible inconsistencies in the ozone loss rates in early winter the ozone depletion over the winter is simulated in agreement with the observations. Overall, CLaMS simulations reproduce the inhomogeneity of chemical ozone loss within the polar vortex well.

  15. An Earthquake Prediction System Using The Time Series Analyses of Earthquake Property And Crust Motion

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, Fumihide; Takeo, Makoto

    2004-12-09

    We have developed a short-term deterministic earthquake (EQ) forecasting system similar to those used for Typhoons and Hurricanes, which has been under a test operation at website http://www.tec21.jp/ since June of 2003. We use the focus and crust displacement data recently opened to the public by Japanese seismograph and global positioning system (GPS) networks, respectively. Our system divides the forecasting area into the five regional areas of Japan, each of which is about 5 deg. by 5 deg. We have found that it can forecast the focus, date of occurrence and magnitude (M) of an impending EQ (whose M is larger than about 6), all within narrow limits. We have two examples to describe the system. One is the 2003/09/26 EQ of M 8 in the Hokkaido area, which is of hindsight. Another is a successful rollout of the most recent forecast on the 2004/05/30 EQ of M 6.7 off coast of the southern Kanto (Tokyo) area.

  16. Measurement and simulation of evapotranspiration at a wetland site in the New Jersey Pinelands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, David M.; Nicholson, Robert S.; Clark, Kenneth L.

    2012-01-01

    Evapotranspiration (ET) was monitored above a wetland forest canopy dominated by pitch-pine in the New Jersey Pinelands during November 10, 2004-February 20, 2007, using an eddy-covariance method. Twelve-month ET totals ranged from 786 to 821 millimeters (mm). Minimum and maximum ET rates occurred during December-February and in July, respectively. Relations between ET and several environmental variables (incoming solar radiation, air temperature, relative humidity, soil moisture, and net radiation) were explored. Net radiation (r = 0.72) and air temperature (r = 0.73) were the dominant explanatory variables for daily ET. Air temperature was the dominant control on evaporative fraction with relatively more radiant energy used for ET at higher temperatures. Soil moisture was shown to limit ET during extended dry periods. With volumetric soil moisture below a threshold of about 0.15, the evaporative fraction decreased until rain ended the dry period, and the evaporative fraction sharply recovered. A modified Hargreaves ET model, requiring only easily obtainable daily temperature data, was shown to be effective at simulating measured ET values and has the potential for estimating historical or real-time ET at the wetland site. The average annual ET measured at the wetland site during 2005-06 (801 mm/yr) is about 32 percent higher than previously reported ET for three nearby upland sites during 2005-09. Periodic disturbance by fire and insect defoliation at the upland sites reduced ET. When only undisturbed periods were considered, the wetland ET was 17 percent higher than the undisturbed upland ET. Interannual variability in wetlands ET may be lower than that of uplands ET because the upland stands are more susceptible to periodic drought conditions, disturbance by fire, and insect defoliation. Precipitation during the study period at the nearby Indian Mills weather station was slightly higher than the long-term (1902-2011) annual mean of 1,173 millimeters (mm), with

  17. Racial/ethnic and gender differences in the association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation in the CARDIA cohort of 4 US communities.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Timothy J; Seeman, Teresa E; Kawachi, Ichiro; Gortmaker, Steven L; Jacobs, David R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Berkman, Lisa F

    2012-09-01

    Inflammation is etiologically implicated in cardiometabolic diseases for which there are known racial/ethnic disparities. Prior studies suggest there may be an association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and inflammation, particularly C-reactive protein (CRP). It is not known whether that association is influenced by race/ethnicity and gender. In separate hierarchical linear models with time-varying covariates, we examined that association among 901 Black women, 614 Black men, 958 White women, and 863 White men in the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study in four US communities. Self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination were ascertained in 1992-93 and 2000-01. Inflammation was measured as log-transformed CRP in those years and 2005-06. All analyses were adjusted for blood pressure, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), age, education, and community. Our findings extend prior research by suggesting that, broadly speaking, self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination are associated with inflammation; however, this association is complex and varies for Black and White women and men. Black women reporting 1 or 2 experiences of discrimination had higher levels of CRP compared to Black women reporting no experiences of discrimination (β = 0.141, SE = 0.062, P < 0.05). This association was not statistically significant among Black women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination and not independent of modifiable risks (smoking and obesity) in the final model. White women reporting 3 or more experiences of discrimination had significantly higher levels of CRP compared to White women reporting no experiences of discrimination independent of modifiable risks in the final model (β = 0.300, SE = 0.113, P < 0.01). The association between self-reported experiences of racial/ethnic discrimination and CRP was not

  18. The influence of air temperature inversions on snowmelt and glacier mass-balance simulations, Ammassalik island, SE Greenland

