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Sample records for 2003-2004 ubaye seismic

  1. Overpressured fluid imaging from focal mechanisms during the 2003-2004 Ubaye seismic swarm (Southern-Alps, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leclère, H.; Daniel, G.; Fabbri, O.; Cappa, F.

    2012-04-01

    The development of fluid pressure is thought to play a major role in earthquake triggering and in fault reactivation (Nur & Booker, 1972; Sibson, 1985; Miller et al., 2004; Hainzl et al., 2006; Cappa et al., 2009; Terakawa et al., 2010) In this study, we present an analysis of the potential key role of fluid pressure on the triggering of the 2003-2004 Ubaye (France) seismic swarm. Our aim is to provide a better understanding of fluid pressure build-up along fault zones and its influence on earthquake triggering. More than 16,000 microseismic events were detected during the Ubaye swarm. This swarm occurred over an area located between the Argentera-Mercantour and the Pelvoux crystalline massifs, below the Embrunais-Ubaye nappes (Jenatton et al., 2007). Hypocentral depths were comprised between 3 and 8 km and the spatial distribution of hypocenters was parallel to the azimuth of major regional NW-SE faults. This suggests that seismic ruptures reactivated a preexisting fault zone in the crystalline basement (Leclère et al., in press). Based on Mohr-Coulomb theory and a fault zone orientation of the seismic swarm computed by Daniel et al. (2011), we estimate the overpressured fluid required to reactivate this fault to be between 7 and 26 MPa (Leclère et al., in press). This result is in good agreement with a previous study by Daniel et al. (2011). We propose a mechanism for the development of overpressured fluid conditions that accounts for the presence of thermal springs, fault zone compaction processes and hydraulic barriers (Leclère et al., in press). In a further step, we analyze an extended focal mechanism dataset and we focus on overpressured fluid conditions required to reactivate individual fault planes related to each focal mechanism. We then investigate the correlation between changes in overpressured fluid conditions and changes in the seismicity rate. We also discuss the spatial heterogeneity of overpressured fluid conditions.

  2. Long-period seismicity at Shishaldin volcano (Alaska) in 2003-2004: Indications of an upward migration of the source before a minor eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusano, P.; Palo, M.; West, M. E.

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the long-period (LP) seismic activity at Shishaldin volcano (Aleutians Islands, Alaska) in the period October 2003-July 2004, during which a minor eruption took place in May 2004, with ash and steam emissions, thermal anomalies, volcanic tremor and small explosions. We have focused the attention on the time evolution of LP rate, size, spectra and polarization dip angle along the dataset. We find an evolution toward more shallow dip angles in the polarization of the waveforms during the sequence. The dip angle is a manifestation of the source location. Because the LP seismic sources are presumed to reflect the aggregation of gas slug or pockets within the melt, we use the polarization dip at the LP onset as a proxy for the nucleation depth of the seismic events within the conduit. We refer to this parameter as the nucleation dip and the position along the conduit of the gas aggregation as nucleation depth. The nucleation dip changes throughout the dataset. It shows a sharp decrease between the end of December 2003 and the end of January 2004, followed by a gradual increase until the onset of the eruption. At the same time, a general increase of the LP rate occurs. We have associated the dip evolution with a sinking and a subsequent decrease of the nucleation depth, which would quickly migrate up to about 8 km below the crater rim, followed by a slow depth decrease which culminates in the eruption. The change in the nucleation depth reflects either a pressure variation within the plumbing system, which would affect the confining pressure experienced by the gas aggregations. We have imputed such a pressure change to the intrusion of batches of magma from a deeper magma chamber (< 10 km) toward a shallower one (> 5 km). For a cylindric conduit with rigid walls, this leads to a volume of the injected new magma of 105-107 m3, compatible with estimates in other areas, suggesting that the LP process can be considered a good proxy of the thermodynamical

  3. Milwaukee Voucher Schools 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Policy Forum, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brochure provides charted reference information for Milwaukee Voucher Schools for the 2003-2004 school year. Schools are grouped by grade level; the following is included: Name, Address, Telephone, Religion/Denomination; Capacity; Total Enrollment' Milwaukee Parent Choice School Program (MPCP) percent: Number of Teachers; Years in MPCP;…

  4. The State of Our Nation's Youth, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hart, Peter D.

    This report details findings of the eighth annual (2003-2004) national survey of the attitudes and plans of American adolescents. Participating in the telephone survey was a nationally representative sample of 1,003 students aged 13 to 18, in ninth through twelfth grade. The report summarizes findings "at a glance" and discusses findings under the…

  5. International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) 2003-2004 Annual Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael (Editor); Noll, Carey (Editor)

    2005-01-01

    The International Laser Ranging Service (ILRS) organizes and coordinates Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) and Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) to support programs in geodetic, geophysical, and lunar research activities and provides the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) with products important to the maintenance of an accurate International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). This reference frame provides the stability through which systematic measurements of the Earth can be made over thousands of kilometers, decades of time, and evolution of measurement technology. This 2003-2004 ILRS annual report is comprised of individual contributions from ILRS components within the international geodetic community for the years 2003-2004. The report documents changes and progress of the ILRS and is also available on the ILRS Web site at http://ilrs.gsfc.nasa.gov/reports/ilrs_reports/ilrsar_2003.html.

  6. Analysis of the 2003-2004 microseismic sequence in the western part of the Corinth Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bernard, Pascal; Dublanchet, Pierre; Canitano, Alexandre; Marsan, David

    2013-04-01

    -east to north-west characterized by the successive activation of the multiplets. We next perform a spectral analysis to determine source parameters for each multiplet in order to estimate size of the asperities and cumulative coseismic slip. From the preceding observations and results we finally try to reproduce the 2003-2004 microseismic sequence using rate-and-state 3D asperity model (Dublanchet et al., submitted). The deformation measured during the crisis by the strainmeter installed in the Trizonia island is used in the modeling to constrain the maximum slip amplitude.

  7. MyPyramid Equivalents Database, 2.0 for USDA Survey Foods, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The MyPyramid Equivalents Database, 2.0 for USDA Survey Foods, 2003-2004 (MPED 2.0) translates the amounts of foods reported as eaten in the What We Eat in America (WWEIA), the dietary intake (survey) component of the NHANES 2003-2004, into the number of equivalents of the 32 MyPyramid food groups...

  8. Kootenai River Focus Watershed Coordination, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Kootenai River Network,

    2006-02-01

    The Kootenai River Network (KRN) was contracted by the Bonneville Power Administration; PPA Project Number 96087200 for the period June 1, 2003 to May 31, 2004 to provide Kootenai River basin watershed coordination services. The prime focus of the KRN is coordinating activities and disseminating information related to watershed improvement and education and outreach with other interest groups in the Kootenai River basin. To this end, the KRN primarily focuses on maintaining communication networks among private and public watershed improvement groups in the Columbia River Basin. The KRN willing shares its resources with these groups. The 2003-2004 BPA contract extended the original Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks contract, which was transferred to the Kootenai River Network through a Memorandum of Understanding in November 2001. The KRN objectives of this contract were carried out through Watershed Coordinator position. The highly successful Kootenai River Network Annual General Meeting in Bonners Ferry in May 2003 demonstrated the tremendous gains that the Kootenai River Network has made in trans-boundary networking of watershed issues and accomplishments. The Annual General Meeting included seventy five participants representing more than forty US and Canadian citizen groups, tribes, first nations, agencies, ministries, businesses and private land owners from Montana, British Columbia, Idaho and Alberta. The International Restoration Tour in July 2004 featured the Grave Creek and Therriault Wetlands restoration projects in Montana and the Sand Creek and Wolf Creek restoration projects in British Columbia. The tour was attended by more than thirty people representing US and Canadian Federal and State/Provincial agencies, schools, colleges, conservation groups, private land owners, consultants, tribes, first nations, and politicians. These exciting trans-boundary successes encouraged the KRN to establish half-time Watershed Coordinator positions in both the United

  9. Georgia's Pre-K Program: 2003-2004 School Year Pre-K Providers' Operating Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This guide details the 2003-2004 program guidelines for Georgia prekindergarten programs, designed to assist educators in providing a quality educational prekindergarten program to eligible 4-year-olds and their families. Guidelines are delineated in six major areas: (1) operation and services, including eligibility, enrollment, instructional…

  10. What We Eat In America, NHANES 2003-2004: Documentation and Data Files

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New nationwide dietary intake data were collected in What We Eat In America (WWEIA), National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) for the years 2003-2004 and are now available for public use. Two days of dietary intake data are included for most participants. The dietary interview data ...

  11. 2003-2004 Annual Report to the Ministry of Advanced Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer, 2004

    2004-01-01

    On March 25, 2003, the British Columbia Council on Admissions and Transfer (BCCAT) received a Management Letter that outlined the expectations of the Ministry of Advanced Education for the B.C. Council on Admissions and Transfer in 2003-2004. In this Annual Report, BCCAT details how the Council has addressed and met those expectations and…

  12. High Gain Antenna Gimbal for the 2003-2004 Mars Exploration Rover Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sokol, Jeff; Krishnan, Satish; Ayari, Laoucet

    2004-01-01

    The High Gain Antenna Assemblies built for the 2003-2004 Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions provide the primary communication link for the Rovers once they arrive on Mars. The High Gain Antenna Gimbal (HGAG) portion of the assembly is a two-axis gimbal that provides the structural support, pointing, and tracking for the High Gain Antenna (HGA). The MER mission requirements provided some unique design challenges for the HGAG. This paper describes all the major subsystems of the HGAG that were developed to meet these challenges, and the requirements that drove their design.

  13. Spatial Resolution Characterization for QuickBird Image Products 2003-2004 Season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir

    2006-01-01

    This presentation focuses on spatial resolution characterization for QuickBird panochromatic images in 2003-2004 and presents data measurements and analysis of SSC edge target deployment and edge response extraction and modeling. The results of the characterization are shown as values of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency and as the Relative Edge Response (RER) components. The results show that RER is much less sensitive to accuracy of the curve fitting than the value of MTF at Nyquist frequency. Therefore, the RER/edge response slope is a more robust estimator of the digital image spatial resolution than the MTF. For the QuickBird panochromatic images, the RER is consistently equal to 0.5 for images processed with the Cubic Convolution resampling and to 0.8 for the MTF resampling.

  14. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigation; Stock Status of Burbot, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Paragamian, Vaughn L.; Pyper, Brian J.; Ireland, Susan C.

    2004-12-01

    The main objective of this investigation was to monitor movement and spawning activity of burbot Lota lota in the Kootenai River, Idaho and British Columbia, Canada during the winter of 2003-2004. Due to low precipitation and snow pack, as well as low levels of Lake Koocanusa, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers refrained from releasing discharges >113 m{sup 3}/s from Libby Dam for most of the winter. This situation provided suitable conditions for burbot migration and spawning in the mainstem river. Hoop nets captured 19 burbot, which ranged from 447 mm to 760 mm TL (mean = 630 mm) and weighed from 420 g to 4,032 g (mean = 1,937 g) with a mean W{sub r} of 99. One burbot (burbot 214) was captured for the fifth time since its first capture in 2000, and each capture was near Ambush Rock (rkm 244.4-244.8). Eleven burbot were tagged with five-month duration external sonic transmitters, and a 12th burbot, tagged with a 14-month transmitter, has been monitored since 2001. During the post-spawn period, three sonic-tagged burbot exhibited downstream and sedentary movement patterns, while five remained at Ambush Rock. Concentrations of tagged burbot near Ambush Rock (rkm 244.5) during January and February 2004 (eight tagged fish) may suggest that this area is critical spawning habitat. The appearance of burbot at Ambush Rock during the spawning period and upstream movements of tagged fish (PIT and sonic tagged) in previous years during the low discharges help validate results suggesting that discharges <113 m{sup 3}/s will permit burbot migration and may increase spawning habitat. Though it seems apparent that the Ambush Rock area is an important burbot spawning ground, no adult burbot were recaptured after the spawning period and no burbot larva were caught, despite considerable sampling efforts during the winter of 2003-2004.

  15. [Influenza telephone consultation target the general public--2003-2004, 2004-2005].

    PubMed

    Yamadera, Shizuko; Kobune, Fumio; Komatsu, Toshihiko; Suzuki, Kazuyoshi; Nakayama, Mikio; Hagiwara, Toshikatsu; Matsumoto, Miyako; Yamamoto, Kiichi; Renard, Junko; Oya, Akira

    2007-07-01

    The NPO Biomedical Science Association provided telephone consultation, including contacts by fax and email, targeting the general public within the framework of influenza control measures worked out by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (MHLW). We received 2,813 inquiries during the 2003-2004 flu season and 2,444 inquiries during the 2004-2005 season. By month, the highest number was in October-November, accounting for 42.6%. The preceding season showed a similar trend. By gender, 72.5% of those seeking advice were women. By area of residence, the highest number was living in metropolitan Tokyo, and the remainder lived in the prefectures of Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama, Nagano, Shizuoka, and Ibaraki in this order. We received no inquiries from the prefectures of Shimane or Saga. By occupation, housewives accounted for 1,114 inquiries (45.6%), followed by private companies with 447 inquiries (18.3%) and health-care providers with 227 inquiries (9.3%), similar to the 2003-2004 flu season. By subject, 1,545 inquiries concerned vaccines (62.2%) mainly, the pros and cons of vaccination, adverse reactions, and the number of inoculations required. Inquiries about pregnancy, infants and young children, and breast-feeding accounted for 19.2%. Inquiries on vaccine shortages during the 2004-2005 flu season (7), SARS (22), and bird flu (22) decreased compared to the previous season, while the number of consultations on antiviral agents increased (209). In discussing how information on influenza should be communicated to the public, we propose that "Influenza Q & A" provided by the Infectious Diseases Surveillance Center of the NIID, MHLW, should include information on influenza specifically addressing pregnant woman and breast-feeding or child-rearing mothers. PMID:17695791

  16. 35th Annual Survey Report on State-Sponsored Student Financial Aid, 2003-2004 Academic Year

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Each year, the National Association of State Student Grant and Aid Programs (NASSGAP) completes a survey regarding state-funded expenditures for postsecondary student financial aid. This report, the 35th annual survey, represents data from academic year 2003-04. Data highlights include: (1) In the 2003-2004 academic year, the states awarded about…

  17. The Junior Science & Humanities Symposium: Management and Operations, 2003-2004. Theme--Atmosphere--The Other Ocean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document reviews the Pacific Region Junior Science and Humanities Symposium (PJSHS) program for 2003-2004 which is a 10-month, precollege student research program held in Japan. The theme is AtmosphereThe Other Ocean. The program includes a one-week symposium of student delegates who have completed research projects in the sciences or have…

  18. Ecological health monitoring of the Mekong River by using benthic algae in 2003-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunpradid, T.

    2005-05-01

    The monitoring of ecological health of the Mekong River by using benthic algae was carried out from 2003 - 2004. Thirty sampling sites along the Mekong River and its tributaries were selected in Laos, Thailand, Cambodia and Veitnam. In this investigation, the distribution of some species of benthic algae in different environments revealed that there was a significant relationship in the presence of them to the water quality, and these species could be used as a potential biomonitor of water quality in the Mekong River. One hundred and eighty six species of benthic diatoms and 46 species of macroalgae were found. Some dominant species of benthic algae could be used as biomonitors to assess water quality. Hydrodictyon recticulatum and Microspora floccosa and indicated clean-moderate water quality; Audouinella cylindrica, Cladophora glomerata, Achnanthes inflate and Cymbella turgidula indicated moderate water quality; Stigeoclonium flagelliforum, Aulacoseira granulata and Cymbella tumida indicated moderate-polluted water quality and Caloglossa leprieurii, Gomphonema parvulum and Nitzschia clausii indicated polluted water quality. The ecological health assessment of the Mekong River by using the species of benthic algae as biomonitors reveled that in the upstream and tributaries revealed moderate water quality. In contrast, some sites in the lower Mekong showed moderate-polluted to polluted water quality.

  19. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2003-2004 NASA CONNECT(trademark)Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caton, Randall H.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Giersch, Christopher E.; Holmes, Ellen B.; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    NASA CONNECT is an Emmy-award-winning series of instructional (distance learning) programs for grades 6-8. Produced by the NASA Center for Distance Learning, the nine programs in the 2003-2004 NASA CONNECT series are research-, inquiry-, standards-, teacher-, and technology-based and include a 30-minute program, an educator guide containing a hands-on activity, and a web-based component. The 1,500 randomly selected NASA CONNECT registered users were invited to complete an electronic (self-reported) survey that employed a 5-point Likert-type scale. Regarding NASA CONNECT, respondents reported that the programs (1) enhance the teaching of mathematics, science, and technology (4.53); (2) are aligned with the national mathematics, science, and technology standards (4.52); (3) raise student awareness of careers requiring mathematics, science, and technology (4.48); (4) demonstrate the application of mathematics, science, and technology (4.47); and (5) present women and minorities performing challenging engineering and science tasks (4.50).

  20. Poaceae pollen concentrations in the atmosphere of three inland Croatian sites (2003-2004).

    PubMed

    Peternel, Renata; Hrga, Ivana; Hercog, Predrag; Culig, Josip

    2005-12-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the length of Poaceae pollen season, intradiurnal, daily and monthly pollen variation, and the effect of some meteorological parameters on atmospheric pollen concentration, at three monitoring sites in inland Croatia during the 2003-2004 period. Seven-day Hirst volumetric pollen and spore traps were used for pollen sampling. At all three monitoring sites considerably higher precipitation and lower average temperature in 2004 led to a marked decrease in the grass pollen concentration in the air at all three monitoring sites. The highest grass pollen concentrations were recorded in Ivanić Grad (typical rural area), considerably lower in Samobor (effect of forest vegetation), and lowest in Zagreb (urban area). The highest atmospheric Poaceae pollen concentrations in inland Croatia were generally recorded in May and June. The highest intradiurnal concentrations were recorded between 8.00 and 12.00 a.m. Results of this aeropalynologic study are expected to help in preventing the symptoms of allergic reaction in individuals with Poaceae pollen hypersensitivity. PMID:16417180

  1. Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.

    2004-12-01

    In the late 1990s, the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, along with many other agencies, began implementing fisheries restoration activities in the Walla Walla Basin. An integral part of these efforts is to alleviate the inadequate fish migration conditions in the basin. The migration concerns are being addressed by removing diversion structures, constructing fish passage facilities, implementing minimum instream flow requirements, and providing trap and haul efforts when needed. The objective of the Walla Walla River Fish Passage Operations Project is to increase the survival of migrating adult and juvenile salmonids in the Walla Walla River basin. The project is responsible for coordinating operation and maintenance of ladders, screen sites, bypasses, trap facilities, and transportation equipment. In addition, the project provides technical input on passage criteria and passage and trapping facility design and operation. Operation of the various passage facilities and passage criteria guidelines are outlined in an annual operations plan that the project develops. During the 2003-2004 project year, there were 379 adult summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 36 adult bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus); 108 adult and 3 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) enumerated at the Nursery Bridge Dam fishway video counting window between December 21, 2003, and June 30, 2004. Summer steelhead and spring chinook were observed moving upstream while bull trout were observed moving both upstream and downstream of the facility. In addition, the old ladder trap was operated by the WWBNPME project in order to radio tag spring chinook adults. A total of 2 adult summer steelhead, 4 bull trout, and 23 adult spring chinook were enumerated at the west ladder at Nursery Bridge Dam during the trapping operations between May 6 and May 23, 2004. Operation of the Little Walla Walla

  2. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    the informational needs of the U.S. DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Our updated environmental assessments provide a strong scientific basis for predicting future change in exposure conditions especially in relation to changes in life-style, diet and/or land-use patterns. This information has important implications in addressing questions about existing (and future) radiological conditions on the islands, in determining the cost and the effectiveness of potential remedial measures, and in general policy support considerations. Perhaps most importantly, the recently established individual radiological surveillance programs provide affected atoll communities with an unprecedented level of radiation protection monitoring where, for the first time, local resources are being made available to monitor resettled and resettling populations on a continuous basis. As a hard copy supplement to Marshall Islands Program website (http://eed.llnl.gov/mi/), this document provides an overview of the individual radiation surveillance monitoring program established for the Utrok Atoll population group along with a full disclosure of all verified measurement data (2003-2004). The Utrok whole body counting facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrok Atoll Local Government, serves as a national facility open to the general public. Readers are advised that an additional feature of the associated website is a provision whereby users are able to calculate and track radiation doses delivered to volunteers (de-identified information only) participating in the Marshall Islands Radiological Surveillance Program.

  3. Surveillance of HIV and syphilis infections among antenatal clinic attendees in Tanzania-2003/2004

    PubMed Central

    Swai, Roland O; Somi G, Geofrey R; Matee, Mecky IN; Killewo, Japhet; Lyamuya, Eligius F; Kwesigabo, Gideon; Tulli, Tuhuma; Kabalimu, Titus K; Ng'ang'a, Lucy; Isingo, Raphael; Ndayongeje, Joel

    2006-01-01

    Background This paper presents the prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and syphilis infections among women attending antenatal clinics (ANC) in Tanzania obtained during the 2003/2004 ANC surveillance. Methods Ten geographical regions; six of them were involved in a previous survey, while the remaining four were freshly selected on the basis of having the largest population among the remaining 20 regions. For each region, six ANC were selected, two from each of three strata (urban, peri-urban and rural). Three of the sites did not participate, resulting into 57 surveyed clinics. 17,813 women who were attending the chosen clinics for the first time for any pregnancy between October 2003 and January 2004. Patient particulars were obtained by interview and blood specimens were drawn for HIV and syphilis testing. HIV testing was done anonymously and the results were unlinked. Results Of the 17,813 women screened for HIV, 1,545 (8.7% (95% CI = 8.3–9.1)) tested positive with the highest prevalence in women aged 25–34 years (11%), being higher among single women (9.7%) than married women (8.6%) (p < 0.07), and increased with level of education from 5.2% among women with no education to 9.3% among those at least primary education (p < 0.001). Prevalence ranged from 4.8% (95% CI = 3.8% – 9.8%) in Kagera to 15.3% (95% CI = 13.9% – 16.8%) in Mbeya and was; 3.7%, 4.7%, 9.1%, 11.2% and 15.3% for rural, semi-urban, road side, urban and 15.3% border clinics, respectively (p < 0.001). Of the 17,323 women screened for syphilis, 1265 (7.3% (95%CI = 6.9–7.7)) were positive, with highest prevalence in the age group 35–49 yrs (10.4%) (p < 0.001), and being higher among women with no education than those with some education (9.8% versus 6.8%) (p < 0.0001), but marital status had no influence. Prevalence ranged from 2.1% (95% CI = 1.4% – 3.0%) in Kigoma to 14.9% (95% CI = 13.3%-16.6%) in Kagera and was 16.0% (95% CI = 13.3–18.9), 10.5% (95% CI = 9.5–11

  4. The Remarkable 2003--2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Kruger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2005-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the approximately 50-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly 2 months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with 2 previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged midwinter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over 2 standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (7 in the past 6 years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during 6 of the past 7 years, with 5 having much lower than usual potential for polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002, and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of 5 of the last 7 years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  5. The Remarkable 2003-2004 Winter and Other Recent Warm Winters in the Arctic Stratosphere Since the Late 1990s

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manney, Gloria L.; Krueger, Kirstin; Sabutis, Joseph L.; Sena, Sara Amina; Pawson, Steven

    2004-01-01

    The 2003-2004 Arctic winter was remarkable in the 40-year record of meteorological analyses. A major warming beginning in early January 2004 led to nearly two months of vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere. The upper stratospheric vortex broke up in late December, but began to recover by early January, and in February and March was the strongest since regular observations began in 1979. The lower stratospheric vortex broke up in late January. Comparison with two previous years, 1984-1985 and 1986-1987, with prolonged mid-winter warming periods shows unique characteristics of the 2003-2004 warming period: The length of the vortex disruption, the strong and rapid recovery in the upper stratosphere, and the slow progression of the warming from upper to lower stratosphere. January 2004 zonal mean winds in the middle and lower stratosphere were over two standard deviations below average. Examination of past variability shows that the recent frequency of major stratospheric warmings (seven in the past six years) is unprecedented. Lower stratospheric temperatures were unusually high during six of the past seven years, with five having much lower than usual potential for PSC formation and ozone loss (nearly none in 1998-1999, 2001-2002 and 2003-2004, and very little in 1997-1998 and 2000-2001). Middle and upper stratospheric temperatures, however, were unusually low during and after February. The pattern of five of the last seven years with very low PSC potential would be expected to occur randomly once every approximately 850 years. This cluster of warm winters, immediately following a period of unusually cold winters, may have important implications for possible changes in interannual variability and for determination and attribution of trends in stratospheric temperatures and ozone.

  6. The anomalous Mesopause region temperatures of the 2003-2004 winter season measured from Svalbard (78N 16E)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyrland, M. E.; Sigernes, F.; Mulligan, F.; Deehr, C. S.

    2007-12-01

    This paper reports on the temperature and dynamics of the hydroxyl layer at approx. 87km measured over Longyearbyen (78N 16E) during the 2003-2004 winter. Optical spectra obtained by a Ebert-Fastie spectrometer were used for the temperature derivation. The high number of spectra available enabled spectral analysis of both the hourly and daily averaged temperatures. We were able to identify both the presence of a 16 day wave and a quasi 27 day oscillation in the mesopause region (approx. 87 km) temperatures from this season. The average daily temperature was 228K with a standard deviation of 17K. This is exceptionally high compared to previous and later years reported in the 23 year old time series from Svalbard. The observed temperatures have been compared to temperature data from other height regions above the Arctic (troposphere and stratosphere) and to satellite data from the satellite instrument SABER. In early January 2004 a major stratospheric warming event led to a nearly 2 month long vortex disruption with high-latitude easterlies in the middle to lower stratosphere and correspondingly high temperatures. The upper stratospheric temperatures of the same period were unusually low, while mesopause temperatures were high. The regions of alternating low and high temperatures throughout the atmosphere and the dynamics of these, are clearly coupled through gravity wave activity and general atmospheric circulation. We try to put our data into context with other authors' reports on the anomalous state of the atmosphere during the 2003-2004 boreal winter.

  7. Seismo-acoustic signals associated with degassing explosions recorded at Shishaldin Volcano, Alaska, 2003 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, Tanja; McNutt, Stephen R.

    2007-03-01

    In summer 2003, a Chaparral Model 2 microphone was deployed at Shishaldin Volcano, Aleutian Islands, Alaska. The pressure sensor was co-located with a short-period seismometer on the volcano’s north flank at a distance of 6.62 km from the active summit vent. The seismo-acoustic data exhibit a correlation between impulsive acoustic signals (1 2 Pa) and long-period (LP, 1 2 Hz) earthquakes. Since it last erupted in 1999, Shishaldin has been characterized by sustained seismicity consisting of many hundreds to two thousand LP events per day. The activity is accompanied by up to ˜200 m high discrete gas puffs exiting the small summit vent, but no significant eruptive activity has been confirmed. The acoustic waveforms possess similarity throughout the data set (July 2003 November 2004) indicating a repetitive source mechanism. The simplicity of the acoustic waveforms, the impulsive onsets with relatively short (˜10 20 s) gradually decaying codas and the waveform similarities suggest that the acoustic pulses are generated at the fluid air interface within an open-vent system. SO2 measurements have revealed a low SO2 flux, suggesting a hydrothermal system with magmatic gases leaking through. This hypothesis is supported by the steady-state nature of Shishaldin’s volcanic system since 1999. Time delays between the seismic LP and infrasound onsets were acquired from a representative day of seismo-acoustic data. A simple model was used to estimate source depths. The short seismo-acoustic delay times have revealed that the seismic and acoustic sources are co-located at a depth of 240±200 m below the crater rim. This shallow depth is confirmed by resonance of the upper portion of the open conduit, which produces standing waves with f=0.3 Hz in the acoustic waveform codas. The infrasound data has allowed us to relate Shishaldin’s LP earthquakes to degassing explosions, created by gas volume ruptures from a fluid air interface.

  8. Monitoring the Migrations of Wild Snake River Spring/Summer Chinook Salmon Juveniles, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Achord, Stephen; Hodge, Jacob M.; Sandford, Benjamin P.

    2005-06-01

    This report provides information on PIT-tagging of wild Chinook salmon parr in Idaho in 2003 and the subsequent monitoring of these fish and similarly tagged fish from Oregon. We report estimated parr-to-smolt survival and arrival timing of these fish at Lower Granite Dam, as well as interrogation data collected at several other sites throughout the Snake and Columbia River system. This research continues studies that began under Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funding in 1991. Results from previous study years were reported by Achord et al. (1994; 1995a,b; 1996a; 1997; 1998; 2000; 2001a,b; 2002, 2003, 2004). Goals of this ongoing study are: (1) Characterize the migration timing and estimate parr-to-smolt survival of different stocks of wild Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon smolts at Lower Granite Dam. (2) Determine whether consistent migration patterns are apparent. (3) Determine what environmental factors influence migration patterns. (4) Characterize the migration behavior and estimate survival of different wild juvenile fish stocks as they emigrate from their natal rearing areas. This study provides critical information for recovery planning, and ultimately recovery for these ESA-listed wild fish stocks. In 2003-2004, we also continued to measure water temperature, dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, turbidity, water depth, and pH at five monitoring stations in the Salmon River Basin, Idaho for the Baseline Environmental Monitoring Program. These data, along with parr/smolt migration, survival, and timing data, will help to discern patterns or characteristic relationships between fish movement/survival and environmental factors.

  9. Probabilistic Flood Mapping and Visualization Issues: Application to the River Ubaye, Barcelonnette (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukolwe, M. M.; Di Baldassarre, G.; Bogaard, T. A.; Malet, J.-P.; Solomatine, D. P.

    2012-04-01

    Potential loss of life and damage to infrastructure is an ever present risk along several rivers globally. Recent floodings in Thailand (2011), Pakistan (2010) and Australia (2010) testify the level of damage experienced. Increasing population levels and migration patterns result in space shortages, and floodplain encroachment. This has increased the vulnerability and exposure of the population. The problem is compounded by the uncertainty in the derived flood risk mitigation parameters and design guidelines, due to unknown behavior of hydrological extremes (Klemes, 1989). Current flood risk management practices acknowledge the inability of hydrological extremes (and resulting floods) to be fully contained by structural flood defense measures (Loat and Petrascheck, 1997). Consequently, decision makers are faced with a challenge in the safeguarding of civil society. Flood mapping provides prior knowledge and aids land-use planning strategies. The EU flood directive (2007) clearly outlines procedures to be followed in the mapping of floodplains, by the production of hazard maps corresponding to specified probabilities of occurrence. The main challenge is the reliability of natural randomness and epistemic uncertainty of the hydraulic flood modeling process (Refsgaard et al., 2007). Several studies over the resent past have investigated methods to estimate (and possibly reduce) the uncertainty (e.g. Montanari, 2007). However, it is acknowledged that the degree of randomness and the incomplete knowledge of natural system behavior contribute to a certitude level in the derived outputs (Di Baldassarre et al., 2010). Several authors pinpointed the need for "honest" portrayal of this uncertainty in modeling output. Nevertheless, the fear of introducing confusion has hampered this endeavour (Pappenberger and Beven, 2006). This study focuses on a flood inundation modeling and a probabilistic mapping carried out along the R. Ubaye (Barcelonnette Basin, South French Alps

  10. Serum concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) in the United States population: 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, Andreas; Wong, Lee-Yang; Jones, Richard S; Park, Annie; Zhang, Yalin; Hodge, Carolyn; Dipietro, Emily; McClure, Cheryl; Turner, Wayman; Needham, Larry L; Patterson, Donald G

    2008-02-15

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153) are chemicals known as brominated flame retardants. We have assessed the exposure status of the United States population to PBDEs and BB-153 and explored associations with demographic information, including participants' age, sex, and race/ethnicity. A total of 2,062 serum samples, from participants in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 aged 12 years and older, were analyzed for PBDEs and BB-153; stratified and regression analyses were used to examine levels among demographic groups. The congener with the highest serum concentration was 2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47) [geometric mean 20.5 ng/g lipid]; followed by 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexaBDE (BDE-153) [5.7 ng/g lipid]; 2,2',4,4',5-pentaBDE (BDE-99) [5.0 ng/g lipid; a value equal to the highest limit of detection for an individual sample]; 2,2',4,4',6-pentaBDE (BDE-100) [3.9 ng/g lipid]; BB-153 [2.3 ng/g lipid]; and 2,4,4'-triBDE (BDE-28) [1.2 ng/g lipid]. For BDE-47, we observed no significant difference in the least-squares geometric mean (LSGM) by sex, but with age we found both a linear decrease (p = 0.01) and a positive quadratic trend (p = 0.01). Its LSGM, 27.9 ng/lipid, in the 12-19 year olds decreased to 17.2 ng/g lipid in the 40-49 year group, and then curved upward to 20.4 ng/g lipid in the > or =60 years olds. Mexican Americans had the highest LSGM of BDE-47 (24.5 ng/g lipid), which was significantly higher than that of non-Hispanic whites (19.7 ng/g lipid, p = 0.01). Adults 60 years and older were twice as likely as adults 20-59 years old to have a serum BDE-47 concentration above the 95th percentile (p = 0.02). These data provide needed exposure assessment data for public health decisions. PMID:18351120

  11. Analysis of a landslide multi-date inventory in a complex mountain landscape: the Ubaye valley case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, R.; Malet, J.-P.; Reichenbach, P.; Remaître, A.; Doubre, C.

    2015-10-01

    In the paper we analyse a multi-date landslide inventory prepared for a mountainous area affected by several landslide types with different degrees of activity, we attempt to quantify the uncertainties associated to the mapping, we measure the evolution of morphological indicators and estimate landslide activity and temporal occurrence. The inventory, covering the period 1956-2010, is prepared for the middle section of the Ubaye valley (southern French Alps) based on the analysis of multi-source documents (geomorphological maps, historical reports of landslide events, field surveys, orthophotographs and SAR (synthetic aperture radar) satellite images). The uncertainties derived from the expert interpretation of different sources of information, the landslide morphological features and the affected land covers are taken into account in relation to the source documents. Morphological indicators are calculated to describe quantitatively the evolution of the landslides (length, area, relative elevation, runout distance). Frequency-area density functions are computed to estimate the changes in the landslide distributions and a Poisson model is used to estimate the probability of reactivation of the observed landslides and the occurrence of new failures. The proposed multi-date inventory and the associated statistics provide additional information to the event catalogue managed by the local policy makers.

  12. The 2003-2004 seismic swarm in the western Corinth rift: Evidence for a multiscale pore pressure diffusion process along a permeable fault system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duverger, Clara; Godano, Maxime; Bernard, Pascal; Lyon-Caen, Hélène; Lambotte, Sophie

    2015-09-01

    Microseismic multiplets occurring in the western Corinth rift, Greece, during a large swarm are analyzed to retrieve their spatiotemporal characteristics. These multiplets activated small subfaults at depth (˜7 km), up to 1 km long, at the root of two parallel active normal faults. The swarm migrates westward nearly horizontally over 10 km at an average velocity of 50 m/d with a diffusivity of 0.5 m2 s-1. It successively activates the Aigion fault, a relay zone in its hanging wall, and the Fassouleika fault. Within each multiplet, hypocenters also migrate with diffusivities ranging from 0.001 to 0.4 m2 s-1. The largest internal diffusivities appear at the core of the layer defined by the clusters. These results are interpreted as a hydroshear process caused by pore pressure migration within permeable corridors resulting from the intersection of the major faults with a brittle geological layer inherited from the Hellenic nappe stack.

  13. Changes in epidemiology of leptospirosis in 2003--2004, a two El Niño Southern Oscillation period, Guadeloupe archipelago, French West Indies.

    PubMed

    Storck, C Herrmann; Postic, D; Lamaury, I; Perez, J M

    2008-10-01

    Our study aimed at analysing the changes in epidemiological features of leptospirosis cases from the hospital of Pointe à Pitre in Guadeloupe in 2003--2004 compared to reliable data in 1994--2001. Leptospirosis incidence increased fourfold during 2002--2004, a period with two El Niño events. Whereas the main risk factors were unchanged (male gender, occupational exposure, contact with cattle or pigs) a major role of rodent exposure emerged (52%, P=0.02, multivariate analysis). Interestingly, mean age of cases shifted to the older population (51.7 years vs. 43 years, P<0.05). Moreover, the Ballum serogroup rose dramatically (36% of incidence) competing with the Icterohaemorragiae serogroup (62%). However, severe forms were less recorded. Our data suggest that the changes in leptospirosis features could be related to exceptional meteorological events and their consequences on rodent populations. We propose the monitoring of rodent population and climatic data as a tool of management of leptospirosis in Guadeloupe. PMID:18096102

  14. Delivery System, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This workshop guide for financial aid administrators provides training in the federal student financial aid delivery system. An introduction enables the participant to share some information about his or her responsibilities and to reflect on the relevance of the training to the job. Session 1, "Application Systems," identifies methods of applying…

  15. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guffanti, M.; Ewert, J.W.; Gallina, G.M.; Bluth, G.J.S.; Swanson, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  16. Volcanic-ash hazard to aviation during the 2003 2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guffanti, Marianne; Ewert, John W.; Gallina, Gregory M.; Bluth, Gregg J. S.; Swanson, Grace L.

    2005-08-01

    Within the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Anatahan is one of nine active subaerial volcanoes that pose hazards to major air-traffic routes from airborne volcanic ash. The 2003-2004 eruptive activity of Anatahan volcano affected the region's aviation operations for 3 days in May 2003. On the first day of the eruption (10 May 2003), two international flights from Saipan to Japan were cancelled, and several flights implemented ash-avoidance procedures. On 13 May 2003, a high-altitude flight through volcanic gas was reported, with no perceptible damage to the aircraft. TOMS and MODIS analysis of satellite data strongly suggests that no significant ash and only minor amounts of SO 2 were involved in the incident, consistent with crew observations. On 23 May 2003, airport operations were disrupted when tropical-cyclone winds dispersed ash to the south, dusting Saipan with light ashfall and causing flight cancellations there and at Guam 320 km south of the volcano. Operational (near-real-time) monitoring of ash clouds produced by Anatahan has been conducted since the first day of the eruption on 10 May 2003 by the Washington Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC). The VAAC was among the first groups outside of the immediate area of the volcano to detect and report on the unexpected eruption of Anatahan. After being contacted about an unusual cloud by National Weather Service forecasters in Guam at 1235 UTC on 10 May 2003, the VAAC analyzed GOES 9 images, confirming Anatahan as the likely source of an ash cloud and estimating that the eruption began at about 0730 UTC. The VAAC issued its first Volcanic Ash Advisory for Anatahan at 1300 UTC on 10 May 2003 more than 5 h after the start of the eruption, the delay reflecting the difficulty of detecting and confirming a surprise eruption at a remote volcano with no in situ real-time geophysical monitoring. The initial eruption plume reached 10.7-13.4 km (35,000-44,000 ft), well into jet cruise altitudes

  17. Dental sealants and restorations and urinary bisphenol A concentrations in children in the 2003-2004 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Christy; Rue, Tessa; Sathyanarayana, Sheela; Martin, Michael; Seminario, Ana Lucia; DeRouen, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Background Resin-based dental sealants and composites contain bisphenol A-glycidyl methacrylate, a bisphenol A (BPA) derivative. The authors hypothesized that a greater number of sealants or restorations would be associated with higher urinary BPA concentrations. Methods The authors examined urinary BPA measurements (in nanograms per milliliter) and oral examination data for 1,001 children aged 6 to 19 years from the dataset of the 2003-2004 National Health Examination and Nutrition Survey (NHANES). They categorized children into four groups according to number of occlusal sealants and number of restorations, separately. They estimated associations by using unadjusted and adjusted tobit regression models. Results The lowest quartile of BPA concentrations ranged from 0.3 ng/mL to 1.9 ng/mL, whereas the highest quartile ranged from 7.3 ng/mL to 149 ng/mL. In adjusted analysis, children with seven to 16 sealants had geometric mean BPA concentrations 25 percent higher than those of children with no sealants (95 percent confidence interval [CI], −14 percent to 82 percent; P = .23). In adjusted analyses, children with seven to 42 restorations had geometric mean BPA concentrations 20 percent higher than those of children with no restorations (95 percent CI, −6 percent to 53 percent; P = .13). Neither of these adjusted estimates was statistically significant. Conclusions Though the findings were in the direction hypothesized, the authors did not observe a statistically significant association between a greater number of sealants or restorations and higher urinary BPA concentrations. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent of oral and systemic exposure to BPA from resin-based dental restorative materials over time. Practical Implications Dentists should follow this issue carefully as it develops and as the body of evidence grows. There is insufficient evidence to change practice at this time. PMID:24982281

  18. Cross-Sectional Study of Polybrominated Flame Retardants and Self-Reported Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in US Youth Aged 12–15 (NHANES 2003-2004)

    PubMed Central

    Smit, Ellen; Houseman, E. Andres

    2016-01-01

    Background. Animal toxicity tests and epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to PBDEs can alter attention behavior, yet few studies have examined their association with diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adolescents. Methods. Logistic regression was used to examine the cross-sectional association between ADHD and lipid and non-lipid adjusted blood serum concentrations of 2′,4-tribromodiphenyl ether (BDE-28), 2,2′,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenylether (BDE-47), 2,2′,4,4′,5-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-99), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-pentabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-100), 2,2′,4,4′,5,5′-hexabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-153), serum PBDEs, above/below the 75th percentile of serum PBDEs, and tertiles of serum PBDE in 12–15-year-olds (N = 292) using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004. Results. The ADHD weighted prevalence was 13.57%. The weighted adjusted odds ratios (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) between ADHD diagnosis and lipid adjusted BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, serum total PBDE, serum PBDE concentrations above the 75th percentile, and serum PBDE concentrations in the second or third tertile were 1.16 (95% CI: 0.51, 2.67), 1.36 (95% CI: 0.72, 2.56), 1.51 (95% CI: 0.70, 3.25), 1.53 (95% CI: 0.73, 3.23), 1.43 (95% CI: 0.57, 3.56), 1.41 (0.71, 2.83), 0.59 (0.10, 3.56), 6.16 (1.19, 31.90), and 0.99 (0.23, 4.29). Conclusions. We observed no association between serum PBDE concentrations and ADHD in US youths. PMID:27471519

  19. The role of method of production and resolution of the DEM on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment - Ubaye Valley, French Alps case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlögel, Romy; Marchesini, Ivan; Alvioli, Massimiliano; Reichenbach, Paola; Rossi, Mauro; Malet, Jean-Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Landslide susceptibility assessment forms the basis of any hazard mapping, which is one of the essential parts of quantitative risk mapping. For the same study area, different susceptibility maps can be achieved depending on the type of susceptibility mapping methods, mapping unit, and scale. In the Ubaye Valley (South French Alps), we investigate the effect of resolution and method of production of the DEM to delineate slope units for landslide susceptibility mapping method. Slope units delineation has been processed using multiple combinations of circular variance and minimum area size values, which are the input parameters for a new software for terrain partitioning. We rely on this method taking into account homogeneity of aspect direction inside each unit and inhomogeneity between different units. We computed slope units delineation for 5, 10 and 25 meters resolution DEM, and investigate statistical distributions of morphometric variables within the different polygons. Then, for each different slope units partitioning, we calibrated a landslide susceptibility model, considering landslide bodies and scarps as a dependent variable (binary response). This work aims to analyse the role of DEM resolution on slope-units delineation for landslide susceptibility assessment. Area Under the Curve of the Receiver Operating Characteristic is investigated for the susceptibility model calculations. In addition, we analysed further the performance of the Logistic Regression Model by looking at the percentage of significant variable in the statistical analyses. Results show that smaller slope units have a better chance of containing a smaller number of thematic and morphometric variables, allowing for an easier classification. Reliability of the models according to the DEM resolution considered as well as scarp area and landslides bodies presence/absence as dependent variable are discussed.

  20. Regional hydro-meteorological thresholds for shallow and deep-seated mass movements triggering in the South Eastern French Alps (Queyras, Ubaye, Mercantour)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remaitre, Alexandre; Malet, Jean-Philippe; Rigoudy, Gaëlle

    2015-04-01

    Rainfall is recognized worldwide as the main triggering factor of landslides. Numerous studies were conducted in order to (1) define qualitatively the relationships between the precipitations and the triggering or the reactivation of landslides and (2) determine quantitatively the amount of precipitation needed to trigger slopes failures. For rainfall-induced landslides, hydro-meteorological thresholds (expressed in terms of antecedent rain, intensity of the precipitation, soil moisture or ground water levels within the slope) can be defined as the rainfall, soil moisture or hydrological conditions that, when reached or exceeded, are likely to trigger landslides. Usually, the thresholds are based on the analysis of statistical relations among historical landslide catalogues (event dates) and antecedent hydro-meteorological conditions; other approaches based on conceptual or process-based models can also be used in specific cases such as limited information in landslide catalogues. Further, both the large variety of landslide types and the extreme variability of climatic conditions in mountain regions limit the definition of regional relationships between landslide occurrence and the associated hydro-meteorological conditions. The purpose of this work is to propose hydro-meteorological thresholds for the triggering of shallow (slides, debris/mud flows) and deep-seated mass movements for three mountainous massifs regions of the Southeast French Alps (Queyras, Mercantour, Ubaye) characterized by different rainfall patterns. For this purpose, we exploit for each study sites an historical landslide catalogue and rainfall data series to define a typology of rainfall induced-landslides for the relevant landslide types. For the analysis of the triggering of the deep-seated mass movements, slope hydrological time series (ground water levels, soil moisture) and simple water balance models are used to define hydrological thresholds for landslide reactivation. The results of

  1. Tevatron alignment issues 2003-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Volk, J.T.; Annala, J.; Elementi, L.; Gelfand, N.; Gollwitzer, K.E.; Greenwood, J.; Martens, M.; Moore, Craig D.; Nobrega, A.; Russell, A.D.; Shiltsev, V.; Stefanski, R.; Sager, T.; Syphers, M.J.; Wojcik, G.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    It was observed during the early part of Run II that dipole corrector currents in the Tevatron were changing over time. Measurement of the roll for dipoles and quadrupoles confirmed that there was a slow and systematic movement of the magnets from their ideal position. A simple system using a digital protractor and laptop computer was developed to allow roll measurements of all dipoles and quadrupoles. These measurements showed that many magnets in the Tevatron had rolled more than 1 milliradian. To aid in magnet alignment a new survey network was built in the Tevatron tunnel. This network is based on the use of free centering laser tracker. During the measurement of the network coordinates for all dipole, quadrupole and corrector magnets were obtained. This paper discusses roll measurement techniques and data, the old and new Tevatron alignment network.

  2. Technology in Massachusetts Schools, 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The 2004 National Education Technology Plan paints a hopeful picture of technology in American schools, highlighting examples of effective use and applauding the innovation that is occurring. The plan touts the benefits of the Internet and the opportunities it offers for improving education, such as enhanced access to interactive learning…

  3. Minimum Foundation Program: 2003-2004 Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisiana State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This handbook was created to provide the user with an informative reference of the various elements contained in the Louisiana Minimum Foundation Program formula. The MFP formula adopted by the State Board of Elementary and Secondary Education and approved by the Legislature determines the cost of a minimum foundation program of education in all…

  4. Annual Change Report 2003/2004

    SciTech Connect

    Washington Regulatory and Environmental Services; Washington TRU Solutions LLC

    2004-11-10

    As part of continuing compliance, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requires the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to provide any change in information since the most recent compliance application. This requirement is identified in Title 40 Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Section 194.4(b)(4), which states: “No later than six months after the administrator issues a certification, and at least annually thereafter, the Department shall report to the Administrator, in writing, any changes in conditions or activities pertaining to the disposal system that were not required to be reported by paragraph (b)(3) of this section and that differ from information contained in the most recent compliance application.” In meeting the requirement, the DOE provides an annual report of all changes applicable under the above requirement each November. This annual report informs the EPA of changes to information in the most recent compliance application, or for this report the 1996 Compliance Certification Application (CCA). Significant planned changes must be reported to the EPA prior to implementation by the DOE. In addition, Title 40 CFR, Section 194.4(b)(3) requires that significant unplanned changes be reported to the EPA within 24 hours or ten days, depending on the severity of the activity or condition. To date, there have been no significant unplanned changes to the certification basis. Planned changes have been submitted on an individual basis. All other changes are reported annually. The period covered by this Annual Change Report includes changes that occurred between July 1, 2003, and June 30, 2004. Changes in activities or conditions are reviewed to determine if 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(3) reporting is necessary. As indicated above, no significant unplanned changes were identified for the time period covered by this report. The enclosed tables list those items identified for reporting under 40 CFR Section 194.4(b)(4). The majority of the changes described in this report are associated with modifications to written plans and procedures for WIPP operations.

  5. Colorado Preschool Program: 2003-2004 Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Dept. of Education, Denver.

    The Colorado Preschool Program (CPP) provides funding to establish quality early childhood education programs that serve children eligible to enroll in kindergarten the following year. A vital component of CPP is to strengthen families and support them as participants in their child's education. District Councils made up of representatives of key…

  6. The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme 2003-2004.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Ken J

    2005-01-12

    The Pharmaceutical Benefits Scheme (PBS) grew by 8% in 2003-04; a slower rate than the 12.0% pa average growth over the last decade. Nevertheless, the sustainability of the Scheme remained an ongoing concern given an aging population and the continued introduction of useful (but increasingly expensive) new medicines. There was also concern that the Australia-United States Free Trade Agreement could place further pressure on the Scheme. In 2003, as in 2002, the government proposed a 27% increase in PBS patient co-payments and safety-net thresholds in order to transfer more of the cost of the PBS from the government to consumers. While this measure was initially blocked by the Senate, the forthcoming election resulted in the Labor Party eventually supporting this policy. Recommendations of the Pharmaceutical Benefits Advisory Committee to list, not list or defer a decision to list a medicine on the PBS were made publicly available for the first time and the full cost of PBS medicines appeared on medicine labels if the price was greater than the co-payment. Pharmaceutical reform in Victorian public hospitals designed to minimise PBS cost-shifting was evaluated and extended to other States and Territories. Programs promoting the quality use of medicines were further developed coordinated by the National Prescribing Service, Australian Divisions of General Practice and the Pharmacy Guild of Australia. The extensive uptake of computerised prescribing software by GPs produced benefits but also problems. The latter included pharmaceutical promotion occurring at the time of prescribing, failure to incorporate key sources of objective therapeutic information in the software and gross variation in the ability of various programs to detect important drug-drug interactions. These issues remain to be tackled. PMID:15679896

  7. Well installation, single-well testing, and particle-size analysis for selected sites in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin, north-central Colorado, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beck, Jennifer A.; Paschke, Suzanne S.; Arnold, L. Rick

    2011-01-01

    This report describes results from a groundwater data-collection program completed in 2003-2004 by the U.S. Geological Survey in support of the South Platte Decision Support System and in cooperation with the Colorado Water Conservation Board. Two monitoring wells were installed adjacent to existing water-table monitoring wells. These wells were installed as well pairs with existing wells to characterize the hydraulic properties of the alluvial aquifer and shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated Ground Water Basin. Single-well tests were performed in the 2 newly installed wells and 12 selected existing monitoring wells. Sediment particle size was analyzed for samples collected from the screened interval depths of each of the 14 wells. Hydraulic-conductivity and transmissivity values were calculated after the completion of single-well tests on each of the selected wells. Recovering water-level data from the single-well tests were analyzed using the Bouwer and Rice method because test data most closely resembled those obtained from traditional slug tests. Results from the single-well test analyses for the alluvial aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.8 x 10-5 feet per second and geometric mean hydraulic-conductivity value of 3.4 x 10-5 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values in the alluvial aquifer were 8.6 x 10-4 feet squared per second and 4.9 x 10-4 feet squared per second, respectively. Single-well test results for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer indicate a median hydraulic-conductivity value of 5.4 x 10-6 feet per second and geometric mean value of 4.9 x 10-6 feet per second. Median and geometric mean transmissivity values for the shallow Denver Formation sandstone aquifer were 4.0 x 10-5 feet squared per second and 5.9 x 10-5 feet squared per second, respectively. Hydraulic-conductivity values for the alluvial aquifer in and near the Lost Creek Designated

  8. Curriculum Summary: Grade Four, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 4e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 4 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  9. Curriculum Summary: Grade Two, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 2e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 2 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  10. Curriculum Summary: Grade Six, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 6e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 6 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  11. Curriculum Summary: Grade Five, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 5e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 5 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  12. Curriculum Summary: Grade Nine, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 9e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 9 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  13. Curriculum Summary: Grade Eight, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes: 8e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 8 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover health and life skills, physical education,…

  14. Curriculum Summary: Grade Three, 2003-2004 = Sommaire des Programmes, 3e annee, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Intended for parents as a companion to the Alberta Curriculum Guides, this summary, in English- and French-language versions, uses an "at a glance" schematic to list the curricular goals for Grade 3 in Alberta. In addition to English language arts, mathematics, science, and social studies, goals cover art, music, health and life skills, physical…

  15. Como pagar tu educacion, 2003-2004 (How To Pay for Your Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language booklet discusses paying for college. The guide presents information in question-and-answer form about things an applicant should ask and how to obtain financial aid. It describes the criteria for receiving aid and provides information about complying with aid requirements. The booklet also describes federal Pell grants and…

  16. An assessment of the impact of the 2003 EPRI ground-motion prediction models on the USGS national seismic-hazard maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.

    2006-01-01

    Ground-motion attenuation relations have an important impact on seismic hazard analyses. Ground-motion modeling is particularly sensitive to assumptions about wave-propagation attenuation (crustal Q and geometrical spreading), as well as source and site conditions. Studies of path attenuation from earthquakes in eastern North America (ENA) provide insights into the appropriateness of specific attenuation relations. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) (2003, 2004) study combines published ENA ground-motion attenuation relations into four model forms: single-corner, double-corner, hybrid-empirical, and finite-fault. When substituted in the U.S. Geological Survey 2002 national seismic hazard maps for the five ENA relations originally used in those hazard calculations, the EPRI (2003) relations predict similar ground motions and hazard at short periods (0.5 sec), relative to the 2002 national maps. A major reason for this difference is due to the crustal seismic-wave attenuation model assumed in a few of the ENA relations combined into the EPRI (2003, 2004) models. Although appropriate differences in geometrical spreading models among ENA relations can also be significant, a few ENA relations have 1-Hz Q-values (Q0) that are below the EPRI (1993) consensus range for Q0 when coupled with a geometrical spreading of R-0.5. The EPRI (2003, 2004) single-corner relation is strongly influenced by the inclusion of ENA relations with assumed Q0 below the EPRI (1993) range, which explains much of the discrepancy in predictions at longer periods.

  17. Martian seismicity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Roger J.; Grimm, Robert E.

    1991-01-01

    The design and ultimate success of network seismology experiments on Mars depends on the present level of Martian seismicity. Volcanic and tectonic landforms observed from imaging experiments show that Mars must have been a seismically active planet in the past and there is no reason to discount the notion that Mars is seismically active today but at a lower level of activity. Models are explored for present day Mars seismicity. Depending on the sensitivity and geometry of a seismic network and the attenuation and scattering properties of the interior, it appears that a reasonable number of Martian seismic events would be detected over the period of a decade. The thermoelastic cooling mechanism as estimated is surely a lower bound, and a more refined estimate would take into account specifically the regional cooling of Tharsis and lead to a higher frequency of seismic events.

  18. Seismic Ecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seleznev, V. S.; Soloviev, V. M.; Emanov, A. F.

    The paper is devoted to researches of influence of seismic actions for industrial and civil buildings and people. The seismic actions bring influence directly on the people (vibration actions, force shocks at earthquakes) or indirectly through various build- ings and the constructions and can be strong (be felt by people) and weak (be fixed by sensing devices). The great number of work is devoted to influence of violent seismic actions (first of all of earthquakes) on people and various constructions. This work is devoted to study weak, but long seismic actions on various buildings and people. There is a need to take into account seismic oscillations, acting on the territory, at construction of various buildings on urbanized territories. Essential influence, except for violent earthquakes, man-caused seismic actions: the explosions, seismic noise, emitted by plant facilities and moving transport, radiation from high-rise buildings and constructions under action of a wind, etc. can exert. Materials on increase of man- caused seismicity in a number of regions in Russia, which earlier were not seismic, are presented in the paper. Along with maps of seismic microzoning maps to be built indicating a variation of amplitude spectra of seismic noise within day, months, years. The presence of an information about amplitudes and frequencies of oscillations from possible earthquakes and man-caused oscillations in concrete regions allows carry- ing out soundly designing and construction of industrial and civil housing projects. The construction of buildings even in not seismically dangerous regions, which have one from resonance frequencies coincident on magnitude to frequency of oscillations, emitted in this place by man-caused objects, can end in failure of these buildings and heaviest consequences for the people. The practical examples of detail of engineering- seismological investigation of large industrial and civil housing projects of Siberia territory (hydro power

  19. Accreditation Summary Report of Idaho Schools, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idaho State Department of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Mission of the Idaho State Department of Education is to promote a thorough system of public education by providing leadership and consultation to school districts, the public, and partner agencies. The State Department of Education will assist in delivering excellent programs and services, leading to success for all learners and meeting the…

  20. Prairie State Achievement Examination: Teacher's Handbook, 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This handbook contains information for high school educators--teachers, curriculum coordinators, counselors, and principals--as they prepare students to take the Prairie State Achievement Examination (PSAE). The first section explains the purpose of the PSAE, gives timelines and test-day schedules, and shows how the PSAE is constructed. The rest…

  1. Student Aid Audio Guide, 2003-2004. [CD-ROM].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This CD-ROM contains a simulated conversation between a counselor at the Department of Education's Federal Student Aid Information Center and a student inquiring about financial assistance. The information pertains to the year from July 2003 through June 2004. Following an introductory track containing information about the contents of the CD,…

  2. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  3. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  4. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to demonstrate upon…

  5. Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing 2002/2003/2004

    SciTech Connect

    A.Keith Dunker

    2004-10-26

    Brief introduction to Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing The Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing is an international, multidisciplinary conference covering current research in the theory and the application of computational methods in problems of biological significance. Researchers from the United States, the Asian Pacific nations and around the world gather each year at PSB to exchange research results and discuss open issues in all aspects of computational biology. PSB provides a forum for work on databases, algorithms, interfaces, visualization, modeling and other computational methods, as applied to biological problems. The data-rich areas of molecular biology are emphasized. PSB is the only meeting in the bioinformatics field with sessions defined dynamically each year in response to specific proposals from the participants. Sessions are organized by leaders in emerging areas to provide forums for publication and for discussion of research in biocomputing ''hot topics''. PSB therefore enables discussion of emerging methods and approaches in this rapidly changing field. PSB has been designated as one of the major meetings in this field by the recently established International Society for Computational Biology (see www.iscb.org). Papers and presentations are peer reviewed typically with 3 reviews per paper plus editorial oversight from the conference organizers. The accepted papers are published in an archival proceedings volume, which is indexed by PubMed, and electronically (see http://psb.stanford.edu/). Finally, given the tight schedule from submission of papers to their publication, typically 5 to 5 1/2 months, the PSB proceedings each year represents one of the most up-to-date surveys of current trends in bioinformatics.

  6. Wheeler County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Homer, Will

    2006-01-01

    Number of Contacts Made--I have contacted 35 landowners in Wheeler County. Of the 35 contacts 12 have resulted in meeting on their property to discuss available options. Included an article in the Annual Report and Wheeler SWCD newsletter mailed to 550 landowners. Contacts are primarily through networking with others here in the office as well as working closely with the NRCS office. Number of Contracts Negotiated--This Project has produced five riparian buffers within the past contract year. Each has greater meaning to the landowner than simply a buffer. In most cases the buffer is providing the landowner with improved grazing management and/or more reliable water source for livestock. Landowners also feel the enhanced wildlife habitat is a bonus to the program. Other Accomplishments--I took part in the John Day Subbasin Planning process and was able to offer assistance into the inventory items related to Wheeler County. I was often the only local representative able to attend the meetings. I assisted the Wheeler SWCD in writing a successful OWEB grant to remove 110 acres of junipers for watershed restoration, range rehabilitation, and economic development. One partner in the project is a manufacturer that uses juniper as their primary construction material. The goal is to create a pilot project that may grow into a self sustaining industry within the county. I also assisted in writing a small grant to improve water usage in the Muddy Creek watershed. I assisted with the Pine Creek Conservation Area ''Twilight Tour'' as well as the Wheeler SWCD ''Annual Meeting and Dinner''. Both events were successful in getting information out about our riparian buffer program. Facilitate office training and utilization of advanced GIS technology and mapping. Problems Encountered During Contract Year--The NRCS Cultural Resources Review process has ground to a halt. It is takes 6 months to get initial results from the Portland offices. Nearly all requests require site surveys that delay the process even further. The Farm Services Agency is not user friendly when it comes to the CREP program. The program has not been designed to fit everyone along a steelhead stream. Crop/Field designations often negate or complicate CREP eligibility along qualifying streams. I spend a great deal of time mediating between FSA and the landowner. I have lost one interested landowner specifically to the fears related to the Oregon Department of State Lands ''Navigability'' study. Outlook for Contract Year 3--I am currently working on a project area that will encompass nearly six miles of steelhead habitat. It is located in the critical Bridge Creek watershed. Another is nearly three miles in the Mountain Creek Watershed. Both projects will take great steps in improving fish habitat. Both are on Steelhead streams. Further out I am working with two landowners for projects in the Butte Creek watershed that will be highly visible and will likely gain the attention of many more landowners. Like all previous projects, there is a great deal of work in future projects in massaging the landowner into feeling comfortable with the riparian buffer program. The potential to do great things with this program is huge in Wheeler County. Continuing outreach and education efforts will help the process.

  7. Gilliam County Riparian Buffers; 2003-2004 Annual Reports.

    SciTech Connect

    Coiner, Josh

    2004-06-01

    Interest appears to be at an all-time high for riparian conservation programs in Gilliam County. With the recently added Herbaceous Buffer and the already established CREP program interest is booming. However, more and more people are turning towards the herbaceous buffer because of expense. The riparian forest buffer is becoming too expensive. Even with the excellent cost share and incentives landowners are having trouble with Farm Service Agency's payment limitation. Because of this payment limitation landowners are not receiving their full rental and incentive payments, usually in year one. This has cooled the installation of riparian forest buffers and peaked interest in the CP-29 (Herbaceous Buffer for Wildlife). Either way, riparian lands are being enhanced and water quality is being improved. Year three should be very similar to the accomplishments of year 2. There has already been several projects proposed that may or may not be approved during year 3. I am currently working on three projects that are all over 2.5 miles long on each side and total anywhere from 60 to 250 acres in size. Along with these three projects there at least seven small projects being proposed. Four of those projects are riparian forest buffers and the remaining are herbaceous buffers.

  8. Application Processing, 2003-2004. EDExpress Training. Participant Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Student Financial Assistance (ED), Washington, DC.

    This participant guide contains training materials for processing applications for student financial aid under the EDExpress system. Representatives of institutions of higher education receive training in the use of EDExpress software that allows the school to manage student financial aid records. The guide contains these sessions: (1) welcome and…

  9. Wasco Riparian Buffer Project, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, Ron

    2003-07-01

    This project implements riparian buffer systems in the Mid-Columbia, addressing limiting factors identified in the Deschutes River Sub-basin Summary, March 2, 2001. This project is providing the technical planning support needed to implement at least 20 riparian buffer system contracts on approximately 800 acres covering an estimated 36 miles of anadromous fish streams. During this second year of implementation, 17 buffer contracts were established on 173,462 ft. of stream (25.9 miles). Acreage included in the buffers totaled 891.6 acres. Average buffer width was 112 ft. on each side of the stream. Cumulative totals through the first two project years are 26 buffers on 36.6 stream miles covering 1,283.6 acres. Actual implementation costs, lease payments, and maintenance costs will be borne by existing USDA programs: Conservation Reserve (CRP) and Conservation Reserve Enhancement Programs (CREP). The lease period of each contract may vary from 10 to 15 years. During this year, the average lease period was 14.9 years. The total value of contracts established this year is $1,421,268 compared with $55,504 in BPA contract costs to provide the technical support needed to get the contracts implemented. Cumulative contract value for the first two years is $1,919,451 compared to $103,329 cost to BPA. This project provides technical staffing to conduct assessments and develop conservation plans required for riparian buffer systems to help keep pace with a growing backlog of potential buffer projects. This project meets a critical need in the lower Deschutes and lower John Day River basins and complements the Riparian Buffer project approved for Fifteenmile watershed, Project No. 2001-021-00 begun in fiscal year 2001. This project supports RPA 150 and 153 as required under the Federal Hydropower System biological opinion and benefits the mid-Columbia ESU of steelhead.

  10. Flathead River Focus Watershed Coordinator, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    DuCharme, Lynn

    2004-06-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has long been involved with funding of the Cooperative Habitat Protection and Improvement with Private Landowners program in accordance with the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Fish & Wildlife Program (Section 7.7). Section 7.7B.1 requires the establishment of ''at least one model watershed coordinator selected by each representative state''. This project was initiated in 1997 with the purpose of fulfilling the NWPCC's watershed program within the Flathead River basin in western Montana. Currently, the Flathead watershed has been radically altered by hydropower and other land uses. With the construction of Hungry Horse, Bigfork and Kerr dams, the Flathead River system has been divided into isolated populations. Bull trout have been listed as threatened by the US Fish and Wildlife Service and westslope cutthroat trout have been petitioned for listing. Many streams in the drainage have been destabilized during recent decades. Past legal and illegal species introductions are also causing problems. This project fosters in-kind, out-of-place mitigation to offset the impacts of hydroelectric power to 72 miles of the South Fork of the Flathead River and its tributaries upstream of Hungry Horse Dam. Key subbasins within the Flathead drainage, which are critical to native species restoration, are experiencing rapid changes in land ownership and management direction. Subdivision and residential development of agricultural and timber lands adjacent to waterways in the drainage pose one of the greatest threats to weak but recoverable stocks of trout species. Plum Creek Timber Company, a major landholder in the Flathead drainage is currently divesting itself of large tracks of its lakeshore and streamside holdings. Growth of small tract development throughout the area and its tributaries is occurring at a record rate. Immediate to short-term action is required to protect stream corridors through many of these areas if cost-effective recovery efforts are to be implemented. In order to adequately address the issues, other segments of society and other (non-BPA) funding sources must be incorporated into the solution. As stated in the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (section 7.7), ''Comprehensive watershed management should enhance and expedite implementation of actions by clearly identifying gaps in programs and knowledge, by striving over time to resolve conflicts, and by keying on activities that address priorities''. A watershed coordinator helps to initiate and facilitate efforts for addressing the issues mentioned above and pulling together a plan for mitigation. Local support is essential before local governments and individual citizens are going to allow government initiatives to be implemented.

  11. Hungry Horse Mitigation; Flathead Lake, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, Barry; Evarts, Les

    2005-06-01

    The Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) and Montana Fish Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) wrote the ''Fisheries Mitigation Plan for Losses Attributable to the Construction and Operation of Hungry Horse Dam'' in March 1991 to define the fisheries losses, mitigation alternatives and recommendations to protect, mitigate and enhance resident fish and aquatic habitat affected by Hungry Horse Dam. On November 12, 1991, the Northwest Power Planning Council (NPPC) approved the mitigation plan with minor modifications, called for a detailed implementation plan, and amended measures 903(h)(1) through (7). A long-term mitigation plan was submitted in August 1992, was approved by the Council in 1993, and the first contract for this project was signed on November 11, 1993. The problem this project addresses is the loss of habitat, both in quality and quantity, in the Flathead Lake and River basin resulting from the construction and operation of Hungry Horse Dam. The purpose of the project is to both implement mitigation measures and monitor the biological responses to those measures including those implemented by Project Numbers 9101903 and 9101904. Goals and objectives of the 1994 Fish and Wildlife Program (Section 10.1) addressed by this project are the rebuilding to sustainable levels weak, but recoverable, native populations injured by the hydropower system. The project mitigates the blockage of spawning runs by Hungry Horse Dam by restoring and even creating spawning habitats within direct drainages to Flathead Lake. The project also addresses the altered habitat within Flathead Lake resulting from species shifts and consequent dominance of new species that restricts the potential success of mitigation measures. Specific goals of this project are to create and restore habitat and quantitatively monitor changes in fish populations to verify the efficacy of our mitigation measures. The project consists of three components: monitoring, restoration and research. Monitoring, for example, includes a spring gillnetting series conducted annually in Flathead Lake and builds on an existing data set initiated in 1981. Monitoring of the experimental kokanee reintroduction was a primary activity of this project between 1992 and 1997. Lake trout, whose high densities have precluded successful mitigation of losses of other species in Flathead Lake, have been monitored since 1996 to measure several biological parameters. Results of this work have utility in determining the population status of this key predator in Flathead Lake. The project has also defined the baseline condition of the Flathead Lake fishery in 1992-1993 and has conducted annual lakewide surveys since 1998. The restoration component of the project has addressed several stream channel, riparian, and fish passage problems, and suppression of non-native fish. The research component of the project began in FY 2000 and measured trophic linkages between M. relicta and other species to assist in predicting the results of our efforts to suppress lake trout. Only Objective 1 in the workplan is funded entirely by Hungry Horse Mitigation funds. Additional funds are drawn from other sources to assist in completion of Objectives 2-8.

  12. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  13. Riverdale Elementary "Learning Without Limits" 2003-2004 Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Michael M.; Ross, Steven M.; Wang, Weiping; Potter, Allison; Wilson, Yola

    2004-01-01

    This report discusses the findings from an evaluation study of the Learning Without Limits program in the fifth grade at Riverdale Elementary in the Shelby County Schools district, Memphis, Tennessee. The overall purpose of the evaluation was twofold: (a) to provide formative evaluation data to Riverdale School to use as a basis for improvement…

  14. Seismic bearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Power, Dennis

    2009-05-01

    Textron Systems (Textron) has been using geophones for target detection for many years. This sensing capability was utilized for detection and classification purposes only. Recently Textron has been evaluating multiaxis geophones to calculate bearings and track targets more specifically personnel. This capability will not only aid the system in locating personnel in bearing space or cartesian space but also enhance detection and reduce false alarms. Textron has been involved in the testing and evaluation of several sensors at multiple sites. One of the challenges of calculating seismic bearing is an adequate signal to noise ratio. The sensor signal to noise ratio is a function of sensor coupling to the ground, seismic propagation and range to target. The goals of testing at multiple sites are to gain a good understanding of the maximum and minimum ranges for bearing and detection and to exploit that information to tailor sensor system emplacement to achieve desired performance. Test sites include 10A Site Devens, MA, McKenna Airfield Ft. Benning, GA and Yuma Proving Ground Yuma, AZ. Geophone sensors evaluated include a 28 Hz triax spike, a 15 Hz triax spike and a hybrid triax spike consisting of a 10 Hz vertical geophone and two 28 Hz horizontal geophones. The algorithm uses raw seismic data to calculate the bearings. All evaluated sensors have triaxial geophone configuration mounted to a spike housing/fixture. The suite of sensors also compares various types of geophones to evaluate benefits in lower bandwidth. The data products of these tests include raw geophone signals, seismic features, seismic bearings, seismic detection and GPS position truth data. The analyses produce Probability of Detection vs range, bearing accuracy vs range, and seismic feature level vs range. These analysis products are compared across test sites and sensor types.

  15. Seismic Studies

    SciTech Connect

    R. Quittmeyer

    2006-09-25

    This technical work plan (TWP) describes the efforts to develop and confirm seismic ground motion inputs used for preclosure design and probabilistic safety 'analyses and to assess the postclosure performance of a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. As part of the effort to develop seismic inputs, the TWP covers testing and analyses that provide the technical basis for inputs to the seismic ground-motion site-response model. The TWP also addresses preparation of a seismic methodology report for submission to the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The activities discussed in this TWP are planned for fiscal years (FY) 2006 through 2008. Some of the work enhances the technical basis for previously developed seismic inputs and reduces uncertainties and conservatism used in previous analyses and modeling. These activities support the defense of a license application. Other activities provide new results that will support development of the preclosure, safety case; these results directly support and will be included in the license application. Table 1 indicates which activities support the license application and which support licensing defense. The activities are listed in Section 1.2; the methods and approaches used to implement them are discussed in more detail in Section 2.2. Technical and performance objectives of this work scope are: (1) For annual ground motion exceedance probabilities appropriate for preclosure design analyses, provide site-specific seismic design acceleration response spectra for a range of damping values; strain-compatible soil properties; peak motions, strains, and curvatures as a function of depth; and time histories (acceleration, velocity, and displacement). Provide seismic design inputs for the waste emplacement level and for surface sites. Results should be consistent with the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) for Yucca Mountain and reflect, as appropriate, available knowledge on the limits to extreme ground motion at

  16. Seismic Tomography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Don L.; Dziewonski, Adam M.

    1984-01-01

    Describes how seismic tomography is used to analyze the waves produced by earthquakes. The information obtained from the procedure can then be used to map the earth's mantle in three dimensions. The resulting maps are then studied to determine such information as the convective flow that propels the crustal plates. (JN)

  17. Seismic Symphonies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strinna, Elisa; Ferrari, Graziano

    2015-04-01

    The project started in 2008 as a sound installation, a collaboration between an artist, a barrel organ builder and a seismologist. The work differs from other attempts of sound transposition of seismic records. In this case seismic frequencies are not converted automatically into the "sound of the earthquake." However, it has been studied a musical translation system that, based on the organ tonal scale, generates a totally unexpected sequence of sounds which is intended to evoke the emotions aroused by the earthquake. The symphonies proposed in the project have somewhat peculiar origins: they in fact come to life from the translation of graphic tracks into a sound track. The graphic tracks in question are made up by copies of seismograms recorded during some earthquakes that have taken place around the world. Seismograms are translated into music by a sculpture-instrument, half a seismograph and half a barrel organ. The organ plays through holes practiced on paper. Adapting the documents to the instrument score, holes have been drilled on the waves' peaks. The organ covers about three tonal scales, starting from heavy and deep sounds it reaches up to high and jarring notes. The translation of the seismic records is based on a criterion that does match the highest sounds to larger amplitudes with lower ones to minors. Translating the seismogram in the organ score, the larger the amplitude of recorded waves, the more the seismogram covers the full tonal scale played by the barrel organ and the notes arouse an intense emotional response in the listener. Elisa Strinna's Seismic Symphonies installation becomes an unprecedented tool for emotional involvement, through which can be revived the memory of the greatest disasters of over a century of seismic history of the Earth. A bridge between art and science. Seismic Symphonies is also a symbolic inversion: the instrument of the organ is most commonly used in churches, and its sounds are derived from the heavens and

  18. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, M.A.; Cook, N.G.W.; McEvilly, T.V.; Majer, E.L.; Witherspoon, P.A.

    1987-04-20

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Longitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements for more than about one minute. 9 figs.

  19. Seismic refraction exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Ruehle, W.H.

    1980-12-30

    In seismic exploration, refracted seismic energy is detected by seismic receivers to produce seismograms of subsurface formations. The seismograms are produced by directing seismic energy from an array of sources at an angle to be refracted by the subsurface formations and detected by the receivers. The directivity of the array is obtained by delaying the seismic pulses produced by each source in the source array.

  20. Seismic sources

    DOEpatents

    Green, Michael A.; Cook, Neville G. W.; McEvilly, Thomas V.; Majer, Ernest L.; Witherspoon, Paul A.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus is described for placement in a borehole in the earth, which enables the generation of closely controlled seismic waves from the borehole. Pure torsional shear waves are generated by an apparatus which includes a stator element fixed to the borehole walls and a rotor element which is electrically driven to rapidly oscillate on the stator element to cause reaction forces transmitted through the borehole walls to the surrounding earth. Logitudinal shear waves are generated by an armature that is driven to rapidly oscillate along the axis of the borehole relative to a stator that is clamped to the borehole, to cause reaction forces transmitted to the surrounding earth. Pressure waves are generated by electrically driving pistons that press against opposite ends of a hydraulic reservoir that fills the borehole. High power is generated by energizing the elements at a power level that causes heating to over 150.degree. C. within one minute of operation, but energizing the elements for no more than about one minute.

  1. Active seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, R. L.; Watkins, J. S.; Talwani, P.

    1972-01-01

    The Apollo 16 active seismic experiment (ASE) was designed to generate and monitor seismic waves for the study of the lunar near-surface structure. Several seismic energy sources are used: an astronaut-activated thumper device, a mortar package that contains rocket-launched grenades, and the impulse produced by the lunar module ascent. Analysis of some seismic signals recorded by the ASE has provided data concerning the near-surface structure at the Descartes landing site. Two compressional seismic velocities have so far been recognized in the seismic data. The deployment of the ASE is described, and the significant results obtained are discussed.

  2. Seismic intrusion detector system

    DOEpatents

    Hawk, Hervey L.; Hawley, James G.; Portlock, John M.; Scheibner, James E.

    1976-01-01

    A system for monitoring man-associated seismic movements within a control area including a geophone for generating an electrical signal in response to seismic movement, a bandpass amplifier and threshold detector for eliminating unwanted signals, pulse counting system for counting and storing the number of seismic movements within the area, and a monitoring system operable on command having a variable frequency oscillator generating an audio frequency signal proportional to the number of said seismic movements.

  3. Angola Seismicity MAP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neto, F. A. P.; Franca, G.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this job was to study and document the Angola natural seismicity, establishment of the first database seismic data to facilitate consultation and search for information on seismic activity in the country. The study was conducted based on query reports produced by National Institute of Meteorology and Geophysics (INAMET) 1968 to 2014 with emphasis to the work presented by Moreira (1968), that defined six seismogenic zones from macro seismic data, with highlighting is Zone of Sá da Bandeira (Lubango)-Chibemba-Oncócua-Iona. This is the most important of Angola seismic zone, covering the epicentral Quihita and Iona regions, geologically characterized by transcontinental structure tectono-magmatic activation of the Mesozoic with the installation of a wide variety of intrusive rocks of ultrabasic-alkaline composition, basic and alkaline, kimberlites and carbonatites, strongly marked by intense tectonism, presenting with several faults and fractures (locally called corredor de Lucapa). The earthquake of May 9, 1948 reached intensity VI on the Mercalli-Sieberg scale (MCS) in the locality of Quihita, and seismic active of Iona January 15, 1964, the main shock hit the grade VI-VII. Although not having significant seismicity rate can not be neglected, the other five zone are: Cassongue-Ganda-Massano de Amorim; Lola-Quilengues-Caluquembe; Gago Coutinho-zone; Cuima-Cachingues-Cambândua; The Upper Zambezi zone. We also analyzed technical reports on the seismicity of the middle Kwanza produced by Hidroproekt (GAMEK) region as well as international seismic bulletins of the International Seismological Centre (ISC), United States Geological Survey (USGS), and these data served for instrumental location of the epicenters. All compiled information made possible the creation of the First datbase of seismic data for Angola, preparing the map of seismicity with the reconfirmation of the main seismic zones defined by Moreira (1968) and the identification of a new seismic

  4. Seismic signal of avalanches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Ravanat, Xavier; Thibert, Emmanuel

    2010-05-01

    The characterization of avalanches with seismic signals is an important task. For risk mitigation, estimating remotely avalanche activity by means of seismic signals is a good alternative to direct observations that are often limited by visual conditions and observer's availability. In seismology, the main challenge is to discriminate avalanche signals within the natural earth seismic activity and background noise. Some anthropogenic low frequency (infra-sound) sources like helicopters also generate seismic signals. In order to characterize an avalanche seismic signal, a 3-axis broad band seismometer (Guralp 3T) has been set-up on a real scale avalanche test site in Lautaret (France). The sensor is located in proximity of 2 avalanche paths where avalanches can be artificially released. Preliminary results of seismic records are presented, correlated with avalanche physical parameters (volume released, velocity, energy).

  5. P and S velocity tomography of the Mariana subduction system from a combined land-sea seismic deployment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barklage, Mitchell; Wiens, Douglas A.; Conder, James A.; Pozgay, Sara; Shiobara, Hajime; Sugioka, Hiroko

    2015-03-01

    Seismic imaging provides an opportunity to constrain mantle wedge processes associated with subduction, volatile transport, arc volcanism, and back-arc spreading. We investigate the seismic velocity structure of the upper mantle across the Central Mariana subduction system using data from the 2003-2004 Mariana Subduction Factory Imaging Experiment, an 11 month deployment consisting of 20 broadband seismic stations installed on islands and 58 semibroadband ocean bottom seismographs. We determine the three-dimensional VP and VP/VS structure using over 25,000 local and over 2000 teleseismic arrival times. The mantle wedge is characterized by slow velocity and high VP/VS beneath the fore arc, an inclined zone of slow velocity underlying the volcanic front, and a strong region of slow velocity beneath the back-arc spreading center. The slow velocities are strongest at depths of 20-30 km in the fore arc, 60-70 km beneath the volcanic arc, and 20-30 km beneath the spreading center. The fore-arc slow velocity anomalies occur beneath Big Blue seamount and are interpreted as resulting from mantle serpentinization. The depths of the maximum velocity anomalies beneath the arc and back arc are nearly identical to previous estimates of the final equilibrium depths of mantle melts from thermobarometry, strongly indicating that the low-velocity zones delineate regions of melt production in the mantle. The arc and back-arc melt production regions are well separated at shallow depths, but may be connected at depths greater than 80 km.

  6. Mapping Europe's Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardini, Domenico; Wössner, Jochen; Danciu, Laurentiu

    2014-07-01

    From the rift that cuts through the heart of Iceland to the complex tectonic convergence that causes frequent and often deadly earthquakes in Italy, Greece, and Turkey to the volcanic tremors that rattle the Mediterranean, seismic activity is a prevalent and often life-threatening reality across Europe. Any attempt to mitigate the seismic risk faced by society requires an accurate estimate of the seismic hazard.

  7. Volcano seismicity in Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buurman, Helena

    I examine the many facets of volcano seismicity in Alaska: from the short-lived eruption seismicity that is limited to only the few weeks during which a volcano is active, to the seismicity that occurs in the months following an eruption, and finally to the long-term volcano seismicity that occurs in the years in which volcanoes are dormant. I use the rich seismic dataset that was recorded during the 2009 eruption of Redoubt Volcano to examine eruptive volcano seismicity. I show that the progression of magma through the conduit system at Redoubt could be readily tracked by the seismicity. Many of my interpretations benefited greatly from the numerous other datasets collected during the eruption. Rarely was there volcanic activity that did not manifest itself in some way seismically, however, resulting in a remarkably complete chronology within the seismic record of the 2009 eruption. I also use the Redoubt seismic dataset to study post-eruptive seismicity. During the year following the eruption there were a number of unexplained bursts of shallow seismicity that did not culminate in eruptive activity despite closely mirroring seismic signals that had preceded explosions less than a year prior. I show that these episodes of shallow seismicity were in fact related to volcanic processes much deeper in the volcanic edifice by demonstrating that earthquakes that were related to magmatic activity during the eruption were also present during the renewed shallow unrest. These results show that magmatic processes can continue for many months after eruptions end, suggesting that volcanoes can stay active for much longer than previously thought. In the final chapter I characterize volcanic earthquakes on a much broader scale by analyzing a decade of continuous seismic data across 46 volcanoes in the Aleutian arc to search for regional-scale trends in volcano seismicity. I find that volcanic earthquakes below 20 km depth are much more common in the central region of the arc

  8. Seismic Imaging and Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Lianjie

    2012-07-09

    I give an overview of LANL's capability in seismic imaging and monitoring. I present some seismic imaging and monitoring results, including imaging of complex structures, subsalt imaging of Gulf of Mexico, fault/fracture zone imaging for geothermal exploration at the Jemez pueblo, time-lapse imaging of a walkway vertical seismic profiling data for monitoring CO{sub 2} inject at SACROC, and microseismic event locations for monitoring CO{sub 2} injection at Aneth. These examples demonstrate LANL's high-resolution and high-fidelity seismic imaging and monitoring capabilities.

  9. Seismic Catalogue and Seismic Network in Haiti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belizaire, D.; Benito, B.; Carreño, E.; Meneses, C.; Huerfano, V.; Polanco, E.; McCormack, D.

    2013-05-01

    The destructive earthquake occurred on January 10, 2010 in Haiti, highlighted the lack of preparedness of the country to address seismic phenomena. At the moment of the earthquake, there was no seismic network operating in the country, and only a partial control of the past seismicity was possible, due to the absence of a national catalogue. After the 2010 earthquake, some advances began towards the installation of a national network and the elaboration of a seismic catalogue providing the necessary input for seismic Hazard Studies. This paper presents the state of the works carried out covering both aspects. First, a seismic catalogue has been built, compiling data of historical and instrumental events occurred in the Hispaniola Island and surroundings, in the frame of the SISMO-HAITI project, supported by the Technical University of Madrid (UPM) and Developed in cooperation with the Observatoire National de l'Environnement et de la Vulnérabilité of Haiti (ONEV). Data from different agencies all over the world were gathered, being relevant the role of the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico seismological services which provides local data of their national networks. Almost 30000 events recorded in the area from 1551 till 2011 were compiled in a first catalogue, among them 7700 events with Mw ranges between 4.0 and 8.3. Since different magnitude scale were given by the different agencies (Ms, mb, MD, ML), this first catalogue was affected by important heterogeneity in the size parameter. Then it was homogenized to moment magnitude Mw using the empirical equations developed by Bonzoni et al (2011) for the eastern Caribbean. At present, this is the most exhaustive catalogue of the country, although it is difficult to assess its degree of completeness. Regarding the seismic network, 3 stations were installed just after the 2010 earthquake by the Canadian Government. The data were sent by telemetry thought the Canadian System CARINA. In 2012, the Spanish IGN together

  10. Seismic Computerized Alert Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 the USGS devised a model for a Seismic Computerized Alert Network (SCAN) that would use continuous monitoring of seismic data from existing types of instruments to provide automatic, highly-reliable early warnings of earthquake shaking. In a large earthquake, substantial damaging ground motions may occur at great distances from the earthquake's epicenter.

  11. Proceedings of seismic engineering 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, A.G. )

    1991-01-01

    This book contains proceedings of the Seismic Engineering Technical Subcommittee of the ASME Pressure Vessels and Piping Division. Topics covered include: seismic damping and energy absorption, advanced seismic analysis methods, new analysis techniques and applications of advanced methods, seismic supports and test results, margins inherent in the current design methods, and risk assessment, and component and equipment qualification.

  12. Method of migrating seismic records

    DOEpatents

    Ober, Curtis C.; Romero, Louis A.; Ghiglia, Dennis C.

    2000-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of migrating seismic records that retains the information in the seismic records and allows migration with significant reductions in computing cost. The present invention comprises phase encoding seismic records and combining the encoded seismic records before migration. Phase encoding can minimize the effect of unwanted cross terms while still allowing significant reductions in the cost to migrate a number of seismic records.

  13. Seismic sequences in the Sombrero Seismic Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulliam, J.; Huerfano, V. A.; ten Brink, U.; von Hillebrandt, C.

    2007-05-01

    The northeastern Caribbean, in the vicinity of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, has a long and well-documented history of devastating earthquakes and tsunamis, including major events in 1670, 1787, 1867, 1916, 1918, and 1943. Recently, seismicity has been concentrated to the north and west of the British Virgin Islands, in the region referred to as the Sombrero Seismic Zone by the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN). In the combined seismicity catalog maintained by the PRSN, several hundred small to moderate magnitude events can be found in this region prior to 2006. However, beginning in 2006 and continuing to the present, the rate of seismicity in the Sombrero suddenly increased, and a new locus of activity developed to the east of the previous location. Accurate estimates of seismic hazard, and the tsunamigenic potential of seismic events, depend on an accurate and comprehensive understanding of how strain is being accommodated in this corner region. Are faults locked and accumulating strain for release in a major event? Or is strain being released via slip over a diffuse system of faults? A careful analysis of seismicity patterns in the Sombrero region has the potential to both identify faults and modes of failure, provided the aggregation scheme is tuned to properly identify related events. To this end, we experimented with a scheme to identify seismic sequences based on physical and temporal proximity, under the assumptions that (a) events occur on related fault systems as stress is refocused by immediately previous events and (b) such 'stress waves' die out with time, so that two events that occur on the same system within a relatively short time window can be said to have a similar 'trigger' in ways that two nearby events that occurred years apart cannot. Patterns that emerge from the identification, temporal sequence, and refined locations of such sequences of events carry information about stress accommodation that is obscured by large clouds of

  14. BUILDING 341 Seismic Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Halle, J.

    2015-06-15

    The Seismic Evaluation of Building 341 located at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California has been completed. The subject building consists of a main building, Increment 1, and two smaller additions; Increments 2 and 3.

  15. Seismicity, 1980-86

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, D.P.; Eaton, J.P.; Jones, L.M.

    1990-01-01

    Tens of thousands of small earthquakes occur in California each year, reflecting brittle deformation of the margins of the Pacific and North American plates as they grind inexorably past one another along the San Andreas fault system. The deformational patterns revealed by this ongoing earthquake activity provide a wealth of information on the tectonic processes along this major transform boundary that, every few hundred years, culminate in rupture of the San Andreas fault in a great (M {approx} 8) earthquake. This chapter describes the regional seismicity and the San Andreas transform boundary; seismicity along the San Andreas Fault system; and focal mechanisms and transform-boundary kinematics. Seismicity patterns and the earthquake cycle and distributed seismicity and deformation of the plate margins are discussed.

  16. Seismic attenuation in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Bellini, J.J.; Bartolini, T.J.; Lord, K.M.; Smith, D.L. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    Seismic signals recorded by the expanded distribution of earthquake seismograph stations throughout Florida and data from a comprehensive review of record archives from stations GAI contribute to an initial seismic attenuation model for the Florida Plateau. Based on calculations of surface particle velocity, a pattern of attenuation exists that appears to deviate from that established for the remainder of the southeastern US. Most values suggest greater seismic attenuation within the Florida Plateau. However, a separate pattern may exist for those signals arising from the Gulf of Mexico. These results have important implications for seismic hazard assessments in Florida and may be indicative of the unique lithospheric identity of the Florida basement as an exotic terrane.

  17. Seismic Ray Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, V.

    2001-07-01

    The seismic ray method plays an important role in seismology, seismic exploration, and in the interpretation of seismic measurements. Seismic Ray Theory presents the most comprehensive treatment of the method available. Many new concepts that extend the possibilities and increase the method's efficiency are included. The book has a tutorial character: derivations start with a relatively simple problem, in which the main ideas are easier to explain, and then advance to more complex problems. Most of the derived equations are expressed in algorithmic form and may be used directly for computer programming. This book will prove to be an invaluable advanced text and reference in all academic institutions in which seismology is taught or researched.

  18. Passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Ewing, M.; Press, F.; Sutton, G.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Toksoz, N.; Lammlein, D.; Duennebier, F.

    1972-01-01

    The establishment of a network of seismic stations on the lunar surface as a result of equipment installed by Apollo 12, 14, and 15 flights is described. Four major discoveries obtained by analyzing seismic data from the network are discussed. The use of the system to detect vibrations of the lunar surface and the use of the data to determine the internal structure, physical state, and tectonic activity of the moon are examined.

  19. AUTOMATING SHALLOW SEISMIC IMAGING

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2003-09-14

    The current project is a continuation of an effort to develop ultrashallow seismic imaging as a cost-effective method potentially applicable to DOE facilities. The objective of the present research is to develop and demonstrate the use of a cost-effective, automated method of conducting shallow seismic surveys, an approach that represents a significant departure from conventional seismic-survey field procedures. Initial testing of a mechanical geophone-planting device suggests that large numbers of geophones can be placed both quickly and automatically. The development of such a device could make the application of SSR considerably more efficient and less expensive. The imaging results obtained using automated seismic methods will be compared with results obtained using classical seismic techniques. Although this research falls primarily into the field of seismology, for comparison and quality-control purposes, some GPR data will be collected as well. In the final year of th e research, demonstration surveys at one or more DOE facilities will be performed. An automated geophone-planting device of the type under development would not necessarily be limited to the use of shallow seismic reflection methods; it also would be capable of collecting data for seismic-refraction and possibly for surface-wave studies. Another element of our research plan involves monitoring the cone of depression of a pumping well that is being used as a proxy site for fluid-flow at a contaminated site. Our next data set will be collected at a well site where drawdown equilibrium has been reached. Noninvasive, in-situ methods such as placing geophones automatically and using near-surface seismic methods to identify and characterize the hydrologic flow regimes at contaminated sites support the prospect of developing effective, cost-conscious cleanup strategies for DOE and others.

  20. Seismic offset balancing

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, C.P.; Beale, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    The ability to successfully predict lithology and fluid content from reflection seismic records using AVO techniques is contingent upon accurate pre-analysis conditioning of the seismic data. However, all too often, residual amplitude effects remain after the many offset-dependent processing steps are completed. Residual amplitude effects often represent a significant error when compared to the amplitude variation with offset (AVO) response that the authors are attempting to quantify. They propose a model-based, offset-dependent amplitude balancing method that attempts to correct for these residuals and other errors due to sub-optimal processing. Seismic offset balancing attempts to quantify the relationship between the offset response of back-ground seismic reflections and corresponding theoretical predictions for average lithologic interfaces thought to cause these background reflections. It is assumed that any deviation from the theoretical response is a result of residual processing phenomenon and/or suboptimal processing, and a simple offset-dependent scaling function is designed to correct for these differences. This function can then be applied to seismic data over both prospective and nonprospective zones within an area where the theoretical values are appropriate and the seismic characteristics are consistent. A conservative application of the above procedure results in an AVO response over both gas sands and wet sands that is much closer to theoretically expected values. A case history from the Gulf of Mexico Flexure Trend is presented as an example to demonstrate the offset balancing technique.

  1. Seismic Safety Study

    SciTech Connect

    Tokarz, F J; Coats, D W

    2006-05-16

    During the past three decades, the Laboratory has been proactive in providing a seismically safe working environment for its employees and the general public. Completed seismic upgrades during this period have exceeded $30M with over 24 buildings structurally upgraded. Nevertheless, seismic questions still frequently arise regarding the safety of existing buildings. To address these issues, a comprehensive study was undertaken to develop an improved understanding of the seismic integrity of the Laboratory's entire building inventory at the Livermore Main Site and Site 300. The completed study of February 2005 extended the results from the 1998 seismic safety study per Presidential Executive Order 12941, which required each federal agency to develop an inventory of its buildings and to estimate the cost of mitigating unacceptable seismic risks. Degenkolb Engineers, who performed the first study, was recontracted to perform structural evaluations, rank order the buildings based on their level of seismic deficiencies, and to develop conceptual rehabilitation schemes for the most seriously deficient buildings. Their evaluation is based on screening procedures and guidelines as established by the Interagency Committee on Seismic Safety in Construction (ICSSC). Currently, there is an inventory of 635 buildings in the Laboratory's Facility Information Management System's (FIMS's) database, out of which 58 buildings were identified by Degenkolb Engineers that require seismic rehabilitation. The remaining 577 buildings were judged to be adequate from a seismic safety viewpoint. The basis for these evaluations followed the seismic safety performance objectives of DOE standard (DOE STD 1020) Performance Category 1 (PC1). The 58 buildings were ranked according to three risk-based priority classifications (A, B, and C) as shown in Figure 1-1 (all 58 buildings have structural deficiencies). Table 1-1 provides a brief description of their expected performance and damage state

  2. Radiation oncology career decision variables for graduating trainees seeking positions in 2003-2004

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Lynn D. . E-mail: lynn.wilson@yale.edu; Flynn, Daniel F.; Haffty, Bruce G.

    2005-06-01

    Purpose: Radiation oncology trainees must consider an array of variables when deciding upon an academic or private practice career path. This prospective evaluation of the 2004 graduating radiation oncology trainees, evaluates such variables and provides additional descriptive data. Methods: A survey that included 15 questions (one subjective, eleven categorical, and 3 continuous variables) was mailed to the 144 graduating radiation oncology trainees in United States programs in January of 2004. Questions were designed to gather information regarding factors that may have influenced career path choices. The responses were anonymous, and no identifying information was sought. Survey data were collated and analyzed for differences in both categorical and continuous variables as they related to choice of academic or private practice career path. Results: Sixty seven (47%) of the surveys were returned. Forty-five percent of respondents indicated pursuit of an academic career. All respondents participated in research during training with 73% participating in research publication authorship. Post graduate year-3 was the median in which career path was chosen, and 20% thought that a fellowship position was 'perhaps' necessary to secure an academic position. Thirty percent of the respondents revealed that the timing of the American Board of Radiology examination influenced their career path decision. Eighteen variables were offered as possibly influencing career path choice within the survey, and the top five identified by those seeking an academic path were: (1) colleagues, (2) clinical research, (3) teaching, (4) geography, (5) and support staff. For those seeking private practice, the top choices were: (1) lifestyle, (2) practice environment, (3) patient care, (4) geography, (5) colleagues. Female gender (p = 0.064), oral meeting presentation (p = 0.053), and international meeting presentation (p 0.066) were the variables most significantly associated with pursuing an academic career path. The following variables were ranked significantly differently in hierarchy (p < 0.05) by those seeking an academic versus private practice path with respect to having influence on the career decision: lifestyle, income, case-mix, autonomy, ability to sub-specialize, basic research, clinical research, teaching, patient care, board structure, practice environment, and mentoring. Conclusion: These data offer descriptive information regarding variables that lead to radiation oncology trainee career path decisions. Such information may be of use in modification of training programs to meet future personnel and programmatic needs within the specialty.

  3. Assessment of Native Salmonids Above Hells Canyon Dam, Idaho, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Kevin A.; Lamansky, Jr., James A.

    2004-08-01

    Despite the substantial declines in distribution and abundance that the Yellowstone cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri has experienced over the past century, quantitative evaluations of existing population sizes over broad portions of its historical range have not been made. In this study, we estimate trout abundance throughout the Upper Snake River basin in Idaho (and portions of adjacent states), based on stratified sample extrapolations of electrofishing surveys conducted at 961 study sites, the vast majority of which (84%) were selected randomly. Yellowstone cutthroat trout were the most widely distributed species of trout (caught at 457 study sites), followed by brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis (242 sites), rainbow trout O. mykiss and rainbow x cutthroat hybrids (136 sites), and brown trout Salmo trutta (70 sites). Of the sites that contained cutthroat trout, more than half did not contain any other species of trout. Where nonnative trout were sympatric with cutthroat trout, brook trout were most commonly present. In the 11 Geographic Management Units (GMUs) where sample size permitted abundance estimates, there were about 2.2 million trout {ge}100 mm, and of these, about one-half were cutthroat trout. Similarly, we estimated that about 2.0 million trout <100 mm were present, of which about 1.2 million were cutthroat trout. The latter estimate is biased low because our inability to estimate abundance of trout <100 mm in larger-order rivers negated our ability to account for them at all. Cutthroat trout were divided into approximately 70 subpopulations but estimates could be made for only 55 subpopulations; of these, 44 subpopulations contained more than 1,000 cutthroat trout and 28 contained more than 2,500 cutthroat trout. Using a logistic regression model to predict the number of spawning cutthroat trout at a given study site, we estimate that an average of about 30% of the cutthroat trout {ge}100 mm are spawners. We compared visually-based phenotypic assessments of hybridization with subsequent genetic analyses from 55 of the study sites and found that: (1) genetic analysis corroborated our visual determination that hybridization was absent at 37 of 55 sites; (2) at the seven sites where we visually failed to discern genetically-detected hybridization, the percent of rainbow trout alleles in the population was low (<1 %) at all but two locations; and (3) where we detected hybridization both visually and genetically (11 sites), levels of introgression were positively correlated between methods (r{sub 2} = 0.65). Based on this strong agreement, we phenotypically classified cutthroat trout as ''pure'' and ''{ge}90% pure'' at 81% and 90%, respectively, of the study sites within these GMUs. Our results suggest that, despite the presence of nonnative threats (genetic and competitive) in much of their current range in Idaho, Yellowstone cutthroat trout populations remain widely distributed and appear healthy in several river drainages in the Upper Snake River basin. Nevertheless, ongoing efforts to secure core cutthroat trout populations, protect areas from further nonnative invasions, and restore disturbed habitat are recommended for further protection of Yellowstone cutthroat trout in Idaho.

  4. Student-Level Analysis of Year 1 (2003-2004) Achievement Outcomes for Tennessee Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Steven M.; McDonald, Aaron J.; Gallagher, Brenda McSparrin

    2005-01-01

    This report presents student-level achievement results for the four charter schools that began operation in Tennessee during the 2003-04 academic year. To conduct a rigorous and valid analysis of student achievement outcomes at these schools, we employed a matched program-control design at the student level, whereby each charter school student was…

  5. [Evaluation of dermatological symptoms of Yusho patients in the annual examination in 2003-2004].

    PubMed

    Uenotsuchi, Takeshi; Furue, Masutaka; Nakayama, Juichiro; Asahi, Masakazu; Kanagawa, Yoshiyuki; Imamura, Tomoaki

    2005-05-01

    We evaluated the severity grades and the skin severity scores of the skin symptoms who visited the annual examinations of Fukuoka prefecture in 2003 and 2004. The severity of skin symptoms improved significantly in the first 20 years; nowadays, however, further improvement can hardly be observed. More than 36 years have passed since the Yusho incident, and about 60% of the patients currently present no skin symptoms. In contrast, in about 40% of the patients, characteristic skin symptoms of Yusho, such as pigmentation of skin, black comedones and acneform eruptions, could still be observed. Using Peason's correlation coefficient test and Spearman's correlation coefficient test, we analyzed correlation between "PCB pattern" and the blood PCB concentration, the skin severity grade and the skin severity scores. However, we could not find out any obvious correlation. PMID:15997776

  6. Prairie State Achievement Examination: Overview And Preparation Guide For PSAE Day 2. 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois State Board of Education, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The Illinois State Board of Education (ISBE) provides this booklet to help in preparing for the Prairie State Achievement Examination (PSAE). Part I of this booklet is an overview that answers some basic questions about the PSAE: What is it? What will it cover? When will it be given? Part II is a preparation guide for the five tests that are…

  7. Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Jesse D.M.; Contor, Craig C.; Hoverson, Eric

    2005-10-01

    The Umatilla Basin Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation Project (UBNPMEP) is funded by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) as directed by section 4(h) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act of 1980 (P. L. 96-501). This project is in accordance with and pursuant to measures 4.2A, 4.3C.1, 7.1A.2, 7.1C.3, 7.1C.4 and 7.1D.2 of the Northwest Power Planning Council's (NPPC) Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994). Work was conducted by the Fisheries Program of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR). UBNPMEP is coordinated with two ODFW research projects that also monitor and evaluate the success of the Umatilla Fisheries Restoration Plan. Our project deals with the natural production component of the plan, and the ODFW projects evaluate hatchery operations (project No. 19000500, Umatilla Hatchery M & E) and smolt outmigration (project No. 198902401, Evaluation of Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration and Survival in the Lower Umatilla River). Collectively these three projects comprehensively monitor and evaluate natural and hatchery salmonid production in the Umatilla River Basin. Table 1 outlines relationships with other BPA supported projects. The need for natural production monitoring has been identified in multiple planning documents including Wy-Kan-Ush-Mi Wa-Kish-Wit Volume I, 5b-13 (CRITFC 1996), the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 1990), the Umatilla Basin Annual Operation Plan (ODFW and CTUIR 2004), the Umatilla Subbasin Summary (CTUIR & ODFW 2001), the Subbasin Plan (CTUIR & ODFW 2004), and the Comprehensive Research, Monitoring, and Evaluation Plan (Schwartz & Cameron Under Revision). Natural production monitoring and evaluation is also consistent with Section III, Basinwide Provisions, Strategy 9 of the 2000 Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (NPPC 1994, NPPC 2004). The need for monitoring the natural production of salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin developed with the efforts to restore natural populations of spring and fall Chinook salmon, (Oncorhynchus tshawytsha) coho salmon and (O. kisutch) and enhance summer steelhead (O. mykiss). The need for restoration began with agricultural development in the early 1900's that extirpated salmon and reduced steelhead runs (BOR 1988). The most notable development was the construction and operation of Three-Mile Falls Dam (3MD) and other irrigation projects that dewatered the Umatilla River during salmon migrations. The Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation (CTUIR) and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) developed the Umatilla Hatchery Master Plan to restore the historical fisheries in the basin. The plan was completed in 1990 and included the following objectives: (1) Establish hatchery and natural runs of Chinook and coho salmon. (2) Enhance existing summer steelhead populations through a hatchery program. (3) Provide sustainable tribal and non-tribal harvest of salmon and steelhead. (4) Maintain the genetic characteristics of salmonids in the Umatilla River Basin. (5) Produce almost 48,000 adult returns to Three-Mile Falls Dam. The goals were reviewed in 1999 and were changed to 31,500 adult salmon and steelhead returns (Table 2). We conduct core long-term monitoring activities each year as well as two and three-year projects that address special needs for adaptive management. Examples of these projects include adult passage evaluations (Contor et al. 1995, Contor et al. 1996, Contor et al. 1997, Contor et al. 1998), genetic monitoring (Currens & Schreck 1995, Narum et al. 2004), and habitat assessment surveys (Contor et al. 1995, Contor et al. 1996, Contor et al. 1997, Contor et al. 1998). Our project goal is to provide quality information to managers and researchers working to restore anadromous salmonids to the Umatilla River Basin. This is the only project that monitors the restoration of naturally producing salmon and steelhead in the basin.

  8. Protect and Restore Lolo Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed are coordinated with the Clearwater National Forest and Potlatch Corporation. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Lolo Creek watershed of the Clearwater River in 1996. Fencing to exclude cattle for stream banks, stream bank stabilization, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts are the primary focuses of this project. Riparian enhancement through planning of riparian trees continues. Culvert inventory is on-going and will be completed in 2004 for the entire Lolo Creek drainage. High priority culverts are being replaced and passage blocking log culverts are being removed. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  9. 2003-2004 What We Eat in America (WWEIA), NHANES Tables 1-8

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Food Surveys Research Group conducts What We Eat in America (WWEIA) survey, the dietary interview component of the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES). In the survey, dietary intakes are collected on a nationwide sample of 5,000 individuals yearly using the USDA 24-hour dietary recal...

  10. Classroom Notes Plus: A Quarterly of Teaching Ideas, 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of Teachers of English, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This issue of "Classroom Notes Plus" contains descriptions of original, unpublished teaching practices, and of adapted ideas. Under the "Ideas from the Classroom" section, the August 2003 issue (v21 n1) contains the following materials: Reading Poetry with Wright's "Black Boy" (David Fuder); Finding Poetry Lost in Translation (James Penha); "Lord…

  11. StreamNet; Northwest Aquatic Information Network, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Bruce; Roger, Phil; Butterfield, Bart

    2005-01-01

    StreamNet is a cooperative data compilation, development, and distribution project involving the state, tribal and federal fish and wildlife agencies in the Columbia River basin. It is funded by the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) through the Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and is administered by the Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission (PSMFC). The project is organized to perform three broad functions: Agency support: The project supports staff in the Idaho, Montana, Oregon and Washington state fish and wildlife agencies; the Columbia River Inter Tribal Fish Commission (CRITFC); and the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) who locate, obtain, quality check and format specific types of fish related data. They convert these data into a standard data exchange format (DEF) and submit them, with references, to the regional StreamNet office. Regional Support: The regional component of StreamNet at PSMFC administers the project, coordinates with the FWP and other regional entities, and disseminates data regionally. As data are received from cooperators they are again quality checked then imported into the StreamNet database. Access to the data is provided on-line via a tabular data query system and interactive map applications at www.streamnet.org. The web site also provides access to independent data sets from other projects, pre-sorted data sets useful for specific purposes (such as for a recent pesticide spraying ruling or subbasin assessments), and general fish information for education purposes. Reference Support: The StreamNet Library, located at CRITFC, maintains access to all reference documents supporting the data in the StreamNet database, and provides full library services for patrons interested in fish and wildlife in the Pacific Northwest. The StreamNet Library also maintains probably the largest collection of agency gray literature related to fish and wildlife resources in the basin. The library participates in the Inter Library Loan program, and can exchange literature worldwide. This report summarizes StreamNet Project activities during fiscal year 2004 (FY-04). Detailed descriptions of accomplishments by individual objective and task are provided in the Project's quarterly progress reports, available on the reports and publications page of the StreamNet web site.

  12. Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP) Report; Forrest Conservation Area, Technical Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Brent

    2005-01-01

    The Habitat Evaluation Procedure (HEP) study was performed to determine baseline habitat units on the 4,232-acre Forrest Conservation Area managed by the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon (Tribe) in Grant County, Oregon. The habitat evaluation is required as part of the Memorandum of Agreement between the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs and Bonneville Power Administration. Representatives from the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife and the Tribes conducted the field surveys for the HEP. The survey collected data for habitat variables contained in habitat suitability index (HIS) models for wildlife species; the key species were black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapilla), mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), mink (Mustela vison), western meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), California Quail (Callipepla californica), and yellow warbler (Dendroica petechia). Cover types surveyed were grassland, meadow grassland, conifer forest, riparian tree shrub, shrub steppe, juniper forest, and juniper steppe. Other cover types mapped, but not used in the models were open water, roads, gravel pits, corrals, and residential.

  13. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Catholic School Version, Grade 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in…

  14. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Catholic School Version, Grade 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in…

  15. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Catholic School Version, Grade 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Catholic schools in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes Catholic school students in…

  16. Research on Captive Broodstock Programs for Pacific Salmon, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Berejikian, Barry A.; Athos, Jaime I.; Dittman, Andrew H.

    2004-07-01

    The success of captive broodstock programs depends on high in-culture survival, appropriate development of the reproductive system, and the behavior and survival of cultured salmon after release, either as adults or juveniles. Continuing captive broodstock research designed to improve technology is being conducted to cover all major life history stages of Pacific salmon. We were able to develop an analytical method for optimizing the detection of spawning events in Chinook salmon using EMG signals. The method developed essentially captured the consistently greater frequency of higher EMG values associated with females cover digging immediately following spawning. However, females implanted with EMG tags retained the majority of their eggs, which significantly reduced their reproductive success compared to non-tagged females. Future work will include increased sample sizes, and modified tagging methods to reduce negative effects on reproductive success. Upper Columbia River sockeye salmon exposed to the odorants PEA, L-threonine, Larginine and L-glutamate were able to learn and remember these odorants as maturing adults up to 2.5 years after exposure. These results suggest that the alevin and smolt stages are both important developmental periods for successful olfactory imprinting. Furthermore, the period of time that fish are exposed to imprinting odors may be important for successful imprinting. Experimental fish exposed to imprinting odors as smolts for six or one weeks successfully imprinted to these odors but imprinting could not be demonstrated in smolts exposed to odors for only one day. A 2-3 C reduction in seawater rearing temperature during the fall and winter prior to final maturation had little effect on reproductive development of spring Chinook salmon. Body size at spawning and total ovary mass were similar between temperature treatments. The percentage of fertilized eggs was significantly higher for females exposed to the ambient temperature compared to those exposed to the chilled temperature. However, the percentage of embryos surviving to the eye-stage, total fecundity, and mean egg mass did not differ between treatments. This work is being continued with larger samples sizes and increased duration of temperature exposure. Exercise during the months prior to final maturation had no detectable effects on fertilization success or embryo viability in Redfish Lake Sockeye. Problems with highly variable or low eyed-embryo survival are most likely due to problems with fertilization. Synchronizing spawn timing between males and females may improve gamete fertility, perhaps by making oocyte maturation and ovulation more readily detectable and synchronous within the individual. Improvements in milt production (using GnRHa) and fertilization protocols have apparently increased fertilization success in Redfish Lake sockeye over previous years. Broodstock treatment with azithromycin immediately prior to spawning can protect against acute challenge with R. salmoninarum. Among fish challenged with 10,000 virulent R. salmoninarum cells per fish, progeny of broodstock treated with azithromycin exhibited significantly greater survival than progeny of sham-treated broodstock. Work on the efficacy of antibiotic treatment and vaccination against BKD before and after smoltification in offspring chinook salmon captive broodstocks is ongoing. To date, the long-term study of inbreeding indicates that the potential for anadromous Chinook salmon to respond rapidly to close inbreeding, with adverse consequences for marine survival and, possibly, growth. The effects of inbreeding expressed during early life history do not reveal significant effects. Overall, the results would support recommendations for initiating artificially propagated populations with sufficient, outbred broodstock and implementing carefully monitored breeding practices to minimize rates of inbreeding during a program's duration.

  17. The 2003-2004 Superoutburst of SDSS J013701.06-091234.9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imada, A.; Ishioka, R.; Nogami, D.; Uemura, M.; Kato, T.; Vsnet Collaboration Team

    2005-08-01

    We report on time-resolved photometry of the superoutburst of a new SU UMa-type star, SDSS J013701.06-091234.9 in 2003 December-2004 January. The obtained lightcurves show superhumps with a period of 81.7 min, which is one of the shortest periods among known SU UMa-type stars. The fractional superhump excess is 0.025, slightly larger than that of TOADs. Spectroscopic observations provided evidence for TiO band, implying a peculiar nature of the system when taking into account the fact that there is almost no evidence for a secondary star among SU UMa stars with short orbital periods. We also derived a distance to J0137 to be about 300 pc.

  18. Making the Case for Independent Higher Education: Council of Independent Colleges 2003-2004 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Independent Colleges, 2004

    2004-01-01

    The theme of this year's annual report, "Making the Case for Independent Higher Education," reflects a commitment undertaken by The Council for Independent Colleges (CIC) at the urging of its member presidents, chief academic officers, and Board of Directors to help make a stronger case for the forms of education offered by small to mid-sized,…

  19. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004 Report Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    This document summarizes a report focusing on California counties receiving funds from Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act (JJCPA) programs. This effort was designed to provide a stable funding source to counties for juvenile programs that have been proven effective in curbing crime among at-risk and young offenders. The Board of Corrections…

  20. Los Angeles County Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act: Fiscal Year 2003-2004. Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Susan; Fain, Terry; Sehgal, Amber

    2005-01-01

    In 2000, the California Legislature passed the Schiff-Cardenas Crime Prevention Act, which authorized funding for county juvenile justice programs and designated the Board of Corrections (BOC) as the administrator of funding. A 2001 Senate Bill extended the funding and changed the program's name to the Juvenile Justice Crime Prevention Act…

  1. Fundamentals of Title IV Administration: From Applying to Creating Reports, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This document provides a Fundamentals of Title IV Administration Workshop Agenda. The agenda includes an introduction and high level overview: the process in general; history of the programs; laws and regulations; and overview of the programs. Following this is a section on applying to participate and understand your school's responsibilities…

  2. Your Renewal FAFSA: Free Application for Federal Student Aid, 2003-2004 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This form is used to renew an application for federal and state grants, work study, and loans. The renewal version contains preprinted information that the student reported for the 2002-2003 school year. As a result, it is faster and easier for the student to use than the Free Application for Federal Student Aid (FAFSA). The form contains…

  3. A California Indian Resource Guide, 2003-2004. Activities and References for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2003

    This guide is intended for Bay Area (California) teachers who are interested in incorporating information on California Indians into their unit on California state history. The guide's purpose is to list resources in the Bay Area to help this unit come alive for students. Considerable care has been taken in the guide to choose only those resources…

  4. Alberta Post-Secondary Graduate Outcomes Survey: Class of 2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Advanced Education and Technology, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In November of 2005, Alberta Advanced Education contracted Insightrix Research Services to conduct a survey of individuals who graduated from four Alberta universities, eight university colleges, fifteen public colleges and two technical institutes in the fall of 2003 or the spring of 2004 (excluding apprenticeship graduates, who are surveyed…

  5. Lower Granite Dam Smolt Monitoring Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Mensik, Fred; Rapp, Shawn; Ross, Doug

    2004-08-01

    The 2003 fish collection season at Lower Granite Dam Juvenile Fish Facility (LGR) was characterized by water temperatures, total flows and spill that were below the five year average, low levels of debris, and increased smolt collection numbers compared to 2002 with the exception of unclipped sockeye/kokanee. There were 6,183,825 juvenile salmonids collected. Of these, 6,054,167 were transported to release sites below Bonneville Dam, 5,957,885 by barge and 96,282 by truck. An additional 102,340 fish were bypassed back to the river, primarily due to research projects with another 62,122 bypassed through the PIT-tag bypass system. According to the PTAGIS database, 152,268 PIT-tagged fish were detected at Lower Granite Dam. Of these, Smolt Monitoring Staff recorded 345 PIT-tagged raceway and sample mortalities. Of the 6,183,825 total fish collected, 113,290 were PIT-tagged or radio tagged and 380 were sacrificed by researchers. The collection included 836,885 fish that had hatchery marks other than clipped fins (elastomer, freeze brands or Coded Wire Tags). An estimated 54,857 incidental fish were collected with an additional 8,730 adult salmonids removed from the separator.

  6. Probabilistic Modeling of Dietary Arsenic Exposure and Dose and Evaluation with 2003-2004 NHANES Data

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dietary exposure from food to toxic inorganic arsenic (iAs) in the general U.S. population has not been well studied. The goal of this research was to quantify dietary arsenic As exposure and analyze the major contributors to total As (tAs) and iAs. Another objective was to com...

  7. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the 2003-2004 NASA SCIence Files(trademark) Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caton, Randall H.; Ricles, Shannon S.; Pinelli, Thomas E.; Legg, Amy C.; Lambert, Matthew A.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA SCI Files is an Emmy award-winning series of instructional programs for grades 3-5. Produced by the NASA Center for Distance Learning, programs in the series are research-, inquiry-, standards-, teacher- and technology-based. Each NASA SCI Files program (1) integrates mathematics, science, and technology; (2) uses Problem-Based Learning (PBL) to enhance and enrich the teaching and learning of science; (3) emphasizes science as inquiry and the scientific method; (4) motivates students to become critical thinkers and active problem solvers; and (5) uses NASA research, facilities, and personnel to raise student awareness of careers and to exhibit the "real-world" application of mathematics, science, and technology. In April 2004, 1,500 randomly selected registered users of the NASA SCI Files were invited to complete a survey containing a series of questions. A total of 263 surveys were received. This report contains the quantitative and qualitative results of that survey.

  8. Profiles of For-Profit Education Management Companies: Sixth Annual Report. 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex; Wilson, Glen; Allen, Daniel

    2004-01-01

    The for-profit management of public schools by for-profit corporations continues to be a controversial innovation. Proponents argue for-profit schools will result in educational improvement by harnessing the profit seeking motive of the marketplace. Competition, they maintain, forces companies to earn their profits by reducing administrative…

  9. Youth and HIV/AIDS Resources for Educators, Policymakers, and Parents, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This resource directory provides information about technical assistance resources and educational materials that can guide the development, implementation, and evaluation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) prevention education programs for school-age youth. It also includes educational materials…

  10. Advanced Placement and International Baccalaureate Exam Results for 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith; Powell, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    Goal 1 of the Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) Strategic Plan, "Our Call to Action: Pursuit of Excellence" (MCPS, 2004), is to "Ensure Success for Every Student." One measure of success for students who plan to attend college is their preparation for college-level course work. The Advanced Placement (AP) program offers MCPS students an…

  11. An Examination of the 2003-2004 Montgomery County Public Schools High School Academic Attainment Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connolly, Faith; Schatz, Carol; Powell, Marilyn

    2005-01-01

    The Montgomery County Public Schools (MCPS) introduced the High School Academic Attainment (HSAA) model in 2001 to augment the existing state accountability system. The Maryland State Department of Education (MSDE) accountability system was implemented in the 1990s and focused primarily on elementary and middle schools. The HSAA model was designed…

  12. Protect and Restore Mill Creek Watershed; Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. The Nez Perce Tribe and the Nez Perce National Forest have formed a partnership in completing watershed restoration activities, and through this partnership, more work is accomplished by sharing funding and resources in our effort. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Mill Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 2000. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed through excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing. Starting in FY 2002, continuing into 2004, trees were planted in riparian areas in the meadow of the upper watershed. In addition, a complete inventory of culverts at road-stream crossings was completed. Culverts have been prioritized for replacement to accommodate fish passage throughout the watershed, and designs completed on two of the high priority culverts. Maintenance to the previously built fence was also completed.

  13. Clearwater Focus Watershed; Nez Perce Tribe, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Ira

    2004-06-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division, approaches watershed restoration with a goal to protect, restore, and enhance a connected network of functioning habitat types capable of supporting all fish life stages. Its goal is also to re-establish normal patterns of production, dispersal, and exchange of genetic information within the 1855 Treaty Area. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Clearwater River Subbasin in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the sub-basin by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, stabilizing stream banks, decommissioning roads, and upgrading culverts. Coordination of these projects is critical to the success of the restoration of the sub-basin. Coordination activities also includes: inter and intra-department coordination, sub-basin assessment and planning, involving government and private organizations, and treaty area coordination.

  14. Restore McComas Meadows; Meadow Creek Watershed, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    McRoberts, Heidi

    2006-08-01

    The Nez Perce Tribe Department of Fisheries Resource Management, Watershed Division approaches watershed restoration with a ridge-top to ridge-top approach. Watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed are coordinated and cost shared with the Nez Perce National Forest. The Nez Perce Tribe began watershed restoration projects within the Meadow Creek watershed of the South Fork Clearwater River in 1996. Progress has been made in restoring the watershed by excluding cattle from critical riparian areas through fencing, planting trees in riparian areas within the meadow and its tributaries, prioritizing culverts for replacement to accommodate fish passage, and decommissioning roads to reduce sediment input. Designs for culvert replacements are being coordinated with the Nez Perce National Forest. 20 miles of roads were decommissioned. Tribal crews completed maintenance to the previously built fence.