    SciTech Connect

    Mernild, Sebastian Haugard; Liston, Glen

    2009-01-01

    In many applications, a realistic description of air temperature inversions is essential for accurate snow and glacier ice melt, and glacier mass-balance simulations. A physically based snow-evolution modeling system (SnowModel) was used to simulate eight years (1998/99 to 2005/06) of snow accumulation and snow and glacier ice ablation from numerous small coastal marginal glaciers on the SW-part of Ammassalik Island in SE Greenland. These glaciers are regularly influenced by inversions and sea breezes associated with the adjacent relatively low temperature and frequently ice-choked fjords and ocean. To account for the influence of these inversions on the spatiotemporal variation of air temperature and snow and glacier melt rates, temperature inversion routines were added to MircoMet, the meteorological distribution sub-model used in SnowModel. The inversions were observed and modeled to occur during 84% of the simulation period. Modeled inversions were defined not to occur during days with strong winds and high precipitation rates due to the potential of inversion break-up. Field observations showed inversions to extend from sea level to approximately 300 m a.s.l., and this inversion level was prescribed in the model simulations. Simulations with and without the inversion routines were compared. The inversion model produced air temperature distributions with warmer lower elevation areas and cooler higher elevation areas than without inversion routines due to the use of cold sea-breeze base temperature data from underneath the inversion. This yielded an up to 2 weeks earlier snowmelt in the lower areas and up to 1 to 3 weeks later snowmelt in the higher elevation areas of the simulation domain. Averaged mean annual modeled surface mass-balance for all glaciers (mainly located above the inversion layer) was -720 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} for inversion simulations, and -880 {+-} 620 mm w.eq. y{sup -1} without the inversion routines, a difference of 160 mm w.eq. y

  19. Impact of sublimation losses in the mass balance of glaciers in semi-arid mountain regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayala, Alvaro; Pellicciotti, Francesca; Burlando, Paolo; MacDonell, Shelley; McPhee, James

    2016-04-01

    Glaciers in semiarid mountain regions may lose an important part of their winter snow accumulation through sublimation processes that are enhanced by the high-elevation, intense radiation and dry atmosphere of these environments. As glaciers in these regions secure freshwater resources to lower valleys during summer and drought periods, it is important to advance in a detailed quantification of their sublimation losses. However, logistical concerns and complex meteorological features make the measuring and modelling of glacier mass balances a difficult task. In this study, we estimated the spring-summer mass balances of Tapado and Juncal Norte glaciers in the semiarid Andes of north-central Chile by running a distributed energy balance model that accounts for melt, refreezing and sublimation from the surface and blowing snow. Meteorological input data were available from on-glacier Automatic Weather Stations (AWS) that were installed during the ablation season of years 2005-06, 2008-09, 2013-14 and 2014-15. Snow pits, ablation stakes and a time-lapse camera that provided surface albedo were also available. Distributed air temperature and wind speed were dynamically downscaled from NASA MERRA reanalysis using the software WINDSIM and validated against the data from the AWSs. The rest of the meteorological variables were distributed using statistical relations with air temperature derived from the AWSs data. Initial snow conditions were estimated using satellite images and distributed manual snow depth measurements. Preliminary results show that total ablation diminishes with elevation and that, during the early ablation season (October-November), melt is the main ablation component below 4500 m with sublimation dominating the ablation above this elevation. Above 4500 m an important fraction of meltwater refreezes during night. As the ablation season advances (December-February), melt extends to higher elevations, refreezing plays a smaller role and sublimation is

  20. Axial Magma System Geometry beneath a Fast-Spreading Mid-Ocean Ridge: Insight from Three-Dimensional Seismic Reflection Imaging on the East Pacific Rise 9º42' to 9º57'N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carton, H. D.; Carbotte, S. M.; Mutter, J. C.; Canales, J. P.; Nedimovic, M. R.

    2014-12-01

    The fast-spreading East Pacific Rise at the 9º50'N Ridge 2000 Integrated Study Site was the focus of the first academic 3D, multi-source, multi-streamer seismic survey, carried out aboard R/V Langseth in summer 2008. The main area of 3D coverage extends from 9º42-57'N, spanning the seafloor extent of two documented volcanic eruptions. There, the 3D geometry of the mid-crustal axial magma lens (AML), located ~1.5 km below the seafloor, was initially investigated using a best 1D stacking velocity function hung from the seafloor and two-pass post-stack time migration. Preliminary results suggested a relatively narrow (~0.5-1.8 km wide) AML showing fingering and overlap of individual magma bodies, particularly in association with several small-scale ridge-axis discontinuities identified from seafloor morphology and structure of the axial summit trough. A westward-dipping limb of the AML was imaged near 9º51'N, where the AML attains its largest width. From 9º53-56'N, the AML was seen to veer slightly westward, in accordance with a shift in orientation of the ridge. Sub-axial magma lenses (SAMLs) have been recently imaged between 9º20' and 9º56'N on along-axis reflection profiles from the same survey, with the suggestion that these deeper lenses may have contributed melts to the 2005/06 eruption. In the cross-axis dataset, SAML events are observed down to ~600-700 ms (~1.7-2 km) below the AML. They sometimes appear slightly offset with respect to the center of the AML. They are generally less bright than the AML reflection, some of them display prominent diffraction tails on un-migrated sections, and the deeper events have a distinctly lower frequency content than the shallower ones. New images for the 9º42-57'N area are currently being generated from a suite of detailed stacking velocities for the AML and SAML events and 3D post-stack time migration, which will provide insight into the width and along-axis continuity of individual magma bodies at multiple levels