  15. Kootenai River White Sturgeon Investigations; White Sturgeon Spawning and Recruitment Evaluation, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rust, Pete; Wakkinen, Virginia

    2005-06-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the environmental requirements for successful spawning and recruitment of the Kootenai River white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus population. Annual tasks include monitoring and evaluating the various life stages of Kootenai River white sturgeon. Sampling for adult Kootenai River white sturgeon in 2003 began in March and continued through April. Eighty-one adult white sturgeon were captured with 3,576 hours of angling and set-lining effort in the Kootenai River. Discharge from Libby Dam and river stage at Bonners Ferry in 2003 peaked in May and early June. Flows remained above 500 m{sup 3}/s throughout June, decreased rapidly through mid July, and increased back to near 500 m{sup 3}/s after mid July and through mid August. By late August, flows had decreased to below 400 m{sup 3}/s. We monitored the movements of 24 adult sturgeon in Kootenay Lake, British Columbia (BC) and the Kootenai River from March 15, 2003 to August 31, 2003. Some of the fish were radio or sonic tagged in previous years. Twelve adult white sturgeon were moved upstream to the Hemlock Bar reach (rkm 260.0) and released as part of the Set and Jet Program. Transmitters were attached to seven of these fish, and their movements were monitored from the time of release until they moved downstream of Bonners Ferry. Eight additional radio-tagged white sturgeon adults were located in the traditional spawning reach (rkm 228-240) during May and June. Sampling with artificial substrate mats began May 21, 2003 and ended June 30, 2003. We sampled 717 mat d (a mat d is one 24 h set) during white sturgeon spawning. Three white sturgeon eggs were collected near Shortys Island on June 3, 2003, and five eggs were collected from the Hemlock Bar reach on June 5, 2003. Prejuvenile sampling began June 17, 2003 and continued until July 31, 2003. Sampling occurred primarily at Ambush Rock (rkm 244.0) in an attempt to document any recruitment that might have occurred from the Set and Jet Program. Sixteen larval fish were collected, but no prejuvenile white sturgeon were collected. Juvenile white sturgeon sampling started July 14, 2003 and continued through September 18, 2003. A total of 330 h of gillnetting effort captured 238 hatchery white sturgeon and three wild white sturgeon.

  16. Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Dunnigan, James; DeShazer, Jay; Garrow, Larry

    2004-06-01

    ''Mitigation for the Construction and Operation of Libby Dam'' is part of the Northwest Power and Conservation Council's (NPCC) resident fish and wildlife program. The program was mandated by the Northwest Planning Act of 1980, and is responsible for mitigating for damages to fish and wildlife caused by hydroelectric development in the Columbia River Basin. The objective of Phase I of the project (1983 through 1987) was to maintain or enhance the Libby Reservoir fishery by quantifying seasonal water levels and developing ecologically sound operational guidelines. The objective of Phase II of the project (1988 through 1996) was to determine the biological effects of reservoir operations combined with biotic changes associated with an aging reservoir. The objectives of Phase III of the project (1996 through present) are to implement habitat enhancement measures to mitigate for dam effects, to provide data for implementation of operational strategies that benefit resident fish, monitor reservoir and river conditions, and monitor mitigation projects for effectiveness. This project completes urgent and high priority mitigation actions as directed by the Kootenai Subbasin Plan. Montana FWP uses a combination of diverse techniques to collect a variety of physical and biological data within the Kootenai River Basin. These data serve several purposes including: the development and refinement of models used in management of water resources and operation of Libby Dam; investigations into the limiting factors of native fish populations, gathering basic life history information, tracking trends in endangered, threatened species, and the assessment of restoration or management activities intended to restore native fishes and their habitats.

  17. SURVEILLANCE FOR WATERBORNE DISEASE AND OUTBREAK ASSOCIATED WITH RECREATIONAL WATER - UNITED STATES 2003-2004

    EPA Science Inventory

    Problem/Condition: Since 1971, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists have maintained a collaborative surveillance system for collecting and periodically reporting da...

  18. Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    University of Washington, Columbia Basin Research, DART Project Staff,

    2004-12-01

    The Second-Tier Database for Ecosystem Focus (Contract 00004124) provides direct and timely public access to Columbia Basin environmental, operational, fishery and riverine data resources for federal, state, public and private entities essential to sound operational and resource management. The database also assists with juvenile and adult mainstem passage modeling supporting federal decisions affecting the operation of the FCRPS. The Second-Tier Database known as Data Access in Real Time (DART) integrates public data for effective access, consideration and application. DART also provides analysis tools and performance measures for evaluating the condition of Columbia Basin salmonid stocks. These services are critical to BPA's implementation of its fish and wildlife responsibilities under the Endangered Species Act (ESA).

  19. LSAT Scores of Economics Majors: The 2003-2004 Class Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieswiadomy, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Using 1994-1995 data, Nieswiadomy (1998) found that economics majors scored well on the Law School Admissions Test. These results are frequently posted on university Web sites by economics departments. However, because the results are nearly 10 years old, it may be interesting to determine if economics majors still perform as well. The author,…

  20. Western Pond Turtle Head-starting and Reintroduction; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Van Leuven, Susan; Allen, Harriet; Slavin, Kate

    2004-09-01

    This report covers the results of the western pond turtle head-starting and reintroduction project for the period of October 2003-September 2004. Wild hatchling western pond turtles from the Columbia River Gorge were reared at the Woodland Park and Oregon Zoos in 2003 and 2004 as part of the recovery effort for this Washington State endangered species. The objective of the program is to reduce losses to introduced predators like bullfrogs and largemouth bass by raising the hatchlings to a size where they are too large to be eaten by most of these predators. Sixty-nine turtles were over-wintered at the Woodland Park Zoo and 69 at the Oregon Zoo. Of these, 136 head-started juvenile turtles were released at three sites in the Columbia Gorge in 2004. Two were held back to attain more growth in captivity. Thirty-four were released at the Klickitat ponds, 19 at the Klickitat lake, 21 at the Skamania site, and 62 at Pierce National Wildlife Refuge (NWR). This brought the total number of head-start turtles released since 1991 to 246 for the Klickitat ponds, 114 for the Klickitat lake, 167 for the Skamania pond complex, and 250 at Pierce NWR. In 2004, 32 females from the two Columbia Gorge populations were equipped with transmitters and monitored for nesting activity. Twenty-one of the females nested and produced 85 hatchlings. The hatchlings were collected in September and October and transported to the Woodland Park and Oregon zoos for rearing in the head-start program. Data collection for a four-year telemetry study of survival and habitat use by juvenile western pond turtles at Pierce NWR concluded in 2004. Radio transmitters on study animals were replaced as needed until all replacements were in service; afterward, the turtles were monitored until their transmitters failed. The corps of study turtles ranged from 39 in August 2003 to 2 turtles at the end of August 2004. These turtles showed the same seasonal pattern of movements between summer water and upland winter habitats observed in previous years. During the 2004 field season trapping effort, 345 western pond turtles were captured in the Columbia Gorge, including 297 previously head-started turtles. These recaptures, together with confirmed nesting by head-start females and visual resightings, indicate the program is succeeding in boosting juvenile recruitment to increase the populations. Records were also collected on 224 individual painted turtles captured in 2004 during trapping efforts at Pierce NWR, to gather baseline information on this native population. Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) funded approximately 60% of program activities in the Columbia River Gorge from October 2003 through September 2004.

  1. Natural Production Monitoring and Evaluation; Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, Timothy; Johnson, June; Bunn, Paul

    2004-12-01

    This report covers the following 3 parts of the Project: Part 1--Monitoring age composition of wild adult spring and summer Chinook salmon returning to the Snake River basin in 2003 to predict smolt-to-adult return rates Part 2--Development of a stock-recruitment relationship for Snake River spring/summer Chinook salmon to forecast natural smolt production Part 3--Improve the precision of smolt-to-adult survival rate estimates for wild steelhead trout by PIT tagging additional juveniles.

  2. Virginia "Standards of Learning" Assessments. Technical Report: 2003-2004 Administration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to inform users and other interested parties about the development, content and technical characteristics of the Virginia Standards of Learning (SOL) assessments. It provides information for the 2003 "SOL" cycle that comprises the fall 2003 and spring 2004 administrations. The report is divided into three…

  3. Wood Smoke Contribution to Ambient Aerosol in Fresno During Winter 2003-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorin, C. A.; Collett, J.; Herckes, P.

    2005-12-01

    The city of Fresno, located in the San Joaquin Valley in central California, experiences elevated levels of particulate matter (PM) during the winter season. In an effort to better quantify winter-time PM and the contribution of wood smoke to pollution events in Fresno, a field campaign was conducted between December 24th, 2003 and January 15th, 2004 collecting daily samples at five sites in the city with high volume aerosol collectors. Subsequent analyses of collected samples were performed to examine the spatial variability in wood smoke concentrations in the city of Fresno, CA and to estimate the contribution of residential wood combustion to PM2.5 concentrations. The estimation of residential wood combustion contribution to ambient PM is based on the quantification of levoglucosan, a compound emitted exclusively from biomass burning. Levoglucosan was measured for all collected samples by high performance anion exchange chromatography (HPAEC) coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (PAD). The use of this approach for quantification of levoglucosan has many advantages and results compare well with concentrations estimated from Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS). Fine particle mass and carbonaceous composition were also measured for all samples. Concentrations of particulate organic tracers for meat cooking and motor vehicle exhaust were quantified by GC/MS for a subset of samples to estimate the these major sources' contributions to PM. The daily mass concentrations of PM2.5, total carbon (TC), and levoglucosan vary with meteorological conditions such as precipitation, wind, and fog events. Daily PM2.5 concentrations measured during this study did not exceed the federal 24-hour standard and the study average of 30 mircograms/m3 is two-thirds lower than a previous Fresno winter average. Lower concentrations appear to be due in part to frequent precipitation during the study period. Inter-site variability of PM2.5, TC, and levoglucosan throughout the city was generally small (typically 15% or less). During the first portion of the study levoglucosan has a strong relationship to the concentration of PM2.5. In the later portion of the study there is a significant reduction in levoglucosan relative to PM2.5 suggesting a decrease in the amount of residential wood burning or differences in removal processes (e.g., due to fog events). The largest 3-day average carbon ratio of levoglucosan to OC in this study is 4.8%, almost 30% less than previous studies. Combined the emissions from wood smoke, meat cooking, and motor vehicles appear to contribute approximately 70-80% of OC with wood smoke, on average, accounting for approximately 45% of OC and 20% of PM2.5.

  4. Virginia Annual Report. Discipline, Crime, and Violence: School Year 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    The Code of Virginia requires school divisions statewide to submit data annually to the Virginia Department of Education (VDOE) on incidents of discipline, crime, and violence. Incidents reported include those that occurred on school property, on a school bus, or at a school-sponsored activity. The federal Gun-Free Schools Act of 1994 (GFSA, Sec.…

  5. Kootenai River Fisheries Investigations; Rainbow and Bull Trout Recruitment, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Walters, Jody P.

    2005-08-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss provide the most important sport fishery in the Kootenai River, Idaho, but densities and catch rates are low. Low recruitment is one possible factor limiting the rainbow trout population. Bull trout Salvelinus confluentus also exist in the Kootenai River, but little is known about this population. Research reported here addresses the following objectives for the Kootenai River, Idaho: identify sources of rainbow and bull trout recruitment, monitor the rainbow trout population size structure to evaluate regulation changes initiated in 2002, and identify factors potentially limiting rainbow trout recruitment. A screw trap was used to estimate juvenile redband and bull trout out-migration from the Callahan Creek drainage, and electrofishing was conducted to estimate summer densities of bull trout rearing in the Idaho portion of the drainage. An estimated 1,132 juvenile redband trout and 68 juvenile bull trout out-migrated from Callahan Creek to the Kootenai River from April 7 through July 15, 2003. Densities of bull trout {ge} age-1 in North and South Callahan creeks ranged from 1.6 to 7.7 fish/100m{sup 2} in August. Bull trout redd surveys were conducted in North and South Callahan creeks, Boulder Creek, and Myrtle Creek. Thirty-two bull trout redds were located in North Callahan Creek, while 10 redds were found in South Callahan Creek. No redds were found in the other two streams. Modeling of culverts in the Deep Creek drainage identified two as upstream migration barriers, preventing rainbow trout from reaching spawning and rearing habitat. Water temperature monitoring in Deep Creek identified two sites where maximum temperatures exceeded those suitable for rainbow trout. Boulder Creek produces the most rainbow trout recruits to the Kootenai River in Idaho upstream of Deep Creek, but may be below carrying capacity for rearing rainbow trout due to nutrient limitations. Monthly water samples indicate Boulder Creek is nutrient limited as soluble reactive and total dissolved phosphorus were typically at or below detection limits, and dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations were <30 {micro}/L. A fall 2003 electrofishing survey of the Kootenai River rainbow trout population showed that the proportional stock density (55) and quality stock density (6) increased for the second year in a row following implementation of more conservative harvest regulations. North and South Callahan creeks support the largest spawning population of bull trout in the Kootenai River drainage, Idaho, so management of the watershed should consider bull trout as high priority. Monitoring of the Kootenai River rainbow trout population size structure should continue for at least two to three years to help evaluate the conservative harvest regulations. Finally, options to improve or increase access to rainbow trout spawning and rearing habitat in the Deep Creek drainage should be investigated.

  6. Evaluation of Fall Chinook and Chum Salmon Spawning below Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    van der Naald, Wayne; Duff, Cameron; Brooks, Robert

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 a total of 253 adult fall chinook and 113 chum were sampled for biological data in the Ives and Pierce islands area below Bonneville Dam. Vital statistics were developed from 221 fall chinook and 109 chum samples. The peak redd count for fall chinook was 190. The peak redd count for chum was 262. Peak spawning time for fall chinook was set at approximately 24 November. Peak spawning time for chum occurred approximately 24 November. There were estimated to be a total of 1,533 fall chinook spawning below Bonneville Dam in 2003. The study area's 2003 chum population was estimated to be 688 spawning fish. Temperature unit data suggests that below Bonneville Dam 2003 brood bright stock, fall chinook emergence began on January 6, 2004 and ended 28 April 2004, with peak emergence occurring 13 April. 2003 brood juvenile chum emergence below Bonneville Dam began 22 February and continued through 15 April 2004. Peak chum emergence took place 25 March. A total of 25,433 juvenile chinook and 4,864 juvenile chum were sampled between the dates of 20 January and 28 June 2004 below Bonneville Dam. Juvenile chum migrated from the study area in the 40-55 mm fork length range. Migration of chum occurred during the months of March, April and May. Sampling results suggest fall chinook migration from rearing areas took place during the month of June 2004 when juvenile fall chinook were in the 65 to 80 mm fork length size range. Adult and juvenile sampling below Bonneville Dam provided information to assist in determining the stock of fall chinook and chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville Dam. Based on observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration, it appears that in 2003 all of the fall chinook using the area below Bonneville Dam were of a late-spawning, bright stock. Observed spawning times, adult age and sex composition, GSI and DNA analysis, juvenile emergence timing, juvenile migration timing and juvenile size at the time of migration suggests chum spawning and rearing below Bonneville dam are similar to stocks of chum found in Hamilton and Hardy creek and are part of the Lower Columbia River Chum ESU.

  7. Early College High School Initiative. Evaluation Year End Report: 2003?2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Andrea R.; Cole, Susan; Melton, Janet; Safran, Stephanie; Vogel, Tyler; Walton, Laura; Adelman, Nancy; Hall, Catherine; Keating, Kaelie Knowles; Murray, Samantha; Nielsen, Natalie; Schaffner, Monika

    2005-01-01

    This is the first year-end report produced as part of the on-going evaluation of the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation's Early College High School Initiative. The program provides funding and support for the establishment of Early College High Schools, which are organized to allow all enrolled students the opportunity to earn a high school diploma…

  8. Water-Quality Data for the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California, 2003-2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anders, Robert; Davidek, Karl; Koczot, Kathryn M.

    2006-01-01

    In 2003, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Sonoma County Water Agency, began a study to determine the chemical, microbiological, and isotopic composition of the surface water and ground water in selected areas of the Lower Russian River Basin, Sonoma County, California. This report is a compilation of the hydrologic and water-quality data collected from 10 Russian River sites, 1 gravel-terrace pit site, 12 ground-water sites, 11 tributary sites including Mark West Creek, and 2 estuary sites between the city of Healdsburg and the Pacific Ocean, for the period August 2003 to September 2004. Field measurements made included streamflow, barometric pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance, and turbidity. Water samples were analyzed for nutrients, major ions, total and dissolved organic carbon, trace elements, mercury, wastewater compounds, total coliform, Escherichia coli, Enterococci, Clostridium perfringens, and the stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. Discharge measurements and sampling techniques were modified to accommodate the very low summer flows at most of the tributaries, and discharge measurements were made with an acoustic Doppler velocity meter at the estuary river site to overcome the complexities associated with tidal influences.

  9. College Student Suicide in the United States: 1990-1991 through 2003-2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Allan J.

    2006-01-01

    Suggestions that there is a growing epidemic of suicide among college students in the United States are false. The National Survey of Counseling Center Directors reports 1,404 student suicides over a 14-year period and an adjusted suicide rate of 6.5, half the rate of the general US population (12.6 for all races) during this period when matched…

  10. The North Carolina Social Studies Standard Course of Study, Effective 2003-2004 School Year.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    The primary purpose of the social studies is to help young people, as future culturally diverse, democratic citizens in an interdependent world, develop the ability to make informed and reasoned decisions for the public good as citizens. Underlying this scope and sequence is the principle that neither gender, economic status, nor cultural…

  11. The Blazar 3C 66A in 2003-2004: hadronic versus leptonic model fits

    SciTech Connect

    Reimer, A.

    2008-12-24

    The low-frequency peaked BL Lac object 3C 66A was the subject of an extensive multi-wavelength campaign from July 2003 till April 2004, which included quasi-simultaneous observations at optical, X-rays and very high energy gamma-rays. Here we apply the hadronic Synchrotron-Proton Blazar (SPB) model to the observed spectral energy distribution time-averaged over a flaring state, and compare the resulting model fits to those obtained from the application of the leptonic Synchrotron-Self-Compton (SSC) model. The results are used to identify diagnostic key predictions of the two blazar models for future multi-wavelength observations.

  12. Substance Use Treatment Need among Adolescents: 2003-2004. The NSDUH Report. Issue 24

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) asks persons aged 12 or older to report on their symptoms of dependence on or abuse of alcohol or illicit drugs. This report presents estimates of treatment, treatment need, and perceived unmet need among youths aged 12 to 17. Estimates are presented separately for alcohol use treatment and…

  13. Umatilla River Fish Passage Operations Program, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bronson, James P.; Duke, Bill B.

    2005-08-01

    Threemile Falls Dam (Threemile Dam), located near the town of Umatilla, is the major collection and counting point for adult salmonids returning to the Umatilla River. Returning salmon and steelhead were enumerated at Threemile Dam from August 19, 2003 to July 8, 2004. A total of 3,388 summer steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss); 1,482 adult, 638 jack, and 2,150 subjack fall chinook (O. tshawytscha); 8,319 adult and 667 jack coho (O. kisutch); and 2,965 adult and 270 jack spring chinook (O. tshawytscha) were counted. All fish were enumerated at the east bank facility. Of the fish counted, 34 summer steelhead and 31 adult and 9 jack spring chinook were hauled upstream from Threemile Dam. There were 3,166 summer steelhead; 1,076 adult, 554 jack and 2,026 subjack fall chinook; 8,213 adult and 647 jack coho; and 2,152 adult and 174 jack spring chinook either released at, or allowed to volitionally migrate past, Threemile Dam. Also, 121 summer steelhead; 388 adult and 19 jack fall chinook; and 561 adult and 29 jack spring chinook were collected for brood. In addition, 239 spring chinook were collected for the outplanting efforts in the Walla Walla Basin. There were also 25 pair hatchery steelhead adults collected for the progeny maker study. The Westland Canal juvenile facility (Westland), located near the town of Echo at rivermile (RM) 27, is the major collection point for outmigrating juvenile salmonids and steelhead kelts. The canal was open for 184 days between January 12 and July 6, 2004. During that period, fish were bypassed back to the river 173 days and were trapped 10 days. An estimated 44 pounds of juvenile fish were transported from Westland to the Umatilla River boat ramp (RM 0.5). Approximately 84% of the juveniles transported were salmonids. No steelhead kelts were hauled from Westland this year. The Threemile Dam west bank juvenile bypass was opened on February 10, 2004 for outmigration sampling and continued until July 7, 2004 when sampling was discontinued. The juvenile bypass ran at the 5 cfs level until the initiation of Phase I on August 15, 2004. The juvenile trap was operated by the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife (ODFW) under the Evaluation of Umatilla Juvenile Salmonid Outmigration Project.

  14. Oxbow Conservation Area; Middle Fork John Day River, Annual Report 2003-2004.

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, Brian

    2004-02-01

    In early 2001, the Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs, through their John Day Basin Office, concluded the acquisition of the Oxbow Ranch, now know as the Oxbow Conservation Area (OCA). Under a memorandum of agreement with the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA), the Tribes are required to provided BPA an 'annual written report generally describing the real property interests in the Project, HEP analyses undertaken or in progress, and management activities undertaken or in progress'. The project during 2003 was crippled due to the aftermath of the BPA budget crisis. Some objectives were not completed during the first half of this contract because of limited funds in the 2003 fiscal year. The success of this property purchase can be seen on a daily basis. Water rights were utilized only in the early, high water season and only from diversion points with functional fish screens. After July 1, all of the OCA water rights were put instream. Riparian fences on the river, Ruby and Granite Boulder creeks continued to promote important vegetation to provide shade and bank stabilization. Hundreds of willow, dogwood, Douglas-fir, and cottonwood were planted along the Middle Fork John Day River. Livestock grazing on the property was carefully managed to ensure the protection of fish and wildlife habitat, while promoting meadow vigor and producing revenue for property taxes. Monitoring of property populations, resources, and management activities continued in 2003 to build a database for future management of this and other properties in the region.

  15. Resident Fish Stock above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Connor, Jason M.; McLellan, Jason G.; Butler, Chris

    2005-11-01

    In 1980, the United States Congress enacted the Northwest Power Planning and Conservation Act (PL 96-501, 1980), which established the Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), formerly the Northwest Power Planning Council. The NPCC was directed by Congress to develop a regional Power Plan and also the Columbia River Basin Fish and Wildlife Program (FWP) to restore or replace losses of fish caused by construction and operation of hydroelectric dams in the Columbia River Basin. In developing the FWP, Congress specifically directed NPCC to solicit recommendations for measures to be included in the Program from the region's fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes. All measures adopted by the Council were also required to be consistent with the management objectives of the agencies and tribes [Section 4.(h)(6)(A)], the legal rights of Indian tribes in the region [Section 4.(h)(6)(D)] and be based upon and supported by the best available scientific knowledge [Section 4.(h)(6)(B)]. The Resident Fish Stock Status above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams Project, also known as the Joint Stock Assessment Project (JSAP) specifically addresses NPPC Council measure 10.8B.26 of the 1994 program. The Joint Stock Assessment Project is a management tool using ecosystem principles to manage artificial and native fish assemblages in altered environments existing in the Columbia River System above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee Dams (Blocked Area). A three-phase approach of this project will enhance the fisheries resources of the Blocked Area by identifying data gaps, filling data gaps with research, and implementing management recommendations based on research results. The Blocked Area fisheries information is housed in a central location, allowing managers to view the entire system while making decisions, rather than basing management decisions on isolated portions of the system. The JSAP is designed and guided jointly by fisheries managers in the Blocked Area. The initial year of the project (1997) identified the need for a central data storage and analysis facility, coordination with the StreamNet project, compilation of Blocked Area fisheries information, and a report on the ecological condition of the Spokane River System. These needs were addressed in 1998 by acquiring a central location with a data storage and analysis system, coordinating a pilot project with StreamNet, compiling fisheries distribution data throughout the Blocked Area, identifying data gaps based on compiled information, and researching the ecological condition of the Spokane River. In order to ensure that any additional information collected throughout the life of this project will be easily stored and manipulated by the central storage facility, it was necessary to develop standardized methodologies between the JSAP fisheries managers. Common collection and analytical methodologies were developed in 1999. The project began addressing identified data gaps throughout the Blocked Area in 1999. Data collection of established projects and a variety of newly developed sampling projects are ongoing. Projects developed and undertaken by JSAP fisheries managers include investigations of the Pend Orielle River and its tributaries, the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation. Migration patterns of adfluvial and reservoir fish in Box Canyon Reservoir and its tributaries, a baseline assessment of Boundary Reservoir and its tributaries, ecological assessment of mountain lakes in Pend Oreille County, and assessments of streams and lakes on the Spokane Indian Reservation were completed by 2001. Assessments of the Little Spokane River and its tributaries, Spokane River below Spokane Falls, tributaries to the Pend Oreille River, small lakes in Pend Oreille County, WA, and water bodies within and near the Spokane Indian Reservation were conducted in 2002 and 2003. This work was done in accordance with the scope of work approved by Bonneville Power Administration (BPA).

  16. Earthquakes in Barcelonnette (western French Alps, 2003-2015): where are the faults?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palis, Edouard; Larroque, Christophe; Lebourg, Thomas; Jomard, Hervé; Flamand, Aurélie; Courboulex, Françoise; Vidal, Maurin; Robert, Pierre-Louis

    2016-04-01

    A comprehensive description of the instrumental seismicity in the Western Alps highlights several hundred of low to moderate magnitude earthquakes each year. The seismicity is diffuse and rarely related to known faults. The distribution of the epicenters follows the arcuate shape of the belt and the focal depths are shallow (<20km). Occasionally, earthquake swarms disrupt this seismic background, such as the swarms occurring near Barcelonnette in the Ubaye valley. The seismicity of the Ubaye valley is documented by regional seismic networks: (1) the largest earthquake recorded occurred near Saint-Paul sur Ubaye on April 5, 1959 (ML = 5.5), (2) few km north of Saint-Paul two swarms were identified in 1977 (1500 events in one month) and 1989 (250 events in 4 days), (3) in 2003-2004 the largest swarm (16 000 events) was recorded between Saint-Paul and Barcelonnette, (4) on February 26, 2012 occurred a Mw 4.1 earthquake followed by 4700 low-magnitude events until January 2014 between Saint-Paul and Barcelonnette and (5) at the same place on April 7, 2014 occurred a Mw 4.8 earthquake followed by several thousands of low magnitude (up to Mw 3.8) events, still running at the end of 2015. The focal mechanisms of the four Mw>3.5-events attest to mainly normal faulting along NW-SE to N-S fault planes. Therefore this region appears clearly as an anomaly in comparison to the seismic pattern of the western Alps. In terms of seismic hazard, determining the origin of these swarms is of major concern and one of the main questions is to determine if higher magnitude events are possible along the faults activated during these swarms. We try to answer two questions: are regional faults identifiable from subsurface geophysics and did some of these faults produced large earthquakes during the Quaternary? We focus our attention on the 2012-2014 epicentral area. This area is characterized by a gentle slope extending from 1400m of elevation at the Parpaillon River up to 2900m on the

  17. Seismic source parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, L.R.

    1994-06-01

    The use of information contained on seismograms to infer the properties of an explosion source presents an interesting challenge because the seismic waves recorded on the seismograms represent only small indirect, effects of the explosion. The essential physics of the problem includes the process by which these elastic waves are generated by the explosion and also the process involved in propagating the seismic waves from the source region to the sites where the seismic data are collected. Interpretation of the seismic data in terms of source properties requires that the effects of these generation and propagation processes be taken into account. The propagation process involves linear mechanics and a variety of standard seismological methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem. The generation process presents a more difficult problem, as it involves non-linear mechanics, but semi-empirical methods have been developed for handling this part of the problem which appear to yield reasonable results. These basic properties of the seismic method are illustrated with some of the results from the NPE.

  18. Landslide seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C. H.; Jan, J. C.; Pu, H. C.; Tu, Y.; Chen, C. C.; Wu, Y. M.

    2015-11-01

    Landslides have become one of the most deadly natural disasters on earth, not only due to a significant increase in extreme climate change caused by global warming, but also rapid economic development in topographic relief areas. How to detect landslides using a real-time system has become an important question for reducing possible landslide impacts on human society. However, traditional detection of landslides, either through direct surveys in the field or remote sensing images obtained via aircraft or satellites, is highly time consuming. Here we analyze very long period seismic signals (20-50 s) generated by large landslides such as Typhoon Morakot, which passed though Taiwan in August 2009. In addition to successfully locating 109 large landslides, we define landslide seismic magnitude based on an empirical formula: Lm = log ⁡ (A) + 0.55 log ⁡ (Δ) + 2.44, where A is the maximum displacement (μm) recorded at one seismic station and Δ is its distance (km) from the landslide. We conclude that both the location and seismic magnitude of large landslides can be rapidly estimated from broadband seismic networks for both academic and applied purposes, similar to earthquake monitoring. We suggest a real-time algorithm be set up for routine monitoring of landslides in places where they pose a frequent threat.

  19. Magnitude correlations in global seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Sarlis, N. V.

    2011-08-15

    By employing natural time analysis, we analyze the worldwide seismicity and study the existence of correlations between earthquake magnitudes. We find that global seismicity exhibits nontrivial magnitude correlations for earthquake magnitudes greater than M{sub w}6.5.

  20. Seismic ruggedness of relays

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, K.L. )

    1991-08-01

    This report complements EPRI report NP-5223 Revision 1, February 1991, and presents additional information and analyses concerning generic seismic ruggedness of power plant relays. Existing and new test data have been used to construct Generic Equipment Ruggedness Spectra (GERS) which can be used in identifying rugged relays during seismic re-evaluation of nuclear power plants. This document is an EPRI tier 1 report. The results of relay fragility tests for both old and new relays are included in an EPRI tier 2 report with the same title. In addition to the presentation of relay GERS, the tier 2 report addresses the applicability of GERS to relays of older vintage, discusses the important identifying nomenclature for each relay type, and examines relay adjustment effects on seismic ruggedness. 9 refs., 3 figs, 1 tab.

  1. Downhole seismic array system

    SciTech Connect

    Petermann, S.G.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes an apparatus of receiving seismic signals from an earth formation at least at one or more points in a wellbore penetrating the formation. It comprises a sonde including extensible and retractable support means thereon for supporting seismic signal receiver means, hydraulic actuator means for extending and reacting the support means, body means for supporting the actuator means and the support means and signal transmitting means for transmitting electrical signals related to seismic signals received by the receiver means; tubing means connected to the sonde for deploying the sonde in the wellbore, the tubing means including electrical conductor means disposed therein for conducting electrical signals between means on the surface of the formation and the sonde and the tubing means comprising means for conducting hydraulic fluid to the sonde for operation of the actuator means; and means for supplying hydraulic fluid from the surface of the formation through the tubing means to the sonde for operating the actuator means.

  2. Induced seismicity. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Segall, P.

    1997-09-18

    The objective of this project has been to develop a fundamental understanding of seismicity associated with energy production. Earthquakes are known to be associated with oil, gas, and geothermal energy production. The intent is to develop physical models that predict when seismicity is likely to occur, and to determine to what extent these earthquakes can be used to infer conditions within energy reservoirs. Early work focused on earthquakes induced by oil and gas extraction. Just completed research has addressed earthquakes within geothermal fields, such as The Geysers in northern California, as well as the interactions of dilatancy, friction, and shear heating, on the generation of earthquakes. The former has involved modeling thermo- and poro-elastic effects of geothermal production and water injection. Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers are used to measure deformation associated with geothermal activity, and these measurements along with seismic data are used to test and constrain thermo-mechanical models.

  3. Canadian Seismic Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lapointe, S.P.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Adams, J.; Cajka, M.G.; McNeil, W.; Drysdale, J.A. )

    1992-05-01

    This is a progress report of work carried out under the terms of a research agreement entitled the Canadian Seismic Agreement'' between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), the Canadian Commercial Corporation and the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1989 to June 30, 1990. The Canadian Seismic Agreement'' supports generally the operation of various seismograph stations in eastern Canada and the collection and analysis of earthquake data for the purpose of mitigating seismic hazards in eastern Canada and the northeastern US. The specific activities carried out in this one-year period are summarized below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong-motion network developments and earthquake activity. During this period the first surface fault unequivocably determined to have accompanied a historic earthquake in eastern North America, occurred in northern Quebec.

  4. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrell, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2015-09-29

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  5. Controllable seismic source

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Antonio; DeRego, Paul Jeffrey; Ferrel, Patrick Andrew; Thom, Robert Anthony; Trujillo, Joshua J.; Herridge, Brian

    2014-08-19

    An apparatus for generating seismic waves includes a housing, a strike surface within the housing, and a hammer movably disposed within the housing. An actuator induces a striking motion in the hammer such that the hammer impacts the strike surface as part of the striking motion. The actuator is selectively adjustable to change characteristics of the striking motion and characteristics of seismic waves generated by the impact. The hammer may be modified to change the physical characteristics of the hammer, thereby changing characteristics of seismic waves generated by the hammer. The hammer may be disposed within a removable shock cavity, and the apparatus may include two hammers and two shock cavities positioned symmetrically about a center of the apparatus.

  6. Induced Seismicity Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, S. R.; Jarpe, S.; Harben, P.

    2014-12-01

    There are many seismological aspects associated with monitoring of permanent storage of carbon dioxide (CO2) in geologic formations. Many of these include monitoring underground gas migration through detailed tomographic studies of rock properties, integrity of the cap rock and micro seismicity with time. These types of studies require expensive deployments of surface and borehole sensors in the vicinity of the CO2 injection wells. Another problem that may exist in CO2 sequestration fields is the potential for damaging induced seismicity associated with fluid injection into the geologic reservoir. Seismic hazard monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields requires a seismic network over a spatially larger region possibly having stations in remote settings. Expensive observatory-grade seismic systems are not necessary for seismic hazard deployments or small-scale tomographic studies. Hazard monitoring requires accurate location of induced seismicity to magnitude levels only slightly less than that which can be felt at the surface (e.g. magnitude 1), and the frequencies of interest for tomographic analysis are ~1 Hz and greater. We have developed a seismo/acoustic smart sensor system that can achieve the goals necessary for induced seismicity monitoring in CO2 sequestration fields. The unit is inexpensive, lightweight, easy to deploy, can operate remotely under harsh conditions and features 9 channels of recording (currently 3C 4.5 Hz geophone, MEMS accelerometer and microphone). An on-board processor allows for satellite transmission of parameter data to a processing center. Continuous or event-detected data is kept on two removable flash SD cards of up to 64+ Gbytes each. If available, data can be transmitted via cell phone modem or picked up via site visits. Low-power consumption allows for autonomous operation using only a 10 watt solar panel and a gel-cell battery. The system has been successfully tested for long-term (> 6 months) remote operations over a wide range

  7. Mobile seismic exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Cao, X.; Polom, U.; Pätzold, F.; Zeller, T.; Hecker, P.; Seyfried, V.; Rembe, C.

    2016-06-01

    Laser-Doppler-Vibrometry (LDV) is an established technique to measure vibrations in technical systems with picometer vibration-amplitude resolution. Especially good sensitivity and resolution can be achieved at an infrared wavelength of 1550 nm. High-resolution vibration measurements are possible over more than 100 m distance. This advancement of the LDV technique enables new applications. The detection of seismic waves is an application which has not been investigated so far because seismic waves outside laboratory scales are usually analyzed at low frequencies between approximately 1 Hz and 250 Hz and require velocity resolutions in the range below 1 nm/s/√Hz. Thermal displacements and air turbulence have critical influences to LDV measurements at this low-frequency range leading to noise levels of several 100 nm/√Hz. Commonly seismic waves are measured with highly sensitive inertial sensors (geophones or Micro Electro-Mechanical Sensors (MEMS)). Approaching a laser geophone based on LDV technique is the topic of this paper. We have assembled an actively vibration-isolated optical table in a minivan which provides a hole in its underbody. The laser-beam of an infrared LDV assembled on the optical table impinges the ground below the car through the hole. A reference geophone has detected remaining vibrations on the table. We present the results from the first successful experimental demonstration of contactless detection of seismic waves from a movable vehicle with a LDV as laser geophone.

  8. Nonstructural seismic restraint guidelines

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, D.M.; Czapinski, R.H.; Firneno, M.J.; Feemster, H.C.; Fornaciari, N.R.; Hillaire, R.G.; Kinzel, R.L.; Kirk, D.; McMahon, T.T.

    1993-08-01

    The Nonstructural Seismic Restraint Guidelines provide general information about how to secure or restrain items (such as material, equipment, furniture, and tools) in order to prevent injury and property, environmental, or programmatic damage during or following an earthquake. All SNL sites may experience earthquakes of magnitude 6.0 or higher on the Richter scale. Therefore, these guidelines are written for all SNL sites.

  9. Seismic Inversion Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Jackiewicz, Jason

    2009-09-16

    With the rapid advances in sophisticated solar modeling and the abundance of high-quality solar pulsation data, efficient and robust inversion techniques are crucial for seismic studies. We present some aspects of an efficient Fourier Optimally Localized Averaging (OLA) inversion method with an example applied to time-distance helioseismology.

  10. Geothermal induced seismicity program plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-01

    A plan for a National Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program has been prepared in consultation with a panel of experts from industry, academia, and government. The program calls for baseline seismic monitoring in regions of known future geothermal development, continued seismic monitoring and characterization of earthquakes in zones of geothermal fluid production and injection, modeling of the earthquake-inducing mechanism, and in situ measurement of stresses in the geothermal development. The Geothermal Induced Seismicity Program (GISP) will have as its objectives the evaluation of the seismic hazard, if any, associated with geothermal resource exploitation and the devising of a technology which, when properly utilized, will control or mitigate such hazards.

  11. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  12. Seismicity of west Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, D.B.

    1981-01-01

    A four year seismic study has found the Basin and Range province of west Texas and the adjacent area of Mexico to be more seismically active then than heretofore known. A University of Texas five station seismic array around the Marfa Basin has located or detected approximately 800 local and regional earthquakes with S-P times of less than 30 sec. A crustal model for the Basin and Range is derived from natural and artificial sources and contains four layers having velocities of 3.60, 4.93, 6.11, and 6.60 km/sec, respectively, overlying a mantle of 8.37 km/sec. A moderate level of seismic activity has been detected near Van Horn, in the Marfa Basin, and along the Texas-Mexico border between latitudes 30 and 31/sup 0/N. Five earthquake sequences were recorded, two near the Texas-Mexico border and three in the Marfa Basin. Four of these sequences showed quiescent periods in foreshock activity preceding the main shock. On the eastern side of the Marfa Basin a diffuse linear seismic zone may represent an unmapped fault, striking N 50/sup 0/W that coincides with Muehlberger's proposed eastern boundary of Basin and Range faulting. A new epicenter for the Valentine, Texas earthquake of August 16, 1931 has been relocated instrumentally at the northern end of this diffuse zone. Regional and local teleseismic P-wave arrival time anomalies observed for the nearby Gnome underground nuclear explosion of 1961 are used to determine station corrections and thus to locate the new 1931 epicenter at 3.69/sup 0/N, 104.57/sup 0/W. Several estimates of magnitude (m/sub b/) based on intensity data range from 5.6 to 6.4. Fault-plane and composite fault-plane solutions support Muehlberger's hypothesis that the Basin and Range is undergoing extension in a SW-NE direction.

  13. Seismic Rotations Observed with Inertial Seismic Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jean, V.

    2006-12-01

    Recent interest of the seismological community has arisen for possible rotation effects of the Earth on signals recorded by inertial seismometers. Wiechert and Schluter (1903) and more recently Pancha et al. (2000), Igel et al. (2005, 2006) show that, in the teleseismic range, rotations may be neglected and account for less than 0.1% of the translation waves generated by earthquakes. On the contrary, we may see effects of rotation on seismic traces recorded in the near field of an earthquake. As instruments will deliver unsaturated signals in this near field, rotation detection will be more and more frequent. We may observe rotation effects as well in the noise signal at long period. - In the near field, the three components integrated signal of the accelerograms (i.e; velocity signal) diverge and this drift is the effect of an nearly invisible little jump in acceleration signal. The second integrated step diverges and the co-seismic displacement could not be estimated. - By studying the long period noise, we have found that the two horizontal components of some of GEOSCOPE stations with STS-1 seismometer from Streckeisen, present the same noise both in amplitude and in phase with a coherency greater than 95%. This similarity could occur at some stations and not at others and during some time periods. Therefore, the noise has a quite stable horizontal polarisation at N045 during these periods. We may argue that these two separate effects comes from ground rotations and the way they are recorded by seismic instruments. For example, GEOSCOPE stations equipped by STS-2 which have a quite different mechanical structure do not exhibit the polarisation effect. Mechanical pendulums as vertical LaCoste sensor and horizontal 'garden-gate' sensor present effects of rotations on the different translation motions of the mass. Therefore, for the long period noise, a quite probable explanation is that a rotation around the vertical axis acts similarly on the two horizontal

  14. Intermediate depth seismicity - a reflection seismic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberland, C.; Rietbrock, A.

    2004-12-01

    During subduction the descending oceanic lithosphere is subject to metamorphic reactions, some of them associated with the release of fluids. It is now widely accepted, that these reactions and associated dehydration processes are directly related with the generation of intermediate depth earthquakes (dehydration embrittlement). However, the structure of the layered oceanic plate at depth and the location of the earthquakes relative to structural units of the subducting plate (sources within the oceanic crust and/or in the upper oceanic mantle lithosphere?) are still not resolved yet. This is in mainly due to the fact that the observational resolution needed to address these topics (in the range of only a few kilometers) is hardly achieved in field experiments and related studies. Here we study the wavefields of intermediate depth earthquakes typically observed by temporary networks in order to assess their high-resolution potential in resolving structure of the down going slab and locus of seismicity. In particular we study whether the subducted oceanic Moho can be detected by the analysis of secondary phases of local earthquakes (near vertical reflection). Due to the irregular geometry of sources and receivers we apply an imaging technique similar to diffraction stack migration. The method is tested using synthetic data both based on 2-D finite difference simulations and 3-D kinematic ray tracing. The accuracy of the hypocenter location and onset times crucial for the successful application of stacking techniques (coherency) was achieved by the use of relatively relocated intermediate depth seismicity. Additionally, we simulate the propagation of the wavefields at larger distance (wide angle) indicating the development of guided waves traveling in the low-velocity waveguide associated with the modeled oceanic crust. We also present application on local earthquake data from the South American subduction zone.

  15. Teaching Reflection Seismic Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forel, D.; Benz, T.; Pennington, W. D.

    2004-12-01

    Without pictures, it is difficult to give students a feeling for wave propagation, transmission, and reflection. Even with pictures, wave propagation is still static to many. However, when students use and modify scripts that generate wavefronts and rays through a geologic model that they have modified themselves, we find that students gain a real feeling for wave propagation. To facilitate teaching 2-D seismic reflection data processing (from acquisition through migration) to our undergraduate and graduate Reflection Seismology students, we use Seismic Un*x (SU) software. SU is maintained and distributed by Colorado School of Mines, and it is freely available (at www.cwp.mines.edu/cwpcodes). Our approach includes use of synthetic and real seismic data, processing scripts, and detailed explanation of the scripts. Our real data were provided by Gregory F. Moore of the University of Hawaii. This approach can be used by any school at virtually no expense for either software or data, and can provide students with a sound introduction to techniques used in processing of reflection seismic data. The same software can be used for other purposes, such as research, with no additional expense. Students who have completed a course using SU are well equipped to begin using it for research, as well. Scripts for each processing step are supplied and explained to the students. Our detailed description of the scripts means students do not have to know anything about SU to start. Experience with the Unix operating system is preferable but not necessary -- our notes include Computer Hints to help the beginner work with the Unix operating system. We include several examples of synthetic model building, acquiring shot gathers through synthetic models, sorting shot gathers to CMP gathers, gain, 1-D frequency filtering, f-k filtering, deconvolution, semblance displays and velocity analysis, flattening data (NMO), stacking the CMPs, and migration. We use two real (marine) data sets. One

  16. Comparison of seismic sources for shallow seismic: sledgehammer and pyrotechnics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brom, Aleksander; Stan-Kłeczek, Iwona

    2015-10-01

    The pyrotechnic materials are one of the types of the explosives materials which produce thermal, luminous or sound effects, gas, smoke and their combination as a result of a self-sustaining chemical reaction. Therefore, pyrotechnics can be used as a seismic source that is designed to release accumulated energy in a form of seismic wave recorded by tremor sensors (geophones) after its passage through the rock mass. The aim of this paper was to determine the utility of pyrotechnics for shallow seismic engineering. The work presented comparing the conventional method of seismic wave excitation for seismic refraction method like plate and hammer and activating of firecrackers on the surface. The energy released by various sources and frequency spectra was compared for the two types of sources. The obtained results did not determine which sources gave the better results but showed very interesting aspects of using pyrotechnics in seismic measurements for example the use of pyrotechnic materials in MASW.

  17. Seismic detection of tornadoes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatom, F. B.

    1993-01-01

    Tornadoes represent the most violent of all forms of atmospheric storms, each year resulting in hundreds of millions of dollars in property damage and approximately one hundred fatalities. In recent years, considerable success has been achieved in detecting tornadic storms by means of Doppler radar. However, radar systems cannot determine when a tornado is actually in contact with the ground, expect possibly at extremely close range. At the present time, human observation is the only truly reliable way of knowing that a tornado is actually on the ground. However, considerable evidence exists indicating that a tornado in contact with the ground produces a significant seismic signal. If such signals are generated, the seismic detection and warning of an imminent tornado can become a distinct possibility. 

  18. Seismic capacity of switchgear

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.; Kassir, M.; Pepper, S.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a component fragility program sponsored by the USNRC, BNL has collected existing information on the seismic capacity of switchgear assemblies from major manufacturers. Existing seismic test data for both low and medium voltage switchgear assemblies have been evaluated and the generic results are presented in this paper. The failure modes are identified and the corresponding generic lower bound capacity levels are established. The test response spectra have been used as a measure of the test vibration input. The results indicate that relays chatter at a very low input level at the base of the switchgear cabinet. This change of state of devices including relays have been observed. Breaker tripping occurs at a higher vibration level. Although the structural failure of internal elements have been noticed, the overall switchgear cabinet structure withstands a high vibration level. 5 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C.; Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    During the period of this report, the contract resources were spent on operation and maintenance of the Eastern Canada Telemetred Network (ECTN), development of special purpose local network systems, servicing and maintenance of the strong-motion seismograph network in eastern Canada, operation of the Ottawa data lab and earthquake monitoring and reporting. Of special note in this period was the final completion of the Sudbury (SLTN) and Charlevoix (CLTN) local networks and the integration of their data processing and analysis requirements in the regular analysis stream for ECTN data. These networks now acquire high quality digital data for detailed analysis of seismic activity and source properties from these two areas, thus effectively doubling the amount of seismic data being received by the Ottawa data lab. 37 refs., 17 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Lunar seismic data analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Y.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific data transmitted continuously from all ALSEP (Apollo Lunar Surface Experiment Package) stations on the Moon and recorded on instrumentation tapes at receiving stations distributed around the Earth were processed. The processing produced sets of computer-compatible digital tapes, from which various other data sets convenient for analysis were generated. The seismograms were read, various types of seismic events were classified; the detected events were cataloged.

  1. Active Seismic Imaging Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berge, Patricia A.; Dawson, Phillip B.; Evans, John R.

    In September 1985 the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) will conduct an active seismic experiment in the Medicine Lake area of northern California. The work is supported by the Geothermal Research Program of USGS and by the Geothermal and Hydropower Technologies Division of the U.S. Department of Energy. We invite interested organizations or individuals to record our explosions from Medicine Lake volcano and surrounding areas not covered by the USGS-LLNL array.

  2. Albuquerque Basin seismic network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jaksha, Lawrence H.; Locke, Jerry; Thompson, J.B.; Garcia, Alvin

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has recently completed the installation of a seismic network around the Albuquerque Basin in New Mexico. The network consists of two seismometer arrays, a thirteen-station array monitoring an area of approximately 28,000 km 2 and an eight-element array monitoring the area immediately adjacent to the Albuquerque Seismological Laboratory. This report describes the instrumentation deployed in the network.

  3. Establishing seismic design criteria to achieve an acceptable seismic margin

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.

    1997-01-01

    In order to develop a risk based seismic design criteria the following four issues must be addressed: (1) What target annual probability of seismic induced unacceptable performance is acceptable? (2). What minimum seismic margin is acceptable? (3) Given the decisions made under Issues 1 and 2, at what annual frequency of exceedance should the Safe Shutdown Earthquake ground motion be defined? (4) What seismic design criteria should be established to reasonably achieve the seismic margin defined under Issue 2? The first issue is purely a policy decision and is not addressed in this paper. Each of the other three issues are addressed. Issues 2 and 3 are integrally tied together so that a very large number of possible combinations of responses to these two issues can be used to achieve the target goal defined under Issue 1. Section 2 lays out a combined approach to these two issues and presents three potentially attractive combined resolutions of these two issues which reasonably achieves the target goal. The remainder of the paper discusses an approach which can be used to develop seismic design criteria aimed at achieving the desired seismic margin defined in resolution of Issue 2. Suggestions for revising existing seismic design criteria to more consistently achieve the desired seismic margin are presented.

  4. ELASTIC-WAVEFIELD SEISMIC STRATIGRAPHY: A NEW SEISMIC IMAGING TECHNOLOGY

    SciTech Connect

    Bob A. Hardage

    2004-05-06

    The focus of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy research shifted from onshore prospects to marine environments during this report period. Four-component ocean-bottom-cable (4-C OBC) seismic data acquired in water depths of 2400 to 2500 feet across Green Canyon Block 237 in the Gulf of Mexico were processed and analyzed. The P-P and P-SV images of strata immediately below the seafloor exhibit amazing differences in P-P and P-SV seismic facies. These data may be one of the classic examples of the basic concepts of elastic-wavefield seismic stratigraphy.

  5. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2015-09-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  6. Seismic basement in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grad, Marek; Polkowski, Marcin

    2016-06-01

    The area of contact between Precambrian and Phanerozoic Europe in Poland has complicated structure of sedimentary cover and basement. The thinnest sedimentary cover in the Mazury-Belarus anteclize is only 0.3-1 km thick, increases to 7-8 km along the East European Craton margin, and 9-12 km in the Trans-European Suture Zone (TESZ). The Variscan domain is characterized by a 1- to 2-km-thick sedimentary cover, while the Carpathians are characterized by very thick sediments, up to c. 20 km. The map of the basement depth is created by combining data from geological boreholes with a set of regional seismic refraction profiles. These maps do not provide data about the basement depth in the central part of the TESZ and in the Carpathians. Therefore, the data set is supplemented by 32 models from deep seismic sounding profiles and a map of a high-resistivity (low-conductivity) layer from magnetotelluric soundings, identified as a basement. All of these data provide knowledge about the basement depth and of P-wave seismic velocities of the crystalline and consolidated type of basement for the whole area of Poland. Finally, the differentiation of the basement depth and velocity is discussed with respect to geophysical fields and the tectonic division of the area.

  7. Seismic Imager Space Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidick, Erkin; Coste, Keith; Cunningham, J.; Sievers,Michael W.; Agnes, Gregory S.; Polanco, Otto R.; Green, Joseph J.; Cameron, Bruce A.; Redding, David C.; Avouac, Jean Philippe; Ampuero, Jean Paul; Leprince, Sebastien; Michel, Remi

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a geostationary seismic imager (GSI), a space telescope in geostationary orbit above the Pacific coast of the Americas that would provide movies of many large earthquakes occurring in the area from Southern Chile to Southern Alaska. The GSI movies would cover a field of view as long as 300 km, at a spatial resolution of 3 to 15 m and a temporal resolution of 1 to 2 Hz, which is sufficient for accurate measurement of surface displacements and photometric changes induced by seismic waves. Computer processing of the movie images would exploit these dynamic changes to accurately measure the rapidly evolving surface waves and surface ruptures as they happen. These measurements would provide key information to advance the understanding of the mechanisms governing earthquake ruptures, and the propagation and arrest of damaging seismic waves. GSI operational strategy is to react to earthquakes detected by ground seismometers, slewing the satellite to point at the epicenters of earthquakes above a certain magnitude. Some of these earthquakes will be foreshocks of larger earthquakes; these will be observed, as the spacecraft would have been pointed in the right direction. This strategy was tested against the historical record for the Pacific coast of the Americas, from 1973 until the present. Based on the seismicity recorded during this time period, a GSI mission with a lifetime of 10 years could have been in position to observe at least 13 (22 on average) earthquakes of magnitude larger than 6, and at least one (2 on average) earthquake of magnitude larger than 7. A GSI would provide data unprecedented in its extent and temporal and spatial resolution. It would provide this data for some of the world's most seismically active regions, and do so better and at a lower cost than could be done with ground-based instrumentation. A GSI would revolutionize the understanding of earthquake dynamics, perhaps leading ultimately to effective warning

  8. Seismic databases of The Caucasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunia, I.; Sokhadze, G.; Mikava, D.; Tvaradze, N.; Godoladze, T.

    2012-12-01

    The Caucasus is one of the active segments of the Alpine-Himalayan collision belt. The region needs continues seismic monitoring systems for better understanding of tectonic processes going in the region. Seismic Monitoring Center of Georgia (Ilia State University) is operating the digital seismic network of the country and is also collecting and exchanging data with neighboring countries. The main focus of our study was to create seismic database which is well organized, easily reachable and is convenient for scientists to use. The seismological database includes the information about more than 100 000 earthquakes from the whole Caucasus. We have to mention that it includes data from analog and digital seismic networks. The first analog seismic station in Georgia was installed in 1899 in the Caucasus in Tbilisi city. The number of analog seismic stations was increasing during next decades and in 1980s about 100 analog stations were operated all over the region. From 1992 due to political and economical situation the number of stations has been decreased and in 2002 just two analog equipments was operated. New digital seismic network was developed in Georgia since 2003. The number of digital seismic stations was increasing and in current days there are more than 25 digital stations operating in the country. The database includes the detailed information about all equipments installed on seismic stations. Database is available online. That will make convenient interface for seismic data exchange data between Caucasus neighboring countries. It also makes easier both the seismic data processing and transferring them to the database and decreases the operator's mistakes during the routine work. The database was created using the followings: php, MySql, Javascript, Ajax, GMT, Gmap, Hypoinverse.

  9. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show results of seismic and well log derived attenuation attributes from a deep water Gulf of Mexico data set. This data was contributed by Burlington Resources and Seitel Inc. The data consists of ten square kilometers of 3D seismic data and three well penetrations. We have computed anomalous seismic absorption attributes on the seismic data and have computed Q from the well log curves. The results show a good correlation between the anomalous absorption (attenuation) attributes and the presence of gas as indicated by well logs.

  10. Seismic monitoring of Poland - temporary seismic project - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trojanowski, J.; Plesiewicz, B.; Wiszniowski, J.; Suchcicki, J.; Tokarz, A.

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the project is to develop national database of seismic activity for seismic hazard assessment. Poland is known as a region of very low seismicity, however some earthquakes occur from time to time. The historical catalogue consists of less than one hundred earthquakes in the time span of almost one thousand years. Due to such a low occurrence rate, the study has been focussing on events at magnitudes lower than 2 which are more likely to occur during a few-year-long project. There are 24 mobile seismic stations involved in the project which are deployed in temporary locations close to humans neighbourhood. It causes a high level of noise and disturbances in recorded seismic signal. Moreover, the majority of Polish territory is covered by a thick sediments. It causes the problem of a reliable detection method for small seismic events in noisy data. The majority of algorithms is based on the concept of STA/LTA ratio and is designed for strong teleseismic events registered on many stations. Unfortunately they fail on the problem of weak events in the signal with noise and disturbances. It has been decided to apply Real Time Recurrent Neural Network (RTRN) to detect small natural seismic events from Poland. This method is able to assess relations of seismic signal in frequency domains as well as in time of seismic phases. The RTRN was taught by wide range of seismic signals - regional, teleseismic as well as blasts. The method is routinely used to analyse data from the project. In the firs two years of the project the seismic network was set in southern Poland, where relatively large seismicity in known. Since the mid-2010 the stations have been working in several regions of central and northern Poland where some minor historical earthquakes occurred. Over one hundred seismic events in magnitude range from 0.5 to 2.3 confirms the activity of Podhale region (Tatra Mountains, Carpathians), where an earthquake of magnitude 4.3 occurred in 2004. Initially three

  11. Seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, A.; Hovius, N.; Turowski, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    In seismology, the signal is usually analysed for earthquake data, but these represent less than 1% of continuous recording. The remaining data are considered as seismic noise and were for a long time ignored. Over the past decades, the analysis of seismic noise has constantly increased in popularity, and this has led to develop new approaches and applications in geophysics. The study of continuous seismic records is now open to other disciplines, like geomorphology. The motion of mass at the Earth's surface generates seismic waves that are recorded by nearby seismometers and can be used to monitor its transfer through the landscape. Surface processes vary in nature, mechanism, magnitude and space and time, and this variability can be observed in the seismic signals. This contribution aims to give an overview of the development and current opportunities for the seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes. We first describe the common principles of seismic signal monitoring and introduce time-frequency analysis for the purpose of identification and differentiation of surface processes. Second, we present techniques to detect, locate and quantify geomorphic events. Third, we review the diverse layout of seismic arrays and highlight their advantages and limitations for specific processes, like slope or channel activity. Finally, we illustrate all these characteristics with the analysis of seismic data acquired in a small debris-flow catchment where geomorphic events show interactions and feedbacks. Further developments must aim to fully understand the richness of the continuous seismic signals, to better quantify the geomorphic activity and improve the performance of warning systems. Seismic monitoring may ultimately allow the continuous survey of erosion and transfer of sediments in the landscape on the scales of external forcing.

  12. Automating Shallow Seismic Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Steeples, Don W.

    2004-12-09

    This seven-year, shallow-seismic reflection research project had the aim of improving geophysical imaging of possible contaminant flow paths. Thousands of chemically contaminated sites exist in the United States, including at least 3,700 at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Imaging technologies such as shallow seismic reflection (SSR) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR) sometimes are capable of identifying geologic conditions that might indicate preferential contaminant-flow paths. Historically, SSR has been used very little at depths shallower than 30 m, and even more rarely at depths of 10 m or less. Conversely, GPR is rarely useful at depths greater than 10 m, especially in areas where clay or other electrically conductive materials are present near the surface. Efforts to image the cone of depression around a pumping well using seismic methods were only partially successful (for complete references of all research results, see the full Final Technical Report, DOE/ER/14826-F), but peripheral results included development of SSR methods for depths shallower than one meter, a depth range that had not been achieved before. Imaging at such shallow depths, however, requires geophone intervals of the order of 10 cm or less, which makes such surveys very expensive in terms of human time and effort. We also showed that SSR and GPR could be used in a complementary fashion to image the same volume of earth at very shallow depths. The primary research focus of the second three-year period of funding was to develop and demonstrate an automated method of conducting two-dimensional (2D) shallow-seismic surveys with the goal of saving time, effort, and money. Tests involving the second generation of the hydraulic geophone-planting device dubbed the ''Autojuggie'' showed that large numbers of geophones can be placed quickly and automatically and can acquire high-quality data, although not under rough topographic conditions. In some easy-access environments, this device could

  13. Borehole seismic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhen, Tao

    In many borehole seismic experiments, the velocity of the tube wave is higher than that of the surrounding rock shear wave. This fast tube wave creates a strong conical shear wave in the surrounding rock, similar to the Mach wave in supersonic aviation and the Cherenkov radiation in electrodynamics. Many geophysicists have tried to utilize the conical signal in VSP (vertical seismic profiling) and cross borehole data interpretation, using quasi static approximations to model the borehole effect. Two popular quasi static approximations are: the effective source array method for source borehole modeling and the squeeze strain method for receiver borehole modeling. These quasi static approximations are sensible as they qualitatively conform to Hueygen's principle and the typical wavelength of a VSP or a cross borehole seismic experiment is much larger than the borehole radius. However, they have not been quantitatively benchmarked against other non approximation method such as the frequency wave number method. The frequency wave number method is a rigorous, non approximation method for modeling straight boreholes without lengthwise variation. The boreholes may consist of many coaxial, homogeneous and axially symmetric shells. In this thesis, the results of the quasi static approximations are compared to the results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The comparison demonstrates that both the effective source array method and squeeze strain method gives the correct arrival time. The effective source array method gives incorrect amplitude and waveform for direct arrivals and tube waves due to its arbitrary assumption of the elementary source radiation pattern. The squeeze strain method gives fairly accurate amplitude and waveform for P and S direct arrivals but it fails to match the tube wave results obtained from the frequency wave number method. The omission of tube wave dispersion and amplitude loss by the quasi static approximation methods also

  14. Elastic-Wavefield Seismic Stratigraphy: A New Seismic Imaging Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Bob A. Hardage; Milo M. Backus; Michael V. DeAngelo; Sergey Fomel; Khaled Fouad; Robert J. Graebner; Paul E. Murray; Randy Remington; Diana Sava

    2006-07-31

    The purpose of our research has been to develop and demonstrate a seismic technology that will provide the oil and gas industry a better methodology for understanding reservoir and seal architectures and for improving interpretations of hydrocarbon systems. Our research goal was to expand the valuable science of seismic stratigraphy beyond the constraints of compressional (P-P) seismic data by using all modes (P-P, P-SV, SH-SH, SV-SV, SV-P) of a seismic elastic wavefield to define depositional sequences and facies. Our objective was to demonstrate that one or more modes of an elastic wavefield may image stratal surfaces across some stratigraphic intervals that are not seen by companion wave modes and thus provide different, but equally valid, information regarding depositional sequences and sedimentary facies within that interval. We use the term elastic wavefield stratigraphy to describe the methodology we use to integrate seismic sequences and seismic facies from all modes of an elastic wavefield into a seismic interpretation. We interpreted both onshore and marine multicomponent seismic surveys to select the data examples that we use to document the principles of elastic wavefield stratigraphy. We have also used examples from published papers that illustrate some concepts better than did the multicomponent seismic data that were available for our analysis. In each interpretation study, we used rock physics modeling to explain how and why certain geological conditions caused differences in P and S reflectivities that resulted in P-wave seismic sequences and facies being different from depth-equivalent S-wave sequences and facies across the targets we studied.

  15. Seismic risk perception test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro

    2013-04-01

    The perception of risks involves the process of collecting, selecting and interpreting signals about uncertain impacts of events, activities or technologies. In the natural sciences the term risk seems to be clearly defined, it means the probability distribution of adverse effects, but the everyday use of risk has different connotations (Renn, 2008). The two terms, hazards and risks, are often used interchangeably by the public. Knowledge, experience, values, attitudes and feelings all influence the thinking and judgement of people about the seriousness and acceptability of risks. Within the social sciences however the terminology of 'risk perception' has become the conventional standard (Slovic, 1987). The mental models and other psychological mechanisms which people use to judge risks (such as cognitive heuristics and risk images) are internalized through social and cultural learning and constantly moderated (reinforced, modified, amplified or attenuated) by media reports, peer influences and other communication processes (Morgan et al., 2001). Yet, a theory of risk perception that offers an integrative, as well as empirically valid, approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing". To understand the perception of risk is necessary to consider several areas: social, psychological, cultural, and their interactions. Among the various research in an international context on the perception of natural hazards, it seemed promising the approach with the method of semantic differential (Osgood, C.E., Suci, G., & Tannenbaum, P. 1957, The measurement of meaning. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press). The test on seismic risk perception has been constructed by the method of the semantic differential. To compare opposite adjectives or terms has been used a Likert's scale to seven point. The test consists of an informative part and six sections respectively dedicated to: hazard; vulnerability (home and workplace); exposed value (with reference to

  16. Procedures for computing site seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferritto, John

    1994-02-01

    This report was prepared as part of the Navy's Seismic Hazard Mitigation Program. The Navy has numerous bases located in seismically active regions throughout the world. Safe effective design of waterfront structures requires determining expected earthquake ground motion. The Navy's problem is further complicated by the presence of soft saturated marginal soils that can significantly amplify the levels of seismic shaking as evidenced in the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake. The Naval Facilities Engineering Command's seismic design manual, NAVFAC P355.l, requires a probabilistic assessment of ground motion for design of essential structures. This report presents the basis for the Navy's Seismic Hazard Analysis procedure that was developed and is intended to be used with the Seismic Hazard Analysis computer program and user's manual. This report also presents data on geology and seismology to establish the background for the seismic hazard model developed. The procedure uses the historical epicenter data base and available geologic data, together with source models, recurrence models, and attenuation relationships to compute the probability distribution of site acceleration and an appropriate spectra. This report discusses the developed stochastic model for seismic hazard evaluation and the associated research.

  17. Seismic Data Gathering and Validation

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, Justin

    2015-02-01

    Three recent earthquakes in the last seven years have exceeded their design basis earthquake values (so it is implied that damage to SSC’s should have occurred). These seismic events were recorded at North Anna (August 2011, detailed information provided in [Virginia Electric and Power Company Memo]), Fukushima Daichii and Daini (March 2011 [TEPCO 1]), and Kaswazaki-Kariwa (2007, [TEPCO 2]). However, seismic walk downs at some of these plants indicate that very little damage occurred to safety class systems and components due to the seismic motion. This report presents seismic data gathered for two of the three events mentioned above and recommends a path for using that data for two purposes. One purpose is to determine what margins exist in current industry standard seismic soil-structure interaction (SSI) tools. The second purpose is the use the data to validated seismic site response tools and SSI tools. The gathered data represents free field soil and in-structure acceleration time histories data. Gathered data also includes elastic and dynamic soil properties and structural drawings. Gathering data and comparing with existing models has potential to identify areas of uncertainty that should be removed from current seismic analysis and SPRA approaches. Removing uncertainty (to the extent possible) from SPRA’s will allow NPP owners to make decisions on where to reduce risk. Once a realistic understanding of seismic response is established for a nuclear power plant (NPP) then decisions on needed protective measures, such as SI, can be made.

  18. Global overview of subduction seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Funiciello, F.; Presti, D.; Heuret, A.; Piromallo, C.

    2013-12-01

    In the framework of the EURYI Project ';Convergent margins and seismogenesis: defining the risk of great earthquakes by using statistical data and modelling', we propose the first global overview of subduction seismicity. Previous studies have been focused on interplate seismicity, intraslab seismicity, upper plate deformation, or relation between interplate and intraslab seismicity, but the three components of subduction seismicity have been never approached in an systematic and exhaustive study. To allow such a study, nodal planes and seismic moments of worldwide subduction-related earthquakes heve been extracted by EHB hypocenter and CMT Harvard catalogues for the period 1976 - 2007. Data were collected for centroid depths between sea level and 700 km and for magnitude Mw 5.5. For each subduction zone, a set of trench-normal transects were constructed choosing a 120km width of the cross-section on each side of a vertical plane and a spacing of 1 degree along the trench. For each of the 505 resulting transects, the whole subduction seismogenic zone was mapped as focal mechanisms projected on to a vertical plane after their faulting type classification according to the Aki-Richards convention. Transect by transect, fist the seismicity that can be considered not related to the subduction process under investigation was removed, then was selected the upper plate seismicity (i.e. earthquakes generated within the upper plate as a result of the subduction process). After deletion from the so obtained event subset of the interplate seismicity as identified in the framework of this project by Heuret et al. (2011), we can be reasonably confident that the remaining seismicity can be related to the subducting plate. Among these earthquakes we then selected the shallow (0-70 km), intermediate (70-300 km) and deep (300-660 km) depth seismicity. Following Heuret et al. (2011), the 505 transects were merged into 62 larger segments that were ideally homogeneous in terms of their

  19. Key aspects governing induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buijze, Loes; Wassing, Brecht; Fokker, Peter

    2013-04-01

    In the past decades numerous examples of earthquakes induced by human-induced changes in subsurface fluid pressures have been reported. This poses a major threat to the future development of some of these operations and calls for an understanding and quantification of the seismicity generated. From geomechanical considerations and insights from laboratory experiments the factors controlling induced seismicity may be grouped into 4 categories; the magnitude of the stress disturbance, the pre-existing stress conditions, the reservoir/fault rock properties and the local geometry. We investigated whether the (relative) contributions of these factors and their influence on magnitudes generated could be recognized by looking at the entire dataset of reported cases of induced seismicity as a whole, and what this might imply for future developments. An extensive database has been built out of over a 160 known cases of induced seismicity worldwide, incorporating the relevant geological, seismological and fluid-related parameters. The cases studied include hydrocarbon depletion and secondary recovery, waste water injection, (enhanced) geothermal systems and hydraulic fracturing with observed magnitudes ranging from less than -1.5 to 7. The parameters taken into account were based on the theoretical background of the mechanisms of induced seismicity and include the injection/depletion-related parameters, (spatial) characteristics of seismicity, lithological properties and the local stress situation. Correlations between the seismic response and the geological/geomechanical characteristics of the various sites were investigated. The injected/depleted volumes and the scale of the activities are major controlling factors on the maximum magnitudes generated. Spatial signatures of seismicity such as the depth and lateral spread of the seismicity were observed to be distinct for different activities, which is useful when considering future operations. Where available the local

  20. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-10-01

    RSI has access to two synthetic seismic programs: Osiris seismic modeling system provided by Odegaard (Osiris) and synthetic seismic program, developed by SRB, implementing the Kennett method for normal incidence. Achieving virtually identical synthetic seismic traces from these different programs serves as cross-validation for both. The subsequent experiments have been performed with the Kennett normal incidence code because: We have access to the source code, which allowed us to easily control computational parameters and integrate the synthetics computations with our graphical and I/O systems. This code allows to perform computations and displays on a PC in MatLab or Octave environment, which is faster and more convenient. The normal incidence model allows us to exclude from the synthetic traces some of the physical effects that take place in 3-D models (like inhomogeneous waves) but have no relevance to the topic of our investigation, which is attenuation effects on seismic reflection and transmission.

  1. Micromachined silicon seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Armour, D.L.; Fleming, R.P.

    1995-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of CTBT monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily depolyable sensor arrays. Although our goal is to fabricate seismic sensors that provide the same performance level as the current state-of-the-art ``macro`` systems, if necessary one could deploy a larger number of these small sensors at closer proximity to the location being monitored in order to compensate for lower performance. We have chosen a modified pendulum design and are manufacturing prototypes in two different silicon micromachining fabrication technologies. The first set of prototypes, fabricated in our advanced surface- micromachining technology, are currently being packaged for testing in servo circuits -- we anticipate that these devices, which have masses in the 1--10 {mu}g range, will resolve sub-mG signals. Concurrently, we are developing a novel ``mold`` micromachining technology that promises to make proof masses in the 1--10 mg range possible -- our calculations indicate that devices made in this new technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach to 10{sup {minus}10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  2. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, F.U.; Jarpe, S.P.; Maurer, W.

    1994-12-13

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities. 21 figures.

  3. Seismic event classification system

    DOEpatents

    Dowla, Farid U.; Jarpe, Stephen P.; Maurer, William

    1994-01-01

    In the computer interpretation of seismic data, the critical first step is to identify the general class of an unknown event. For example, the classification might be: teleseismic, regional, local, vehicular, or noise. Self-organizing neural networks (SONNs) can be used for classifying such events. Both Kohonen and Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART) SONNs are useful for this purpose. Given the detection of a seismic event and the corresponding signal, computation is made of: the time-frequency distribution, its binary representation, and finally a shift-invariant representation, which is the magnitude of the two-dimensional Fourier transform (2-D FFT) of the binary time-frequency distribution. This pre-processed input is fed into the SONNs. These neural networks are able to group events that look similar. The ART SONN has an advantage in classifying the event because the types of cluster groups do not need to be pre-defined. The results from the SONNs together with an expert seismologist's classification are then used to derive event classification probabilities.

  4. Updated Colombian Seismic Hazard Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraso, J.; Arcila, M.; Romero, J.; Dimate, C.; Bermúdez, M. L.; Alvarado, C.

    2013-05-01

    The Colombian seismic hazard map used by the National Building Code (NSR-98) in effect until 2009 was developed in 1996. Since then, the National Seismological Network of Colombia has improved in both coverage and technology providing fifteen years of additional seismic records. These improvements have allowed a better understanding of the regional geology and tectonics which in addition to the seismic activity in Colombia with destructive effects has motivated the interest and the need to develop a new seismic hazard assessment in this country. Taking advantage of new instrumental information sources such as new broad band stations of the National Seismological Network, new historical seismicity data, standardized global databases availability, and in general, of advances in models and techniques, a new Colombian seismic hazard map was developed. A PSHA model was applied. The use of the PSHA model is because it incorporates the effects of all seismic sources that may affect a particular site solving the uncertainties caused by the parameters and assumptions defined in this kind of studies. First, the seismic sources geometry and a complete and homogeneous seismic catalog were defined; the parameters of seismic rate of each one of the seismic sources occurrence were calculated establishing a national seismotectonic model. Several of attenuation-distance relationships were selected depending on the type of seismicity considered. The seismic hazard was estimated using the CRISIS2007 software created by the Engineering Institute of the Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México -UNAM (National Autonomous University of Mexico). A uniformly spaced grid each 0.1° was used to calculate the peak ground acceleration (PGA) and response spectral values at 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3.0 seconds with return periods of 75, 225, 475, 975 and 2475 years. For each site, a uniform hazard spectrum and exceedance rate curves were calculated. With the results, it is

  5. Regional seismic networks upgrade encouraged

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A partnership between the U.S. National Seismic Network (USNSN)—planned by the U.S. Geological Survey for implementation in the early 1990s—and a group of modernized, independently run regional seismic networks is recommended by the National Research Council in their recent report, “Assessing the Nation's Earthquakes: The Health and Future of Regional Seismograph Networks.” The panel that prepared the report said that together, the facilities would constitute a National Seismic System, a satellite-based network capable of systematically monitoring and analyzing earthquakes throughout the nation within minutes of their occurrence.Regional seismic networks are arrays of tens to hundreds of seismic stations targeted chiefly on seismically active regions. They provide a broad range of data and information, which can be applied to public safety and emergency management, quantification of hazard and risk assessment associated with natural and human-induced earthquakes, surveillance of underground nuclear explosions, basic research on earthquake mechanics and dynamics, seismic wave propagation, seismotectonic processes, earthquake forecasting and prediction, and properties and composition of the crust and the internal structure of the Earth.

  6. Seismic Analysis Capability in NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, T. G.; Strang, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    Seismic analysis is a technique which pertains to loading described in terms of boundary accelerations. Earthquake shocks to buildings is the type of excitation which usually comes to mind when one hears the word seismic, but this technique also applied to a broad class of acceleration excitations which are applied at the base of a structure such as vibration shaker testing or shocks to machinery foundations. Four different solution paths are available in NASTRAN for seismic analysis. They are: Direct Seismic Frequency Response, Direct Seismic Transient Response, Modal Seismic Frequency Response, and Modal Seismic Transient Response. This capability, at present, is invoked not as separate rigid formats, but as pre-packaged ALTER packets to existing RIGID Formats 8, 9, 11, and 12. These ALTER packets are included with the delivery of the NASTRAN program and are stored on the computer as a library of callable utilities. The user calls one of these utilities and merges it into the Executive Control Section of the data deck to perform any of the four options are invoked by setting parameter values in the bulk data.

  7. Canadian seismic agreement

    SciTech Connect

    Wetmiller, R.J.; Lyons, J.A.; Shannon, W.E.; Munro, P.S.; Thomas, J.T.; Andrew, M.D.; Lamontagne, M.; Wong, C., Anglin, F.M.; Plouffe, M.; Lapointe, S.P.; Adams, J.; Drysdale, J.A. . Geophysics Div.)

    1990-04-01

    This is the twenty-first progress report under the agreement entitled Canadian Seismic Agreement between the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the Canadian Commercial Corporation. Activities undertaken by the Geophysics Division of the Geological Survey of Canada (GD/GSC) during the period from July 01, 1988 to June 30, 1989 and supported in part by the NRC agreement are described below under four headings; Eastern Canada Telemetred Network and local network developments, Datalab developments, strong motion network developments and earthquake activity. In this time period eastern Canada experienced its largest earthquake in over 50 years. This earthquake, which has been christened the Saguenay earthquake, has provided a wealth of new data pertinent to earthquake engineering studies in eastern North America and is the subject of many continuing studies, which are presently being carried out at GD and elsewhere. 41 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs.

  8. Methods for seismic exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Savit, C. H.

    1985-10-01

    Sweeps of seismic signals consisting of pulse trains having a predetermined number of pulses in which the periods or durations of the pulses are randomized and in which the wave shape and relative time displacements of the pulses in different trains provides substantially constant spectral level over a frequency range containing several octaves even though the durations of the pulses correspond to a frequency range not exceeding an octave during the sweep are transmitted through the medium being explored such as an earth formation to receptors such as geophones or hydrophones. Groups of signals contained in less than the entire length of the sweep which are transmitted and which are received can be cross correlated to vary the effective duration of the sweep. The cross correlation output of successively occurring sweeps may be stacked to reduce the side lobe amplitude of the cross correlation outputs from each sweep, from which outputs seismograms may be constructed.

  9. Downhole hydraulic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Gregory, Danny L.; Hardee, Harry C.; Smallwood, David O.

    1992-01-01

    A downhole hydraulic seismic generator system for transmitting energy wave vibrations into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system contains an elongated, unitary housing operably connected to a well head aboveground by support and electrical cabling, and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a hydraulic oscillator containing a double-actuating piston whose movement is controlled by an electro-servovalve regulating a high pressure hydraulic fluid flow into and out of upper and lower chambers surrounding the piston. The spent hydraulic fluid from the hydraulic oscillator is stored and pumped back into the system to provide high pressure fluid for conducting another run at the same, or a different location within the borehole.

  10. Seismic calm predictors of rockburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmushko, Tatjana; Turuntaev, Sergey; Kulikov, Vladimir

    2013-04-01

    The method of "seismic calm" is widely used for forecasting of strong natural earthquakes (Sobolev G.A., Ponomarev A.V., 2003). The "seismic calm" means that during some time period before the main earthquake, the smaller events (with energies of several order smaller than that of the main earthquake) don't occur. In the presented paper the applicability of the method based on the idea of seismic calm for forecasting rockburst is considered. Three deposits (with seismicity induced by mining) are analyzed: Tashtagol iron deposit (Altai, Russia), Vorkuta (North Ural, Russia) and Barentsburg (Spitsbergen, Norway) coalmines. Local seismic monitoring networks are installed on each of them. The catalogues of seismic events were processed and strong events (rockbursts) were studied (Vorkuta M=2,3; Barentsburg M=1,8; Tashtagol M=1,9÷2,2). All catalogues cover at least two years (Vorkuta - 2008-2011, Barentsburg - 2011-2012, Tashtagol - 2002-2012). It was found that the number of seismic events with magnitudes M=0,5÷1 decreased in a month before the main strong event at Vorkuta coalmines. This event was not directly related with coal mining, its epicenter was located aside of the area of coal mining. In Barentsburg mine the rockburst wasn't so strong as in Vorkuta. The number of events with energies M=0,5 decreased slightly before the rockburst, but not so obviously as in Vorkuta case. The seismic events with high energies occur often at Tashtagol iron deposit. Mining methods used there differ from the coal deposit mining. At coalmines the mining combine runs from edge to edge of the wall, cutting off the coal. The considered iron deposit is developed by a method of block blasting. Not all rockbursts occur immediately after the blasting, so, the problem of the rockburst prediction is important for mining safety. To find rockburst precursors it is necessary to separate the events occurred due to the block blasting from the seismic events due to relocation of stresses in

  11. SEISMIC-REFLECTOR DATABASE SOFTWARE.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Evelyn L.; Hosom, John-Paul

    1986-01-01

    The seismic data analysis (SDA) software system facilitates generation of marine seismic reflector databases composed of reflector depths, travel times, root-mean-square and interval velocities, geographic coordinates, and identifying information. System processes include digitizing of seismic profiles and velocity semblance curves, merging of velocity and navigation data with profile travel-time data, calculation of reflector depths in meters, profile and map graphic displays, data editing and smoothing, and entry of finalized data into a comprehensive database. An overview of concepts, file structures, and programs is presented.

  12. SEISMIC ANALYSIS FOR PRECLOSURE SAFETY

    SciTech Connect

    E.N. Lindner

    2004-12-03

    The purpose of this seismic preclosure safety analysis is to identify the potential seismically-initiated event sequences associated with preclosure operations of the repository at Yucca Mountain and assign appropriate design bases to provide assurance of achieving the performance objectives specified in the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 10 CFR Part 63 for radiological consequences. This seismic preclosure safety analysis is performed in support of the License Application for the Yucca Mountain Project. In more detail, this analysis identifies the systems, structures, and components (SSCs) that are subject to seismic design bases. This analysis assigns one of two design basis ground motion (DBGM) levels, DBGM-1 or DBGM-2, to SSCs important to safety (ITS) that are credited in the prevention or mitigation of seismically-initiated event sequences. An application of seismic margins approach is also demonstrated for SSCs assigned to DBGM-2 by showing a high confidence of a low probability of failure at a higher ground acceleration value, termed a beyond-design basis ground motion (BDBGM) level. The objective of this analysis is to meet the performance requirements of 10 CFR 63.111(a) and 10 CFR 63.111(b) for offsite and worker doses. The results of this calculation are used as inputs to the following: (1) A classification analysis of SSCs ITS by identifying potential seismically-initiated failures (loss of safety function) that could lead to undesired consequences; (2) An assignment of either DBGM-1 or DBGM-2 to each SSC ITS credited in the prevention or mitigation of a seismically-initiated event sequence; and (3) A nuclear safety design basis report that will state the seismic design requirements that are credited in this analysis. The present analysis reflects the design information available as of October 2004 and is considered preliminary. The evolving design of the repository will be re-evaluated periodically to ensure that seismic hazards are properly

  13. Seismic Hazard and Public Safety

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzocchi, Warner

    2013-07-01

    The recent destructive earthquakes in Wenchuan (China), L'Aquila (Italy), Port-au-Prince (Haiti), Christchurch (New Zealand), and Tohoku (Japan) have reignited the discussion over seismic safety. Several scientists [e.g., Stein et al., 2012; Wyss et al., 2012] have questioned the reliability of some seismic hazard maps based on the probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA)—a widely used probabilistic approach that estimates the likelihood of various levels of ground shaking occurring at a given location in a given future time period—raising an intense discussion on this specific point [Hanks et al., 2012; Frankel, 2013; Stein et al., 2013].

  14. Transdimensional Seismic Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodin, T.; Sambridge, M.

    2009-12-01

    In seismic imaging the degree of model complexity is usually determined by manually tuning damping parameters within a fixed parameterization chosen in advance. Here we present an alternative methodology for seismic travel time tomography where the model complexity is controlled automatically by the data. In particular we use a variable parametrization consisting of Voronoi cells with mobile geometry, shape and number, all treated as unknowns in the inversion. The reversible jump algorithm is used to sample the transdimensional model space within a Bayesian framework which avoids global damping procedures and the need to tune regularisation parameters. The method is an ensemble inference approach, as many potential solutions are generated with variable numbers of cells. Information is extracted from the ensemble as a whole by performing Monte Carlo integration to produce the expected Earth model. The ensemble of models can also be used to produce velocity uncertainty estimates and experiments with synthetic data suggest they represent actual uncertainty surprisingly well. In a transdimensional approach, the level of data uncertainty directly determines the model complexity needed to satisfy the data. Intriguingly, the Bayesian formulation can be extended to the case where data uncertainty is also uncertain. Experiments show that it is possible to recover data noise estimate while at the same time controlling model complexity in an automated fashion. The method is tested on synthetic data in a 2-D application and compared with a more standard matrix based inversion scheme. The method has also been applied to real data obtained from cross correlation of ambient noise where little is known about the size of the errors associated with the travel times. As an example, a tomographic image of Rayleigh wave group velocity for the Australian continent is constructed for 5s data together with uncertainty estimates.

  15. The seismic traffic footprint: Tracking trains, aircraft, and cars seismically

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riahi, Nima; Gerstoft, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Although naturally occurring vibrations have proven useful to probe the subsurface, the vibrations caused by traffic have not been explored much. Such data, however, are less sensitive to weather and low visibility compared to some common out-of-road traffic sensing systems. We study traffic-generated seismic noise measured by an array of 5200 geophones that covered a 7 × 10 km area in Long Beach (California, USA) with a receiver spacing of 100 m. This allows us to look into urban vibrations below the resolution of a typical city block. The spatiotemporal structure of the anthropogenic seismic noise intensity reveals the Blue Line Metro train activity, departing and landing aircraft in Long Beach Airport and their acceleration, and gives clues about traffic movement along the I-405 highway at night. As low-cost, stand-alone seismic sensors are becoming more common, these findings indicate that seismic data may be useful for traffic monitoring.

  16. Advanced Seismic While Drilling System

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Radtke; John Fontenot; David Glowka; Robert Stokes; Jeffery Sutherland; Ron Evans; Jim Musser

    2008-06-30

    A breakthrough has been discovered for controlling seismic sources to generate selectable low frequencies. Conventional seismic sources, including sparkers, rotary mechanical, hydraulic, air guns, and explosives, by their very nature produce high-frequencies. This is counter to the need for long signal transmission through rock. The patent pending SeismicPULSER{trademark} methodology has been developed for controlling otherwise high-frequency seismic sources to generate selectable low-frequency peak spectra applicable to many seismic applications. Specifically, we have demonstrated the application of a low-frequency sparker source which can be incorporated into a drill bit for Drill Bit Seismic While Drilling (SWD). To create the methodology of a controllable low-frequency sparker seismic source, it was necessary to learn how to maximize sparker efficiencies to couple to, and transmit through, rock with the study of sparker designs and mechanisms for (a) coupling the sparker-generated gas bubble expansion and contraction to the rock, (b) the effects of fluid properties and dynamics, (c) linear and non-linear acoustics, and (d) imparted force directionality. After extensive seismic modeling, the design of high-efficiency sparkers, laboratory high frequency sparker testing, and field tests were performed at the University of Texas Devine seismic test site. The conclusion of the field test was that extremely high power levels would be required to have the range required for deep, 15,000+ ft, high-temperature, high-pressure (HTHP) wells. Thereafter, more modeling and laboratory testing led to the discovery of a method to control a sparker that could generate low frequencies required for deep wells. The low frequency sparker was successfully tested at the Department of Energy Rocky Mountain Oilfield Test Center (DOE RMOTC) field test site in Casper, Wyoming. An 8-in diameter by 26-ft long SeismicPULSER{trademark} drill string tool was designed and manufactured by TII

  17. Tilt and seismicity changes in the Shumagin seismic gap

    SciTech Connect

    Beavan, J.; Hauksson, E.; McNutt, S.R.; Bilham, R.; Jacob, K.H.

    1983-10-21

    Changes in the ground surface tilt and in the rate of seismicity indicate that an aseismic deformation event may have occurred between 1978 and 1980 along the plate boundary in the eastern Aleutians, Alaska, within the Shumagin seismic gap. Pavlof Volcano was unusually quiescent during this period. The proposed event would cause an increase of stress on the shallow locked portion of the plate boundary, bringing it closer to rupture in a great earthquake.

  18. From Induced Seismicity to Direct Time-Dependent Seismic Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Convertito, V.; Maercklin, N.; Sharma, N.; Zollo, A.

    2012-12-01

    The growing installation of industrial facilities for subsurface exploration worldwide requires continuous refinements in understanding both the mechanisms by which seismicity is induced by field operations and the related seismic hazard. Particularly in proximity of densely populated areas, induced low-to-moderate magnitude seismicity characterized by high-frequency content can be clearly felt by the surrounding inhabitants and, in some cases, may produce damage. In this respect we propose a technique for time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard analysis to be used in geothermal fields as a monitoring tool for the effects of on-going field operations. The technique integrates the observed features of the seismicity induced by fluid injection and extraction with a local ground-motion prediction equation. The result of the analysis is the time-evolving probability of exceedance of peak ground acceleration (PGA), which can be compared with selected critical values to manage field operations. To evaluate the reliability of the proposed technique, we applied it to data collected in The Geysers geothermal field in northern California between 1 September 2007 and 15 November 2010. We show that the period considered the seismic hazard at The Geysers was variable in time and space, which is a consequence of the field operations and the variation of both seismicity rate and b-value. We conclude that, for the exposure period taken into account (i.e., two months), as a conservative limit, PGA values corresponding to the lowest probability of exceedance (e.g., 30%) must not be exceeded to ensure safe field operations. We suggest testing the proposed technique at other geothermal areas or in regions where seismicity is induced, for example, by hydrocarbon exploitation or carbon dioxide storage.

  19. Seismic hazard assessment in Central Asia using smoothed seismicity approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ullah, Shahid; Bindi, Dino; Zuccolo, Elisa; Mikhailova, Natalia; Danciu, Laurentiu; Parolai, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    Central Asia has a long history of large to moderate frequent seismicity and is therefore considered one of the most seismically active regions with a high hazard level in the world. In the hazard map produced at global scale by GSHAP project in 1999( Giardini, 1999), Central Asia is characterized by peak ground accelerations with return period of 475 years as high as 4.8 m/s2. Therefore Central Asia was selected as a target area for EMCA project (Earthquake Model Central Asia), a regional project of GEM (Global Earthquake Model) for this area. In the framework of EMCA, a new generation of seismic hazard maps are foreseen in terms of macro-seismic intensity, in turn to be used to obtain seismic risk maps for the region. Therefore Intensity Prediction Equation (IPE) had been developed for the region based on the distribution of intensity data for different earthquakes occurred in Central Asia since the end of 19th century (Bindi et al. 2011). The same observed intensity distribution had been used to assess the seismic hazard following the site approach (Bindi et al. 2012). In this study, we present the probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of Central Asia in terms of MSK-64 based on two kernel estimation methods. We consider the smoothed seismicity approaches of Frankel (1995), modified for considering the adaptive kernel proposed by Stock and Smith (2002), and of Woo (1996), modified for considering a grid of sites and estimating a separate bandwidth for each site. The activity rate maps are shown from Frankel approach showing the effects of fixed and adaptive kernel. The hazard is estimated for rock site condition based on 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years. Maximum intensity of about 9 is observed in the Hindukush region.

  20. Seismic background noise at the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array

    SciTech Connect

    Breding, D.R.

    1987-10-01

    The System Control and Receiving Station (SCARS) has been collecting spectral history data on the Regional Seismic Test Network (RSTN) since 1981 and on the Norwegian Regional Seismic Array (NRSA) since it was installed in 1984. This report details the spectral history data for the NRSA through 1986. The appendix contains spectral history data for all five RSTN stations from the time they were installed until their deactivation in September 1986.

  1. Seismic engineering -- 1996. PVP-volume 340

    SciTech Connect

    Saleem, M.A.; Aggarwal, M.C.

    1996-12-01

    The 37 papers in this volume have been arranged under the following topical sections: advanced methods in seismic engineering (7 papers); high level dynamic response of piping systems (5); equipment seismic qualification (6); soil structure interaction (3); advanced seismic technology in Asian countries (8); developments in seismic codes and standards (8); and a panel discussion on the review of current issues by the Special Working Group on seismic rules. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Progressive Seismic Failure, Seismic Gap, and Great Seismic Risk across the Densely Populated North China Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, A.; Yu, X.; Shen, Z.

    2014-12-01

    Although the seismically active North China basin has the most complete written records of pre-instrumentation earthquakes in the world, this information has not been fully utilized for assessing potential earthquake hazards of this densely populated region that hosts ~200 million people. In this study, we use the historical records to document the earthquake migration pattern and the existence of a 180-km seismic gap along the 600-km long right-slip Tangshan-Hejian-Cixian (THC) fault zone that cuts across the North China basin. The newly recognized seismic gap, which is centered at Tianjin with a population of 11 million people and ~120 km from Beijing (22 million people) and Tangshan (7 million people), has not been ruptured in the past 1000 years by M≥6 earthquakes. The seismic migration pattern in the past millennium suggests that the epicenters of major earthquakes have shifted towards this seismic gap along the THC fault, which implies that the 180- km gap could be the site of the next great earthquake with M≈7.6 if it is ruptured by a single event. Alternatively, the seismic gap may be explained by aseismic creeping or seismic strain transfer between active faults.

  3. Investigating the point seismic array concept with seismic rotation measurements.

    SciTech Connect

    Abbott, Robert E.; Aldridge, David Franklin

    2009-02-01

    Spatially-distributed arrays of seismometers are often utilized to infer the speed and direction of incident seismic waves. Conventionally, individual seismometers of the array measure one or more orthogonal components of rectilinear particle motion (displacement, velocity, or acceleration). The present work demonstrates that measure of both the particle velocity vector and the particle rotation vector at a single point receiver yields sufficient information to discern the type (compressional or shear), speed, and direction of an incident plane seismic wave. Hence, the approach offers the intriguing possibility of dispensing with spatially-extended received arrays, with their many problematic deployment, maintenance, relocation, and post-acquisition data processing issues. This study outlines straightforward mathematical theory underlying the point seismic array concept, and implements a simple cross-correlation scanning algorithm for determining the azimuth of incident seismic waves from measured acceleration and rotation rate data. The algorithm is successfully applied to synthetic seismic data generated by an advanced finite-difference seismic wave propagation modeling algorithm. Application of the same azimuth scanning approach to data acquired at a site near Yucca Mountain, Nevada yields ambiguous, albeit encouraging, results. Practical issues associated with rotational seismometry are recognized as important, but are not addressed in this investigation.

  4. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, A.

    2015-12-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply nonlinear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatiotemporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the behaviour of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope.

  5. Down hole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1989-01-01

    A down hole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  6. Advanced downhole periodic seismic generator

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.; Hills, Richard G.; Striker, Richard P.

    1991-07-16

    An advanced downhole periodic seismic generator system for transmitting variable frequency, predominantly shear-wave vibration into earth strata surrounding a borehole. The system comprises a unitary housing operably connected to a well head by support and electrical cabling and contains clamping apparatus for selectively clamping the housing to the walls of the borehole. The system further comprises a variable speed pneumatic oscillator and a self-contained pneumatic reservoir for producing a frequency-swept seismic output over a discrete frequency range.

  7. Visualization of volumetric seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spickermann, Dela; Böttinger, Michael; Ashfaq Ahmed, Khawar; Gajewski, Dirk

    2015-04-01

    Mostly driven by demands of high quality subsurface imaging, highly specialized tools and methods have been developed to support the processing, visualization and interpretation of seismic data. 3D seismic data acquisition and 4D time-lapse seismic monitoring are well-established techniques in academia and industry, producing large amounts of data to be processed, visualized and interpreted. In this context, interactive 3D visualization methods proved to be valuable for the analysis of 3D seismic data cubes - especially for sedimentary environments with continuous horizons. In crystalline and hard rock environments, where hydraulic stimulation techniques may be applied to produce geothermal energy, interpretation of the seismic data is a more challenging problem. Instead of continuous reflection horizons, the imaging targets are often steep dipping faults, causing a lot of diffractions. Without further preprocessing these geological structures are often hidden behind the noise in the data. In this PICO presentation we will present a workflow consisting of data processing steps, which enhance the signal-to-noise ratio, followed by a visualization step based on the use the commercially available general purpose 3D visualization system Avizo. Specifically, we have used Avizo Earth, an extension to Avizo, which supports the import of seismic data in SEG-Y format and offers easy access to state-of-the-art 3D visualization methods at interactive frame rates, even for large seismic data cubes. In seismic interpretation using visualization, interactivity is a key requirement for understanding complex 3D structures. In order to enable an easy communication of the insights gained during the interactive visualization process, animations of the visualized data were created which support the spatial understanding of the data.

  8. Position paper: Seismic design criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Farnworth, S.K.

    1995-05-22

    The purpose of this paper is to document the seismic design criteria to be used on the Title 11 design of the underground double-shell waste storage tanks and appurtenant facilities of the Multi-Function Waste Tank Facility (MWTF) project, and to provide the history and methodologies for determining the recommended Design Basis Earthquake (DBE) Peak Ground Acceleration (PGA) anchors for site-specific seismic response spectra curves. Response spectra curves for use in design are provided in Appendix A.

  9. Seismic Station Functionality Improvements of Seismic Network of Slovenia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sincic, Peter; Tasic, Izidor; Mali, Marko; Pancur, Luka; Vidrih, Renato

    2010-05-01

    The Environmental Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, the Office of Seismology and Geology is responsible for the fast and reliable information about earthquakes, originating in the area of Slovenia and nearby. The Seismic Network of Slovenia, which covers the entire Slovenian territory, involving an area of 20,256 km2, consists of 26 seismic stations equipped with broadband seismometers (CMG-40T, CMG-3ESPC, CMG-3T and STS2) and Quanterra Q730 data loggers. The seismic data is transmitted in real-time to the Data Center in Ljubljana (DCL). Leased lines, xDSL and satellite communication are used for data transfer from stations to DCL. When an event occurs main earthquake parameters (magnitude and the location of the epicenter) can be evaluated at sufficient accuracy only if data from several seismic stations is available. In case of temporary communication failure loss of important seismic data can occur. The duration of communication failure, which exceeds 2 hours can cause data loss. This is due to low memory storage of Quanterra Q730 acquisition unit. In this paper our solution for extending storage capabilities of particular seismic station to several months is presented (momentarily the storage capabilities of particular seismic station lies between 1 and 2 hours). To extend storage capabilities we used a special Industrial Computer (JetBox 8100), which runs on Linux. To collect seismic data from the Q730 unit the acquisition software SeiComP is used. The combination of Q730 and JetBox 8100 assures that in case of temporary communication failure there will be no data loss. Seismic data is simply retrieved from JetBox 8100 (from ring buffer that is generated by SeiComP acquisition software) after communication is once again established. Moreover, an advanced state of health system was build and installed on JetBox 8100, that makes identifying, predicting and solving of different problems quick and effective. With combining Q730 data logger and JetBox 8100 we did

  10. Seismic risk perception in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Camassi, Romano; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2014-05-01

    Risk perception is a fundamental element in the definition and the adoption of preventive counter-measures. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. This paper presents results of a survey on seismic risk perception in Italy conducted from January 2013 to present . The research design combines a psychometric and a cultural theoretic approach. More than 7,000 on-line tests have been compiled. The data collected show that in Italy seismic risk perception is strongly underestimated; 86 on 100 Italian citizens, living in the most dangerous zone (namely Zone 1), do not have a correct perception of seismic hazard. From these observations we deem that extremely urgent measures are required in Italy to reach an effective way to communicate seismic risk. Finally, the research presents a comparison between groups on seismic risk perception: a group involved in campaigns of information and education on seismic risk and a control group.

  11. Seismicity of the Jalisco Block

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Rutz, M.; Camarena-Garcia, M.; Trejo-Gomez, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plascencia, C.

    2002-12-01

    In April 2002 began to transmit the stations of the first phase of Jalisco Telemetric Network located at the northwest of Jalisco Block and at the area of Volcan de Fuego (Colima Volcano), in June were deployed four additional MarsLite portable stations in the Bahia de Banderas area, and by the end of August one more portable station at Ceboruco Volcano. The data of these stations jointly with the data from RESCO (Colima Telemetric Network) give us the minimum seismic stations coverage to initiate in a systematic and permanent way the study of the seismicity in this very complex tectonic region. A preliminary analysis of seismicity based on the events registered by the networks using a shutter algorithm, confirms several important features proposed by microseismicity studies carried out between 1996 and 1998. A high level of seismicity inside and below of Rivera plate is observed, this fact suggest a very complex stress pattern acting on this plate. Shallow seismicity at south and east of Bahia de Banderas also suggest a complex stress pattern in this region of the Jalisco Block, events at more than 30 km depth are located under the mouth of the bay and in face of it, a feature denominated Banderas Boundary mark the change of the seismic regime at north of this latitude (20.75°N), however some shallow events were located at the region of Nayarit.

  12. Seismic volumetric flattening and segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomask, Jesse

    Two novel algorithms provide seismic interpretation solutions that use the full dimensionality of the data. The first is volumetric flattening and the second is image segmentation for tracking salt boundaries. Volumetric flattening is an efficient full-volume automatic dense-picking method applied to seismic data. First local dips (step-outs) are calculated over the entire seismic volume. The dips are then resolved into time shifts (or depth shifts) in a least-squares sense. To handle faults (discontinuous reflections), I apply a weighted inversion scheme. Additional information is incorporated in this flattening algorithm as geological constraints. The method is tested successfully on both synthetic and field data sets of varying degrees of complexity including salt piercements, angular unconformities, and laterally limited faults. The second full-volume interpretation method uses normalized cuts image segmentation to track salt interfaces. I apply a modified version of the normalized cuts image segmentation (NCIS) method to partition seismic images along salt interfaces. The method is capable of tracking interfaces that are not continuous, where conventional horizon tracking algorithms may fail. This method partitions the seismic image into two groups. One group is inside the salt body and the other is outside. Where the two groups meet is the salt boundary. By imposing bounds and by distributing the algorithm on a parallel cluster, I significantly increase efficiency and robustness. This method is demonstrated to be effective on both 2D and 3D seismic data sets.

  13. Seismic stratigraphy of the Bahamas

    SciTech Connect

    Ladd, J.W.; Sheridan, R.E.

    1987-06-01

    Seismic reflection profiles from the Straits of Florida, Northwest Providence Channel, Tongue of the Ocean, and Exuma Sound reveal a seismic stratigraphy characterized by a series of prograding Upper Cretaceous and Tertiary seismic sequences with seismic velocities generally less than 4 km/sec overlying a Lower Cretaceous section of low-amplitude reflections which are more nearly horizontal than the overlying prograding clinoforms and have seismic velocities greater than 5 km/sec. The prograding units are detrital shallow-water carbonates shed from nearby carbonate banks into deep intrabank basins that were established in the Late Cretaceous. The Lower Cretaceous units are probably shallow-water carbonate banks that were drowned in the middle Cretaceous but which, during the Early Cretaceous, extended from Florida throughout the Bahamas region. The seismic reflection profiles reveal a sharp angular unconformity at 5-sec two-way traveltime in northwest Tongue of the Ocean, suggesting a rift-drift unconformity and deposition on thinned continental crust. No such unconformity is seen in central and southeast Tongue of the Ocean or in Exuma Sound, suggesting that these areas are built on oceanic crust.

  14. Newberry Seismic Deployment Fieldwork Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J; Templeton, D C

    2012-03-21

    This report summarizes the seismic deployment of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Geotech GS-13 short-period seismometers at the Newberry Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS) Demonstration site located in Central Oregon. This Department of Energy (DOE) demonstration project is managed by AltaRock Energy Inc. AltaRock Energy had previously deployed Geospace GS-11D geophones at the Newberry EGS Demonstration site, however the quality of the seismic data was somewhat low. The purpose of the LLNL deployment was to install more sensitive sensors which would record higher quality seismic data for use in future seismic studies, such as ambient noise correlation, matched field processing earthquake detection studies, and general EGS microearthquake studies. For the LLNL deployment, seven three-component seismic stations were installed around the proposed AltaRock Energy stimulation well. The LLNL seismic sensors were connected to AltaRock Energy Gueralp CMG-DM24 digitizers, which are powered by AltaRock Energy solar panels and batteries. The deployment took four days in two phases. In phase I, the sites were identified, a cavity approximately 3 feet deep was dug and a flat concrete pad oriented to true North was made for each site. In phase II, we installed three single component GS-13 seismometers at each site, quality controlled the data to ensure that each station was recording data properly, and filled in each cavity with native soil.

  15. Seismic tracking of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X.; Wen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Very weak, narrow band seismic signals excited by Hurricane Sandy are detected in cross-correlations of continuous waveforms recorded by stations in eastern United States, at the end of October 2012. We analyze propagational properties of the signal and track the source locations using travel-time difference residual projection, from 26 October to 1 November 2012. We find that (1) the seismic signals driven by Hurricane Sandy are azimuthal dependent. Signals are correlated only within close azimuths from the source, (2) seismic signals propagate as Rayleigh surface wave with an average velocity of about 3.3 km/s, and (3) the inferred seismic source locations follow the path of Sandy before UTC 2012.10.30 12:00:00(about half a day after its landfall in New Jersey), but then deviate from the hurricane center and stay in the coastal area near New England for another 12 hours after the hurricane dissipated. Our research discovers the properties of seismic source excited by Hurricane Sandy and demonstrates the capability of using seismic data to real-time track a hurricane and estimate its direct impacts and the subsequent disasters after it dissipates.

  16. Quantifying the seismicity on Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Chen, Chien-Chih; Turcotte, Donald L.; Rundle, John B.

    2013-07-01

    We quantify the seismicity on the island of Taiwan using the frequency-magnitude statistics of earthquakes since 1900. A break in Gutenberg-Richter scaling for large earthquakes in global seismicity has been observed, this break is also observed in our Taiwan study. The seismic data from the Central Weather Bureau Seismic Network are in good agreement with the Gutenberg-Richter relation taking b ≈ 1 when M < 7. For large earthquakes, M ≥ 7, the seismic data fit Gutenberg-Richter scaling with b ≈ 1.5. If the Gutenberg-Richter scaling for M < 7 earthquakes is extrapolated to larger earthquakes, we would expect a M > 8 earthquake in the study region about every 25 yr. However, our analysis shows a lower frequency of occurrence of large earthquakes so that the expected frequency of M > 8 earthquakes is about 200 yr. The level of seismicity for smaller earthquakes on Taiwan is about 12 times greater than in Southern California and the possibility of a M ≈ 9 earthquake north or south of Taiwan cannot be ruled out. In light of the Fukushima, Japan nuclear disaster, we also discuss the implications of our study for the three operating nuclear power plants on the coast of Taiwan.

  17. seismicity and seismotectonics of Libya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Suleman, abdunnur

    2015-04-01

    Libya, located at the central Mediterranean margin of the African shield, underwent many episodes of orogenic activity that shaped its geological setting. The present day deformation of Libya is the result of the Eurasia-Africa continental collision. The tectonic evolution of Libya has yielded a complex crustal structure that is composed of a series of basins and uplifts. This study aims to explain in detail the seismicity and seismotectonics of Libya using new data recorded by the recently established Libyan National Seismograph Network (LNSN) incorporating other available geophysical and geological information. Detailed investigations of the Libyan seismicity indicates that Libya has experienced earthquakes of varying magnitudes The seismic activity of Libya shows dominant trends of Seismicity with most of the seismic activity concentrated along the northern coastal areas. Four major clusters of Seismicity were quit noticeable. Fault plane solution was estimated for 20 earthquakes recorded by the Libyan National Seismograph Network in northwestern and northeastern Libya. Results of fault plane solution suggest that normal faulting was dominant in the westernmost part of Libya; strike slip faulting was dominant in northern-central part of Libya. The northern-eastern part of the country suggests that dip-dip faulting were more prevalent.

  18. Time dependent seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polidoro, B.; Iervolino, I.; Chioccarelli, E.; Giorgio, M.

    2012-04-01

    Probabilistic seismic hazard is usually computed trough a homogeneous Poisson process that even though it is a time-independent process it is widely used for its very convenient properties. However, when a single fault is of concern and/or the time scale is different from that of the long term, time-dependent processes are required. In this paper, different time-dependent models are reviewed with working examples. In fact, the Paganica fault (in central Italy) has been considered to compute both the probability of occurrence of at least one event in the lifespan of the structure, as well as the seismic hazard expressed in terms of probability of exceedance of an intensity value in a given time frame causing the collapse of the structure. Several models, well known or novel application to engineering hazard have been considered, limitation and issues in their applications are also discussed. The Brownian Passage Time (BPT) model is based on a stochastic modification of the deterministic stick-slip oscillator model for characteristic earthquakes; i.e., based on the addition of random perturbations (a Gaussian white noise) to the deterministic load path predicted by elastic rebound theory. This model assumes that the load state is at some ground level immediately after an event, increases steadly over time, reaches a failure threshold and relaxes instantaneously back to the ground level. For this model also a variable threshold has been considered to take into account the uncertainty of the threshold value. For the slip-predictable model it is assumed that the stress accumulates at a constant rate starting from some initial stress level. Stress is assumed to accumulate for a random period of time until an earthquake occurs. The size of the earthquake is governed by the stress release and it is a function of the elapsed time since the last event. In the time-predictable model stress buildup occurs at a constant rate until the accumulated stress reaches a threshold

  19. A university-developed seismic source for shallow seismic surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yordkayhun, Sawasdee; Na Suwan, Jumras

    2012-07-01

    The main objectives of this study were to (1) design and develop a low cost seismic source for shallow seismic surveys and (2) test the performance of the developed source at a test site. The surface seismic source, referred to here as a university-developed seismic source is based upon the principle of an accelerated weight drop. A 30 kg activated mass is lifted by a mechanical rack and pinion gear and is accelerated by a mounted spring. When the mass is released from 0.5 m above the surface, it hits a 30 kg base plate and energy is transferred to the ground, generating a seismic wave. The developed source is portable, environmentally friendly, easy to operate and maintain, and is a highly repeatable impact source. To compare the developed source with a sledgehammer source, a source test was performed at a test site, a study site for mapping a major fault zone in southern Thailand. The sledgehammer and the developed sources were shot along a 300 m long seismic reflection profile with the same parameters. Data were recorded using 12 channels off-end geometry with source and receiver spacing of 5 m, resulting in CDP stacked sections with 2.5 m between traces. Source performances were evaluated based on analyses of signal penetration, frequency content and repeatability, as well as the comparison of stacked sections. The results show that both surface sources are suitable for seismic studies down to a depth of about 200 m at the site. The hammer data are characterized by relatively higher frequency signals than the developed source data, whereas the developed source generates signals with overall higher signal energy transmission and greater signal penetration. In addition, the repeatability of the developed source is considerably higher than the hammer source.

  20. How Forgetful are Seismic Waves ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milkereit, B.

    2005-05-01

    3D surface seismic and vertical seismic profiling (VSP) techniques can be employed to image crustal structures in complex geological settings. The effects of heterogeneities on seismic wave propagation can be described in terms of different propagation regimes (Wu, 1989): quasi-homogeneous for heterogeneities too small to be seen by seismic waves, Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering and small-angle scattering. These scattering regimes cause characteristic amplitude, phase and travel time fluctuation, which can be used to obtain estimates of scale length. Horizontal resolution of exploration seismic data is often discussed in terms of Fresnel zone. For surface and VSP data, the Fresnel radius increases with increasing depth of investigation. In addition, the lateral resolution is limited by the effective frequency content of the seismic signal. Based on strong contrast in petrophysical data, crustal exploration targets (such as gas-hydrates, permafrost or massive sulfide ores) should make strong P-wave, S-wave and converted wave reflectors against most background velocity models. In the context of realistic geological models, 3D numerical simulations are required to better assess elastic wave interactions with high acoustic impedance targets. In addition, it is important to study the influence of composition and shape of high acoustic impedance targets on the full scattered wavefield through a series of numerical modeling experiments based on the 3D elastic finite-difference (FD) method. Massive sulfide ores consisting of the end-member sulfide minerals pyrite, sphalerite, and galena, which span the full range of observed P- and S- wave velocities and densities in ore rocks, as well as gabbro inclusions, are investigated for different shapes which represent the complex morphologies often observed for ore deposits. 3D FD modeling reveals that large ore deposits lead to a strong and complex scattering response that is often dominated by shear-wave events (Bohlen et al

  1. Romanian Educational Seismic Network Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tataru, Dragos; Ionescu, Constantin; Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Tibu, Speranta; Popa, Mihaela; Borleanu, Felix; Toma, Dragos; Brisan, Nicoleta; Georgescu, Emil-Sever; Dobre, Daniela; Dragomir, Claudiu-Sorin

    2013-04-01

    Romania is one of the most active seismic countries in Europe, with more than 500 earthquakes occurring every year. The seismic hazard of Romania is relatively high and thus understanding the earthquake phenomena and their effects at the earth surface represents an important step toward the education of population in earthquake affected regions of the country and aims to raise the awareness about the earthquake risk and possible mitigation actions. In this direction, the first national educational project in the field of seismology has recently started in Romania: the ROmanian EDUcational SEISmic NETwork (ROEDUSEIS-NET) project. It involves four partners: the National Institute for Earth Physics as coordinator, the National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development " URBAN - INCERC" Bucharest, the Babeş-Bolyai University (Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Engineering) and the software firm "BETA Software". The project has many educational, scientific and social goals. The main educational objectives are: training students and teachers in the analysis and interpretation of seismological data, preparing of several comprehensive educational materials, designing and testing didactic activities using informatics and web-oriented tools. The scientific objective is to introduce into schools the use of advanced instruments and experimental methods that are usually restricted to research laboratories, with the main product being the creation of an earthquake waveform archive. Thus a large amount of such data will be used by students and teachers for educational purposes. For the social objectives, the project represents an effective instrument for informing and creating an awareness of the seismic risk, for experimentation into the efficacy of scientific communication, and for an increase in the direct involvement of schools and the general public. A network of nine seismic stations with SEP seismometers

  2. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  3. 2015 USGS Seismic Hazard Model for Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, M. D.; Mueller, C. S.; Moschetti, M. P.; Hoover, S. M.; Ellsworth, W. L.; Llenos, A. L.; Michael, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Over the past several years, the seismicity rate has increased markedly in multiple areas of the central U.S. Studies have tied the majority of this increased activity to wastewater injection in deep wells and hydrocarbon production. These earthquakes are induced by human activities that change rapidly based on economic and policy decisions, making them difficult to forecast. Our 2014 USGS National Seismic Hazard Model and previous models are intended to provide the long-term hazard (2% probability of exceedance in 50 years) and are based on seismicity rates and patterns observed mostly from tectonic earthquakes. However, potentially induced earthquakes were identified in 14 regions that were not included in the earthquake catalog used for constructing the 2014 model. We recognized the importance of considering these induced earthquakes in a separate hazard analysis, and as a result in April 2015 we released preliminary models that explored the impact of this induced seismicity on the hazard. Several factors are important in determining the hazard from induced seismicity: period of the catalog that optimally forecasts the next year's activity, earthquake magnitude-rate distribution, earthquake location statistics, maximum magnitude, ground motion models, and industrial drivers such as injection rates. The industrial drivers are not currently available in a form that we can implement in a 1-year model. Hazard model inputs have been evaluated by a broad group of scientists and engineers to assess the range of acceptable models. Results indicate that next year's hazard is significantly higher by more than a factor of three in Oklahoma, Texas, and Colorado compared to the long-term 2014 hazard model. These results have raised concern about the impacts of induced earthquakes on the built environment and have led to many engineering and policy discussions about how to mitigate these effects for the more than 7 million people that live near areas of induced seismicity.

  4. A study on seismicity and seismic hazard for Karnataka State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitharam, T. G.; James, Naveen; Vipin, K. S.; Raj, K. Ganesha

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a detailed study on the seismic pattern of the state of Karnataka and also quantifies the seismic hazard for the entire state. In the present work, historical and instrumental seismicity data for Karnataka (within 300 km from Karnataka political boundary) were compiled and hazard analysis was done based on this data. Geographically, Karnataka forms a part of peninsular India which is tectonically identified as an intraplate region of Indian plate. Due to the convergent movement of the Indian plate with the Eurasian plate, movements are occurring along major intraplate faults resulting in seismic activity of the region and hence the hazard assessment of this region is very important. Apart from referring to seismotectonic atlas for identifying faults and fractures, major lineaments in the study area were also mapped using satellite data. The earthquake events reported by various national and international agencies were collected until 2009. Declustering of earthquake events was done to remove foreshocks and aftershocks. Seismic hazard analysis was done for the state of Karnataka using both deterministic and probabilistic approaches incorporating logic tree methodology. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) at rock level was evaluated for the entire state considering a grid size of 0.05° × 0.05°. The attenuation relations proposed for stable continental shield region were used in evaluating the seismic hazard with appropriate weightage factors. Response spectra at rock level for important Tier II cities and Bangalore were evaluated. The contour maps showing the spatial variation of PGA values at bedrock are presented in this work.

  5. Static behaviour of induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignan, Arnaud

    2016-04-01

    The standard paradigm to describe seismicity induced by fluid injection is to apply non-linear diffusion dynamics in a poroelastic medium. I show that the spatio-temporal behaviour and rate evolution of induced seismicity can, instead, be expressed by geometric operations on a static stress field produced by volume change at depth. I obtain laws similar in form to the ones derived from poroelasticity while requiring a lower description length. Although fluid flow is known to occur in the ground, it is not pertinent to the geometrical description of the spatio-temporal patterns of induced seismicity. The proposed model is equivalent to the static stress model for tectonic foreshocks generated by the Non-Critical Precursory Accelerating Seismicity Theory. This study hence verifies the explanatory power of this theory outside of its original scope and provides an alternative physical approach to poroelasticity for the modelling of induced seismicity. The applicability of the proposed geometrical approach is illustrated for the case of the 2006, Basel enhanced geothermal system stimulation experiment. Applicability to more problematic cases where the stress field may be spatially heterogeneous is also discussed.

  6. Seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavayssiere, A.; Gallacher, R. J.; Keir, D.; Ebinger, C. J.; Drooff, C.; Khalfan, M.; Bull, J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Global seismic networks document frequent and unusually deep earthquakes in East African rift sectors lacking central volcanoes. The deep seismicity means that we can use earthquakes to probe the geometry and kinematics of fault systems throughout the crust, and to understand the distribution of strain between large offset border fault systems and intrabasinal faults. The southern Tanganyika rift zone has the highest seismicity rate within East Africa during the period 1973-present, yet earlier temporary seismometer networks have been too sparse in space and time to relocate earthquakes with location and depth errors of < 5-10 km. We address this issue by recording seismicity of southern Lake Tanganyika since June 2014 using a network at 12 broadband seismic stations. The distribution of earthquakes shows that deformation primarily occurs on large offset border faults beneath the lake. Subsidiary earthquake activity occurs along the subparrallel Rukwa graben, and beneath the NE-SW striking Mweru rift. The distribution of earthquakes suggests the southern end of lake Tanganyika is characterized by a network of intersecting NNW and NE striking faults. The depths of earthquakes are distributed throughout the crust, consistent with the relatively strong lithosphere.

  7. The Geoscope Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroy, N.; Stutzmann, E.; Maggi, A.; Vallee, M.; Pardo, C.

    2014-12-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory provides 32 years of continuous broadband data to the scientific community. The 31 GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 19 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. In most stations, a pressure gauge and a thermometer are also installed. In 2014, we upgraded 4 stations: SSB in France, CAN in Australia, ROCAM in Rodrigues and ECH in France. 27 stations send data in real or near real time to the GEOSCOPE Data Center and to tsunami warning centers. Continuous data of all stations are collected in real time or with a delay by the IPGP Data Center in Paris where they are validated, archived and made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces including web services (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). In 2015, GEOSCOPE data will also be available through the French national data center RESIF. Seismic noise level of the continuous data are computed every 24 hours and accessible via the geoscope web site. GEOSCOPE data are also validated by comparing real and synthetic body wave waveforms using the SCARDEC method (Vallee et al., 2011). The information on earthquake characteristics, on GEOSCOPE data available for each event and on the waveform fit for each channel are available through the geoscope web portal.

  8. Seismic waves increase permeability.

    PubMed

    Elkhoury, Jean E; Brodsky, Emily E; Agnew, Duncan C

    2006-06-29

    Earthquakes have been observed to affect hydrological systems in a variety of ways--water well levels can change dramatically, streams can become fuller and spring discharges can increase at the time of earthquakes. Distant earthquakes may even increase the permeability in faults. Most of these hydrological observations can be explained by some form of permeability increase. Here we use the response of water well levels to solid Earth tides to measure permeability over a 20-year period. At the time of each of seven earthquakes in Southern California, we observe transient changes of up to 24 degrees in the phase of the water level response to the dilatational volumetric strain of the semidiurnal tidal components of wells at the Piñon Flat Observatory in Southern California. After the earthquakes, the phase gradually returns to the background value at a rate of less than 0.1 degrees per day. We use a model of axisymmetric flow driven by an imposed head oscillation through a single, laterally extensive, confined, homogeneous and isotropic aquifer to relate the phase response to aquifer properties. We interpret the changes in phase response as due to changes in permeability. At the time of the earthquakes, the permeability at the site increases by a factor as high as three. The permeability increase depends roughly linearly on the amplitude of seismic-wave peak ground velocity in the range of 0.21-2.1 cm s(-1). Such permeability increases are of interest to hydrologists and oil reservoir engineers as they affect fluid flow and might determine long-term evolution of hydrological and oil-bearing systems. They may also be interesting to seismologists, as the resulting pore pressure changes can affect earthquakes by changing normal stresses on faults. PMID:16810253

  9. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.

    2011-12-01

    The CSN is a network of low-cost accelerometers deployed in the Pasadena, CA region. It is a prototype network with the goal of demonstrating the importance of dense measurements in determining the rapid lateral variations in ground motion due to earthquakes. The main product of the CSN is a map of peak ground produced within seconds of significant local earthquakes that can be used as a proxy for damage. Examples of this are shown using data from a temporary network in Long Beach, CA. Dense measurements in buildings are also being used to determine the state of health of structures. In addition to fixed sensors, portable sensors such as smart phones are also used in the network. The CSN has necessitated several changes in the standard design of a seismic network. The first is that the data collection and processing is done in the "cloud" (Google cloud in this case) for robustness and the ability to handle large impulsive loads (earthquakes). Second, the database is highly de-normalized (i.e. station locations are part of waveform and event-detection meta data) because of the mobile nature of the sensors. Third, since the sensors are hosted and/or owned by individuals, the privacy of the data is very important. The location of fixed sensors is displayed on maps as sensor counts in block-wide cells, and mobile sensors are shown in a similar way, with the additional requirement to inhibit tracking that at least two must be present in a particular cell before any are shown. The raw waveform data are only released to users outside of the network after a felt earthquake.

  10. Seismic Resonant Emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korneev, V. A.

    2007-12-01

    There are several classes of underground objects which can produce resonant emission after being hit by incident seismic waves. Those objects include tunnels, pipes, buried containers, ground-filled excavations, unexploded ordinances, fluid-filled fractures, mine shafts, and the like. Being high contrast scatterers, these objects are capable of generating strong scattered waves where primary PP, PS, SS waves carry away most of the energy which was brought by incident waves. For both high- and low- velocity objects the primary scattered waves have the same order of magnitude as incident waves. The main difference between these groups of objects is in later arrivals of multiple scattered waves. While high-velocity objects effectively radiate most of the energy soon after impact, the low-velocity objects trap some fraction of incident wave energy in the form of circumferential waves which propagate rotating along the interface between the object and the embedding medium. Circumferential waves include surface Rayleigh-type waves (propagating mostly in the embedding medium), Stoneley waves (propagating mostly in the fluid, if present), and Frantz waves (body waves trapped in the object because of its curvature). Strong impedance contrast ensures small radiation loss for circumferential waves and they slowly decay in amplitude while rotating inside/around the object. Some circumferential waves exist in the high-velocity objects but their amplitudes decay very fast because of strong radiation in outer medium. Most of the secondary (multiply reflected from an object's boundaries or multiply circled around the object) resonant-scattered energy radiates in the embedding medium as shear waves. The possibility of neglecting P- waves in late scattering arrivals simplifies imaging as is demonstrated for the field and modeled data of the example. Resonant emission phenomenon provides an effective tool for active monitoring for a number of applications such as tunnel detection

  11. Generalized seismic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    There is a constant need to be able to solve for enforced motion of structures. Spacecraft need to be qualified for acceleration inputs. Truck cargoes need to be safeguarded from road mishaps. Office buildings need to withstand earthquake shocks. Marine machinery needs to be able to withstand hull shocks. All of these kinds of enforced motions are being grouped together under the heading of seismic inputs. Attempts have been made to cope with this problem over the years and they usually have ended up with some limiting or compromise conditions. The crudest approach was to limit the problem to acceleration occurring only at a base of a structure, constrained to be rigid. The analyst would assign arbitrarily outsized masses to base points. He would then calculate the magnitude of force to apply to the base mass (or masses) in order to produce the specified acceleration. He would of necessity have to sacrifice the determination of stresses in the vicinity of the base, because of the artificial nature of the input forces. The author followed the lead of John M. Biggs by using relative coordinates for a rigid base in a 1975 paper, and again in a 1981 paper . This method of relative coordinates was extended and made operational as DMAP ALTER packets to rigid formats 9, 10, 11, and 12 under contract N60921-82-C-0128. This method was presented at the twelfth NASTRAN Colloquium. Another analyst in the field developed a method that computed the forces from enforced motion then applied them as a forcing to the remaining unknowns after the knowns were partitioned off. The method was translated into DMAP ALTER's but was never made operational. All of this activity jelled into the current effort. Much thought was invested in working out ways to unshakle the analysis of enforced motions from the limitations that persisted.

  12. Calibration of Seismic Attributes for Reservoir Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, Wayne D.

    2002-05-29

    This project is intended to enhance the ability to use seismic data for the determination of rock and fluid properties through an improved understanding of the physics underlying the relationships between seismic attributes and formation.

  13. Annual Hanford seismic report -- fiscal year 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.P.

    1996-12-01

    Seismic monitoring (SM) at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the US Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the US Atomic Energy Commission. Since 1980, the program has been managed by several contractors under the US Department of Energy (USDOE). Effective October 1, 1996, the Seismic Monitoring workscope, personnel, and associated contracts were transferred to the USDOE Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). SM is tasked to provide an uninterrupted collection and archives of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) located on and encircling the Hanford Site. SM is also tasked to locate and identify sources of seismic activity and monitor changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data compiled are used by SM, Waste Management, and engineering activities at the Hanford Site to evaluate seismic hazards and seismic design for the Site.

  14. Analysis of the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian seismic stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dimitrova, Liliya; Nikolova, Svetlana

    2010-05-01

    Modernization of Bulgarian National Seismological Network has been performed during a month in 2005. Broadband seismometers and 24-bits digital acquisition systems with dynamic range more than 132dB type DAS130-01 produced by RefTek Inc. were installed at the seismic stations from the existing analog network. In the present study the ambient seismic noise at Bulgarian National Digital Seismological Network (BNDSN) stations is evaluated. In order to compare the performance of the network against international standards the detail analysis of the seismic noise was performed using software and models that are applied in the international practice. The method of McNamara and Bulland was applied and the software code PDFSA was used to determine power spectral density function (PSD) of the background noise and to evaluate the probability density function (PDF). The levels of the ambient seismic noise were determined and the full range of the factors influencing the quality of the data and the performance of a seismic station was analyzed. The estimated PSD functions were compared against two models for high (NHNM) and low (NLNM) noise that are widely used in seismological practice for seismic station monitoring qualities assessment. The mode PDF are used to prepare annual, seasonal, diurnal and frequency analyses of the noise levels at BNDSN stations. The annual analysis shows that the noise levels at the Northern Bulgarian stations are higher than the ones at Central and Southern stations for the microseisms' periods (1sec -7sec). It is well observable at SS PRV and PSN located near Black sea. This is due to the different geological conditions of the seismic stations as well. For the periods of "cultural" noise the power distribution depends on the type of noise sources and as a rule is related to human activities at or near the Earth surface. Seismic stations MPE, VTS and MMB have least mode noise levels and the noisiest stations are PGB, PVL и JMB. The seasonal

  15. The Apollo passive seismic experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latham, G. V.; Dorman, H. J.; Horvath, P.; Ibrahim, A. K.; Koyama, J.; Nakamura, Y.

    1979-01-01

    The completed data set obtained from the 4-station Apollo seismic network includes signals from approximately 11,800 events of various types. Four data sets for use by other investigators, through the NSSDC, are in preparation. Some refinement of the lunar model based on seismic data can be expected, but its gross features remain as presented two years ago. The existence of a small, molten core remains dependent upon the analysis of signals from a single, far-side impact. Analysis of secondary arrivals from other sources may eventually resolve this issue, as well as continued refinement of the magnetic field measurements. Evidence of considerable lateral heterogeneity within the moon continues to build. The mystery of the much meteoroid flux estimate derived from lunar seismic measurements, as compared with earth-based estimates, remains; although, significant correlations between terrestrial and lunar observations are beginning to emerge.

  16. Statistical models for seismic magnitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christoffersson, Anders

    1980-02-01

    In this paper some statistical models in connection with seismic magnitude are presented. Two main situations are treated. The first deals with the estimation of magnitude for an event, using a fixed network of stations and taking into account the detection and bias properties of the individual stations. The second treats the problem of estimating seismicity, and detection and bias properties of individual stations. The models are applied to analyze the magnitude bias effects for an earthquake aftershock sequence from Japan, as recorded by a hypothetical network of 15 stations. It is found that network magnitudes computed by the conventional averaging technique are considerably biased, and that a maximum likelihood approach using instantaneous noise-level estimates for non-detecting stations gives the most consistent magnitude estimates. Finally, the models are applied to evaluate the detection characteristics and associated seismicity as recorded by three VELA arrays: UBO (Uinta Basin), TFO (Tonto Forest) and WMO (Wichita Mountains).

  17. Seismic interferometry for temporal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakata, Norimitsu

    Seismic interferometry, where one computes coherency of waves between two or more receivers and averages over many sources, is a technique of signal processing to reconstruct wavefields. This technique is used in geophysics, especially exploration geophysics and seismology. After more than a half century from the first study related to seismic interferometry (although the name of seismic interferometry has been used for approximately the last 15 years), researchers have developed this technique for many aspects: using multiples for increasing illuminations, enhancement of survey areas, ambient-noise analysis, and removal of the imprint of a complicated overburden. In this dissertation, I focus on the advantages of seismic interferometry for time-lapse measurements. Measurements of temporal changes yield beneficial information of fluid flow, crustal deformation, temperature, and/or stress. Estimation of temporal changes using active sources is, however, technically and economically challenging. Because seismic interferometry reconstruct waves that would have been recorded with a repeatable active sources using only receivers, this technique is appropriate for temporal monitoring. With seismic interferometry, one obtains some advantages that include canceling the complexity of wave propagation to a virtual source, creating virtual shear-wave (S-wave) sources (active S sources are expensive), and using waves that are not usable for active sources (e.g., ambient noise and multiples). I seek applications of seismic interferometry in a variety of topics (i.e., seismology, structural engineering, and exploration geophysics), and develop and/or modify several techniques of seismic interferometry for each application. Some chapters focus on developing techniques of seismic interferometry, and other chapters aim to estimate and interpret temporal changes with the developed techniques. For passive seismic sources, deconvolution-based seismic interferometry has better

  18. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Huitieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 8).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 8 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  19. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Troisieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 3).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 3 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  20. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Quatrieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 4).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 4 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  1. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Septieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 7).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 7 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  2. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Premiere annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 1).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 1 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  3. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manual a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Sixieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 6).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 6 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning"Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  4. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Cinquieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 5).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 5 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  5. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Neuvieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 9).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 9 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Junior High Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  6. Ce que mon enfant apprend a l'ecole. Manuel a l'intention des parents, 2003-2004: Deuxieme annee (What My Child Learns in School. Curriculum Handbook for Parents, 2003-2004: Grade 2).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberta Learning, Edmonton.

    Noting that parents are vital partners in the educational system, this French-language handbook provides parents with information about the Grade 2 curriculum in Alberta, Canada. Based on the Alberta Learning "Programs of Study: Elementary Schools," the handbook describes the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students in Alberta are expected to…

  7. Guia para estudiantes: Ayuda economica del Departamento de Educacion de los Estados Unidos, 2003-2004 (The Student Guide: Financial Aid from the U.S. Department of Education, 2003-2004).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Federal Student Aid (ED), Washington, DC.

    This Spanish language publication explains what federal student financial aid is and the types of student financial aid that are available. The guide opens with an overview of federal student financial aid, and then discusses how to find out about student aid. A section of general information discusses eligibility and dependency. Types of federal…

  8. Cross well seismic reservoir characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Sheline, H.E.

    1995-08-01

    A striking example of how Cross Well Seismic reflection data can help characterize a reservoir, has resulted from an ongoing Multi-Discipline study of the carbonate Mishrif reservoir offshore Dubai, U.A.E. Because the study objectives include a more detailed description of intra reservoir structure and layering, Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) analyzed the feasibility of Cross Well Seismic (CWS) and decided to acquire two surveys between three wells 337 to 523 feet apart. DPC has concluded that CWS can be cost effectively acquired offshore, in a Carbonate reservoir; as well as processed and interpreted. However, generally it is not often easy to acquire cross well seismic when and where it will be most useful. A CWS survey can provide multiple images such as a velocity Tomogram, P-wave reflections, and S-wave reflections. To date, Tomograms and P-wave reflections have been produced, and the reflection data has proven to be the most useful for reservoir characterization. Cross Well Seismic Reflection data have provided a level of vertical seismic reflection resolution of around 2 feet, which is more than 10 times better than surface seismic data (2D or 3D). The increase in vertical resolution has provided important detailed information about the reservoir, it`s continuity/heterogeneity; it`s detailed structure, stratigraphy and layering; and definition of any faults with more than 2 feet of offset. The CWS has shown detailed intra Mishrif reflectors. These reflectors have verified or changed detailed correlations between well bores, and show significant intra Mishrif thinning. These reflectors imply time stratigraphic layering which is consistent with tracer study results and regional sequence stratigraphy. This new data will be used to improve the reservoir model description.

  9. USGS National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, A.D.; Mueller, C.S.; Barnhard, T.P.; Leyendecker, E.V.; Wesson, R.L.; Harmsen, S.C.; Klein, F.W.; Perkins, D.M.; Dickman, N.C.; Hanson, S.L.; Hopper, M.G.

    2000-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) recently completed new probabilistic seismic hazard maps for the United States, including Alaska and Hawaii. These hazard maps form the basis of the probabilistic component of the design maps used in the 1997 edition of the NEHRP Recommended Provisions for Seismic Regulations for New Buildings and Other Structures, prepared by the Building Seismic Safety Council arid published by FEMA. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0.2, 0.3, and 1.0 sec periods, with 10%, 5%, and 2% probabilities of exceedance in 50 years, corresponding to return times of about 500, 1000, and 2500 years, respectively. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps. First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions. Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about 450 faults in the western United States (WUS) and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods. Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and

  10. Historical Seismicity of Central Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.

    2013-05-01

    Central Panama lies in the Panama microplate, neighboring seismically active regions of Costa Rica and Colombia. This region, crossed by the Panama Canal, concentrates most of the population and economic activity of the Republic of Panama. Instrumental observation of earthquakes in Panama began on 1882 by the Compagnie Universelle du Canal Interocéanique de Panama and continued from 1904 to 1977 by the Panama Canal Company. From October 1997 to March 1998 the USGS deployed a temporary digital seismic network. Since 2003 this region is monitored by a digital seismic network operated by the Panama Canal Authority and I complemented by the broad band stations of the University of Panama seismic network. The seismicity in this region is very diffuse and the few events which are recorded have magnitudes less than 3.0. Historical archives and antique newspapers from Spain, Colombia, Panama and the United Sates have been searched looking for historical earthquake information which could provide a better estimate of the seismicity in this region. We find that Panama City has been shaken by two destructive earthquakes in historical times. One by a local fault (i.e. Pedro Miguel fault) on May 2, 1621 (I=Vlll MM), and a subduction event from the North Panama Deformed Belt (NPDB) on September 7, 1882 (I=Vll MM). To test these findings two earthquakes scenarios were generated, using SELENA, for Panama City Old Quarter. Panama City was rebuilt on January 21, 1673, on a rocky point facing the Pacific Ocean after the sack by pirate Morgan on January 28, 1671. The pattern of damage to calicanto (unreinforced colonial masonry) and wood structures for a crustal local event are higher than those for an event from the NPDB and seem to confirm that the city has not been shaken by a major local event since May 2, 1621 and a subduction event since September 7, 1882

  11. Repeating seismic events in China.

    PubMed

    Schaff, David P; Richards, Paul G

    2004-02-20

    About 10% of seismic events in and near China from 1985 to 2000 were repeating events not more than about 1 kilometer from each other. We cross-correlated seismograms from approximately 14,000 earthquakes and explosions and measured relative arrival times to approximately 0.01 second, enabling lateral location precision of about 100 to 300 meters. Such precision is important for seismic hazard studies, earthquake physics, and nuclear test ban verification. Recognition and measurement of repeating signals in archived data and the resulting improvement in location specificity quantifies the inaccuracy of current procedures for picking onset times and locating events. PMID:14976310

  12. Seismic Holography of Solar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsey, Charles

    2000-01-01

    The basic goal of the project was to extend holographic seismic imaging techniques developed under a previous NASA contract, and to incorporate phase diagnostics. Phase-sensitive imaging gives us a powerful probe of local thermal and Doppler perturbations in active region subphotospheres, allowing us to map thermal structure and flows associated with "acoustic moats" and "acoustic glories". These remarkable features were discovered during our work, by applying simple acoustic power holography to active regions. Included in the original project statement was an effort to obtain the first seismic images of active regions on the Sun's far surface.

  13. Mud Volcanoes, Geodynamics and Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Panahi, Behrouz

    The purpose of the book is to link together knowledge obtained in the observation of mud volcanism and local seismicity. Geological, Seismological, Geophysical and Geochemical parameters are considered. The book represents the modern state of the art after many decades of observations. The book fills an editorial gap and improves knowledge in the fields of natural risks and energy resources. Mud volcanism occurs both onshore and offshore in many places of the world. Mud volcanic phenomena have been to date described by local monographs or by articles published in scientific journals and no books were published on topics highlighting the link between mud volcanism, geodynamics and seismicity.

  14. Seismic Imaging Processing and Migration

    2000-06-26

    Salvo is a 3D, finite difference, prestack, depth migration code for parallel computers. It is also capable of processing 2D and poststack data. The code requires as input a seismic dataset, a velocity model and a file of parameters that allows the user to select various options. The code uses this information to produce a seismic image. Some of the options available to the user include the application of various filters and imaging conditions. Themore » code also incorporates phase encoding (patent applied for) to process multiple shots simultaneously.« less

  15. Community Seismic Network (CSN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, R. W.; Heaton, T. H.; Kohler, M. D.; Cheng, M.; Guy, R.; Chandy, M.; Krause, A.; Bunn, J.; Olson, M.; Faulkner, M.; Liu, A.; Strand, L.

    2012-12-01

    We report on developments in sensor connectivity, architecture, and data fusion algorithms executed in Cloud computing systems in the Community Seismic Network (CSN), a network of low-cost sensors housed in homes and offices by volunteers in the Pasadena, CA area. The network has over 200 sensors continuously reporting anomalies in local acceleration through the Internet to a Cloud computing service (the Google App Engine) that continually fuses sensor data to rapidly detect shaking from earthquakes. The Cloud computing system consists of data centers geographically distributed across the continent and is likely to be resilient even during earthquakes and other local disasters. The region of Southern California is partitioned in a multi-grid style into sets of telescoping cells called geocells. Data streams from sensors within a geocell are fused to detect anomalous shaking across the geocell. Temporal spatial patterns across geocells are used to detect anomalies across regions. The challenge is to detect earthquakes rapidly with an extremely low false positive rate. We report on two data fusion algorithms, one that tessellates the surface so as to fuse data from a large region around Pasadena and the other, which uses a standard tessellation of equal-sized cells. Since September 2011, the network has successfully detected earthquakes of magnitude 2.5 or higher within 40 Km of Pasadena. In addition to the standard USB device, which connects to the host's computer, we have developed a stand-alone sensor that directly connects to the internet via Ethernet or wifi. This bypasses security concerns that some companies have with the USB-connected devices, and allows for 24/7 monitoring at sites that would otherwise shut down their computers after working hours. In buildings we use the sensors to model the behavior of the structures during weak events in order to understand how they will perform during strong events. Visualization models of instrumented buildings ranging

  16. Observations on seismic probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs)

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.D.

    1984-06-01

    In this paper we present observations on a number of issues related to seismic PRAs including: strengths and weaknesses of seismic PRAs; uncertainty, sensitivity and variability; common misconceptions; possible improvements in seismic safety acceptance criteria; recommended modifications to the NRC approach to safety goals; and major problems. Some specific examples are provided.

  17. Seismic, shock, and vibration isolation - 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, H. ); Mostaghel, N. )

    1988-01-01

    This book contains papers presented at a conference on pressure vessels and piping. Topics covered include: Design of R-FBI bearings for seismic isolation; Benefits of vertical and horizontal seismic isolation for LMR nuclear reactor units; and Some remarks on the use and perspectives of seismic isolation for fast reactors.

  18. Simplified seismic performance assessment and implications for seismic design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Timothy J.; Welch, David P.; Calvi, Gian Michele

    2014-08-01

    The last decade or so has seen the development of refined performance-based earthquake engineering (PBEE) approaches that now provide a framework for estimation of a range of important decision variables, such as repair costs, repair time and number of casualties. This paper reviews current tools for PBEE, including the PACT software, and examines the possibility of extending the innovative displacement-based assessment approach as a simplified structural analysis option for performance assessment. Details of the displacement-based s+eismic assessment method are reviewed and a simple means of quickly assessing multiple hazard levels is proposed. Furthermore, proposals for a simple definition of collapse fragility and relations between equivalent single-degree-of-freedom characteristics and multi-degree-of-freedom story drift and floor acceleration demands are discussed, highlighting needs for future research. To illustrate the potential of the methodology, performance measures obtained from the simplified method are compared with those computed using the results of incremental dynamic analyses within the PEER performance-based earthquake engineering framework, applied to a benchmark building. The comparison illustrates that the simplified method could be a very effective conceptual seismic design tool. The advantages and disadvantages of the simplified approach are discussed and potential implications of advanced seismic performance assessments for conceptual seismic design are highlighted through examination of different case study scenarios including different structural configurations.

  19. On the distribution of seismic reflection coefficients and seismic amplitudes

    SciTech Connect

    Painter, S.; Paterson, L.; Beresford, G.

    1995-07-01

    Reflection coefficient sequences from 14 wells in Australia have a statistical character consistent with a non-Gaussian scaling noise model based on the Levy-stable family of probability distributions. Experimental histograms of reflection coefficients are accurately approximated by symmetric Levy-stable probability density functions with Levy index between 0.99 and 1.43. These distributions have the same canonical role in mathematical statistics as the Gaussian distribution, but they have slowly decaying tails and infinite moments. The distribution of reflection coefficients is independent of the spatial scale (statistically self-similar), and the reflection coefficient sequences have long-range dependence. These results suggest that the logarithm of seismic impedance can be modeled accurately using fractional Levy motion, which is a generalization of fractional Brownian motion. Synthetic seismograms produced from the authors` model for the reflection coefficients also have Levy-stable distributions. These isolations include transmission losses, the effects of reverberations, and the loss of resolution caused by band-limited wavelets, and suggest that actual seismic amplitudes with sufficient signal-to-noise ratio should also have a Levy-stable distribution. This prediction is verified using post-stack seismic data acquired in the Timor Sea and in the continental USA. However, prestack seismic amplitudes from the Timor Sea are nearly Gaussian. They attribute the difference between prestack and poststack data to the high level of measurement noise in the prestack data.

  20. Expanding Conventional Seismic Stratigrphy into the Multicomponent Seismic Domain

    SciTech Connect

    Innocent Aluka

    2008-08-31

    Multicomponent seismic data are composed of three independent vector-based seismic wave modes. These wave modes are, compressional mode (P), and shear modes SV and SH. The three modes are generated using three orthogonal source-displacement vectors and then recorded using three orthogonal vector sensors. The components travel through the earth at differing velocities and directions. The velocities of SH and SV as they travel through the subsurface differ by only a few percent, but the velocities of SV and SH (Vs) are appreciably lower than the P-wave velocity (Vp). The velocity ratio Vp/Vs varies by an order of magnitude in the earth from a value of 15 to 1.5 depending on the degree of sedimentary lithification. The data used in this study were acquired by nine-component (9C) vertical seismic profile (VSP), using three orthogonal vector sources. The 9C vertical seismic profile is capable of generating P-wave mode and the fundamental S-wave mode (SH-SH and SV-SV) directly at the source station and permits the basic components of elastic wavefield (P, SH-SH and SV-SV) to be separated from one another for the purposes of imaging. Analysis and interpretations of data from the study area show that incident full-elastic seismic wavefield is capable of reflecting four different wave modes, P, SH , SV and C which can be utilized to fully understand the architecture and heterogeneities of geologic sequences. The conventional seismic stratigraphy utilizes only reflected P-wave modes. The notation SH mode is the same as SH-SH; SV mode means SV-SV and C mode which is a converted shear wave is a special SV mode and is the same as P-SV. These four wave modes image unique geologic stratigraphy and facies and at the same time reflect independent stratal surfaces because of the unique orientation of their particle-displacement vectors. As a result of the distinct orientation of individual mode's particle-displacement vector, one mode may react to a critical subsurface sequence more

  1. Laboratory seismic anisotropy in mylonites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almqvist, B. S. G.; Herwegh, M.; Hirt, A. M.; Ebert, A.; Linckens, J.; Precigout, J.; Leiss, B.; Walter, J. M.; Burg, J.-P.

    2012-04-01

    Tectonic strain is often accommodated along narrow zones in the Earth's crust and upper mantle, and these high-strain zones represent an important mechanical and rheological component in geodynamics. In outcrop we observe the intense deformation along and across these structures. But at depth, in the mid and lower crust, and in the mantle, we are dependent on geophysical methods for analysis of structures, such as seismic reflection and refraction surveys. A natural progression has therefore been to understand the remote geophysical signal in terms of laboratory ultrasonic pulse transmission measurements on rock cores, collected in the field or from borehole drill core. Here we first present a brief review that consider key studies in the area of laboratory seismic measurements in strongly anisotropic rocks, ranging from calcite mylonites to metapelites. In the second part we focus attention on ongoing research projects targetting laboratory seismic anisotropy in mylonitized rocks, and associated challenges. Measurements of compressional (P) and shear (S) waves were made at high confining pressure (up to 5 kbar). Mineral texture analysis was performed with electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and neutron texture diffraction to determine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO). So-called "rock-recipe" models are used to calculate seismic anisotropy, which consider the elastic properties of minerals that constitutes the rock, and their respective CPO. However, the outcome of such models do not always simply correspond to the measured seismic anisotropy. Differences are attributed to several factors, such as grain boundaries, mineral microstructures including shape-preferred orientation (SPO), micro-cracks and pores, and grain-scale stress-strain conditions. We highlight the combination of these factors in case studies on calcite and peridotite mylonites. In calcite mylonites, sampled in the Morcles nappe shear zone, the measured seismic anisotropy generally

  2. Message from the Governor and State Education Secretary. South Dakota Department of Education 2003-2004 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South Dakota Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    South Dakota's Department of Education aims to put kids first. In order to do that, efforts are focused on promoting leadership and service among administrators and educators, who touch the lives of children on a daily basis. The department has identified seven goals for 2004-05 to ensure that South Dakota students have the best educational…

  3. State Board of Education School Report Card for 2003-2004: A State Summary. Bulletin 2005, Number 99

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Department of Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This report provides a comprehensive summary of statistical data on the state of education in Alabama. It is divided into eight sections: (1) General school information (students, staffing); (2) State accountability (adequate yearly progress status, adequate yearly progress summary); (3) Student academic performance (Alabama reading and…

  4. Initial Employment Report: Physics and Astronomy Degree Recipients of 2003 & 2004. AIP Report. Number R-282.26

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tesfaye, Casey Langer; Mulvey, Patrick J.

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the initial employment and educational paths pursued by physics and astronomy degree recipients at the bachelor's, master's, and PhD levels for the classes of 2002-03 and 2003-04. The report includes starting salaries, primary work activities, ratings of professional challenge and other aspects of initial employment. The…

  5. Ground Water Quality and Riparian Enhancement Projects in Sherman County, Oregon; Coordination and Technical Assistance, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Faucera, Jason

    2004-05-01

    This project was designed to provide technical assistance and project coordination to producers in Sherman County for on the ground water quality and riparian enhancement projects. This is accomplished utilizing the USDA Conservation Reserve Enhancement Program (CREP) in addition to other grant monies to translate the personnel funds in this project to on the ground projects. Two technicians and one watershed council coordinator are funded, either wholly or in part, by funds from this grant. The project area encompasses the whole of Sherman County which is bordered almost entirely by streams providing habitat or migration corridors for endangered fish species including steelhead and Chinook salmon. Of those four streams that comprise Sherman County's boundaries, three are listed on the DEQ 303(d) list of water quality limited streams for exceeding summer temperature limits. Only one stream in the interior of Sherman County is 303(d) listed for temperatures, but is the largest watershed in the County. Temperatures in streams are directly affected by the amount of solar radiation allowed to reach the surface of the water. Practices designed to improve bank-side vegetation, such as the CREP program, will counteract the solar heating of those water quality listed streams, benefiting endangered stocks. CREP and water quality projects are promoted and coordinated with local landowners through locally-led watershed councils. Funding from BPA provides a portion of the salary for a watershed council coordinator who acts to disseminate water quality and USDA program information directly to landowners through watershed council activities. The watershed coordinator acts to educate landowners in water quality and riparian management issues and to secure funds for the implementation of on the ground water quality projects. Actual project implementation is carried out by the two technicians funded by this project. Technicians in Sherman County, in cooperation with the USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service, assist landowners in developing Resource Management Systems (RMS) that address resource concerns in a specified land unit. These RMS plans are developed using a nine step planning process that acts to balance natural resource issues with economic and social needs. Soil, Water, Air, Plants, Animals, and Human resource concerns are the core focus in developing a framework for improving the efficiency and effectiveness of conservation activities in a given planning unit, while working within the guidelines set forth by the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), Clean Water Act (CWA), Endangered Species Act (ESA), Magnuson-Stevens Act (MSA), National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA), and other federal, state, and local laws. Implementation of this project has provided technical and implementation assistance for numerous on the ground projects, including over 50 WASCBs, several thousand feet of terraces, numerous spring developments, fencing, 7 implemented CREP contracts, and the development of 8 additional CREP projects slated for enrollment at the beginning of FY '05. Within the past contract year in Sherman County, 589.4 acres of CREP have been enrolled protecting 30.8 miles of riparian habitat. In addition to the increase in on the ground projects, coordination and outreach to solicit conservation projects in Sherman County has increased due to the additional staffing provided by BPA funds. As a result there is an abundance of potential conservation projects for water quality and riparian management improvement. With the sustained availability of coordination and technical assistance provided through this grant, BPA personnel funds will translate to a much higher dollar figure applied on the ground. This project has been very successful in keeping up with the demand for conservation projects within Sherman County.

  6. White Sturgeon Mitgation and Restoration in the Columbia and Snake Rivers Upstream from Bonneville Dam; 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Rein, Thomas A.; Hughes, Michele L.; Kern, J. Chris

    2005-08-01

    We report on our progress from April 2003 through March 2004 on determining the effects of mitigative measures on productivity of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia River downstream from McNary Dam, and on determining the status and habitat requirements of white sturgeon populations in the Columbia and Snake rivers upstream from McNary Dam. This is a multi-year study with many objectives requiring more than one year to complete; therefore, findings from a given year may be part of more significant findings yet to be reported.

  7. Tuition and Fees at Virginia's State-Supported Colleges and Universities, 2003-2004. A SCHEV Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virginia State Council of Higher Education, Richmond.

    This report summarizes: (1) planned increases in in-state undergraduate tuition and mandatory educational and general (E&G) fees for the 2003-04 academic year (analyzing those increases as they relate to the tuition policy set forth by the 2003 General Assembly); (2) changes in tuition and fees in Virginia over the last 25 years; (3) cost sharing…

  8. Virtually Everywhere: Marketing to Children in America's Schools. The Seventh Annual Report on Schoolhouse Commercialism Trends, 2003-2004.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molnar, Alex

    2004-01-01

    Schools have become integral to the marketing plans of a vast array of corporations as commercial interests--through advertising, sponsorship of curriculum and programs, marketing of consumer products, for-profit privatization, and fundraising tied to commercial entities--continue to influence public education. The trend persists despite growing…

  9. Genetic Inventory of Bull Trout and Westslope Cutthroat Trout in Pend Oreille Subbasin, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Jason; Maroney, Joseph R.; Andersen, Todd

    2004-11-01

    In 2003, the Kalispel Natural Resource Department (KNRD) collected tissue samples for genetic analysis from 209 bull trout and 1,276 westslope cutthroat. The Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife developed and applied microsatellite DNA screening protocols for the analysis of bull trout at 13 loci and 24 loci for cutthroat trout. This project will continue collection and analysis of additional samples next year. At that time, a final annual report will be compiled for the three-year study that will describe the genetic characteristics for bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout. The extent of hybridization of bull trout (with brook trout) and westslope cutthroat trout (with Yellowstone cutthroat trout and rainbow trout) in the Priest Lake and Lower Pend Oreille subbasins will also be examined.

  10. Annual Freshwater and Heat Content From 2003-2004: First Results from the Beaufort Gyre Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proshutinsky, A.; Krishfield, R.; Carmack, E.; McLaughlin, F.; Zimmerman, S.; Shimada, K.; Itoh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Seasonal variability of freshwater and heat content in the Beaufort Gyre will be presented, and causes of interannual changes will be discussed based on data from the Beaufort Gyre Freshwater Experiment (BGFE; http://www.whoi.edu/beaufortgyre), a prototype Ice-Tethered Profiler (ITP), and using CTD and XCTD data collected between 2001 and 2004. As part of the BGFE and in combination with the JWACS cruises on the CCGS Louis S. St. Laurent, three bottom-tethered moorings were deployed in August 2003 at coordinates 75N and 150W, 78N and 150W and 77N and 140W, and were recovered in August 2004. Year-long time series of sea ice draft (from upward looking sonars mounted at the top mooring float), temperature, salinity, and currents in the 50-2000m layer (from moored profilers), and bottom pressure (from pressure tide gauges) were retrieved from the instruments. Information in the upper ocean above 50 m, were also obtained from four drifting ice beacons which were also installed during the 2003 cruise and have telemetered temperature and salinity data at 10, 25, and 40 m for more than a full year. In order to continue collecting data from the Beaufort Gyre to study multiannual variability, the moorings were refurbished and redeployed in 2004 at the same locations and the buoy array was augmented with an ITP (providing CTD data with 1 meter vertical resolution and 6 hours temporal resolution down to 750 m) establishing the Beaufort Gyre Observing System (BGOS).

  11. 78 FR 50114 - Distribution of 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, and 2009 Satellite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Notice Requesting Comments, 70 FR 46193 (Aug. 9, 2005), Docket 2005-2 CRB SD 2001-2003; Notice Requesting Comments, 73 FR 5597 (Jan. 30, 2008), Docket 2008-5 CRB SD 1999-2000; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 4423 (Jan. 27, 2010) Docket 2010-2 CRB SD 2004-2007; Notice Requesting Comments, 75 FR 66799 (Oct....

  12. A Carbon Source Apportionment Shift in Mexico City Atmospheric Particles During 2003-2004 as Determined with Stable Carbon Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Veneroni, D. G.; Vega, E.

    2013-05-01

    The stable carbon isotope composition of atmospheric particles (PM2.5) was measured at La Merced (MER), a commercial site in the eastern sector, and at Xalostoc (XAL) an industrial site in the NE sector of Mexico City, during three sampling periods in autumn 2003, and spring and autumn 2004. At each site and sampling campaign particle samples were collected daily with minivol samplers during two week periods. Ancillary data included organic and elemental carbon, trace elements and ionic species. This data base was complement with air quality data from the RAMA (Automatic Atmospheric Monitoring Network). In general, particle concentrations, ionic species and some air quality species showed higher concentrations in autumn and lowest values in spring. Moreover, the concentrations of these chemical species were highest at XAL compared to MER. The stable carbon isotope composition of PM2.5 during autumn 2003 and spring 2004 had and average value of -26.04 (± 1.54) ‰ vs. PDB. Differences in the isotopic composition between the two sites were non significant. The average δ13C during these seasons were 1 ‰ lighter relative to data collected previously at these sites during 2000 and 2001, and is consistent with a predominant source of hydrocarbon combustion. In autumn 2004, however, average δ13C at XAL and MER increased to -22.8 (± 0.9) and -20.6 (± 3.1) ‰, respectively. Organic carbon concentrations during this period increased concomitantly at these sites. The shift in the isotopic composition in ambient particles suggests a predominance of soil-derived carbon during this period. The possible causes and implications of this are discussed.

  13. Re-Introduction of Lower Columbia River Chum Salmon into Duncan Creek, 2003-2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hillson, Todd D.

    2004-09-01

    Currently, two methods of reintroduction are being simultaneously evaluated at Duncan Creek. Recolonization is occurring by introducing adult chum salmon from the Lower Gorge (LG) population into Duncan Creek and allowing them to naturally reproduce. The supplementation strategy required adults to be collected and artificially spawned, incubated, reared, and released at the mouth of Duncan Creek. All eggs from the artificial crossings at Washougal Hatchery were incubated and the fry reared to release size at the hatchery. The Duncan Creek chum salmon project was very successful in 2003-04, providing knowledge and experience that will improve program execution in future years. The gear used to collect adult brood stock was changed from tangle nets to beach seines. This increased efficiency and the speed at which adults could be processed in the field, and most likely reduced stress on the adults handled. Certain weaknesses exposed in past seasons still exist and new ones were exposed (e.g. inadequate incubation and rearing space at Washougal Hatchery for any large salvage operation and having to move the rearing troughs outside the raceway in 2004). Egg-to-fry survival rates of 64% and 58% showed that the channels are functioning at the upper end of what can be expected from them. Possibly the most important event this season was the ability to strontium mark and release all naturally-produced fry from the spawning channels. Channel and floodplain modifications reduced the likelihood that floods will damage the channels and negatively impact survival rates.

  14. Auroras Now! - Auroral nowcasting service for Hotels in Finnish Lapland and its performance during winter 2003-2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kauristie, K.; Mälkki, A.; Pulkkinen, A.; Nevanlinna, H.; Ketola, A.; Tulkki, V.; Raita, T.; Blanco, A.

    2004-12-01

    European Space Agency is currently supporting 17 Service Development Activities (SDA) within its Space Weather Pilot Project. Auroras Now!, one of the SDAs, has been operated during November 2003 - March 2004 as its pilot season. The service includes a public part freely accessible in Internet (http://aurora.fmi.fi) and a private part visible only to the customers of two hotels in the Finnish Lapland through the hotels' internal TV-systems. The nowcasting system is based on the magnetic recordings of two geophysical observatories, Sodankylä (SOD, MLAT ~64 N) and Nurmijärvi (NUR, MLAT ~57 N). The probability of auroral occurrence is continuously characterised with an empirically determined three-level scale. The index is updated once per hour and based on the magnetic field variations recorded at the observatories. During dark hours the near-real time auroral images acquired at SOD are displayed. The hotel service also includes cloudiness predictions for the coming night. During the pilot season the reliability of the three-level magnetic alarm system was weekly evaluated by comparing its prediction with auroral observations by the nearby all-sky camera. Successful hits and failures were scored according to predetermined rules. The highest credit points when it managed to spot auroras in a timely manner and predict their brightness correctly. Maximum penalty points were given when the alarm missed clear bright auroras lasting for more than one hour. In this presentation we analyse the results of the evaluation, present some ideas to further sharpen the procedure, and discuss more generally the correlation between local auroral and magnetic activity.

  15. Plasma Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) in the United States population: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    No large-scale, population-based study has considered the descriptive epidemiology of vitamin B6 status using the biological marker, plasma pyridoxal 5’ - phosphate (PLP). Consequently, how vitamin B6 status varies with basic demographic and lifestyle factors is unclear. We sought to examine the epi...

  16. Excellence in Higher Education, 2003-2004: A Baldrige-Based Guide to Organizational Assessment, Improvement and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruben, Brent D.

    2003-01-01

    Self-assessment leads to stronger performance in the nation's colleges and universities. That's the premise of "Excellence in Higher Education," a model self-assessment program that has earned accolades from the higher education community. Based on the Malcolm Baldrige National Quality Award framework, the third edition of this bestseller is the…

  17. Serum selenium concentrations and diabetes in U.S. adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high selenium levels are associated with diabetes and other cardiometabolic risk factors. OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the association of serum selenium concentrations with fasting plasma glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin levels, and diabetes in the most rec...

  18. Understanding Environmental Literacy in America and Making It a Reality: Three-Year Report 2002/2003/2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Environmental Education & Training Foundation, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Research by the National Environmental Education & Training Foundation (NEETF) and Roper Public Affairs at NOP World tells that the average 12th grader (and by extension, the average adult) still falls far short of what would be considered "environmentally literate" by anyone's definition. Seemingly elementary questions elude most of the public:…

  19. Isolation and genetic characterization of influenza A viruses and a paramyxovirus from wild birds in Barbados: 2003-2004

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Migratory waterfowl and shorebirds are regarded as the primordial reservoir of all influenza A viral subtypes and have been repeatedly implicated in avian influenza outbreaks in domestic poultry and swine. All of the 16 haemagglutinin (HA) and 9 neuraminidase (NA) influenza subtypes have been isola...

  20. Seismic maps foster landmark legislation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Borcherdt, Roger D.; Brown, Robert B.; Page, Robert A.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Hendley, James W., II

    1995-01-01

    When a powerful earthquake strikes an urban region, damage concentrates not only near the quake's source. Damage can also occur many miles from the source in areas of soft ground. In recent years, scientists have developed ways to identify and map these areas of high seismic hazard. This advance has spurred pioneering legislation to reduce earthquake losses in areas of greatest hazard.

  1. Micromachined silicon seismic accelerometer development

    SciTech Connect

    Barron, C.C.; Fleming, J.G.; Montague, S.

    1996-08-01

    Batch-fabricated silicon seismic transducers could revolutionize the discipline of seismic monitoring by providing inexpensive, easily deployable sensor arrays. Our ultimate goal is to fabricate seismic sensors with sensitivity and noise performance comparable to short-period seismometers in common use. We expect several phases of development will be required to accomplish that level of performance. Traditional silicon micromachining techniques are not ideally suited to the simultaneous fabrication of a large proof mass and soft suspension, such as one needs to achieve the extreme sensitivities required for seismic measurements. We have therefore developed a novel {open_quotes}mold{close_quotes} micromachining technology that promises to make larger proof masses (in the 1-10 mg range) possible. We have successfully integrated this micromolding capability with our surface-micromachining process, which enables the formation of soft suspension springs. Our calculations indicate that devices made in this new integrated technology will resolve down to at least sub-{mu}G signals, and may even approach the 10{sup -10} G/{radical}Hz acceleration levels found in the low-earth-noise model.

  2. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  3. Quantifying Similarity in Seismic Polarizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, D. W. S.; Jones, J. P.; Caffagni, E.

    2015-12-01

    Measuring similarity in seismic attributes can help identify tremor, low S/N signals, and converted or reflected phases, in addition to diagnosing site noise and sensor misalignment in arrays. Polarization analysis is a widely accepted method for studying the orientation and directional characteristics of seismic phases via. computed attributes, but similarity is ordinarily discussed using qualitative comparisons with reference values. Here we introduce a technique for quantitative polarization similarity that uses weighted histograms computed in short, overlapping time windows, drawing on methods adapted from the image processing and computer vision literature. Our method accounts for ambiguity in azimuth and incidence angle and variations in signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio. Using records of the Mw=8.3 Sea of Okhotsk earthquake from CNSN broadband sensors in British Columbia and Yukon Territory, Canada, and vertical borehole array data from a monitoring experiment at Hoadley gas field, central Alberta, Canada, we demonstrate that our method is robust to station spacing. Discrete wavelet analysis extends polarization similarity to the time-frequency domain in a straightforward way. Because histogram distance metrics are bounded by [0 1], clustering allows empirical time-frequency separation of seismic phase arrivals on single-station three-component records. Array processing for automatic seismic phase classification may be possible using subspace clustering of polarization similarity, but efficient algorithms are required to reduce the dimensionality.

  4. Seismic performance of underground facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Marine, I W

    1982-01-01

    A workshop was held in Augusta, GA, February 11-13, 1981 to review and assess the state-of-the-art for determining and predicting earthquake damage to underground facilities. The papers presented related to data collection and analysis, modeling, and repository design. Discussion groups addressed seismology, rock mechanics and hydrology, modeling, design, and licensing, siting, and tectonics. Most scientists in attendance believed that enough was known to proceed with site selection, design, and licensing of a waste repository. However, there was recognition of several items of research that would enhance understanding of the subsurface effects of seismicity. In general, the subsurface effects of earthquakes are substantially less than their surface effects. This conclusion is supported by both observation and by modeling studies. The absence of wave reflections, the absence of high flexural stresses, and the absence of poor soil conditions contribute to the improved seismic performance of subsurface facilities. Seismic considerations for geologic disposal of nuclear waste vary with the phase of operation. During construction and waste loading, the primary concern is for the safety of onsite personnel. However, during long-term waste storage, the principal interest is in the migration of contaminants due to seismic cracking and enhancement of permeability. Backfilling the storage facility will mitigate this effect.

  5. Sealevel, global seismicity and tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.

    2004-12-01

    Current estimates of secular relative sealevel variations give a uniform rise in the range 1.5-2.0 mm/yr over the last century. The main climatological contributions come from water volume increase due to thermal expansion and water mass increase due to ice melting. The volume increase accounts for a rise of about 0.5 mm/yr while the mass increase is thought to be even smaller. Since earthquakes produce vertical crust displacements and geoid height variations, they change also the relative sea level. On a global scale the combined effect of world seismicity is responsible for a mean relative sealevel variation of 0.1 mm/yr, with a large regional variability. This value is of the same order of magnitude of the climatological contributions and, in sites with strong seismotectonical activity, may represent the dominant contribution of relative sealevel variations measured by tide gauges. The recent measures of sealevel obtained by satellite altimetry show a wide regional variation of sealevel trends over the oceanic surfaces. These measurements, when compared with the global seismic driven signal, show a strong correlation of the geographical distribution of trend signs, while the absolute values of seismic RSL trends are much smaller in magnitude. The physical processes underlying the observed correlation need a deeper analysis to be understood, but we have a strong indication that seismic and tectonic processes plays an important role in the variation of global sealevel.

  6. Britannia rules the seismic waves

    SciTech Connect

    Green, P.

    1984-04-01

    When a longwall mining operation penetrates an unforeseen discontinuity in the coal seam, all hell breaks loose. Productivity plummets while the shearer cuts through rock, and the high proportion of reject material overwhelms the preparation plant. And, if the discontinuity is large enough, the face may have to be abandoned. To avert such catastrophies, a technique developed in Britain for mapping the presence of discontinuities has been applied in the Meigs No. 1 mine of the Southern Ohio Coal Co. in Athens, Ohio. The technology, called in-seam seismic surveying, is similar to seismic exploration in the oil and gas industry. The principle of the in-seam survey is simple: A shock wave is sent through the coal seam. If there is a sandstone channel or a displacement fault in the seam, the sound waves will be reflected back and can be picked up by geophones. Conversely, geophones installed on the opposite side of a channel or fault will not pick up the sound waves (see box). Seismic surveys have been made for four years by Britain's National Coal Board (NCB), and were developed because practically all its production is from longwall mining, and knowing what lies ahead is critical. And with about 500 ft between longwall entries there's a large amount of unpenetrated seam to contain hidden discontinuities. Hence the interest in in-seam seismic surveys.

  7. Seismic hazard studies in Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, Abuo El-Ela A.; El-Hadidy, M.; Deif, A.; Abou Elenean, K.

    2012-12-01

    The study of earthquake activity and seismic hazard assessment of Egypt is very important due to the great and rapid spreading of large investments in national projects, especially the nuclear power plant that will be held in the northern part of Egypt. Although Egypt is characterized by low seismicity, it has experienced occurring of damaging earthquake effect through its history. The seismotectonic sitting of Egypt suggests that large earthquakes are possible particularly along the Gulf of Aqaba-Dead Sea transform, the Subduction zone along the Hellenic and Cyprean Arcs, and the Northern Red Sea triple junction point. In addition some inland significant sources at Aswan, Dahshour, and Cairo-Suez District should be considered. The seismic hazard for Egypt is calculated utilizing a probabilistic approach (for a grid of 0.5° × 0.5°) within a logic-tree framework. Alternative seismogenic models and ground motion scaling relationships are selected to account for the epistemic uncertainty. Seismic hazard values on rock were calculated to create contour maps for four ground motion spectral periods and for different return periods. In addition, the uniform hazard spectra for rock sites for different 25 periods, and the probabilistic hazard curves for Cairo, and Alexandria cities are graphed. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) values were found close to the Gulf of Aqaba and it was about 220 gal for 475 year return period. While the lowest (PGA) values were detected in the western part of the western desert and it is less than 25 gal.

  8. Seismicity dynamics and earthquake predictability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobolev, G. A.

    2011-02-01

    Many factors complicate earthquake sequences, including the heterogeneity and self-similarity of the geological medium, the hierarchical structure of faults and stresses, and small-scale variations in the stresses from different sources. A seismic process is a type of nonlinear dissipative system demonstrating opposing trends towards order and chaos. Transitions from equilibrium to unstable equilibrium and local dynamic instability appear when there is an inflow of energy; reverse transitions appear when energy is dissipating. Several metastable areas of a different scale exist in the seismically active region before an earthquake. Some earthquakes are preceded by precursory phenomena of a different scale in space and time. These include long-term activation, seismic quiescence, foreshocks in the broad and narrow sense, hidden periodical vibrations, effects of the synchronization of seismic activity, and others. Such phenomena indicate that the dynamic system of lithosphere is moving to a new state - catastrophe. A number of examples of medium-term and short-term precursors is shown in this paper. However, no precursors identified to date are clear and unambiguous: the percentage of missed targets and false alarms is high. The weak fluctuations from outer and internal sources play a great role on the eve of an earthquake and the occurrence time of the future event depends on the collective behavior of triggers. The main task is to improve the methods of metastable zone detection and probabilistic forecasting.

  9. New Zealand Seismic Risk Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molas, G.; Aslani, H.; Bryngelson, J.; Khan, Z.

    2006-12-01

    A seismic risk model for New Zealand has been developed to assisted insurers and reinsurers in assessing their financial risk posed by earthquakes. This presentation summarizes the methodology and data within the model and includes a discussion of the key results from the hazard and risk perspectives. The earthquake, risk-model framework has four components. First, the stochastic event set is determined, as well as its associated event probabilities. A ground-motion model including geotechnical data is added to complete the seismic hazard model. To determine risk, regional building vulnerability curves and a financial model are incorporated. An insurer property exposure database was developed to determine the insured seismic risk in these countries. Using this model, examination of resulting hazard maps (200, 475, 1000 and 2500 years) and of city-level, hazard-curves gives insight to the key drivers of risk across the region. Hazard de-aggregation allow for examination of key drivers of risk in terms of seismic sources, event magnitude and events types. Examination of loss costs for residential and commercial (short and mid-rise) structures gives insight into the risk perspective for these various lines of business. Finally, incorporation of the insurer property exposure allows for an examination of the insured risk across the region and between exposure concentrations including Wellington, Auckland and Christchurch.

  10. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-12-01

    We have developed and tested technology for a new type of direct hydrocarbon detection. The method uses inelastic rock properties to greatly enhance the sensitivity of surface seismic methods to the presence of oil and gas saturation. These methods include use of energy absorption, dispersion, and attenuation (Q) along with traditional seismic attributes like velocity, impedance, and AVO. Our approach is to combine three elements: (1) a synthesis of the latest rock physics understanding of how rock inelasticity is related to rock type, pore fluid types, and pore microstructure, (2) synthetic seismic modeling that will help identify the relative contributions of scattering and intrinsic inelasticity to apparent Q attributes, and (3) robust algorithms that extract relative wave attenuation attributes from seismic data. This project provides: (1) Additional petrophysical insight from acquired data; (2) Increased understanding of rock and fluid properties; (3) New techniques to measure reservoir properties that are not currently available; and (4) Provide tools to more accurately describe the reservoir and predict oil location and volumes. These methodologies will improve the industry's ability to predict and quantify oil and gas saturation distribution, and to apply this information through geologic models to enhance reservoir simulation. We have applied for two separate patents relating to work that was completed as part of this project.

  11. Seismic component fragility data base for IPEEE

    SciTech Connect

    Bandyopadhyay, K.; Hofmayer, C.

    1990-01-01

    Seismic probabilistic risk assessment or a seismic margin study will require a reliable data base of seismic fragility of various equipment classes. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has selected a group of equipment and generically evaluated the seismic fragility of each equipment class by use of existing test data. This paper briefly discusses the evaluation methodology and the fragility results. The fragility analysis results when used in the Individual Plant Examination for External Events (IPEEE) Program for nuclear power plants are expected to provide insights into seismic vulnerabilities of equipment for earthquakes beyond the design basis. 3 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Seismic excitation by space shuttles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanamori, H.; Mori, J.; Sturtevant, B.; Anderson, D.L.; Heaton, T.

    1992-01-01

    Shock waves generated by the space shuttles Columbia (August 13, 1989), Atlantis (April 11, 1991) and Discovery (September 18, 1991) on their return to Edwards Air Force Base, California, were recorded by TERRAscope (Caltech's broadband seismic network), the Caltech-U.S.G.S Southern California Seismic Network (SCSN), and the University of Southern California (USC) Los Angeles Basin Seismic Network. The spatial pattern of the arrival times exhibits hyperbolic shock fronts from which the path, velocity and altitude of the space shuttle could be determined. The shock wave was acoustically coupled to the ground, converted to a seismic wave, and recorded clearly at the broadband TERRAscope stations. The acoustic coupling occurred very differently depending on the conditions of the Earth's surface surrounding the station. For a seismic station located on hard bedrock, the shock wave (N wave) was clearly recorded with little distortion. Aside from the N wave, very little acoustic coupling of the shock wave energy to the ground occurred at these sites. The observed N wave record was used to estimate the overpressure of the shock wave accurately; a pressure change of 0.5 to 2.2 mbars was obtained. For a seismic station located close to the ocean or soft sedimentary basins, a significant amount of shock wave energy was transferred to the ground through acoustic coupling of the shock wave and the oceanic Rayleigh wave. A distinct topography such as a mountain range was found effective to couple the shock wave energy to the ground. Shock wave energy was also coupled to the ground very effectively through large man made structures such as high rise buildings and offshore oil drilling platforms. For the space shuttle Columbia, in particular, a distinct pulse having a period of about 2 to 3 seconds was observed, 12.5 s before the shock wave, with a broadband seismograph in Pasadena. This pulse was probably excited by the high rise buildings in downtown Los Angeles which were

  13. Statistical Seismology and Induced Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiampo, K. F.; González, P. J.; Kazemian, J.

    2014-12-01

    While seismicity triggered or induced by natural resources production such as mining or water impoundment in large dams has long been recognized, the recent increase in the unconventional production of oil and gas has been linked to rapid rise in seismicity in many places, including central North America (Ellsworth et al., 2012; Ellsworth, 2013). Worldwide, induced events of M~5 have occurred and, although rare, have resulted in both damage and public concern (Horton, 2012; Keranen et al., 2013). In addition, over the past twenty years, the increase in both number and coverage of seismic stations has resulted in an unprecedented ability to precisely record the magnitude and location of large numbers of small magnitude events. The increase in the number and type of seismic sequences available for detailed study has revealed differences in their statistics that previously difficult to quantify. For example, seismic swarms that produce significant numbers of foreshocks as well as aftershocks have been observed in different tectonic settings, including California, Iceland, and the East Pacific Rise (McGuire et al., 2005; Shearer, 2012; Kazemian et al., 2014). Similarly, smaller events have been observed prior to larger induced events in several occurrences from energy production. The field of statistical seismology has long focused on the question of triggering and the mechanisms responsible (Stein et al., 1992; Hill et al., 1993; Steacy et al., 2005; Parsons, 2005; Main et al., 2006). For example, in most cases the associated stress perturbations are much smaller than the earthquake stress drop, suggesting an inherent sensitivity to relatively small stress changes (Nalbant et al., 2005). Induced seismicity provides the opportunity to investigate triggering and, in particular, the differences between long- and short-range triggering. Here we investigate the statistics of induced seismicity sequences from around the world, including central North America and Spain, and

  14. Time-dependent seismic tomography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Julian, B.R.; Foulger, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    Of methods for measuring temporal changes in seismic-wave speeds in the Earth, seismic tomography is among those that offer the highest spatial resolution. 3-D tomographic methods are commonly applied in this context by inverting seismic wave arrival time data sets from different epochs independently and assuming that differences in the derived structures represent real temporal variations. This assumption is dangerous because the results of independent inversions would differ even if the structure in the Earth did not change, due to observational errors and differences in the seismic ray distributions. The latter effect may be especially severe when data sets include earthquake swarms or aftershock sequences, and may produce the appearance of correlation between structural changes and seismicity when the wave speeds are actually temporally invariant. A better approach, which makes it possible to assess what changes are truly required by the data, is to invert multiple data sets simultaneously, minimizing the difference between models for different epochs as well as the rms arrival-time residuals. This problem leads, in the case of two epochs, to a system of normal equations whose order is twice as great as for a single epoch. The direct solution of this system would require twice as much memory and four times as much computational effort as would independent inversions. We present an algorithm, tomo4d, that takes advantage of the structure and sparseness of the system to obtain the solution with essentially no more effort than independent inversions require. No claim to original US government works Journal compilation ?? 2010 RAS.

  15. Seismic electromagnetic study in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qinghua

    2016-04-01

    Seismo-electromagnetism is becoming a hot interdisciplinary study in both geosciences and electromagnetism. Numerous electromagnetic changes at a broad range of frequencies associated with earthquakes have been reported independently. There are some attempts of applying such electromagnetic data to short-term earthquake prediction. Although due to the complexity of seismogenic process and underground structure, the seismic electromagnetic phenomena cannot be fully understood, the seismic electromagnetic study plays a key role in the mitigation of seismic hazard. China is one of the countries which have the earliest reports on seismo-electromagnetic phenomena. The seismic electromagnetic study in China started in late 1960's. There are almost 50 years continuous observation data up to now, which provides a unique database for seismo-electromagnetic study not only in China, but also in the world. Therefore, seismo-electromagnetic study in China is interested broadly by international communities of geosciences and electromagnetism. I present here a brief review on seismic electromagnetic study in China, especially focusing on geo-electromagnetic observation and empirical prediction based on the observation data. After summarizing various electromagnetic observations such as apparent resistivity, geoelectric potential, geomagnetic field, electromagnetic disturbance, and so on, I show the cases of the empirical prediction based on the observed electromagnetic data associated with some earthquakes in China. Finally, based on the above review, I propose an integrated research scheme of earthquake-related electromagnetic phenomena, which includes the interaction between appropriate observations, robust methodology of data processing, and theoretical model analysis. This study is supported partially by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (41274075) and the National Basic Research Program of China (2014CB845903).

  16. The Southern Kansas Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terra, F. M.

    2015-12-01

    Historically aseismic Harper and Sumner counties in Southern Kansas experienced a dramatic increase in seismicity beginning in early 2014, coincident with the development of new oil production in the Mississippi Lime Play. In order to better understand the potential relationships between seismicity and oil development, the USGS installed a real-time telemetered seismic network in cooperation with the Kansas Geological Survey, the Kansas Corporation Commission, the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, Harper County, and the Oklahoma Geological Survey. The network began operation in March 2014 with an initial deployment of 5 NetQuakes accelerometers and by July 2014 had expanded to include 10 broadband sites. The network currently has 14 stations, all with accelerometers and 12 with broadband seismometers. The network has interstation spacing of 15 - 25 km and typical azimuthal gap of 80 for well-located events. Data are continuously streamed to IRIS at 200 samples per second from most sites. Earthquake locations are augmented with additional stations from the USGS National Network, Oklahoma Geological Survey Seismic Network, Kansas Seismic Monitoring Network and the Enid Oklahoma Network. Since the spring of 2014 over 7500 earthquakes have been identified with data from this network, 1400 of which have been manually timed and cataloged. Focal depths for earthquakes typically range between 2 and 7 km. The catalog is available at earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/search/ under network code 'Ismpkansas'. The network recorded the largest known earthquake in Harper County, Mw 4.3, on October 2, 2014 and in Sumner County, Mw 4.9, on November 12, 2014. Recorded ground motions at the epicenter of the October earthquake were 0.70 g (PGA) and 12 cm/s (PGV). These high ground motion values agree with near-source recordings made by other USGS temporary deployments in the U. S. midcontinent, indicating a significant shaking hazard from such shallow, moderate

  17. Functional performance requirements for seismic network upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, R.C.

    1991-08-18

    The SRL seismic network, established in 1976, was developed to monitor site and regional seismic activity that may have any potential to impact the safety or reduce containment capability of existing and planned structures and systems at the SRS, report seismic activity that may be relevant to emergency preparedness, including rapid assessments of earthquake location and magnitude, and estimates of potential on-site and off-site damage to facilities and lifelines for mitigation measures. All of these tasks require SRL seismologists to provide rapid analysis of large amounts of seismic data. The current seismic network upgrade, the subject of this Functional Performance Requirements Document, is necessary to improve system reliability and resolution. The upgrade provides equipment for the analysis of the network seismic data and replacement of old out-dated equipment. The digital network upgrade is configured for field station and laboratory digital processing systems. The upgrade consists of the purchase and installation of seismic sensors,, data telemetry digital upgrades, a dedicated Seismic Data Processing (SDP) system (already in procurement stage), and a Seismic Signal Analysis (SSA) system. The field stations and telephone telemetry upgrades include equipment necessary for three remote station upgrades including seismic amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, pulse calibrators, weather protection (including lightning protection) systems, seismometers, seismic amplifiers, and miscellaneous other parts. The central receiving and recording station upgrades will include discriminators, helicopter amplifier, omega timing system, strong motion instruments, wide-band velocity sensors, and other miscellaneous equipment.

  18. New sensitive seismic cable with imbedded geophones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakhomov, Alex; Pisano, Dan; Goldburt, Tim

    2005-10-01

    Seismic detection systems for homeland security applications are an important additional layer to perimeter and border protection and other security systems. General Sensing Systems has been developing low mass, low cost, highly sensitive geophones. These geophones are being incorporated within a seismic cable. This article reports on the concept of a seismic sensitive cable and seismic sensitive ribbon design. Unlike existing seismic cables with sensitivity distributed along their lengths, the GSS new cable and ribbon possesses high sensitivity distributed in several points along the cable/ribbon with spacing of about 8-12 to 100 meters between geophones. This cable/ribbon is highly suitable for design and installation in extended perimeter protection systems. It allows the use of a mechanical cable layer for high speed installation. We show that any installation mistakes in using the GSS seismic sensitive cable/ribbon have low impact on output seismic signal value and detection range of security systems.

  19. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  20. The Kyrgyz Seismic Network (KNET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragin, V. D.; Willemann, R. J.; Matix, A. I.; Dudinskih, R. R.; Vernon, F.; Offield, G.

    2007-05-01

    The Kyrgyz Digital Seismic Network (KNET) is a regional continuous telemetric network of very broadband seismic data. KNET was installed in 1991. The telemetry system was upgraded in 1998. The seismograms are transmitted in near real time. KNET is located along part of the boundary between the northern Tien Shan Mountains and the Kazakh platform. Several major tectonic features are spanned by the network including a series of thrust faults in the Tien Shan, the Chu Valley, and the NW-SE trending ridges north of Bishkek. This network is designed to monitor regional seismic activity at the magnitude 3.5+ level as well as to provide high quality data for research projects in regional and global broadband seismology. The Kyrgyz seismic network array consists of 10 stations - 3 of them with more than 3600 m altitude, 2 mountain repeaters, 1 intermediate data base and 2 data centers. One of data centers is a remote source for IRIS data base. KNET is operated by International Research Center - Geodynamic Proving Ground in Bishkek (IGRC) with the participation of Research Station of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RS RAS) and Kyrgyz Institute of Seismology (KIS). The network consists of Streckeisen STS-2 sensors with 24-bit PASSCAL data loggers. All continuous real-time data are accessible through the IRIS DMC in Seattle with over 95% data availability, which compares favorably to the best networks currently operating worldwide. National institutes of seismology in Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan, National Nuclear Centre of Kazakhstan, RS RAS, divisions of the ministries on extreme situations and the institutes of the Russian Academy of Sciences use KNET data for estimating seismic hazards and to study deep-seated structure of researched territory. KNET data is used by National Nuclear Centre of Republic of Kazakhstan, which together with LAMONT laboratory (USA) carries out verification researches and monitoring of nuclear detonations in China, India and Pakistan. The uniform

  1. Seismic Velocity Measurements at Expanded Seismic Network Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Woolery, Edward W; Wang, Zhenming

    2005-01-01

    Structures at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP), as well as at other locations in the northern Jackson Purchase of western Kentucky may be subjected to large far-field earthquake ground motions from the New Madrid seismic zone, as well as those from small and moderate-sized local events. The resultant ground motion a particular structure is exposed from such event will be a consequence of the earthquake magnitude, the structures' proximity to the event, and the dynamic and geometrical characteristics of the thick soils upon which they are, of necessity, constructed. This investigation evaluated the latter. Downhole and surface (i.e., refraction and reflection) seismic velocity data were collected at the Kentucky Seismic and Strong-Motion Network expansion sites in the vicinity of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) to define the dynamic properties of the deep sediment overburden that can produce modifying effects on earthquake waves. These effects are manifested as modifications of the earthquake waves' amplitude, frequency, and duration. Each of these three ground motion manifestations is also fundamental to the assessment of secondary earthquake engineering hazards such as liquefaction.

  2. Seismic slip deficit along Nepal Himalayas: implications for seismic hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bollinger, Laurent; Tapponnier, Paul; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Klinger, Yann

    2016-04-01

    In 1255, 1344 and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934 and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar, is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's "Inbuilt-ages", we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites, to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and seismic moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit, on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, East of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected Western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal ruptured during a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries and propagated the rupture up to the surface from East to West. Today's situation in the himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the 14th century.

  3. Seismicity and seismotectonic study of the Kermit Seismic Zone, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R.; Rogers, A.M.; Lund, R.J.; Orr, C.D.

    1981-01-01

    This work presents and summarizes all data that were collected during the operation of a 12-station seismograph network in the vicinity of Kermit, Texas, during the period December 1975 to September 1979. The results of this study have several implications relating to the seismic hazard at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) facility. First, the widespread occurrence of small earthquakes within the seismic network area suggests that additional microearthquake studies in regions closer to the WIPP site are warranted. Second, the apparent relation between hydrocarbon production and earthquake occurrence indicates that the WIPP site probably should not be included in the same seismic source region as the central basin platform because the WIPP site is isolated from the major hydrocarbon producing zones. Third, the maximum magnitude of earthquakes in the active zone may be limited, if these earthquakes are in fact induced by secondary hydrocarbon recovery operations, because the spatial extent of artificial pressure increases is limited, and increase of more than 70 bars have resulted in earthquakes with magnitudes consistently less than 4.0. 14 references.

  4. Hanford quarterly seismic monitoring report 96C

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1996-09-24

    Seismic monitoring at the Hanford Site was established in 1969 by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) under a contract with the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. In 1975 the University of Washington assumed responsibility for and expanded the network. In 1979 the Basalt Waste Isolation Program (BWIP) became responsible for collecting seismic data for the site as part of site characterization. Rockwell International Operations followed by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC), Geosciences Group, operated the local network and were the contract technical advisors for the Eastern Washington Regional Network operated by the University of Washington. Funding ended for BWIP in December 1988. Seismic Monitoring and the University of Washington contract was then transferred WHC`s Environmental Division. Seismic Monitoring is currently assigned to WHC`s Hanford Technical Services (HTS), part of the Environmental Division. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team (SMART) operates, maintains, and analyzes data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN), extending the site historical seismic database and fulfilling U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office requirements and orders. The Seismic Monitoring Analysis and Repair Team also maintains the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN). The University of Washington uses the data from the EWRN and other seismic networks in the Northwest to provide the SMART with necessary regional input for the seismic hazards analysis at the Hanford Site.

  5. Seismic Isolation Working Meeting Gap Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Coleman; Piyush Sabharwall

    2014-09-01

    The ultimate goal in nuclear facility and nuclear power plant operations is operating safety during normal operations and maintaining core cooling capabilities during off-normal events including external hazards. Understanding the impact external hazards, such as flooding and earthquakes, have on nuclear facilities and NPPs is critical to deciding how to manage these hazards to expectable levels of risk. From a seismic risk perspective the goal is to manage seismic risk. Seismic risk is determined by convolving the seismic hazard with seismic fragilities (capacity of systems, structures, and components (SSCs)). There are large uncertainties associated with evolving nature of the seismic hazard curves. Additionally there are requirements within DOE and potential requirements within NRC to reconsider updated seismic hazard curves every 10 years. Therefore opportunity exists for engineered solutions to manage this seismic uncertainty. One engineered solution is seismic isolation. Current seismic isolation (SI) designs (used in commercial industry) reduce horizontal earthquake loads and protect critical infrastructure from the potentially destructive effects of large earthquakes. The benefit of SI application in the nuclear industry is being recognized and SI systems have been proposed, in the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 4 standard, to be released in 2014, for Light Water Reactors (LWR) facilities using commercially available technology. However, there is a lack of industry application to the nuclear industry and uncertainty with implementing the procedures outlined in ASCE-4. Opportunity exists to determine barriers associated with implementation of current ASCE-4 standard language.

  6. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, D.; Butler, R. W. H.; Purves, S.; McArdle, N.; De Freslon, N.

    2016-08-01

    Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic (10 s m) to seismic scale (100 s m). They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

  7. Exploring the seismic expression of fault zones in 3D seismic volumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iacopini, David; Butler, Rob; Purves, Steve

    2016-04-01

    Mapping and understanding distributed deformation is a major challenge for the structural interpretation of seismic data. However, volumes of seismic signal disturbance with low signal/noise ratio are systematically observed within 3D seismic datasets around fault systems. These seismic disturbance zones (SDZ) are commonly characterized by complex perturbations of the signal and occur at the sub-seismic to seismic scale. They may store important information on deformation distributed around those larger scale structures that may be readily interpreted in conventional amplitude displays of seismic data scale. We introduce a method to detect fault-related disturbance zones and to discriminate between this and other noise sources such as those associated with the seismic acquisition (footprint noise). Two case studies, from the Taranaki basin and deep-water Niger delta are presented. These resolve structure within SDZs using tensor and semblance attributes along with conventional seismic mapping. The tensor attribute is more efficient in tracking volumes containing structural displacements while structurally-oriented semblance coherency is commonly disturbed by small waveform variations around the fault throw. We propose a workflow to map and cross-plot seismic waveform signal properties extracted from the seismic disturbance zone as a tool to investigate the seismic signature and explore seismic facies of a SDZ.

  8. Mantle dynamics and seismic tomography.

    PubMed

    Tanimoto, T; Lay, T

    2000-11-01

    Three-dimensional imaging of the Earth's interior, called seismic tomography, has achieved breakthrough advances in the last two decades, revealing fundamental geodynamical processes throughout the Earth's mantle and core. Convective circulation of the entire mantle is taking place, with subducted oceanic lithosphere sinking into the lower mantle, overcoming the resistance to penetration provided by the phase boundary near 650-km depth that separates the upper and lower mantle. The boundary layer at the base of the mantle has been revealed to have complex structure, involving local stratification, extensive structural anisotropy, and massive regions of partial melt. The Earth's high Rayleigh number convective regime now is recognized to be much more interesting and complex than suggested by textbook cartoons, and continued advances in seismic tomography, geodynamical modeling, and high-pressure-high-temperature mineral physics will be needed to fully quantify the complex dynamics of our planet's interior. PMID:11035784

  9. Regional variations in seismic boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shumlyanska, Ludmila

    2010-05-01

    Dividing of the Earth into zones in the frame one-dimensional velocity model was proposed Jeffreys and Gutenberg is the first half of XX century. They recovered the following zones: A - the crust; B - zone in the depth interval 33-413 km, C - zone 413-984 km, D - zone 984-2898 km, E - 2898-4982 km, F - 4982-5121 km, G - 5121-6371 km (centre of the Earth). These zones differ in their seismic properties. Later, zone D was divided to the areas D' (984-2700 km) and D" (2700-2900 km). At present, this scheme is significantly modified and only the layer D" is in wide use. The more seismological studies are carried out, the more seismic boundaries appear. Boundaries at 410, 520, 670, and 2900 km, at which increase in the velocity of the seismic waves is particularly noticeable are considered as having global significance. Moreover, there are indications of the existence of geophysical boundaries at 800, 1200-1300, 1700, 1900-2000 km. Using 3D P-velocity model of the mantle based on Taylor approximation method for solving of the inverse kinematics multi-dimensional seismic task we have obtained seismic boundaries for the area covering 20-55° E × 40-55° N. Data on the time of first arrivals of P waves from earthquakes and nuclear explosions recorded at ISC stations during 1964-2002 were used as input to construct a 3-D model. The model has two a priori limits: 1) the velocity is a continuous function of spatial coordinates, 2) the function v(r)/r where r is a radius in the spherical coordinate system r, φ, λ decreases with depth. The first limitation is forced since velocity leaps can not be sustainably restored from the times of first arrival; the second one follows from the nature of the observed data. Results presented as horizontal sections of the actual velocity every 25 km in the depth interval 850-2850 km, and as the longitudinal and latitudinal sections of the discrepancy on the 1-D reference model, obtained as a result of solving of the inversion task at 1

  10. Displacement Based Seismic Design Criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Costello, J.F.; Hofmayer, C.; Park, Y.J.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  11. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.H.

    1999-03-29

    The USNRC has initiated a project to determine if any of the likely revisions to traditional earthquake engineering practice are relevant to seismic design of the specialized structures, systems and components of nuclear power plants and of such significance to suggest that a change in design practice might be warranted. As part of the initial phase of this study, a literature survey was conducted on the recent changes in seismic design codes/standards, on-going activities of code-writing organizations/communities, and published documents on displacement-based design methods. This paper provides a summary of recent changes in building codes and on-going activities for future codes. It also discusses some technical issues for further consideration.

  12. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-01-01

    In Section 1 of this first report we will describe the work we are doing to collect and analyze rock physics data for the purpose of modeling seismic attenuation from other measurable quantities such as porosity, water saturation, clay content and net stress. This work and other empirical methods to be presented later, will form the basis for ''Q pseudo-well modeling'' that is a key part of this project. In Section 2 of this report, we will show the fundamentals of a new method to extract Q, dispersion, and attenuation from field seismic data. The method is called Gabor-Morlet time-frequency decomposition. This technique has a number of advantages including greater stability and better time resolution than spectral ratio methods.

  13. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A [LaFayette, CA

    2009-05-05

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  14. Seismic detection of sonic booms.

    PubMed

    Cates, Joseph E; Sturtevant, Bradford

    2002-01-01

    The pressure signals from a sonic boom will produce a small, but detectable, ground motion. The extensive seismic network in southern California, consisting of over 200 sites covering over 50000 square kilometers, is used to map primary and secondary sonic boom carpets. Data from the network is used to analyze three supersonic overflights in the western United States. The results are compared to ray-tracing computations using a realistic model of the stratified atmospheric at the time of the measurements. The results show sonic boom ground exposure under the real atmosphere is much larger than previously expected or predicted by ray tracing alone. Finally, seismic observations are used to draw some inferences on the origin of a set of "mystery booms" recorded in 1992-1993 in southern California. PMID:11837967

  15. Tube-wave seismic imaging

    DOEpatents

    Korneev, Valeri A.; Bakulin, Andrey

    2009-10-13

    The detailed analysis of cross well seismic data for a gas reservoir in Texas revealed two newly detected seismic wave effects, recorded approximately 2000 feet above the reservoir. A tube-wave (150) is initiated in a source well (110) by a source (111), travels in the source well (110), is coupled to a geological feature (140), propagates (151) through the geological feature (140), is coupled back to a tube-wave (152) at a receiver well (120), and is and received by receiver(s) (121) in either the same (110) or a different receiving well (120). The tube-wave has been shown to be extremely sensitive to changes in reservoir characteristics. Tube-waves appear to couple most effectively to reservoirs where the well casing is perforated, allowing direct fluid contact from the interior of a well case to the reservoir.

  16. Lunar seismicity, structure, and tectonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lammlein, D. R.; Latham, G. V.; Dorman, J.; Nakamura, Y.; Ewing, M.

    1974-01-01

    Natural seismic events have been detected by the long-period seismometers at Apollo stations 16, 14, 15, and 12 at annual rates of 3300, 1700, 800, and 700, respectively, with peak activity at 13- to 14-day intervals. The data are used to describe magnitudes, source characteristics, and periodic features of lunar seismicity. In a present model, the rigid lithosphere overlies an asthenosphere of reduced rigidity in which present-day partial melting is probable. Tidal deformation presumably leads to critical stress concentrations at the base of the lithosphere, where moonquakes are found to occur. The striking tidal periodicities in the pattern of moonquake occurrence and energy release suggest that tidal energy is the dominant source of energy released as moonquakes. Thus, tidal energy is dissipated by moonquakes in the lithosphere and probably by inelastic processes in the asthenosphere.

  17. Continental collisions and seismic signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, R.; Wever, Th.; Sadowiak, P.

    1991-04-01

    Reflection seismics in compressional belts has revealed the structure of crustal shortening and thickening processes, showing complex patterns of indentation and interfingering of colliding crusts and subcrustal lithospheres. Generally, in the upper crust large zones of detachments develop, often showing duplexes and 'crocodile' structures. The lower crust from zones of active collision (e.g. Alps, Pyrenees) is characterized by strongly dipping reflections. The base of the crust with the Moho must be continuously equilibrating after orogenic collapse as areas of former continental collision exhibit flat Mohos and subhorizontal reflections. The depth to the Moho increases during collision and decreases after the onset of post-orogenic extension, until finally the crustal root disappears completely together with the erosion of the mountains. Processes, active during continental collisions and orogenic collapse, create distinct structures which are imaged by reflection seismic profiling. Examples are shown and discussed.

  18. Nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint

    DOEpatents

    Snyder, Glenn J.

    1988-01-01

    A nuclear component horizontal seismic restraint. Small gaps limit horizontal displacement of components during a seismic occurrence and therefore reduce dynamic loadings on the free lower end. The reactor vessel and reactor guard vessel use thicker section roll-forged rings welded between the vessel straight shell sections and the bottom hemispherical head sections. The inside of the reactor guard vessel ring forging contains local vertical dovetail slots and upper ledge pockets to mount and retain field fitted and installed blocks. As an option, the horizontal displacement of the reactor vessel core support cone can be limited by including shop fitted/installed local blocks in opposing alignment with the reactor vessel forged ring. Beams embedded in the wall of the reactor building protrude into apertures in the thermal insulation shell adjacent the reactor guard vessel ring and have motion limit blocks attached thereto to provide to a predetermined clearance between the blocks and reactor guard vessel ring.

  19. An economical educational seismic system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lehman, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    There is a considerable interest in seismology from the nonprofessional or amateur standpoint. The operation of a seismic system can be satisfying and educational, especially when you have built and operated the system yourself. A long-period indoor-type sensor and recording system that works extremely well has been developed in the James Madison University Physics Deparment. The system can be built quite economically, and any educational institution that cannot commit themselves to a professional installation need not be without first-hand seismic information. The system design approach has been selected by college students working a project or senior thesis, several elementary and secondary science teachers, as well as the more ambitious tinkerer or hobbyist at home 

  20. Oklahoma seismic network. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luza, K.V.; Lawson, J.E. Jr. |

    1993-07-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has established rigorous guidelines that must be adhered to before a permit to construct a nuclear-power plant is granted to an applicant. Local as well as regional seismicity and structural relationships play an integral role in the final design criteria for nuclear power plants. The existing historical record of seismicity is inadequate in a number of areas of the Midcontinent region because of the lack of instrumentation and (or) the sensitivity of the instruments deployed to monitor earthquake events. The Nemaha Uplift/Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly is one of five principal areas east of the Rocky Mountain front that has a moderately high seismic-risk classification. The Nemaha uplift, which is common to the states of Oklahoma, Kansas, and Nebraska, is approximately 415 miles long and 12-14 miles wide. The Midcontinent Geophysical Anomaly extends southward from Minnesota across Iowa and the southeastern corner of Nebraska and probably terminates in central Kansas. A number of moderate-sized earthquakes--magnitude 5 or greater--have occurred along or west of the Nemaha uplift. The Oklahoma Geological Survey, in cooperation with the geological surveys of Kansas, Nebraska, and Iowa, conducted a 5-year investigation of the seismicity and tectonic relationships of the Nemaha uplift and associated geologic features in the Midcontinent. This investigation was intended to provide data to be used to design nuclear-power plants. However, the information is also being used to design better large-scale structures, such as dams and high-use buildings, and to provide the necessary data to evaluate earthquake-insurance rates in the Midcontinent.

  1. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-10-01

    In this report we will show the fundamental concepts of two different methods to compute seismic energy absorption. The first methods gives and absolute value of Q and is based on computation with minimum phase operators. The second method gives a relative energy loss compared to a background trend. This method is a rapid, qualitative indicator of anomalous absorption and can be combined with other attributes such as band limited acoustic impedance to indicate areas of likely gas saturation.

  2. Compound hydraulic seismic source vibrator

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.J.

    1989-12-05

    This patent describes a compound seismic source vibrator. It comprises: a housing having an upper section and a low frequency radiating section; a low frequency means for vibrating the low frequency radiating section; a high frequency radiating section flexibly connected to the low frequency radiating section; and a high frequency means rigidly secured to the low frequency radiating section for separately vibrating the high frequency radiating section.

  3. The ISC Seismic Event Bibliography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Giacomo, Domenico; Storchak, Dmitry

    2015-04-01

    The International Seismological Centre (ISC) is a not-for-profit organization operating in the UK for the last 50 years and producing the ISC Bulletin - the definitive worldwide summary of seismic events, both natural and anthropogenic - starting from the beginning of 20th century. Often researchers need to gather information related to specific seismic events for various reasons. To facilitate such task, in 2012 we set up a new database linking earthquakes and other seismic events in the ISC Bulletin to bibliographic records of scientific articles (mostly peer-reviewed journals) that describe those events. Such association allows users of the ISC Event Bibliography (www.isc.ac.uk/event_bibliography/index.php) to run searches for publications via a map-based web interface and, optionally, selecting scientific publications related to either specific events or events in the area of interest. Some of the greatest earthquakes were described in several hundreds of articles published over a period of few years. The journals included in our database are not limited to seismology but bring together a variety of fields in geosciences (e.g., engineering seismology, geodesy and remote sensing, tectonophysics, monitoring research, tsunami, geology, geochemistry, hydrogeology, atmospheric sciences, etc.) making this service useful in multidisciplinary studies. Usually papers dealing with large data set are not included (e.g., papers describing a seismic catalogue). Currently the ISC Event Bibliography includes over 17,000 individual publications from about 500 titles related to over 14,000 events that occurred in last 100+ years. The bibliographic records in the Event Bibliography start in the 1950s, and it is updated as new publications become available.

  4. Seismic Imaging from a TBM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinnen, G.; Thorbecke, J. W.; Drijkoningen, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic monitoring from the head of a tunnel-boring machine (TBM) enables improved assessment of the risks associated with the tunnel-boring process. The monitoring system provides a live image of ground conditions along the trajectory followed by the TBM and detects local heterogeneities such as boulders, foundations, and other obstacles that commonly pass undetected using local geotechnical techniques. From a seismic perspective, the underground setting of tunnelling projects places limitations on imaging capability. The principal limiting factor is the size of the area upon which transducers can be installed. This limitation requires adjustments to traditional seismic imaging techniques in which a large area is assumed to be available for attaching the transducers. Recently developed short imaging operators take this limitation into account and are used in the examples described herein. The unique conditions of tunnelling yield two advantages over traditional settings in terms of imaging: rotation of the cutter wheel and the lateral progression of the TBM. Rotation of the cutter wheel, upon which the transducers are installed, provides the opportunity to illuminate obstacles from different angles in different recordings. Spatial progression of the TBM enables improvement in the illumination of obstacles and the signal-to-noise ratio by combining recordings from different lateral positions. In this paper, these specific aspects of seismic imaging during tunnelling are discussed via models that represent different cases encountered in actual tunnelling projects. These case studies demonstrate the way in which image quality along the trajectory of the TBM is improved over that in traditional settings. In this way, the risks associated with the tunnelling process can be more accurately assured.

  5. Seismic Imaging of Mantle Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nataf, Henri-Claude

    The mantle plume hypothesis was proposed thirty years ago by Jason Morgan to explain hotspot volcanoes such as Hawaii. A thermal diapir (or plume) rises from the thermal boundary layer at the base of the mantle and produces a chain of volcanoes as a plate moves on top of it. The idea is very attractive, but direct evidence for actual plumes is weak, and many questions remain unanswered. With the great improvement of seismic imagery in the past ten years, new prospects have arisen. Mantle plumes are expected to be rather narrow, and their detection by seismic techniques requires specific developments as well as dedicated field experiments. Regional travel-time tomography has provided good evidence for plumes in the upper mantle beneath a few hotspots (Yellowstone, Massif Central, Iceland). Beneath Hawaii and Iceland, the plume can be detected in the transition zone because it deflects the seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depths. In the lower mantle, plumes are very difficult to detect, so specific methods have been worked out for this purpose. There are hints of a plume beneath the weak Bowie hotspot, as well as intriguing observations for Hawaii. Beneath Iceland, high-resolution tomography has just revealed a wide and meandering plume-like structure extending from the core-mantle boundary up to the surface. Among the many phenomena that seem to take place in the lowermost mantle (or D''), there are also signs there of the presence of plumes. In this article I review the main results obtained so far from these studies and discuss their implications for plume dynamics. Seismic imaging of mantle plumes is still in its infancy but should soon become a turbulent teenager.

  6. Martian seismicity. [from Viking data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Lazarewicz, A. R.

    1979-01-01

    During the Viking mission to Mars, the seismometer on Lander II collected approximately 0.24 earth years of observational data, excluding periods of time dominated by wind-induced Lander vibration. The 'quiet-time' data set contains no confirmed seismic events. A proper assessment of the significance of this fact requires quantitative estimates of the expected detection rate of the Viking seismometer. The first step is to calculate the minimum magnitude event detectable at a given distance, including the effects of geometric spreading, anelastic attenuation, seismic signal duration, seismometer frequency response, and possible poor ground coupling. Assuming various numerical quantities and a Martian seismic activity comparable to that of intraplate earthquakes, the appropriate integral gives an expected annual detection rate of 10 events, nearly all of which are local. Thus only two to three events would be expected in the observational period presently on hand and the lack of observed events is not in gross contradiction to reasonable expectations. Given the same assumptions, a seismometer 20 times more sensitive than the present instrument would be expected to detect about 120 events annually.

  7. Jalisco Regional Seismic Network (RESAJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunez-Cornu, F. J.; Suarez Plascencia, C.; Escudero, C. R.; Gomez, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many societies and their economies endure the disastrous consequences of destructive earthquakes. The Jalisco region is exposing to this natural hazard. Scientific knowledge constitutes the only way to avoid or at least to mitigate the negative effects of such events. Accordingly the study of geological and geophysical causes; structural, kinematics and dynamic characteristics; and destructive effects of such events is indispensable. The main objective of this project is to developed capability to monitor and to analyze the potential destructive earthquakes along the Jalisco region. This network will allows us to study the Rivera plate and the Jalisco block seismicity. Ten earthquakes greater than 7.4 occurred in the last 160 years, including the largest Mexican earthquake (8.2) producing considerable damage in the area. During this project we installed 20 telemetric seismic stations and we plan to deploy up to 30. The stations are component by 24 bit A/D, 6 channels Quanterra Q330-6 DAS, Lennartz Triaxial 1Hz wide band seismometer, a triaxial accelerometer episensor Model FBA ES-T from Kinemetrics and solar power supply. The data is transmitted using freewave Ethernet radios or wireless internet links. All stations will transmit the data in to the central at Puerto Vallarta where all data is processed using Antelope system to localize and make preliminary evaluations of the events in almost real time and stored for future research. This network will produce high quality data enough to evaluate the eight previously identified seismic zones along Jalisco.

  8. Parkfield seismicity: Fluid-driven?

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, P.A.; McEvilly, T.V.

    1995-07-10

    Characteristics of microearthquake occurrence along the locked-to-creeping transition of the San Andreas fault at Parkfield in central California are reviewed for evidence that fault zone fluids play a critical role in slip dynamics there. Previous studies at Parkfield have defined a low-velocity, anisotropic, attenuating fault zone and a high V{sub P}/V{sub S} ratio in the nucleation zone of the repeating M 6 earthquakes. Most of the ongoing seismicity is organized into a temporally-evolving checkerboard pattern of alternating high and low seismic slip regions divided on the fault zone at 3-6 km spacings. Much of the seismicity is further confined to a few hundred small (20-30 m radius) cells of densely clustered microearthquakes that exhibit periodic recurrence. Space-time development of small (tens to hundreds of meters), transient (minutes to days) earthquake sequences reveals diffusivelike outward spreading along the fault zone. There is some evidence for anomalous source mechanisms in sequence-initiating events, possibly indicative of hydraulic fracturing. The data are consistent with a model in which some microearthquake clusters and confined sequences occur by the cyclic pressurization of fluid within localized patches of the fault zone. The consequent modulation of the effective normal stress leads to fluid-driven slip manifested both as the highly periodic earthquake clusters and as localized earthquake sequences observed at Parkfield. 53 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Building a Smartphone Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Q.; Allen, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    We are exploring to build a new type of seismic network by using the smartphones. The accelerometers in smartphones can be used to record earthquakes, the GPS unit can give an accurate location, and the built-in communication unit makes the communication easier for this network. In the future, these smartphones may work as a supplement network to the current traditional network for scientific research and real-time applications. In order to build this network, we developed an application for android phones and server to record the acceleration in real time. These records can be sent back to a server in real time, and analyzed at the server. We evaluated the performance of the smartphone as a seismic recording instrument by comparing them with high quality accelerometer while located on controlled shake tables for a variety of tests, and also the noise floor test. Based on the daily human activity data recorded by the volunteers and the shake table tests data, we also developed algorithm for the smartphones to detect earthquakes from daily human activities. These all form the basis of setting up a new prototype smartphone seismic network in the near future.

  10. Seismic qualification of unanchored equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, T.J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes procedures used to design and qualify unanchored equipment to survive Seismic events to the PC = 4 level in a moderate seismic area. The need for flexibility to move experimental equipment together with the requirements for remote handling in a highly-radioactive non-reactor nuclear facility precluded normal equipment anchorage. Instead equipment was designed to remain stable under anticipated DBE floor motions with sufficient margin to achieve the performance goal. The equipment was also designed to accommodate anticipated sliding motions with sufficient. The simplified design criteria used to achieve these goals were based on extensive time-history simulations of sliding, rocking, and overturning of generic equipment models. The entire process was subject to independent peer review and accepted in a Safety Evaluation Report. The process provides a model suitable for adaptation to similar applications and for assessment of the potential for seismic damage of existing, unanchored equipment In particular, the paper describes: (1) Two dimensional sliding studies of deformable equipment subject to 3-D floor excitation as the basis for simplified sliding radius and sliding velocity design criteria. (2) Two dimensional rocking and overturning simulations of rigid equipment used to establish design criteria for minimum base dimensions and equipment rigidity to prevent overturning. (3) Assumed mode rocking analyses of deformable equipment models used to establish uplift magnitudes and subsequent impacts during stable rocking motions. The model used for these dynamic impact studies is reported elsewhere.

  11. New seismic study begins in Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tarr, A.C.

    1974-01-01

    A new seismological project is now underway in Puerto Rico to provide information needed for accurate assessment of the island's seismic hazard. The project should also help to increase understanding of the tectonics and geologic evolution of the Caribbean region. The Puerto Rico Seismic Program is being conducted by the Geological Survey with support provided by the Puerto Rico Water Resources Authority, an agency responsible for generation and distribution of electric power throughout the Commonwealth. The Program will include the installation of a network of high quality seismograph stations to monitor seismic activity on and around Puerto Rico. These stations will be distributed across the island to record the seismicity as uniformly as possible. The detection and accurate location of small earthquakes, as well as moderate magnitude shocks, will aid in mapping active seismic zones and in compiling frequency of occurrence statistics which ultimately wil be useful in seismic risk-zoning of hte island. 

  12. Near-surface Fun with Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, M.

    2015-12-01

    What is happening in the near-surface often has a direct effect on human activity. Seismic exploration has routinely targeted geology at depths of kilometers to tens of kilometers. However, these techniques can be applied to answer questions about shallower targets. Several recent experiments demonstrate seismic applicability to near-surface problems. One example is passive seismic monitoring using ambient noise to identify shallow changes and potential hazards in a producing hydrocarbon field. Another example is the use of seismic reflection data from within the water column to determine layering caused by temperature and salinity differences in depth. A third example is identifying historical elevation changes along coast lines using seismic reflection data. These examples show that exploration seismic methods can be effectively used for a variety of near-surface applications.

  13. Seismic energy release of the moon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goins, N. R.; Dainty, A. M.; Toksoz, M. N.

    1981-01-01

    Lunar seismicity is investigated by calculating various source parameters for a number of shallow and deep-focus moonquakes. The seismic moment, seismic energy release, annual seismic energy release, stress drop, and body-wave magnitude are determined for the largest shallow moonquakes and for large deep-focus events. It is found that the shallow events dominate the lunar seismic energy release, that tidal dissipation may account for the energy release by the deep-focus events, and that the stress drops for the deep-focus events are comparable to or smaller than the calculated tidal stresses. A comparison of the results with terrestrial data indicates that the seismic characteristics of a planet are controlled more by tectonic style and state than by the relative magnitude of the driving forces.

  14. Investigating the Origin of Seismic Swarms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govoni, Aladino; Passarelli, Luigi; Braun, Thomas; Maccaferri, Francesco; Moretti, Milena; Lucente, Francesco Pio; Rivalta, Eleonora; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebastian; Woith, Heiko; De Gori, Pasquale; Dahm, Torsten; Chiarabba, Claudio; Margheriti, Lucia

    2013-10-01

    According to the U.S. Geological Survey's Earthquake Hazards Program, a seismic swarm is "a localized surge of earthquakes, with no one shock being conspicuously larger than all other shocks of the swarm. They might occur in a variety of geologic environments and are not known to be indicative of any change in the long-term seismic risk of the region in which they occur" (http://vulcan.wr.usgs.gov/Glossary/Seismicity/description_earthquakes.html).

  15. LANL seismic screening method for existing buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Dickson, S.L.; Feller, K.C.; Fritz de la Orta, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Seismic Screening Method is to provide a comprehensive, rational, and inexpensive method for evaluating the relative seismic integrity of a large building inventory using substantial life-safety as the minimum goal. The substantial life-safety goal is deemed to be satisfied if the extent of structural damage or nonstructural component damage does not pose a significant risk to human life. The screening is limited to Performance Category (PC) -0, -1, and -2 buildings and structures. Because of their higher performance objectives, PC-3 and PC-4 buildings automatically fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method and will be subject to a more detailed seismic analysis. The Laboratory has also designated that PC-0, PC-1, and PC-2 unreinforced masonry bearing wall and masonry infill shear wall buildings fail the LANL Seismic Screening Method because of their historically poor seismic performance or complex behavior. These building types are also recommended for a more detailed seismic analysis. The results of the LANL Seismic Screening Method are expressed in terms of separate scores for potential configuration or physical hazards (Phase One) and calculated capacity/demand ratios (Phase Two). This two-phase method allows the user to quickly identify buildings that have adequate seismic characteristics and structural capacity and screen them out from further evaluation. The resulting scores also provide a ranking of those buildings found to be inadequate. Thus, buildings not passing the screening can be rationally prioritized for further evaluation. For the purpose of complying with Executive Order 12941, the buildings failing the LANL Seismic Screening Method are deemed to have seismic deficiencies, and cost estimates for mitigation must be prepared. Mitigation techniques and cost-estimate guidelines are not included in the LANL Seismic Screening Method.

  16. Coherent Waves in Seismic Researches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, A.; Seleznev, V. S.

    2013-05-01

    Development of digital processing algorithms of seismic wave fields for the purpose of useful event picking to study environment and other objects is the basis for the establishment of new seismic techniques. In the submitted paper a fundamental property of seismic wave field coherence is used. The authors extended conception of coherence types of observed wave fields and devised a technique of coherent component selection from observed wave field. Time coherence and space coherence are widely known. In this paper conception "parameter coherence" has been added. The parameter by which wave field is coherent can be the most manifold. The reason is that the wave field is a multivariate process described by a set of parameters. Coherence in the first place means independence of linear connection in wave field of parameter. In seismic wave fields, recorded in confined space, in building-blocks and stratified mediums time coherent standing waves are formed. In prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping head waves are coherent by parallel correlation course or, in other words, by one measurement on generalized plane of observation system. For detail prospecting seismology at observation systems with multiple overlapping on basis of coherence property by one measurement of area algorithms have been developed, permitting seismic records to be converted to head wave time sections which have neither reflected nor other types of waves. Conversion in time section is executed on any specified observation base. Energy storage of head waves relative to noise on basis of multiplicity of observation system is realized within area of head wave recording. Conversion on base below the area of wave tracking is performed with lack of signal/noise ratio relative to maximum of this ratio, fit to observation system. Construction of head wave time section and dynamic plots a basis of automatic processing have been developed, similar to CDP procedure in method of

  17. Causality between expansion of seismic cloud and maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in geothermal field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukuhira, Yusuke; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Ito, Takatoshi; Häring, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Occurrence of induced seismicity with large magnitude is critical environmental issues associated with fluid injection for shale gas/oil extraction, waste water disposal, carbon capture and storage, and engineered geothermal systems (EGS). Studies for prediction of the hazardous seismicity and risk assessment of induced seismicity has been activated recently. Many of these studies are based on the seismological statistics and these models use the information of the occurrence time and event magnitude. We have originally developed physics based model named "possible seismic moment model" to evaluate seismic activity and assess seismic moment which can be ready to release. This model is totally based on microseismic information of occurrence time, hypocenter location and magnitude (seismic moment). This model assumes existence of representative parameter having physical meaning that release-able seismic moment per rock volume (seismic moment density) at given field. Seismic moment density is to be estimated from microseismic distribution and their seismic moment. In addition to this, stimulated rock volume is also inferred by progress of microseismic cloud at given time and this quantity can be interpreted as the rock volume which can release seismic energy due to weakening effect of normal stress by injected fluid. Product of these two parameters (equation (1)) provide possible seismic moment which can be released from current stimulated zone as a model output. Difference between output of this model and observed cumulative seismic moment corresponds the seismic moment which will be released in future, based on current stimulation conditions. This value can be translated into possible maximum magnitude of induced seismicity in future. As this way, possible seismic moment can be used to have feedback to hydraulic stimulation operation in real time as an index which can be interpreted easily and intuitively. Possible seismic moment is defined as equation (1), where D

  18. 3-D seismic imaging of complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    Womble, D.E.; Dosanjh, S.S.; VanDyke, J.P.; Oldfield, R.A.; Greenberg, D.S.

    1995-02-01

    We present three codes for the Intel Paragon that address the problem of three-dimensional seismic imaging of complex geologies. The first code models acoustic wave propagation and can be used to generate data sets to calibrate and validate seismic imaging codes. This code reported the fastest timings for acoustic wave propagation codes at a recent SEG (Society of Exploration Geophysicists) meeting. The second code implements a Kirchhoff method for pre-stack depth migration. Development of this code is almost complete, and preliminary results are presented. The third code implements a wave equation approach to seismic migration and is a Paragon implementation of a code from the ARCO Seismic Benchmark Suite.

  19. Code System for Seismic Probabilistic Risk Assessment.

    2001-03-27

    Version 00 SEISIM1 calculates the probabilities of seismically induced failures for components and systems and propagates these calculations to determine the probability of accident sequences and the resulting total risk, which is quantified as an expected value of radiation release and exposure from a given nuclear power plant. SEISIM1 was developed as a fundamental tool for the systems analysis portion of the NRC's Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP). The SSMRP provides a complete, self-containedmore » methodology to assess and quantify the risk to nuclear power plants from seismic events and seismically induced failures.« less

  20. Estimating primaries from passive seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hao; Wang, De-Li; Feng, Fei; Zhu, Heng

    2015-12-01

    Passive seismic sources can generally be divided into transient sources and noise sources. Noise sources are particularly the continuous, random small bursts, like background noise. The virtual-shot gathers obtained by the traditional cross-correlation algorithm from passive seismic data not only contain primaries, but also include surface-related multiples. Through estimating primaries by sparse inversion, we can directly obtain primaries from passive seismic data activated by transient sources, which are free of surface-related multiples. The problem of estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources has not been discussed to date. First, by introducing the optimisation problem via the L1-norm constraint, this paper makes the traditional method of estimating primaries by sparse inversion from passive seismic data activated by transient sources improved, which overcomes the time-window problem. During the sparse inversion, the sparsifying transform, S = C2⊗W, is introduced. In the sparsifying-transform domain, the transformed data is more sparse, so the solution becomes more accurate. Second, this paper proposes estimating primaries from passive seismic data activated by noise sources. In the case of the sparse assumption not holding, we use the least-squares method based on the principle of minimum energy to estimate primaries from passive seismic data using the noise sources. Finally, we compare the primaries estimated from passive seismic data using transient sources and noise sources and analyse the characteristics of the estimated primaries obtained from two passive seismic data.

  1. Nationwide Assessment of Seismic Hazard for Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsereteli, N. S.; Varazanashvili, O.; Mumladze, T.

    2014-12-01

    The work presents a framework for assessment of seismic hazards on national level for the Georgia. Based on a historical review of the compilation of seismic hazard zoning maps for the Georgia became evident that there were gaps in seismic hazard assessment and the present normative seismic hazard map needed a careful recalculation. The methodology for the probabilistic assessment of seismic hazard used here includes the following steps: produce comprehensive catalogue of historical earthquakes (up to 1900) and the period of instrumental observations with uniform scale of magnitudes; produce models of seismic source zones (SSZ) and their parameterization; develop appropriate ground motion prediction equation (GMPE) models; develop seismic hazard curves for spectral amplitudes at each period and maps in digital format. Firstly, the new seismic catalog of Georgia was created, with 1700 eqs from ancient times on 2012, Mw³4.0. Secondly, were allocated seismic source zones (SSZ). The identification of area SSZ was obtained on the bases of structural geology, parameters of seismicity and seismotectonics. In constructing the SSZ, the slope of the appropriate active fault plane, the width of the dynamic influence of the fault, power of seismoactive layer are taken into account. Finally each SSZ was defined with the parameters: the geometry, the percentage of focal mechanism, predominant azimuth and dip angle values, activity rates, maximum magnitude, hypocenter depth distribution, lower and upper seismogenic depth values. Thirdly, seismic hazard maps were calculated based on modern approach of selecting and ranking global and regional ground motion prediction equation for region. Finally, probabilistic seismic hazard assessment in terms of ground acceleration were calculated for the territory of Georgia. On the basis of obtained area seismic sources probabilistic seismic hazard maps were calculated showing peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral accelerations (SA) at

  2. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  3. Infrasound Generation from the HH Seismic Hammer.

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Kyle Richard

    2014-10-01

    The HH Seismic hammer is a large, "weight-drop" source for active source seismic experiments. This system provides a repetitive source that can be stacked for subsurface imaging and exploration studies. Although the seismic hammer was designed for seismological studies it was surmised that it might produce energy in the infrasonic frequency range due to the ground motion generated by the 13 metric ton drop mass. This study demonstrates that the seismic hammer generates a consistent acoustic source that could be used for in-situ sensor characterization, array evaluation and surface-air coupling studies for source characterization.

  4. Seismic monitoring of torrential and fluvial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtin, Arnaud; Hovius, Niels; Turowski, Jens M.

    2016-04-01

    In seismology, the signal is usually analysed for earthquake data, but earthquakes represent less than 1 % of continuous recording. The remaining data are considered as seismic noise and were for a long time ignored. Over the past decades, the analysis of seismic noise has constantly increased in popularity, and this has led to the development of new approaches and applications in geophysics. The study of continuous seismic records is now open to other disciplines, like geomorphology. The motion of mass at the Earth's surface generates seismic waves that are recorded by nearby seismometers and can be used to monitor mass transfer throughout the landscape. Surface processes vary in nature, mechanism, magnitude, space and time, and this variability can be observed in the seismic signals. This contribution gives an overview of the development and current opportunities for the seismic monitoring of geomorphic processes. We first describe the common principles of seismic signal monitoring and introduce time-frequency analysis for the purpose of identification and differentiation of surface processes. Second, we present techniques to detect, locate and quantify geomorphic events. Third, we review the diverse layout of seismic arrays and highlight their advantages and limitations for specific processes, like slope or channel activity. Finally, we illustrate all these characteristics with the analysis of seismic data acquired in a small debris-flow catchment where geomorphic events show interactions and feedbacks. Further developments must aim to fully understand the richness of the continuous seismic signals, to better quantify the geomorphic activity and to improve the performance of warning systems. Seismic monitoring may ultimately allow the continuous survey of erosion and transfer of sediments in the landscape on the scales of external forcing.

  5. Seismic-wave attenuation associated with crustal faults in the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, R.M.; Mooney, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    The attenuation of upper crustal seismic waves that are refracted with a velocity of about 6 kilometers per second varies greatly among profiles in the area of the New Madrid seismic zone in the central Mississippi Valley. The waves that have the strongest attenuation pass through the seismic trend along the axis of the Reelfoot rift in the area of the Blytheville arch. Defocusing of the waves in a low-velocity zone and/ or seismic scattering and absorption could cause the attenuation; these effects are most likely associated with the highly deformed rocks along the arch. Consequently, strong seismic-wave attenuation may be a useful criterion for identifying seismogenic fault zones.

  6. The Italian National Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michelini, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The Italian National Seismic Network is composed by about 400 stations, mainly broadband, installed in the Country and in the surrounding regions. About 110 stations feature also collocated strong motion instruments. The Centro Nazionale Terremoti, (National Earthquake Center), CNT, has installed and operates most of these stations, although a considerable number of stations contributing to the INGV surveillance has been installed and is maintained by other INGV sections (Napoli, Catania, Bologna, Milano) or even other Italian or European Institutions. The important technological upgrades carried out in the last years has allowed for significant improvements of the seismic monitoring of Italy and of the Euro-Mediterranean Countries. The adopted data transmission systems include satellite, wireless connections and wired lines. The Seedlink protocol has been adopted for data transmission. INGV is a primary node of EIDA (European Integrated Data Archive) for archiving and distributing, continuous, quality checked data. The data acquisition system was designed to accomplish, in near-real-time, automatic earthquake detection and hypocenter and magnitude determination (moment tensors, shake maps, etc.). Database archiving of all parametric results are closely linked to the existing procedures of the INGV seismic monitoring environment. Overall, the Italian earthquake surveillance service provides, in quasi real-time, hypocenter parameters which are then revised routinely by the analysts of the Bollettino Sismico Nazionale. The results are published on the web page http://cnt.rm.ingv.it/ and are publicly available to both the scientific community and the the general public. This presentation will describe the various activities and resulting products of the Centro Nazionale Terremoti. spanning from data acquisition to archiving, distribution and specialised products.

  7. Seismic monitoring at The Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Majer, E.L.; Romero, A.; Vasco, D.; Kirkpatrick, A.; Peterson, J.E.; Zucca, J.J.; Hutchings, L.J.; Kasameyer, P.W.

    1993-04-01

    During the last several years Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have been working with industry partners at The Geysers geothermal field to evaluate and develop methods for applying the results of microearthquake (MEQ) monitoring. It is a well know fact that seismicity at The Geysers is a common occurrence, however, there have been many studies and papers written on the origin and significance of the seismicity. The attitude toward MEQ data ranges from being nothing more than an curious artifact of the production activities, to being a critical tool in evaluating the reservoir performance. The purpose of the work undertaken b y LBL and LLNL is to evaluate the utility, as well as the methods and procedures used in of MEQ monitoring, recommend the most cost effective implementation of the methods, and if possible link physical processes and parameters to the generation of MEQ activity. To address the objectives above the MEQ work can be categorized into two types of studies. The first type is the direct analysis of the spatial and temporal distribution of MEQ activity and studying the nature of the source function relative to the physical or chemical processes causing the seismicity. The second broad area of study is imaging the reservoir/geothermal areas with the energy created by the MEQ activity and inferring the physical and/or chemical properties within the zone of imaging. The two types of studies have obvious overlap, and for a complete evaluation and development require high quality data from arrays of multicomponent stations. Much of the effort to date at The Geysers by both DOE and the producers has concentrated establishing a high quality data base. It is only within the last several years that this data base is being fully evaluated for the proper and cost effective use of MEQ activity. Presented here are the results to date of DOE`s effort in the acquisition and analysis of the MEQ data.

  8. Apollo 14 active seismic experiment.

    PubMed

    Watkins, J S; Kovach, R L

    1972-03-17

    Explosion seismic refraction data indicate that the lunar near-surface rocks at the Apollo 14 site consist of a regolith 8.5 meters thick and characterized by a compressional wave velocity of 104 meters per second. The regolith is underlain by a layer with a compressional wave velocity of 299 meters per second. The thickness of this layer, which we interpret to be the Fra Mauro Formation, is between 16 and 76 meters. The layer immediately beneath this has a velocity greater than 370 meters per second. We found no evidence of permafrost. PMID:17794200

  9. Seismically imaging the Afar plume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O.; Kendall, J. M.; Bastow, I. D.; Stuart, G. W.; Keir, D.; Ayele, A.; Ogubazghi, G.; Ebinger, C. J.; Belachew, M.

    2011-12-01

    Plume related flood basalt volcanism in Ethiopia has long been cited to have instigated continental breakup in northeast Africa. However, to date seismic images of the mantle beneath the region have not produced conclusive evidence of a plume-like structure. As a result the nature and even existence of a plume in the region and its role in rift initiation and continental rupture are debated. Previous seismic studies using regional deployments of sensors in East-Africa show that low seismic velocities underlie northeast Africa, but their resolution is limited to the top 200-300km of the Earth. Thus, the connection between the low velocities in the uppermost mantle and those imaged in global studies in the lower mantle is unclear. We have combined new data from Afar, Ethiopia with 6 other regional experiments and global network stations across Ethiopia, Eritrea, Djibouti and Yemen, to produce high-resolution models of upper mantle P- and S- wave velocities to the base of the transition zone. Relative travel time tomographic inversions show that the top 100km is dominated by focussed low velocity zones, likely associated with melt in the lithosphere/uppermost asthenosphere. Below these depths a broad SW-NE oriented sheet like upwelling extends down to the top of the transition zone. Within the transition zone two focussed sharp-sided low velocity regions exist: one beneath the Western Ethiopian plateau outside the rift valley, and the other beneath the Afar depression. The nature of the transition zone anomalies suggests that small upwellings may rise from a broader low velocity plume-like feature in the lower mantle. This interpretation is supported by numerical and analogue experiments that suggest the 660km phase change and viscosity jump may impede flow from the lower to upper mantle creating a thermal boundary layer at the base of the transition zone. This allows smaller, secondary upwellings to initiate and rise to the surface. Our images of secondary upwellings

  10. Newberry EGS Seismic Velocity Model

    DOE Data Explorer

    Templeton, Dennise

    2013-10-01

    We use ambient noise correlation (ANC) to create a detailed image of the subsurface seismic velocity at the Newberry EGS site down to 5 km. We collected continuous data for the 22 stations in the Newberry network, together with 12 additional stations from the nearby CC, UO and UW networks. The data were instrument corrected, whitened and converted to single bit traces before cross correlation according to the methodology in Benson (2007). There are 231 unique paths connecting the 22 stations of the Newberry network. The additional networks extended that to 402 unique paths crossing beneath the Newberry site.

  11. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Naum Derzhi; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2003-04-01

    In this report we will show some new Q related seismic attributes on the Burlington-Seitel data set. One example will be called Energy Absorption Attribute (EAA) and is based on a spectral analysis. The EAA algorithm is designed to detect a sudden increase in the rate of exponential decay in the relatively higher frequency portion of the spectrum. In addition we will show results from a hybrid attribute that combines attenuation with relative acoustic impedance to give a better indication of commercial gas saturation.

  12. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douet, Vincent; Vallée, Martin; Zigone, Dimitri; Bonaimé, Sébastien; Stutzmann, Eléonore; Maggi, Alessia; Pardo, Constanza; Bernard, Armelle; Leroy, Nicolas; Pesqueira, Frédéric; Lévêque, Jean-Jacques; Thoré, Jean-Yves; Bes de Berc, Maxime; Sayadi, Jihane

    2016-04-01

    The GEOSCOPE observatory has provided continuous broadband data to the scientific community for the past 34 years. The 31 operational GEOSCOPE stations are installed in 17 countries, across all continents and on islands throughout the oceans. They are equipped with three component very broadband seismometers (STS1, T240 or STS2) and 24 or 26 bit digitizers (Q330HR). Seismometers are installed with warpless base plates, which decrease long period noise on horizontal components by up to 15dB. All stations send data in real time to the IPGP data center, which transmits them automatically to other data centers (FDSN/IRIS-DMC and RESIF) and tsunami warning centers. In 2016, three stations are expected to be installed or re-installed: in Western China (WUS station), in Saint Pierre and Miquelon Island (off the East coast of Canada) and in Walis and Futuna (SouthWest Pacific Ocean). The waveform data are technically validated by IPGP (25 stations) or EOST (6 stations) in order to check their continuity and integrity. Scientific data validation is also performed by analyzing seismic noise level of the continuous data and by comparing real and synthetic earthquake waveforms (body waves). After these validations, data are archived by the IPGP data center in Paris. They are made available to the international scientific community through different interfaces (see details on http://geoscope.ipgp.fr). Data are duplicated at the FDSN/IRIS-DMC data center and a similar duplication at the French national data center RESIF will be operational in 2016. The GEOSCOPE broadband seismic observatory also provides near-real time information on global moderate-to-large seismicity (above magnitude 5.5-6) through the automated application of the SCARDEC method (Vallée et al., 2011). By using global data from the FDSN - in particular from GEOSCOPE and IRIS/USGS stations -, earthquake source parameters (depth, moment magnitude, focal mechanism, source time function) are determined about 45

  13. Evaluation of seismic energy evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    -Emilian Toader, Victorin; Marmureanu, Alexandru

    2013-04-01

    The program analyzes seismicity on a defined area with the use of bulletins (event information) provided by ANTELOPE software. These include earthquake localization (moment, latitude, longitude, magnitude, depth, P and S for each station and other parameters). The evolution of the calculated energy from the Richter magnitude is characterized by steps which can be linearly interpolated. In this way tendencies of energy accumulation / release through tectonic movement can be estimated. Also, it will be calculated and displayed the 'b' coefficient from the Gutenberg - Richter law. The results will be saved as a HTML list which allows global and individual visualization of the seismic forecasts accompanied by the epicenter position on the map. The ANTELOPE users are the first beneficiaries but the program could be modified for other formats of data which include the same information related to the earthquakes localization. The software allows to select the analysis area in which the epicenters are located. In this respect, we are using the free Google Static Maps service (in this case an internet connection is necessary) as well as there is an offline option. In a configuration file the coordinates of the epicenter area has to be defined, the zoom level and the map type if Google Maps is used. The user may redefine the investigation area in online mode. Furthermore, the program allows the selection of the time interval during which the analysis is performed, the configuration of the magnitude and depth intervals, the folders in which the ANTELOPE bulletins are located and where the results will be saved in HTML format. In a separate panel the time intervals between 2 seismic events, the resulted energy from the magnitude conversion (Ml or Md) and magnitudes - depths evolution at which the earthquakes took place can be visualized. During the analysis of the seismic bulletins generated by ANTELOPE, the epicenters are displayed dynamically in the original selected area

  14. Buildings As Secondary Seismic Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semblat, J.-F.; Kham, M.; Guéguen, P.; Bard, P.-Y.

    At the scale of a city, surface structures like buildings can modify the seismic free- field and behave as secondary seismic sources. At a local scale, some experimental evidences of the site-structure interaction were previously given (Guéguen, 2000). Thanks to the boundary element method, the global problem of site-city interaction is herein investigated in two dimensions at the scale of an alluvial deposit and an entire city considering a whole building network. An alluvial deposit located in the center of Nice (France) was firstly considered for the analysis of free-field amplification (Semblat, 2000). The amplification factor was estimated by the boundary element method and compared with experimental results (SSR, HVSR). Starting from these free-field simulations, several site-city models were considered which describe both superficial soil layers and surface structures. We in- vestigate herein the influence of both building type and building density on the modi- fication of free-field amplification. To compare free-field amplification and amplification in urban configurations, sur- face amplification is compared in both cases for a specific uniform building type and various building densities at differents frequencies. Depending on these various pa- rameters, the free-field amplification level could be increased by 20 to 50%. Other urban configurations are considered with various building types in uniform and inho- mogeneous arrangements. For the specific site considered, the various site-city BEM models show that site-city interaction can lead to a strong increase of the free-field am- plification factor. Around the fundamental frequency of a specific building type, for a homogeneous urban configuration, particular resonance effects are observed. These results are in good agreement with previous experimental and local scale numerical results (Guéguen, 2000) and show that the coincidence of the respective eigenfre- quencies of both alluvial deposit and

  15. Apollo 14 active seismic experiment.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, J. S.; Kovach, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    Explosion seismic refraction data indicate that the lunar near-surface rocks at the Apollo 14 site consist of a regolith 8.5 meters thick and characterized by a compressional wave velocity of 104 meters per second. The regolith is underlain by a layer with a compressional wave velocity of 299 meters per second. The thickness of this layer, which we interpret to be the Fra Mauro Formation, is between 16 and 76 meters. The layer immediately beneath this has a velocity greater than 370 meters per second. We found no evidence of permafrost.

  16. Probabilistic Simulation of Territorial Seismic Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Baratta, Alessandro; Corbi, Ileana

    2008-07-08

    The paper is focused on a stochastic process for the prevision of seismic scenarios on the territory and developed by means of some basic assumptions in the procedure and by elaborating the fundamental parameters recorded during some ground motions occurred in a seismic area.

  17. Fennoscandian lithosphere - electromagnetic and seismic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, T.; Kozlovskaya, E.; Smirnov, M.

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the present-day structure of the Earth's mantle is essential to our understanding of plate tectonics as well as Earth's thermomechanical evolution over long periods of geological time. Several factors including temperature, chemical composition, presence of partial melt or water influence seismic velocities and electrical conductivity in the upper mantle. Similarly, anisotropy may have a profound effect on seismic and magnetotelluric observations. During last ten years, several large scale multinational and national seismic and magnetotelluric experiments have been carried out in Fennnoscandia including e.g. the SVEKALAPKO seismic tomography experiment, Swedish National Seismic Network (SNSN) array monitoring, BEAR and EMMA magnetotelluric array studies and magnetotelluric profiling such as TOR and Jamtland. Altogether these studies cover most of Fennoscandia and make it possible to correlate two different data sets and to study lithospheric structures in Fennoscandia. In particular, we will compare the thickness of the lithosphere obtained from seismic anisotropy studies and from magnetotelluric studies. We will also correlate spatially sparse indications on seismic reflectors and electrically conducting layers in the mantle lithosphere. Finally, we aim to compare directly absolute values of seismic velocity and electrical conductivity.

  18. Seismic analysis of the LSST telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Douglas R.

    2012-09-01

    The Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will be located on the seismically active Chilean mountain of Cerro Pachón. The accelerations resulting from seismic events produce the most demanding load cases the telescope and its components must withstand. Seismic ground accelerations were applied to a comprehensive finite element analysis (FEA) model which included the telescope, its pier and the mountain top. Response accelerations for specific critical components (camera and secondary mirror assembly) on the telescope were determined by applying seismic accelerations in the form of Power Spectral Densities (PSD) to the FEA model. The PSDs were chosen based on the components design lives. Survival level accelerations were determined utilizing PSDs for seismic events with return periods 10 times the telescope's design life which is equivalent to a 10% chance of occurring over the lifetime. Since the telescope has a design life of 30 years it was analyzed for a return period of 300 years. Operational level seismic accelerations were determined using return periods of 5 times the lifetimes. Since the seismic accelerations provided by the Chilean design codes were provided in the form of Peak Spectral Accelerations (PSA), a method to convert between the two forms was developed. The accelerations are also affected by damping level. The LSST incorporates added damping to meets its rapid slew and settle requirements. This added damping also reduces the components' seismic accelerations. The analysis was repeated for the telescope horizon and zenith pointing. Closed form solutions were utilized to verify the results.

  19. Seismic Monitoring for the United Arab Emirates

    SciTech Connect

    Rodgers, A; Nakanishi, K

    2005-04-11

    There is potential for earthquakes in the United Arab Emirates and in the Zagros mountains to cause structural damage and pose a threat to safety of people. Damaging effects from earthquakes can be mitigated by knowledge of the location and size of earthquakes, effects on construction, and monitoring these effects over time. Although a general idea of seismicity in the UAE may be determined with data from global seismic networks, these global networks do not have the sensitivity to record smaller seismic events and do not have the necessary accuracy to locate the events. A National Seismic Monitoring Observatory is needed for the UAE that consists of a modern seismic network and a multidisciplinary staff that can analyze and interpret the data from the network. A seismic network is essential to locate earthquakes, determine event magnitudes, identify active faults and measure ground motions from earthquakes. Such a network can provide the data necessary for a reliable seismic hazard assessment in the UAE. The National Seismic Monitoring Observatory would ideally be situated at a university that would provide access to the wide range of disciplines needed in operating the network and providing expertise in analysis and interpretation.

  20. Site effects on seismic behavior of pipelines

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, J.W.; Sun, S.

    1996-12-01

    Post-earthquake investigations and earthquake observations have shown that the site conditions have spectacular effects on seismic behavior of pipelines. In this paper, an updated and detailed review of the site effects on seismic behavior of pipelines is presented, and research needs are pointed out. 90 refs.

  1. Onshore seismic amplifications due to bathymetric features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Castellanos, A.; Carbajal-Romero, M.; Flores-Guzmán, N.; Olivera-Villaseñor, E.; Kryvko, A.

    2016-08-01

    We perform numerical calculations for onshore seismic amplifications, taking into consideration the effect of bathymetric features on the propagation of seismic movements. To this end, the boundary element method is applied. Boundary elements are employed to irradiate waves and, consequently, force densities can be obtained for each boundary element. From this assumption, Huygens’ principle is applied, and since the diffracted waves are built at the boundary from which they are radiated, this idea is equivalent to Somigliana’s representation theorem. The application of boundary conditions leads to a linear system being obtained (Fredholm integral equations). Several numerical models are analyzed, with the first one being used to verify the proposed formulation, and the others being used to estimate onshore seismic amplifications due to the presence of bathymetric features. The results obtained show that compressional waves (P-waves) generate onshore seismic amplifications that can vary from 1.2 to 5.2 times the amplitude of the incident wave. On the other hand, the shear waves (S-waves) can cause seismic amplifications of up to 4.0 times the incident wave. Furthermore, an important result is that in most cases the highest seismic amplifications from an offshore earthquake are located on the shoreline and not offshore, despite the seafloor configuration. Moreover, the influence of the incident angle of seismic waves on the seismic amplifications is highlighted.

  2. 3D Elastic Seismic Wave Propagation Code

    1998-09-23

    E3D is capable of simulating seismic wave propagation in a 3D heterogeneous earth. Seismic waves are initiated by earthquake, explosive, and/or other sources. These waves propagate through a 3D geologic model, and are simulated as synthetic seismograms or other graphical output.

  3. A description of seismic amplitude techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadlow, James

    2014-02-01

    The acquisition of seismic data is a non-invasive technique used for determining the sub surface geology. Changes in lithology and fluid fill affect the seismic wavelet. Analysing seismic data for direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs), such as full stack amplitude anomalies, or amplitude variation with offset (AVO), can help a seismic interpreter relate the geophysical response to real geology and, more importantly, to distinguish the presence of hydrocarbons. Inversion is another commonly used technique that attempts to tie the seismic data back to the geology. Much has been written about these techniques, and attempting to gain an understanding on the theory and application of them by reading through various journals can be quite daunting. The purpose of this paper is to briefly outline DHI analysis, including full stack amplitude anomalies, AVO and inversion and show the relationship between all three. The equations presented have been included for completeness, but the reader can pass over the mathematical detail.

  4. Seismicity in Azerbaijan and Adjacent Caspian Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Panahi, Behrouz M.

    2006-03-23

    So far no general view on the geodynamic evolution of the Black Sea to the Caspian Sea region is elaborated. This is associated with the geological and structural complexities of the region revealed by geophysical, geochemical, petrologic, structural, and other studies. A clash of opinions on geodynamic conditions of the Caucasus region, sometimes mutually exclusive, can be explained by a simplified interpretation of the seismic data. In this paper I analyze available data on earthquake occurrences in Azerbaijan and the adjacent Caspian Sea region. The results of the analysis of macroseismic and instrumental data, seismic regime, and earthquake reoccurrence indicate that a level of seismicity in the region is moderate, and seismic event are concentrated in the shallow part of the lithosphere. Seismicity is mostly intra-plate, and spatial distribution of earthquake epicenters does not correlate with the plate boundaries.

  5. Seismic safety of high concrete dams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houqun

    2014-08-01

    China is a country of high seismicity with many hydropower resources. Recently, a series of high arch dams have either been completed or are being constructed in seismic regions, of which most are concrete dams. The evaluation of seismic safety often becomes a critical problem in dam design. In this paper, a brief introduction to major progress in the research on seismic aspects of large concrete dams, conducted mainly at the Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research (IWHR) during the past 60 years, is presented. The dam site-specific ground motion input, improved response analysis, dynamic model test verification, field experiment investigations, dynamic behavior of dam concrete, and seismic monitoring and observation are described. Methods to prevent collapse of high concrete dams under maximum credible earthquakes are discussed.

  6. Seismic analysis of nuclear power plant structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Go, J. C.

    1973-01-01

    Primary structures for nuclear power plants are designed to resist expected earthquakes of the site. Two intensities are referred to as Operating Basis Earthquake and Design Basis Earthquake. These structures are required to accommodate these seismic loadings without loss of their functional integrity. Thus, no plastic yield is allowed. The application of NASTRAN in analyzing some of these seismic induced structural dynamic problems is described. NASTRAN, with some modifications, can be used to analyze most structures that are subjected to seismic loads. A brief review of the formulation of seismic-induced structural dynamics is also presented. Two typical structural problems were selected to illustrate the application of the various methods of seismic structural analysis by the NASTRAN system.

  7. Seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir, Kyrgyzstan

    SciTech Connect

    Kamchybekov, Murataly; Yegemberdiyeva, Kuliya

    2008-07-08

    In connection with that this seismic in the territory of Naryn cascade maybe has its peculiarity in cludding in the territory Toktogul reservoir before of the building of the Toktogul dam, during of the building and after accordingly was decided to consider the seismic in this space of times. The arm of the present paper is estimation seismic of the territory Toktogul reservoir for different times: before of the building of the Toktogul dam (1960-1973), during its filling (1974-1980) and since start it's of the uninterruptedly exploitation to present time (1981-2006). The territory in that located the cascade of Naryn River is considered that seismic active in the Central part of the Tien Shan. The tectonic motions are become here intensity. The presence of the large faults is complicating significantly the seismic situation of the study region.

  8. Broadband seismology and small regional seismic networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herrmann, Robert B.

    1995-01-01

    In the winter of 1811-12, three of the largest historic earthquakes in the United States occurred near New Madrid, Missouri. Seismicity continues to the present day throughout a tightly clustered pattern of epicenters centered on the bootheel of Missouri, including parts of northeastern Arkansas, northwestern Tennessee, western Kentucky, and southern Illinois. In 1990, the New Madrid seismic zone/Central United States became the first seismically active region east of the Rocky Mountains to be designated a priority research area within the National Earthquake Hazards Reduction Program (NEHRP). This Professional Paper is a collection of papers, some published separately, presenting results of the newly intensified research program in this area. Major components of this research program include tectonic framework studies, seismicity and deformation monitoring and modeling, improved seismic hazard and risk assessments, and cooperative hazard mitigation studies.

  9. Hierarchical model for distributed seismicity

    SciTech Connect

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Gomez, Javier B.; Pacheco, Amalio F.

    2010-07-15

    A cellular automata model for the interaction between seismic faults in an extended region is presented. Faults are represented by boxes formed by a different number of sites and located in the nodes of a fractal tree. Both the distribution of box sizes and the interaction between them is assumed to be hierarchical. Load particles are randomly added to the system, simulating the action of external tectonic forces. These particles fill the sites of the boxes progressively. When a box is full it topples, some of the particles are redistributed to other boxes and some of them are lost. A box relaxation simulates the occurrence of an earthquake in the region. The particle redistributions mostly occur upwards (to larger faults) and downwards (to smaller faults) in the hierarchy producing new relaxations. A simple and efficient bookkeeping of the information allows the running of systems with more than fifty million faults. This model is consistent with the definition of magnitude, i.e., earthquakes of magnitude m take place in boxes with a number of sites ten times bigger than those boxes responsible for earthquakes with a magnitude m-1 which are placed in the immediate lower level of the hierarchy. The three parameters of the model have a geometrical nature: the height or number of levels of the fractal tree, the coordination of the tree and the ratio of areas between boxes in two consecutive levels. Besides reproducing several seismicity properties and regularities, this model is used to test the performance of some precursory patterns.

  10. Seismic transducer modeling using ABAQUS

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen R. Novascone

    2004-05-01

    A seismic transducer, known as an orbital vibrator, consists of a rotating imbalance driven by an electric motor. When suspended in a liquid-filled wellbore, vibrations of the device are coupled to the surrounding geologic media. In this mode, an orbital vibrator can be used as an efficient rotating dipole source for seismic imaging. Alternately, the motion of an orbital vibrator is affected by the physical properties of the surrounding media. From this point of view, an orbital vibrator can be used as a stand-alone sensor. The reaction to the surroundings can be sensed and recorded by geophones inside the orbital vibrator. These reactions are a function of the media’s physical properties such as modulus, damping, and density, thereby identifying the rock type. This presentation shows how the orbital vibrator and surroundings were modeled with an ABAQUS acoustic FEM. The FEM is found to compare favorably with theoretical predictions. A 2D FEM and analytical model are compared to an experimental data set. Each model compares favorably with the data set.

  11. Kutch Seismicity And Crustal Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, P. R.; Sarkar, D.; Sain, K.; Mooney, W. D.; Catchings, R. D.

    The devastating 2001 Bhuj (western India) earthquake has triggered widespread dis- cussion in the scientific community about the nature and the causes behind such earth- quakes in the Kutch region, and their similarities or differences with earthquakes elsewhere (particularly the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquake sequence in mid- continental North America). Many unanswered questions remain and these require not only renewed thinking and understanding, but also fresh efforts for additional data gathering. The problem is more acute in the case of the less-studied Kutch region than for the well-researched New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ). Before we can make an objective comparison between these two regions, we have to first update our knowl- edge of Kutch. Here, we summarize the available information about the destructive 2001 Bhuj and other major earthquakes in Kutch and their tectonic setting. We will also examine the current understanding of the seismicity of the NMSZ. We shall also assess the basic data gaps that need to be filled in order to understanding the Kutch earthquakes, and thereby will be in a better position to find commonalties among such intraplate earthquakes.

  12. DISPLACEMENT BASED SEISMIC DESIGN METHODS.

    SciTech Connect

    HOFMAYER,C.MILLER,C.WANG,Y.COSTELLO,J.

    2003-07-15

    A research effort was undertaken to determine the need for any changes to USNRC's seismic regulatory practice to reflect the move, in the earthquake engineering community, toward using expected displacement rather than force (or stress) as the basis for assessing design adequacy. The research explored the extent to which displacement based seismic design methods, such as given in FEMA 273, could be useful for reviewing nuclear power stations. Two structures common to nuclear power plants were chosen to compare the results of the analysis models used. The first structure is a four-story frame structure with shear walls providing the primary lateral load system, referred herein as the shear wall model. The second structure is the turbine building of the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. The models were analyzed using both displacement based (pushover) analysis and nonlinear dynamic analysis. In addition, for the shear wall model an elastic analysis with ductility factors applied was also performed. The objectives of the work were to compare the results between the analyses, and to develop insights regarding the work that would be needed before the displacement based analysis methodology could be considered applicable to facilities licensed by the NRC. A summary of the research results, which were published in NUREGICR-6719 in July 2001, is presented in this paper.

  13. Seismic waveform modeling over cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Cong; Friederich, Wolfgang

    2016-04-01

    With the fast growing computational technologies, numerical simulation of seismic wave propagation achieved huge successes. Obtaining the synthetic waveforms through numerical simulation receives an increasing amount of attention from seismologists. However, computational seismology is a data-intensive research field, and the numerical packages usually come with a steep learning curve. Users are expected to master considerable amount of computer knowledge and data processing skills. Training users to use the numerical packages, correctly access and utilize the computational resources is a troubled task. In addition to that, accessing to HPC is also a common difficulty for many users. To solve these problems, a cloud based solution dedicated on shallow seismic waveform modeling has been developed with the state-of-the-art web technologies. It is a web platform integrating both software and hardware with multilayer architecture: a well designed SQL database serves as the data layer, HPC and dedicated pipeline for it is the business layer. Through this platform, users will no longer need to compile and manipulate various packages on the local machine within local network to perform a simulation. By providing users professional access to the computational code through its interfaces and delivering our computational resources to the users over cloud, users can customize the simulation at expert-level, submit and run the job through it.

  14. Methane and seismicity: A reply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, Thomas; Soter, Steven

    In a recent Forum article in Eos (“Methane in Association With Seismic Activity,” June 14, 1983, p. 410), R. S. Oremland presents observations which he claims contradict the deep methane gas hypothesis. His principal case rests on observations of one M 5.7 earthquake near the volcanic area of Mammouth Lakes, California, which did not result in any increase in methane content of gases in four local seeps.In our published discussions of the deep gas hypothesis [Gold and Soter, 1980, 1982], we proposed (1) that outgassing from mantle depths is an ongoing process both in volcanic and nonvolcanic regions; (2) that the gases CO2 and CH4 are the principal carriers of the surface excess carbon; (3) that chemical equilibrium between CO2 and CH4 in the presence of hot or liquid rock is strongly shifted towards CO2, especially in the low pressure domain, and that therefore active volcanic or high heat flow regions would be less likely to exhibit CH4; and (4) that faultlines, particularly those which are seismically active, are locations where outgassing in cool regions can be sampled. The evidence there is that flames from the ground are often seen in association with major earthquakes. (Just as in many mud volcano eruptions, ignition of combustible gases can be attributed to electrostatic effects.) Methane is also observed in many of the major crustal rifts, together with helium having the high 3He to 4He ratio indicative of deep origin [Lupton, 1983].

  15. Hanford Seismic Report for Fiscal Year 2000

    SciTech Connect

    Hartshorn, D.C.; Reidel, S.; Rohay, A.C.

    2000-02-23

    Hanford Seismic Monitoring provides an uninterrupted collection of high-quality raw and processed seismic data from the Hanford Seismic Network (HSN) for the U.S. Department of Energy and its contractors. Hanford Seismic Monitoring also locates and identifies sources of seismic activity and monitors changes in the historical pattern of seismic activity at the Hanford Site. The data are compiled, archived, and published for use by the Hanford Site for waste management, Natural Phenomena Hazards assessments, and engineering design and construction. In addition, the seismic monitoring organization works with the Hanford Site Emergency Services Organization to provide assistance in the event of a significant earthquake on the Hanford Site. The HSN and the Eastern Washington Regional Network (EWRN) consist of 42 individual sensor sites and 15 radio relay sites maintained by the Hanford Seismic Monitoring staff. The HSN uses 21 sites and the EWRN uses 36 sites; both networks share 16 sites. The networks have 46 combined data channels because Gable Butte and Frenchman Hills East are three-component sites. The reconfiguration of the telemetry and recording systems was completed during the first quarter. All leased telephone lines have been eliminated and radio telemetry is now used exclusively. For the HSN, there were 311 triggers on two parallel detection and recording systems during the first quarter of fiscal year (FY) 2000. Twelve seismic events were located by the Hanford Seismic Network within the reporting region of 46{degree}-47{degree}N latitude and 119{degree}-120{degree}W longitude; 2 were earthquakes in the Columbia River Basalt Group, 3 were earthquakes in the pre-basalt sediments, 9 were earthquakes in the crystalline basement, and 1 was a quarry blast. Two earthquakes appear to be related to a major geologic structure, no earthquakes occurred in known swarm areas, and 9 earthquakes were random occurrences. No earthquakes triggered the Hanford Strong Motion

  16. Seismic risk assessment and application in the central United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Seismic risk is a somewhat subjective, but important, concept in earthquake engineering and other related decision-making. Another important concept that is closely related to seismic risk is seismic hazard. Although seismic hazard and seismic risk have often been used interchangeably, they are fundamentally different: seismic hazard describes the natural phenomenon or physical property of an earthquake, whereas seismic risk describes the probability of loss or damage that could be caused by a seismic hazard. The distinction between seismic hazard and seismic risk is of practical significance because measures for seismic hazard mitigation may differ from those for seismic risk reduction. Seismic risk assessment is a complicated process and starts with seismic hazard assessment. Although probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) is the most widely used method for seismic hazard assessment, recent studies have found that PSHA is not scientifically valid. Use of PSHA will lead to (1) artifact estimates of seismic risk, (2) misleading use of the annual probability of exccedance (i.e., the probability of exceedance in one year) as a frequency (per year), and (3) numerical creation of extremely high ground motion. An alternative approach, which is similar to those used for flood and wind hazard assessments, has been proposed. ?? 2011 ASCE.

  17. Seismic Noise Analysis and Reduction through Utilization of Collocated Seismic and Atmospheric Sensors at the GRO Chile Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, M. E.; Russo, R. M.

    2013-12-01

    The installation of Earthscope Transportable Array-style geophysical observatories in Chile expands open data seismic recording capabilities in the southern hemisphere by nearly 30%, and has nearly tripled the number of seismic stations providing freely-available data in southern South America. Through the use of collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at these stations we are able to analyze how local atmospheric conditions generate seismic noise, which can degrade data in seismic frequency bands at stations in the ';roaring forties' (S latitudes). Seismic vaults that are climate-controlled and insulated from the local environment are now employed throughout the world in an attempt to isolate seismometers from as many noise sources as possible. However, this is an expensive solution that is neither practical nor possible for all seismic deployments; and also, the increasing number and scope of temporary seismic deployments has resulted in the collection and archiving of terabytes of seismic data that is affected to some degree by natural seismic noise sources such as wind and atmospheric pressure changes. Changing air pressure can result in a depression and subsequent rebound of Earth's surface - which generates low frequency noise in seismic frequency bands - and even moderate winds can apply enough force to ground-coupled structures or to the surface above the seismometers themselves, resulting in significant noise. The 10 stations of the permanent Geophysical Reporting Observatories (GRO Chile), jointly installed during 2011-12 by IRIS and the Chilean Servicio Sismológico, include instrumentation in addition to the standard three seismic components. These stations, spaced approximately 300 km apart along the length of the country, continuously record a variety of atmospheric data including infrasound, air pressure, wind speed, and wind direction. The collocated seismic and atmospheric sensors at each station allow us to analyze both datasets together, to

  18. Multiscale seismic attributes: source-corrected wavelet response and application to high-resolution seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ker, Stephan; Le Gonidec, Yves; Gibert, Dominique

    2012-09-01

    A wavelet-based method was presented in a previous work to introduce multiscale seismic attributes for high-resolution seismic data. Because of the limited frequency bandwidth of the seismic source, we observed distortions in the seismic attributes based on the wavelet response of the subsurface discontinuities (Le Gonidec et al.). In this paper, we go further in the seismic source-correction by considering Lévy alpha-stable distributions introduced in the formalism of the continuous wavelet transform (CWT). The wavelets are Gaussian derivative functions (GDF), characterized by a derivative order. We show that a high-resolution seismic source, after a classical signature processing, can be taken into account with a GDF. We demonstrate that in the framework of the Born approximation, the CWT of a seismic trace involving such a finite frequency bandwidth can be made equivalent to the CWT of the impulse response of the subsurface and is defined for a reduced range of dilations. We apply the method for the SYSIF seismic device (Marsset et al.; Ker et al.) and show that the source-corrections allow to define seismic attributes for layer thicknesses in the range [24; 115 cm]. We present the analysis for two seismic reflectors identified on a SYSIF profile, and we show that the source-corrected multiscale analysis quantifies their complex geometries.

  19. Natural fracture characterization using passive seismic illumination

    SciTech Connect

    Nihei, K.T.

    2003-01-08

    The presence of natural fractures in reservoir rock can significantly enhance gas production, especially in tight gas formations. Any general knowledge of the existence, location, orientation, spatial density, and connectivity of natural fractures, as well as general reservoir structure, that can be obtained prior to active seismic acquisition and drilling can be exploited to identify key areas for subsequent higher resolution active seismic imaging. Current practices for estimating fracture properties before the acquisition of surface seismic data are usually based on the assumed geology and tectonics of the region, and empirical or fracture mechanics-based relationships between stratigraphic curvature and fracturing. The objective of this research is to investigate the potential of multicomponent surface sensor arrays, and passive seismic sources in the form of local earthquakes to identify and characterize potential fractured gas reservoirs located near seismically active regions. To assess the feasibility of passive seismic fracture detection and characterization, we have developed numerical codes for modeling elastic wave propagation in reservoir structures containing multiple, finite-length fractures. This article describes our efforts to determine the conditions for favorable excitation of fracture converted waves, and to develop an imaging method that can be used to locate and characterize fractures using multicomponent, passive seismic data recorded on a surface array.

  20. Structural concepts and details for seismic design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    This manual discusses building and building component behavior during earthquakes, and provides suggested details for seismic resistance which have shown by experience to provide adequate performance during earthquakes. Special design and construction practices are also described which, although they might be common in some high-seismic regions, may not be common in low and moderate seismic-hazard regions of the United States. Special attention is given to describing the level of detailing appropriate for each seismic region. The UBC seismic criteria for all seismic zones is carefully examined, and many examples of connection details are given. The general scope of discussion is limited to materials and construction types common to Department of Energy (DOE) sites. Although the manual is primarily written for professional engineers engaged in performing seismic-resistant design for DOE facilities, the first two chapters, plus the introductory sections of succeeding chapters, contain descriptions which are also directed toward project engineers who authorize, review, or supervise the design and construction of DOE facilities. 88 refs., 188 figs.

  1. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    SciTech Connect

    BALLARD, SANFORD; HIPP, JAMES; & BARKER, GLENN

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forward travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.

  2. Code for Calculating Regional Seismic Travel Time

    2009-07-10

    The RSTT software computes predictions of the travel time of seismic energy traveling from a source to a receiver through 2.5D models of the seismic velocity distribution within the Earth. The two primary applications for the RSTT library are tomographic inversion studies and seismic event location calculations. In tomographic inversions studies, a seismologist begins with number of source-receiver travel time observations and an initial starting model of the velocity distribution within the Earth. A forwardmore » travel time calculator, such as the RSTT library, is used to compute predictions of each observed travel time and all of the residuals (observed minus predicted travel time) are calculated. The Earth model is then modified in some systematic way with the goal of minimizing the residuals. The Earth model obtained in this way is assumed to be a better model than the starting model if it has lower residuals. The other major application for the RSTT library is seismic event location. Given an Earth model, an initial estimate of the location of a seismic event, and some number of observations of seismic travel time thought to have originated from that event, location codes systematically modify the estimate of the location of the event with the goal of minimizing the difference between the observed and predicted travel times. The second application, seismic event location, is routinely implemented by the military as part of its effort to monitor the Earth for nuclear tests conducted by foreign countries.« less

  3. Moon meteoritic seismic hum: Steady state prediction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lognonne, P.; Feuvre, M.L.; Johnson, C.L.; Weber, R.C.

    2009-01-01

    We use three different statistical models describing the frequency of meteoroid impacts on Earth to estimate the seismic background noise due to impacts on the lunar surface. Because of diffraction, seismic events on the Moon are typically characterized by long codas, lasting 1 h or more. We find that the small but frequent impacts generate seismic signals whose codas overlap in time, resulting in a permanent seismic noise that we term the "lunar hum" by analogy with the Earth's continuous seismic background seismic hum. We find that the Apollo era impact detection rates and amplitudes are well explained by a model that parameterizes (1) the net seismic impulse due to the impactor and resulting ejecta and (2) the effects of diffraction and attenuation. The formulation permits the calculation of a composite waveform at any point on the Moon due to simulated impacts at any epicentral distance. The root-mean-square amplitude of this waveform yields a background noise level that is about 100 times lower than the resolution of the Apollo long-period seismometers. At 2 s periods, this noise level is more than 1000 times lower than the low noise model prediction for Earth's microseismic noise. Sufficiently sensitive seismometers will allow the future detection of several impacts per day at body wave frequencies. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  4. Factors Affecting Seismic Velocity in Alluvium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huckins-Gang, H.; Mercadante, J.; Prothro, L.

    2015-12-01

    Yucca Flat at the Nevada National Security Site has been selected as the Source Physics Experiment (SPE) Dry Alluvium Geology Phase II site. The alluvium in this part of Yucca Flat is typical of desert basin fill, with discontinuous beds that are highly variable in clast size and provenance. Detailed understanding of the subsurface geology will be needed for interpretation of the SPE seismic data. A 3D seismic velocity model, created for Yucca Flat using interval seismic velocity data, shows variations in velocity within alluvium near the SPE Phase II site beyond the usual gradual increase of density with depth due to compaction. In this study we examined borehole lithologic logs, geophysical logs, downhole videos, and laboratory analyses of sidewall core samples to understand which characteristics of the alluvium are related to these variations in seismic velocity. Seismic velocity of alluvium is generally related to its density, which can be affected by sediment provenance, clast size, gravel percentage, and matrix properties, in addition to compaction. This study presents a preliminary subdivision of the alluvial strata in the SPE Phase II area into mappable units expected to be significant to seismic modeling. Further refinements of the alluvial units may be possible when seismic data are obtained from SPE Phase II tests. This work was done by National Security Technologies, LLC, under Contract No. DE-AC52-06NA25946 with the U.S. Department of Energy.

  5. Seismicity at Jalisco-Nayarit Border, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutz, M.; Nunez-Cornu, F.; Camarena, M.; Trejo, E.; Reyes-Davila, G.; Suarez-Plasencia, C.

    2003-12-01

    Since 2002 a regional seismic network from Jalisco Civil Defense and University of Guadalalajara is monitoring seismicity at the northwest border of Jalisco block. With the installation of a seismic station on Ceboruco Volcano, by Nayarit Civil Defense, coverage of the network extends to east. Ceboruco Volcano is located on the Tepic-Zacoalco graben, the east border of Jalisco block, this allow us to begin to monitoring this area. The zone of Bahia de Banderas, between the north coast of Jalisco and south coast of Nayarit, probably on a tectonic triple point, is a region of high seismic potential. Activ tectonic structures and clusters in the zone of El Tuito and the Dam Cajon de Pe¤as have been identified. The seismicity in the north area of the bay is low, meanwhile in the south, where the bay is deeper, the seismicity level is higher with an East-West tendency. At the east, the Amatlan de Ca¤as-Ameca zone presents continue activity, here have been possible to locate events with local magnitude between 2 and 4. Tectonovolcanic events registred at Ceboruco station presents waveform with scattering. The seismic distribution of the coast of Jalisco shows parallel alignments to the trench throughout al the coast. Other perpendicular alignments to the coastline show active morphologic structures within the Jalisco block related to the subduction of the Rivera plate under the Jalisco block.

  6. Alternative Energy Sources in Seismic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tün, Muammer; Pekkan, Emrah; Mutlu, Sunay; Ecevitoğlu, Berkan

    2015-04-01

    When the suitability of a settlement area is investigated, soil-amplification, liquefaction and fault-related hazards should be defined, and the associated risks should be clarified. For this reason, soil engineering parameters and subsurface geological structure of a new settlement area should be investigated. Especially, faults covered with quaternary alluvium; thicknesses, shear-wave velocities and geometry of subsurface sediments could lead to a soil amplification during an earthquake. Likewise, changes in shear-wave velocities along the basin are also very important. Geophysical methods can be used to determine the local soil properties. In this study, use of alternative seismic energy sources when implementing seismic reflection, seismic refraction and MASW methods in the residential areas of Eskisehir/Turkey, were discussed. Our home developed seismic energy source, EAPSG (Electrically-Fired-PS-Gun), capable to shoot 2x24 magnum shotgun cartridges at once to generate P and S waves; and our home developed WD-500 (500 kg Weight Drop) seismic energy source, mounted on a truck, were developed under a scientific research project of Anadolu University. We were able to reach up to penetration depths of 1200 m for EAPSG, and 800 m for WD-500 in our seismic reflection surveys. WD-500 seismic energy source was also used to perform MASW surveys, using 24-channel, 10 m apart, 4.5 Hz vertical geophone configuration. We were able to reach 100 m of penetration depth in MASW surveys.

  7. Seismotectonics and seismic Hazard map of Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soumaya, Abdelkader; Ben Ayed, Noureddine; Khayati Ammar, Hayet; Kadri, Ali; Zargouni, Fouad; Ghanmi, Mohamed

    2016-04-01

    One natural hazard in Tunisia is caused by earthquakes and one way to measure the shaking risk is the probabilistic seismic-hazard map. The study of seismic hazard and risk assessment in Tunisia started in 1990 within the framework of the National Program for Assessment of Earthquake Risk. Because earthquakes are random events characterized by specific uncertainties, we used a probabilistic method to build the seismic hazard map of Tunisia. Probabilities were derived from the available seismic data and from results of neotectonic, geophysical and geological studies on the main active domains of Tunisia. This map displays earthquake ground motions for various probability levels across Tunisia and it is used in seismic provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, risk assessment and other public management activities. The product is a seismotectonic map of Tunisia summarizing the available datasets (e.g., active fault, focal mechanism, instrumental and historical seismicity, peak ground acceleration). In addition, we elaborate some thematic seismic hazard maps that represent an important tool for the social and economic development.

  8. Seismic stimulation for enhanced oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Pride, S.R.; Flekkoy, E.G.; Aursjo, O.

    2008-07-22

    The pore-scale effects of seismic stimulation on two-phase flow are modeled numerically in random 2D grain0pack geometries. Seismic stimulation aims to enhance oil production by sending seismic waves across a reservoir to liberate immobile patches of oil. For seismic amplitudes above a well-defined (analytically expressed) dimensionless criterion, the force perturbation associated with the waves indeed can liberate oil trapped on capillary barriers and get it flowing again under the background pressure gradient. Subsequent coalescence of the freed oil droplets acts to enhance oil movement further because longer bubbles overcome capillary barriers more efficiently than shorter bubbles do. Poroelasticity theory defines the effective force that a seismic wave adds to the background fluid-pressure gradient. The lattice-Boltzmann model in two dimensions is used to perform pore-scale numerical simulations. Dimensionless numbers (groups of material and force parameters) involved in seismic stimulation are defined carefully so that numerical simulations can be applied to field-scale conditions. Using the analytical criteria defined in the paper, there is a significant range of reservoir conditions over which seismic stimulation can be expected to enhance oil production.

  9. Seismic margins and calibration of piping systems

    SciTech Connect

    Shieh, L.C.; Tsai, N.C.; Yang, M.S.; Wong, W.L.

    1985-01-01

    The Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) is a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-funded, multiyear program conducted by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). Its objective is to develop a complete, fully coupled analysis procedure for estimating the risk of earthquake-induced radioactive release from a commercial nuclear power plant and to determine major contributors to the state-of-the-art seismic and systems analysis process and explicitly includes the uncertainties in such a process. The results will be used to improve seismic licensing requirements for nuclear power plants. In Phase I of SSMRP, the overall seismic risk assessment methodology was developed and assembled. The application of this methodology to the seismic PRA (Probabilistic Risk Assessment) at the Zion Nuclear Power Plant has been documented. This report documents the method deriving response factors. The response factors, which relate design calculated responses to best estimate values, were used in the seismic response determination of piping systems for a simplified seismic probablistic risk assessment. 13 references, 31 figures, 25 tables.

  10. Technology creates role for small seismic crews

    SciTech Connect

    Moriarty, B.J. . Kiwi American Energy Inc.)

    1993-09-27

    While the oil and gas industry focuses on large, complex 3D seismic surveys around the world, other, more-quiet changes are taking place. A new breed of small, high-tech seismic crew is emerging as the latest generation of seismic equipment becomes available. Light, economical equipment formerly used for shallow engineering purposes now can produce high-quality data at depths required for oil and gas exploration. Improvements in acquisition technology and equipment reduce costs of seismic surveys, providing new and expanded opportunities in exploration. These improvements include powerful, light recording systems; advanced seismic processing methods; portable processing and analysis on powerful notebook computers; and light, environmentally safe seismic sources. The growing ability of small crews and compact equipment to acquire high-quality data provides operators the option of shooting surveys in especially sensitive areas or of shooting tailor-made surveys in areas of high interest. Niche surveys of this type are especially useful in mature producing areas, such as the U.S. The paper describes the challenges, the dynamic ranges that must be handled (recording weak signals in the presence of strong ones), seismic equipment, and exploration opportunities.

  11. Geological mounds and their seismic expression

    SciTech Connect

    Swarbrick, R.E. )

    1991-03-01

    Mound geometry (convex upward structure developed above a subhorizontal surface) is common in many geological environments and frequently observed in 2-dimensions on seismic sections. Seismic mounds are typically associated with deep-water clastic sediments, e.g. submarine fans and slumps, and with a variety of carbonate depositional settings, e.g., reefs and banks, but also exist in other depositional settings. Recognition will be dependent on mound dimension, velocity contrast, amplitude strength, and the resolution of the seismic data. Since mounds can represent an important exploration target and recognition of porous, hydrocarbon-bearing section is all-important, careful restitution of the original depositional morphology from the seismic data is required. Details of present velocity distribution are critical, along with a realistic concept of any post-depositional modification, such as compaction, which may have taken place during burial. Where differential compaction is taking place, for example between sand and shale, seismic expression of morphology will be continually modified during progressive burial. Analysis of structure at the top and base of the mound can provide support for lithological interpretation based on other criteria, such as seismic facies analysis based on internal and external reflections. Modeling, using parameters from mounds in a variety of known depositional settings, illustrates many of the interpretational problems associated with seismic mounds and provides some objective criteria for analysis of mound morphology. Comparison is made with real data, principally from northwest Europe and North America.

  12. Oceanic crust deep seismic survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBride, J. H.; White, R. S.

    In September 1991, the British Institutions Reflection Profiling Syndicate (BIRPS) collected 578 km of deep seismic reflection profiles over the oceanic crust beneath the Cape Verde abssyal plain in approximately 4900 m of water (Fig. 1). The survey, under the direction of J. H. McBride, was undertaken in response to a proposal made by R. S. White at the 1990 BIRPS open syndicate meeting in Birmingham, England, and was acquired using GECO-PRAKLA'S M/V Bin Hai 511. The survey consisted of two strike lines parallel to magnetic sea-floor lineations and nine orthogonal crossing lines oriented parallel to the spreading direction (Fig. 2). Adjacent lines are spaced at 4 km. For the first time, this provides the ability to map oceanic crust in “3D,” since the line spacing is less than or equal to the Fresnel-zone diameter for the lower crust.

  13. Quantification of seismic liquefaction risk

    SciTech Connect

    Arango, I.; Ostadan, F.; Lewis, M.R.; Gutierrez, B.J.

    1996-02-29

    Explicit goals of acceptable risk for natural phenomena hazards (earthquake, extreme wind, and flood) have been established by the Department of Energy (DOE) 1994. Closely associated to the earthquake risk is the issue of seismically-induced liquefaction. Because deterministic methods currently available to answer the question to whether a site is liquefiable or not are incapable of providing a clue as to the likelihood or risk of liquefaction, the application of the criteria to a given facility requires that alternative evaluation techniques be formulated. This paper describes the application to a nuclear facility of a newly developed probabilistic methodology which rigorously accounts for geotechnical and seismologic uncertainties. The results of the analyses are compared with the acceptable levels of risk presented by DOE. This comparison is used to emphasize the power of the methodology as a tool in the decision-making processes.

  14. Seismic data acquisition through tubing

    SciTech Connect

    Buettner, H M; Jervis, M

    1999-07-01

    We have collected good quality crosswell seismic data through production tubing in active oil fields at realistic interwell distances (300 ft). The data were collected at the Aera Cymric field (1998) and at a Chevron site (1997); both located in the Central Valley of California. The Aera data were used to produce travel-time tomographic images of the interwell region. Both sites have similar geology, namely siliceous shale (diatomite) with moderate to highly attenuating reservoir rocks. In addition we confirmed modeling predictions that typical tubing attenuation losses are on the order of 12 dB. We expect that the use of stronger sources and tube wave suppression will allow for crosswell imaging at realistic distances even for low Q or high noise situations. We are searching for an industrial partner now for a data collection in the gas wells of the San Juan Basin or South Texas.

  15. Seismic hazard maps for Haiti

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frankel, Arthur; Harmsen, Stephen; Mueller, Charles; Calais, Eric; Haase, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    We have produced probabilistic seismic hazard maps of Haiti for peak ground acceleration and response spectral accelerations that include the hazard from the major crustal faults, subduction zones, and background earthquakes. The hazard from the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden, Septentrional, and Matheux-Neiba fault zones was estimated using fault slip rates determined from GPS measurements. The hazard from the subduction zones along the northern and southeastern coasts of Hispaniola was calculated from slip rates derived from GPS data and the overall plate motion. Hazard maps were made for a firm-rock site condition and for a grid of shallow shear-wave velocities estimated from topographic slope. The maps show substantial hazard throughout Haiti, with the highest hazard in Haiti along the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden and Septentrional fault zones. The Matheux-Neiba Fault exhibits high hazard in the maps for 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, although its slip rate is poorly constrained.

  16. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  17. Mantle compression affects seismic wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2014-02-01

    To try to understand the direction of motion of the Earth's mantle, which lies hidden beneath tens of kilometers of crust, researchers have relied on the property of seismic anisotropy. When seismic shear waves pass through some types of materials, known as anisotropic materials, the speed of the wave can vary depending on the direction in which it is moving. Traditionally, scientists have assumed that the direction in which waves move more quickly aligns with the direction of mantle motion. For subduction zones, however, this general rule seemed to break down—a discrepancy exists between numerical model simulations and observed seismic data.

  18. Meteoroid flux from passive seismic experiment data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duennebier, F.; Dorman, J.; Lammlein, D.; Latham, G.; Nakamura, Y.

    1975-01-01

    The meteoroid flux hitting the moon is recomputed using new information on the decrease of seismic signal amplitude with range. The new data are principally 17 large meteoroid impacts whose locations have been computed from recordings at all four of the operating Passive Seismic Experiment stations. These data suggest a rapid decrease in amplitudes beyond about 2200 km (chord range) which was not suspected earlier. The new estimate predicts the abundance of meteoroids with masses between 500 and 50,000 g. The result is considerably lower than estimates from earth-based observations, and close to our previous estimate from long-period lunar seismic data.

  19. Georgia-Armenia Transboarder seismicity studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoladze, T.; Tvaradze, N.; Javakishvili, Z.; Elashvili, M.; Durgaryan, R.; Arakelyan, A.; Gevorgyan, M.

    2012-12-01

    In the presented study we performed Comprehensive seismic analyses for the Armenian-Georgian transboarder active seismic fault starting on Armenian territory, cutting the state boarder and having possibly northern termination on Adjara-Triealeti frontal structure in Georgia. In the scope of International projects: ISTC A-1418 "Open network of scientific Centers for mitigation risk of natural hazards in the Southern Caucasus and Central Asia" and NATO SfP- 983284 Project "Caucasus Seismic Emergency Response" in Akhalkalaki (Georgia) seismic center, Regional Summer school trainings and intensive filed investigations were conducted. Main goal was multidisciplinary study of the Javakheti fault structure and better understanding seismicity of the area. Young scientists from Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia were participated in the deployment of temporal seismic network in order to monitor seisimity on the Javakheti highland and particularly delineate fault scarf and identify active seismic structures. In the scope of international collaboration the common seismic database has been created in the southern Caucasus and collected data from the field works is available now online. Javakheti highland, which is located in the central part of the Caucasus, belongs to the structure of the lesser Caucasus and represents a history of neotectonic volcanism existed in the area. Jasvakheti highland is seismicalu active region devastating from several severe earthquakes(1088, 1283, 1899…). Hypocenters located during analogue network were highly scattered and did not describe real pattern of seismicity of the highland. We relocated hypocenters of the region and improved local velocity model. The hypocenters derived from recently deployed local seismic network in the Javakheti highland, clearly identified seismically active structures. Fault plane solutions of analogue data of the Soviet times have been carefully analyzed and examined. Moment tensor inversion were preformed

  20. Estimation of Seismicity Parameters Using a Computer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veneziano, Daniele

    The book is a translation from an original in Russian, published in 1972. After 15 years, the book appears dated, its emphasis being the use of computers as an innovative technology for seismicity parameter estimation.The book is divided into two parts. Part I (29 pages) reviews the literature for quantitative measures of seismicity and for earthquake recurrence models, and describes previous uses of the computer to determine seismicity parameters. The literature reviewed is mainly that of the 1960s, with prevalence of Russian and European titles. This part of the book may retain some interest for the historical perspective it gives on the subject.

  1. Monitoring gas reservoirs by seismic interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoli, Francesco; Cesca, Simone; Sens-Schoenfelder, Christoph; Priolo, Enrico

    2014-05-01

    Ambient seismic noise can be used to image spatial anomalies in the subsurface, without the need of recordings from seismic sources, such as earthquakes or explosions. Furthermore, the temporal variation of ambient seismic noise's can be used to infer temporal changes of the seismic velocities in the investigated medium. Such temporal variations can reflect changes of several physical properties/conditions in the medium. For example, they may be consequence of stress changes, variation of hydrogeological parameters, pore pressure and saturation changes due to fluid injection or extraction. Passive image interferometry allows to continuously monitor small temporal changes of seismic velocities in the subsurface, making it a suitable tool to monitor time-variant systems such as oil and gas reservoirs or volcanic environments. The technique does not require recordings from seismic sources in the classical sense, but is based on the processing of noise records. Moreover, it requires only data from one or two seismic stations, their locations constraining the sampled target area. Here we apply passive image interferometry to monitor a gas storage reservoir in northern Italy. The Collalto field (Northern Italy) is a depleted gas reservoir located at 1500 m depth, now used as a gas storage facility. The reservoir experience a significant temporal variation in the amount of stored gas: the injection phases mainly occur in the summer, while the extraction take place mostly in winter. In order to monitor induced seismicity related to gas storage operations, a seismic network (the Collalto Seismic Network) has been deployed in 2011. The Collalto Seismic Network is composed by 10 broadband stations, deployed within an area of about 20 km x 20 km, and provides high-quality continuous data since January 1st, 2012. In this work we present preliminary results from ambient noise interferometry using a two-months sample of continuous seismic data, i.e. from October 1st, 2012, to the

  2. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    A natural seismicity of Kuznetsk Basin is confined in the main to mountain frame of Kuznetsk hollow. In this paper materials of experimental work with local station networks within sediment basin are presented. Two types of seismicity display within Kuznetsk hollow have been understood: first, man-caused seismic processes, confined to mine working and concentrated on depths up to one and a half of km; secondly, seismic activations on depths of 2-56 km, not coordinated in plan with coal mines. Every of studied seismic activations consists of large quantity of earthquakes of small powers (Ms=1-3). From one to first tens of earthquakes were recorded in a day. The earthquakes near mine working shift in space along with mine working, and seismic process become stronger at the instant a coal-plough machine is operated, and slacken at the instant the preventive works are executed. The seismic processes near three lavas in Kuznetsk Basin have been studied in detail. Uplift is the most typical focal mechanism. Activated zone near mine working reach in diameter 1-1,5 km. Seismic activations not linked with mine working testify that the subsoil of Kuznetsk hollow remain in stress state in whole. The most probable causes of man-caused action on hollow are processes, coupled with change of physical state of rocks at loss of methane from large volume or change by mine working of rock watering in large volume. In this case condensed rocks, lost gas and water, can press out upwards, realizing the reverse fault mechanism of earthquakes. A combination of stress state of hollow with man-caused action at deep mining may account for incipient activations in Kuznetsk Basin. Today earthquakes happen mainly under mine workings, though damages of workings themselves do not happen, but intensive shaking on surface calls for intent study of so dangerous phenomena. In 2009 replicates of the experiment on research of seismic activations in area of before investigated lavas have been conducted

  3. Assessment of seismic margin calculation methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, R.P.; Murray, R.C.; Ravindra, M.K.; Reed, J.W.; Stevenson, J.D.

    1989-03-01

    Seismic margin review of nuclear power plants requires that the High Confidence of Low Probability of Failure (HCLPF) capacity be calculated for certain components. The candidate methods for calculating the HCLPF capacity as recommended by the Expert Panel on Quantification of Seismic Margins are the Conservative Deterministic Failure Margin (CDFM) method and the Fragility Analysis (FA) method. The present study evaluated these two methods using some representative components in order to provide further guidance in conducting seismic margin reviews. It is concluded that either of the two methods could be used for calculating HCLPF capacities. 21 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Seismic reflection imaging at a Shallow Site

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, P.; Rector, J.; Bainer, R.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of our studies was to determine the best seismic method to image these sediments, between the water table at 3 m depth to the basement at 35 m depth. Good cross-correlation between well logs and the seismic data was also desirable, and would facilitate the tracking of known lithological units away from the wells. For instance, known aquifer control boundaries may then be mapped out over the boundaries, and may be used in a joint inversion with reflectivity data and other non-seismic geophysical data to produce a 3-D image containing quantitative physical properties of the target area.

  5. 2008 United States National Seismic Hazard Maps

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; and others

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey recently updated the National Seismic Hazard Maps by incorporating new seismic, geologic, and geodetic information on earthquake rates and associated ground shaking. The 2008 versions supersede those released in 1996 and 2002. These maps are the basis for seismic design provisions of building codes, insurance rate structures, earthquake loss studies, retrofit priorities, and land-use planning. Their use in design of buildings, bridges, highways, and critical infrastructure allows structures to better withstand earthquake shaking, saving lives and reducing disruption to critical activities following a damaging event. The maps also help engineers avoid costs from over-design for unlikely levels of ground motion.

  6. Seismic Retrofit for Electric Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Natalia; Nozick, Linda K.; Dobson, Ian; Xu, Ningxiong; Jones, Dean A.

    2015-05-01

    Our paper develops a two-stage stochastic program and solution procedure to optimize the selection of seismic retrofit strategies to increase the resilience of electric power systems against earthquake hazards. The model explicitly considers the range of earthquake events that are possible and, for each, an approximation of the distribution of damage experienced. Furthermore, this is important because electric power systems are spatially distributed and so their performance is driven by the distribution of component damage. We also test this solution procedure against the nonlinear integer solver in LINGO 13 and apply the formulation and solution strategy to the Eastern Interconnection, where seismic hazard stems from the New Madrid seismic zone.

  7. Frictional melt and seismic slip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, S.; di Toro, G.; Hirose, T.; Shimamoto, T.

    2008-01-01

    Frictional melt is implied in a variety of processes such as seismic slip, ice skating, and meteorite combustion. A steady state can be reached when melt is continuously produced and extruded from the sliding interface, as shown recently in a number of laboratory rock friction experiments. A thin, low-viscosity, high-temperature melt layer is formed resulting in low shear resistance. A theoretical solution describing the coupling of shear heating, thermal diffusion, and extrusion is obtained, without imposing a priori the melt thickness. The steady state shear traction can be approximated at high slip rates by the theoretical form τss = σn1/4 (A/?) ? under a normal stress σn, slip rate V, radius of contact area R (A is a dimensional normalizing factor and W is a characteristic rate). Although the model offers a rather simplified view of a complex process, the predictions are compatible with experimental observations. In particular, we consider laboratory simulations of seismic slip on earthquake faults. A series of high-velocity rotary shear experiments on rocks, performed for σn in the range 1-20 MPa and slip rates in the range 0.5-2 m s-1, is confronted to the theoretical model. The behavior is reasonably well reproduced, though the effect of radiation loss taking place in the experiment somewhat alters the data. The scaling of friction with σn, R, and V in the presence of melt suggests that extrapolation of laboratory measures to real Earth is a highly nonlinear, nontrivial exercise.

  8. Hierarchical model for distributed seismicity.

    PubMed

    Tejedor, Alejandro; Gómez, Javier B; Pacheco, Amalio F

    2010-07-01

    A cellular automata model for the interaction between seismic faults in an extended region is presented. Faults are represented by boxes formed by a different number of sites and located in the nodes of a fractal tree. Both the distribution of box sizes and the interaction between them is assumed to be hierarchical. Load particles are randomly added to the system, simulating the action of external tectonic forces. These particles fill the sites of the boxes progressively. When a box is full it topples, some of the particles are redistributed to other boxes and some of them are lost. A box relaxation simulates the occurrence of an earthquake in the region. The particle redistributions mostly occur upwards (to larger faults) and downwards (to smaller faults) in the hierarchy producing new relaxations. A simple and efficient bookkeeping of the information allows the running of systems with more than fifty million faults. This model is consistent with the definition of magnitude, i.e., earthquakes of magnitude m take place in boxes with a number of sites ten times bigger than those boxes responsible for earthquakes with a magnitude m-1 which are placed in the immediate lower level of the hierarchy. The three parameters of the model have a geometrical nature: the height or number of levels of the fractal tree, the coordination of the tree and the ratio of areas between boxes in two consecutive levels. Besides reproducing several seismicity properties and regularities, this model is used to test the performance of some precursory patterns. PMID:20866700

  9. SeismicCanvas: Interactive software for accessing and analyzing seismic waveform data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, G. C.

    2011-12-01

    SeismicCavas, a cross-platform, graphically interactive application for accessing and analyzing waveform data is presented. Unlike command-line driven packages like SAC and MatSeis, SeismicCanvas adopts a graphically interactive interface to minimize the learning curve for classroom and laboratory application. The menu structure is patterned after common desktop word processing and spreadsheet applications. Direct graphical interaction with traces adopts a "select, then operate" paradigm used in familiar desktop graphics packages. Viewing options include arbitrary arrangement of traces, seismic sections, spectra and spectrograms. Operations include stacking, filtering, windowing and tapering. Interactive picking and measurement of times and amplitudes and WYSIWYG printing are implemented. SeismicCanvas can import data from local files, or through the new web services interface of the IRIS Data Management System. We invite feedback including suggestions for changes to the user interface or additional capabilities that will allow SeismicCanvas to support classroom and laboratory use of digital seismic data.

  10. Seismic-while-drilling data processing with seismic interferometry in the Daqing Oilfield experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongtao 1Huang, Weichuan 24Li, Yuquan

    2014-03-01

    Seismic interferometry was used to process the data collected with seismic-while-drilling (SWD) experiments at the Daqing Oilfield. The experiments simultaneously recorded the data at the drilling stem and on the ground. After conducting the frequency and the energy property analysis, the data was processed using the correlation and deconvolution method. Seismic data was then obtained from excitation of the drill bit. The result maps show that the deconvolution method can suppress the source effects and enhance the resolution of the profile, and that the vertical stacks enhance the seismic response of the subsurface. The interferometry process after band-filtering can obtain maps with very high resolution. Seismic interferometry by deconvolution shows great advantages based on the results of this experimental data. The method can also be applied to the SWD data and the ambient seismic data to obtain better processing results.

  11. Evaluation of induced seismicity forecast models in the Induced Seismicity Test Bench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Király, Eszter; Gischig, Valentin; Zechar, Jeremy; Doetsch, Joseph; Karvounis, Dimitrios; Wiemer, Stefan

    2016-04-01

    Induced earthquakes often accompany fluid injection, and the seismic hazard they pose threatens various underground engineering projects. Models to monitor and control induced seismic hazard with traffic light systems should be probabilistic, forward-looking, and updated as new data arrive. Here, we propose an Induced Seismicity Test Bench to test and rank such models. We apply the test bench to data from the Basel 2006 and Soultz-sous-Forêts 2004 geothermal stimulation projects, and we assess forecasts from two models that incorporate a different mix of physical understanding and stochastic representation of the induced sequences: Shapiro in Space (SiS) and Hydraulics and Seismics (HySei). SiS is based on three pillars: the seismicity rate is computed with help of the seismogenic index and a simple exponential decay of the seismicity; the magnitude distribution follows the Gutenberg-Richter relation; and seismicity is distributed in space based on smoothing seismicity during the learning period with 3D Gaussian kernels. The HySei model describes seismicity triggered by pressure diffusion with irreversible permeability enhancement. Our results show that neither model is fully superior to the other. HySei forecasts the seismicity rate well, but is only mediocre at forecasting the spatial distribution. On the other hand, SiS forecasts the spatial distribution well but not the seismicity rate. The shut-in phase is a difficult moment for both models in both reservoirs: the models tend to underpredict the seismicity rate around, and shortly after, shut-in. Ensemble models that combine HySei's rate forecast with SiS's spatial forecast outperform each individual model.

  12. Seismic Empirical Relations for the Tellian Atlas, North Africa, and their Usefulness for Seismic Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beghoul, Noureddine; Chatelain, Jean-Luc; Boughacha, Mohamed-Salah; Benhallou, Hadj; Dadou, Rida; Mezioud-Saïch, Amira

    2010-03-01

    Seismic events that occurred during the past half century in the Tellian Atlas, North Africa, are used to establish fundamental seismic empirical relations, tying earthquake magnitude to source parameters (seismic moment, fault plane area, maximal displacement along the fault, and fault plane length). Those empirical relations applied to the overall seismicity from 1716 to present are used to transform the magnitude (or intensity) versus time distribution into (1) cumulative seismic moment versus time, and (2) cumulative displacements versus time. Both of those parameters as well as the computed seismic moment rate, the strain rate along the Tellian Atlas strike, and various other geological observations are consistent with the existence, in the Tellian Atlas, of three distinct active tectonic blocks. These blocks are seismically decoupled from each other, thus allowing consideration of the seismicity as occurring in three different distinct seismotectonic blocks. The cumulative displacement versus time from 1900 to present for each of these tectonic blocks presents a remarkable pattern of recurrence time intervals and precursors associated with major earthquakes. Indeed, most major earthquakes that occurred in these three blocks might have been predicted in time. The Tellian Atlas historical seismicity from the year 881 to the present more substantially confirms these observations, in particular for the western block of the Tellian Atlas. Theoretical determination of recurrence time intervals for the Tellian Atlas large earthquakes using Molnar and Kostrov formalisms is also consistent with these observations. Substantial observations support the fact that the western and central Tellian Atlas are currently at very high seismic risk, in particular the central part. Indeed, most of the accumulated seismic energy in the central Tellian Atlas crust has yet to be released, despite the occurrence of the recent destructive May 2003 Boumerdes earthquake ( M w = 6.8). The

  13. A prediction of mars seismicity from surface faulting

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golombek, M.P.; Banerdt, W.B.; Tanaka, K.L.; Tralli, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The shallow seismicity of Mars has been estimated by measurement of the total slip on faults visible on the surface of the planet throughout geologic time. Seismicity was calibrated with estimates based on surface structures on the moon and measured lunar seismicity that includes the entire seismogenic lithosphere. Results indicate that Mars is seismically active today, with a sufficient number of detectable marsquakes to allow seismic investigations of its interior.

  14. Features of seismicity of the Euro-Arctic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogozhin, E. A.; Antonovskaya, G. N.; Kapustian, N. K.; Fedorenko, I. V.

    2016-04-01

    New results from seismic monitoring in the Euro-Arctic region, including the seismicity of Gakkel Ridge and the Barents-Kara Sea shelf, are presented. The data used were obtained from the Arkhan-gelsk seismic network. The role of island-based seismic stations, in particular, those in Franz Josef Land, in the monitoring network is discussed. The possibility of specifying the nature of seismicity by waveform spectral-temporal analysis, even in the case of a single station, is considered.

  15. Seismic Pulses Derivation from the Study of Source Signature Characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Rahman, Syed Mustafizur; Nawawi, M. N. Mohd.; Saad, Rosli

    2010-07-07

    This paper deals with a deterministic technique for the derivation of seismic pulses by the study of source characteristics. The spectral characteristics of the directly or the nearest detected seismic signal is analyzed and considered as the principle source signature. Using this signature seismic pulses are derived with accurate time position in the seismic traces. The technique is applied on both synthetic and field refraction seismic traces. In both cases it has estimated that the accurate time shifts along with amplitude coefficients.

  16. Seismic transducer measures small horizontal displacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenwood, T. L.

    1965-01-01

    Pendular seismic transducer mounted on base plate measures small horizontal displacements of structures subjected to vibration where no fixed reference point is available. Enclosure of transducer in transparent plastic case prevents air currents from disturbing the pendulum balance.

  17. THK: CLB Crossed Linear Bearing Seismic Isolators

    SciTech Connect

    Toniolo, Roberto

    2008-07-08

    This text highlights the new seismic isolation technology called CLB (Crossed Linear Bearing), which is made of linear guides with recirculating steel ball technology. It describes specifications and building characteristics, provides examples of seismic isolation and application functionalities and shows experimental data. Since 1994, the constant commitment by Japan to develop diversified anti-seismic systems based on the precise needs of the structures to protect and the areas where they were built has led to the creation of important synergy between the research institutions of leading Japanese companies and THK's Centre for Research and Development. Their goal has been to develop new technology and solutions to allow seismic isolation to be effective in the following cases:.

  18. Q analysis on reflection seismic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanghua

    2004-09-01

    Q analysis refers to the procedure for estimating Q directly from a reflection seismic trace. Conventional Q analysis method compares two seismic wavelets selected from different depth (or time) levels, but picking ``clean'' wavelets without interferences from other wavelet and noise from a reflection seismic trace is really a problem. Therefore, instead of analysing individual wavelets, I perform Q analysis using the Gabor transform spectrum which reveals the frequency content changing with time in a seismic trace. I propose two Q analysis methods based on the attenuation function and compensation function, respectively, each of which may produce a series of average values of Q-1 (inverse Q), averaging between the recording surface (or the water bottom) and the subsurface time samples. But the latter is much more stable than the former one. I then calculate the interval or layered values of Q-1 by a constrained linear inversion, which produces a stable estimation of the interval-Q series.

  19. Differential equation-based seismic data filtering

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jianchao; Larner, K.

    1992-05-01

    Suppressing noise and enhancing useful seismic signal by filtering is one of the important tasks of seismic data processing. conventional filtering methods are implemented through either the convolution operation or various mathematical transforms. In this paper, we describe a methodology for studying and implementing filters, which, unlike those conventional filtering methods, is based on solving differential equations in the time and space domain. We call this kind of filtering differential equation-based filtering (DEBF). DEBF does not require that seismic data be stationary, so filtering parameters can vary with every time and space point. Also, in 2-D and 3-D, DEBF has higher computational efficiency than do conventional multiple-trace filtering methods. Examples with synthetic and field seismic data show the DEBF methods presented here to be efficient and effective.

  20. Seismic waveform viewer, processor and calculator

    2015-02-15

    SWIFT is a computer code that is designed to do research level signal analysis on seismic waveforms, including visualization, filtering and measurement. LLNL is using this code, amplitude and global tomography efforts.

  1. Evaluation of seismic interactions: Guidelines and application

    SciTech Connect

    Antaki, G.A.; Flanders, H.E.; Thomas, B.D.

    1992-06-01

    It is readily recognized that a significant source of damage from earthquakes is due to interactions between structures and components, such as the fall of a masonry wall or a ceiling on equipment, or the impact of a valve on a wall or structure. There are also other significant, while less intuitively evident, sources of seismic interaction damage, such as flooding, spraying, fires, or electrical shorts. The understanding of all these sources of interaction damage and their evaluation in the field can easily turn into a significant effort. Yet, it is the opinion of the Senior Seismic Review and Advisory Panel (SSRAP) that the evaluation of interactions, in a commercial nuclear power plant, should account for about 10 to 20% of the seismic ``walkdown`` devoted to equipment seismic qualification. To this end, SSRAP recognizes the need for ``exercising of considerable judgement and experience -- so that the program remains cost effective.``

  2. Quarterly seismic monitoring report 96B

    SciTech Connect

    Reidel, S.P.

    1996-06-12

    This report summarizes the location, magnitude, and other pertinent information on earthquakes recorded on and near the Hanford Site by Westinghouse Seismic Monitoring during the period encompassing January 1, 1996 to March 31, 1996.

  3. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    PubMed Central

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-01-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context. PMID:27283587

  4. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge.

    PubMed

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V

    2016-01-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a "seismic rainbow" effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context. PMID:27283587

  5. A seismic metamaterial: The resonant metawedge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colombi, Andrea; Colquitt, Daniel; Roux, Philippe; Guenneau, Sebastien; Craster, Richard V.

    2016-06-01

    Critical concepts from three different fields, elasticity, plasmonics and metamaterials, are brought together to design a metasurface at the geophysical scale, the resonant metawedge, to control seismic Rayleigh waves. Made of spatially graded vertical subwavelength resonators on an elastic substrate, the metawedge can either mode convert incident surface Rayleigh waves into bulk elastic shear waves or reflect the Rayleigh waves creating a “seismic rainbow” effect analogous to the optical rainbow for electromagnetic metasurfaces. Time-domain spectral element simulations demonstrate the broadband efficacy of the metawedge in mode conversion while an analytical model is developed to accurately describe and predict the seismic rainbow effect; allowing the metawedge to be designed without the need for extensive parametric studies and simulations. The efficiency of the resonant metawedge shows that large-scale mechanical metamaterials are feasible, will have application, and that the time is ripe for considering many optical devices in the seismic and geophysical context.

  6. "Interactive Seismics", Aki & Richards, Chapter 16

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leary, P. C.; Walter, L.; Crampin, S.

    2004-12-01

    The defining physical character of cold brittle crustal rock hosting geofluid reservoirs and earthquake instabilities is '1/f-noise' spatially-correlated fluctuations in fracture-density. Evidence for 1/f-noise fracture-density fluctuations is manifest in power-law-scaling well-log spectra from <1/km to >1/cm, spatial correlation of well-core porosity and log(permeability), and the Gutenberg-Richter relation. Unlike spatially-uncorrelated randomness, power-law-scaling spatially-correlated randomness provides no reliable spatio-predictive relation between a sample and the whole. In particular, no point-measurement sequence in a crustal reservoir -- static well-log, temporal pressure-log or strain-log, or earthquake locations - accurately samples a reservoir state. Rather, useful knowledge of a reservoir state requires broadband observation of the whole reservoir as it is perturbed. Such observations could be called 'interactive seismics'. 'Interactive seismics' reservoir monitoring is becoming routine in the oil and gas industry, as embedded sensors record time-lapse source signals to determine where water replaces produced oil and gas. Interactive seismics is feasible with CO2 injection, and may become feasible for active fault zones. Interactive seismics benefits from stable downhole sources and sensors. Imperatives for better hydrocarbon reservoir observation are providing compact, robust, stable seismic sources and vector-sensors, and the means to deploy them downhole. Extensive crosswell seismic data, including monitored travel-times in a tectonically active crust, establish useful performance levels for downhole seismic sourcing at wavelengths 5-50m: crosswell transmission scale ˜1km, single-well back-scattering scale ˜200m, source wavelet stability \\delta S/S ˜ 0.03%, and travel-time resolution \\delta\\tau/\\tau ˜ 0.03%. Using the attested downhole source parameters, we simulate interactive seismic observation of a 1/f-noise fracture volume undergoing

  7. Induced Seismicity Potential of Energy Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitzman, Murray

    2013-03-01

    Earthquakes attributable to human activities-``induced seismic events''-have received heightened public attention in the United States over the past several years. Upon request from the U.S. Congress and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council was asked to assemble a committee of experts to examine the scale, scope, and consequences of seismicity induced during fluid injection and withdrawal associated with geothermal energy development, oil and gas development, and carbon capture and storage (CCS). The committee's report, publicly released in June 2012, indicates that induced seismicity associated with fluid injection or withdrawal is caused in most cases by change in pore fluid pressure and/or change in stress in the subsurface in the presence of faults with specific properties and orientations and a critical state of stress in the rocks. The factor that appears to have the most direct consequence in regard to induced seismicity is the net fluid balance (total balance of fluid introduced into or removed from the subsurface). Energy technology projects that are designed to maintain a balance between the amount of fluid being injected and withdrawn, such as most oil and gas development projects, appear to produce fewer seismic events than projects that do not maintain fluid balance. Major findings from the study include: (1) as presently implemented, the process of hydraulic fracturing for shale gas recovery does not pose a high risk for inducing felt seismic events; (2) injection for disposal of waste water derived from energy technologies does pose some risk for induced seismicity, but very few events have been documented over the past several decades relative to the large number of disposal wells in operation; and (3) CCS, due to the large net volumes of injected fluids suggested for future large-scale carbon storage projects, may have potential for inducing larger seismic events.

  8. Seismic analysis of piping with nonlinear supports

    SciTech Connect

    Barta, D.A.; Huang, S.N.; Severud, L.K.

    1980-01-01

    The modeling and results of nonlinear time-history seismic analyses for three sizes of pipelines restrained by mechanical snubbes are presented. Numerous parametric analyses were conducted to obtain sensitivity information which identifies relative importance of the model and analysis ingredients. Special considerations for modeling the pipe clamps and the mechanical snubbers based on experimental characterization data are discussed. Comparisions are also given of seismic responses, loads and pipe stresses predicted by standard response spectra methods and the nonlinear time-history methods.

  9. Fluid driven torsional dipole seismic source

    DOEpatents

    Hardee, Harry C.

    1991-01-01

    A compressible fluid powered oscillating downhole seismic source device capable of periodically generating uncontaminated horizontally-propagated, shear waves is provided. A compressible fluid generated oscillation is created within the device which imparts an oscillation to a housing when the device is installed in a housing such as the cylinder off an existing downhole tool, thereby a torsional seismic source is established. Horizontal waves are transferred to the surrounding bore hole medium through downhole clamping.

  10. Introduction about Seismic array Laboratory, IGGCAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Y.; Xu, W.

    2007-12-01

    Seismic Array Laboratory (SAL, IGGCAS) was built up in 2000, whose initiative was to study the earth structures through portable seismic observation and it has been operating for about 7 years till now. Totally, the lab have 272 sets of seismographs, including 152 CMG-3ESP seismometers, 18 CMG-3T seismometers, 2 STS-2 seismometers, 100 domestic seismometers, 172 Reftek recording system and 100 domestic recording system, respectively. The seismographs in IGGCAS are only used for temporary seismic observations and are open to users who aim at seismic observation based research and, in principle, are able to afford instrument rental. For the past seven years, more than 10 scientific research groups have used these seismographs and set up more than 470 portable stations in Chinese mainland. Up to now, IGGCAS has carried out 15 temporary seismic station arrays which are mainly distributed in North and Southwest China. The data collected at these seismic stations are currently managed by the SAL of IGGCAS and some regulations have been set down for data usage. Users who implement seismic observations with the seismographs in IGGCAS have three years priority to use the corresponding seismic data after field operation. Then, those data should be released by the SAL of IGGCAS. Now, parts of the data have been open to public through the website http://www.seislab.cn/data, and currently, only some event data in SAC format are released due to the lack of high-level technicians dealing with data pre- processing and quality control. In the near future, the lab will release more data in multiple formats to facilitate researchers in relative area via internet connection.

  11. Active Seismic Monitoring for Earthquake Forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artamonova, M.; Korneev, V.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquake prediction remains high priority issue for disaster prevention. Study of the M6.0 2004 Parkfield and M7.0 1989 Loma Prieta strike-slip earthquakes on the San Andreas Fault (SAF) reveal seismicity peaks in the surrounding crust several months prior to the main events. Earthquakes directly within the SAF zone were intentionally excluded from the analysis because they manifest stress-release processes rather than stress accumulation. The observed increase in seismicity is interpreted as a signature of the increasing stress level in the surrounding crust, while the peak that occurs several months prior to the main event and the subsequent decrease in seismicity are attributed to damage-induced softening processes. Furthermore, in both cases there is a distinctive zone of low seismic activity that surrounds the epicentral region in the pre-event period. The increase of seismicity in the crust surrounding a potential future event and the development of a low-seismicity epicentral zone can be regarded as promising precursory information that could help signal the arrival of large earthquakes. We modeled the seismicity precursor phenomena using finite-element 2D model capable to replicate non-linear breaking of elastic rock. The distinctive seismicity peak was observed for a model simulating SAF properties at Park field. Such peaks are likely to be a good mid-term precursors allowing to declare alerts several months before earthquakes and pointing on their epicenter regions. The short tern alerts require use of active sources and their proper placement in order to monitor the developments of rock softening processes.

  12. Seismic Safety Of Simple Masonry Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Guadagnuolo, Mariateresa; Faella, Giuseppe

    2008-07-08

    Several masonry buildings comply with the rules for simple buildings provided by seismic codes. For these buildings explicit safety verifications are not compulsory if specific code rules are fulfilled. In fact it is assumed that their fulfilment ensures a suitable seismic behaviour of buildings and thus adequate safety under earthquakes. Italian and European seismic codes differ in the requirements for simple masonry buildings, mostly concerning the building typology, the building geometry and the acceleration at site. Obviously, a wide percentage of buildings assumed simple by codes should satisfy the numerical safety verification, so that no confusion and uncertainty have to be given rise to designers who must use the codes. This paper aims at evaluating the seismic response of some simple unreinforced masonry buildings that comply with the provisions of the new Italian seismic code. Two-story buildings, having different geometry, are analysed and results from nonlinear static analyses performed by varying the acceleration at site are presented and discussed. Indications on the congruence between code rules and results of numerical analyses performed according to the code itself are supplied and, in this context, the obtained result can provide a contribution for improving the seismic code requirements.

  13. Refined seismic stratigraphy in prograding carbonates

    SciTech Connect

    Pomar, L. )

    1991-03-01

    Complete exposure of the upper Miocene Reef Complex in the sea cliffs of Mallorca (Spain) allows for a more refined interpretation of seismic lines with similar progradational patterns. A 6 km long high-resolution cross section in the direction of reef progradation displays four hierarchical orders of accretional units. Although all these units are of higher order, they all exhibit similar characteristics as a third order depositional sequence and can likewise be interpreted as the result of high order sea-level cycles. The accretional units are composed of lagoonal horizontal beds, reefal sigmoids and gently dipping slope deposits. They are bounded by erosion surfaces at the top and basinwards by their correlative conformities. These architectural patterns are similar to progradational sequences seen on seismic lines. On seismic lines, the progradational pattern often shows the following geometrical details: (1) discontinuous climbing high-energy reflectors, (2) truncation of clinoforms by these high-energy reflectors with seaward dips, (3) transparent areas intercalated between clinoforms. Based on facies distribution in the outcrops of Mallorca the high-energy reflectors are interpreted as sectors where the erosion surfaces truncated the reef wall and are overlain by lagoonal sediments deposited during the following sealevel rise. The more transparent zones seem to correspond with areas of superposition of undifferentiated lagoonal beds. Offlapping geometries can also be detected in highest quality seismic lines. The comparison between seismic and outcrop data provides a more accurate prediction of lithologies, facies distribution, and reservoir properties on seismic profiles.

  14. Experimental seismic investigations for porous media characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senechal, P.; Bordes, C.; Barrière, J.; Garambois, S.; Brito, D.

    2009-12-01

    During decades, seismic investigations were based on the hypothesis of elastic media which is generally appropriate for geological imaging. Nevertheless, the necessity to improve non destructive geophysical methods for reservoir characterization implies to take into account the role of pore fluids for the seismic propagation. On the one hand, the water saturation modifies porous media bulk moduli and density and implies strong phase velocity variations. On the other hand, mechanical couplings between solid and fluid phases which can have inertial or viscous origin, generates attenuation and dispersion phenomena. In order to study these phenomena, we develop laboratory experiments for the measurement of seismic propagation in controlled porous media. We choose to work in a broad band [100-10 000 Hz] which includes Biot's frequency by using different seismic source (launched ball, pendulum, piezoelectric spherical source). These investigations are performed on various media from suspension (fresh concrete) to continuous framework (sand). Seismic propagation is recorded by accelerometers, discussed in term of frequency content, velocity analyses, attenuation and dispersion and compared to theoretical models. Moreover, seismoelectric measurements are used to study fluid displacements (filtration) associated to the seismic propagation.

  15. Seismic monitoring of the Yucca Mountain facility

    SciTech Connect

    Garbin, H.D.; Herrington, P.B.; Kromer, R.P.

    1997-08-01

    Questions have arisen regarding the applicability of seismic sensors to detect mining (re-entry) with a tunnel boring machine (TBM). Unlike cut and blast techniques of mining which produce impulsive seismic signals, the TBM produces seismic signals which are of long duration. (There are well established techniques available for detecting and locating the sources of the impulsive signals.) The Yucca Mountain repository offered an opportunity to perform field evaluations of the capabilities of seismic sensors because during much of 1996, mining there was progressing with the use of a TBM. During the mining of the repository`s southern branch, an effort was designed to evaluate whether the TBM could be detected, identified and located using seismic sensors. Three data acquisition stations were established in the Yucca Mountain area to monitor the TBM activity. A ratio of short term average to long term average algorithm was developed for use in signal detection based on the characteristics shown in the time series. For location of the source of detected signals, FK analysis was used on the array data to estimate back azimuths. The back azimuth from the 3 component system was estimated from the horizontal components. Unique features in the timing of the seismic signal were used to identify the source as the TBM.

  16. Experiments on Seismic Metamaterials: Molding Surface Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brûlé, S.; Javelaud, E. H.; Enoch, S.; Guenneau, S.

    2014-04-01

    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations.

  17. Seismic full waveform inversion from compressive measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez, Ana; Arce, Gonzalo R.

    2015-05-01

    Traditional methods in seismic acquisition require sources and geophones that are uniformly located along a spatial line, using the Nyquist sampling rate. Depending on the area to be explored, it can be necessary to use seismic surveys with large offsets, or decrease the separation between adjacent geophones to improve the resolution, which generates very high volumes of data. It makes the exploration process more difficult and particularly expensive. This work presents the reconstruction of a compressive set of seismic traces acquired using the compressive sensing paradigm where the pair of sources and geophones are randomly located along the spatial line. The recovery of the wavefield from compressive measurements is feasible due to the capabilities of Curvelets on representing wave propagators with only a small set of coefficients. The method first uses the compressive samples to find a sparse vector representation of each pixel in a 2-D Curvelet dictionary. The sparse vector representation is estimated by solving a sparsity constrained optimization problem using the Gradient Projection for Sparse Reconstruction (GPSR) method. The estimated vector is then used to compute the seismic velocity profiles via acoustic Full Waveform Inversion (FWI). Simulations of the reconstructed image gathers and the resulting seismic velocity profiles illustrate the performance of the method. An improvement in the resulting images is obtained in comparison with traditional F-K filtering used in seismic data processing when traces are missing.

  18. Martian seismicity through time from surface faulting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golombek, M. P.; Tanaka, Kenneth L.; Banerdt, W. B.; Tralli, D.

    1991-01-01

    An objective of future Mars missions involves emplacing a seismic network on Mars to determine the internal structure of the planet. An argument based on the relative geologic histories of the terrestrial planets suggests that Mars should be seismically more active than the Moon, but less active than the Earth. The seismicity is estimated which is expected on Mars through time from slip on faults visible on the planets surface. These estimates of martian seismicity must be considered a lower limit as only structures produced by shear faulting visible at the surface today are included (i.e., no provision is made for buried structures or non-shear structures); in addition, the estimate does not include seismic events that do not produce surface displacement (e.g., activity associated with hidden faults, deep lithospheric processes or volcanism) or events produced by tidal triggering or meteorite impacts. Calibration of these estimates suggests that Mars may be many times more seismically active than the Moon.

  19. Experiments on seismic metamaterials: molding surface waves.

    PubMed

    Brûlé, S; Javelaud, E H; Enoch, S; Guenneau, S

    2014-04-01

    Materials engineered at the micro- and nanometer scales have had a tremendous and lasting impact in photonics and phononics. At much larger scales, natural soils civil engineered at decimeter to meter scales may interact with seismic waves when the global properties of the medium are modified, or alternatively thanks to a seismic metamaterial constituted of a mesh of vertical empty inclusions bored in the initial soil. Here, we show the experimental results of a seismic test carried out using seismic waves generated by a monochromatic vibrocompaction probe. Measurements of the particles' velocities show a modification of the seismic energy distribution in the presence of the metamaterial in agreement with numerical simulations using an approximate plate model. For complex natural materials such as soils, this large-scale experiment was needed to show the practical feasibility of seismic metamaterials and to stress their importance for applications in civil engineering. We anticipate this experiment to be a starting point for smart devices for anthropic and natural vibrations. PMID:24745420

  20. Field site evaluation for seismic mine detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, James S.; Larson, Gregg D.; Rogers, Peter H.; Scott, Waymond R., Jr.; McCall, George S., II

    2002-11-01

    A system has been developed that uses audio-frequency surface seismic waves for the detection and imaging of buried landmines. The system is based on the measurement of seismic displacements immediately above buried mines using noncontacting vibrometers that interrogate the surface motion with either radar or ultrasonic signals. In laboratory tests and limited field tests the system has demonstrated the ability to detect a variety of inert antipersonnel and antitank mines with background contrast in excess of 20 dB. Current work on the system is focused on the transition from the laboratory into the field. To facilitate this, a series of experiments has been undertaken to measure the characteristics of several field test sites. The tradeoff between image contrast and scanning speed is of primary concern in evaluating the features of these sites. The field experiments have investigated the nature of ambient seismic noise, input impedance at the seismic source (a ground contacting shaker), modal content of the seismic interrogation signal, and the nature of the nonlinearities in the soil. Observed nonlinear phenomena have included harmonic generation, phase speed slowing, dispersion and spall. Although interesting, the differences between the field sites and the laboratory model do not appear to pose problems for seismic mine detection.

  1. The Berkeley Digital Seismic Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanowicz, B.; Dreger, D.; Neuhauser, D.; Karavas, W.; Hellweg, M.; Uhrhammer, R.; Lombard, P.; Friday, J.; Lellinger, R.; Gardner, J.; McKenzie, M. R.; Bresloff, C.

    2007-05-01

    Since it began monitoring earthquakes in northern California 120 years ago, the Berkeley Seismological Laboratory (BSL) has been striving to produce the highest quality and most complete seismic data possible in the most modern way. This goal has influenced choices in instrumentation, installation and telemetry, as well as the investment in expertise and manpower. Since the transition to broadband (BB) instrumentation in the mid- 1980s and to a fully digitally telemetered network in the early 1990s, we have continued these efforts. Each of our 25 BB installations includes three component BB seismometers (STS-1s or STS-2) and digital accelerometers to capture the full range of ground motion from distant teleseisms to large, nearby earthquakes (almost 250 dB). The ground motion is recorded on-site by 24 bit dataloggers. Additional environmental parameters, such as temperature and pressure, are also monitored continuously. Many stations record also C-GPS data that is transmitted continuously to the BSL via shared real-time telemetry. The BDSN's first stations were installed in abandoned mines. In the last 15 years, we developed installations using buried shipping containers to reduce environmental noise and provide security and easy access to the equipment. Data are transmitted in real-time at several sampling rates to one or more processing centers, using frame relay, radio, microwave, and/or satellite. Each site has 7-30 days of onsite data storage to guard against data loss during telemetry outages. Each station is supplied with backup batteries to provide power for 3 days. The BDSN real-time data acquisition, earthquake analysis and archiving computers are housed in a building built to "emergency grade" seismic standards, with air conditioning and power backed up by a UPS and a large generator. Data latency and power are monitored by automated processes that alert staff via pager and email. Data completeness and timing quality are automatically assessed on a daily

  2. GSAC - Generic Seismic Application Computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, R. B.; Ammon, C. J.; Koper, K. D.

    2004-12-01

    With the success of the IRIS data management center, the use of large data sets in seismological research has become common. Such data sets, and especially the significantly larger data sets expected from EarthScope, present challenges for analysis with existing tools developed over the last 30 years. For much of the community, the primary format for data analysis is the Seismic Analysis Code (SAC) format developed by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Although somewhat restrictive in meta-data storage, the simplicity and stability of the format has established it as an important component of seismological research. Tools for working with SAC files fall into two categories - custom research quality processing codes and shared display - processing tools such as SAC2000, MatSeis,etc., which were developed primarily for the needs of individual seismic research groups. While the current graphics display and platform dependence of SAC2000 may be resolved if the source code is released, the code complexity and the lack of large-data set analysis or even introductory tutorials could preclude code improvements and development of expertise in its use. We believe that there is a place for new, especially open source, tools. The GSAC effort is an approach that focuses on ease of use, computational speed, transportability, rapid addition of new features and openness so that new and advanced students, researchers and instructors can quickly browse and process large data sets. We highlight several approaches toward data processing under this model. gsac - part of the Computer Programs in Seismology 3.30 distribution has much of the functionality of SAC2000 and works on UNIX/LINUX/MacOS-X/Windows (CYGWIN). This is completely programmed in C from scratch, is small, fast, and easy to maintain and extend. It is command line based and is easily included within shell processing scripts. PySAC is a set of Python functions that allow easy access to SAC files and enable efficient

  3. Acoustic and Seismic Modalities for Unattended Ground Sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Elbring, G.J.; Ladd, M.D.; McDonald, T.S.; Sleefe, G.E.

    1999-03-31

    In this paper, we have presented the relative advantages and complementary aspects of acoustic and seismic ground sensors. A detailed description of both acoustic and seismic ground sensing methods has been provided. Acoustic and seismic phenomenology including source mechanisms, propagation paths, attenuation, and sensing have been discussed in detail. The effects of seismo-acoustic and acousto-seismic interactions as well as recommendations for minimizing seismic/acoustic cross talk have been highlighted. We have shown representative acoustic and seismic ground sensor data to illustrate the advantages and complementary aspects of the two modalities. The data illustrate that seismic transducers often respond to acoustic excitation through acousto-seismic coupling. Based on these results, we discussed the implications of this phenomenology on the detection, identification, and localization objectives of unattended ground sensors. We have concluded with a methodology for selecting the preferred modality (acoustic and/or seismic) for a particular application.

  4. Final Report: Seismic Hazard Assessment at the PGDP

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhinmeng

    2007-06-01

    Selecting a level of seismic hazard at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant for policy considerations and engineering design is not an easy task because it not only depends on seismic hazard, but also on seismic risk and other related environmental, social, and economic issues. Seismic hazard is the main focus. There is no question that there are seismic hazards at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant because of its proximity to several known seismic zones, particularly the New Madrid Seismic Zone. The issues in estimating seismic hazard are (1) the methods being used and (2) difficulty in characterizing the uncertainties of seismic sources, earthquake occurrence frequencies, and ground-motion attenuation relationships. This report summarizes how input data were derived, which methodologies were used, and what the hazard estimates at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant are.

  5. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2014-01-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explored the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically searched for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, and allowed variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles derived from the Apollo seismic data through travel time inversion vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocity and density as a function of latitude, longitude, and depth within the

  6. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps to reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explore the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically search for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, allowing variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles previously derived from the Apollo seismic data through inversion of travel times vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocities and density as a function of latitude, longitude

  7. Astor Pass Seismic Surveys Preliminary Report

    SciTech Connect

    Louie, John; Pullammanappallil, Satish; Faulds, James; Eisses, Amy; Kell, Annie; Frary, Roxanna; Kent, Graham

    2011-08-05

    In collaboration with the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe (PLPT), the University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) and Optim re-processed, or collected and processed, over 24 miles of 2d seismic-reflection data near the northwest corner of Pyramid Lake, Nevada. The network of 2d land surveys achieved a near-3d density at the Astor Pass geothermal prospect that the PLPT drilled during Nov. 2010 to Feb. 2011. The Bureau of Indian Affairs funded additional seismic work around the Lake, and an extensive, detailed single-channel marine survey producing more than 300 miles of section, imaging more than 120 ft below the Lake bottom. Optim’s land data collection utilized multiple heavy vibrators and recorded over 200 channels live, providing a state-of-the-art reflection-refraction data set. After advanced seismic analysis including first-arrival velocity optimization and prestack depth migration, the 2d sections show clear fault-plane reflections, in some areas as deep as 4000 ft, tying to distinct terminations of the mostly volcanic stratigraphy. Some lines achieved velocity control to 3000 ft depth; all lines show reflections and terminations to 5000 ft depth. Three separate sets of normal faults appear in an initial interpretation of fault reflections and stratigraphic terminations, after loading the data into the OpendTect 3d seismic visualization system. Each preliminary fault set includes a continuous trace more than 3000 ft long, and a swarm of short fault strands. The three preliminary normal-fault sets strike northerly with westward dip, northwesterly with northeast dip, and easterly with north dip. An intersection of all three fault systems documented in the seismic sections at the end of Phase I helped to locate the APS-2 and APS-3 slimholes. The seismic sections do not show the faults connected to the Astor Pass tufa spire, suggesting that we have imaged mostly Tertiary-aged faults. We hypothesize that the Recent, active faults that produced the tufa through hotspring

  8. Ischia Island: Historical Seismicity and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlino, S.; Cubellis, E.; Iannuzzi, R.; Luongo, G.; Obrizzo, F.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic energy release in volcanic areas is a complex process and the island of Ischia provides a significant scenario of historical seismicity. This is characterized by the occurence of earthquakes with low energy and high intensity. Information on the seismicity of the island spans about eight centuries, starting from 1228. With regard to effects, the most recent earthquake of 1883 is extensively documented both in the literature and unpublished sources. The earthquake caused 2333 deaths and the destruction of the historical and environmental heritage of some areas of the island. The most severe damage occurred in Casamicciola. This event, which was the first great catastrophe after the unification of Italy in the 1860s (Imax = XI degree MCS), represents an important date in the prevention of natural disasters, in that it was after this earthquake that the first Seismic Safety Act in Italy was passed by which lower risk zones were identified for new settlements. Thanks to such detailed analysis, reliable modelling of the seismic source was also obtained. The historical data onwards makes it possible to identify the area of the epicenter of all known earthquakes as the northern slope of Monte Epomeo, while analysis of the effects of earthquakes and the geological structures allows us to evaluate the stress fields that generate the earthquakes. In a volcanic area, interpretation of the mechanisms of release and propagation of seismic energy is made even more complex as the stress field that acts at a regional level is compounded by that generated from migration of magmatic masses towards the surface, as well as the rheologic properties of the rocks dependent on the high geothermic gradient. Such structural and dynamic conditions make the island of Ischia a seismic area of considerable interest. It would appear necessary to evaluate the expected damage caused by a new event linked to the renewal of dynamics of the island, where high population density and the

  9. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, R. C.; Schmerr, N. C.

    2013-12-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps to reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increases with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefore well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. Previous joint inversions of the Apollo seismic data (seismic phase arrival times) and Clementine- or Lunar Prospector-derived gravity data (mass and moment of inertia) attempted to recover the subsurface structure of the Moon by focusing on hypothetical lunar compositions that explored the density/velocity relationship. These efforts typically searched for the best fitting thermodynamically calculated velocity/density model, and allowed variables like core size, velocity, and/or composition to vary freely. Seismic velocity profiles previously derived from the Apollo seismic data through inversion of travel times vary both in the depth of the crust and mantle layers, and the seismic velocities and densities assigned to those layers. The lunar mass and moment of inertia likewise only constrain gross variations in the density profile beyond that of a uniform density sphere. As a result, composition and structure models previously obtained by jointly inverting these data retain the original uncertainties inherent in the input data sets. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by the GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocities and density as a function of latitude

  10. Distinguishing induced seismicity from natural seismicity in Ohio: Demonstrating the utility of waveform template matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoumal, Robert J.; Brudzinski, Michael R.; Currie, Brian S.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the utility of multistation waveform cross correlation to help discern induced seismicity. Template matching was applied to all Ohio earthquakes cataloged since the arrival of nearby EarthScope TA stations in late 2010. Earthquakes that were within 5 km of fluid injection activities in regions that lacked previously documented seismicity were found to be swarmy. Moreover, the larger number of events produced by template matching for these swarmy sequences made it easier to establish more detailed temporal and spatial relationships between the seismicity and fluid injection activities, which is typically required for an earthquake to be considered induced. Study results detected three previously documented induced sequences (Youngstown, Poland Township, and Harrison County) and provided evidence that suggests two additional cases of induced seismicity (Belmont/Guernsey County and Washington County). Evidence for these cases suggested that unusual swarm-like behaviors in regions that lack previously documented seismicity can be used to help distinguish induced seismicity, complementing the traditional identification of an anthropogenic source spatially and temporally correlated with the seismicity. In support of this finding, we identified 17 additional cataloged earthquakes in regions of previously documented seismicity and away from disposal wells or hydraulic fracturing that returned very few template matches. The lack of swarminess helps to indicate that these events are most likely naturally occurring.

  11. A seismic hazard uncertainty analysis for the New Madrid seismic zone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cramer, C.H.

    2001-01-01

    A review of the scientific issues relevant to characterizing earthquake sources in the New Madrid seismic zone has led to the development of a logic tree of possible alternative parameters. A variability analysis, using Monte Carlo sampling of this consensus logic tree, is presented and discussed. The analysis shows that for 2%-exceedence-in-50-year hazard, the best-estimate seismic hazard map is similar to previously published seismic hazard maps for the area. For peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration at 0.2 and 1.0 s (0.2 and 1.0 s Sa), the coefficient of variation (COV) representing the knowledge-based uncertainty in seismic hazard can exceed 0.6 over the New Madrid seismic zone and diminishes to about 0.1 away from areas of seismic activity. Sensitivity analyses show that the largest contributor to PGA, 0.2 and 1.0 s Sa seismic hazard variability is the uncertainty in the location of future 1811-1812 New Madrid sized earthquakes. This is followed by the variability due to the choice of ground motion attenuation relation, the magnitude for the 1811-1812 New Madrid earthquakes, and the recurrence interval for M>6.5 events. Seismic hazard is not very sensitive to the variability in seismogenic width and length. Published by Elsevier Science B.V.

  12. MSNoise: a Python Package for Monitoring Seismic Velocity Changes using Ambient Seismic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecocq, T.; Caudron, C.; Brenguier, F.

    2013-12-01

    Earthquakes occur every day all around the world and are recorded by thousands of seismic stations. In between earthquakes, stations are recording "noise". In the last 10 years, the understanding of this noise and its potential usage have been increasing rapidly. The method, called "seismic interferometry", uses the principle that seismic waves travel between two recorders and are multiple-scattered in the medium. By cross-correlating the two records, one gets an information on the medium below/between the stations. The cross-correlation function (CCF) is a proxy to the Green Function of the medium. Recent developments of the technique have shown those CCF can be used to image the earth at depth (3D seismic tomography) or study the medium changes with time. We present MSNoise, a complete software suite to compute relative seismic velocity changes under a seismic network, using ambient seismic noise. The whole is written in Python, from the monitoring of data archives, to the production of high quality figures. All steps have been optimized to only compute the necessary steps and to use 'job'-based processing. We present a validation of the software on a dataset acquired during the UnderVolc[1] project on the Piton de la Fournaise Volcano, La Réunion Island, France, for which precursory relative changes of seismic velocity are visible for three eruptions betwee 2009 and 2011.

  13. Vibrator for seismic geophysical prospecting

    SciTech Connect

    Bird, J.M.

    1987-04-21

    An improved vibrator system is described for seismic geophysical prospecting, comprising: a vibrator comprising a first part, or dynamic vibrator part (VD) attached to a base plate in contact with the earth and a second part or vibrator stationary part (VS). Sound attenuating ear protection apparatus is described comprising: a pair of air evacuated, sealed chamber members disposably covering the ears of a user to lie between the user eardrums and an ear external source of undesirable sound energy; the air evacuated sealed chamber members each including first and second smooth surface portions with each surface portion having a spherical segment terminated by an annular flange lip shape and being disposable over one external ear of the user with one spherical segment, adjacent the ear being of different, higher mechanical resonance frequency with respect to the other spherical segment distal of the ear; the surface segment distal of the ear; the annular flange lips of the first and second surface portions being joined together in a junction disposed intermediate of the first and second spherical surface portions and perpendicular of the flange lips; resilient suspension means engaged with the head of the user and with the sealed chamber members for supporting the sealed chamber members in selected position over the user external ears.

  14. SEISMIC ATTENUATION FOR RESERVOIR CHARACTERIZATION

    SciTech Connect

    Joel Walls; M.T. Taner; Gary Mavko; Jack Dvorkin

    2002-07-01

    In fully-saturated rock and at ultrasonic frequencies, the microscopic squirt flow induced between the stiff and soft parts of the pore space by an elastic wave is responsible for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation. In the seismic frequency range, it is the macroscopic cross-flow between the stiffer and softer parts of the rock. We use the latter hypothesis to introduce simple approximate equations for velocity-frequency dispersion and attenuation in a fully water saturated reservoir. The equations are based on the assumption that in heterogeneous rock and at a very low frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the fully-saturated rock can be estimated by applying a fluid substitution procedure to the averaged (upscaled) dry frame whose effective porosity is the mean porosity and the effective elastic modulus is the Backus-average (geometric mean) of the individual dry-frame elastic moduli of parts of the rock. At a higher frequency, the effective elastic modulus of the saturated rock is the Backus-average of the individual fully-saturated-rock elastic moduli of parts of the rock. The difference between the effective elastic modulus calculated separately by these two methods determines the velocity-frequency dispersion. The corresponding attenuation is calculated from this dispersion by using (e.g.) the standard linear solid attenuation model.

  15. Global tomography using seismic hum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haned, A.; Stutzmann, E.; Schimmel, M.; Kiselev, S.; Davaille, A.; Yelles-Chaouche, A.

    2016-02-01

    We present a new upper-mantle tomographic model derived solely from hum seismic data. Phase correlograms between station pairs are computed to extract phase-coherent signals. Correlograms are then stacked using the time-frequency phase-weighted stack method to build-up empirical Green's functions. Group velocities and uncertainties are measured in the wide period band of 30-250 s, following a resampling approach. Less data are required to extract reliable group velocities at short periods than at long periods, and 2 yr of data are necessary to measure reliable group velocities for the entire period band. Group velocities are first regionalized and then inverted versus depth using a simulated annealing method in which the number and shape of splines that describes the S-wave velocity model are variable. The new S-wave velocity tomographic model is well correlated with models derived from earthquakes in most areas, although in India, the Dharwar craton is shallower than in other published models.

  16. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee; Gernero, Edward; Lin, Pei-Ying; Thorne, Michael; Schmerr, Nicholas; Han, Shin-Chan

    2012-01-01

    The present ]day internal structure of the Moon provides insight not only into its own formation and evolution, but also that of all rocky planetary bodies. The most direct way to probe a planet fs interior structure is through seismology. As part of the Apollo lunar missions, four seismometers were deployed on the nearside surface of the Moon between the years 1969 and 1972. These instruments operated continuously until 1977, forming the only substantial extraterrestrial seismic data set in existence. These data have been used to constrain various aspects of the seismic velocity and density structure of the Moon. Typical 1-D models recognize a 30-60 km thick crust overlying a nearly constant ]velocity mantle, and extend to a depth of approximately 1000 km, below which the lack of penetrating moonquake ray ]paths precludes the seismic determination of deeper structure. Previously, the lack of observed moonquakes from the far side of the Moon has been used to infer the presence of a highly attenuating (possibly molten) core. Indirect geophysical measurements such as moment of inertia, magnetic induction, lunar laser ranging, and elemental abundances of mare basalts also place varying constraints on core size and state. In combination with seismic studies, these indirect measurements have been used to arrive at a commonly accepted model of the Moon's deepest interior that includes a solid inner and fluid outer core, overlain by a partial melt boundary layer. We recently applied modern array seismology techniques to the Apollo data and revealed detailed core structure, including the first direct confirmation of the presence of a solid inner core. Our study focused on the identification of core ]reflected phases in deep moonquake seismograms. The resulting model of the Moon fs innermost structure was found to be consistent with the commonly accepted model. However, the modeled layer radii may vary by tens of kilometers, as is expected when accounting for uncertainties

  17. The Pollino Seismic Sequence: Activated Graben Structures in a Seismic Gap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rößler, Dirk; Passarelli, Luigi; Govoni, Aladino; Bindi, Dino; Cesca, Simone; Hainzl, Sebatian; Maccaferri, Francesco; Rivalta, Eleonora; Woith, Heiko; Dahm, Torsten

    2015-04-01

    The Mercure Basin (MB) and the Castrovillari Fault (CF) in the Pollino range (Southern Apennines, Italy) represent one of the most prominent seismic gaps in the Italian seismic catalogue, with no M>5.5 earthquakes during the last centuries. In historical times several swarm-like seismic sequences occurred in the area including two intense swarms within the past two decades. The most energetic one started in 2010 and has been still active in 2014. The seismicity culminated in autumn 2012 with a M=5 event on 25 October. The range hosts a number of opposing normal faults forming a graben-like structure. Their rheology and their interactions are unclear. Current debates include the potential of the MB and the CF to host large earthquakes and the style of deformation. Understanding the seismicity and the behaviour of the faults is necessary to assess the tectonics and the seismic hazard. The GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and INGV, Italy, have jointly monitored the ongoing seismicity using a small-aperture seismic array, integrated in a temporary seismic network. Based on this installation, we located more than 16,000 local earthquakes that occurred between November 2012 and September 2014. Here we investigate quantitatively all the phases of the seismic sequence starting from January 2010. Event locations along with moment tensor inversion constrain spatially the structures activated by the swarm and the migration pattern of the seismicity. The seismicity forms clusters concentrated within the southern part of the MB and along the Pollino Fault linking MB and CF. Most earthquakes are confined to the upper 10 km of the crust in an area of ~15x15 km2. However, sparse seismicity at depths between 15 and 20 km and moderate seismicity further north with deepening hypocenters also exist. In contrast, the CF appears aseismic; only the northern part has experienced micro-seismicity. The spatial distribution is however more complex than the major tectonic structures

  18. Seismic Electric Signals: An additional fact showing their physical interconnection with seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varotsos, P. A.; Sarlis, N. V.; Skordas, E. S.; Lazaridou, M. S.

    2013-03-01

    Natural time analysis reveals novel dynamical features hidden behind time series in complex systems. By applying it to the time series of earthquakes, we find that the order parameter of seismicity exhibits a unique change approximately at the date(s) at which Seismic Electric Signals (SES) activities have been reported to initiate. In particular, we show that the fluctuations of the order parameter of seismicity in Japan exhibits a clearly detectable minimum approximately at the time of the initiation of the SES activity observed by Uyeda and coworkers almost two months before the onset of the volcanic-seismic swarm activity in 2000 in the Izu Island region, Japan. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that, well before the occurrence of major earthquakes, anomalous changes are found to appear almost simultaneously in two independent datasets of different geophysical observables (geoelectrical measurements, seismicity). In addition, we show that these two phenomena are also linked closely in space.

  19. A statistical model for seismic hazard assessment of hydraulic-fracturing-induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hajati, T.; Langenbruch, C.; Shapiro, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze the interevent time distribution of hydraulic-fracturing-induced seismicity collected during 18 stages at four different regions. We identify a universal statistical process describing the distribution of hydraulic-fracturing-induced events in time. The distribution of waiting times between subsequently occurring events is given by the exponential probability density function of the homogeneous Poisson process. Our findings suggest that hydraulic-fracturing-induced seismicity is directly triggered by the relaxation of stress and pore pressure perturbation initially created by the injection. Therefore, compared to this relaxation, the stress transfer caused by the occurrence of preceding seismic events is mainly insignificant for the seismogenesis of subsequently occurring events. We develop a statistical model to compute the occurrence probability of hydraulic-fracturing-induced seismicity. This model can be used to assess the seismic hazard associated with hydraulic fracturing operations. No aftershock triggering has to be included in the statistical model.

  20. The Belgian National Seismic Monitoring Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Camp, M.; Lecocq, T.; Vanneste, K.; Rapagnani, G.; Martin, H.; Devos, F.; Bukasa, B.; Hendrickx, M.; Collin, F.; Camelbeeck, T.

    2009-04-01

    The Royal Observatory of Belgium (ROB) is responsible for the seismic activity monitoring in Belgium. For this purpose the ROB operates a network of 24 seismic stations. In addition 18 accelerographs have been installed since 2001 in the most seismic active zones. Seismometers allow detecting and localizing any earthquake of magnitude larger than 1.0 in Belgium and surrounding regions. The location of the accelerometric stations is chosen in function of the type of sub-soil and in some places in function of the nearness of important infrastructures as well. Seven seismic stations are now sending their data in real time to the Observatory (in Uccle) using ADSL lines. This will be increased in a near future. Among them 3 broad-band stations are also sending data to the ORFEUS and IRIS data centres. IRIS also receives data from the Belgian superconducting gravimeter. In addition, in 2010, a broadband borehole seismometer is to be installed at the Princess Elizabeth Antarctic station (71°57' S - 23°20' E), on the bedrock, 180 km away from the coastline. Recently a low-cost seismic alert system was developed for the Belgian territory, based on the connection flow on the ROB website (http://www.seismology.be), in parallel to an automatic control of the "Did you feel it ?" macroseismic inquiries, implemented in 2002. The alert is then confirmed at the latest by the seismic signals from five seismic stations that appear on the website with a delay of more or less ten minutes. It was successfully tested during the earthquake sequence that has been observed in the region at the southwest of Brussels since July 2008.

  1. Seismic Research and High School Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayers, J.

    2004-12-01

    Through a series of summer workshops, seismologists at Indiana University have trained secondary physics and earth science teachers in fundamentals of seismology and basic concepts in seismic research. Teachers and students then gain hands on experience in science research through operation of a research quality seismic station sited at the local schools. Physics and earth science students have operated the Northview High School Seismic Station since 1998. Data from the Northview seismometer are stored locally and also transmitted over the Internet to a database at Indiana University. Students have access to local data as well as seismic databases accessible through the Internet to use for research projects. In this presentation, I will describe how these projects have been incorporated into the physics and earth science programs at Northview High School. I will discuss how our teachers and students have benefited from the opportunity to take part in hands-on collaborative scientific research under the guidance of university faculty. In particular, I will describe our participation in a regional seismic network through seismic data acquisition, data analysis using seismological software, and students' experiences in a university-based student research symposium. I reflect on the some of the successes, such as increased student and community interest, resulting from our work with the seismic station. I comment on some of the barriers, such as time constraints and unintended interference from school personnel, to high-school teachers' and students' involvement in scientific research programs. I conclude with a discussion of a successful student seismology project, an examination of blasts from local surface coal mines, that was a finalist in the 2003 INTEL International Science and Engineering Fair

  2. Seismic Imaging of Open Subsurface Fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myers, S. C.; Pitarka, A.; Matzel, E.; Aguiar, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    Injection of high-pressure fluid into the subsurface is proven to stimulate geothermal, oil, and gas production by opening cracks that increase permeability. The effectiveness of increasing permeability by high-pressure injection has been revolutionized by the introduction of "proppants" into the injected fluid to keep cracks open after the pressure of the stimulation activity ends. The network of fractures produced during stimulation is most commonly inferred by the location of micro-earthquakes. However, existing (closed) fractures may open aseismically, so the whole fracture network may not be imaged by micro-seismic locations alone. Further, whether all new fractures remain open and for how long remains unclear. Open cracks, even fluid-filled cracks, scatter seismic waves because traction forces are not transmitted across the gap. Numerical simulation confirms that an open crack with dimensions on the order of 10 meters can scatter enough seismic energy to change the coda of seismic signals. Our simulations show that changes in seismic coda due to newly opened fractures are only a few percent of peak seismogram amplitudes, making signals from open cracks difficult to identify. We are developing advanced signal processing methods to identify candidate signals that originate from open cracks. These methods are based on differencing seismograms that are recorded before and after high-pressure fluid injection events to identify changes in the coda. The origins of candidate signals are located using time-reversal techniques to determine if the signals are indeed associated with a coherent structure. The source of scattered energy is compared to micro-seismic event locations to determine whether cracks opened seismically or aseismically. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675612.

  3. Seismic Imaging Of The South Atlantic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, K.; White, N.; Hobbs, R.

    2008-12-01

    Seismic oceanography is a powerful, new technique which utilises seismic reflection profiling to yield detailed acoustic images of ocean finestructure. The method uses seismic reflections generated by acoustic impedance changes which occur across water mass boundaries as a result of variations in temperature and salinity. Here we present a series of seismic images of the water column from a region in the southwest Atlantic using legacy seismic reflection datasets shot in the 1990s. The seismic surveys follow the Antarctic Circumpolar Current as it veers northward after exiting Drake Passage, looping around the Falkland Trough and finally entering the Argentinian Basin, largely following the Sub Antarctic Front route. Finestructure imaged in the data occurs dominantly in the boundary layer between Antarctic Intermediate Water and underlying Upper Circumpolar Deep Water, and correlates well with hydrographic interpretations. Structures such as dipping bands of heterogeneous water and eddies characterized by homogeneous cores and strong reflective inter-leaving edges are seen in the vicinity of ocean fronts. Further to the north, interesting thermohaline structures associated with the intrusion of North Atlantic Deep Water into the region have been captured. Seasonal variations in the time of data acquisition and the subsequent differences in the acoustic images provide interesting insights into the temporal variability of the water masses. Turbulent mixing in this part of the Southern Ocean is known to be remarkably intense and widespread and thought to contribute significantly to driving the upward transport of water closing the ocean's meridional overturning circulation. The deformation of thermohaline finestructure by such mixing and the ambient internal wavefield results in small undulations along seismic reflection horizons. Spectral analysis of these sinusoidal displacements has been used to extract quantitative information on internal wave energy and deduce

  4. Reversible rigid coupling apparatus and method for borehole seismic transducers

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, T.E.; Parra, J.O.

    1992-01-14

    This patent describes a seismic detector for high resolution reverse vertical seismic profile measurements when placed in a shallow borehole in a geological formation of interest that contains a seismic source and connected to a seismograph. It comprises a framework; accelerometer sensors for X, Y, and Z axis, means for electrically connecting the accelerometers to the seismograph to record seismic waves received by the accelerometer sensors form the seismic source; heating elements secured to, but electrically insulated from, the framework; power means for supplying power to the heating elements; and meltable substance encapsulating the seismic detector.

  5. Development of adaptive seismic isolators for ultimate seismic protection of civil structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianchun; Li, Yancheng; Li, Weihua; Samali, Bijan

    2013-04-01

    Base isolation is the most popular seismic protection technique for civil engineering structures. However, research has revealed that the traditional base isolation system due to its passive nature is vulnerable to two kinds of earthquakes, i.e. the near-fault and far-fault earthquakes. A great deal of effort has been dedicated to improve the performance of the traditional base isolation system for these two types of earthquakes. This paper presents a recent research breakthrough on the development of a novel adaptive seismic isolation system as the quest for ultimate protection for civil structures, utilizing the field-dependent property of the magnetorheological elastomer (MRE). A novel adaptive seismic isolator was developed as the key element to form smart seismic isolation system. The novel isolator contains unique laminated structure of steel and MR elastomer layers, which enable its large-scale civil engineering applications, and a solenoid to provide sufficient and uniform magnetic field for energizing the field-dependent property of MR elastomers. With the controllable shear modulus/damping of the MR elastomer, the developed adaptive seismic isolator possesses a controllable lateral stiffness while maintaining adequate vertical loading capacity. In this paper, a comprehensive review on the development of the adaptive seismic isolator is present including designs, analysis and testing of two prototypical adaptive seismic isolators utilizing two different MRE materials. Experimental results show that the first prototypical MRE seismic isolator can provide stiffness increase up to 37.49%, while the second prototypical MRE seismic isolator provides amazing increase of lateral stiffness up to1630%. Such range of increase of the controllable stiffness of the seismic isolator makes it highly practical for developing new adaptive base isolation system utilizing either semi-active or smart passive controls.

  6. Forward induced seismic hazard assessment: application to a synthetic seismicity catalogue from hydraulic stimulation modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakimhashemi, Amir Hossein; Yoon, Jeoung Seok; Heidbach, Oliver; Zang, Arno; Grünthal, Gottfried

    2014-07-01

    The M w 3.2-induced seismic event in 2006 due to fluid injection at the Basel geothermal site in Switzerland was the starting point for an ongoing discussion in Europe on the potential risk of hydraulic stimulation in general. In particular, further development of mitigation strategies of induced seismic events of economic concern became a hot topic in geosciences and geoengineering. Here, we present a workflow to assess the hazard of induced seismicity in terms of occurrence rate of induced seismic events. The workflow is called Forward Induced Seismic Hazard Assessment (FISHA) as it combines the results of forward hydromechanical-numerical models with methods of time-dependent probabilistic seismic hazard assessment. To exemplify FISHA, we use simulations of four different fluid injection types with various injection parameters, i.e. injection rate, duration and style of injection. The hydromechanical-numerical model applied in this study represents a geothermal reservoir with preexisting fractures where a routine of viscous fluid flow in porous media is implemented from which flow and pressure driven failures of rock matrix and preexisting fractures are simulated, and corresponding seismic moment magnitudes are computed. The resulting synthetic catalogues of induced seismicity, including event location, occurrence time and magnitude, are used to calibrate the magnitude completeness M c and the parameters a and b of the frequency-magnitude relation. These are used to estimate the time-dependent occurrence rate of induced seismic events for each fluid injection scenario. In contrast to other mitigation strategies that rely on real-time data or already obtained catalogues, we can perform various synthetic experiments with the same initial conditions. Thus, the advantage of FISHA is that it can quantify hazard from numerical experiments and recommend a priori a stimulation type that lowers the occurrence rate of induced seismic events. The FISHA workflow is rather

  7. Seismicity at Baru Volcano, Western Panama, Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Tapia, A.; Rodriguez, A.

    2008-12-01

    The Baru volcano in Western Panama (8.808°N, 82.543°W) is a 3,475 m high strato volcano that lies at about 50 km from the Costa Rican border. The last major eruptive event at this volcano occurred c.1550 AD and no further eruptive activity from that time is known. Since the 1930´s, approximately every 30 years a series of seismic swarms take place in the surroundings of the volcanic edifice. Theses swarms last several weeks alarming the population who lives near the volcano. The last of these episodes occurred on May 2006 and lasted one and a half months. More than 20,000 people live adjacent to the volcano and any future eruption has the potential to be very dangerous. In June 2007, a digital seismic monitoring network of ten stations, linked via internet, was installed around the volcano in a collaborative project between the University of Panama and the Panamanian Government. The seismic data acquisition at the sites is performed using LINUX-SEISLOG and the events are recorded by four servers at different locations using the Earth Worm system. In this work we analyze the characteristics of the volcano seismicity recorded from May 4th, 2006 to July 31st, 2008 by at least 4 stations and located at about 15 km from the summit. To determine the seismic parameters, we tested several crustal velocity models and used the seismic analysis software package SEISAN. Our final velocity model was determined using seismic data for the first four km obtained from a temporal seismic network deployed in 1981 by the British Geological Survey (BGS) as part of geothermal studies conducted at Cerro Pando, Western Panama Highlands. Our results indicate that all the events recorded in the quadrant 8.6-9.0°N and 82.2-82.7°W are located in the depth range of 0.1 to 8 km. Cross sections show vertical alignments of hypocenters below the summit although most of the seismicity is concentrated in its eastern flank reaching the town of Boquete. All the calculated focal mechanisms are of

  8. Probabilistic seismic demand analysis of nonlinear structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shome, Nilesh

    Recent earthquakes in California have initiated improvement in current design philosophy and at present the civil engineering community is working towards development of performance-based earthquake engineering of structures. The objective of this study is to develop efficient, but accurate procedures for probabilistic analysis of nonlinear seismic behavior of structures. The proposed procedures help the near-term development of seismic-building assessments which require an estimation of seismic demand at a given intensity level. We also develop procedures to estimate the probability of exceedance of any specified nonlinear response level due to future ground motions at a specific site. This is referred as Probabilistic Seismic Demand Analysis (PSDA). The latter procedure prepares the way for the next stage development of seismic assessment that consider the uncertainties in nonlinear response and capacity. The proposed procedures require structure-specific nonlinear analyses for a relatively small set of recorded accelerograms and (site-specific or USGS-map-like) seismic hazard analyses. We have addressed some of the important issues of nonlinear seismic demand analysis, which are selection of records for structural analysis, the number of records to be used, scaling of records, etc. Initially these issues are studied through nonlinear analysis of structures for a number of magnitude-distance bins of records. Subsequently we introduce regression analysis of response results against spectral acceleration, magnitude, duration, etc., which helps to resolve these issues more systematically. We illustrate the demand-hazard calculations through two major example problems: a 5story and a 20-story SMRF building. Several simple, but quite accurate closed-form solutions have also been proposed to expedite the demand-hazard calculations. We find that vector-valued (e.g., 2-D) PSDA estimates demand hazard more accurately. This procedure, however, requires information about 2

  9. The Budget Guide to Seismic Network Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagerty, M. T.; Ebel, J. E.

    2007-05-01

    Regardless of their size, there are certain tasks that all seismic networks must perform, including data collection and processing, earthquake location, information dissemination, and quality control. Small seismic networks are unlikely to possess the resources -- manpower and money -- required to do much in-house development. Fortunately, there are a lot of free or inexpensive software solutions available that are able to perform many of the required tasks. Often the available solutions are all-in-one turnkey packages designed and developed for much larger seismic networks, and the cost of adapting them to a smaller network must be weighed against the ease with which other, non-seismic software can be adapted to the same task. We describe here the software and hardware choices we have made for the New England Seismic Network (NESN), a sparse regional seismic network responsible for monitoring and reporting all seismicity within the New England region in the northeastern U.S. We have chosen to use a cost-effective approach to monitoring using free, off-the-shelf solutions where available (e.g., Earthworm, HYP2000) and modifying freeware solutions when it is easier than trying to adapt a large, complicated package. We have selected for use software that is: free, likely to receive continued support from the seismic or, preferably, larger internet community, and modular. Modularity is key to our design because it ensures that if one component of our processing system becomes obsolete, we can insert a suitable replacement with few modifications to the other modules. Our automated event detection, identification and location system is based on a wavelet transform analysis of station data that arrive continuously via TCP/IP transmission over the internet. Our system for interactive analyst review of seismic events and remote system monitoring utilizes a combination of Earthworm modules, Perl cgi-bin scripts, Java, and native Unix commands and can now be carried out via

  10. Seismicity of the eastern Hellenic Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruestle, A.; Kueperkoch, L.; Rische, M.; Meier, T.; Friederich, W.; Egelados Working Group

    2012-04-01

    The Hellenic Subduction Zone (HSZ) is the seismically most active region of Europe. The African plate is subducting beneath the Aegean lithosphere with a relative velocity of 4 cm per year. A detailed picture of the microseismicity of the eastern HSZ was obtained by the recordings of the temporary networks CYCNET (September 2002 - September 2005) and EGELADOS (October 2005 - March 2007). In total, nearly 7000 earthquakes were located with a location uncertainty of less than 20 km. The SE Aegean is dominated by (1) shallow intraplate seismicity within the Aegean plate, by (2) interplate seismicity at the plate contact and by (3) intermediate deep seismicity along the subducting African slab. Strong shallow seismicity in the upper plate is observed along the Ptolemy graben south of Crete extending towards the Karpathos Basin, indicating intense recent deformation of the forearc. In contrary, low shallow seismicity around Rhodes indicates only minor seismic crustal deformation of the upper plate. An almost NS-striking zone of microseismicity has been located, running from the Karpathos basin via the Nisyros volcanic complex towards the EW striking Gökova graben. In the SE Aegean the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff-Zone (WBZ) within the subducting African plate is revealed in detail by the observed microseismicity. Between about 50 to 100 km depth a continuous band of intermediate deep seismicity describes the strongly curved geometry of the slab. From the central to the eastern margin of the HSZ, the dip direction of the WBZ changes from N to NW with a strong increase of the dip angle beneath the eastern Cretan Sea. The margin of the dipping African slab is marked by an abrupt end of the observed WBZ beneath SW Anatolia. Below 100 km depth, the WBZ of the eastern HSZ is dominated by an isolated cluster of intense intermediate deep seismicity (at 100-180 km depth) beneath the Nisyros volcanic complex. It has an extension of about 100x80 km and is build up of 3 parallel

  11. 3D seismic image processing for interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xinming

    Extracting fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a seismic image is useful for interpretation of geologic structures and stratigraphic features. Although interpretation of these surfaces has been automated to some extent by others, significant manual effort is still required for extracting each type of these geologic surfaces. I propose methods to automatically extract all the fault, unconformity, and horizon surfaces from a 3D seismic image. To a large degree, these methods just involve image processing or array processing which is achieved by efficiently solving partial differential equations. For fault interpretation, I propose a linked data structure, which is simpler than triangle or quad meshes, to represent a fault surface. In this simple data structure, each sample of a fault corresponds to exactly one image sample. Using this linked data structure, I extract complete and intersecting fault surfaces without holes from 3D seismic images. I use the same structure in subsequent processing to estimate fault slip vectors. I further propose two methods, using precomputed fault surfaces and slips, to undo faulting in seismic images by simultaneously moving fault blocks and faults themselves. For unconformity interpretation, I first propose a new method to compute a unconformity likelihood image that highlights both the termination areas and the corresponding parallel unconformities and correlative conformities. I then extract unconformity surfaces from the likelihood image and use these surfaces as constraints to more accurately estimate seismic normal vectors that are discontinuous near the unconformities. Finally, I use the estimated normal vectors and use the unconformities as constraints to compute a flattened image, in which seismic reflectors are all flat and vertical gaps correspond to the unconformities. Horizon extraction is straightforward after computing a map of image flattening; we can first extract horizontal slices in the flattened space

  12. Using GPU for Seismic Emission Tomography processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dricker, I. G.; Cooke, A. J.; Friberg, P. A.; Hellman, S. B.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic Emission Tomography (SET) is an emerging technique which is rapidly gaining popularity in both earthquake seismology and the oil and gas industry. Stacking seismic records from multiple channels of a surface seismic array with moveout correction dramatically increases the signal-to-noise ratio and allows monitoring of fine-scale microseismicity. Using SET to detect active seismic locations within the study volume requires time-shifting and stacking the trace for each seismic recording channel and node in the 3D Earth grid. Algorithmically, this implies five nested loops over space coordinates, channel lists and time. Even the most powerful PC CPUs proved impractical for this task; only rough models could be built in a reasonable period of time. Fortunately the SET computational kernel is easy to parallelize, because computations for each grid node and recording channel are independent, so we could achieve significant (of order x100) speedups on Nvidia GPUs with OpenCL. In this case study we show how progressive optimization, from Matlab to C, and on to OpenCL, improved performance. We discuss various problems encountered, give practical guidance on refactoring, and include benchmarks on several GPUs.

  13. GRAIL Refinements to Lunar Seismic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weber, Renee C.; Schmerr, Nicholas C.

    2013-01-01

    Joint interpretation of disparate geophysical datasets helps reduce drawbacks that can result from analyzing them individually. The Apollo seismic network was situated on the lunar nearside surface in a roughly equilateral triangle having sides approximately 1000 km long, with stations 12/14 nearly co-located at one corner. Due to this limited geographical extent, near-surface ray coverage from moonquakes is low, but increase with depth. In comparison, gravity surveys and their resulting gravity anomaly maps have traditionally offered optimal resolution at crustal depths. Gravimetric maps and seismic data sets are therefor well suited to joint inversion, since the complementary information reduces inherent model ambiguity. We will perform a joint inversion of Apollo seismic delay times and gravity data collected by GRAIL lunar gravity mission, in order to recover seismic velocity and density as a function of latitude, longitude and depth within the Moon. We will relate density (rho) to seismic velocity (v) using a linear relationship that is allowed to be depth-dependent. The corresponding coefficient (B) can reflect a variety of material properties that vary with depth, including temperature and composition. The inversion seeks to recover the set of rho, v, and B perturbations that minimize (in a least-squares sense) the difference between the observed and calculated data.

  14. Constraints on Subglacial Conditions from Seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipovsky, B.; Olivo, D. C.; Dunham, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    A family of physics-based models designed to explain emergent, bandlimited, "tremor-like" seismograms shed light onto subglacial and englacial conditions. We consider two such models. In the first, a water-filled fracture hosts resonant modes; the seismically observable quality factor and characteristic frequency of these modes constrain the fracture length and aperture. In the second model, seismicity is generated by repeating stick-slip events on a fault patch (portion of the glacier bed) with sliding described by rate- and state-dependent friction laws. Wave propagation phenomena may additionally generate bandlimited seismic signals. These models make distinct predictions that may be used to address questions of glaciological concern. Laboratory friction experiments show that small, repeating earthquakes most likely occur at the ice-till interface and at conditions below the pressure melting point. These laboratory friction values, when combined with observed ice surface velocities, may also be used to constrain basal pore pressure. In contrast, seismic signals indicative of water-filled basal fractures suggest that, at least locally, temperatures are above the pressure melting point. We present a simple diagnostic test between these two processes that concerns the relationship between the multiple seismic spectral peaks generated by each process. Whereas repeating earthquakes generate evenly spaced spectral peaks through the Dirac comb effect, hydraulic fracture resonance, as a result of dispersive propagation of waves along the crack, generates spectral peaks that are not evenly spaced.

  15. Downhole Seismic Monitoring at the Geysers

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J.T.; Anderson, T.D.; Fairbanks, T.D.; Albright, J.N.

    1999-10-17

    A 500-ft length, 6-level, 3-component, vertical geophone array was permanently deployed within the upper 800 ft of Unocal's well GDCF 63-29 during a plug and abandonment operation on April 7, 1998. The downhole array remains operational after a period of 1 year, at a temperature of about 150 C. Continuous monitoring and analysis of shallow seismicity (<4000 ft deep) has been conducted over that same 1-year period. The downhole array was supplemented with 4 surface stations in late-1998 and early-1999 to help constrain locations of shallow seismicity. Locations occurring within about 1 km ({approximately}3000 ft) of the array have been determined for a subset of high-frequency events detected on the downhole and surface stations for the 10-week period January 6 to March 16, 1999. These events are distinct from surface-monitored seismicity at The Geysers in that they occur predominantly above the producing reservoir, at depths ranging from about 1200 to 4000 ft depth (1450 to -1350 ft elevation). The shallow seismicity shows a northeast striking trend, similar to seismicity trends mapped deeper within the reservoir and the strike of the predominant surface lineament observed over the productive field.

  16. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Global surface wave tomography using seismic hum.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kiwamu; Montagner, Jean-Paul; Kawakatsu, Hitoshi

    2009-10-01

    The development of global surface wave tomography using earthquakes has been crucial to exploration of the dynamic status of Earth's deep. It is naturally believed that only large earthquakes can generate long-period seismic waves that penetrate deep enough into Earth for such exploration. The discovery of seismic hum, Earth's background free oscillations, which are randomly generated by oceanic and/or atmospheric disturbances, now provides an alternative approach. We present results of global upper-mantle seismic tomography using seismic hum and without referring to earthquakes. At periods of 100 to 400 seconds, the phase-velocity anomalies of Rayleigh waves are measured by modeling the observed cross-correlation functions between every pair of stations from among 54 globally distributed seismic stations. The anomalies are then inverted to obtain the three-dimensional S-wave velocity structure in the upper mantle. Our technique provides a new means for exploring the three-dimensional structure of the interior of terrestrial planets with an atmosphere and/or oceans, particularly Mars. PMID:19797654

  18. Salvo: Seismic imaging software for complex geologies

    SciTech Connect

    OBER,CURTIS C.; GJERTSEN,ROB; WOMBLE,DAVID E.

    2000-03-01

    This report describes Salvo, a three-dimensional seismic-imaging software for complex geologies. Regions of complex geology, such as overthrusts and salt structures, can cause difficulties for many seismic-imaging algorithms used in production today. The paraxial wave equation and finite-difference methods used within Salvo can produce high-quality seismic images in these difficult regions. However this approach comes with higher computational costs which have been too expensive for standard production. Salvo uses improved numerical algorithms and methods, along with parallel computing, to produce high-quality images and to reduce the computational and the data input/output (I/O) costs. This report documents the numerical algorithms implemented for the paraxial wave equation, including absorbing boundary conditions, phase corrections, imaging conditions, phase encoding, and reduced-source migration. This report also describes I/O algorithms for large seismic data sets and images and parallelization methods used to obtain high efficiencies for both the computations and the I/O of seismic data sets. Finally, this report describes the required steps to compile, port and optimize the Salvo software, and describes the validation data sets used to help verify a working copy of Salvo.

  19. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, M. K.; Fomel, S. B.; Sethian, J. A.

    2007-08-01

    We address the problem of estimating seismic velocities inside the Earth which is necessary for obtaining seismic images in regular Cartesian coordinates. The main goals are to develop algorithms to convert time-migration velocities to true seismic velocities, and to convert time-migrated images to depth images in regular Cartesian coordinates. Our main results are three-fold. First, we establish a theoretical relation between the true seismic velocities and the 'time-migration velocities' using the paraxial ray tracing. Second, we formulate an appropriate inverse problem describing the relation between time-migration velocities and depth velocities, and show that this problem is mathematically ill posed, i.e., unstable to small perturbations. Third, we develop numerical algorithms to solve regularized versions of these equations which can be used to recover smoothed velocity variations. Our algorithms consist of efficient time-to-depth conversion algorithms, based on Dijkstra-like fast marching methods, as well as level set and ray tracing algorithms for transforming Dix velocities into seismic velocities. Our algorithms are applied to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional problems, and we test them on a collection of both synthetic examples and field data.

  20. Knowledge representation techniques for seismic signal understanding

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    Seismic monitoring and discrimination of seismic events for purposes of nuclear test ban verification require the interpretation of large volumes of uncertain signal data by seismic experts. Several levels of knowledge representation are envisioned to make the transduction from raw signal data to the level of symbolic representation used to represent knowledge by AI techniques. At the lower level, techniques drawn from the feature based approach to speech recognition and syntactic pattern recognition address primitive features and segmentation into symbolic units of syntax which apply to various representations or transforms of the seismic signal, such as seismograms. At a higher level, conventional knowledge representation schemes and new algebraic approaches to knowledge representation based on algebraic systems are considered as they might apply to representations of the signal established by the lower level techniques. This report defines and outlines these techniques as well as describes how they are likely to be successfully integrated into a unified approach for representing knowledge in seismic signals for symbolic signal processing. The report also recommends further steps and directions the research should take and includes a preliminary bibliography covering both theoretical and applied aspects of the knowledge representation techniques discussed. (ACR)